May 1997
        Training Curriculum
for Alternative Clothes Cleaning
                 prepared by

    The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute
           under EPA Grant #X823854
     Economics, Exposure and Technology Division
       Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
        US Environmental Protection Agency
               401M Street SW
             Washington, DC 20460


fllodule i Introduction	1
  1.1 Course Objectives  	1
  1.2 What is Wet Cleaning  	2
  1.3 Who Should Take This Course?  . 2
  1.4 Why Do We Need a New
      Way to Clean?  	3
  1.5 A Brief History of
      Wet Cleaning  	4

fllodule 2 Health, Safety and
  Environmental'Regulations	9
  2.1 What Are the Hazards?  	9
       2.1.1  Acute and Chronic
             Exposure	9
       2.1.2  Exposure to
             Workers and Others ... 10
       2.1.3  Environmental Effects . 11
       2.1.4  Environmental Health and
             Safety in Wet Cleaning . 12
  2.2 Who Makes the Rules?  ...... 12
  2.3 What Rules Are Currently
      in Effect?  	13
       2.3.1  Occupational Safety and
             Health Act	 14  Permissible Exposure
             Limits (PEL)	14
       2.3.2 Resource Conservation and
             Recovery Act	15
       2.3.3  Clean Air Act	16
       2.3.4 Comprehensive Environ-
             mental Response, Compen-
             sation and Liability Act
              (CERCLA,1980) and
             Superfund Amendments
             and Reauthorization Act
              (SARA, 1986)  	16
        2.3.5  Sewer Or Septic Discharge
  2.4 What Are the Potential
      Liabilities?  	18

module 3 Front Fiber to garment... 23
  3.1 Fibers, Yarns and Fabrics	23
        3.1.1 What Is a Fiber?	23
        3.1.2  Yarns 	25
        3.1.3  Fabric Types  	26
  3.2 The Effect of Cleaning
       on Fibers  	28
        3.2.1  Fiber Strength  	28
       3.2.2  Elasticity and
             Dimensional Stability . .  29
       3.2.3  Absorbency and the Effect
             of Water On Fibers  ...  30
       3.2.4  Effect of Chemicals  ...  32
       3.2.5  Effect of Heat  	35
  3.3 TheEffect of Cleaning
      on Fabrics  	36
       3.3.1  Shrinkage	36
       3.3.2  Colorfastness	37
       3.3.3  Textile Finishes  	37
  3.4 Garment Construction	38
  3.5 How to Identify Fibers	39

flloduk 4 Boils, Odors, Stains
  and Separation  	45
  4.1 Soils, Odors and Stains  	46
       4.1.1  Soils	46
       4.1.2  Odors	46
       4.1.3  Stains	47
  4.2 Separating Soils, Odors and Stains
      from Fabrics	48
       4.2.1  Processes	48
       4.2.2  Chemical Agents  	49

module 5 garment Cleaning
  Methods	53
  5.1 Current and Alternative Garment
      Cleaning Methods  	53
       5.1.1  Dry Cleaning	54
       5.1.2  Carbon Dioxide:
             Supercritical and Liquid  54
       5.1.3  Ozone Cleaning
             System	56
       5.1.4  Ultrasonic Cleaning ...  56
       5.1.5  Wet Cleaning	57
  5.2 A Comparison of Dry Cleaning
      and Wet Cleaning Methods ...  57
       5.2.1  Preparation 	58
       5.2.2  Washing and Drying  ..  58
       5.2.3  Finishing and
             Assembly	60

module 6 Overview of
   Wet Cleaning  	63
  6.1 Front Counter  	64
  6.2 Garment Measuring	65
  6.3 Sorting	66

  6.4  Testing for Colorfastness	67
         6.5  Stain Removal	67
        6.5.1  Stain Removal
              Equipment	68
        6.5.2  Stain Removal
              Agents 	70
  6.6  Cleaning with Water  	70
        6.6.1  Wet Cleaning
              Machine	70
        6.6.2  Detergents  	71
        6.6.3  Know Your Water	72
  6.7  Drying  	73
  6.8  Finishing ....	74

fllodule i Hands-On
   Wet Gleaning  	77
  7.1  Sorting	77
  7.2  Stain Removal 	78
  7.3  Wet Cleaning	78
  7.4  Drying  	79
  7.5  Finishing 	79

Module 8 Economics of
   Wet Cleaning  	81
  8.1  Understanding and
       Finding Costs	 81
        8.1.1  Capital Costs	81
        8.1.2  Operating Costs	82
        8.1.3  Intangible Costs	82
  8.2  Converting From Dry to Wet .. 83
        8.2.1  Environment Canada's
              Test Conversion	83
        8.2.2  The Greener Cleaner
              Demonstration Shop .. 84
  8.3  Identifying and Comparing Costs
       of Dry vs. Wet Cleaning	85

fllodule g Available Wet
  CleaningEquipment	95
  9.1  Wet Cleaning Machines	95
  9.2  Dryers   	96
  9.3  Wet Cleaning Equipment Features
       and Specifications	97

fllodule 10  Facility function
  and Design 	101
 10.1  Adapting the Staff to
       Wet Cleaning Procedures	101
 10.2  Designing a  Functional
       Floor Plan  	102
fllodule n Labeling Liability	105
 11.1  Proposed Changes in
       Care Labeling	105
 11.2  The Current Situation  	106

flppendixfl	107
Machine Manufacturers  	107
Detergent Manufacturers	108

flppendixB	 ill
Organizations 	Ill
Government Agencies  	,~...... 112

AppendixC  .•	 113
References	113

Figure 3-1 Fiber Classifications	24
Figure 3-2 Fibers And Yarns  	25
Figure 3-3 Woven Fabrics 	26
Figure 3-4 Knits	27
Figure 3-5 Fiber Strength .	29
Figure 3-6 Abrasion Resistance ...... 29
Figure 3-7 Elasticity and Dimensional
       Stability  	31
Figure 3-8 Absorbency  	31
Figure 3-9 Effects of Bleaches  . ..	33
Figure 3-10 Effects  of Acids   	.... 34
Figure 3-11 Effects  of Alkalies	34
Figure 3-12 Effects  of Organic Solvents 35
Figure 3-13 Fiber Identification
       by Burning	41

