Mail Code74C

      Introduction	2
      Technical Assistance	4
      Technical Training.
      Education and Outreach.
      Regulatory Integration	

      Demonstration Projects	

      Legislation and Infrastructure	
      Awards and Recognition	18
      For More Information...                       ....20
      EPA Regional Contacts	Back Cover

Harmonizing Environmental
Protection with Economic Efficiency
         EPA has made significant progress over the last 20
       years in improving the quality of the environment by
       controlling pollution  with its air, water, and
       hazardous and solid waste programs. The  traditional
       approach, however, stresses treatment and disposal
       after pollution  has been generated. EPA now believes
       that reducing or eliminating the source of pollution is
       a competitive, effective way to reduce risks to human
       health and the environment. This approach is also
       the most cost-effective option because it reduces raw
       material losses, the  need  for expensive "end-of-pipe"
       technologies, and long-term liability. In short,
       pollution prevention offers the unique advantage of
       harmonizing environmental  protection with
       economic efficiency.
         In the  1990 Pollution Prevention Act,  Congress
       formally declared it national policy of the United
       States to prevent or reduce  pollution at the source
       whenever possible. In addition,  the Act created a
       pollution prevention program at EPA and established
       a grant program.  This grant program,  Pollution
       Prevention Incentive  for States  (PPIS), fosters the
       development of state pollution prevention programs.
       Because states  have closer, more direct contact with
       industry and hence are more aware of local needs,
       EPA believes that state-based environmental programs
       can  make a  unique  contribution  to pollution
       prevention. EPA designed the grant program to give
       the states flexibility in addressing  local needs. EPA is
       committed to support states in establishing and
       expanding pollution prevention programs, to foster
       Federal  and  state information sharing  and
       communication,  and to test different  pollution
       prevention methodologies and approaches at state

 and local levels.
  The PPIS grant program is an integral part of EPA's
strategy to encourage and promote source reduction
throughout the United States. The program began in 1989
as the  Source Reduction and Recycling Technical
Assistance program, but was renamed in 1990 to reflect
EPA's increased emphasis on preventing pollution in all
forms. This approach minimizes the transfer of pollutants
across all media — air, land, and water. PPIS has supported
over 100 projects in states, territories, localities and
regional organizations across the country — many  of
which had no pollution prevention  activities underway
prior to PPIS funding. PPIS  has provided approximately
$20 million dollars to the states during the first three years.
  Three years after making pollution  prevention the
nation's highest environmental priority, 49 states now
maintain pollution prevention programs. Over half of the
states across the country have enacted state pollution
prevention legislation.  Numerous businesses, working
with the states, have obtained technical assistance through
PPIS and saved millions of dollars. Thousands of people
have received training in pollution prevention techniques.
  Now that the states have developed basic pollution
prevention programs, EPA  has shifted responsibility for
implementing the grant program from EPA Headquarters
to its regional offices.  This shift  gives the Regions
flexibility to focus resources on local priorities.
  This brochure highlights just a few of the PPIS grant
recipients. Many other state programs use PPIS funds  to
address  local needs of industry and citizens. Contact your
Regional Pollution Prevention Coordinator (listed  at the
end of the  brochure) for more information on pollution
prevention activities in your area. The  following pages
describe common activities and achievements of several
grant recipients in the following program areas:
         • Technical assistance
         • Technical training
         •  Education and outreach
         • Regulatory integration
         • Demonstration projects
         • Legislation and infrastructure
         • Awards and recognition
  Across all of these areas, the grant recipients have
demonstrated success, helped businesses to increase
efficiency and save money, and reduced future pollution
control costs.
  "Twenty years
of end-of-pipe
regulation have
taught us an
important lesson -
that the best way
to clean up the
environment is to
prevent environ-
mental degradation
in the first place."

  Carol Browner
  EPA Administrator

                               TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
  Florida's Waste
Reduction Assistance
Program alone has saved
businesses $3.7 million.
For the environment, this
savings translates into a
reduction of over four
million pounds of
hazardous waste.

