United States
                             Environmental Protection
                            Pollution Prevention
                            and Toxics
              April 2000
                             Issue  6
                                                                   ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PURCHASING

                                                   JWOD  Initiates
                                                   Environmental  Mission
I                                    he federal government's Javits-Wagner-
                                    O'Day (JWOD) Program is proving that
                                    achieving environmental and social goals
                               simultaneously is possible. JWOD is "greening"
                               its program to make it easier for government
                               purchasers to adhere to the mandatory source
                               requirements of JWOD, UNICOR, and other
                               laws and to comply with Executive Order (EO)
                               13101 mandates that require "greener" procure-
                               ment. Nonprofit organizations associated with
                               the JWOD Program currently are reviewing their
                               products and interviewing their raw materials
                                                        < Continued on Page 3 >
                             PROFILE OF A PIONEER:
                             EPP  on  the  Islands

 Interview With the
 Federal Environmental

 Green Cleaning Products
 Outshine the Competition
 Governments Think
 Locally About
 New Ballot for ASTM
 Questionnaire Set  for
 JWOD Products Seek
 Green Seal's Approval
      Kent Bullard, maintenance
      mechanic supervisor at Channel
      Islands National Park in
California, likes to refer to himself as
the chief chili maker—trying out differ-
ent environmental purchasing recipes,
seeing what works, making changes,
and serving up a variety of satisfying
solutions. More specifically, Bullard has
been responsible for installing three
hybrid wind/solar, 64 photovoltaic (PV),
and several other solar thermal systems
at the park. In addition, he is leading
the push to purchase alternatively
fueled vehicles and to use green build-
ing materials in park projects. Bullard is
currently responsible for demonstrating
the use of 100 per-
cent vegetable oil-
based biodiesel
fuel to power the
park's marine
research vessel.
 Just off the coast
of Southern
California, Channel Islands National
Park  has been under Bullard's care for
more than 18 years. When he is not
designing or implementing PV systems
or supervising construction, mainte-
nance, and restoration of facilities at
the park, he is serving as Webmaster
of the park's Web site at . •
                             Printed on paper containing 80 percent deinked fiber, 60 percent postconsumer fiber, and 20 percent totally chlorine-free virgin fiber.

                         Excerpt  From  an  Interview With the
                         Federal  Environmental  Executive
 Fran McPoland, Federal
Environmental Executive
     The EPP Program recently had a
     chance to talk with Fran
     McPoland, Federal Environmental
Executive, about the federal govern-
ment's green purchasing efforts. For the
full text of this interview, please visit
the EPP Web site at .
  The federal government has a num-
ber of programs that fall under the
umbrella of "green purchasing." Can
you briefly describe the goals of each?
  Green purchasing encompasses so many
different activities—everything from  buy-
ing energy-efficient light bulbs to activities
under the Comprehensive Procurement
Guidelines (CPG) and EPP Programs. It
would be difficult to describe the unique
aspects of each program in a reasonable
amount of time. In most respects, howev-
er, we're moving in one direction—trying
to use the tax dollars that we are entrusted
with to conserve resources in both an eco-
nomically sound and environmentally effi-
cient manner.
  As the Federal Environmental
Executive, what is your role with
respect to these various programs?
  I've been described in many different
ways by many different people. Someone
at the Department of Defense once
described me as a cheerleader, and in
some respects that's not too far off. I see
my job as having two primary parts. The
first part involves urging and educating
the government, trying to increase green
purchasing throughout the federal gov-
ernment. The other part of my job is to
tell the world how well the government
is doing with its green purchasing efforts.
  Are there any interrelationships or over-
laps between the programs, or do you
see them more as independent entities?
  In some cases the programs compli-
ment each other better than others.  The
CPG and EPP programs have been work-
ing together to resolve some issues
between the regulatory requirements to
buy recycled and the need to examine
multiple environmental attributes. It's
been a little difficult, but I think we've
done a fairly good job. We've been hav-
ing meetings with one another because I
want to keep the dialogue moving.
Education is an important role of the
White House Task Force on Recycling,
and this effort includes conveying infor-
mation  on all of the different greening
programs. Our emphasis is on CPG and
EPP, but we will always include informa-
tion on the Federal Energy Management
Program's efforts, ENERGY STAR, and other
programs. Sometimes coordination can
be a bit difficult because some programs
report to agencies other than the Task
Force such as the Office of Management
and Budget, and some programs are
more proactive than others. We will con-
tinue working together, however, to
make sure inconsistencies between pro-
grams are minimized.
  What steps can be taken to increase
green purchasing throughout the fed-
eral government?
  Overall, I think you need two things.
You need someone from the top of the
organization or agency to agree that green
purchasing is important, and then you
need people at  the ground level who want
to get things done and have the authority
to do so. I think the Department of the
Interior (DOI) right now has a good com-
bination of people who are very commit-
ted and have the authority from their
management to make things happen.
Among other efforts, they're doing a pilot
project with biodegradable cafeteriaware
and a "green" custodial contract. DOI has
the support of Secretary Babbitt and has
empowered the staff to get things done. •