Figure 4-1 How Surfactants Work	50

Figure 5-1 Dry Clean Process  	59
Figure 5-2 Wet Clean Process  	59

Figure 6-1 Wet Clean Process Flow ... 64
Figure 6-2 Recommended Sites for
       Garment Measurement  	65

Figure 8-1 Cost Comparison
      Worksheets  (One-Time
      Investment Costs)	86-88
Figure 8-2 Cost Comparison
      Worksheets  (Annual
       Operating Costs)  	89-94
Figure 9-1 Summary of Wet Cleaning
      Machine Features	98
Figure 9-2 Summary of Wet Cleaning
      Dryer Features	99
Figure 9-3 Summary of Wet Clean
      Machine Features	99
Figure 9-4 Wet Clean Dryer
      Features 	100

 The Toxics Use Reduction Institute would like to thank the following individuals
 for their expert advise and dedication to the project. The time, energy and expertise
 channeled into the development and review of the draft manual is greatly appreci-
 ated. The opinions, methods and findings in this manual are not necessarily sup-
 ported by these reviewers.

 Mike Achin — Laidlaw Corporation
 Ken Adamson — Langley Parisian
 Steve Anderton — JLA
' Charles Anton — Anton's Cleaners
• Janet Beloin — U.S. EPA - New England
 William Bernard — Caled Chemical
' Carmelia Bernard! — North East Fabricare Association
' Fred Bernard! — North East Fabricare Association
' Peter Blake — North East Fabricare Association
' -Brad Gumming — Environment Canada
 Kevin Daley — Aqua Clean
 Ralph Daniels — Daniels Equipment
 Chris Dolan — Aquatex Inc.
 Bill Eyring — Center for Neighborhood Technology
 Tom Fleck — Unimac
' Noam Frankel — The Greener Cleaner
h George Franz — Executive Office of Environmental Affairs/Office of Technical Assistance
h EricFrumin — UNITE
K Ann Hargrove — The Greener Cleaner
h Janet Hickman — Dow Chemical Company
 Sylvia Ewing Hoover — Center for.Neighborhood Technology
K Ohadjehassi —U.S. EPA
 Doug Kelly — Aquatex
'' Myeong Loewe — Utopia Cleaners
h Jon Meijer — International Fabricare Institute
• Sylvan Menezes — Panda Cleaners
 Dave Nobil — Nature's Cleaners
h Max Oh — Town & Country Cleaners
K Jo Patton — Center for Neighborhood Technology
h Michael Perry — Ed's Cleaners
 David Porter — Garment Care
h Steve Risotto — Center for Emissions  Control
K Carol Rougvie — JSI Center for environmental Health
• Deborah Savage — Tellus Institute
'' Mary Scalco — International Fabricare Institute
' Bill Seitz — Neighborhood Cleaners Association - International
 Paul Stray — Stray Construction                         ;                               ,
 John Tipps — Clean Concepts
 Cynthia Vasquez — Center for Neighborhood Technology
 Jinelle Walker — Illinois Fabricare Association
 Jurgin WaShaussen — Veit
' Jack Weinberg — Greenpeace
h Diane Weiser — Ecofranchising
K Manfred Wentz — R.R. Streets

h Advisory Committee member

 The following members of the Toxics Use Reduction Institute contributed to this manual:
 Jack Luskin
 Teena Manning
 Jodie Siegel
  This material is based upon work supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Grant #X823854.
  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect
    the views of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.


Objective:  To introduce students to course objectives and
This training course teaches garment care professionals and staff about
a new way to clean garments. This new technique is called wet clean-
ing. The Toxics Use Reduction Institute at the University of Massa-
chusetts Lowell has developed this course to explain how wet clean-
ing works and how to operate a wet cleaning facility. The course also
explains how to convert from a dry cleaning facility to a wet clean-
ing facility.
This course gives participants the information and experience they
need to:
   m  Understand how wet cleaning works

   m  Understand how to set up and run a wet cleaning facility

   m  Understand how wet cleaning and dry cleaning affect the
      environment, the health  of workers, and public health in
   m  Gain first-hand experience by actually cleaning garments
      using the wet cleaning method
   The course manual is divided into eleven training modules. Each
 module explains a topic related to the wet cleaning method. The
 objectives of each module are listed at the beginning of the module.
   Certain words in this manual are printed in bold and italic type.
 These are special terms, such as "machine wet cleaning" or "cellu-
 lose." Each module contains a section titled "What Does That Mean?"
 that defines these special terms.
lubold and
Italic are
defined In a
section called
                                                                   fllodule I  i

  Wet cleaning Is
 tot ft an old
 Hew Method for
iHtftls course,
about cleaning
using tfte wet
    Wet cleaning is both an old method and a new method for clean-
 ing garments. Water has been used to clean clothes for centuries.
 Inventors, scientists and engineers have also been working for centu-
 ries to discover new methods to clean clothes quickly and efficiently.
 By the 1930's, the dry cleaning method became very popular as an
 affordable and efficient method for cleaning a  wide variety of gar-
    One concern with dry cleaning, however, is that it uses chemicals
 that can be hazardous to garment care workers and to the environ-
 ment. Because of these hazards, scientists and engineers began look-
 ing  for a cleaning method that does not use hazardous chemicals.
 They came up with a number of new methods which are addressed
 in Module 5. One new method is machine wet cleaning, which uses
 water and detergents to clean clothes.
   It is not the use of water that makes wet cleaning a new method
 for cleaning clothes. New computer-controlled wet cleaning machines,
 new dryers, new detergents and new spot removers are what make
 wet cleaning a new method. The new washing machines and dryers
 have controls  that allow them to safely and efficiently clean a wide
 variety of garments in water. New detergents and spot removers are
 made of ingredients that are safer for workers and the environment,
 yet are as safe and effective at removing soils, stains and odors as dry
 cleaning solvents. Equipment, detergents and skill all contribute to
 successful wet cleaning
   In this course, participants will learn about cleaning garments using
the the wet cleaning process. It is hoped that after taking this course,
participants will be motivated to add wet cleaning methods to their
daily operations.
               This course was developed for dry cleaning shop owners, managers,
               skilled operators or entrepreneurs who want to wet clean all or some
               of the garments processed in their shop. The course is designed to
               help garment care professionals make decisions about using wet clean-
               ing in their daily operations. The course explains not only the wet
     fllafsadiuiettf Toxics Use Reduction Institute