  Florida Waste Reduction
  Assistance Program
  Businesses across the country are taking advantage of
free technical assistance from state pollution prevention
programs supported by PPIS grants. These programs
assist  businesses  in  reducing  wastes  across all
environmental media (air, solid and hazardous waste,
water, and energy consumption). This assistance
generally results in savings to participating businesses
by reducing waste management costs and allows them
to be more competitive with other companies both in
the United States and abroad. Florida's Waste Reduction
Assistance Program alone has saved businesses $3.7
million. For the environment, this savings translates
into a reduction of over four million pounds of
hazardous waste.
  In many cases PPIS technical assistance programs offer
confidential, on-site pollution and waste assessments
for both large and small businesses. These assessments
take  place outside of the regulatory  environment and
participation is strictly voluntary on the part of
businesses. They show businesses how to save money;
increase efficiency; reduce the need for new, costly
disposal  facilities; and  help promote a good public
image.  During a waste assessment, engineers review all
operations of the businesses to uncover potential waste
reduction strategies and  opportunities. Afterwards,
companies receive a detailed report that identifies and
evaluates  various waste reduction opportunities and
provides specific recommendations for action. The
decision to proceed with any recommended  option is
strictly the decision  of the company. The sole purpose
of the assessments is  to  provide  non-binding
suggestions and ideas.
  The pollution prevention program at the Colorado
Department of Health (CDH) is just one  of many
programs  that offer this type of technical assistance.
Majestic  Metals, a manufacturer employing 115

people, received a pollution prevention assessment from
the Colorado program. The company adopted CDH
recommendations to install high-volume, low-pressure
paint guns and gun-cleaning wash. CDH estimates that
the paint guns will pay for themselves in only two
months.  In  addition, CDH  estimates that  by
implementing these pollution prevention practices  the
company will reduce VOC emissions by 7,400 pounds
annually and decrease rinse water use by 770,000
gallons. The corresponding reduction in paint usage will
save the company $25,000 per year.
  To further assist businesses, some PPIS grant recipients
have  studied the barriers that inhibit businesses from
implementing pollution prevention. The Louisiana
Department of Environmental Quality, for example,
has developed a comprehensive survey for industrial
waste generators in the state to help identify both
regulatory and non-regulatory  barriers to implementing
pollution prevention practices. The  state hopes to  use
the survey  results to tailor its pollution prevention
program to local needs.
    Tennessee is just one of many states that offers an
    extensive technical  assistance program to
    businesses. Since 1989, the Tennessee Waste
    Reduction Assistance Program's (WRAP) pollution
    prevention experts have performed over 200 on-
    site assessments in companies in a variety of
    industries. Companies found that reducing waste
    led to savings in disposal, raw materials,  labor,
    and utilities  costs. In addition, companies
    increased revenue by selling recyclable goods.
    A follow-up study of 31 companies that received
    assistance revealed  that, on  average,  companies
    saved $41,500 per  year  by adopting the
    recommendations of WRAP experts.
    These recommendations  resulted in waste
    reduction of:
       •  1.3 million pounds of  hazardous waste
       •  8.8 million pounds of  solid waste
       •  91,000 gallons per day of wastewater
       •  87,000 gallons per day of fresh water
       •  450,000 pounds of air  emissions
  "Many of the
recommendations of the
waste assessment have
already been implemented
by our company.  We have
realized substantial
savings in material costs
and waste reduction.
Thanks to all for your
courtesy, hard work,
professionalism and, most
of all, good results!"

