..        .     .
Office of Pollution" Prevention and Toxics
Mail Code 7409   '
 • '  .'•",.   Unted States
,  ••.  .  -. i Protection Ag


  EPA, states, and municipalities have
made significant progress over the last
20 years in improving the quality of
the environment through continuous investment in
the nation's  wastewater treatment infrastructure and
implementation of the Clean Water Act. Today how-
ever, the nation faces increased challenges including
municipal growth, newly regulated pollutants, a.nd
more stringent effluent limits. EPA encourages
municipalities to meet these challenges through pol-
lution prevention practices as the preferred
approach to  augment traditional treatment and con-
trol of wastewaters, and avoid or defer the expan-
sion of a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW).

  As the federal government's role in funding
municipal wastewater treatment declines, there is
both the need and the opportunity to adopt pollu-
tion prevention measures to meet the expanding
demands and to prepare for new federal and state
requirements. Thus, a primary goal of EPA is to
            encourage and support states and
            municipalities in developing pollution
            prevention programs.

            To this end, the Office of Pollution
            Prevention and Toxics funded a pilot
            program in FY 1991 to demonstrate
            how municipalities can benefit from
            pollution prevention. EPA awarded
            grants of up to $100,000 to five states
            to demonstrate how a municipal POTW,
            through its pretreatment program and
            its facility operations, can promote
            source reduction activities to industrial
            and business dischargers. Activities
            funded under this grant include:
  • Outreach and technical assistance to industrial
  a Energy audits of specific POTWs; and
  • Establishment of water conservation programs
    in the community.                .
  This brochure presents case studies of the five pro-
jects carried out under the grant program. The case
studies outline the goals and strategies employed by
each of the grant recipients. In addition, they high-
light program accomplishments and resolution of
problems encountered by recipients, where possible.
  For further information about any of the projects,
please contact the project director listed at the end
of each case study.


  The Massachusetts Office of
Technical Assistance (OTA) used EPA
grant funding to conduct its "Critical
Parameters Project". This pilot program
assisted two POTWs reduce key pollu-
tants that constitute "critical parame-
ters" through pollution prevention
assistance. Critical parameters are:
(1) those pollutants for which loadings
to the POTW are approaching or
exceeding 85  percent capacity, necessi-
tating capital expenditures to enlarge
the system, and/or (2) those pollutant
concentrations which, if exceeded, can
prohibit the marketing of the sludge or
cause the POTW to be in violation of
its own NPDES permit. The project
included an analytical sampling pro-
gram of POTW influent to document
pollutant reductions. The two projects
targeted a different source of pollution in POTWs:

    • Industry Toxic Effluent Reduction:
      Warren Wastewater Treatment Plant;

    • Household/Small Business Hazardous Waste
      Reduction: Worcester Upper; and

    • Blackstone Pollution Abatement District.

  Originally, OTA planned to conduct a third project
in Springfield that would target non-point source
pollution received by the POTW. OTA cancelled this
project as the project team had difficulty locating a
suitable sampling point and State sludge classifica-
tion regulations changed, which altered the parame-
ters of the project.

Industry Toxic Effluent Reduction

  Massachusetts has many rural communities, each
with a distinct identity and character. Most have
fragile economies unusually dependant upon a sin-
            gle industrial facility. Warren, with a
            population of 4,500, is such a town. The
            Warren Project sought to reduce, through
            pollution prevention practices, the tox-
            icity of the effluent from a textile plant,
            the major industrial discharger. The
            plant normally contributes 40 to 60
            percent of the Warren POTW influent.
            Therefore, any reduction in the waste's
            toxicity would make a major contribu-
            tion to the town's pollution prevention
            efforts. In 1991 the POTW failed to
            meet two consecutive quarterly tests for
            toxicity. Without reductions in the tox-
            icity of its effluent, the POTW faced
            costly regulatory measures in the future.

            Household/Small Business Hazardous
            Waste Reduction
            The Worcester Project sought to reduce
            loadings of several metals generated by
households and small businesses that are very small
quantity generators (VSQGs) in influent to the treat-
ment works. The POTW targeted copper, cadmium,
nickel, and zinc for reduction. The treatment plant
feared that a new NPDES permit might contain
stringent discharge limits for these metals. While
Worcester's pretreatment program controls the met-
als discharged by industries to the district, little had
been done in Massachusetts to reduce household
and VSQG releases. Studies in  other parts of the
country (i.e., Seattle and San Francisco) have revealed
that small (i.e., household and VSQG) discharges
can significantly affect POTW  influent and effluent.

Industry Toxic Effluent Reduction

  The project team developed a team approach to
evaluate and reduce levels of toxins in effluent from
the textile plant. Before carrying out the technical
work of the project,  the project team sought the
support of the town, the POTW, and the manage-
ment and employees of the textile plant.

The team believed that this support was paramount
to the success of the project. The team planned to
achieve its goals through three activities:

    8 Develop and implement a textile plant efflu-
      ent sampling program to establish baseline
      levels, detect load reductions as they occur,
      and identify the type of toxicity affecting the
      plant (e.g., metal organics, surfactants).

    a Develop a systemic approach to evaluating
      pollution prevention opportunities at the

    ซ Implement the easiest pollution prevention
      measures first.

Household/Small Business Hazardous
Waste Reduction

  The Worcester Project used a two-part approach to
reducing household and VSQG hazardous waste
loadings. First, the project team established a tem-
porary collection site for waste oil, antifreeze, and
photographic waste to provide a safe means for
households and VSQGs to dispose of the wastes.
Second, the project publicized the recycling center
and educated the public about clean water issues to
increase participation in the collection program and
reduce releases of other pollutants.

  To attract VSQGs and households to the center,
familiarize them with the POTW, and educate them
on the total impact of all wastes on the POTW,
Worcester offered limited collection of used oil,
antifreeze, and photographic wastes. The project
team planned to measure and document the reduc-
tions in the concentrations of the metals in the
treatment plant influent.
Industrial Toxic Effluent Reduction

  At the outset, the project team held meetings with
plant employees and management to encourage
support for the project. The project team explained
 the importance of reducing the toxidty of the effluent
 of the plant, both for the POTW and for the plant.
 Iri addition, the project team emphasized that the
 activities the employees perform every day in their
 wprk caipi influence the quality of the influent and
 effluent of the POTW. The team also explained the
 costs to the plant of pretreatment or other end-of-
 pipe regulatory requirements the plant would have
 tti enact If the POTW continued to fail effluent toxi-
 city tests. With this knowledge of pollution costs,
 regulatory requirements, and the potential costs to
 the significant industrial user (the textile plant), the
 plant's employees and management became sup-
 porters of the project. Throughout the project, man-
 agement (especially middle managers from the dye
 house and the finishing room) and employees vol-
 unteered ideas and information they felt would be
 helpful and provided data and information request-
 ed by the project team.