cleaning method itself, but also explains the costs and benefits of wet
   The course assumes that the participants understand the commer-
cial dry cleaning process. This makes it easier for participants to un-
derstand the differences and similarities between wet and dry clean-
ing. The training that accompanies this manual is centered around
creative activities that will allow participants to use their experienc-
es, knowledge and enthusiasm in the learning process.
The professional garment care industry is currently experiencing one
of the greatest periods of change since it began. Two forces are driv-
ing this change: technology and regulations. The garment care in-
dustry is working on new equipment, new detergents and new clean-
ing methods. Some of this new technology is available now.  Some of
it is still being developed and tested. Environmental regulations are
forcing many industries to change their processes. These regulations
have also affected dry cleaners.
   Dry cleaning using organic solvents such as camphene, benzene,
gasoline and Stoddard solvent began in the mid-1800's. Since then,
the garment cleaning industry has  continually changed to  keep up
with consumer demand, new developments, and new regulations.
The 1930's and  1940's were profitable years for the industry. It wasn't
until the 1950's that the industry hit its first growth challenge: the
automatic home washer and dryer. These new machines allowed con-
sumers to clean more of their clothes at home. The 1960's dealt the
biggest blow to the industry with the introduction of wash and wear
clothing. In the  1970's the popularity of easily cleaned polyester fab-
rics meant that  even fewer clothes were being taken to the cleaners.
The coin-operated and discount dry cleaner arrived to challenge neigh-
borhood businesses in  the 1980's. In the 1990's, casual office wear
has become more acceptable. This has caused the market for dry
cleaning services to shrink again. Although casual office wear reduc-
es the market for traditionally dry cleaned garments, it also provides
a new marketing opportunity for wet cleaners.
   The dry cleaning industry is also being affected by environmental
regulations that have been introduced since the 1970's. These regula-
regulations are
industries to
change tfteir
                                                                  flloduk I   3

             tions are driving the industry to develop cleaning processes that do
             not use hazardous chemicals. Several new cleaning processes are cur-
             rently being researched. The goal of this research is to create new
             processes that do not harm the environment, but are also efficient,
             effective and profitable.
                These new processes include cleaning with liquid carbon dioxide,
             ultrasonics, ozone, and wet cleaning. At the time this manual was
             written, wet cleaning was the only practical, environmentally sound
             and potentially profitable new method. Therefore, the focus of this
             manual is on wet cleaning.
                In this country, 80% of professional cleaners use perchloroethy-
             lene (or "perc") as their dry cleaning solvent and the remaining 20%
             use petroleum. Because most cleaners  use perchloroethylene, this
             manual compares wet cleaning with perchloroethylene dry cleaning.
             In May 1992, an International Roundtable on Pollution Prevention
             and Control in the Dry Cleaning Industry was assembled by the United
             States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its Design for the
             Environment Program (DfE). The roundtable was created to consid-
             er the health and environmental concerns associated with perchloro-
             ethylene dry cleaning. The roundtable participants included profes-
             sionals from the dry cleaning industry and allied trades, researchers,
             environmentalists and government officials. These participants formed
             a partnership that evaluated many methods for reducing the risks to
test study of  garment care workers and the environment that are associated with
multiprocess   the use of perchloroethylene.
wet cleaning,      In November and December of 1992, the EPA's Design for Envi-
             ronment (DfE) staff conducted a test study of multiprocess wet clean-
             ing at the New York School of Dry Cleaning in New  York City. In
             multiprocess wet cleaning, garments are inspected and pre-treated if
             necessary. The garments are then spot cleaned, steam cleaned or hand
                In this test, the cost and effectiveness of wet cleaning was com-
             pared to perchloroethylene dry cleaning. The results of the test are
             described in the EPA's report "Multiprocess Wet Cleaning — Cost
             and Performance Comparison of Conventional Dry Cleaning and an

/i  fllaj$adiujettjToxiaU$e Reduction Institute

Alternative Process," EPA 744-R-93-004, September 1993. The re-
sults stated that under certain situations, multiprocess wet cleaning
can be technically feasible and economically competitive with per-
chloroethylene dry cleaning.
   One possible problem this study identified was that multiprocess
wet cleaning may require more manual labor than dry cleaning. Ad-
ditionally, the long term effects on garments were not evaluated. For
this reason, dry cleaners may not want to use the multiprocess wet
cleaning method. Since the test was done, however, new wet cleaning
machines have become readily available, The wet cleaning machines
reduce the amount of cleaning that needs to be done by hand. This
makes machine wet cleaning more efficient than multiprocess wet
cleaning, and more attractive to dry cleaners.
   A second problem related to wet cleaning has been Federal label-
ing requirements. Current United States Federal Trade Commission
(FTC) care labeling rules discourage dry cleaners from wet cleaning
garments labeled "dry clean only." The FTC published two requests
for public comment on their labeling rules, one in June, 1994, and
another in December, 1995. The FTC wanted to know if it should
change these rules in order to (among other things) help the EPA's
goal of pollution prevention in the dry cleaning industry. These rules
are currently under review.
   The DfE roundtable was also given the job of developing pollu-
tion prevention awareness and practices in the dry cleaning industry.
One of the products of this group is the Cleaner Technology Substi-
tutes Assessment (CTSA). This study is designed to evaluate garment
cleaning methods that could be used instead of perchloroethylene
dry cleaning. The study looks at these alternative cleaning methods
from environmental, health, and economic points of view. Another
role of the study is  to communicate  information about alternative
cleaning methods.
   In order to  gather information for the study, a demonstration
project has been established with partial funding from the EPA. The
goals of the demonstration are  to examine  some of the issues and
concerns surrounding garment wet cleaning. This project has result-
ed in a partnership  between a private entrepreneur and the Center
for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) in Chicago. CNT is a Chica-
go-based non-profit organization dedicated to environmentally sound,
dry cleaning,
                                                                  module I  5

