United States
Environmental Protection
Agency j^^
Prevention , Pesticides,
And Toxic Substances
EPA 744-F-96-009
September 1997
Solutions for Lithographic Printers
                            •+j   •

The following documents from the DfE Lithography Project are available free of charge from the
Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC):

•  DfE Lithography Project Fact Sheet: EPA 744-F-95-005
•  Final Cleaner Technology Substitutes Assessment:
   Lithographic Blanket Washes: EPA-744-R-96-001,447 pages
•  Solutions for Lithographic Printers: An Evaluation of Substitute
   Blanket Washes: EPA 744-F-96-009,30 pages
•  Managing Solvents and Wipes, Case Study #1: EPA 744-K-93-001,4 pages
•  Pollution Prevention at Custom Print, Case Study #2: EPA 744-F-96-001,4 pages
•  Substitute Blanket Washes: Making them Work, Bulletin #1: EPA 744-F-96-002,4 pages
•  Workplace Practices Make the Difference, Bulletin #2: EPA 744-F-96-008,4 pages
•  Vegetable Ester Blanket Washes, Bulletin #3: EPA 744-F-96-014,4 pages
•  AWorksheet to Help You Choose a Better Wash, Bulletin #4: EPA 744-F-96-015,6 pages
•  Printing Industry & Use Cluster Profile: EPA 744-R-94-003,183 pages
•  Federal Environmental Regulations Potentially Affecting the
   Commercial Printing Industry: EPA 744-B-94-001,71 pages
•  DfE Focus Group Discussions with the Printing Industry: EPA 742-R-94-004,89 pages
•  Environmental Cost Accounting Video (245 minutes): EPA 744-B-96-001
•  Environmental Cost Accounting Video (165 minutes): EPA 744-B-96-002
For more information about the Design for the Environment Program,
to view some of these documents online, to order documents, or to learn
about other DfE industry projects, visit the DfE homepage at:

Or Contact:
Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse    Telephone orders: 202-260-1023
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency            Fax orders: 202-260-4659
401 M Street, SW (7409)                       E-mail orders: ppic@epamail.epa.gov
Washington, D.C. 20460

Evaluating Blanket Washes:
A Guide for Printers
       Purpose of this Booklet
       This booklet is designed to help printers evaluate their current blanket
       wash and compare it to substitute blanket washes.  How safe are they
       to use? How do they perform? How much do they cost to use? What
       are their  environmental risks?
       PROJECT tested a variety of different blanket washes to answer these
       questions. The Project evaluated 37 blanket washes in laboratory testing.
       Of these  washes, 22 were sent out for field demonstrations at printing
       facilities.  The full technical report of these product trials is called the
       Cleaner  Technologies  Substitutes Assessment:  Lithographic Blanket
       Washes (CTSA).  Recognizing that not all printers  have the time to read
       the larger CTSA, the DfE Project has produced this smaller reference booklet
       to answer printers' questions in a simple and clear format.
       have been grouped into five chemical categories based on their basic
       chemical formulations. While the specific  formulations of some of the
       products may have changed since the tests were conducted, new
       formulations typically fall into these five basic categories.

       Using this  Booklet
       Using a Question & Answer format, this booklet describes the results of the
       blanket wash evaluations. If substitute blanket washes are new to you, you
       may want to start with Question 1 and read through to the end. You can
       also use this booklet as a reference for your specific area of interest.
       SPECIFICALLY, the steps taken to evaluate substitutes can easily be applied
       to other chemicals in your print shop. By  doing so, you will likely find other
       areas of the operation where substitutes can improve working conditions,
       reduce environmental impact, and possibly save money at the same  time.

       a  Throughout the document you will find references to other
          DfE documents where you can find additional information.
          These references are symbolized by a @.

       Q  Use this booklet as a reference as you  search for the
          best substitute blanket wash for your facility.
DfE Lithography Project
   The DfE Lithography
   Project conducted
   field tests of 22
   blanket washes.
   Each wash was
   tested in 2 print
   shops for 1 week.
   A total of 17
   volunteer facilities
   Substitutes were
   compared to a
   baseline wash.

   Performance, cost,
   and health and
   environmental benefits
   of the substitutes
   were evaluated.

   This is the first
   time that the
   wash performance
   information has
   been coupled with
   an evaluation of
   risks and cost, and
   presented together
   in one document.


The questions,
Whether you are just learning about substitute blanket washes or are trying to supplement
what you already know, the answers to your questions can be found in this booklet.
H     Why should I switch to a substitute blanket wash?
             • Improvements in worker health and safety
             • Reduced environmental concerns

H     How can I identify different types of substitute blanket washes?
             • Chemical categories of blanket washes
             • Federal regulations that apply to the chemicals

El     How do blanket washes affect worker health and the environment?
             • How chemicals can affect worker health
             • Environmental risks associated with washes

El     What kind of performance can I expect from a substitute blanket wash?
             • How application methods affect performance
             • Summary of substitute wash performance

El     How will substitute blanket washes affect my costs?
             • Summary cost results for each category of substitute wash
             • Hidden costs of using a blanket wash

El     What were the overall results of the substitute wash evaluations?
             • Fold-out table combining performance, risk, cost results for all wash categories.

H     What steps do I need to take to switch to a substitute blanket wash?
             • How to evaluate a substitute wash in your shop

El     What questions should I ask my blanket wash supplier?

El     What else can I do to prevent pollution in my facility?
             • Work practice changes for wash conservation
             • Blanket wash recycling opportunities

E3     Where can I find more information about pollution prevention in printing?
             • Sources for more information
Go to page       /
Go to page
Go to page       Id
Go to page       lu
Go to page       1 /

Go to page       L \

Go to page       LJ

Go to page       Łu
Go to page      LI


        Why should I switch to
        a substitute blanket wash?
Improving work conditions is one of the main reasons why so many printers today are
replacing their rapidly evaporating solvent-based blanket washes with safer substitutes.
Traditional blanket washes are petroleum-based solvents with a high volatile organic
compound (VOC) content and high vapor pressure. These types of washes are a cause
of concern for both worker health and the environment. The potential advantages
of replacing a traditional wash with a substitute product include:

            5> Improved worker health
            Ł>• Improved safety
            $> Reduced  environmental impact
            5> Reduced  regulatory requirements
            $> Reduced  losses to evaporation
Improved worker health
COMPOUND (VOC) CONTENT.  These VOCs help blanket washes cut ink and dry quickly.
However, it is just this quick-drying capability that is cause for concern. Some traditional
washes may completely evaporate. This means that more of the chemicals get into the air
where they may be inhaled by workers or released to the outside air. The more chemicals
inhaled, the greater the potential for risk to worker health. In addition to VOCs, some blanket
washes may also contain hazardous chemical additives that can be harmful to worker health.

