United States
                           Environmental Protection
     News and Notes
 •JLS.-Mexico Conference, plus
  ~eu> rules and reports
     In the Business World
        i industry: metal
 J,nishing, aviation, auto
 jjjiHinting, and more

     Green Lights
 ijlbe program continues '•
 |o light.the way .
     TRI/RTK Conference
 Deports on TRI successes
 from the September
 TRI I RTK Conference
      Kyoto Produces

      ABCs of Pollution

"Read PPN q>n
  he Internet!
fchemLibPPN:       ,
                                      Office of Pollution
                                      Prevention and Toxics
                                      Washington, DC 20460
                 November-December 1997
                       EPA 742-N-97-005
                           Cleaner Cars Could Be a Reality in  1998
           Two of the leading automakers—
           General Motors Corp. and Ford
           Motor Co.—have announced that
      they can start manufacturing a new
      generation of 99 percent emissions-free
      "super-clean" cars in 1998. The automakers'
      announcements were made in December in
      support of EPA's National Low Emission
      Vehicle Program (NLEV),  a joint initiative
      with the auto industry, 13 northeast states
      comprising the Ozone Transport Commis-
      sion (OTC), and non-governmental organi-
      zations to make new cars up to 70 percent
      cleaner than cars currently on the road.
        Also in December, EPA issued a rule
      that finalized regulations for the NLEV
      Program. The rule outlined the legal
      framework under which auto manufactur-
      ers and Northeastern states can develop
      voluntary agreements for the production
      and sale of the new cleaner cars. It is now
      up to the OTC states and the auto manu-
 facturers to determine whether the
 program can go into effect. If an agree-
 ment between the states and auto manu-
 facturers can be reached, Ford and GM
 have agreed to start producing their new
 "clean" vehicles in 1998.
   The new "clean" cars envisioned by the
 two auto makers would have conventional
 internal combustion engines, but would be
 equipped with advanced catalytic convert-
 ers and electronic engine control systems
 to further reduce emissions of hydrocar-
 bons and nitrous oxide. The low-emission
 cars are designed to reduce smog and
 would help the United States to meet its
 targets for reducing emissions of green-
 house gases. Nitrous oxide, one of the
 tailpipe pollutants that would be almost
 eliminated in the new vehicles, is one of
 six gases covered in the Kyoto agreement
 on global climate change. (See Kyoto
 highlights on page 10.)
      Pollution Prevention Grants Awarded
        In October 1997, EPA's Office of Pollution
        Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) awarded
        approximately $4 million in grants to
     50 non-profit organizations under the
     Environmental Justice through Pollution
     Prevention (EJP2) program. The program
     supports local, regional, and national
     activities to prevent pollution in low
     income and/or minority communities and
     to foster cooperative efforts that engage
     communities, business, industry and
     government. Projects'funded under this
     year's program include a diverse collection
     of educational activities, training pro-
     grams, restoration projects and collabora-
     tive ventures. Information is on the
Internet at: www.epa.gov/opptintr/ejp2/
   OPPT also awarded another $5 million
in Pollution Prevention Incentives to
States (PPIS) grants to 48 states and one
Indian Tribe. The grants are intended to
help state and tribal governments sustain
existing programs and incorporate
pollution prevention into their environ-
mental strategies and service delivery
systems. Started in 1989, the PPIS grants
program has contributed to the develop-
ment of a broad range of state and tribal
outreach and training programs focused
on pollution prevention and providing
technical assistance to small and
medium-sized businesses.

2 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                       November-December 1997
 News & Notes
      In Memoriam
        This issue of
    Pollution Prevention
    News is dedicated to
       the memory of
   Ernestine Jones-Lewis
    who served as editor
   for the last six months.
      Ernestine's bright
      enthusiasm and
   dedication to her work
      made her such a
   pleasure to work with.
       We at EPA will
    sadly miss her ideas
    and contributions to
      this publication.
   Editorial Staff:
   Maureen Eichelberger,
   Gilah Langner
   Ann Fullerton
   Free Hand Press, Layout

   To be added to or removed
   from our mailing list, please
   Pollution Prevention News
   401 M Street SW
   Washington, DC 20460
   or fax to:
   Pollution Prevention News,
   or e-mail to:

   Printed with vegetable oil-based
      inks on 100% recycled paper
      (50% post-consumer).
 EPA and Mexico's Federal Attorney for
 Environmental Protection hosted "Envi-
 ronmental Compliance in North America:
 A Conference for Key U.S. and Mexican
 Industry Sectors" on September 25-26 in
 Washington, D.C. The conference exam-
 ined current U.S.-Mexican cooperative
 efforts to enhance environmental compli-
 ance and enforcement under the U.S./
 Mexico Border XXI Environmental Frame-
 work and the NAFTA environmental side
    Discussion topics included Mexico's
 voluntary environmental auditing pro-
 grams and programs recognizing environ-
 mental excellence. Mexico's audit program
 includes the possibility of assessing  and
 implementing pollution prevention
 opportunities. Jose Luis Calderon,
 Mexico's Deputy Federal Attorney for
 Environmental Protection, challenged U.S.
 firms operating in Mexico to show leader-
 ship by participating in the auditing
• program. For more information, contact
I Lawrence Sperling, 202-564-7141.

I EPA has issued a final rule requiring
I pesticide manufacturers to disclose  more
j information about unreasonable adverse
1  effects of their products on human health
I  or the environment.
I    "In addition to information on adverse
|  health effects presently required," ex-
!  plained Lynn Goldman, EPA Assistant
!  Administrator for Prevention, Pesticides
1  and Toxic Substances, "the new reporting
I  rule requires pesticide manufacturers, for
I  the first time, to provide EPA with infor-
[  mation about pesticides found in food
!  above approved levels; pesticides detected
I in surface, ground, and drinking water
i above safety standards; newly identified
I types of ingredients which may be of
j toxicological or  environmental concern;
i specific details about incidents causing
1 adverse effects; and the occurrence of
products no longer effective because of
resistance developed by the pests."
  Published in the Federal Register on
September 19, 1997, the new reporting
requirements take effect nine months
later. A copy of the Federal Register notice
is available on the Internet at

An EPA report to Congress shows that
from 1970 to  1990 the public health
protection and environmental benefits of
the Clean Air Act (CAA) exceeded the costs
of its programs at least ten-fold. Using a
sophisticated array of computer models,
EPA found that by 1990, if the CAA had
not been enacted, 205,000 Americans
would have died prematurely, and millions
more would have suffered illnesses
ranging from mild to severe respiratory
problems such as heart disease, chronic
bronchitis and asthma attacks. In addi-
tion, the lack of controls on the use of
leaded gasoline would have resulted in a
 significant decrease in children's intelli-
 gence quotients, and a substantial in-
 crease in adult hypertension, heart
 disease, and stroke.
   From 1970 to 1990, EPA estimates that
 the benefits of CAA programs (including the
 value of avoiding premature mortality and
 morbidity) ranged from about $6 trillion to
 about $50 trillion, with an average benefit of
 about $22 trillion. By contrast, the actual
 costs of achieving the pollution reductions
 over the same 20 year period were estimated
 at about $525 billion.
    The peer-reviewed report is the first in
 a series of EPA cost/benefit reports  to
 Congress. The next study, already under
 development, will estimate the benefits
 and costs of programs implementing the
  1990 CAA Amendments. A summary of the
 report, "The Benefits and Costs of the
  Clean Air Act, 1970 to 1990," (October
  1997), can be downloaded from the Inter-
  net at www.epa.gov/oar/oario.html. For
  more information, contact Jim DeMocker
  at 202-260-8980.

 3 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                         November-December 1997
                                                                             In the Business World
 Metal  Finishing  Finishes First
   In October 1997, EPA Administrator
   Carol M. Browner visited a metal
   finishing facility in Providence, R.I.,
 to announce a milestone agreement for
 reinventing environmental regulation in
 the metal finishing industry. The agree-
 ment is the first reached by industry,
 community, and government leaders under
 the Common Sense Initiative (CSI), EPA's
 flagship program for developing more
 flexible industry-by-industry approaches
 to environmental protection as an alterna-
 tive to the one-size-fits-all, pollutant-by-
 pollutant approaches of the past. Browner
 was joined by U.S. Senators John Chafee
 (R-R.I.) and Jack Reed (D-R.I.) and U.S.
 Representatives Patrick Kennedy (D-R.I.)
 and Robert Weygand (D-R.I.) at the
 Victory Finishing Technologies, Inc. plant
 in South Providence.
   Under the agreement, known as the
 Metal Finishing Strategic Goals Program,
 metal finishers are committing to reduce
 pollution to levels below what is required
 by environmental laws nationally. The
 industry has agreed to several goals,

 ^- Cutting chemical releases, such as
   volatile organic compounds, by about
   three-fourths compared to 1992 levels
   — from more than 8,000 tons to 2,200
   tons to air and from about 250 tons to
   70 tons for water;
 >• Reducing metal releases, such as
   copper, by about 40 percent — from 60
   tons to 36 tons for air and from 173 tons
   to 104 tons for water;
 K Cutting hazardous sludge, now dis-
   posed in the land, by about 40 percent
  — from 500,000 tons to less than
  300,000 tons a year;
 > Cutting energy and water use at
  participating firms by 50 and 25
  percent, respectively; and,
> Ensuring an 80 percent participation
  rate by companies within the industry.