  To establish baseline toxicity concentrations and
 track changes, the project team sampled effluent
 from the textile plant and influent and effluent
 from the POTW. Sample analysis determined that
 while the textile plant was not the sole source of
 toxic contaminants, it was a large source that caused
 the POTW-effluent to exceed toxins concentration
"standards.  Sample analysis and a literature review
 pinpointed the two most significant toxins in the
 plant effluent:  toxic surfactants and salt. The pro-
 ject team resolved these issues as follows:

    Surfactants: With the help of the management
    and employees of the textile plant, the project
    team compiled a list of surfactants (cleaning
    agents) used at the plant. The project team
    researched dyes used in conjunction with lower
    amounts of the toxic surfactants and researched
    alternative dyeing methods. One company had
    developed several dyes  that could be used with
    a non-toxic surfactant and would soon produce
    several more. The textile plant agreed to switch
    to the  non-toxic surfactants after depleting its.	
    current stock of surfactants.
>* sit

    Salt: The project team found several ways to
    reduce salt effluent from the textile plant with-
    out reducing the quality of the textiles pro-
    duced. The plant may reduce the use of salt
    with the current dyes or through revising dye
    batch formulations. As with surfactants, the
    project team researched new low-salt dyes, and
    found dyes that would result in a 30 to 70 per-
    cent reduction in salt use. Also, the project
    team continues to study ways to reclaim salt
    from textile plant wastewaters.

  The project team and the textile plant employees
continue to evaluate technologies and substitutes to
reduce the toxic effluent from the plant. Working
together, they study the economic feasibility and
product performance of each alternative. Progress is
ongoing as the project team continues to evaluate
the effectiveness  of the pollution prevention activities.
Moreover, the interest in pursuing and the willing-
ness to implement pollution prevention has contin-
ued to grow for all participants.

  Toxidty at the POTW appears to have been reduced
while production levels at the textile plant have
increased steadily since the beginning of the project.
In order to ensure that the toxicity remains abated
after the project  concludes, OTA is developing com-
puter software tracking and electronic systems that
will allow both parties to input respective data ele-
ments and generate graphs that will chart produc-
tion, POTW loadings, and toxicity data over time.

Household/Small Business Hazardous
Waste Reduction

  The temporary recycling center opened in the FaU
of 1992 and served as an education  center in addi-
tion to a collection point for antifreeze, used oil,
and photographic wastes. An educational poster
board presented information, and Massachusetts
Office of Technology Assistance staff members dis-
cussed recycling and POTW pollution issues with
recycling center users. To ensure use of the center,
the project planned  an extensive publicity effort.
  The public education program and the recycling
center participation publicity worked in tandem.
To advertise the recycling center, the project team
placed advertisements in newspapers, on radio, and
on local cable television. The project team made
presentations about POTW pollution issues to civic
groups and sponsored topic-specific workshops for
the general public. The general presentations
focused on the problems pollution causes POTWs
and introduced the concept of pollution prevention
versus pollution control. The project team also
made presentations to a wide range of civic groups,
ranging from the local chapter of the Appalachian
Mountain Club to the local Rotary Club. In addi-
tion, the project team presented two topic-specific
workshops, "Household Product Dangers," and
"Green Tips for Weekend Mechanics," which
instructed participants how to reduce toxic releases
during specific activities. To learn which aspects of
the public education programs were most valuable
so as to  improve the effectiveness of its education
efforts, the project team surveyed participants in the
educational activities and the recycling center users.

  The project team also developed a curriculum for
primary grade students that explores (through lec-
tures and hands-on activities) how pollutants harm
the operation of a POTW. The project team collected
portions of existing curricula and included or modi-
fied them to best present information on POTWs.
The curriculum consists of six lessons supported by
handouts, presentation boards, and brief slide
shows. As part of this curriculum, the project team
created a cartoon character named "Roddy the
Rotifer"  to bring alive for students the importance
of the biological processes upon which POTWs
depend. The curriculum includes activities such as
writing a cookbook of non-toxic household cleaners
and holding a mock pollution prevention project
grant application writing competition. The project
team planned to donate a curriculum copy to up to
100 schools.

  Over nine months, the project created several
innovative lessons for the curriculum and collected
over 1400 gallons of waste at the collection site

 from 150 users. The team measured four pounds of
 the targeted metals in the 1400 gallons of waste.

  While these four pounds of metals were diverted
 from the POTW, the concentrations of the metals in
 the influent of the POTW did not change during the
 duration of the project. Although the project did
 not meet its overall goal of reducing influent con-
 centrations, it did accomplish several important
 intermediate goals that will help limit influent con-
 centrations in the future and thus help it to meet
 future, more strict permit requirements for effluent.

  The public education project reduced toxic releases
 and laid the groundwork for further educational
 activities. A survey of the users of the recycling cen-
 ter yielded a 65 percent response rate. The data
 show that: (1) half of the users knew nothing about
 wastewater treatment before using the center; (2) 71
 percent understood the POTW better after using the
 center; (3)  60 percent wanted more information
 about the POTW; (4) 41 percent wanted a tour of
 the POTW; (5) 36 percent tried one or more of the
 source reduction suggestions from the center; and
 (6) all respondents wanted the service continued.
 Although difficult to quantify, the many newspaper
 articles arid ads, radio advertisements, and other
• outreach efforts raised the awareness of thousands
 of people of the problems water pollution causes
 POTWs.,In,addition, the publicity about the POTW's
 efforts to implement low-cost, non-regulatory solu-
 tions to pollution problems will help to create ongo-
 ing goodwill between the community and the POTW.

 Household/Small Business Hazardous Waste

  In addition to some common operational prob-
 lems, the Worcester Project encountered two prob-
 lems. Through flexible planning and an understand-
 ing of the project area, the project team resolved
_one.of-these.problems.and.approached the project
 goals through alternative means.
(1) Low Turnout at Workshops: The workshops
    offered to the general public suffered from
    lower-than-expected turnout. The project
    team surmised that the evening scheduling of
    the workshops and limited publicity con-
    tributed to the low turnout. To reach a wider
    audience, the team scripted, contracted, and
    filmed a one-half hour educational and instruc-
    tional video that explains the effect of water
    pollution on the POTW. The video offers more
    detailed information, such as specific steps
    households can take to reduce pollutant releases.
    The team televised the video on a popular
    local-access cable channel.