substitute blanket washes containing fewer VOCs, lower vapor pressure, and fewer hazardous
chemicals, you can significantly reduce the impacts that your printing operations have on
your workers' health and the environment.
Improved safety
Traditional washes may present fire and explosion risks because of their low flashpoints.
Flashpoint is the temperature at which a chemical will sustain a flame.  In general, as the
flashpoint increases, so does safety. A wash with a flashpoint below 100°F presents safety
concerns, as it is considered flammable. Washes with flashpoints below 140°F are also
a cause for concern, because they are considered "ignitable" and, therefore, are a hazardous
waste under RCRA. Substitute washes with higher flashpoints have a reduced fire hazard.
Traditional blanket
washes can contain
up to 10O% VOCs
and have a high vapor
pressure, which poses
a potential concern
for worker health
and the environment.
A wash with a low
flashpoint causes
concern for fire and
explosion risk.
                                                                                        DIE Lithography Project

VOCs can also be harm-
ful to the environment.
For example, they have
been found to contribute
to the formation of
ground-level ozone,
a component of smog.
                           Reduced environmental impact
By switching to a
wash with a reduced
VOC content and less
hazardous chemicals,
you may reduce your
regulatory burden,
now or in the future.
released to the air outside your facility where they can become a risk to people in
the community. VOCs help to produce ozone, a component of smog, which is a health
hazard — especially for children, the elderly, and people with respiratory problems.
Ozone also damages crops and forests. By using a low-VOC blanket wash, you can
reduce the impact of your business on the surrounding environment and community.
                           Reduced regulatory requirements
states have implemented regulations aimed at reducing VOC emissions, and some
have specifically focussed on printing operations. Several states have based their
VOC regulations on the EPA's draft Control Techniques Guidelines (CTG) and Alternative
Control Techniques Guideline for offset lithography. Under the current draft CTG,
blanket washes  cannot contain more than 30% VOCs by weight, or the composite
VOC vapor pressure can not exceed 10 mm Hg at 68°F. Other states may also adopt
these stricter guidelines.

If your facility is located in a part of the country with air quality problems, you may
be in what is called a "non-attainment" area under the Clean Air Act. In non-attainment
areas, more stringent permitting and regulatory requirements apply to facilities emitting
VOCs. For printers, this applies to all VOCs in your shop, including those in your blanket
wash. In the long-run, these extra requirements for your VOC releases could be very
costly for your business. Using a low-VOC blanket wash may allow you to reduce your
regulatory burden in some cases by avoiding permitting requirements.
                           Reduced losses to evaporation
                           If your wash has a high VOC content or a high vapor pressure, you may be losing it before
                           using it. Some of the wash will evaporate from the towels and containers before it can be
                           used. As it evaporates, so does the money you spent to buy that wash.

         How can I  identify different types
         of substitute blanket washes?
A blanket wash can be classified by its primary chemical components. In the DfE Lithography
Project, printers tried out substitute blanket washes from five different categories of chemicals
and compared them to the performance of the baseline wash. The baseline wash chosen was
VM&P naphtha. Explanations of the five categories are listed below.
Blanket wash chemical categories
Description of the Petroleum category:
      $> This category includes petroleum washes and petroleum/water blends.
      Ł>• Although traditional high-VOC blanket washes are often petroleum-based, some
         substitute washes also contain petroleum products. The substitute formulations,
         however, may be mixed with water or other chemicals to reduce the overall
         VOC content of the wash.
      Ł>• Because the DfE evaluations did not exclude any products, some high-VOC
         washes in the category were tested in the field demonstrations.
      5> When you review a Material Saftey Data Sheet (MSDS), some of the chemicals
         you may find in petroleum-based washes include:
                  mineral spirits
                  stoddard solvent
                  solvent naphtha
                  VM&P naphtha
• 1,2,4-trimethyl-benzene
• aromatic  ISO
• dimethylbenzene
• cumene
• xylene
      6*" If you evaluate substitute washes that contain petroleum-based chemicals and
         water, check the MSDSs to see what percentage of petroleum they contain.
         Choose a wash that has a higher percentage of water to reduce potential health
         risks and the VOC content.
      6*" Avoid washes that have regulated chemicals listed on the MSDS. Some of the
         petroleum-based washes tested by the DfE Project contained regulated chemicals.
         Also, check with your supplier and make sure the substitute wash does not contain
         HAPs - certain chemicals that are listed as Hazardous Air Pollutants under the
         Clean Air Act.

Description of the Vegetable Ester category:
      $> Vegetable esters are fatty acid derivatives produced from agricultural sources
         such as soybean, cotton, or coconut oil.
                                         Substitute blanket
                                         washes may be
                                         made from:
                                         •  vegetable oils
                                           and/or their
                                           fatty acid esters
                                         •  terpenes
                                         •  less volatile
                                           petroleum component
                                         •  mixtures of these
                                           DfE Lithography Project   0

When evaluating
a blend, look for
a high vegetable
ester content
and a low
petroleum content.

      Ł>• This category includes blends containing glycol ethers.
      5> When you review an MSDS, some of the chemicals you may find in vegetable
         ester-based washes include:
      •  fatty acids      •  soybean oil     • sorb/tan mono-9-octadecanote
      •  methyl esters  •  compounds  with diethanolamine
      6*" Check out the VOC content of these washes -- all of the washes tested in this
         category had a VOC content of less than 30% and had a very low risk of flammability.

Description of the Petroleum/Vegetable Ester Blends category:
      $> The washes tested in this category contain between 20% and 70% petroleum
         products with the balance being primarily vegetable esters.

      6*" When choosing a substitute in this category, look for one with a higher
         percentage of vegetable esters than of petroleum to reduce VOC content
         and potential health risks.
      6*" Avoid washes that have regulated chemicals listed on the MSDS. Some washes
         tested in this category contained regulated chemicals.

Description of the Vegetable Ester/Water Blends category:
      5> These washes are produced primarily from vegetable esters and water.  Because
         the performance and risk characteristics of these washes differ from those washes
         that are not blended with water, they have been classified as a separate category.

      6*" Check out the VOC content of these washes - all of the washes tested in this category
         had a VOC content of less than 30% and had a very low risk of flammability.