  Letter to Colorado
  Pollution Prevention
  and Waste Management

                           TECHNICAL TRAIN ING
                                 To minimize the amount of pollution generated across
                               the country, EPA encourages the sharing of information
                               on source reduction techniques. PPIS grants further this
                               objective by  funding state  programs  that provide
                               technical training to industry,  government, and student
                               groups.  Those trained become  more  aware of the
                               pollution prevention ethic and acquire the expertise
                               to act on their  new appreciation of environmental
                                 Many state programs train business leaders on how to
                               implement pollution prevention techniques at their work
                               sites. Utah, for example, is conducting a series of
                               environmental training workshops for the Utah
                               Manufacturer's Association. The training series has alerted
                               participating businesses to the information and services
                               available  to them from the state's  pollution prevention
                               program.  The training sessions  focus on source reduction
                               in hazardous waste, solid waste, air toxics, and protection
                               of drinking water and wetlands.
                                 The Tennessee Waste Reduction Assistance Program
                               (WRAP)  has  developed and  delivered  numerous
                               presentations on waste reduction. To  date, WRAP has
                               trained over 12,000 people. In response to the growing
                               interest of Tennessee companies in solving their solid
                               waste problems, WRAP has combined waste assessments
                               and training efforts in Solid Waste Focus Groups. This
                               program, in  coordination  with the  Chamber of
                               Commerce, trains industries to conduct snapshot
                               assessments of their solid waste. This  unique program
                               has allowed WRAP staff to assist 10-12 companies in just
                               two days.
                                 PPIS funding may also be used to train state and local
                               environmental officials to  focus on pollution prevention
                               opportunities during the course of  their work. For
                               example,  Cornell University used PPIS  grant funding to
                               develop  a comprehensive package  of  training and

informational materials to serve as a guide for local
officials and others responsible for pollution prevention.
Local officials from 36 counties in New York State
attended the first training session and found it to be very
informative. The PPIS-supported program in Rhode Island
is also training state officials. Rhode Island is educating
staff at its largest publicly owned water treatment facility
on pollution prevention techniques.  The project helps
train officials to focus on preventing pollution in all
forms during compliance audits and independent waste
audits. Several states are training employees in state
environmental agencies to identify source  reduction
opportunities and avoid the transfer of pollutants during
the course of their work.
  In order  to provide quality technical assistance  to
businesses, state pollution prevention programs must
retain staff with considerable technical expertise.  PPIS
provides funding for this technical training. Tennessee,
for example, pioneered a program that  trains retired
engineers to conduct waste assessments in the Tennessee
technical assistance program. The State supplies extensive
classroom and on-site training in pollution prevention
techniques for the engineers. Retired engineers have been
quite successful as  they  have vast technical experience
and are well respected by industry.
  In addition,  several  of the established  pollution
prevention programs have trained new PPIS grant
recipients in technical skills and effective  pollution
prevention program  management strategies.  The
Alabama program for  example  has trained staff  in
Vermont,  New Hampshire, Iowa,  Mississippi and
South Carolina.
  Several of the grant recipients coordinate  their
technical assistance program with local universities. The
programs provide  graduate  students with in-depth
training   in   identifying   pollution   prevention
opportunities. The students then conduct on-site
pollution  and waste  assessments  for  facilities
participating in the technical assistance  program.
Everyone benefits  from these student internships: the
students gain real-world experience  in pollution
prevention  and  the state programs receive much needed

                       OUTREACH AND EDUCATION
                             A Michigan Department of Education study found that
                            Michigan schools generate over 13,000 pounds of solid
                            waste per week — three pounds daily per student. If the
                            schools recycled half of the paper thrown  away, 6000
                            cubic yards of landfill space could be saved each week.
                            The study indicated that while some teachers had begun
                            pollution prevention activities in the classroom, they
                            lacked enough central administrative support to  be
                            successful in the long run. The Department of Education
                            determined that  the most practical  method  of
                            implementing pollution prevention methods in Michigan
                            schools would  be to change management practices and
                             In addition  to  funding  the Michigan study and
                            guidebook, PPIS has supported the development of
                            curricula, educational videos, university courses, and
                            student intern programs.
  The Michigan Board of Education developed a guidebook and video to help school
policy makers, facilities managers, teachers, and students reduce the amount of waste
and pollution emitted to the environment.  The guidebook provides suggestions to
help school districts avoid fumbling over problems that have been solved elsewhere.
The guide includes management and decisionmaking processes that can be applied to
a broad range of pollution prevention projects in schools. It also provides information
for implementing projects in selected topic  areas: solid waste, chemicals and
hazardous waste, pesticides, underground  storage tanks, air quality, and energy
  The guide encourages student participation in data gathering, implementation, and
documenting of pollution prevention projects.  Student involvement is key in that
pollution prevention projects will often require student action such as separating solid
wastes in the classroom or cafeteria, careful handling of hazardous waste in classrooms
and laboratories, and cooperation in reducing energy use. In addition, students
develop a positive environmental attitude.