< Continued from Page 1 >
  What  Is JWOD?

        The Javits-Wagner-O'Day (JWOD) Program is a mandatory product and ser-
        vice source for all federal government offices. The JWOD Program  originat-
        ed with the Wagner-O'Day Act, passed in 1938, which required government
  agencies to purchase necessary products and services from nonprofit agencies
  employing people who were blind. Senator Jacob Javits spearheaded the drive to
  amend the act in 1972 to include people with other severe disabilities. The
  Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled is the
  government agency that administers the JWOD Program. The Committee desig-
  nated the National Industries for the Blind (NIB) and NISH (serving people with
  other severe disabilities) as "umbrella" organizations that provide technical assis-
  tance to community-based nonprofit organizations interested in obtaining federal
  contracts under the JWOD Program. As a result, the JWOD Program, together
  with NIB, NISH, and a variety of nonprofit organizations, serves more than  33,000
  employees across the United States, providing jobs and training opportunities for
  people who are blind or severely disabled. The unemployment  rate for people
  who are blind or have other severe disabilities is over 70 percent, even though
  studies show that when queried, most say they would prefer to work.
manufacturers and vendors in order to
document environmental attribute
claims. In cases where manufacturers
are unwilling or unable to provide docu-
mentation of their products' environ-
mental attributes, JWOD agencies will
look for alternative suppliers. JWOD
will determine whether the product
attributes are consistent with EO
requirements, particularly those of EO
13101, Greening the Government Through
Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal
Acquisition, which promotes the pur-
chase of recycled-content and environ-
mentally preferable products.
  For example, Signature Works of
Hazelhurst, Mississippi,  has been work-
ing in partnership with private industry
for more than a decade to develop
biobased cutlery composed of corn
starch or other  biodegradable materials.
Clovernook Center for the Blind of
Memphis, Tennessee, has developed a
biodegradable paper cup. Initially
developed for the United States Navy.
this product is available to any federal
consumer. Also, Greensboro Industries
of the Blind of Greensboro, North
Carolina, furnishes a clipboard made of
90 percent postconsumer recycled
paper and 100 percent recycled plastic.
and ink pens manufactured from
biodegradable corn starch.
  According to Lee Wilson, executive
director of the Committee for Purchase
From People Who Are Blind or Severely
Disabled, "The 'greening' of the JWOD
Program is one way to assure our feder-
al customers that, to the highest degree
possible, JWOD is synonymous with
protecting the environment.  It seems
fitting to help save our precious
resources while at the same time creat-
ing jobs for people with disabilities."
  For more information on JWOD's
efforts to comply with EO 13101
requirements, contact Joan Smith with
the JWOD Program at 703 603-0664 or
via e-mail at .
  (See p. 11 for a related article on
JWOD.) •
The EPP Update is highlighting
a variety of paper types that
EPA has determined to have
certain positive environmental
attributes. Read below to find
out about the paper choice
for this issue—New Life DP
100. Look to future issues of
the EPP Update to highlight
additional paper types.