Description of the Terpenes category:
      $> Terpene washes are formulated chemicals  derived from citrus or wood products,
         often giving them a citrus odor. When you review an MSDS, some of the chemicals
         you may find in terpene-based washes include:
                                 •  d-limonene
                                 •  2-pinanol
                          linalool     *  nerol      * a-terpineolcyclopentanol
                          plinols      •  terpinolene
                                 6*" Terpenes themselves are not regulated at the Federal level, however, the washes
                                   in the product trials were blended with some regulated chemicals. So, as always,
                                   be sure to check your MSDS and ask questions of your supplier.

 Some blanket washes contain chemicals that are subject to federal environmental or occupational safety regulations.
 The table below lists the chemicals regulated at the federal level that were found in some of the blanket washes tested
 in this project. When trying out substitute washes, try to find a wash without regulated chemicals to help ease your
 regulatory requirements and protect the environment. The MSDS lists OSHA regulated chemicals in the wash, although
 it may not mention all chemicals that are subject to environmental regulations. Ask your supplier what chemicals are
 in the wash, and check with your state and local regulatory assistance agencies for information on applicable state
 and local regulations.
Benzene, 1 ,2,4-trimethyl
Ethylene glycol ethers
Dodecy I benzene
sulfonic acid
N- Met hylpyr roll done
Sodium bis(ethylhexyl)
Sodium hydroxide
Stoddard solvent
1 1 1-42-2
see below3
577-1 1-7
RQ (Ibs) 112BHAP RQ (Ibs) 313 (TRI)
X 5,000 X
1,000 1,000

1,000 1,000

1,000 X 1,000 X
PEL (ppm)





 The generic chemical category Glycol ethers is listed as a CAA 112B Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) and on SARA 313 TRI. The only glycol ether found in these blanket washes
that is considered a HAP is diethlyene glycol monobutyl ether (CAS No. 112-34-5). The propylene glycol ethers are not included in the glycol ether category under this law and are
not considered HAPs.
  Dipropylene glycol methyl ether has a PEL of 100 ppm.
c OSHA ceiling value.
Explanation of Regulatory Terminology
CWA 311 RQ    CLEAN WATER ACT, SECTION 311, REPORTABUE QUANTITY. Facilities that experience
                 an accidental release of a chemical in excess of the specified CWA RQ must notify various
                 state and federal agencies.

                 REPORTABLE QUANTITY.  Facilities that experience an accidental release of a chemical in
                 an amount equal to or in excess of the specified CERCLA RQ must notify the National
                 Response Center at (800) 424-8802.

                 Air emissions of these chemicals are restricted according to this section of the CAAA.

                 Release of chemicals in excess of release thresholds (10,000 or 25,000 Ibs., depending on
                 chemical use) must be reported each calendar year to EPA or the applicable state agency.

                 Generators of U-listed hazardous waste are subject to management and disposal requirements based
                 on the quantity they generate per month.

                 PELs are legally enforceable exposure limits for workplace chemicals; they are based
                 on an 8-hour weighted average concentration.


         How do blanket washes affect
         worker health and the environment?
One significant step you can take toward protecting workers and the environment is to find a
substitute wash with a reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) content and without chemi-
cals that affect human health and the environment. Through the Design for the Environment
Lithography Project, 37 substitute washes were evaluated by EPA for their risk to human health
and the environment. The three different components of risk that were evaluated are:

            5>  worker health risk
            Ł>•  safety risk
            $>  ecological  risk
Worker health risk
EMPLOYEE  HEALTH PROBLEMS during routine cleaning.  Health can be affected
by breathing in the chemical as it evaporates (inhalation exposure).  Inhalation of the
chemicals in some blanket washes may result in eye, skin, and nose irritation. To reduce
these harmful effects, find a wash with a reduced VOC content and without known health
effects. For example, washes in the vegetable ester/water blends category had no concern
for inhalation risks. The washes in all of the other categories were found to present
some concern.
Chemicals found in
some solvent-based
blanket washes may
cause employee health
problems such as eye
irritation, headaches,
nausea, and asthma
 SKIN IF GLOVES ARE NOT WORN. Some washes may have a harmful effect on worker
 health when they are absorbed through the skin (dermal exposure).  Each of the 37 washes
 evaluated in laboratory testing was evaluated for its effect on worker health if it entered the
 body through the skin. Washes in the vegetable ester/water category were found to have
 a very low concern for dermal risk. Washes in all of the other categories were found to
 present a somewhat greater concern for dermal risk. However, the assessment assumes that
 no gloves or barrier creams are used by workers when cleaning a blanket. If appropriate
 gloves are worn, the dermal risks associated with any of the blanket washes tested, even the
 solvent-based washes, are minimal.
Worker Saftey Issues
because of certain chemicals they contain. The flashpoint of a chemical is one measure
of its flammability. The National Fire Protection Association, OSHA, and the Department
of Transportation define a flammable liquid as one with a flashpoint of less than 100° F.
EPA defines RCRA ignitable wastes (40 CFR 261.21) as having a flashpoint of 140° F or
less.  Be sure to check the wash's flashpoint listed on the MSDS. The higher the
flashpoint, the better.
If appropiate gloves
are worn, dermal risks
for all 37 products
tested are minimal.
All of the washes in
both the vegetable
ester category and the
vegetable ester/water
blends presented a low
fire hazard risk.
                                                                                        DIE Lithography Project  ED

Avoid washes containing
amine salts of alkylben-
zene sulfonates or
ethoxylated nonphenols.
                             Ecological risk
aquatic species were assessed for the blanket washes tested. A "high concern" indicates
that the blanket wash may present an ecological risk. Some of the traditional washes, as
well as some of the substitute washes, were found to contain chemicals that present a
high concern for chronic effects to aquatic species when shop towels are laundered. In most
cases, the chemicals of concern are atnine salts of ŤŤ alhylbenzene sulfonate or
ethoxylated nonylphenols. The assessment also found that hydrotreated heavy naphtha
and medium aliphatic naphtha could adversely affect aquatic  species.
                            These chemicals are found in several different categories of washes. Some of the washes
                            in the petroleum, petroleum/vegetable ester, and terpene categories were found to contain
                            these chemicals that presented a risk to aquatic species. None of the washes in the
                            vegetable ester or the vegetable ester/water blend categories presented
                            risks to aquatic species.