Commenting on the three-year process
that produced the agreement after nego-
 tiations among industry, federal, state and
 local government officials, environmental-
 ists and community leaders, Browner said,
 "I commend and thank the metal finishing
 industry for its leader-
 ship in developing this
 comprehensive pro-
 gram, leading the way
 for other industries to
   Launched by
 Browner in 1994 as
 part of the Clinton
 reinventing govern-
 ment effort, CSI uses a
 consensus approach to
 engage multiple
 stakeholders in looking at all aspects of an
 industry's performance. This approach
 leads to more flexible, cost-effective and
 environmentally-protective solutions.
 Morteover, by involving all stakeholders up
 front, CSI helps avoid challenges in court,
 ultimately paving the way for faster,
 cheaper results.
   Under today's agreement, EPA will
 provide top-performing metal finishing
 facilities with more flexibility within the
 current regulatory system. State and local
 governments will provide compliance and
 pollution prevention assistance, particu-
 larly in meeting wastewater pretreatment
 requirements under the Clean Water Act.
 Industry trade associations will promote
 the program and encourage participation
 among their members while environmental
 and public interest groups have pledged to
 publicly recognize participating firms for
 their environmental performance.
   Nationally, the metal finishing indus-
 try consists of 3,000 mostly small service
businesses and 8,000 "captive" metal
finishing operations within larger manu-
facturing plants. These operations
provide protective or decorative metal
coatings on a variety of consumer and
industrial parts and products — from
plumbing fixtures to computer hardware
to aeronautical components.
L to R: U.S. Representative Robert
Weygand (D-RI), John De Villars,
EPA Regional Administrator, U.S.
Senator John Chafee (R-RI), U.S.
Senator Jack Reed (D-RI), U.S. EPA
Administrator Carol Browner, and
Edward Marandola, Jr., President of
Victory Finishing Technologies,
during a tour of the plant.

4 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                      November-December 1997
 In the Business World
                             DfE Aviation Project Wins
                             EPA Environmental
                             Excellence Award
                             In August, the Experimental Aircraft
                             Association (EAA) was awarded EPA's
                             Environmental Excellence Award for a
                             demonstration project in which EAA
                             stripped and repainted a small aircraft
                             using all non-hazardous products with low
                             emissions of volatile organic compounds.
                             The project demonstrated that less toxic,
                             lower environmental-impact products can
                             be used in small aircraft maintenance and
                             refurbishing without increasing cost,
                             degrading performance, or damaging the
                             integrity of the aircraft.
                               The EAA demonstration grew out of
                             OPPTs joint DfE project with the U.S.
                             Coast Guard to identify alternatives to
                             methylene chloride in small aircraft paint
               stripping. The project began in 1994 when
               Ric Peri of the Coast Guard recognized that
               research undertaken on methylene chloride
               alternatives addressed only large military
               and commercial aircraft, and did not
               necessarily produce safe and economical
               solutions for single- and twin-engine, thin-
               skinned aircraft. OPPT joined the Coast
               Guard to fill the gap. Together they worked
               to identify viable solutions and get them
               accepted by EPA, the aviation industry, and
               the Federal Aviation Administration. EAA
               joined the project as a partner in 1995, and
               ran the demonstration project this year
               entirely at its own expense.
                  Although the project's technical report
               is in the process of being published, quiet
               results are already taking place. These
               include some product reformulations by
               specialty aviation paint and paint strip-
               ping product manufacturers.  In addition,