             local economic development. The demonstration involves a garment
             care shop, "The Greener Cleaner," which opened to the public in
             May 1995. "The Greener Cleaner" uses machine wet cleaning.
                A garment wet cleaning business depends on customer acceptance
             in order to be successful. CNT evaluated "The Greener Cleaner" by
Many        using customer survey cards and by having volunteers evaluate how
commercial    well garments were cleaned. Complete results of the CNT study can
cleaners use   be obtained by contacting CNT directly. (CNT's address is listed in
wet cleaning   Appendix B.)       ,                    ,
080critical      Wet cleaning technologies have proven to be viable in Europe. In
supplement   the past few years, these wet cleaning technologies have begun to
to tnelr       spread in the United States. Many commercial cleaners use wet clean-
s/few/^       ing as a critical supplement to their cleaning process, and there are a
process,      growing number of wet clean-only facilities across the U.S. The
             USEPA's Design for Environment  program has a brochure on wet
             cleaning (doc. # EPA 744-K-96-004) which list wet cleaners nation-
             wide. See Appendix B for EPA's information hotline and website for
             the most current information
6  fflaHachusetts Toxic* toe Reduction Institute

multiprocess wet cleaning — a wet cleaning process in which gar-
   ments are inspected and pre-treated if necessary. The garments
   are then spot cleaned, steam cleaned or hand washed.
machine wet cleaning — a process for cleaning textiles in water by
   professionals using special equipment and detergents. Machines
   carefully control mechanical action, temperature and humidity. It
   is normally followed by restorative finishing procedures.
organic solvent— a solvent that contains carbon in addition to oth-
   er substances.
perchloroetbylene — an organic solvent frequently used in dry clean-
   ing and as a spot cleaner. Other names for perchloroethylene are:
   tetrachloroethylene, PCE, and perc.
pollution prevention  — solving pollution problems by preventing
   the pollution from occurring in the  first place. This is frequently
   done by eliminating or reducing the amount of materials, hazard-
   ous or otherwise, that are used in a process, so that less pollution
   is created. Elimination is the preferred method of pollution pre-
solvent — a liquid that is able to dissolve other materials. Water is
   the most common solvent. Most solvents are only able to dissolve
   certain types of materials.
                                                                   module II  7


                 Objective:  This activity is designed to introduce new problem
                          solving skills.

                 Task:      Without lifting your pen or pencil from the paper,
                          connect all nine dots with four straight lines.
                          Do not retrace lines or fold the paper.
8  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Objective*: By the end of the module participants will be able to:

   H  Understand the worker,  environmental, and public health
      and safety issues involved in the wet cleaning and dry
      cleaning processes

   u  List the Federal and state agencies that create regulations
      governing the garment care industry

   m  List and describe the major regulations that apply to wet
      and dry cleaning

Regulations are one of the primary forces that are changing the com-
mercial cleaning industry. These regulations have been created be-
cause Federal and state governments are concerned about the poten-
tial hazards involved in garment cleaning processes. This module
describes these hazards, the agencies that regulate the garment clean-
ing industry, and the regulations that are currently in effect.
 Most of the regulations that are currently in effect are designed to
limit the amount of perchloroethylene that comes in contact with
workers and the environment. Perchloroethylene, also known as perc.,
can be a hazard to workers and to the environment if it is not used
and disposed of properly.

2.1.1   flcuteG Chronic Exposure
There are two types of exposure to perc: acute and chronic. Acute expo-
sure to perc occurs when people are exposed to perc for a short amount
of time (under 24 hrs). Acute exposure to perc may cause drowsiness,
nausea, and irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract.
 are one of the
primary farces.
 that are
worker sand
to the
                                                                  fllodule II  9

Workers a re
shops where
a re used.
   Chronic exposure may occur when people are exposed to perc re-
peatedly over a long period of time. Garment care workers have the
biggest risk of chronic exposure, because they can be repeatedly ex-
posed to perc at work. The public can also be at risk, however, when
perc from a dry cleaning plant gets into the local air and water. Chron-
ic exposure to perc can cause central nervous system damage, and to a
lesser degree, lung, liver and kidney damage. The central nervous sys-
tem effects include irritability, headaches, fatigue and vertigo.
   There is ongoing debate about whether or not perc is a carcino-
gen, or cancer-causing substance. Different agencies have taken dif-
ferent positions on this question. The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) considers perc a suspected carcinogen. The National
Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) recommends
that perc be handled as a human carcinogen. The International Agency
for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified perc as a probable carcin-
ogen in 1995.

2.1.2   Expowre to Workers and Other*
Workers are at an especially high risk of occupational exposure in
shops where "transfer machines"  are used.  Transfer machines are
dry cleaning machines where the washing and drying take place in
two physically separate machines. After the  wash cycle is finished,
workers have to manually transfer clothes saturated with perc from
washers to dryers. During this transfer, workers may be  exposed on
the surface of the skin, such as arms and hands, when their skin
comes in contact with the wet clothes. This  is called dermal expo-
sure. Even more important, workers may be exposed to perc when
they breathe in the fumes while transferring the clothes. This is called
inhalation exposure.
   Currently, there are about 10,000 transfer machines in use. Car-
bon adsorbers and refrigerated condensers are used to control emis-
sions and are currently installed in about half of the transfer ma-
chines in operation. Newer machines do not require workers to phys-
ically transfer clothes from the washer to the dryer. These newer
"closed loop dry-to-dry" machines also have many safety features
that help prevent perc from coming in contact with workers or the
environment. Dry-to-dry machines allow a dry cleaner to process a
10   fllauadiwettt Toxics Use Reduction Institute

load of garments without coming in contact with perc-saturated
clothes. Transfer machines can no longer be sold in the U.S., so all
the dry cleaning equipment currently available includes these new
   People who work in dry cleaning shops have the highest risk of
exposure to perc. People living near or above these shops who spend
a great deal of time at home, such as the elderly or pregnant women,
also can be exposed to perc for extended periods of time.