                            To avoid washes with these chemicals, check your MSDS and ask your supplier.  Like most
                            chemicals, these chemicals can be listed under many different names. The table below
                            lists some of these synonyms and their CAS # to help you evaluate your wash.

                            Name                                                                         CAS #
                            Alkylbenzene sulfonates may also be called:
                            Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-                                                     27176-87-0
                            DDBSA                                                                        27176-87-0
                            Benzenesulfonic acid, C10 - C16-alkyl derivatives, compounds with 2-propanamine            68584-24-7
                            Benzenesulfonic acid, C10 - C16-alkyl derivatives, compounds with isopropylamine           68584-24-7
                            Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-, (tetrapropenyl)-, compounds with 2-propanamine            157966-96-6
                            Isopropylamine salt of (tetrapropenyl) benzenesulfonic acid                              157966-96-6
                            Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-, compounds with 2-propanamine                          26264-05-1
                            Isopropylamine salt of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid                                    26264-05-1
                            Ethoxylated nonylphenols may also be called:
                            nonylphenol ethoxylate                                                           9016-45-9
                            Ukanil SO                                                                      9016-45-9
                            Alcohol Ethoxylate                                                              9016-45-9
                            Nonionic Surfactant                                                             9016-45-9
                            polyethylene glycol mono (nonylphenol) ether                                         9016-45-9
                            a—(nonylphenol)-co-hydroxy-branched and unbranched isomers                           N/A
                            Antarox                                                                       9002-93-1
                            NP-6	                                                                      	26027-38-3	
                            NP-9                                                                          68412-54-4
                            Hydrotreated heavy naphtha and medium aliphatic naphtha may also be called:
                            Naphtha (petroleum), hydrotreated heavy                                            64742-48-9
                            Solvent naphtha (petroleum), medium aliphatic                                        64742-88-7
   EEDfE Lithography Project

Question  E3
         What kind of performance can I expect
         from a substitute blanket wash?
As part of this study, 37 blanket washes were evaluated in laboratory testing. Of those washes,
22 were sent out for field demonstrations at volunteer printing facilities. Each wash was tested
at two different print shops. During the test, the press operator first cleaned the blanket with
the baseline wash, VM&P naphtha. After another print run, the press operator cleaned the
blanket with the test wash. In both cases, the volume of wash used and time required were
recorded, along with more subjective observations such as level of effort required and the
cleanliness of the blanket.  The operator continued to use the wash and record data for one
week. The performance results that follow are based on these tests. Overall opinion from
the participating printers on the performance of the substitute blanket washes tested was
varied but generally favorable.

The range in opinions is due to many factors, including: differences in equipment, ink types,
ink coverage, blanket conditions, length of run prior to blanket cleaning, different requirements
of blanket cleanliness, method of application, and the operator's willingness to make changes
to use an alternative product.
You must determine
for yourself what works
best in your shop.
Application Method Affects Performance
CUE AN when using some of the substitute washes. There was variation in their opinions,
however, regarding effort: for some operators, even minimal extra effort was seen as an
unacceptable burden.  Others accepted that some changes in their procedures and even some
extra effort may be needed in order to effectively clean the blanket with alternative products.

such as wiping the blanket after cleaning with a dry or water-dampened wipe to remove
the oily film left behind, or letting the wash sit on the blanket before wiping, seemed to
improve performance.

Not every wash will work for every printer. Try a variety of formulations and  avoid dismissing
all substitute washes based on the performance of one product.

From each category of substitute blanket washes, one to seven different washes were tested
at volunteer printing facilities. Almost every category had washes  that performed well and
others that did not. These results demonstrate that most substitute washes have the potential
to work well when matched with the right facility.
A willingness to modify
your application method
may improve your suc-
cess with substitute
blanket washes.
vi For more information
on application method
changes, see DfE
Bulletin 1, Substitute
Blanket Washes:
Making Them Work,
Try a variety of
formulations to
find the one that
works best for
you — not every
wash will work
for every printer.
                                                                                         DfE Lithography Project  EE

Rating Scale
based on printers'
Performance Results
Washes in this category were all rated as good or fair. In some cases, press operators preferred
the substitute wash to their standard wash and to the baseline wash, naphtha. Others noted
that while it cut the ink well, it took extra effort to remove the oily residue from the blanket.
In some cases, printers commented that the thick consistency was difficult to work with,
since the wash would not readily soak into the shop towel.
                           PETROLEUM/ESTER  CATEGORY
                                               AVERAGE RATING = 2.3
                          All printers evaluated washes in this category as good or fair, with most rating the
                          washes as fair. These washes cut the ink well, but some facilities found that extra effort,
                          sometimes an unacceptable amount, was needed to clean the blanket when there was heavy
                          ink coverage. Some of the washes in this category left a light oily residue that was easily
                          removed. For other washes in the category, the oily residue was heavier and press operators
                          found it difficult to remove.
                          VEGETABLE ESTER CATEGORY             AVERAGE RATING = 2.6
                          Printers rated the washes in this category as good or fair.  Several of the washes in this
                          category were unanimously rated as good, but other washes had mixed results. The
                          washes cut ink well, however, some received a lower rating because they required extra
                          effort to remove oily residue, to clean heavy ink coverage, and to get the thick wash to
                          soak into the shop towel.
                           ESTER/WATER CATEGORY                  AVERAGE RATING =1.0
                           Printers rated the performance of the washes in this category as poor. They felt it took
                           an unacceptably high level of effort to remove the ink from the blanket. They also noted
                           that they had difficulty getting the wash to soak into the shop towel.
                                               AVERAGE RATING = 2.0
                          Printers found that this wash cut the ink well, but left an oily residue that increased
                          the number of prints required to return to print quality. The thick consistency of the
                          wash prevented it from soaking into the towel, which increased the overall effort needed
                          to clean the blankets.
  EH DIE Lithography Project

         How will substitute blanket
         washes  affect  my costs?
A cost analysis was conducted for each of the 22 blanket washes tested in the DfE
field demonstrations. The results showed that:
      Ł>• substitute washes can be less costly to use than traditional, solvent-based washes
      Ł>• it is important to consider all costs, beyond just purchase price and labor
         costs, to get the most accurate comparison among washes
      5> the cost to use a blanket wash can vary greatly depending on the conditions
         in the facility where it is used
Uncover Cost Savings with Substitute Washes
When using a traditional, solvent-based wash, there are a lot of "hidden costs" that you're
paying for every time you use that wash. You can reduce these hidden costs and uncover
savings by switching to an appropriate substitute wash.
Savings may be found through:
      S*- REDUCED WASTE. Reduce the amount of wash lost to evaporation by
         using a lower VOC wash.  If you're losing less wash, you'll be buying less wash.
      S*- REDUCED REGULATORY COSTS.  Reduce or eliminate the need for costly
         permitting, reporting, or control technologies.
      s*- IMPROVED WORKER  HEALTH.  Reduce work-related illness, sick days,
         medical costs, and worker's compensation liability.
      s*-  IMPROVED SAFETY.  Reduce liability,eliminate special storage
         requirements, and possibly reduce your insurance cost for fire protection.