(2) Limited Use of Recycling Center: The recycling
    center received little use from VSQGs and
    moderate use from homeowners. Three factors
    may have limited its use. First, small businesses
    may have been dissuaded from using  the recy-
    cling center because they would have to identi-
    fy themselves to  the State as VSQGs to use the
    center. Some may have feared future regulation
    as VSQGs. Second, local environmental and
    civic organizations did not provide as much
    support for the project as originally planned.
    Several organizations had initially agreed to
    help with the project, but provided only limited
- -.   help due to the short time deadlines of the pro- .-
    ject and.their own pre-existing priorities and
    projects. Third, the center received less publicity
    than originally planned due to staff time
    limitations.                       '...-.

Industry Toxic Effluent Reduction

  Preliminary analysis of the data indicates that
when the textile plant switched to a more degrad-
able product it may have caused a new loading
problem for the POTW as biological units at the
POTW could  only partially digest the product's car-
bon chains. The project team believes that the prob-
lem might be easily remedied if the POTW adds
additional biological  reactors during periods of peak
production at the textile plant. This type of loading,.,,
problem may be resolved by simply establishing and

 maintaining a line of communication between the
 POTW and the company.

 Industry Toxic Effluent Reduction
  Toxicity at the POTW appears to have been
 reduced while production levels at the textile
 company have increased steadily since the begin-
 ning of the project. Tools to aid in continued
 cooperation at the conclusion of this project are
 being developed.

  Continued success in toxicity reduction will
 depend on maintaining the data elements estab-
 lished and by expanding them when new products
 are introduced at the textile company. These activi-
 ties will allow both parties to observe trends, noting
 toxicity changes as they occur. The project team will
 develop a computerized system to electronically link
 the databases held at each facility in order to rou-
 tinely track the data and review the trends.

  The textile company should be commended for its
 efforts. Both management and employees have been .
 extremely helpful throughout the project. Moreover,
 the textile company has actively pursued pollution
 prevention beyond those measures addressed
 through this project.

  Finally, OTA is developing a model to expand the
 Warren project. The model is being designed to help
 small POTWs meet the increasing challenges of new
 NPDES permit  restrictions when they are imposed.
 OTA's module will allow POTWs to use the microtox
 unit on a lend-lease basis to conduct toxicity trials
 at their plants. POTWs could use the toxicity infor-
 mation to establish working relationships aimed at
 problem solving with their industrial users.
 Pollution prevention approaches and OTA technical
resources would be the first step in this process.
Program elements and the logistics of the proposed
model are in the early stages of development.
 Household/Small Business Hazardous
 Waste Reduction
  A complete information packet on initiating a
 consumer-targeted educational program about
 POTWs and pollution prevention will be available
 to all POTWs as a result of this study. Some packets
 will be distributed throughout the Blackstone
 Watershed while others will be available upon
 request. The packet will consist of (1) a video; (2) a
 permit application template for POTWs to use in
 establishing waste collection centers; (3) a consumer
 guide about POTWs, toxics and pollution preven-
 tion recipes; (4) the children's curriculum; and (5) a
 publicity poster. These materials will help POTWs
 establish broad based consumer programs without
 having to allocate scarce resources (time and
 money) to this effort. Already, OTA has received
 numerous requests for  these materials.

    • Educational video
    • Sample curriculum materials

,	ป "H^Ome Improvements" consumer manual
      and brochure

    e Recycling Center Permit Application


  Paul Richard
  Massachusetts Office of Technical Assistance
  (617) 727-3260

   The Minnesota Office of Waste
 Management (OWM) oversees State
 programs designed to conserve
 resources and prevent pollution. Its
 programs encourage waste reduction,
 recycling of reusable materials, recov-
 ery of resources from waste, and treat-
 ment of waste to reduce risks. In 1984,
 the State established the Minnesota
 Technical Assistance Program (MnTAP)
 to provide non-regulatory assistance to
 Minnesota industry in pollution pre-
 vention and waste management.
 MnTAP services include on-site and
 telephone consultation, educational
 and technical resources, and a student
 intern program.

   Since 1969, the Metropolitan Waste
 Control Commission (MWCC) has managed the
 wastewater of the Twin Cities metropolitan area.
 MWCC owns and operates nine wastewater treat-
 ment plants and over 300 miles of interceptor sew-
 -ers and treats 275 million gallons of wastewater per
 day. MWCC's Metro Plant is the largest treatment
 plant in the State  of Minnesota and treats approxi-
 mately 220 million gallons of wastewater per day.
   Minnesota hoped to accomplish the following
 three goals with the EPA grant:
 1)  To establish programs and activities that promote
     source pollution prevention at the State's largest

 2)  To reduce the level of pollutants and wastewaters
     discharged to the wastewater treatment system; and

-~3)_—To-seek ways to-benefit-from multi-media pollu-
     tion prevention activities.
            Minnesota adopted a six-pronged
            approach to reach the above goals:

            1)  Training. The State planned to
               train MWCC pretreatment program
               staff, MWCC staff committee mem-
               bers, other Minnesota POTW staff,
               Minnesota Pollution Control
               Agency (MPCA) industrial waste-
               water staff, representatives from
               metro county hazardous waste pro-
               grams, and interested industrial
               users of sewage treatment plant
               systems on multi-media pollution
               prevention techniques. The pro-
               posed training would be in the form
               of the following three workshops:

    Workshop I:  Presentation of background
                 information and introduction to
                 pollution prevention concepts.

    Workshop II:  Discussion of how to integrate
                 pollution prevention techniques
                 into inspections, identification of"
       •••-—  *   opportunities to prevent pollution,-
     .......  _-.  and use of case studies to reinforce
                 the program's objectives.
    Workshop III: A forum for industrial users and
                 POTW staff to share ideas and
                 experiences on pollution

  To supplement the workshops, the .State planned
to provide tours of successful industry pollution pre-
vention programs.

2)  Technical Assistance. After attending the above
    workshops, MWCC staff planned to provide
    on-site technical assistance to industry in
    Minneapolis/St. Paul. MWCC staff members
 -   would promote pollution-prevention to-indu^	.
    stry. and identify opportunities to prevent

          pollution during routine inspections. In addition,
          MWCC staff would refer industry to MnTAP or
          other contacts, where appropriate.

      3)  Regulatory Integration. The State and MWCC.
          proposed to organize a staff committee to help
          integrate pollution prevention into MWCC pro-
          grams. The staff committee would provide
          guidance for MWCC in achieving program
          objectives and would generally oversee the
          grant project.

      4)  Measuring Success. The State and MWCC
          planned to develop methods of quantifying
          changes In the level of pollution resulting from
          the pollution prevention efforts.

