A cooperative project
     between the U.S.
     Protection Agency
     and Industry
     April 2001
     EPA 744-F-01-002
    An Integrated Environmental
    Management System (IEMS) com-
    bines continuous improvement man-
    agement tools and principles with
    proven environmental assessment
    methodologies  including risk and
    substitutes assessment and full-cost
    accounting.  IEMSs assist compa-
    nies in making sound environmental
    decisions as part of daily business
    practices. As a result, an IEMS can
    help a company to
    Q   reduce cross-media impacts,
    Q   use energy and other
        resources efficiently,
    Q   better manage the risk associ-
        ated with using hazardous
        chemicals (both regulated and
    Q   practice extended product and
        process responsibility, and
    Q   integrate environmental and
        worker safety and health
                           Environmental Management System Case Study 1
Using an Integrated Environmental Management
System (IEMS) to Manage Environmental Concerns
   Questions on managing your company's environmental concerns?
   One company found some answers by developing an IEMS.

Gillespie Decals, Inc. is a small screen printing company with about 40 employ-
ees, located in Wilsonville, OR. The company, founded in 1921, specializes in the
manufacturing of custom screenprinting, digital imaging, cut vinyl, and hotstamp
graphics. Products include fleet markings, original equipment markings, advertis-
ing and point-of-purchase graphics, custom decals, large full-color output, and in-
house design services.

Gillespie's President, Kerry Gillespie, was Vice Chairman of the Environmental
Committee for the Screenprinting & Graphic Imaging Association International
(SGIA). In January 1999, SGIA teamed up with EPA's Design for the
Environment (DfE) Program. Together, they decided to conduct a pilot project
with seven screenprinting companies that wanted to develop lEMSs. Kerry
Gillespie volunteered his company for the EMS pilot project, even though recent
company growth and simultaneous construction of an addition to the facility pre-
sented challenges to participation.

Steps Gillespie Took to Develop its IEMS
The steps discussed here are some of the important ones Gillespie took. Depending
on your company, you may decide to include others.  Remember, this is not intend-
ed to be a  comprehensive list of every step in developing an IEMS.

1. Organizing the IEMS Development Process
The way a company organizes to complete its IEMS is important to the long-term
success of the IEMS.  Best results are achieved when a wide spectrum of employ-
ees participate in the process and when a champion is selected to keep it on track.

The first step for Gillespie Decals was to reorganize its  Safety and Health (S&H)
Committee (which dealt with OSHA issues) into a Safety, Health & Environment
(SH&E) Committee, keeping the same head. This  was done partly because the
existing S&H Committee already had plenty of work to do, so more people were
needed to address the IEMS.  Also, the broader issues of the new committee
required a wider focus and people with different areas of expertise. This "IEMS
Team" led the IEMS development process.
^3 V Printed with vegetable oil based inks on paper that contains at least 50% post-consumer recycled fiber.

                           The Value of an IEMS
One person from each department (including prepress,
printing, finishing, sales, customer service, and adminis-
tration) was assigned to the IEMS Team.  To make sure
that IEMS development stayed on track, one person (not
the committee's head) was selected to lead (and "champi-
on") the IEMS process. The IEMS Team agreed to meet
once a week.  All Team members received the IEMS
Implementation Guide and saw a video on EMSs
{Environmental Management Systems for Printers: It's a
Bottom-Line Benefit,  EPA #744-V-99-001).

One of the Team's first tasks was to write a new company
mission statement that included environmental concerns.
The mission statement helped to focus the Team's work.
Toward the end of the
pilot project year, the
company hired a con-
sultant to plan and facili-
tate IEMS meetings,
because committee
members were over-
loaded with production
work. The committee
found it extremely useful
for someone not involved in daily production activities to
plan meetings.  SGIA and DfE also provided assistance
with organizational, environmental, and technical aspects
of IEMS development, through regular conference calls
with participants.

2. Developing the Environmental Policy
Developing an Environmental Policy statement that
reflects the company s commitment to environmental
improvement is  one of the important first steps in develop-
ing an IEMS.