Labor Costs, Not  Purchase Price, Most Influence  Total Costs
While many substitute washes have a higher price per gallon than solvent-based washes,
these price differences do not necessarily lead to a higher overall cost per cleaning. It's
the labor costs that really make the difference. For example, using one of the lowest priced
washes in the study ($2.85/gallon),it cost the facility  $1.31 per blanket cleaning when
labor costs were included. The same press operator also tested one of the more expensive
substitute washes ($15.00/gallon). For this wash.it cost the facility only $0.89 per blanket
cleaning. This shows that labor costs are a primary driver in the total cost to use the wash.
By working with your supplier and training press operators on the most effective way to
apply substitute washes, you can reduce your labor costs, and therefore reduce the total
cost of using the blanket wash.
When comparing
the cost of a
substitute wash to
your current wash,
look beyond the
purchase price.
                                                                                          DfE Lithography Project  tB

   See DfE Bulletin #4
for information on the
"hidden Costs" of using
a blanket wash.
                            A Baseline was Used for Comparison
The cost estimates did
not include the savings
from improved worker
health and safety, or
from reduced waste
and regulatory
If you include these
savings, the cost per
wash estimate would
be likely to favor
many more of the
substitute washes.

The cost to use the
substitute washes
varied, even within
the same category.
At every facility, the operator first cleaned several blankets with VM&P naphtha during
normal production runs to establish a baseline for comparison. Later in the day, the same
operator started using one of the substitute washes to clean the same blanket. The operator
continued to use the substitute wash for several days, recording the quantity used and the
time it took to clean the blanket. This comparison was done in two different facilities for
all washes. For each wash, the difference in cost between using the baseline wash and the
substitute wash was calculated. The "Cost to Use" calculation included labor costs, purchase
price, and materials cost, such as shop towels, but did not account for "hidden costs." To
compare costs among substitute washes, the cost analysis looks at the change in cost of using
the substitute wash as compared to the baseline wash. Results are shown in the table below.

Cost Estimate Results
(based on 7 washes in this category)
Vegetable Ester
(based on 5 washes in this category)
Petroleum/Vegetable Ester
(based on 7 washes in this category)
Vegetable Ester/Water
(based on 2 washes in this category)
(based on 1 wash in this category)
($ per gallon)
$2.85 - $16.40
$9.55 - $18.00
$10.08 - $19.00
$9.55 - $10.26
-19% to +179%
(based on cleaning 205 blankets)
-4% to +120%
(based on cleaning 151 blankets)
+4% to +159%
(based on cleaning 235 blankets)
-6% to +168%
(based on cleaning 33 blankets)
+47% to +115%
(based on cleaning 32 blankets)
  1 A negative number indicates a decrease in cost compared to the baseline wash, VM&P naphtha. The COSTTO USE
  included labor costs, purchase price, and materials cost.
Reducing Costs with Substitute Washes
Washes from three different chemical categories (vegetable ester, petroleum, and petroleum/
vegetable ester blend), showed lower costs in at least one facility. These cost savings indicate that
most substitute wash categories have the potential to be a cost-effective replacement. Other
washes showed increased costs - by up to 179% - when compared to the baseline.  Most of the
increase in cost was due to increased labor time to clean the blanket. As press operators become
more familiar with the substitute washes, the total cost to use is likely to decrease considerably.
                            Costs Vary Within Categories
                            You'll also notice that there is quite a range of costs within each chemical category. This varia-
                            tion shows that the different washes work differently depending on the specific operating con-
                            ditions of the facility. This stresses the importance of testing different washes in your own
                            facility to find the one that is right for you. These cost variations may be due to differences in:
                                      5> operator's opinion of blanket cleanliness
                                      5> application method
                                      5> operator's past experience with substitute washes

        What were the overall results of the
        substitute wash evaluations?
risk, and cost results of the DfE evaluations for each chemical category. The information present-
ed in this table is the result of efforts of the many participants of the DfE Lithography Project.
The Project team included members of trade associations, suppliers, printers, and EPA. The Project
collected data on 22 different blanket washes by conducting performance demonstrations at 17
different printing facilities who donated their time and their presses to this project.

For more details on the methodology and results for each of the categories listed in the
chart, refer to the other questions in this booklet:
                   For More Information On:	rj0 TO

                   Chemical Categories
                   Worker Health and Safety
                   Environmental Risk
                   Regulatory Concerns
                                                                                     DIE Lithography Project  EE


Chemical Categories
see pages 7-8

including petroleum/water mixtures
Petroleum/Vegetable Ester Blends
including ester/ petroleum/
water mixtures
Vegetable Ester
including blends with
ester/glycol ether
Vegetable Ester/Water Blends
Worker Health Risk
see pages 11-12
Concern for Concern for
Dermal Risk Inhalation Risk
Low concern
Very low concern
Low concern
Very low concern
Low concern
No concern
Very low concern
A rating of:
"concern" presents a greater risk than
"low concern" which presents a greater risk
than "very low concern" which presents a
greater risk than "no concern."
• Based on average risk of the washes
tested within each given chemical category.
see pages 11-12
based on flashpoint
Moderate risk
Moderate risk
Low risk
Low risk
Moderate risk
Low risk= flashpoint > 150°F
Moderate risk= 100°F < flashpoint < 1 50°F
High risk= flashpoint < 100°F
• Based on average flashpoint of the
washes tested within given chemical
see pages 11-12
7 - 99%
increases as %
petroleum in the
blend increases
2 - 65%
increases as %
petroleum in the
blend increases