      5)  Coordination. MWCC planned to coordinate
          its efforts with other programs in Minnesota by:
          (1) meeting quarterly with other pollution pre-
          vention programs in the state; (2) continuing to
          participate on OWM's Pollution Prevention Task
          Force; (3) participating at OWM's annual Pollution
          Prevention Conference; and (4) developing fact
          sheets and other materials for use by other POTWs.

|^   6)  Advisory Group. The State and MWCC proposed
j         to solicit industry and public input both by
          forming an advisory group which would serve in
          an advisory capacity for the grant project and
          MWCC's pollution prevention efforts.

Pollution Prevention Workshop #1

  On April 29, 1992, the first of three workshops
was held by OWM and MWCC. Speakers described
pollution prevention and its importance as an alter-
native to end-of-pipe treatment. They also intro-
duced waste minimization techniques for various ,

Pollution Prevention Workshop #2

  On October 13,1992, OWM and MWCC srW
sored  a second workshop. The purpose of this work-
shop was to: (1) provide information on how to
integrate pollution prevention into inspections; (2)
identify pollution prevention opportunities; (3) pro-
mote the pollution prevention approach; and (4)
discuss case studies. Concurrent sessions were held
for a variety of industrial processes so that pollution
prevention could be discussed specific to each indi-
vidual industry.

Pollution Prevention Workshop #3

  The State decided to integrate the third workshop
with the Minnesota statewide Pollution Prevention
Conference because the combination of the two
events was more efficient and provided an opportu-
nity to reach a larger audience. The Conference/
Workshop was held on June 17, 1993 and was spon-
sored by OWM, MWCC, MnTAP, and the Minnesota
Chamber of Commerce. The purpose of the confer-
ence was to promote pollution prevention to all
industrial users. There were eight different topic
areas with six sessions for each topic area. The eight
topic areas were: (1) Pollution Prevention Basics;
(2) Industry/Process Specific I; (3)  Industry/Process
Specific II; (4) Wastewater Pollution Prevention;
(5) Solid Waste Source Reduction;  (6) Pollution
Prevention Community Partnerships; (7) Pollution
Prevention Case Studies; and (8) Pollution
Prevention Initiatives.

Pollution  Prevention Survey

  To obtain information regarding industrial pollu-
tion prevention activities, success  stories, and input
on ways to provide further assistance to industries,
MWCC conducted a pollution prevention survey
among permitted industrial users. MWCC mailed
the survey to over 650 permitted industrial users
and received a 65 percent response rate. The results
of the survey have been compiled and will serve to
guide MWCC's future pollution prevention efforts
and initiatives.

Pollution  Prevention Advisory Committee

  In August, 1992 MWCC established the Pollution
Prevention Advisory Committee (PPAC). The com-

mittee, comprised of sixteen representatives of
MWCC, OWM, and various industries, citizen groups
and communities, serves in an advisory capacity for
the grant project and MWCC's pollution prevention
efforts. PPAC meetings were held once every two
months during the term of the grant program. The
topics discussed included MWCC's pollution prevention
program, the pollution prevention survey, integra-
tion of pollution prevention into MWCC's pretreat-
ment program, and the grant program in general.

Staff Training

  MWCC Staff have attended several local work-
shops and conferences on pollution prevention as
part of staff training. Some of the topics discussed
included pollution prevention in electroplating/metal
finishing operations and vehicle maintenance. The
Waste Reduction Institute for Training Applications
and Research conducted a one-day training session
for MWCC's pretreatment staff on pollution preven-
tion opportunities in electroplating and metal fin-
ishing operations on April 20,.1993.

Industrial Pollution Prevention Participation
Program (I4P)

  Initiated in November of 1992, this program, is,	
intended to promote, in a voluntary and non-regu-
latory manner, pollution prevention among the per-
mitted industrial users; The program encourages
industries to reduce pollution of wastewater without
transferring pollutants from one medium to another
(i.e., from water to air).

  Minnesota has made the following materials

    • A brochure describing the Minnesota
      Technical Assistance Program;

    • A brochure summarizing the topics of discus-
      sion at.ฑhe. 3rd,annual Minnesota Conference,
      on Pollution Prevention;
    ซ  A booklet summarizing a model pollution
      prevention plan including examples of pre-
      ventative activities;

    ซ  A! fact sheet describing the MWCC;

    ซ  A fact sheet describing the Industrial Waste
      Division of the Quality Control Department
      of MWCC. The fact sheet outlines how the
      division controls and monitors discharges to
      the sewer system to insure compliance with
      local and federal regulations;

    •  A, fact sheet defining pollution prevention
      and outlining its use as an environmental
      protection tool;

    9  A:fact sheet explaining the Minnesota Toxic
      Pollution Prevention Act;

    •  "Managing and Reducing Dental Waste", a
      brochure on preventing pollution at dental
      dinics;  and

    ซ  A brochure on household pollution

 Kevin j. McDonald
 Minnesota. Office of Waste Management
 (612) 649-5744

 Navneet K. Tiku
 Metropolitan Waste Control Commission
 (612) 772-7016

,*ซ• /„'"

  The New Mexico Environment
 Department (NMED) initiated a num-
 ber of pollution prevention efforts in
 conjunction with EPA Region 6 prior
 to the award of the EPA grant. These
 efforts focused on a pilot program —
 Improving Municipal Performance by
 Addressing Capacity (IMPAC). IMPAC,
 developed during 1989-90, is a compli-
 ance maintenance program that helps
 POTWs meet federal Clean Water Act
 provisions. IMPAC is intended to  assist
 municipalities in their efforts to identify
 and address performance-limiting fac-
 tors that have been found to adversely
 impact the ability of POTWs to effec-
 tively treat municipal wastewater and
 produce a compliant effluent.

  NMED transferred $70,000 of the
 $100,000 awarded by EPA to the City of
 Albuquerque. Albuquerque is a large city (approxi-
 mately 500,000 residents) that has a growing eco-
 nomic base. The State chose Albuquerque, in part,
 because Albuquerque had already established a pro-
 gram to pretreat potentially hazardous pollutants
 prior to introduction to the POTW. Because industri-
 al pretreatment programs often result in transfer of
pollutants to other media rather than elimination,
Albuquerque used the grant to emphasize pollution
prevention. The POTW strongly encouraged pollu-
tion prevention as it feared more stringent discharge
requirements on both its effluent  and sludge and
was interested in composting and distributing
wastewater sludge for beneficial use.