   Growing a Green  Business: Now

   You won't find this unique mix of businesses on just
   any website. GreenKeepers Phone Company, Hydrogen
   Powered Vehicle Project, Costa Rica EcoTourism
   Development, Plastics Recycling Venture, and Hawaii
   Eco-Estates are just a few of the ventures in the
   Sustainable Business Network's (SEN) new "Business
   Opportunities" section.
     "We've launched "Business Opportunities" to encour-
   age the growth of green businesses," explains Rona
   Fried, Executive Director of SEN. "Our role is to help
   green businesses find the resources they need to play a
   dominant role in this economy." The Business Opportu-
   nities section of the SEN site provides a forum for
   green companies that need investors, distributors,
   licensees, or want information on available RFPs to
   expand their business.
     GreenKeepers, a new long distance phone company, for
   example, donates a minimum of five percent of its revenue
   to rainforest reforestation. "We have battled the carriers
   for very low prices and we pass them on to our environ-
   mental allies. Our business objectives are wrapped around
   our environmental interests from the outset," explains
   Wayne Umbertis, GreenKeepers president.
     SBN covers a range of green business sectors, from
   recycling to building and construction, from social invest-
   ing to renewable energy. SBN is part of EnviroLink, an
Its Easier on the  Web

 Internet-based environmental information service, and can
 be accessed at www.envirolink.org/sbn.

 *• The Printed Wiring Board Resource Center
    (www.pwbrc.org) is the latest in a series of Compli-
    ance Assistance Centers to open its virtual doors.
    Each of the five Centers focuses on a different
    industry and is aimed at helping small businesses
    understand federal environmental regulations,
    improve their compliance, and implement pollution
    prevention technologies. The PWB Center is getting
    up and running with funding from EPA, in partner-
    ship with the National Center for Manufacturing
    Sciences and the Institute for Interconnecting and
    Packaging Electronic Circuits.

 >• The Virtual Technology Market (VTM) is a pilot
    Internet project of the  George Washington University
    to help researchers in particle technology and
    multiphase processes find solutions to technical
    problems that will improve efficiency, lower costs,
    reduce waste or pollution, or improve material utiliza-
    tion. Both problem statements and solutions can be
    submitted confidentially or the seeker and solver can
    be put in touch to work on the problem together. VTM
    is accessible at www.seas.gwu.edu/guest/vtm.

5 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                        November-December 1997
                                                                             In  the Business World
Ric Peri (himself a pilot, aircraft owner,
and aircraft mechanic) has gotten all the
players to the table. Through his efforts,
links among manufacturers, regulators,
aircraft owners, and maintenance facilities
are in place to get the alternative products
and processes accepted and incorporated
into aircraft maintenance manuals and
training courses.

U.S. Automakers Join
Forces for Cleaner Painting
Detroit's Big 3 automakers have joined
forces at a research facility inside a Ford
assembly plant in Wixom, Mich, to lever-
age their strengths in a most unexpected
way. Under the umbrella USCAE (United
States Council for Automotive Research)
organization, the automakers are manag-
ing a $20 million test facility to develop
environmentally-friendly powder paint.
The three automakers want to be able to
use powder paint as the shiny, "clear coat"
top layer of paint on new vehicles. Cur-
rently, powder paint is only used as a
primer coat (vehicle bodies have three
different paint coats: primer, color,  and
clear coat).
   "Since the 1960s, hydrocarbon emis-
sions from the domestic automakers' paint
processes at assembly plants have been
reduced by 80 percent," said Ernie
McLaughlin, Chrysler's lead representa-
tive to USCAR's paint consortium.
"Chrysler, Ford, and GM did this sepa-
rately. Now we're working together to
achieve further improvements quicker and
at a; lower cost."
   The USCAR powder paint facility aims
to reduce or  eliminate the ozone-forming
gases released into the atmosphere when
applying liquid-based
clear coat paint. Another
advantage of powder
paints: the over-spray can
be captured, filtered and
reconditioned, mixed  with
new powder  paint, and
applied to subsequent
vehicles coming down the
line,! By contrast, over-
spray from liquid paints
used in today's assembly
plants is collected and
hauled off to landfills.
   The USCAR prove-out
facility at Wixom approxi-
mates the conditions of a production line
but without the pressures of the assembly
plant. Automakers are still learning how
to handle tons of powder daily and figur-
ing out how to overcome other technical
         and economic hurdles. Many
         automotive assembly plants
         around the world already use
         powder paint for primer coats,
         but using powder paint for the
         clear coat is more difficult
         because it's the final layer
         applied to a vehicle and there-
         fore must provide a more
         lustrous and even more resil-
         ient surface than the primer
         coat. For more information,
         contact Chris  Terry, USCAR,
         248-223-9013  or access the
         USCAR website
Lincoln Town Car being sprayed by powder
clear coat paint in Wixom facility.
  Gary Christian of Chrysler,
    Tim March of Ford, and
   Brian Prylon of GM make
their mark on a Dodge Neon.