see pages 13-14
Regulatory Concerns
see pages 9
see pages 15-16
Aquatic Risk
as indicator of
ecological risk
Product performance as evaluated
by printers during performance
column are found in at least 1 formulation
in this category. These chemicals may
trigger the Federal environmental regulations
listed below.
Cost to use (including purchase
cost labor, wipes) as compared
to baseline, VM8P naphtha
Washes in this category
that contain alkyl ben-
zene sulfonates or
ethoxylated nonylphe-
nols  were found to pre-
sent a riskto aquatic
Washes in this category
that contain alkyl ben-
zene sulfonates or
ethoxylated nonylphe-
nolswere found to pre-
sent a riskto aquatic
Washes in this
category that contain
ethoxylated nonylphe-
nols we re found to
present a riskto
aquatic species
Washes in this
category that contain
ethoxylated nonylphe-
nols we re found to
present a riskto
aquatic species
Fair to Good.
Press operators reported that these
washes cut inkwell. In several cases,
printers noted there was an oily residue
left on the blanket after cleaning that
took some extra effort to remove.
Fair to Good.
Printers found that these washes cut
the ink well, but often left a thick, oily
residue on the blanket that required
extra time and effort to remove.
Fair to Good.
Press operators found that this type of
wash cut the inkwell. In some cases,
extra effort was needed to remove the
residue with a dry wipe.
The effort required to remove the ink
using these washes was considered
excessive by the demonstration facilities.
They also noted that the wash was of a
thick consistency and did not soak into
the shop towel.
This wash cleaned the blanket well, but
left a slight oily residue that had to be
removed with a dry wipe.
Some Petroleum-based washes
tested contained:
  Aromatic Hydrocarbons  CWA, CAA, CER-
  Alkyl benzene sulfonates  CWA, CERCLA
  Alkanolamine CAA,CERCLA,SARA313,OSHA
  Ethylene glycol ethers  CAA.SARA313
Some Petroleum/Vegetable Ester blends
tested contained:
  Aromatic Hydrocarbons  CWA, CAA,
  Alkyl benzene sulfonates  CWA, CERCLA
 None of the vegetable ester-based
 washes tested contained Federally
 regulated chemicals.
 None of the vegetable esther/water
 blends tested contained Federally
 regulated chemicals.
Some Terpene-based washes
tested contained:
  Alkali/salts  CWA, CERCLA
  Alkyl benzene sulfonates  CWA, CERCLA
  Ethylene glycol ethers  CAA.SARA313
Decreased at some facilities
and Increased at others
Decreased at some facilities
and Increased at others
Decreased at some facilities
and Increased at others
Increased at all facilities
where this type of wash
was demonstrated
Increased at all facilities
where this type of wash
was demonstrated
                                                                   CWA    = Clean Water Act
                                                                   CAA    = Clean Air Act, Section 112B, Hazardous Air Pollutants
                                                                   CERCLA  = Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation & Liability Act
                                                                   SARA313 = Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, Section 313
                                                                   RCRA   = Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
                                                                   OSHA   = Occupational Safety and Health Act

        What steps do I need to take to switch
        to a substitute wash?
Printers are discovering that switching to one of the new substitute blanket washes can
be a good business decision that is also safer for workers and for the environment. To find
the blanket wash that best suits your facility, follow the steps outlined here. In all these
steps, be sure to include press operators so that they understand how and why the evaluation
is taking place.
      Evaluate your current wash

        Q  Read product labels
        U  Read the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
        Q  Ask your supplier the questions listed in Question 8 of this booklet
           for your current wash. Find out:
             5> the chemicals it contains
             Ł> its VOC content
             Ł>• the health and environmental risks
             5> regulatory issues associated with the use of the wash
        Evaluate the cost of your wash by considering all the cost factors
        listed in Question 5 of this booklet.

        0>  To conduct your own analysis, follow the step-by-step instructions in the
        DfE Lithography Bulletin 4, A Worksheet to Help You Choose a Better Wash.

      Identify possible substitute washes

        Review the performance, cost, and risk information presented in this booklet
        to familiarize yourself with the different types of washes available.

        Talk with your suppliers about the substitute washes they have available. Ask
        them the same questions about the risk and regulatory requirements that you
        asked about your current wash. Use the questions listed in Question 8 of this
        booklet to guide you.

        @  Also refer to some of the other DfE publications, such as DfE Lithography
        Bulletin 3, Vegetable Ester Blanket Washes, which gives more detailed information
        on this chemical category.

        Select several washes to test at your facility.
For a list of common
chemical names as
they may appear on an
MSDS or product label,
see  pages 7 and 8.
Work with your
suppliers to select
possible substitute
washes for your
                                                                                       DfE Lithography Project   HI

Expect a learning curve
as you gain experience
using substitute blanket
Try out substitute blanket washes in your facility

   Set aside an adequate trial period.
   Include the press operators in testing new washes because they'll be the ones
   using the new wash every day.
   Follow suppliers' suggestions on how to use substitutes properly. When you first
   try out a wash, ask the supplier to demonstrate its use — substitute washes may
   require a change in your application method.
   Be aware that it  may take some time to become familiar with new washing tech-
   niques to use the wash most effectively. When press operators learn how to use
   these new washes, the substitutes can work as well as the standard blanket washes.
   @  To find out  what kinds of changes in washing technique may be required,
   see DfE Lithography Bulletin 1, Substitute Blanket Washes: Making Them Work.
Compare your
current wash and
the substitute wash
on all factors: cost,
health  risk, perfor-
mance, environmental
risk, and regulatory
Compare the cost, performance, and risk of your current
wash and the substitute wash

   After testing a few washes, compare them to your current wash. Be sure to consider
   more than performance and the price of the product — look at the risk and all the
   hidden costs of using the substitute and your current wash.
   Remember that cost and performance can improve as you work to optimize your
   techniques for using a wash.
   @  Follow the step-by-step instructions in the DfE Lithography Bulletin 4, A
   Worksheet to Help You Choose a Better Wash, to find the best wash for your facility.
   EE DfE Lithography Project

        What questions should I ask
        my blanket wash supplier?
Your supplier can be a valuable source of information for evaluating both the wash you use
now and any substitute wash. Ask your supplier the questions listed below to gain important
health and environmental information about the blanket wash you are currently using or a
substitute blanket wash you may consider testing.
      What chemicals are in the blanket wash?

        Ł>• Send me a copy of the MSDS.

        5> What chemicals are in this wash that are not
           listed on  the MSDS?
2 ť>-  Which regulations might be triggered when using this product?

        5> Are there any HAPs (Hazardous Air Polluntants under
           the Clean Air Act) in this wash?
For a list of common

chemical names as they

would appear on an

MSDS or product label,

see pages 7 and 8.
           How do you suggest I comply with the applicable regulations?
3 ť>-  What is the volatile organic compound (VOC) content and vapor pressure of the wash?
4 ť>-  What health risks are associated with the use of the blanket wash?