2.1.3   Environmental Effects
The use of perc, regardless of the type of equipment used, may result
in some emissions to the air, water or soil.
   Perc evaporates quickly when released to soil or surface water
(rivers, lakes, oceans, etc). When exposed to sunlight, it breaks down
rapidly. When perc gets into water, it does not significantly affect
organisms that live in the water. In general, it is not absorbed by
aquatic organisms and does not tend to build up in their bodies. A
small percentage of the perc in water, however, will be absorbed by
microorganisms and enter the food chain.
   Currently, there are over 30,000 dry cleaners in the United States,
80% of whom use perc. The total amount of perchloroethylene used
for dry cleaning in this country in 1994  was estimated at over 11
million gallons (approximately 147 million pounds). After it has been
used, perc may end up as:
   m  emissions into air
   m  emissions into water and  soil
   m  hazardous waste
   Perc is one of the ten most common contaminants  found in
groundwater. A Federal survey reported that perc, from all commer-
cial and industrial sources, is present in about 26% of U.S. ground-
water supplies. The  California  Air Resources Board estimates that
30% of the total perc used—3.3 million gallons—ends up as hazard-
ous waste. It is estimated that recyclers can recover up to 80% of the
waste generated—2.64 million gallons. Although these recovery fig-
ures are impressive, the fact remains that hundreds of thousands of
gallons of waste are generated each year which could potentially con-
taminate the environment.
People IIving
these shops
also can be
periods of
                                                                  fllodule II  11

 waste or air
safety concern
that does apply
to wet cleaning
during stain
 2.1.4  Environment, Health and Safety in UlrtGeanin?
 Because perc is not used in the wet cleaning process, wet cleaners do
 not need to worry about perc related environmental health and safe-
 ty problems. Wet cleaning uses water as the solvent. The detergents,
 stain removal agents and finishes used in wet cleaning are generally
 non-toxic. Companies that produce wet cleaning  detergents, stain
 removers and finishes are sensitive to environmental and toxicologi-
 cal concerns and are producing products that are phosphate free and
   Data collected by the Center for Neighborhood Technology at the
 Greener Cleaner show that wet cleaning does not produce hazardous
waste or air emissions. Workers, customers and people who live and
work near a dry cleaner might benefit from the introduction of wet
cleaning and the resulting decrease in the use of perchloroethylene.
   One environmental health and safety concern that does apply to
wet cleaning is the use of toxic solvents during stain removal. A new
shop with a 100% wet cleaning operation would probably  not use
toxic stain removal agents, but a shop that has used perc and con-
verted totally or partially to wet cleaning may still use these chemi-
cals at the stain removal board. Non-toxic stain removal agents are
currently available from several different sources and should be used
on garments that will be wet cleaned. If the plant operator or owner
continues to use toxic stain removal agents, the waste  generated by
the process should be  treated as hazardous waste.
            r(ft*<*>*«^«rtSTt " f »"i-iTT*'*."S>'nv'*
            ofllake* the Rules?
                The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
                and state labor departments are in charge of ensuring the safety and
                health of workers inside the plant. The federal Environmental Pro-
                tection Agency and the state departments of environmental protec-
                tion are in charge of regulating pollutants emitted or transferred from
                the plant. This is because the legislature and regulatory agencies have
                always considered worker health and safety issues  to be separate
                from environmental protection issues. Some state agencies are start-
                ing to combine environmental protection with worker health and
                safety. This has resulted in state programs to reduce the use of toxic
   12   Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

chemicals in processes. However, the regulations that are currently
in effect are still mainly divided into environmental regulations and
health and safety regulations.
   This section presents the minimum compliance requirements of a
dry cleaner based on the Federal regulations. Individual states can
make regulations of their own that are even stricter than the Federal
regulations. When states make their own regulations, the garment
cleaning industry only needs to report to and follow the rules of that
state. For example, New York and California are two states that
have decided to make their own regulations. Anyone who intends to
own or operate a professional garment care facility should research
state and local regulations to determine which regulations apply in
his or her state.
   Since  1970, the U.S. Congress has passed several laws designed to
protect and improve environmental and public health. The laws set
standards for limits of chemical releases to air, water and soil. These
laws originally targeted industries that use large quantities of toxic
substances. As these industries have come into compliance, the focus
has turned toward industries that use small quantities of toxic sub-
 The federal regulations outlined below apply to dry cleaning opera-
 tions. Perc is listed as a hazardous substance under the Occupational
 Safety and Health Act (OSHA), the Resource Conservation and Re-
 covery Act (RCRA) the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Clean Air Act
 (CAA), and the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensa-
 tion and Liability Act (CERCLA). A dry cleaner that uses perc must
 comply with these regulations.
    Complying with these regulations can affect a dry cleaner's profit
 margins. The costs associated with compliance include:
    m  liability insurance
    •  permitting fees
    m  hazardous waste disposal fees
    m  equipment upgrades
    m  contaminated site clean up
    •  time spent learning and complying with regulations
                                                                 module II   13

 dry cleaning
 dry cleaners,
 Safety and
 19FO was
protect the
 worker In the
    Shifting to a mix of wet cleaning and dry cleaning can provide
 partial relief from some of the regulatory requirements imposed on
 dry cleaners.
    For example, some of the Clean Air Act regulations are based on
 how much of a toxic chemical is used by a facility. Small garment
 cleaning businesses with a dry-to-dry machine installed before 1991
 are required to upgrade their equipment under the CAA if they pur-
 chase  more than 140 gallons of perc each year. By switching some
 cleaning to wet cleaning, a business may be able to reduce its pur-
 chases below the 140 gallon limit. Once below 140 gallons, the busi-
 ness would be exempt from the upgrade requirement.