6 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                   November-December 1997
 Green Lights
 To reach Green Light/
 Energy Star:
  Tel: 1-888-782-7937
  Fax Back: 202-564-9659
                            After Six Years, Green Lights
                            Still  Growing  in  Strength
     Now in its sixth year, Green Lights® is
     stronger than ever. With over 2,400
     participants and a total of 1.9 billion
square feet of "Green Lightspace," 6.4
billion pounds of carbon dioxide are kept
out of the atmosphere annually — the
equivalent of removing the pollution from
640,000 cars. Participants, including
Fortune 500 companies, hospitals, small
businesses, manufacturers, universities,
and state and local governments, are
racking up savings on their electric bills at
a rate of more than $334 million annually
as a result of upgrading their lighting to
energy-efficient technologies.
   When EPA launched the Green Lights
Program in 1991, the goal was to create a
voluntary energy-efficient program that
identified opportunities for organiza-
tions to save money while also improv-
ing the environment. The response to
the program since its inception has
been overwhelming. Membership in
Green Lights has increased almost
ten-fold, making the program a
                                                                   model by which all other voluntary energy-
                                                                   efficiency programs are judged.
                                                                      Building on the success of Green Lights,
                                                                   EPA launched Energy Star Buildings in
                                                                   1995, a comprehensive energy-efficiency
                                                                   program for commercial and industrial
                                                                   buildings that maximizes energy savings
                                                                   associated with the entire building. The
                                                                   program takes advantage of system
                                                                   interactions through a five stage approach
                                                                   to reduce system inefficiencies. Since
                                                                   upgrading lighting is an important first
                                                                   step in improving building energy effi-
                                                                   ciency, Green Lights is the first stage of
                                                                   the Energy Star Buildings  Program.  Green
                                                                   Lights participants can now build on the
   Local Government Saves Taxpayer Dollars
   By Cutting Energy Consumption
   The City and County of Denver joined the Green Lights program in 1994. Since that
   time Denver has reduced its energy consumption by 24 million kilowatt-hours per
   year, saving more than $1.1 million in combined energy and maintenance costs.
     By participating in Green Lights, Denver has taken an aggressive approach
   to cut energy consumption, save taxpayer dollars, and improve the workplace.
   "We got involved in the Green Lights Program for a variety of reasons, but
   mainly because it fit our organizational philosophy," said Darryl Winer,
   Utilities Director for the City and County of Denver. "It is simply good
   government, and we are proud to lead by example."
     Denver has surveyed more than 14 million square feet and performed
   upgrades using electronic ballasts, T-8 fluorescents, and specular reflectors. In
   addition, Denver installed Energy Star compliant LED exit signs in all municipal
   buildings and use motion detection lighting for additional savings.
     In the future, with community assistance, the City and County of Denver plan to
   upgrade more of its buildings including hospitals, airports, libraries, police and fire
   stations, offices, and other public facilities.

7 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                        November-December 1997
                                                                                Green  Lights
work they have done and expand their
efforts to improve the performance of other
building components such as heating,
cooling, and ventilation systems. •
                                 Presented on these two pages are just a
                               few of the accomplishments of Green
                               Lights Partners.
months later        ^g an».ua *' nRv\ours 01 —
                                                                  The Green Grocer
                                                                  In 1990, Larry's Markets, a
                                                                  Seattle-based grocery with five
                                                                  stores, became a Green Lights
                                                                  Partner and began converting
                                                                  270,000 square feet of floorspace
                                                                  into Green Lightspace, saving
                                                                  more than two million kilowatt
                                                                  hours per year.
                                                                    The conversion entailed replac-
                                                                  ing incandescent lamps with
                                                                  compact fluorescents and convert-
                                                                  ing 40-watt T-12 lamps with
                                                                  standard magnetic ballasts to 32-
                                                                  watt T-8 lamps with electronic
                                                                  ballasts. Dimmers were installed
                                                                  to achieve optimum light levels
                                                                  along with timed controls to
                                                                  minimize energy used to light
                                                                  areas at night. Skylights were
                                                                  installed in some stores as a day
                                                                  lighting alternative. Lamps in
                                                                  refrigerated cases were replaced
                                                                  with reflectors allowing the cases
                                                                  to stay cool more efficiently. Since
                                                                  1990, energy saving lighting
                                                                  upgrades have been completed in
                                                                  four of the five stores.
                                                                    Through these efforts Larry's
                                                                  Markets save $75,000 annually on
                                                                  energy bills. To keep motivation
                                                                  high, the company also trains
                                                                  employees in energy efficiency and