New  Life for EPP

      This issue of the EPP
      Update  is printed
      on 100 percent
processed chlorine-free
(PCF) paper developed by
Rolland  Inc. Called New
Life DP 100, the paper is
bleached with  hydrogen
peroxide instead of chlo-
rine and  helps reduce the
amount of toxic dioxin
and other persistent
organic pollutants
released into the environ-
ment. In addition, it con-
tains 60 percent
postconsumer fiber. New
Life DP 100 is the first
product in Canada to earn
PCF certification by the
Chlorine  Free Products
Association.  For more
information on New Life
DP 100, call  Robert Boivin
at  800 363-1867.

                            Green   Cleaning   Products   Oi
The city of Santa
Monica, California,
estimates that its
green cleaning
product purchases
have  eliminated the
purchase of 3,200
pounds of hazardous
materials annually.
     By purchasing and using "green"
     cleaners, growing numbers of
     government and private sector
agencies are cleaning up the environ-
ment one dirty surface at a time.
Switching from traditional cleaning
products to biodegradable, low toxicity
or otherwise less harmful products can
dramatically improve the environmental
profile of routine cleaning activities with-
out sacrificing cleaning effectiveness. As
many users have discovered, using green
cleaners also can reduce costs and
improve employee productivity.
  Cleaning products present several
human health and environmental con-
cerns. Traditional cleaning products can
contain chemicals associated with can-
cer, reproductive disorders, respiratory
ailments, eye or skin irritation, and
other human health issues. They also
can include materials that can accumu-
late in the environment with potentially
harmful consequences, ozone-depleting
substances, and toxic materials that
adversely affect plant and animal life.
For example, Green Seal, a nonprofit
environmental standards organization,
estimates that cleaning products con-
tribute approximately 8 percent of total
nonvehicular volatile organic com-
pound (VOC) emissions, which con-
tribute to smog formation, degrade
plant growth, and can cause respiratory
distress in some people.
  Reducing these human health and
environmental impacts is an important
incentive for implementing an EPP clean-
ing products program.  The city of Santa
Monica, California, for example, esti-
mates that its green cleaning product
purchases have eliminated the purchase
of 3,200 pounds of hazardous materials
annually Other green cleaning product
purchasers such as the U.S. Department
of Interior; Ben & Jerry's; the city of
Richmond, California; King County,
Washington; the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts; and the states of Minnesota
and Vermont also have reduced their envi-
ronmental impacts by purchasing cleaning
products each has determined to be envi-
ronmentally preferable.
  Improving environmental perfor-
mance, however, is not the only advan-
tage practitioners are reporting. Some
also are reporting financial benefits. The
city of Santa Monica estimates that its
switch to green cleaning products saved
approximately 5 percent of annual
spending on cleaning products when
compared with the traditional products
it was purchasing. Perrigo, a mid-sized
company and the leading manufacturer
of generic and "store brand" pharmaceu-
ticals and personal care products, is sav-
ing more than $35,000 annually after
switching to green cleaning products.
  While part of the reported savings can
be attributed to some green cleaning
products being less expensive than the
traditional products, most of the report-
ed and anticipated savings appear to
result from new bulk purchasing  oppor-
tunities, reduced workers compensation
claims, and improved employee produc-
tivity. The National Park Service (NPS),
for example,
used to buy
more than