           New Mexico and the City of Albuquerque hoped
          to accomplish the following objectives in this project:

          1)  Educational Outreach. Provide information on
             hazardous waste management to industry;
                                                                                2)  Technical assistance. Help compa-
                                                                                    nies identify and evaluate site-spe-
                                                                                    cific opportunities for hazardous
                                                                                    waste minimization;

                                                                                3)  Identification and Targeting of
                                                                                    Specific Discharges for Waste
                                                                                    Reduction. Reduce wastes with
                                                                                    greatest detrimental impact on the
                                                                                    POTW's ability to comply with
                                                                                    NPDES permit requirements and
                                                                                    produce safe sludge; and

                                                                                4)  Evaluation of Regulatory
                                                                                    Alternatives. Establish indirect
                                                                                    inducements or direct requirements
                                                                                    to promote waste minimization (i.e.,
                                                                                    mass balance discharge limits or
                                                                                    more stringent local limits).

  NMED chose to implement its waste minimization
program through the established Albuquerque
Industrial Pretreatment Program.Through this pro-
gram, New Mexico focused on meeting waste mini-
mization and source reduction goals at the local
level, since 29 of the state's 50 largest industries are
either located in Albuquerque or utilize the city's
sewer system for disposal of their effluent.

  Some of the services that the Albuquerque
Industrial Pretreatment Program planned to
perform include:

    • Monitoring of industries suspected of dis-
     charging toxins or hazardous constituents to
     the City's POTW;

    • Levying of surcharges and enforcement
     actions to violators to induce industries to
     reduce the amounts of toxic or hazardous
     wastes they discharge into  the POTW;

     e Technical assistance to industry on matters
      relating to the pretreatment, minimization, or
      elimination of toxic waste discharges;
     9 Identification and elimination of toxins in
      the wastewater received by the Albuquerque
      POTW; and

     • Laboratory analyses performed to identify or
      quantify the concentrations of toxic or haz-
      ardous constituents in industrial wastewater
  New Mexico has accomplished numerous objec-
 tives in educational outreach, technical assistan.ce,
 and identification and targeting programs.

 Educational Outreach
  Albuquerque is currently developing a Self-
 Assessment Manual to help general industry assess a
 facility's waste generation and its potential waste
 reduction opportunities. While the manual itself is
 not industry-specific, there are industry-specific
 worksheets being developed,to supplement -the -. -
 manual. The Cityjs developing worksheets for pho- ^
 toprocessors, jewelry manufacturers, and electro-
JpTaters/metals"finishefs.           .

 During 1993, the City of Albuquerque sponsored
 five workshops:

 1)  Photo and Jewelry Industry Workshop. The
    New Mexico Silver Users Association/City of
    Albuquerque sponsored two nights of work-
    shops on techniques for reducing the level of
    silver in wastewater. The sponsors advertized
    the workshop in a newsletter that reaches near-
    ly 1,000 people in the  photo and jewelry indus-
    tries — both large users of silver. At the work-
    shop the City introduced the City's 5 PPM
  .....Program..Under this voluntary-compliance.pro-,
    gram, the City provides certificates to facilities
    that reduce the content of silver in their waste-
    water to 5 parts per million (ppm). The City
    also asked participants to share information on
    successful silver reduction/recycling techniques.
    At the conference, one area jeweler spoke on
    what his facility has done to achieve virtually
    closed-loop recycling of most process metals
    and recharge/reuse of its pickling solutions.
    Approximately 50 people attended at least one
    of the workshops.
2)  Electroplating/Metals Finishing Industry
    Workshop. Approximately 40 participants,
    including close to 30 industry representatives,
    attended this workshop sponsored by the City
    of Albuquerque on May 28, 1993. This work-
    shop covered methods of waste reduction and
    ion exchange and similar processes.

3)  Photographic Processing Silver Reduction
    Workshop. Close to 30 percent of the facilities
    contacted attended this workshop held on July
    14, 1993. The information discussed at the
    workshop included techniques for reducing
    photographic wastes and the 5 PPM Program.
    Three area silver recovery and equipment sup-
    pliers made presentations. Waste Minimization
  "staff discussed water conservation and the level
  ™  of fixer solution required to make on-site recov-
  . . ,ery of silver economically viable at photopro-
    cessing facilities. A representative of the
    Albuquerque Hazardous Waste Program covered
 ..  current RCRA and DOTjregulations that affect
    photographic wastes.

4)  Radiator Repair Industry Workshop. This work-
    shop/seminar, sponsored by the Albuquerque
    Environmental Health Department,  advised par-
    ticipants of waste reduction opportunities in the
    radiator repair industry.
5)  Waste Reduction Workshop for the Printing
    Industry. On November 30, 1993,  a waste
    reduction workshop for printers was held. The
	.workshop, sponsored by.,the Albuquerque. Waste
    Minimization Program, the Albuquerque Club

    of Printing House Craftsmen, and the T-VI
    Commercial Printing Program, provided partici-
    pants with information on printing industry
    regulations and pollution prevention tech-
    niques (i.e., silver recovery). Workshop presen-
    ters also discussed the handling of hazardous
    waste and various air quality and stormwater
    quality concerns.

Technical Assistance

  The City launched the Industry Waste Reduction
Opportunities (Industry WROs) project by visiting
28 industrial sites. The objective of the program was
to identify and evaluate opportunities for pollution
prevention through reduced volume and toxicity of
industrial wastes. The majority of the visits were to
photo processing labs (7), jewelry manufacturers (6),
and electroplaters and metals finishers (5). At cer-
tain sites, the City took samples from the waste
streams to assess metal loadings in effluent dis-
charges. These site visits helped the City to identify
the present level of pollution prevention at facilities
around the city as well as explore areas for potential
waste reduction. The City found businesses with
successful product recovery systems willing to trans-
fer information on pollution prevention techniques
to similar area businesses.

Identification and Targeting

  In January 1993, the City initiated an industrial
mapping project. Using the Albuquerque Geographic
Information System, the City located nearly 80 per-
cent of the City's metal finishing and photofinish-
ing industries. The map shows clusters of the priori-
ty industries in relation to sewer lines. The City
used the map to select specific manholes for domes-
tic and domestic/commercial sampling. The City is
also better able to manage field time by selecting
those industries of concern and visiting those indus-
tries within close proximity of each other.