  Delaware used PPIS funding to develop a pollution
prevention curriculum for grades K-8 based on the
philosophy that children — tomorrow's voters and
politicians, landowners and builders, conservationists
and consumers — must be equipped to deal effectively with
the environmental legacy of past generations. The
curriculum ties the environmental  "3R's" (reducing,
reusing and recycling) into  the basic curriculum subjects,
such as history, science, and math. Undoubtedly, the
students will  need to know as much about ecology and
the environment as the traditional "3R's" (reading, writing,
and arithmetic). Delaware  also provides books, videos,
and other materials to state  libraries and bookmobiles.
  To further encourage the  public to adopt  the pollution
prevention ethic, PPIS supports education  and  outreach
projects which target consumers and businesses. Grant
recipients have developed newsletters,  fact-sheets, videos,
and  television programs to  increase awareness
of source reduction opportunities. Many of  the programs
sponsor workshops, conferences, and make  presentations
to businesses  and other interested parties. Thousands  of
people have attended these workshops and  presentations
across the country.
  The American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency
(ASEPA)  used PPIS funding to launch a major public
education campaign to help residents manage  their
wastes. In the past, most of the main island's waste was
biodegradable and was disposed of on land,  in streams,  in
the ocean and by burning. The increase in import and use
of metals, plastics, oil, paints and solvents,  however, has
created waste  management problems for the island.
ASEPA developed three half-hour television programs and
provided communities with information on proper  waste
management  practices including disposal, recycling and
source reduction.  In  addition, ASEPA  encouraged
community involvement by sponsoring a t-shirt contest,
a poster contest, and a "pick-a-thon."
  In addition  to providing company-specific technical
assistance, many grant recipients actively pursue  outreach
activities to industry and government to increase
awareness of  pollution prevention resources. Features  of
outreach efforts at the  Center for Hazardous Materials
Research  (CHMR) include:
       • A quarterly newsletter, press releases,  and
         articles printed in trade associations that
         describe CHMR's services
       • A Speakers Bureau which provides experts in
         pollution prevention to speak at conferences
         and meetings
       • Coordination with key business, trade, and
         non-profit organizations
  "Schools have a dual role
in pollution prevention.
As regulated institutions,
they must comply with
regulations and avoid
liabilities. As educational
institutions, they are
charged to develop proper
environmental attitudes
and behaviors in their
students. Students who
take part in pollution
prevention programs will
learn attitudes and
behaviors that will build a
lasting responsibility for a
sustainable environment."
  Pollution Prevention
  In Schools. Michigan
  State Board of Education

                        OUTREACH & EDUCATION (CONTINUED)
                                CHMR also distributes a series of industry-specific fact
                               sheets that describe the incentives for preventing
                               pollution, giving various  pollution prevention options
                               that range from simple and universal techniques such as
                               improved housekeeping, to more complex industry-
                               specific techniques and technologies. Some  of the
                               industries targeted include chemical production, coal
                               mining, petroleum refining, and paper manufacturing.
                               During  1991, over 3,500 copies of the fact sheets were
                               distributed  at workshops and seminars and through
                               CHMR's toll-free hotline.
                                    At the State of Utah's Clean Water Celebration
                                   in  1992,  the  Utah Department of Environ-
                                   mental Quality introduced  the "Adopt-a-
                                   Waterbody"  program. The purpose of the
                                   program  is to educate the public  on water
                                   quality issues and to promote the stewardship of
                                   surface water  and groundwater resources. Any
                                   individual or group  may adopt  a public surface
                                   waterbody or groundwater resource in the State.
                                   The "adopter" chooses an education/information-
                                   oriented  project or a restoration/pollution
                                   prevention-oriented project  related to the
                                   "adoptee" waterbody. The Division of Water
                                   Quality  administers the  program  and is
                                   preparing a manual and bibliography to assist
                                   "adopters" with ideas for projects and contacts
                                   at participating agencies.