jtshine  the  Com
           130 different cleaning products, but
           switched to a family of products it con-
           siders to be more environmentally
           preferable. It now buys only 15 prod-
           ucts. Purchasing a smaller number of
           products allows NFS to buy them in
           greater volumes and at a bigger discount
           than purchasing small quantities  of a
           large number of different products.
             Janitorial contractors in the city of
           Richmond, California, are expecting the
           switch to green cleaning products to
           reduce worker compensation claims.
           According to a study conducted by a
           consultant to the city, a cleaning chemi-
           cal accident requiring medical treatment
           costs an average of  $615  per incident,
           excluding long-term disability costs.
           The study also reveals that 1 out of
           every 100 janitors have reported work-
           related injuries attributable to the clean-
           ing products being  used. The project
           team believes the actual number of inci-
           dents, however, is 6 injuries per  100
           janitors because many people are reluc-
           tant to report injuries fearing discipli-
           nary measures.
             By switching to less toxic cleaning
           products, contractors in Richmond are
           expecting to reduce the number of inci-
           dents, the severity of any incidents, and
           the cost per incident. The contractors
           anticipate that worker compensation
           insurance costs might decrease because
           the insurance premiums are based on
           the number and severity of the claims. In
           addition, if the contractors make all the
           potential changes available to them,
their use of hazardous materials will
decrease by 3,000 pounds per year.
  Finally, several purchasers have noted
that the lower VOC content and
reduced toxicity of green cleaning prod-
ucts help improve overall indoor air
quality. This  affects all employees, not
just the janitorial staff, and could have
considerable impacts on employee pro-
ductivity, absenteeism, and the general
well-being of building occupants. Some
studies have  suggested that improving
indoor air quality can improve overall
productivity  by more  than 8 percent.
Since labor costs are typically the
largest cost for most organizations,
small increases in productivity can
result in substantial savings.
  As these green pioneers have contin-
ued to demonstrate, purchasing
cleaning products with reduced envi-
ronmental impacts has significant
advantages. From improving environ-
mental performance to saving money,
green cleaning products can outshine
the competition.*
For additional information
on environmentally preferable
cleaners, contact Jim Darr of
EPA at 
or Eun-Sook Goidel of EPA at
. In
addition, the following infor-
mation can be accessed via the
EPP Web site at :
• An extensive list of EPP
  cleaning product resources.
• A list of environmental attrib-
  utes some organizations con-
  sider when selecting a
  cleaning product.
• Yellowstone National Park's
  list of cleaning product
  chemicals and ingredients
  to avoid.

                          Governments  Think  Locally  Abo
EPP Starter Kit
Interested in imple-
menting a state or
local environmental
purchasing program
but not sure where to
begin? Help has
arrived! The National
Association of
Counties (NACo) just
released its EPP Starter
Kit, which includes pro-
gram implementation
strategies, case stud-
ies, model resolutions,
and a resource list. To
obtain a copy, contact
NACo's Publications
Department at 202
942-4256 or visit the
NACo Web site at
. The
kit is free to NACo
members and  $10 for
      According to the National Association
      of Counties, state and local govern-
      ments purchase more than $1 tril-
lion in goods and services each year. By
purchasing products they deem environ-
mentally preferable, these organizations
not only reduce their impact on the envi-
ronment, but also strengthen markets for
these products. Currently, there are a num-
ber of state and local governments at the
forefront of environmental purchasing.
This article chronicles three of them: the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts; King
County, Washington;  and Santa Monica,
California. A future EPP case study will
highlight a much wider variety of state and
local EPP efforts. (See sidebar at right.)
Making a  Difference in
  The Commonwealth of
Massachusetts formally
established its buy-recycled program in
1988 and more than 10 years later it is
stronger than ever. In addition,
Massachusetts recently began awarding
product and service contracts that take into
account multiple environmental attributes.
In 1998, for example, the state selected five
product lines for environmentally prefer-
able cleaning products. The specifications
for this contract included mandatory
requirements banning carcinogens and
ozone-depleting chemicals and establishing
strict volatile organic compound (VOC)
and phosphate limits. Voluntary environ-
mental performance criteria for which
companies were awarded additional con-
sideration included reduced skin and eye
irritability, biodegradability further reduc-
tions in VOC levels, low pH levels, and
reduced packaging. Massachusetts also has
established multiple environmental
attribute specifications for carpeting (recy-
cled content and reduced VOC levels),
motor oils (re-refined and biobased), and
computers (recycled content, recyclability
energy efficiency, and reduced cadmium
and mercury). In fiscal year 1999, the
Commonwealth spent $42 million on recy-
cled products and had in place more than
two dozen contracts with hundreds of
products that incorporate a variety of envi-
ronmental attributes.