 2.3.1   Occupational Safety and Health flct
 The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 was passed to pro-
 tect the health of the worker in the workplace environment. The Act
 is administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administra-
 tion (OSHA). The Act sets limits  on the amount of toxic materials
 that workers can be exposed to in their workplaces. Permiwable Exposure Limits (PEL*)
 Both long-term and short-term exposure limits have been established.
 These limits are called the Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). The
 long-term limits refer to a worker's allowable average exposure dur-
 ing a normal 8-hour workshift of a 40-hour work week. The average
 exposure limit takes into account how long a worker is exposed to
 different levels of the chemical. This average is call the Time Weight-
 ed Average (TWA). The overall average exposure for any 8-hour work-
 day of a 40-hour work week cannot be greater than the PEL.
   The current long-term PEL for perc is 100 parts per million (ppm).
In 1989, because of concerns about whether the 100 ppm limit is
low enough to protect workers, OSHA reduced the limit to 25 ppm.
Dry cleaners had until December 31,1991 to meet the new standard.
In fact, many dry cleaners have installed control equipment to con-
trol emissions so  that they meet the 25 ppm PEL. However, soon
after the 25 ppm standard was issued, a suit was filed by industry
groups to challenge the new limits and a court decision threw out the
25 ppm limit. As a result, currently OSHA can only enforce a PEL of
14   Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

100 ppm but still recommends that dry cleaners limit indoor air emis-
sions of perc to 25 ppm. Several state occupational agencies continue
to enforce the 25 ppm limit. In addition, the American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and the perc manu-
facturers also recommend 25 ppm as an 8-hour TWA. Currently,
negotiations are under way to reduce the PEL again, with some pub-
lic interest groups recommending levels as low as 5 ppm.
   In addition to the long-term PEL, two short-term exposure limits
have been established by OSHA. These are designed to protect workers
from high exposures that might occur occasionally throughout the
work day. In dry cleaning, this might occur when opening the ma-
chine to remove the clothes, when cleaning the still or filter housings,
when cleaning out the button trap, or at any other time when perc
vapors are in close contact with the worker.
   The OSHA short-term PELs for perc are 200 ppm averaged over
15 minutes, and 300 ppm averaged over 5 minutes. The 5 minute
maximum (peak) exposure can only occur once in any 3 hour peri-
od. ACGIH recommends a short-term exposure limit of 100 ppm,
averaged over 15 minutes.

2.3.2  RewurccComervationandRecovpnjflct
Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
of 1976 regulates what is done with hazardous waste that is generat-
ed at facilities. The regulations only apply to facilities that generate
more than 100 kilograms (220  pounds) per month  of hazardous
wastes. Facilities that generate less than this amount are considered
small quantity generators  and are exempt from this regulation.
   Waste that contains perc is one of the hazardous wastes regulated
under RCRA. In the case of a dry cleaner, this waste could consist of still
bottoms, cartridge filters and filter muck. This waste must be disposed
of at a licensed hazardous waste facility (40 CFR §260- 270).
    Some water used in the dry cleaning process becomes contami-
nated with perc. This occurs when water is used by emission control
devices and perc filtration devices, and when water is  used to main-
tain these devices. Waste water generated by dry cleaners, even though
 only slightly contaminated, is considered hazardous waste under
 RCRA. The hazardous waste code for this type of waste is F002.
Solid wastes
and waste
a re not
                                                                  (nodule II  is

  The Clean
 added? ere to
  Separator water is also considered hazardous waste because it may
  contain as much as 150 ppm of perchloroethylene.
    Solid wastes and waste water from wet cleaning processes are not
  considered hazardous under RCRA. Some stain removal agents may
  also generate hazardous waste.

  2.3.3  Ito Own Air Act (1977) and Clean flir flct Amendment* (1990)
  The Clean Air Act of 1977 (CAA) and the Clean Air Act Amend-
 ments of 1990 (CAAA) also affect dry cleaners. The CAAA added
 perc to the list of regulated hazardous air pollutants. In September
  1993 the CAAA put out the National Emission Standards for Haz-
 ardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which regulates emissions of perc
 by dry cleaners. These standards limit the amount  of emissions of
 regulated hazardous air pollutants including perc.
    The CAAA requires that dry cleaners keep track of their use of
 perc and its disposal. It requires dry cleaners to change their operat-
 ing procedures and modify their existing equipment to meet new air
 emissions standards. It also requires that all newly purchased dry
 cleaning machinery be equipped with control technology. These stan-
 dards also prohibit the sale of transfer machines. Federal law re-
 quires that the industry be in compliance with the perc NESHAP by
 September 23,1996.
   New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) were put into effect
 in 1984 for petroleum based dry cleaners. The NSPS's are enforced
 only in Clean Air Act non-attainment areas—those areas that do not
 meet national standards for ambient air quality. The  NSPS's set lim-
 its on solvent loss in drying, set standards on the use of filters, and
 require leaks to be repaired in a timely fashion.
   Wet cleaning processes  do not emit hazardous air  pollutants that
 are regulated under the Clean Air Act.

 2.3.4  Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation and Liability flct
      (1980) and Juperfund Amendments and ^authorization flct (1986)
The Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Lia-
bility Act of 1980 (CERCLA), commonly referred to as Superfund,
allows the EPA to respond to potential or actual releases of hazard-
ous substances that threaten public health, welfare or the environ-
16   fllajjadiuicttj Toxics UK Reduction Institute

ment. Superfund also authorizes the EPA to require parties responsi-
ble for environmental contamination to clean up or pay back the
Superfund for costs incurred by EPA to clean it up.
   The CERCLA hazardous substance release reporting regulations
(40 CFR Part 302) require the person in charge of a facility to report
certain releases of hazardous substances. If the amount released is
greater than the limit specified in the regulation (40 CFR § 302.4),
then the person in charge must contact the National Response Cen-
ter (NRC). This may trigger a response by the EPA or a number of
state or Federal emergency response agencies.
    When a site is found to be contaminated, present or past land-
owners or dry cleaners can be held liable for any contamination found.
The contamination may have resulted from a variety of situations,
such as:
   m  contaminated waste water leaking through sewer pipes
   •  perc leaks during operation of a dry cleaning machine
   •  dumping of wastes
   The materials used in wet cleaning are not  a source of liability
under the CERCLA.