8 Pollution Prevention News
                November-December 1997
 TRI Conference
                            Using TRI to  Make  a  Difference
                                 Tn years after Right-to-Know and its
                                 lagship TRI were created, EPA and
                                 ;he Unison Institute convened a
                            three-day "Toxics Release Inventory and
                            Right-to-Know Conference" in September
                            to assess its impact and explore its future
                            potential. The conference was organized
                            along two key questions: "How Can We
                            Use TRI to Make a Difference?" and "How
                            Can We Improve the Use of Right-to-Know
                            Information?" Sessions addressed a range
                            of topics including community needs, data
                            and integration issues, success stories, and
                            how TRI data can be used to prevent
                            pollution. Conference attendees included
                            representatives from a broad mix of
                            industry, government, and community
                            groups. Following is a sampling of reports
                            from several TRI fronts.

                            Printing  Company Eliminates
                            the Use of Sulfuric Acid
                              What do children's sheets, pot holders,
                            and party dresses have to do with TRI
                            chemicals? Cranston Print Works in
                            Webster, Massachusetts prepares, prints,
                            and finishes cotton and polyester/cotton
                            blend fabrics that are later used to manu-
                            facture all these along with a range of
                            other items. To achieve the brilliant colors
                            its customers demand, Cranston used
                            special dyes that require an acid treat-
                            ment within the printing process. Specifi-
                            cally, it used acetic acid and sulfuric acid —
                            two substances on the TRI list.
                              With the enactment of Massachusetts's
                            Toxics Use Reduction Act in 1989,
                            Cranston along with all other Massachu-
                            setts firms were required to report their
                            use in excess of a certain amount of any
                            of a list of toxic and hazardous chemicals
                            and pay a fee to the state. Driven in part
                            by the new legislation and in part by
                            their commitment to continuous process
                            improvement, Cranston staff began
                            working with the Massachusetts Office of
                            Technical Assistance for Toxics Use
                            Reduction on a three-pronged program to
reduce the company's reliance on acetic
and sulfuric acid. The program consisted
of in-process acid recycling, process
control charting, and carbon dioxide
treatment of waste water.
  The results have been dramatic.
Overall, Cranston has reduced its use of
TRI chemicals by more than 3 million
pounds per year since 1992. Specifically,
the substitution of carbon dioxide for
sulfuric acid in the treatment of alkaline
wastewater has eliminated the annual use
of 2.66 million pounds of sulfuric acid. In
addition, this substitution has reduced the
company's annual compliance costs by
more than $3,000.

Measurement Makes a
Difference in Massachusetts
  The state of Massachusetts is using
TRI data in combination with materials
accounting data required by its Toxic Use
Reduction Act (TURA) to track industry
trends in chemical use and waste man-
  Rich Bizzozero from the Massachusetts
Office of Technical Assistance for Toxic Use
Reduction, explained at the conference
how a review of Massachusetts TRI and
TURA data has revealed patterns in
process efficiencies within certain indus-
trial sectors. For example, comparing 1990
TRI and TURA data with 1995 data for the
electronics industry showed that although
chemical usage increased, by-product
waste generation decreased. In 1990 the
electronics industry used 30 million
pounds of chemicals and generated 13
million pounds of waste by-products. In
1995 the industry used 34 million pounds
of chemicals yet generated only 8.4 million
pounds of by-product waste. This overall
increase in the industry's ability to process
chemicals more efficiently implies that
effective pollution prevention programs
are being put in place.
  Massachusetts has also used TRI and
TURA data to identify the top five toxic

9 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                          November-December 1997
                                                                                        TRI Conference
chemicals used in Massachusetts and then
to target technical assistance and technol-
ogy transfer programs to alternatives for
these chemicals.