Environmental "Can  Do"
in King County
  Across the country, King
County, Washington, is well
known for its environmental
purchasing goals. In 1989, the King
County Council passed a recycled product
procurement ordinance requiring all agen-
cies to buy recycled "whenever practica-
ble." After achieving great success in its
buy-recycled efforts, the county revised its
policy in  1995  to incorporate the purchase
of additional environmental products,
including those with multiple attributes.
Rather than centralizing purchasing or
using  an executive mandate, the King
County Procurement Services Division
decided the best way to institute environ-
mental purchasing was through a compre-
hensive educational program that trains all
users on how to incorporate environmen-
tal considerations into their purchasing
decisions. The division built a network of
departmental liaisons and an internal
communication process to distribute rele-
vant information, such as product success-
es and failures, to the many individuals
that make purchasing decisions.
  The county is focusing on refining its
cleaning product contracts to further reduce
their environmental impacts. The Roads
Division also is researching the use of plastic
lumber for a major wetland trail and for
beachside road projects. Not only is plastic
lumber made from recycled materials, but it
also eliminates the need for chemically treat-
ed lumber and requires less maintenance.

ut  Environmental   Purchasing
       Santa Monica Comes Clean
                In the oceanside community of
                Santa Monica, California, envi-
        Y \    ronmental purchasing has been
             \  the standard practice for many
            'l  *  years. Using existing procure-
                ment procedures, Santa Monica
       was able to switch to products it deems
       environmentally preferable without plac-
       ing an extra burden on staff.
        In 1993, the city developed environ-
       mental purchasing criteria for janitorial
       products as the first phase of the city's
       Toxics Use Reduction Program. Results of
       an alternative cleaners pilot contributed to
       the development of bid specifications,
       which included environmental and public
       health criteria as well as performance and
       cost criteria. Recognizing that EPP is an
       ongoing process, Santa Monica updated
       the bid specifications for custodial prod-
       ucts in 1998 to allow the city to better
       measure the overall worker health and
       environmental impacts associated with
       their use. The city now analyzes 18 prod-
       uct categories based on pass/fail  and rela-
       tive ranking criteria. Under the mandatory
       criteria, the city prohibits carcinogens,
       aerosols, ozone-depleting chemicals, and
Toxic Release Inventory chemicals. It also
sets strict standards for VOCs and
biodegradability Other considerations,
such as dyes, fragrances, product packag-
ing, and aquatic toxicity are evaluated on
a relative scale. The city's thorough evalua-
tion of alternative cleaning products has
served as a nationwide model for other
state and local governments.
  In other EPP news, in June 1999,  the
city began purchasing 100 percent
renewable electricity for all its facilities.
The first municipality to do so, Santa
Monica is purchasing its "green" power
from geothermal plants. A projection
based on the city's 1998 energy consump-
tion indicates the switch to 100 percent
renewable energy will reduce greenhouse
gas emissions by 13,672 tons, NOX emis-
sions by 16.2 tons, and SOX emissions by
14.57 tons annually.
  Santa Monica also uses an integrated
pest management system to reduce the
application of traditional pesticides. It
also purchases a large number of recy-
cled-content products; alternative prod-
ucts for its fleet maintenance, including
re-refined oil and water-based cleaners;
and alternative fuel vehicles. •
        For more information on the local and state governments highlighted in this article,
        contact the following individuals:
         Commonwealth of Massachusetts:
         Eric Friedman, 617 720-3351
         King County, Washington:
         Eric Nelson, 206 296-4324
Santa Monica, California:
Sandy Schubert, 310 458-2255

The EPP Program has published full case
studies on the Massachusetts and Santa
Monica environmental purchasing pro-
grams. To view PDF versions of these
case studies, go to .
Recruiting State
and Local
The EPP program is
preparing a case study
outlining the environ-
mental purchasing
efforts of state and
local governments.
Because so much has
been written about
recycled-content and
energy-efficient purchas-
ing, this case study will
not emphasize those
types of important pur-
chases. Instead the case
study will focus on state
and local governments
that examine multiple
environmental attributes
when making purchas-
ing decisions, including
low-toxicity, low-VOCs,
resource efficiency,
reusability, and
increased durability, as
well as recycled content
and energy efficiency.
If you know of a state
or local government pio-
neer that should be
interviewed for this case
study, please contact
Julie Shannon at