2.3.5  tourer or foptic Discharge
Water discharge from a dry cleaning or wet cleaning facility is sub-
ject to restrictions depending on the size of the facility  and whether
the discharge is to a publicly owned treatment facility or to a septic
system. Specifically, the following restrictions apply:
    » contact water (separator and vacuum water) must be disposed
      of properly as hazardous waste or may be evaporated under
      an EPA policy decision
    m boiler blowdown water is regulated on a  state by  state
    B vacuum water from the finishing equipment must be disposed
      of as hazardous waste
    m waste from the stain removal board must be treated as hazard-
      ous waste
    The waste water generated by a wet cleaning operation is dis-
 charged either to a municipal sewer—Publicly-Owned Treatment
 Works  or POTW—or to a private septic system. Cleaners should
The tttateria/s
used in wet
                                                                  module IV   17

 should always
 check wit It
 Into either a
A cleaner WHO
wakes a
to wet
clean Ing Is
cases, no
  always check with their local POTW, state agency or municipality
  before discharging into either a sewer or septic system since they
  may require that waste water must be non-toxic in order to avoid
  polluting the environment. This will ensure that it is legal to dis-
  charge their waste water and that no permits are required. For aver-
  age size wet cleaning facilities,  a discharge permit, a pretreatment
  system, or monitoring of discharge may not be required by the Pub-
  licly-Owned Treatment Works.
    Discharge to septic systems is regulated by the local municipali-
 ties and the state. Waste from a professional cleaner is considered
 industrial waste, and, in many states, discharge into a septic system
 is prohibited.
    The local regulating authorities,  appropriate state agencies and
 the POTW should be notified during the planning stages of any wet
 cleaning or dry cleaning facility to determine any applicable regula-
 tions or permitting requirements.
 When new regulations are passed that restrict dry cleaning facilities,
 the public becomes more aware of the public health and environ-
 mental risks of perc. The professional fabricare industry, primarily
 composed of very small "mom and pop" operations, has been hard
 hit by these new regulations.
    Landlords are wary of renting to dry cleaners because of the poten-
 tial liability associated with perc. The cost of compliance and the po-
 tential for retroactive liability has affected the profit margin of many
 operations, forcing some owners to go out of business. Some families
 that in the past might have passed the family dry cleaning business
 down to the next generation must now be mindful that current retro-
 active liability laws may transfer past liability to the new owner.
   These regulations have had far-reaching effects on the dry cleaning
 industry. Not only do dry cleaners need to comply with new Federal
 regulations by implementing expensive pollution control technology,
 they need to consider that their home  state could pass even stricter
 regulations in the future. A cleaner who makes a partial or total switch
 to machine wet cleaning (or water based cleaning) is subject to limited
regulations, and in some cases, no regulations at all.
  18   flla$5adiu$ett$ Toxics Use Reduction Institute

acute exposure — contact with a substance that occurs over a short
   period of time
biodegradable — able to be broken down into non—harmful sub-
   stances by natural processes in the environment, such as sunlight,
   rain and wind
CAA — Clean Air Act of 1977
CAAA — Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
carcinogen — a substance that causes cancer
CERCLA — Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation,
   and Liability Act
chronic exposure — contact with a substance that occurs over a long
   period of time
CWA — Clean Water Act
dermal exposure—exposure to a substance when the substance comes
   in contact with the skin
emission — the release of a substance into the air, water or ground
exposure — coming in contact with a substance. The contact can be
   on the  skin, through breathing into the lungs, or by eating or
inhalation exposure -— exposure to a substance that occurs when
   something in the air is breathed into the lungs
NESHAP — National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollut-
   ants                             .
NSPS — New Source Performance Standards
OSHA—  Occupational Safety and Health Administration; the part
   of the Federal government that administers the Occupational Safety
   and Health Act of 1970
PEL — Permissible Exposure Limit; the maximum amount of a sub-
   stance that a worker is allowed to come in contact with based on
   a daily or weekly average
                                                               fllodule II  19

             perc — a short name for perchloroethylene
             jRCRA — Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
             toxicology — the science that studies the effects, antidotes and detec-
                tion of poisons or adverse effects of chemicals on living organ-
             SARA — Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
             Superfund — another name for CERCLA
             TWA — Time Weighted Average; the method used to calculate a
                worker's average exposure to a substance
             vertigo — dizziness
20   fllajjachujettj Toxic Use Reduction Imtitute

Health, Safety and Environmental Regulations
Unknown MSDS's
Objective: This activity is designed to introduce participants
        to the content and meaning of Material Safety Data
        Sheets (MSDS's).
        The pages following these instructions contain
        MSDS for four products. In each of your groups,
        try  to identify what product is described by each
                                                            fllodule II  21


          :  By the end of the module participants should be
          able to...
   m  Understand the relationship between fibers, yarns, fabrics
      and garments

   m  List and describe the effect of cleaning on fibers

   m  List and describe the effect of cleaning on fabrics

   m  Test a garment to find out what type of fiber it is made of
A customer walks into a cleaning shop and puts a garment on the
counter. To the customer, the garment is only a shirt, or a pair of
pants, or a dress. When a cleaner looks at that same garment, he or
she sees much more than that. The cleaner sees that the garment is
made from a particular type of fabric, and the fabric is made from a
particular type of fiber.
   To successfully wet clean  the garment, the cleaner must under-
stand how the fabric and fiber will  react to  the cleaning process.
Fabrics and fibers react differently in water than they do in perchlo-
roethylene or other dry cleaning solvents. Even an experienced fabri-
care professional must pay careful attention to fabric and fiber when
wet cleaning.
   This module  describes the characteristics  of fibers and fabrics.
This module also explains the effect of the cleaning process on fibers
and fabrics.