The IEMS Team wrote the company's environmental poli-
cy over the course of four meetings.  After approval by
                                                        the President, the policy was posted in the office building
                                                        that housed administrative and sales staff and on the chalk
                                                        board in the lunchroom of the production building.

                                                        3. Identifying Environmental Aspects of the
                                                        An environmental aspect is any way in which the compa-
                                                        ny interacts with and has  an impact on the environment.
                                                        One of the first tasks in developing an IEMS is to identify
                                                        the company s environmental aspects. A "process map "
                                                        shows all the activities, processes,  and products in the
                                                        company, as well as the inputs and outputs to those activi-
                                                        ties, processes, and products.  Creating a process map is
                                                                              important to identifying a compa-
                                                                              ny s environmental aspects.
                           One project participant said that "Gillespie Decals has experienced
                           the beginnings of a change in the company culture regarding
                           environmental concerns. We're starting to see you can be bottom-
                           line oriented and environmentally conscious at the same time."
                           The IEMS Team started its analy-
                           sis with an existing process map
                           that had been developed for qual-
                           ity tracking purposes (see box
                           below). Through a whole-group
                           brainstorming exercise, the com-
                           mittee then identified 45 environ-
     mental aspects. Gillespie learned that the more people
     they included in brainstorming, the more good ideas came
     out of it.

     4. Identifying Significant Environmental Aspects
     A company generally has many environmental aspects,
     but they are not all equally significant. To determine
     which aspects need improvement, the company must pri-
     oritize them and select significant environmental aspects

     Gillespie's IEMS Team ranked the health risks and regu-
     latory requirements associated with each environmental
     aspect on  a scale of 1-10.  Then it  chose the three highest-
     scoring aspects as SEAs: Waste Ink, Haze Removal, and
Overview Process Map for a Screen Printing Shop
         Receive raw
        materials (ink,
        substrate, etc.)
                              prepare art
PIE pa re




Water Use. (These SEAs are described under Results of
Gillespie's IEMS, which follows.)

5. Developing Programs to Achieve Environmental
The next step is to develop programs to decrease the com-
pany s  impacts on the environment in accordance with
goals set forth in its environmental policy. This may start
with determining the underlying causes of each SEA.
When these have been determined, means of correcting the
causes should be developed.  Two ways to address an SEA
are (1) developing operational controls and (2) making
changes in chemical products, processes, or activities so as
to reduce environmental impact.

Analyzing Causes of SEAs
A root  cause analysis is one way for companies to develop
a deeper understanding of the causes of an SEA.

Gillespie's IEMS Team members conducted a root cause
analysis for each SEA.
They found that a root
cause for all three
SEAs was lack of
worker training, partic-
ularly among tempo-
                                   Each SEA team worked with the appropriate pro-
                                   duction supervisor to make sure the procedures
                                   would work and would be used. The SEA teams
                                   felt that the procedures had to be fully understood
                                   before the guidelines could be finalized. Therefore,
                                   they met with the people who worked on the
                                   process under review, to get their input.  The
                                   process included sorting through everyone's ideas
                                    - for example, how to clean a screen or mix ink
rary employees.

Developing Operational
Involving All Employees
Involving all employees is important to the success of your IEMS.
Employees not only have ideas to contribute, but also will be
responsible for implementing the activities.
At Gillespie,the IEMS champion presented the IEMS project at
an all-employee meeting. The champion asked for volunteers
to work on the IEMS team and also solicited ideas on how the
company could  improve its environmental impact.
One way to correct
causes of SEAs and
thereby reduce environ-
mental impact is to
develop operational
controls. This means
developing written standard operating procedures for each
step in a process and every piece of equipment, posting
those standard procedures, and providing appropriate

Gillespie developed operational controls as follows.

+   Separate teams were formed to work on each SEA.
     One IEMS  Team member was put in charge of
     developing improvements for each SEA.
+   Production employees drafted standard procedures
     and training protocols.
                         The process of developing
                         operational controls took
                         longer than expected, but the
                         IEMS Team believes that
                         Gillespie ended up with a bet-
                         ter process and buy-in of the
                         final results among staff and

                         Making Changes
                         For some SEAs, reduction of
                         environmental impact may
                         require greater changes than
                         can be achieved with opera-
                         tional controls alone.  To
choose between alternative chemicals, processes,  or prod-
ucts, a company should conduct an evaluation that inte-
grates cost, performance, and environmental impact.