                   New  Ballot for ASTM  Sustainability

                   Questionnaire  Set for April

                        /so EPP Update #5 [EPA742-N-99-002], September 1999, for a previous
                     r'c/e on the ASTM and EPP sustainabi/ity questionnaire.)
                           embers of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) strongly
                           endorsed the first draft of a standardized sustainable buildings product
                           questionnaire during a recent vote. The questionnaire asks manufacturers
                   and vendors about the environmental attributes of their construction products and
                   services. While the questionnaire did not earn the required 100 percent consensus
                   vote, Ruth Heikkinen, EPP Program staffer and EPAs representative on the ASTM
                   Subcommittee on Sustainability (Committee E06.71), is pleased with the 80 percent
                   positive vote received. "Standards take a long time to develop. To get such a favorable
                   reaction on a first vote is gratifying," Heikkinen commented. As a result of the vote,
                   the standard questionnaire developed by ASTM and EPAs EPP Program is one step
                   further to being formally approved.
                     Once passed, the questionnaire can be used to gather environmental information
                   about building products and services. This information will help create industry stan-
                   dards for sustainable building design and construction.
                     Before the next vote, due to be held this month, EPA and ASTM will work to
                   improve the questionnaire based on the comments received from voters. People
                   interested in developing this standard or participating in future ballots can become
                   members of ASTM's Committee E06.71 by visiting the ASTM Web site at
                     To learn more about the Sustainability in buildings standards, contact Dru
                   Meadows, chair of the ASTM Sustainability Subcommittee, at 918 599-7567 or
                   , or Ruth Heikkinen or Lena Ferris with EPA's EPP
                   Program. Ruth can be reached at 202 260-1803 or  and
                   Lena at 202 260-2237 or  . •
National Sanitation Foundation—

Setting  a  Standard

      National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International recently notified the
      American National Standards Institute that it would explore the feasibility
      of developing environmental standards for several product categories, pos-
sibly including carpets, adhesives, paints, lubricants, soaps, detergents, and clean-
ers. Other categories also are under consideration. NSF currently is meeting with
industry representatives to determine which industries and products would bene-
fit from development of environmental standards.
  "We want to discover whether or not there is sufficient interest for NSF to write
standards  for product categories," explained Andrea Jensen, Director of Standards for NSE
  For more information on NSF standards visit the foundation's Web site at . Also look to
future issues of EPP Update for more news on projects related to environmental standards development. •

Hospitals  for a  Healthy
fSee also EPP Update #4 [EPA742-N-99-001], March 1999, for a previous article on
EPP in hospitals.)
     EPP might soon be standard operating procedure in medical institutions across
     the country. EPA and the American Hospital Association (AHA) are forging
     ahead with their partnership to spread the EPP message throughout the med-
ical community. AHAs EPP workgroup will soon release a new Web-based EPP
"How-To Guide" for hospitals.
  The guide, which is currently available at .
documents the process of setting up an EPP team in a hospital and covers key topics
such as how to implement the following:
•  Define the goals and objectives of an EPP team
•  Work and negotiate with Group Purchasing Organizations
•  Create a preferred vendors program
•  Meet the educational needs of hospital personnel on EPP issues
•  Locate EPP-related resources specifically for hospitals
  In addition to incorporating the plan's information into hospital education curric-
ula, EPA and AHA plan to sponsor training sessions across the country, teaching
hospitals how to save money and reduce liability through EPP and other efforts. The
EPP workgroup consists of local, state, and federal environmental agencies; commu-
nity-based advocacy groups; hospital health care, procurement, and environmental
services staff; and group purchasing representatives.
  The EPP workgroup is one of 12 established after EPA and AHA joined forces in
1998 to eliminate the health care industry's mercury-containing waste by 2005 and
reach a 50 percent total hospital waste reduction by 2010. These joint environmental
efforts recently garnered the Office of the Vice President's Hammer Award for excel-
lence in reinventing government. Other ongoing
projects of the workgroup include developing a
Web site to help hospitals reach their waste
reduction goals, conducting a comprehensive
survey of hospital waste management practices.
and creating a model plan for mercury and eth-
ylene oxide elimination. For more information.
please contact EPA's Chris Kent at 202 260-3480
or AHAs Kathy Svedman at 312 422-3861. •
Improving the
Preferability of
the EPP Update
While the EPP Update
is printed on paper
with positive environ-
mental attributes—this
postconsumer recycle
content (see page 3)—
we are continually
looking for ways to
make additional
we deliver EPP news
to you. Each month
the EPP Update also is
published online as a
PDF file on the EPP
Web site . If you
would prefer to read
the EPP Update online
copy, please e-mail
Instead of mailing you
the next Update, we
will e-mail you with
the exact Web site