              & SAVE MONEY

  Leaking air conditioners from motor vehicles

contribute to global warming and acid rain. In

response to this problem  the  Iowa Waste

Reduction Center (IWRC) launched an education

campaign to inform car-owners of the effect their

vehicles have on the environment. The campaign

used billboards and public service announcements

to encourage car owners to invest in preventative

maintenance. Consumers discovered that while

protecting the environment,  they could also  save

money! For example, early  detection and servicing

of a leaking air conditioner reduces the amount of

ozone-destroying freon gas released in the air  and,

at the same time, saves the consumer the expense

of purchasing a new air-conditioning unit at a later

date. A follow-up study  conducted  by  IWRC

indicated that the education campaign had a

significant impact on consumer behavior in Iowa.

  In an effort to reduce the pollution generated by

the 3.5 million vehicles in the Washington  D.C.

area, the Metropolitan Council of Governments

has  initiated a campaign targeting vehicle

maintenance establishments.  The  council

documented the waste management practices

followed by both private and  publicly-operated

shops in the first phase of the project. To promote

the economic and environmental benefits of

sound management  of  waste products, the

Council plans to target educational materials to

the shops in Phase Two. The Council  itself,

consists  of local leaders from the District  and

surrounding municipalities  and  counties. As

pollution knows no borders, the PPIS grant

program encourages regional coordination to

address pollution problems.

                          REGULATORY INTEGRATION
                                  Pollution prevention does not take place in a vacuum.
                                Because pollution is omnipresent, we must consider the
                                effect of our actions on the environment. This rule
                                applies not only to businesses and consumers, but also to
                                government agencies. PPIS encourages government
                                agencies to integrate the pollution prevention ethic into
                                all areas of state environmental regulation.
                                  Pollution is easily transferred from one form to another.
                                An incinerator, for example, may ease the burden on a
                                local landfill by burning municipal waste. If the
                                incinerator burns certain materials, however, it will create
                                harmful dioxins, which pollute the  air. While the
                                incinerator may seem like  a good way to  reduce waste, in
                                reality, it may simply transfer the pollution from one
                                medium, the land, to another, the air. PPIS promotes the
                                integration of regulatory activities to minimize this type
                                of transfer of pollutants from one medium to another.
                                  To inhibit the transfer of pollution,  Massachusetts
                                developed a cross-media inspection  program that
                                incorporates pollution reduction requirements into
                                enforcement procedures. The State began  by conducting a
                                pilot program in the Blackstone River Valley. In the pilot
                                project, State agencies trained teams to inspect facilities in
                                air, water, and  hazardous waste compliance  while
                                providing pollution prevention technical  assistance at the
                                same time.  Since the approach was successful and cost-
                                effective  in  the  initial setting,   Massachusetts
                                institutionalized the approach in four regional offices.
                                The Blackstone Project received the 1991 Ford Foundation
                                award for innovation in state and local government.
                                  The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources  (DNR)
                                is integrating pollution prevention elements into its air,
                                water, and hazardous waste permit and compliance
                                programs. It hopes to demonstrate that  inspections and
                                permit writing, coordinated across air, water, and waste
                                programs in selected industries, will institutionalize
                                pollution prevention activities and avoid cross-media