Gillespie determined that for one  SEA (haze remover,
which is discussed in the Results section that follows), the
company could achieve improvement by using a lower-risk
solvent. The team made a cost, performance, and environ-
mental risk comparison of alternative products and selected
a less caustic product.

6. Evaluating the IEMS
After a company has put its IEMS programs in place, it
should continue to evaluate the differences they are mak-
ing.  Changes in processes, technologies, and learning
from experience can all mean continued opportunities to
improve both environmental impact and the bottom line.
The IEMS Team should continue to meet on a regular basis
and coordinate evaluation efforts and documentation.

Once Gillespie's IEMS was up and running, the company
began to identify the benefits for each SEA. These are
highlighted in the next section.

Results of Gillespie's IEMS

Waste Ink SEA
A large quantity of solvent-based ink was being kept in a
company storeroom. The root cause analysis showed sever-
al causes.  First, the company did a large percentage of
repeat business.  To ensure color consistency on repeat
jobs, workers would mix a large batch of ink and save the
remains for a possible repeat job.

Second, waste  ink was generated due to lack of worker
training in color mixing. A worker would experiment with
batches of ink until the right color was achieved. In addi-
tion, the team determined that the company owned a color
matching unit that few staff knew how to operate. Because
of the company's crowded production schedule, training on
the color matching unit had been postponed.

Gillespie took the following actions:
+   Developing a procedural document for training on
     ink mixing.
+   Using the computer to record colors and mixes for
     repeat jobs and keeping a printed copy of the color
     rather than keeping samples in the form of batches
     of ink.

+   Training one person to do the color mixing, rather
     than allowing anyone to do it.
+   Recycling the seven 55-gallon drums of solvent
     waste ink by having it burned for electricity.
+   Making a greater commitment to use ultraviolet-
     cured (UV) ink, which does not contain traditional
     solvents. The company  expects that using more
     UV-cured inks will reduce both VOC emissions
     and risks to health and environment that accompany
     solvent use.

Benefits: One-time recycling  of waste ink. Ability to use
storage room for other purposes.  Less exposure to solvent
chemicals. Lower risk of health and environmental con-

Haze Removal SEA

In screenprinting, parts of the screen that should not
receive ink are covered with emulsion. After each printing
job, the emulsion is cleaned off, but some residue  (haze)
often remains.  This must be completely removed  so as not
to interfere with the next design.  (See Step 8 of the SGIA
Process Map on the next page.)

Gillespie's SEA root cause analysis showed that high
humidity caused the haze by preventing the emulsion from
curing completely. Without the technical guidance in DfE's
IEMS methodology, the IEMS Team feels it probably
would not have thought of this cause.  Also, the analysis
showed that workers removing haze were being exposed to
a caustic  chemical.

Gillespie took the following actions:
+   Custom-building a drying cabinet with a dehumidi-
     fier for the curing area to prevent haze.
+   Converting the solvent-based ink storage room into
     a screenwashing room.  This kept moisture con-
     tained,  so that it would  not affect other operations
     in the facility.

Step 8 of the process map created
by the Screenprinting & Graphic
Imaging Association step 8 Reclaim Screen
International (SGIA)*
An overview of a process map show-
ing the main steps appears on page 2.
This detail from a more developed
map shows several important points
about process mapping:
1. It shows how a process map
might look as employees fill it in. screen
2. It shows the quantity of inputs from
Energy stencil
Ink remover product
Shop towels
tawels Scrubbers
1 1
Apply Ink . To Remove ^ 
Remover Remove Stencil
H37P if
and outputs a company may have,all | j
Of Which Will have SOme kind Of envi- materials Waste water
ronmental aspect. The quantity of shoptoweis Tape
aspects that SGIA identified demon- spent
chemicals Spent mesh
strates the need to prioritize before s 7 Spills,
developing projects.
3. It shows that a process map can
be created by hand as the IEMS team
brainstorms inputs and outputs for
each step in the process. The map *Forfurther information about SGIA, visit their website at www.sgia.org.
does not need to be fancy.