  Sampling and process data collected during the
                                                                    site visits (described above) has helped the City bet-
                                                                    ter target resources.
                                                                    PROBLEMS AND RESOLUTION

                                                                     Implementation of the project was delayed from
                                                                    the proposed October 1, 1991 start date because of
                                                                    prolonged contract negotiations between NMED
                                                                    and two of the contractors (City of Albuquerque
                                                                    and University of New Mexico) working on the pro-
                                                                    ject. In addition, a .State-issued temporary freeze on:
                                                                    any new expenditures of funds for professional ser-
                                                                    vice agreements delayed the commencement of the
                                                                    project. To enable the project to meet its objectives,
                                                                    EPA extended the project and budget periods for
                                                                    one year to September 30, 1994.
                                                                    AVAILABLE MATERIALS

                                                                       ซ Announcement flyer and agenda for electro-
                                                                         platers workshop

                                                                       • Monthly progress reports

                                                                       o Summary reports of inspections, waste assess-
                                                                         ment, meetings, and analyses

                                                                       ป Synopsis of the Printer's Waste Reduction
                                                                    FOR MORE  INFORMATION CONTACT

                                                                     Robert Hogrefe, PE
                                                                     Wastewater Utility Division
                                                                     City of Albuquerque
                                                                     (505) 873-7030

        North Carolina's pretreatment and
       pollution prevention programs have
       worked together for a number of years
       to train industrial dischargers and
       POTW pretreatment coordinators on
       approaches that dischargers can use to
       reduce effluent pollutant loadings. The
       EPA grant allowed North Carolina to
       fully integrate pollution prevention
       into the State Pretreatment Program.

        North Carolina hoped to accomplish
       the following four goals with the EPA

       1)  Develop a framework at the state
          level to oversee local pollution
          prevention programs;

       2)  Establish pollution prevention programs at

       3)  Address specific pollution problems through	
          the.use of pollution prevention techniques; and

       4)~ Transfer information to other states and locaL
          pretreatment programs.


        North Carolina initiated a number of activities to
       achieve the above goals. To accomplish the first
       goal, North Carolina endeavored to integrate its
       well-established pollution prevention program with
       the existing State Pretreatment Program. One means
       of integrating the two programs is the provision of
       training in pollution prevention techniques.

        To realize the second goal — establishing local
pi	pollution prevention prograrns-at4?OTWs —- North
       Carolina decided to pilot programs at two represen-
            tative POTWs located in Winston-Salem
            and Troy. Pretreatment programs in
            North Carolina generally fall into one
            of two categories: programs in large
            municipalities or programs in small
            towns. The needs of POTWs in larger
            municipalities such as Winston-Salem
            differ somewhat from the needs  of
            POTWs in smaller towns such as Troy.
            For example, POTWs in large munici-
            palities usually serve a large number of
            significant industrial users (SIUs) and
            generally have sufficient staff and labo-
            ratory support to implement pollution
            prevention programs with minimal
            support from the State. Small towns,
            however, usually serve fewer SIUs.
            Because of their small size, the towns
            generally face greater resource con-
            straints and may depend more heavily
            on staff support provided by the State.
         ;   Small town POTWs typically serve a
 wide variety of uncontrolled discharges including
 light industrial facilities and commercial operations.
 Thus, North Carolina determined that it would
 establish one project at a large municipality and one
 at a POTW serving a small town. To transfer lessons
 learned from the pilot project, North Carolina has
 awarded three, challenge grants to qualified POTWs
 in other areas of the state.

   To further the State's third goal — addressing spe-
 cific pollution problems through the use of pollution
 prevention techniques — North Carolina used an
 additional criterion when evaluating potential pilot
 program locations. The State selected pilot locations
 that possessed an existing pollution problem  that
 could not be addressed through treatment.

   To accomplish the fourth goal — enabling  other
 states, local pretreatment programs, and industries
 to benefit from this project —  the State resolved to
 develop comprehensive guidance materials on devel-
 oping POTW pollution prevention programs at the
 state and local levels. In addition, the State planned
..to develop.guidance for.industries based upon the
 specific pollution addressed in the pilot projects.

 State Accomplishments

     • Set up a pilot project with the City of Winston-
      Salem to establish a pollution prevention pro-
      gram within the City's POTW Pretreatment
      Program (535,000). Winston-Salem is a rela-
      tively large city that has a population of
      approximately 150,000. The city maintains a
      well-established pretreatment program and
      would like to reduce metal loads to maintain
      compliance with NPDES permit and regain
      capacity for future use.

     • Set up a pilot project with Town of Troy to
      establish a pollution prevention program at
      the Town's POTW ($15,000). Troy is a small
      town and has a population of approximately
      3,400. It has three SIUs and nine industries. Its
      POTW encountered periodic compliance prob-
      lems with NPDES effluent limits for cadmium,
      lead, cyanide, and whole-effluent toxicity.

     • The Office of Waste Reduction conducted a
      training seminar for the DEM Pretreatment
      Program. Training included a half-day of
      classroom instruction on pollution prevention
      case studies and a half-day field training on —
      waste reduction audits.

     • The State trained Winston-Salem staff to con-
      duct on-site industrial audits.

     • The State trained Troy POTW staff on sampling
      procedures and pollution prevention audits.

     • The State offered challenge grants for POTWs
      with pretreatment programs to develop pollu-
      tion prevention programs (3 at $17,000 each).

    • The State included several items involving
      pollution prevention in the recent revision of
      the State's pretreatment regulations.

City of Winston-Salem Accomplishments

    • Received training from Pollution Prevention
      Program Staff.
     ซ Publicized the pollution prevention program
      through newspapers and radio.

     ซ Surveyed 620 industrial and commercial users
      in 17 industrial categories on waste streams.

     9 Completed an updated headworks analysis

     ซ Used the waste stream survey and headworks
      analysis to target specific industries or categories
      of users for outreach and pollution prevention
      audit. Sent 385 information packages to target-
      ed businesses.                        '    :

     ซ Performed 44 industrial audits.

     e Established a pollution prevention library.

     e Modified pretreatment permit applications
      and the inspection checklist to include ques-
      tions pertaining to waste reduction activities.

     • Established an awards program for industrial
      users of POTWs.

     9 Staff attended sessions on water conservation
      and water transfers and participated in waste-
      water schools.

     * Incorporated pollution prevention into
      ongoing City efforts, "Keep Winston-Salem ' '
      Beautiful" and "Recycle Today!"

    ซ Sponsored two seminars:

      - "Business and the Environment"

      - "Pollution Prevention Makes $ense"

Town of Troy Accomplishments

    ซ Received training from Pollution Prevention \
      Program Staff.

    ซ Completed a long-term headworks monitor-
      ing program for the Town that provides site-
      specific pollutant concentrations, loads, and
      treatment plant pollutant removal efficiencies.

    ซ Conducted a Pollution Prevention Program  ',
      kick-off presentation for industrial users.    ;

       e  Conducted pollution prevention audits/
         assessments for nine industrial users.

       6  Initiated a baseline performance monitoring
         program and investigated sewer line monitor-
         ing to further identify potential sources of

       e  Inventoried Material Safety Data Sheets
         (MSDS) from 6 industrial users into a
         computer database.

       0  Incorporated pollution prevention into ongo-
         ing municipal efforts such as the Town
         Utilities Department's Street Crew and trie
         local Parks and Recreation Department.