shifts of pollutants. After selecting one to three industrial                               13.
categories  on which to focus,  DNR will evaluate
procedures for issuing permits, review of facility plans,
and inspections and determine how pollution prevention
techniques can be incorporated. For individual facilities,
DNR will write permits and coordinate inspections
among the  different programs to minimize pollution
across all media.  DNR will revise guidelines, admin-
istrative rules and procedures, based  on the  findings of
the project.
  Several grant recipients have implemented projects to
increase coordination of different  regulatory agencies. For
example, several local governments in California joined
together to demonstrate that regional  planning is an
effective pollution  prevention management tool. Another
state  agency,  the  Washington Department of Ecology,
has established a mechanism to increase communication
and coordination regarding pollution prevention among
governmental agencies and within the Department itself.
The agency has formed an inter-governmental committee
which  covers four regions of  the State to meet
periodically on pollution prevention. The agency has also
developed an intra-agency workgroup of employees in
each of the media programs.
  In  addition to promoting coordination among state
and local agencies, PPIS also supports the integration of
the pollution  prevention ethic into Indian tribal policy.
PPIS awarded a grant to the All-Indian Pueblo  Council
and  the University of New Mexico  to institutionalize
pollution  prevention in the Pueblo  Governments.  The
Pueblo leaders will designate program coordinators who
will be  trained in pollution prevention principles.  The
coordinators will work together to reduce pollution on
Pueblo lands.
   Problem:   Fragmentation and lack of communication among State and local
             agencies results in a shift of pollutants between media, rather than a
             net reduction of pollutants entering the environment.
   Solution:   Three counties in  California entered into joint venture entitled the  "Technical
             and Educational Assistance Model" (TEAM) Project. The objective of the alliance
             was to test strategies to integrate pollution prevention activities throughout the
             local  regulatory agencies in each region. The general strategies implemented by the
             TEAM Project included:
                   'Integrated training sessions for industry
                   ' Formal and informal cooperative agreements between State
                    and local agencies
                   • Integrated inspections
                   •Information dissemination
   Outcome:  All three counties found that enthusiastic support for pollution prevention
             issues brought environmental service agencies together to look beyond
             medium-specific interests and work together for a common purpose.

                           DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS
                                 EPA encourages states to initiate demonstration projects
                               that test and support innovative pollution prevention
                               approaches  and  methodologies.  The  funding  of
                               demonstration projects allows EPA and the states to learn
                               how new initiatives will work — before business  or
                               Government  invests a significant amount of time and
                               resources. To  ensure continuous quality improvement in
                               source reduction capabilities, it is essential that EPA foster
                               the development of pollution prevention technologies
                               and management strategies.
                                 PPIS supports demonstration projects in a variety of
                               areas. Some  of the areas tested include: alternative
                               pollution prevention technologies, community waste
                               reduction and recycling programs, and management
                               approaches to reduce pollution in specific industries.
            In order for recycling to work, institutional barriers must be identified and
          overcome, and demand for recycled materials must exist. Delaware's Green
          Industries Initiative was established to foster market development of recycled
          materials. Delaware offers financial and technical assistance to companies that
          use recycled materials in their manufacturing processes; process, collect and
          distribute recyclable materials; or significantly reduce waste generation.
          Financial assistance includes significant corporate income tax credits and low
          interest loans  to qualifying small businesses. This is the first initiative in the
          country to combine incentives for job creation and pollution prevention.

  PPIS supports the testing of new technologies both in
the laboratory and in the field. Nevada, for example, is
studying alternatives to the  current mining process  of
analyzing the gold and silver  content of ore. The
current process, fire assay, wastes lead and contaminates
the final refuse. Researchers  have  conducted a  literature
review of techniques which do not use lead and are now
examining these  alternatives in the laboratory. Initial
research indicates promising results for non-polluting
alternatives to fire assay.
  The  Mississippi  Technical Assistance  Program
(MISSTAP) demonstrated the feasibility of a new source
reduction technology designed  to recover valuable
materials from chemical waste. The program targeted a
chemical company that is currently losing significant
amounts of marketable products  as a result of the 3.8
million pounds of waste it incinerates. The study found
that implementing the new technology would reduce the
amount  of waste by over 40 percent.  The recovered
products are worth $1.6 million per year.  In addition, the
technology creates a valuable chemical by-product.  Using
the technique over a one year period would  generate
more than $600,000. Adopting pollution prevention
approaches would increase total revenue by an estimated
$2.2 million per year.
  PPIS requires that all grant supported  pollution
prevention programs address the  transfer of potentially
harmful  pollutants across all environmental media: air,
water, and land. Comprehensive and coordinated pollution
prevention planning and implementation efforts raise the
likelihood that pollution prevention measures in one
medium will not adversely affect another.
  The Missouri Department of Natural Resources has
teamed up with the Tennessee Valley Authority to help
agrichemical dealerships reduce or  prevent pollution. The
agricultural business community comprises one of
Missouri's leading industries. As a major industry, and
because  of the nature of the food production, agriculture
makes a significant environmental impact on this mostly
rural state. A major component of the joint-effort is a
demonstration project at a bulk fertilizer and  pesticide
dealership. The project will identify areas where changes
in business practices could substantially reduce or
prevent pollution of the environment  in the areas of
solid and hazardous waste, wastewater, storm water and
air quality.  It is  anticipated that this  demonstration
project will have  widespread applications in dealerships
across Missouri.
  A MISSTAP demon-
stration project found
that implementing a
new source reduction
technology would reduce
the targeted company's
waste by over 40 percent
and would increase total
revenue by an estimated
$2.2 million per year.