CBEs "Good Neighbor  Project"
  In Minnesota, Citizens for a Better
Environment (CBE) has been working
from a philosophy that protecting and
improving the environment is a shared
responsibility of business, labor, activists,
communities, academia, and government.
To this end, CBE initiated the "Good
Neighbor Project" to increase the effective-
ness of Minnesota's Toxic Pollution Pre-
vention Act (TPPA) and the federal
Community Right to Know Act.
  The project started in 1991 when CBE
compiled and published a 300-page report
called "Get to Enow Your Local Polluter."
The report used TRI data to profile neigh-
borhoods near 40 Minnesota facilities which
produce about 65 percent of the state's toxic
pollution. After publishing the report, CBE
set up meetings, or "good neighbor dia-
logues," between managers of companies
profiled in the report and residents in
neighborhoods affected by the pollution.
   So far, dialogues have resulted in eight
facilities operating in 21 communities
agreeing to work with local citizens. Two of
these plants — Crown Cork & Seal and
Smith Foundry — have signed agreements
with community groups committing to make
specific environmental improvements.
   In another "good neighbor agreement"
reached between the Sheldahl Corporation
and Northfield, Minnesota residents,
Sheldahl committed to eliminate its use of
methylene chloride over a 10-year period.
The company beat its deadlines without
job loss, erosion of tax base, or loss of
   To expand upon these efforts, in 1995
CBE joined with the Minnesota AFL-CIO
to create the Labor Environment Partner-
ship Project (LEPP). One of the project's
first goals was to assess the potential to
integrate pollution prevention strategies
into existing union facilities which report
under the Minnesota Toxic  Chemical
Release Inventory (TRI). CBE analyzed
the 1994 TRI data from 519 facilities
which reported releasing 24 million
pounds and managing 256 million pounds
of toxic chemicals. The findings showed
that unionized facilities comprised 35
percent of Minnesota's TRI facilities and
accounted for 59 percent of TRI chemicals
released into the environment.
  The analysis indicated that the unions
were an "untapped resource" for facilitat-
ing pollution prevention in general and
toxic use reduction, in particular. Unions
have a long history of working on health
and safety issues, often in cooperation
with industry at the plant level, and can
reach a substantial number of workers in
major TRI facilities.

Next: A Storecard
  Now that we have TRI data, how can
we use it? The Environmental Defense
Fund (EDF) is developing an Internet-
accessible database that will help the
public understand the impacts of toxic
chemicals. Dubbed the "Scorecard Project,"
the new database is designed to supple-
ment the raw environmental data cur-
rently available via TRI with information
nee;ded to characterize the public health
impact of pollution.
   "By interpreting the extensive amounts
of complex environmental data into terms
understandable by the general public, the
Scorecard Project should help increase
the political constituency for environmen-
tal protection," explained Ken Leiserson
of EDF.
   The project is being developed in
phases. Version 1.0 is scheduled to be
accessible on EDF's Web site (www.edf.org)
in mid-December. It will provide health
impacts interpretation of 1995 TRI toxic
releases; a map-based interface to TRI data
as a navigational tool for users to obtain
profiles of toxins in their neighborhood; a
chemical ranking system and chemical
group profiles; and action tools linking
EDF's Action Network e-mail/fax attach
system to relevant targets such as TRI
firms, local press, and regulatory agencies.
The Unison Institute can be
reached at 202-797-7200.
Conference proceedings will
be posted at www.rtk.net

 10 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                   November-December 1997
Highlights of
Kyoto Treaty
Excerpt from
Vice-President Gore's
Briefing on Kyoto
Treaty, Dec. 11, 1997
                            Kyoto Talks  Bring  Partial
                            Progress on  Global Warming
     Delegates to the widely covered Kyoto
     round of global climate change talks
     came away with a treaty requiring
industrialized nations to reduce green-
house gas emissions 6-8% below 1990
levels by the year 2012. The December 10,
1997 pact includes some of the key ele-
ments that the United States had sought,
including an agreement to use market
mechanisms, such as emissions trading
and joint implementation for credit, and
coverage of all six significant greenhouse
gases. The "second basket" of gases (HFCs,
PFCs, and SF6) have up to 20,000 times
the global warming potential, on a per ton
basis, as carbon dioxide.
  Falling short of the comprehensive
treaty that had been hoped for, the Kyoto
agreement did not include the type of
commitments by developing countries that
the U.S. Senate has called for in order to
ratify a global climate change treaty. The
                            Gore on  Kyoto
      [istory was made yesterday in Kyoto
      because, for the first time, the
      industrialized nations of the world
agreed to a binding and realistic frame-
work to deal with the enormous challenge
of global warming. Because of yesterday's
agreement, we can now begin to reduce
the forms of air pollution that cause
global warming. Our air and water here
at home will be cleaner, and our busi-
nesses will be more competitive in the
new global economy...
  The agreement will enhance growth and
create new incentives for the rapid develop-
ment of technologies through a system of
joint implementation and emissions
trading. It creates binding limits. It asks us
to do what we promised, not promise what
we cannot do. It is comprehensive, includ-
                                        role of developing countries, as well as
                                        details on how emissions trading will
                                        work, have been put off until next year's
                                        meeting in Buenos Aires.
                                          One bright sign was adoption of a
                                        Brazilian proposal for a new fund, the
                                        Clean Development Mechanism, to help
                                        the developing world obtain energy-
                                        saving technologies to combat global
                                        warming. Private-sector projects in
                                        developing countries that reduced
                                        emissions would generate carbon  credits
                                        that could be sold to a special interna-
                                        tional body. These credits could then be
                                        bought by developed nations to meet
                                        their own reduction targets. A share of
                                        the proceeds from certified project
                                        activities would be used to assist  devel-
                                        oping countries that are particularly
                                        vulnerable to the adverse affects of
                                        climate change — such as small island
                                        states — meet the costs of adaptation.
ing all six greenhouse gases...It's also based
on the specific timeline that we proposed.
And it will create a level playing field for
American industry.
  Although Kyoto is indeed an important
turning point, everybody understands we
still have a lot of hard work ahead of us.
In many ways, this is just beginning. We
still have to press for meaningful partici-
pation by key developing nations.... We
will not submit this agreement for
ratification until key developing nations
participate in this effort. This is a global
problem that will require a global solu-
tion. But I am confident that with the
framework achieved in Kyoto and the
continued negotiations with the develop-
ing world begun there, we will be able to
meet this test."