        Ł>• What types of short-term symptoms, such as dizziness,
           headache or nausea, might I  experience by using these
           products on a daily basis?

        Ł>• Does this product contain any chemicals with adverse
           long-term health effects?

        5> When using this product on a daily basis, what type of
           ventilation do I need?
5 ^  Do I need to be concerned if workers get this wash on their hands or skin?

6 ť>-  What are the best ways to use the wash to minimize both the health risk
      and waste generated?
The lower the VOC

content, the better.

The lower the vapor

pressure, the better.
                                                                                   DIE Lithography Project  ES

    See DfE Lithography
Bulletin 2, Workplace
Practices Make the
Difference, for more
tips on how to minimize
the health risks and
waste generated
when using substitute
      Do I need to change the way I currently use blanket wash to make this product work best?
8 ť>-  What is the proper method for disposing of the used blanket wash and towels?
         Ł>• Will my  used shop towels or used blanket wash be considered
            hazardous waste under RCRA?
                                    5> Once the wash is mixed with other chemicals, such as inks
                                       or fountain solutions, what is the proper disposal method?
                           9 ^ Do I need to take any special precautions when laundering used towels?
                           1O ť>- Do any of the chemicals in this product present a risk to aquatic species?
   E3 DIE Lithography Project

         What else  can I  do to prevent pollution
         in my  facility?

Pollution prevention can save money, benefit the environment, and result in a safer workplace.
By replacing a high-VOC blanket wash with a substitute low inVOCs and vapor pressure, you
are preventing pollution, meaning you are reducing (or eliminating) pollution at the source.
If you look around, you'll find opportunities for preventing pollution throughout your print
shop. Many lithographers, mostly small and medium-sized facilities, currently use low-cost
pollution prevention practices to reduce overall chemical usage in their shops.  Some of their
ideas are presented here. Following these ideas is a description of blanket wash recycling
opportunities. For printers who continue to use solvent-based washes, several options for
solvent recovery are described at the end of this section.

 1 ť>-  Conduct a process evaluation to find ways to prevent pollution

One of the best  ways  to find new pollution prevention opportunities methods is to conduct
a process evaluation. A process evaluation is a step-by-step review of your printing process.
         Q Look at each step of the printing process, from purchasing raw materials to
            shipping finished product.  For every step of the process, write down every
            point where materials are used and wastes are generated.
         Q Don't forget to include the  steps in your operation that are not directly
            part of the production process (such as chemical storage, waste disposal
            and electricity use).
         Q Where wastes are generated, estimate the cost associated with the lost
            raw material, and with collecting, tracking, and disposing of that waste.
         Q Take a closer look at the points in your process where wastes are produced.
            There may be ways to reduce each of these wastes.
 2 ť>-  Improve materials management and inventory control

         Q Manage inventory on a "first-in first-out" basis.
         Q Minimize the amount of chemicals on the press floor.
         Q Store chemicals in closed, clearly marked containers.
         Q Use a pump to transfer chemical products from large to small containers.
3 ť>-  Improve the way you handle chemicals

Many printers have modified the way they handle blanket wash and other chemicals
to prevent pollution, including:
         Q Using squeeze bottles or plunger cans to apply a specified amount
            of blanket wash to shop towels.
         Q Storing used towels in closed containers to reduce solvent evaporation.
         Q Diluting the wash with water.
Pollution prevention
means finding ways
to reduce or eliminate
the sources of pollution
in your facility.
Take a closer look
at the points in your
process where wastes
are produced. There
may be ways to
reduce each of
these wastes.
Remember, wastes
indicate lost profit
as well as possible
Improvements in
the way you handle
chemicals in daily
operations can
reduce waste.

   DIE Lithography Project   E3

Encourage all
employees to play
an active role in
pollution prevention to
improve your facility.
4 ť=-  Make pollution prevention part of your daily activities

The most effective method to prevent pollution throughout your shop is to get everyone
involved and thinking about improvements they can make in their area of the facility.  But
to make pollution prevention a priority with everyone, it is essential that your shop's definition
of work excellence includes environmental awareness.
          Q  Conduct regular evaluations and work as a team with employees
             and chemical suppliers to prevent pollution.
          Q  Encourage employee suggestions through a merit program or
             some other type of incentive.
          Q  Make it clear that management will support employees as changes
             are made and will commit the resources necessary to succeed.
         @  See DfE Lithography Bulletin 2, Workplace Practices Make the Difference,
             for more tips on how to minimize the health risks and waste generated when
             using substitute washes.
Solvent-laden shop
towels can be volatile,
flammable, and may
be toxic to ecosystem
life when the effluent
from industrial laun-
dries is discharged
to sewer systems.
Reducing the solvent
in towels reduces
laundry costs and
reduces potential
for releases to
the environment.
If you must use a solvent-based wash, there are technologies that allow you to recover your
used solvent. Solvent recovery can reduce operating costs and waste management expenses.
Several solvent recovery options are described below.

Extraction of blanket wash from press wipes
Solvent remaining in shop  towels can be extracted and then reused directly for non-critical
cleaning such as parts washing.  Extraction can be done using any of the following methods:
         HAND-OPERATED WRINGER.  These cost less than $1,000 and may be a viable
         option for small  printers. Verify that the squeeze rollers of the wringer are made
         of a material that is resistant to the type of solvent in your wipes.
         EXPLOSION-PROOF CENTRIFUGE. The centrifuge is most appropriate for large
         printing facilities that generate significant quantities of shop towels. The units may
         cost between $21,000 and $30,000, processing from 35 to 130 pounds of towels per
         load. The typical load size is 225 wipes. Be sure to check with your local regulatory
         agency to determine if any restrictions exist in your area for operating a centrifuge.
         MOBILE CENTRIFUGE SERVICE. Since the purchase of a centrifuge may not be
         viable for smaller printers, they can contract with a mobile service that transports
         an explosion-proof centrifuge to printing facilities for on-site solvent extraction.
         Pricing for extraction services varies regionally, but may be around $65/hour,
         during which time it is possible to process around 1,500 towels.

Distillation of solvents
While extraction can recover solvent for reuse for imprecise cleaning, distillation of used
solvent produces near-virgin quality blanket wash. Distillation units cost $12,000 to $15,000,
depending on capacity and features. Safety, however, is a significant consideration for printers
contemplating the purchase of a distillation unit.  Be sure to check with your local regulatory
agency, since some states require additional permitting for solvent distillation units.