        EPP  Sets the  Standard  for Copiers
      Federal agencies are
      always looking for ways
      to cut costs. One recent
      trend is the switch to
      cost-per-copy service
      contracts. In a cost-per-
      copy service contract,
      agencies purchase pho-
      tocopier services rather
      than purchasing the
      For more information on
      cost-per-copy service
      contracts and their envi-
      ronmental benefits, visit
      the EPP Promising
      Practices Guide on the
      EPP Web site at
(See a/so EPP Update #4 [EPA742-N-99-
001], March  1999,  for a previous article
on the Copier Pilot Project.)
      The EPP Program has been working
      with EPA contracts staff to incor-
      porate environmental considera-
tions into the procurement of several
photocopier machines. The EPP team
conducted four "mini-pilot" procure-
ments using a set of environmental
requirements and preferences it had pre-
viously developed.  The response from
vendors was low for each of the four sep-
arate solicitations, but this could be
because each procurement was for only a
single photocopier. The EPP Program
believes bulk or cooperative purchases
will generate higher interest from vendors
and is anxious to test its new approach in
these larger procurement settings.
  As part of its  efforts, the EPP Program
initially reviewed existing environmental
standards for photocopiers developed by
domestic labeling programs such as
EPA/DOE's ENERGY STAR Program, stan-
dards organizations such as Green Seal,
and labeling programs in other parts of
the world. Based on the review of these
standards, the EPP Program developed a
set of environmental requirements and
preferences to evaluate the photocopiers.
  EPA recently decentralized its photo-
copier purchasing process. As a result,
the EPP Program will have to work sep-
arately with individual program offices
throughout the Agency. Other federal
agencies might be better positioned to
incorporate the EPP photocopier
requirements and preferences if they
maintain a centralized purchasing
process for photocopiers. Centralized
purchasing may make it easier to apply
environmental purchasing policy
considerations to procurements. It also
may increase the size of procurements
and, therefore, the likelihood that ven-
dors and distributors will consider
environmental features an important
selling point.
  Many of the photocopier standards
the EPP Program reviewed are available
in the EPP Standards Database on the
EPP Web site  .
  For more information on EPAs photo-
copier pilot project, contact Russell
Clark at 202 260-4418 or
                     Requirements and Preferences for Copiers Used by  EPA
                     Required Attributes
                     •  ENERGY STAR compliant
                     •  Default duplex options
                     •  Returnable, recyclable, or remanufactured toner
                     •  Organic photoreceptor

                     Preferred Attributes
                     •  No wet process technology
                     •  Ozone emissions not exceeding 0.02 mg/m3
                     •  Dust emissions not exceeding 0.25 mg/m3
                                    Styrene emissions not exceeding 0.11 mg/m3
                                    No polybrominated biphenyls or diphenyl ethers
                                    Carcinogen-, mutagen-, and teratogen-free toner
                                    Company offers line of refurbished/recondi-
                                    tioned/remanufactured photocopiers
                                    Use of remanufactured parts in new photocopiers
                                    Materials made with recycled content in new
                                    Minimal  or returnable packaging
                                    Machine returnable for reconditioning or recy-
                                    cling at end of life