       3  Publicized the pollution prevention program
         through newspapers and television.

       e  Reduced oil/grease discharges through personal
         communication with oil/grease dischargers.

       e  Mailed out 129 questionnaires to businesses
         to assess their pollution prevention potential.

       ฎ  Sent 14 pollution prevention packages as a
         result of the returned questionnaires.

       e  Performed a specific conductivity scan and
         additional toxicity monitoring to locate
      "   sources  of aquatic toxicity.

       0  Lowered the hydraulic loading to the POTW
         through an infiltration/inflow investigation.

       e  Distributed solid waste recycling and com-
         posting information as requested by the
         general  public.
    Winston-Salem found that small businesses had
   difficulty locating recyclers interested in collecting
	smalXampunts pfjreusable materials they_generated.
   Winston-Salem identified the following possible
solutions to this problem:

    8 Identification of small business interested in
      "piggy backing" on larger facilities' existing
      collections points;

    s Assistance to small businesses in neighbor-
      hpod networking; and

    8 Establishment of local collection points
      throughout the City.
 The following materials are available from the
Division of Environmental Management:

    0 Waste stream questionnaires used in the sur-
      vey are available to interested parties.
      Winston-Salem developed one general ques-
      tionnaire and 17 industry-specific question-
      naires including automotive, battery, car
      washers, and laboratories.

    0 Agenda for workshops.

    0 Aifinal report that documents the results of
      the two pilot programs, describes"" integration' *
  —-"of pollution prevention into state water pro-
   •-- grams, describes-how North Carolina estab--
      lished pollution prevention programs at other
      POTWs, and identifies additional resources for
.    --POTWs.

    e The City of Winston-Salem's Pollution
      Prevention Plan.
 Julia E Storm
 NC Department of Environment, Health and
 Natural Resources Division of Environmental
                                              	-x^-Shf  •-

           Utah does not have legislation or reg-
         ulations that require industry to devel-
r^-      op waste minimization plans. Thus,
[9 IT   the Utah project focused on how to
         Incorporate waste minimization into
         existing POTW pretreatment programs.
         In particular, the State focused on one
         POTW pretreatment program in Salt
         Lake City. Salt Lake City is a moderate-
         ly sized metropolitan city located in a"
         semi-arid and rapid-growth region, typ-
         ical of the southwest. The typical
         industrial users are metal finishers.
           Project goals included reducing pollution through-
         out Utah as well as in Salt Lake City. Specific goals
             • Expand the scope of the State's POTW self-
               audit program to include multi-media source
               reduction, water conservation, and technical
               assistance as a means for extending the useful
             • Strengthen both Utah and Salt Lake City's
               pollution prevention capacity;

             • Encourage industrial, commercial, and resi-  -
               dential users of Salt Lake City's POTW to
               prevent pollution and minimize waste;

             • Address high-risk areas (based on health,
               ecological, and POTW compliance factors);

             • Use the results of this pilot to transfer
               knowledge gained to similar states and
               municipalities; and

Or 3^        • Support goals of the Pollution Prevention Act
^            of 1990.

            The City resolved to conduct the fol-
            lowing activities to encourage industri-
            al, commercial, and residential users of
            Salt Lake City's POTW to prevent pollu-
            tion and minimize waste:

                • Conduct assessments of waste
                 water being discharged into City
                 sewers;               .    ,  :

                • Promote water conservation;

                • Conduct waste minimization
                 assessments  at select industrial

                ฐ Establish stringent local limits
                 based on mass and technology;

                • Provide  information, education,
                 and technical assistance;

    * Target key industries that discharge to Salt
      Lake City's POTW; and

    • Recognize industrial,  users that implement •
      aggressive pollution prevention programs.

  As part of this strategy, the State and City spon-
sored pollution prevention workshops for the City's
commercial and industrial users. As the majority of
industrial users in Utah are in the metal finishing:
industry, the State planned to focus at least  one
workshop on this industry.

  To reduce solvents released to the City's POTW,
Salt Lake City planned to develop a solvent  reduc-
tion and reuse program at city-owned operations. To
further the same goal, the City sought to establish a
chemical clearinghouse.

  Utah presented the results of this project at meet-
ings with industrial organizations and government
officials throughout the State and EPA Region VIII.


   As part of its "Pollution Prevention Education
 Initiative", Utah held workshops for the following
 four groups:

 (1)  Pretreatment Coordinators. Representatives
     from 14 of the 15 approved pretreatment pro-
     grams, and several coordinators from
     non-approved programs attended this three-day,
     City/State-sponsored workshop. During the
     first two days, the staff introduced pollution
     prevention and discussed how coordinators can
     incorporate pollution prevention into their
     POTW pretreatment programs. Pretreatment
     coordinators also learned how to conduct
     pollution prevention assessments. On the third
     day of the workshop, the group visited two Salt
     Lake City industrial sites — a metal finisher and
     the City's fleet maintenance service. The partic-
     ipants toured the facilities and discussed source
     reduction opportunities for each facility's waste
     stream. Participants also received hands-on
     training on how to access pollution prevention
     information on data bases and clearinghouses.

 (2)  Metal Finishers. This workshop focused on
	metal finishing companies in Salt Lake City.
     Metal finishers represent 17 of the'18 industrial
     users that discharge to the POTW. the staff
     presented pollution prevention case studies and
     discussed applications of pollution prevention
     techniques. The staff illustrated that pollution
     prevention is a practical and cost-effective tool
     for the metal finishing industry.

 (3)  General Industry. This workshop highlighted
     the uses of pollution prevention techniques in a
     wide range of industries. The presentations
     highlighted six industries including: metal
     finishing, food processing, aircraft production,
     laundries, hospitals, and auto maintenance.
     The workshop included information on waste
     disposal and water conservation.

,(4) ..PretreatmentUpdate. Seminar. JUtah .held a
     follow-up seminar to the first workshop for
     pretreatment coordinators. The staff presented
     success stories to the pretreatment coordinators
     and distributed a survey to help the State assess
     the benefits of the grant program.

   Salt Lake City developed an awards program to
 recognize and encourage implementation of innova-
 tive pollution prevention programs. To keep the
 awards program meaningful, the City determined
 that the same company could not routinely win.
 The City developed the following criteria to select
 the award-winning programs:

     B The program is designed to-decrease the
       production of pollution;

     • Pollution prevention techniques do not result
       in a media transfer of pollutants;

     • The company developed innovative changes
       in processes that will decrease pollution and
       may be transferred to other industries;

     a The company substitutes chlorinated solvents
       with cleaner alternatives, where applicable; and

     e The company complies with State/City
   Through this grant project, Salt Lake City also
 changed procurement policies at city-owned facili-
 ties to eliminate chlorinated solvents. Salt Lake City
 now gives priority to bids that utilize alternative,
 non-chlorinated solvents.

