A Cooperative Project
 between the
 U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency
 and the
 Printing Trade
  August 1996
  EPA 744-F-96-008
                                                                        LITHOGRAPHY PROJECT BULLETIN 2
  * Management Commitment

  •Pollution Prevention Checklist
     Workplace Practices  Make

             the Difference

 JL llC tlCllVlllC J  described in this bulletin are the most popular workplace
practices that redllCed Chemical USage among 206 lithographers
surveyed. These lithographers, mostly small-and medium-sized facilities, are using these
low cost practices to reduce overall chemical usage in their shops. Improved
workplace practices have the potential to:

      > Reduce harmful chemical exposure to employees and the public

      e> Reduce operation and materials costs

      > Eliminate or minimize sources of pollution

      •> Improve employees' health and work attendance

      > Improve productivity and product quality	
                            The survey was developed and distributed

                            by printers, union representatives, printing

                            industry trade associations, suppliers, and

                            The University of Tennessee Center for

                            Clean Products and Clean Technologies.

                            Compare their simple ideas "with

                            yours and see if you can make

                            your shop even better.
                                                                                    Design for the Environment I

A Closer Look at
Management Commitment

To make pollution prevention
an ingrained ethic and strategy
with all your employees, it is
essential that your shop's defini-
tion of work excellence includes
environmental awareness.

  O Make it clear that
    management will support
    employees as changes are
    made and will commit
    the resources necessary
    to succeed.

  O Encourage employee
    suggestions through a
    merit program or some
    other type of incentive.

  O Emphasize hazardous
    waste reduction efforts
    to each employee by
    displaying written
    procedures  on equipment
    operation and materials
                          It Begins with
      Materials  Management
                   and Inventory
Identifying the  best opportunities for
pollution prevention begins with understanding how chemicals
and materials flow through a facility. By examining and documenting this flow
through your entire process, you may be able to identify ways to increase the efficiency
of your process and reduce waste. Examples of simple, COSt-CrrCCtlVC pOllutlOU
              ideas in materials management and inventory control include:
Order and manage chemical use on a "first-in, first-out" basis. Do not order more than can be
used within the shelf life of the product. Label contents and expiration dates should be legible.
     >~ Why To reduce materials and disposal costs of expired materials.

Minimize the amount of chemicals kept on the press room floor at any time.
    >- Why To give employees an incentive to use the minimum
       amount of chemical required to do the job and to prevent spills.

Centralize responsibility for storing and distributing chemicals.
    ^- Why To keep track of chemical usage and give employees an
       incentive to use less materials.
Eliminate duplication. Don't order many different products to perform the same task, and
use multi-task chemicals when possible.
    >- Why To eliminate purchasing, tracking, and disposal costs of unnecessary chemicals.

Use a pump to transfer chemical products from large containers to smaller containers that
are used at work stations
    ^-Why To reduce potential for accidental spills that can occur when chemicals are
       transferred from container to container by hand and to reduce worker exposure.
B Design for the Environment

                 It Continues Everyday with

           Process  Improvements

        Attention to day-to-day practices will uncover many valuable opportunities for pollution
        prevention and cost savings. You will find that these opportunities exist in nearly every area
        of your shop. The survey of lithographers focused on blanket washing. Some examples of
        process improvements identified by the survey include:

Use squeeze bottles or plunger cans to apply a specific amount
of blanket wash to shop towels
        Reduces cost and chemical use by applying only what you need to shop towels
        Prevents accidental spills by using a closed container
        Reduces chemical loss and worker exposure by limiting evaporation
Use smaller, reusable towels for as long as possible
        Reduces materials and chemical use by using dirty towels for the first pass and
        clean ones for the final pass
        Reduces number of towels sent to the industrial laundry by using fewer towels over time
        Reduces chemical use and worker exposure because less blanket wash is needed to
        dampen the smaller towel

Store chemicals and used towels in closed containers
        Reduces chemical loss and worker exposure by limiting evaporation of chemicals
Use alternative, low-volatile organic compound blanket washes or
combine an alternative wash with limited use of a standard solvent
        Reduces chemical usage with no loss of efficiency
        Reduces worker exposure by using a blanket wash with a lower volatile
        organic compound content and/or lower vapor pressure
Apply blanket wash only where necessary
        Reduces chemical usage by wiping ink off before cleaning equipment
        with solvents and using blanket wash only when necessary
        Reduces worker exposure by using chemicals less frequently
Use personal protective equipment (gloves, aprons, and barrier creams)
        Reduces worker exposure by protecting from direct contact with chemicals
Try increasing water dilution ratios
        Reduces cost per wash by using less blanket wash
                                                                      Design for the Environment E3

Here's Your Checklist
for Pollution Prevention
in Your Workplace

 Q Manage inventory on a "first-in
  first-out" basis

 U Minimize the amount of chemicals
  on the press floor at any time

 Q Centralize responsibility for storing
  and distributing chemicals

 U Store chemicals in closed, clearly
  marked containers

 Q Use a pump to transfer chemical
  products from large to small containers

 U Use squeeze bottles or plunger cans
  to apply a specified amount of blanket
  wash to shop towels

 Q Use smaller,reusable towels for as
  long as possible

 U Store chemicals and used towels in
  closed containers

 Q Evaluate chemical alternatives

 U Apply blanket wash only where

 Q Use personal protective equipment

 U Try increasing water dilution ratios


 U Track chemical  and material stock,
  use, and waste  generation rates

 Q Segregate waste by waste stream

 U Store waste and used towels in
  closed containers
Partners in the Design for
the Environment Lithography
Project; Printing Industries of
America, Graphic Arts Technical
Foundation, the Environmental
Conservation Board of the
Graphic Communications
Industry, The University of
Tennessee, and individual
printers and suppliers.

H Design for the Environment
                Don't Let Your Efforts
            Go To Waste. IfllprOVC Your
  Waste Management  practices

Now that you have begun reducing the waste generated in your shop, additional
opportunities exist for improving the ffl.3.ri3.gCmCrit Ol ^V3.StC
products generated during normal printing operations
   chemical and material stock
   chemical and materials use
   waste generation rates

          Provides insights into pollution prevention and cost saving opportunities

   waste by waste stream
          Allows for easier reuse and recycling of waste materials

   waste and used shop towels in marked, easily accessible
   closed containers
          Prevents nonhazardous waste from becoming contaminated with hazardous waste

          Minimizes evaporation of chemical waste products

          Reduces worker exposure
About the Design for the Environment Lithography Project

The goal of the Design for the Environment (DfE) Lithography Project is to provide lithographers
with information that can help them design an operation which is more environmentally sound,
safer for workers, and more cost effective.

Concentrating on the process of blanket washes, the partners of the DfE Lithography Project,
in a voluntary cooperative effort, evaluated 37 different blanket wash products. Information was
gathered on the performance, cost, and health and environmental risk trade-offs of the different
types of substitute blanket wash. For more details on the evaluations,
please refer to the "Evaluating Blanket Washes: A Guide For Printers."

In addition to the Lithography Project, similar DfE projects are currently
underway with both the screen printing and flexography industries.
  To obtain additional copies of this or other bulletins and case studies, or for more information about
  EPA's Design for the Environment Program contact:
                  EPA's Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC)
                                     U.S. EPA
                                Washington, DC 20460
                                                 E-mail: ppic@epamail.epa.gov
                                                 DfE Web page: http://WTvw.epa.gov/dfe
Phone: (202) 260-1023
Fax: (202) 260-4659