JWOD  Products  Seek  Green  Seal's Approval
     Soon it will be easier for government
     purchasers to identify the environ-
     mental attributes of products fur-
nished by Javits-Wagner-O'Day (JWOD)
Program nonprofit agencies. The JWOD
Program contracted with Green Seal, a
nonprofit environmental standards orga-
nization, as part of a product review pilot
project. Green Seal examined the environ-
mental attributes of selected JWOD-
manufactured items. Products that meet
Green Seal's established standards will dis-
play its seal. The seal is accompanied by
text explaining why the  product displays
the seal. The JWOD Program and Green
Seal believe the seal will facilitate the pur-
chase of products  that meet Executive
Order 13101 's purchasing mandate for
environmentally preferable products and
the goals of the JWOD Program, which
generates employment opportunities for
people who are blind or have other severe
disabilities. The JWOD Program is also a
mandatory source of products and ser-
vices for government purchases.
  JWOD selected the following prod-
ucts to be examined by Green Seal  for
this pilot project:
•  Paper towels.
•  Paper napkins.
•  Paper used to manufacture business
•  Paper used to manufacture organizer
   and calendar refills.
•  Paper used to manufacture desk pads.
•  All-purpose cleaner.
  JWOD chose these products because
they are common items that every gov-
ernment office purchases and because the
federal government already has devel-
oped environmental standards for these
products through programs such as the
Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines.
Green Seal has completed the manufac-
turing plant visits for several of the prod-
uct lines and has given its seal to the
following products:
•  Calendars produced by the Easter Seals
   of Western Pennsylvania, printed on
   paper from Pittsburgh Badger Paper.
•  Business cards produced  by Seattle
   Lighthouse for the Blind, printed on
   paper from Georgia Pacific.
•  Paper towels produced by Signature
   Works, EC Industries, and New
   Orleans Lighthouse for the Blind.
   made from paper manufactured by
   American Tissue.
  The calendar paper and business cards
were approved under Green Seal standard
GS-7, Environmental Standard for Printing
and Writing Paper, which states that the
product either contains 30 percent post-
consumer materials or is manufactured
using chlorine-free processes. The paper
towels were approved under Green Seal
standard GS-9, Environmental Standard for
Paper Towels and Paper Napkins, which
states that the fiber used to manufacture
the product contains 100 percent  recov-
ered material and at least 40 percent post-
consumer material. GS-9 also  requires the
product to be manufactured using chlo-
rine-free processing. In addition, both
standards dictate that the products' pack-
aging contains reduced toxics.
  Several manufacturers, upon discovery
that their product initially did not meet
the Green Seal certification standards,
voluntarily made changes in their mate-
rials and manufacturing practices. Easter
Seals of Western Pennsylvania, for exam-
ple, produces desk pads that it believed
complied with Green Seal standards, but
when Green Seal informed them the
product did not meet its certification
standards, the company willingly
changed the product to meet the stan-
dards. Green Seal plans to work with
manufacturers to bring additional prod-
ucts into compliance. •
For more information
on the JWOD pilot,
contact Joan Smith
with JWOD  at
703 603-0664 or
For more information
on Green Seal and its
standards, visit the
Green Seal Web site at

On  the  Horizon  in  EPP
       Over the past few years, the EPP Program has developed 10 in-depth case studies that discuss
       EPP practices and EPP success stories. All of these publications are available on the EPP Web site
       . The EPP Program continues to identify and highlight successful projects. In
the future, look for the following reports to come your way:
•  State and Local Government EPP Pioneers. Similar to the recent Private Sector Pioneers case study, this docu-
   ment will look at an impressive array of state and local governments that have made strides in incorporating
   EPP into their everyday activities.

•  Federal Government EPP Efforts. This case study will highlight more than 20 federal sector EPP efforts.
   including the Department of Transportation's Alternative Method for Aircraft Deicing and the U.S. Postal
   Service's "Green" Post Office.

•  Green Conferencing. This report will identify the factors to consider when incorporating EPP into conference
                          planning activities such as lodging, food services, transportation, buildings and
                          facilities, tradeshows and exhibitions, and communication and office practices. •
                           Check  It Out!
                            ^^•wo more tools are now available as part of the Greening Uncle Sam
                                Purchasing Tool Suite. The EPP Database and the Promising Practices
                                Guide for Greening Contracts are now online.  For descriptions of these
                            tools, see EPP Update Issue #5, September 1999. Check out both tools at
                            .  •
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