        Where can I find more information
        about pollution prevention in printing?

There are many resources available to printers for more information on choosing and using
a substitute blanket wash, as well as for information on pollution prevention practices in
printing. Many states have technical assistance offices, and some states even have pollution
prevention handbooks geared specifically toward printers. Another good place to go for
information is your local trade association. They may be able to put you in contact with
suppliers of substitute products, as well as other printers who have implemented
improvements at their facilities.
Listed below are a few resources to get you started. This is by no means a comprehensive
list, but is intended to show what types of resources may be available in your area.

1899 Preston White Drive
Reston.VA 22091
phone: 703-264-7200
200 Deer Run Road
SewickleyPA 15143
phone: 412-741-6860 fax: 412-741-2311
email: info@gatf.lm.com
http ://www.gatf.1m. com/

780 Paliside Avenue
Teaneck.NJ 07666
phone: 800-642-NAPL or 201-342-0700
email: infor@napl.org
Virtual center representing trade associations
and local government to facilitate information
exchange and guidance for printers.

100 Daingerfield Road
Alexandria.VA 22314-2888
phone: 703-519-8100 fax: 703-548-3227
http: //www printing. org/

email: neppr@tiac.net
Iowa Waste
Reduction Center
University of
Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 5O614

Michigan Great Printers
Project Environmental
Assistance Division,
Michigan DEQ
P.O. Box 3O457
Lansing, Ml 48909-7957
Fax: 517-335-4729
New Jersey Department
of Environmental
4O1 East St., CNO28,
5th Floor
Trenton, NJ O8625
                            This section lists some of the many resources on pollution prevention developed specifically
                            for printers. This list is not exhaustive, so be sure to check with your state technical assistance
                            office to see what other resources are available.
Fact Sheets for Printers
These fact sheets include information on a demo at MA Toxics Use Reduction Institute
at UMass/Lowell of "Near-Zero VOC Lithographic Ink and Blanket Wash Systems," as well
as open houses in print shops in New England held to demonstrate environmentally
friendly printing technologies.
Pollution Prevention Manual for Lithographic Printers
An 80-page handbook outlining specific pollution prevention procedures and
ideas for each step of the printing process. One section details pollution prevention
options for press cleaning, including a section on product substitution.
Understanding Hazardous Waste Generation and Responsibilities:
An Introductory Guide for Lithographic Printers
The Great Printers Project brings together representatives from government, industry
and trade groups to make pollution prevention the primary choice of the Great Lakes
states lithographic printing industry. In doing so, the project is developing information
products such as the fact sheets and booklets for lithographers listed above.
Info at http://www.deq.state.mi.us/
Fact Sheet: Waste Reduction for the Commercial Printing Industry
This six-page fact sheet outlines a checklist of pollution prevention alternatives for
each process step in lithography. It includes contact information for New Jersey
regarding information on alternative blanket washes.  California and Virginia also
have a similar fact sheet for printers.
Info at http://es.inel.gov/techinfo/facts/jersey/njprntng.html

Pollution Prevention for Printers
This 70-page manual gives tips on how to reduce wastes and operating costs, and ensure
environmental compliance. One of the appendices lists suppliers for alternative cleaning
agents, washing equipment and distillation units.
County of Erie, DEP
Office of Pollution
95 Franklin Street
Rm 1O77
Buffalo, NY 142O2
EnviroPrint: A Self-Help Guide to Environmentally Sound
Printing Operations by the Printing Industries of Ohio.
This three-ring manual includes worksheets and regulatory information as well
as pollution prevention tips for printers.
Info at http://www.epa.ohio.gov/opp/prntp2x.html
Industrial Solvents: Pollution Prevention Handbook
Contact: Center for Hazardous Materials Research. This handbook includes a section
on solvent substitution for industrial cleaning, which includes categories of possible
alternatives to traditional chemicals. Another section lists suppliers of alternative
solvents and solvent recovery equipment.
Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention: A Guide for
Lithographic Printers
This 36-page handbook describes pollution prevention tips for handling various waste
streams and processes for lithography. It includes a section on "DOs and DON'Ts" for
press washes, as well as a list of solvent vendor and recycler contacts for Washington State.
Info at http://www.wa.gov/ecology/
Compliance Plus Guide
This manual, "Compliance-i-" (plus pollution prevention) shows lithographic printers
step-by-step how to bring their companies into compliance and beyond. This is a general refer-
ence for all lithographic printers, although the document targets Illinois-specific regulations.
Send a $5 check to:
Printing Industries
of Ohio
P.O. Box 819
Westerville, OH  438O6
University of Pittsburgh
32O William Pitt Way
Pittsburgh, PA 1 5238
Washington State
Department of Ecology
P.O.Box 476OO
Olympia, WA 985O4-76OO
fax: 36O-4O7-6989
Illinois Great Printers
Fit to Print:  An Environmental Manual for New England Lithographers
This 92-page manual gives printers basic, essential information on the most significant federal
and state environmental compliance requirements, and lists environment assistance resources
for New England's printers. The manual uses illustrations, charts, and checklists in helping
printers develop corporate environmental strategies, improve business operations (like quality
control), and enhance functional operations such as production scheduling.
U.S EPA-Region 1
JFK Federal Building
Boston, MA O22O3
                                                                                             DIE Lithography Project

                         OTHER  RESOURCES
                         SUBSPRINT (SUBSTITUTION
                         OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS IN THE
                         PRINTING INDUSTRY NEWSLETTER)
                         SUBSPRINT has conducted extensive
                         research into the use of vegetable-based
                         press washes (vegetable cleaning agents).
                         They also have produced a video on
                         using these cleaners.
Material Safety Data Sheets for industrial
chemicals are online! Use any Web browser
and type the following:

                         The Danish Working Environment Fund
                         Vermundsgade 38
                         2100 Copenhagen Denmark 0
                         Tel: 31 20 55 33

                         GREEN AND PROFITABLE PRINTING
                         This four-part video series addresses waste
                         reduction opportunities for small and medium
                         lithographic print shops. It emphasizes the
                         linkages between quality, process control, and
                         waste prevention. Each video is approximately
                         15 minutes.
A comprehensive guide to provide P2
information on solvent and process
alternatives for industrial cleaning.
Also includes downloadable software.
                         Solid and Hazardous Waste Education Center
                         529 Lowell Hall
                         610 Langdon Street
                         Madison, WI  53703
                         Tel: 608-262-0385
EE DIE Lithography Project