  Mississippi Technical
  Assistance Program

                           LEGISLATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE
                                 One of the most striking aspects of state pollution
                               prevention efforts is how much legislative change has
                               taken place over the past few years. Before 1985, there
                               was only one state law that dealt with any aspect of
                               pollution prevention. Today, over half of the states have
                               enacted pollution prevention legislation.
                                 Many states now have more than one waste reduction
                               or pollution  prevention law. In some  cases,  the state
                               statute  is stricter than federal law. Massachusetts, for
                               example, set a goal of 50 percent reduction in the use of
                               toxins by 1997 when it enacted its Toxins Use Reduction
                               Act in 1989.
                                 Individual pollution prevention laws vary in scope.
                               Some of the  state laws establish numerical pollution
                               reduction goals. Maine, for example, set a goal of a 10
                               percent reduction by 1993, 20 percent by 1995,  and 30
                               percent by  1997. Some laws focus on a  specific form of
                               pollution, such as hazardous waste. If this is the case, the
                               law will often exclude activities that transfer pollutants
                               from one medium to  another. Other states enacted
                               comprehensive multi-media approaches to pollution
                               prevention. Activities mandated may include  technical
                               assistance to business, facility  planning, information
                               centers and outreach, waste exchanges or training.  To
                               fund pollution prevention  programs, some states have
                               imposed a tax or  fee on hazardous waste generation or
                               solid waste disposal, or appropriated money  from the
                               state's general fund.
                                 New Jersey's Pollution  Prevention Act is designed to
                               help the environment, but also to help the State develop
                               a competitive edge, by building robust businesses able to
                               maintain a healthy work  force. New  Jersey requires
                               facilities to develop a  pollution prevention plan and
                               report  certain facility-wide data. The  New Jersey
                               Department of Environmental Protection and Energy's

(DEPE) approach rests on the following premises:
        •  Pollution prevention usually saves money
           for businesses.
        •  Businesses will take advantage of pollution
           prevention when they are aware of it.
  DEPE seeks to build a framework  of  mandatory
pollution prevention planning. This planning allows
businesses to judge for themselves whether or not to
implement pollution prevention techniques. DEPE  plans
to measure the success of pollution prevention by facility-
wide reporting.
  Colorado's Pollution Prevention Act of  1992 establishes
pollution prevention as the environmental management
tool of choice and provides that pollution should be
prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible. To
support the prevention  approach the Act established a
Pollution Prevention Advisory Board as well as a cash
funding mechanism for the technical assistance program.
In response to the passage of the bill, the  Colorado
Association of  Commerce and Industry  (CACI)
commented,  "CACI was pleased to support a  non-
regulatory environmental effort that is a win-win for
business,  government, and  the public.  The success in
passing the bill shows that  government, the environ-
mental community, and business can work together in a
cooperative fashion to improve the environment."
  In addition to  enacting pollution prevention laws
and funding pollution prevention programs,  the  states
have demonstrated a commitment to  pollution
prevention by developing the necessary infrastructure to
support related activities.
  The Alabama Department of Environmental Management,
for example, established a public/private partnership to
allow private donations to support its technical assistance
program in addition to public funding. This structure, in
addition  to harnessing industrial support, will allow the
program to continue after federal funding  ceases.
  Other programs have developed  fees to guarantee
pollution  prevention programs.  Iowa, for  example,
increased its solid waste "tipping fees" to fund a revolving
low-interest loan program  to provide assistance to
businesses in adopting waste reduction technologies.
  In  sum,  pollution  prevention  laws,  funding,
and other infrastructure developments ensure that
pollution prevention activities will continue after federal
funding ceases.
  "CACI was pleased to
support a non-regulatory
environmental effort
that is a win-win for
business, government,
and the public. The
success in passing the
bill shows that
government, the
community, and
business can work
together in a cooperative
fashion to improve the