Shop towels
Remove , fcreen to
Haze f^e or
Waste water
Used shop
-'rr-' -^rmm^ 
+   Looking into two haze removal solvent alternatives.
     In the rare cases when solvent is needed, the com-
     pany has switched to a less caustic haze removal
+   Drafting a training document on haze removal.

Benefits: Less exposure to solvents by workers and com-
munity. Lower exposure to caustic agents by workers.
Reduced pinholing and press downtime. Reduced forma-
tion of haze and need for haze remover, due to lower
moisture in the plant. Less water marking on screens
and printed materials because of reduced moisture.

Water Use SEA

Water shortage is a concern in Wilsonville, OR, where
Gillespie Decals is located. To receive building permits for
the addition to the facility, Gillespie had to reduce its water
use, although the company was experiencing an increase in

Gillespie took the following actions:
+   Requesting information from two other companies
     on their water recycling systems, to prepare for
     implementing its own recycling system.
+   Reducing the use of city water by purchasing bot-
     tled drinking water for employees and replacing toi-
     lets with low-flush models.

Benefits: Less use of water. Improvement in employee
morale, because city water quality had been a concern and
employees were very happy to have water from another

Continuous Improvement
Commitment to continuous environmental improvement is
an important part of an IEMS.

Gillespie took the following actions:
+   Working with utilities to cut energy usage.
+   Deciding to develop other SEAs in coming years.
+   Working on the darkroom process in order to reduce
     water usage.
+   Flagging new products (with help of the purchasing
     staff) to make sure that new  items are evaluated
     before  being used.

Gillespie's Challenges in Developing its
The Gillespie Decals IEMS Team made impressive
progress in spite of several significant challenges.
                                                        The biggest problem in developing and implementing the
                                                        IEMS was time management. The company's growth
                                                        required higher-than-usual work effort, which initially
                                                        delayed the progress of the IEMS Team. In addition, much
                                                        of people's time was absorbed by the construction activity.
                                                        On the other hand, this provided an opportunity for the
                                                        IEMS Team to look at environmental concerns associated
                                                        with the new addition.

                                                        The IEMS Team struggled with how to document their
                                                        IEMS, until the IEMS Company Manual Template for Small
                                                        Business was developed by EPA for use by pilot project
                                                        participants. The template provides examples of how to
                                                        document the IEMS and how to organize the information
                                                        into an individual company's IEMS Manual.

                                                        Gillespie's IEMS Team sometimes had trouble moving to
                                                        the next step because they could not think of what to do.
                                                        However, the IEMS materials developed by DfE were very
                                                        useful in helping the Team
                                                        maintain momentum.
                                                        Gillespie's company repre-
                                                        sentative for the pilot proj-
                                                        ect stated,  "Whenever I met
                                                        a stopping point and
                                                        couldn't think about how
                                                        to proceed, I have always
                                                        been able to go to the
                                                        IEMS Implementation
                                                        Guide to get an idea or
                                                        example of how to
                                                        get started again. The
                                                        blank worksheets are especial-
                                                        ly helpful."
               What the DfE Program Brings to the IEMS Process
               EPA's Design for the Environment (DfE) Program has over eight years of experience building voluntary partnerships with
               industry, public interest groups, universities, research institutions,and other government agencies to develop cleaner,safer
U.S. ERA   alternatives to existing products and processes.The DfE Program has developed technical approaches that help businesses mini-
          mize and better manage their environmental "footprints" and improve their competitiveness. DfE is in the Economics, Exposure,and
    Technology Division of EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.
    For more information on IEMS orto download IEMS materials,
            visit the DfE Programwebsiteatwww.epa.gov/dfe
             or call DfE at 202-260-1678
    To order hard copies of IEMS materials such as the IEMS Implementation Guide and IEMS Company Manual Template for Small Business, contact
    the Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC)at