   Finally, Utah presented a summary of the project
 results at two conferences held in the spring of 1993:

 (1)  Utah Water Pollution Control Association.
     Given that many POTW managers attended
     the annual meeting in April 1993, Utah/Salt
    Lake City staff emphasized the importance of
    management support for pollution prevention
    programs, as well as the benefits to POTWs.
    These benefits include extending the useful
    life of the plant by reducing loadings from
.	commercial, industrial, andjdomestic users
    and increasing regulatory compliance.

(2)  EPA Region VIII. Utah also presented the
    results of their project at the annual EPA
    Region VIII pretreatment coordinators meet-
    ing in Jackson, Wyoming in May 1993. Many
    of those attending the conference were unfa-
    miliar with pollution prevention techniques
    prior to the conference. Some pretreatment
    coordinators mentioned, however, that they
    were beginning to incorporate pollution pre-
    vention into their pretreatment programs.

  Utah encountered several problems during the
implementation of its grant project including:
    • Ensuring attendance at workshops;
    • Making workshops specific enough to
      inform industry;
    • Encouraging solvent recovery at city-owned
      facilities; and
    • Establishing a chemical clearinghouse.

  Utah had difficulty attracting a large audience to
some of its workshops. For example, Utah sent out
over 200 invitations for the general industry work-
shop and only 26 individuals representing 13 com-
panies attended. In contrast, 40 metal finishers rep-
resenting IS companies attended the first industry
workshop which was specific to the metal plating
industry. Since the metals industry is regulated by
the State, the staff attributed the high attendance to
the regulatory threat posed by the State and City.

  Post-conference survey results indicate that partici-
pants, especially those of the general industry work-
shop, desired more industry-specific information
(i.e., case studies of how pollution prevention had
benefited a company similar to their own and
details of how the pollution prevention practice was
                                                                                   • 3Sf 53..
   Salt Lake City did not develop a solvent recovery
 system for city-owned facilities as it had planned
 initially. Upon further reflection, the City deter-
 mined that eliminating solvents altogether would be
 a preferable waste management alternative. To elim-
 inate solvents, Salt Lake City now gives preference
 to alternative, non-chlorinated solvents in the bid-
 ding process.

   The City encountered liability problems as it tried
- to establish a chemical clearinghouse. Rather than
 operating a chemical clearinghouse, the  City chose
 to facilitate the exchange of chemicals and materials
 and match users and producers.

   Salt Lake City staff distributed a questionnaire/skill
 evaluation to help staff gauge the success of each
 workshop. Overall, the results show that the work-
 shops were successful.

   Overall, pretreatment coordinators found their
 workshop beneficial — rating the workshop as a 4.4
 on a 5.0 point scale. The pretreatment coordinators
 also indicated that they wanted further training and
 information on pollution prevention. The survey
 results demonstrate that Utah/Salt Lake City success-
 fully communicated the message about the benefits
 of pollution  prevention:

     8 Only 3 percent of respondents felt that
      increased regulation was  needed to help
      promote pollution prevention.

     • 100 percent of the pretreatment coordina-
      tors indicated that pollution prevention
      provides economic payback and is cost

     • 48 percent of the coordinators indicated
      that reduced liability was another benefit of
      pollution prevention.

  At the metal finishers workshop, the average rat-
ing on the usefulness of the program was 3.7 on a
5.0 point scale. The overall quality of the presenta-
tion was rated as 4.5 and most participants stated
that they would attend a follow-up workshop. Some
of the participants also requested vendor lists, more
references, examples of practical applications, and
specific information for their individual companies.
The participants seemed to be most interested in
hearing about innovative technologies that have the
potential to be implemented as pollution preven-
tion strategies.

  The survey of pretreatment coordinators attending
the update seminar indicated that 80 percent of the
POTWs were incorporating pollution prevention
into their pretreatment programs and 45 percent
had at least one industrial user reporting success
with pollution prevention activities. Two POTWs
responded that they had noticeable reductions in
pollutants at their plant. Although five POTWs had
awards programs in place, only the one in Salt Lake
City included pollution prevention.

  One-hundred percent of the attendees at the
Pretreatment Update Seminar responded that they
had benefitted from the training and would be
interested in-further programs. Particularly, the par-
ticipants were interested in learning.more about the.
printing, dry cleaning, laboratory, photo finishing,
food service, silk screening, and waste oil industries."
When asked what information had been the most
valuable, 38 percent of the pretreatment coordinators
indicated that specific case studies ahd examples
were the most useful information and 21 percent
felt that the session on how to communicate  effec-
tively with industrial users was the most valuable.
    ซ Workshop announcement flyers

    • Workshop agenda and detailed outline of
      Pollution-Prevention Workshop for
      Pretreatment Inspectors held June 2-4, 1992
   • Pollution Prevention Skill Evaluation
    administered at the beginning and the con-
    clusion of all workshops to help evaluate
    the success of the workshops

   • Final report
Nathan Guinn
Utah Department of Environmental Quality
Division of Water Quality
(801) 538-6146

               CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT
               NJ, NY, PR, VI
               DC, DE, MD, PA, VA, WV
              AL, FL, GA, KY,
              US, NC, SC, TN
               IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI
              AR, LA, MM, OK, TX
               IA, KS, MO, NE
               CO, MX, ND, SD, UT, WY
              AS, AZ, CA, CNMI,
              GU, HI, NV, RP
              AK, ID, OR, WA
                                                    EPA REGIONAL CONTACTS
Region 1
Pollution Prevention Coordinator (PAS)
JFK Federal Building Room 2203
Boston, MA 02203

Region 2
Pollution Prevention Coordinator (2-PPIB-OPM)
26 Federkl Plaza
New York, NY 10278 "            	

Region 3
Pollution Prevention Coordinator (3ES43)
841 Chestnut Building
Philadelphia, PA 19107

Region 4
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
345 Couttland Street, NE
Atlanta, GA 30365

Region 5
Pollution Prevention Coordinator (ME-19J)
77 West Jackson Boulevard
Chicago,1 IL 60604-3590

Region 6
Pollution Prevention Coordinator (6M-PP)
1445 Ross Avenue   - ---	•••-••—	-
12th Floor, Suite 1200
Dallas, TX 75202

Region 7
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101

Region 8
Pollution Prevention Coordinator (8PM-SIPO)
999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2405

Region 9
Pollution Prevention Coordinator (H-l-B)
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105

Region 10
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101


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