  Colorado Association
  of Commerce Industry

  "Enrolling in the
Green Star Program
helped us realize there
were changes we could
implement without a
great deal of cost or
effort. It was just a
matter of setting goals,
implementing them,
and evaluating our
progress. Not only is it
a responsible endeavor,
but there are economic
benefits for our
company as well.
  Sales Manager
  Asplund Supply
                            AWARDS AND RECOGNITION
  To honor businesses that have set a strong example in
practicing pollution prevention in day-to-day operations,
many states have established award and recognition
programs. These award programs offer incentives for
other businesses to improve operations to prevent or
reduce pollution.
  New Jersey began its annual "Governor's Award for
Outstanding Achievements in Pollution Prevention" in
1988. In 1991,  it received 37 applications from businesses
and community organizations for consideration for the
award. In addition to recognizing one large business and
two community organizations, New Jersey presented the
award to a Department of Environmental Protection and
Energy employee for her contribution to the state's source
reduction efforts.
  Alaska has enrolled  over 100 businesses in its "Green
Star Program". This  program is a forward-thinking,
pioneering effort  demonstrating  that  pollution
prevention and energy efficiency save money and attract
customers. Businesses that  enroll  in the Program receive
detailed recommendations for implementing Green Star
standards. They are invited to the various Green Star
workshops where they can share  ideas with other
businesses. Once the business implements the standards,
it may display  the Green Star Award and earn positive
publicity through a promotional campaign. Canadian
Airlines received a Green Star Award after reducing its per
passenger waste by 30 percent.

  Initially motivated by a desire to increase
employee pride and clean up the environment,
Canadian airlines embarked  on a pollution
prevention program. The airline soon recognized
an additional benefit from their program — real
cost savings! The airlines studied its operations
and identified three areas for improvement. First,
the company began to recover and reuse halon,
an ozone-depleting gas used for fire suppression.
This practice resulted in a 95 percent reduction
in use of virgin halon and will save the company
$40,000 per year. Canadian Airlines then reduced
the weight of its in-flight magazine by 15 percent
using lighter, recycled paper. Because  each
kilogram costs between  $30 and $60 per year in
fuel, this simple measure will save the company
over $100,000 each  year. In  addition, the
company began using  lighter aluminum cans
instead of steel cans for in-flight service, saving
$10,000 per year in fuel expenses.
  Although each of the measures seems simple in
concept, the pollution prevention program has
stimulated employee pride and loyalty,  saved
money, and brought public recognition  for a
commitment to environmental protection.

                           FOR MORE INFORMATION
                                EPA disseminates publications on pollution prevention
                              through a clearinghouse maintained at EPA Headquarters.
                              The Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse
                              (PPIC)  contains  documents on  general pollution
                              prevention strategies and industry-specific information.
                              Materials may be accessed by calling (202) 260-1023.
                               State Program Information
                                Regional EPA offices can provide more information on
                               PPIS and state pollution prevention programs. Please
                               contact the Pollution Prevention Coordinator in your
                               region of the  country listed on the back cover of this

CT, M\A, ME, NH,




IE, IN, Ml, MN,
OH, Wl






Pollution Prevention Coordinator
JFK Federal Building Room 2203
Boston, MA 02203
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10278
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
841 Chestnut Building
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
345 Courtland Street, NE
Atlanta, GA 30365
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
77 West Jackson Boulevard
Chicago, IE 60604-3590
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
1445 Ross Avenue
12th Floor, Suite 1200
Dallas, TX 75202
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 661 01
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2405
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 941 05
Pollution Prevention Coordinator
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 981 01









(206) 553-8579

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