11 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                    November-December 1997
                                                                ABGs of Pollution Prevention
ABCs  of Pollution  Prevention
for Small Businesses
By Lois Epstein, Environmental Defense Fund
Avoid chlorinated organic solvents, cyanide compounds, and petroleum-based compounds
   when water-based substitutes exist
Buy drainboards and drip pans to enhance drip reuse in process baths
Choose closed-loop (i.e., fully enclosed) recycling designs to reduce wastes and worker exposures
Decrease the frequency of painting and paint removal to minimal levels
Ensure a neat work environment to prevent spills of toxic chemicals
Foster a regular program of pollution prevention planning and auditing
Give employees incentives to find new pollution prevention ideas
Have and use covers for all containers holding fluids that evaporate
Instruct employees in pollution prevention
Just use storage tanks with secondary containment (i.e., double-walled tanks and a
   barrier around loading/unloading areas)
ICeep track of toxic chemical inventories to ensure fewer containers on-site, thus
   minimizing spills, spoilage, and evaporation
Label containers to prevent mistakes that could rqsult in wastes requiring disposal
Monitor and maintain the appropriate temperature for heated materials
Never allow leaks to persist
Only use sprays when absolutely necessary, since they waste chemicals through
   dispersion (e.g., paint overspray)
Preclean parts with physical methods (e.g., squeegees, rags) before using solvents
Quit disposing of baths without checking bath quality, and restore quality through the
   use of non-toxic additives
Reformulate or redesign products so fewer toxic chemicals are used in production processes
Select continuous rather than batch processes whenever possible, to avoid start-up wastes
Try redesigning processes so they require fewer toxic chemicals
Use machines where toxicity concerns exist and process precision would reduce wastes
   significantly (e.g., paint spraying)
Varnish and other coatings that are not essential should be avoided
Wash parts only when absolutely necessary
Xerox double-sided as often as possible
Vield maximization is one goal, and            '
Zero waste is the other goal.
Reprinted with permission
of Environmental Defense
Fund Worldwide,

 12 Pollution Prevention News
                                                                                      September-October 1997
March 1 -5 Waste Management '98
Tueon, AZ
University of AZ
WM Symposia, Inc. http://www.wmsym.org
Tel: 520-624-8573
Fax: 520-792-3993
March 9-10 GEMI'98
Arlington, VA
Global Environmental
Management Initiative
JT&A, Inc.
Tel: 703-51 9-21 80
April 1 3 Sixth Annual New Hampshire
Durham, NH Pollution Prevention Conference
April 1 5-1 7 Second American
Arlington, VA Wetlands Month Conference
April 28-30 Source Water Protection
Dallas, TX International '98
April 28-Mayl P2 Cincinnati '98
Cincinnati, OH
May 1 1 -1 3 6* Annual North American
Miami Beach, FL Wnste-to-Energy Conference
May 11-13 20* National Industrial Energy
Houston, TX Technology Conference '98
June 13-1 8 SOIAR98
Alburquerque, HM
June 14-19 Air & Waste Management Assoc.
San Diego, CA 91" Annual Meeting & Exhibition
August 23-28 1 998 ACEEE Summer
Pacific Grove, CA Study on Energy Efficiency
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United States Environmental
Protection Agency (MC7409)
Washington, DC 20460
Official Business
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Terrene Institute
EPA, U.S. Geological Survey
National P2 Rountable
American Solar Energy Society,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
New Mexico Solar Energy Association,
American Institute of Architects

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