3.1.1   What b a Fiber?
A fiber is a fine hair-like structure that is either  natural or man-made.
Natural fibers come primarily from plants and animals. Plant fibers
TtiIs module
describes the
of fibers and
                                                                 module III  23

A fiber tea
•fine hair-Ufa
 come from the seeds of plants like cotton, or from stems like linen,
 ramie, hemp, or jute. Animal fibers come from the hair of certain
 animals. For example, the hair of sheep is used to make wool and the
 hair of goats is used to make cashmere and mohair. Silk fibers are
 spun by silkworms.
    Manufactured fibers,  also called man-made fibers, were devel-
 oped to provide properties that natural fibers do not have. Manufac-
 tured fibers  are divided into two main categories:  synthetic fibers
 and regenerated fibers. Synthetic fibers are created from polymers
 that come from chemicals like petroleum. Nylon, polyester and acrylic
 are all synthetic fibers. Regenerated fibers are created from polymers
 that come from natural materials. Rayon and acetate are both regen-
 erated from cellulose, a material that occurs naturally in plants. Fig-
 ure 3-1 shows the major classifications of fibers.
    Manufactured fibers are made using a process that is very similar
 to the process a spider uses to make strands for its web. Long chains
 of molecules called polymers are made  into a liquid. This  liquid is
 forced through tiny holes. As the liquid comes out of the  holes, it
 hardens into fiber strands called filaments, or strands of "endless"
    Both natural and manufactured fibers can be made directly into
 fabric, such as felts and nonwoven textiles. However, fibers are usu-
 ally twisted or grouped together into long strands called yarns. The
 yarns are then used to make a wide variety of knit and woven fab-
 rics, as well as lace.
natural Fiber*
                                                Manufactured Fiber*
Cellulose Rubber Protein
1 1


Animal Hair

                                             Modified cellulose '
                                               acetate  „ I
                                           ,,.jrfl,.   ,,  i;   ';"',i,       -
                                          Regenerated' , Inorganic    Synthetic  '
                                             *s t *        glass    ,"    riyldh^  ' „ „
                                              r       ' „ ceramic       acrylic •>  ,, '
                                              \         metalic  t
                                           Cellulose r       /-*'''
                                             Ra^op       ,  /"  J ,  ' '
                                               viscose   ' V
                                               cuprammoKiutn *
                                               high wet «)odttlus^     ,  ( '
                                                                ° „ # *< & / „« &
    ma5$adiu{ett$ Toxio U$e Reduction Institute

   The length of the fiber helps to determine the properties of the
yarn and of the fabric that is made from that yarn. Almost all natural
fibers range in length from less than one inch up to 36 inches. These
are called staple fibers. The exception to this rule is silk. The silk
worm spins filaments of silk that can be up to 1,600 yards long. Like
silk, all manufactured fibers are also spun as filaments. Unlike silk,
there is no limit to the length of manufactured fibers. However, these
fibers can be cut into short or "staple" lengths if necessary.

3.1.2   Varm
Yarns are used to make a wide variety of knit fabrics, woven fabrics
and lace. The type of fiber used to make a yarn and the way the yarn
is made determine the properties of the yarn and of the final fabric.
These properties include strength, abrasion resistance, elasticity, lus-
ter, hand and overall surface characteristics.
   In many cases, fibers are twisted to make yarn.  Increasing the
twists or turns in a yarn will increase strength, crease resistance and
abrasion resistance. Yarns that are more loosely twisted make softer
   Some yarns are made from a single type of fiber, while other yarns
are made from more than one type of fiber. Multiple ply yarns are
stronger than single yarns. Fancy yarns, like boucle or chenille, can
be made to create decorative effects, and may take special care in
cleaning. Figure 3-2 shows several different types of fibers and yarns.
    Filament fibers  are typically sleek and smooth. The surface of
fabric made from filament fibers is therefore also sleek and smooth.
fa MS a re
Ht a kea wide
variety of
fabrics and
                                                                  module III  25

fabric types
can be
as woven,
lace and
Natural staple fibers tend to be rougher. The surface of fabric made
from staple fibers will also be rougher, due to the exposed fiber ends.
For example, nylon and silk fibers have round, smooth surfaces, and
therefore nylon and silk fabric may feel smooth and slippery. Wool
fibers have a round scaly surface, making wool fabrics feel bulky and
slightly rough.

3.1.3  Fabric %«
The basic fabric types can be classified as woven, knitted, lace and
nonwoven. Woven fabrics consist of two sets of parallel yarns that
are interlaced to form a fabric. The lengthwise yarns are called
"warp." Warp yarns are held under tension throughout the weaving
process. The crosswise  yarns are called "weft" or "filling." Some
examples of woven fabrics are plain, twill and satin weaves, as well
as certain pile fabrics like velvet, velveteen and corduroy. Figure 3-3
shows some examples of woven fabrics.
    The weaving process tends to create fabrics that are strong and do
not lose their shape. The heavier the fabric and the tighter the weave,
the more durable the fabric will be. This assumes, of course, that the
yarn and fiber are also strong and stable. Fabrics that are tightly wo-
ven with delicate yarns, for example, can still be very fragile.
    Knitted fabrics consist of one or more continuous yarns that are
looped through themselves to form interconnected chains. Weft knits
are the most common type of knits. Weft knits use one continuous
yarn to form the fabric through a series of loops, and are easy to snag
and run. Warp knits use a series of continuous yarns to form the

	"	"	"^ffiw/nffirtcs

26  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

fabric, giving the fabric more stability and less tendency to run. Fig-
ure 3-4 shows examples of warp and weft knits.
   Knit fabrics tend to be more comfortable than woven fabrics be-
cause they stretch. This is an advantage for the person who wears the
fabric. It can cause problems for the cleaner, however, because this
tendency to stretch can cause the fabric to lose its shape when it is
handled. Knitted fabrics also tend to shrink. Fortunately, knitted fab-
rics can be 'blocked' or stretched to recover their original shape and
   Because some fabrics are constructed of loosely twisted yarns,
pilling is often a problem. When a knitted fabric is rubbed repeated-
ly, small balls of fiber called "pills" build up on the surface of the
fabric. This is called  "pilling." Cleaners need to be careful not to
cause pilling when they rub the surface of a knit fabric to remove soil
or stains.
   Lace is made of yarns that are knotted, twisted, or looped to pro-
vide a fragile, sheer pattern. When cleaning garments with lace, great
care must be taken not to break the delicate yarns.
   Nonwovens are fabrics made by bonding together a web of fibers
through physical or chemical means. Felt is an example of a non-
woven fabric. Felt is  made primarily  from wool fibers. The felting
process uses moisture, heat, mechanical action  and chemical action
to take advantage of the natural  tendency of wool fibers to stick
together. The result is  a dense, bulky fabric. Imitation suede is anoth-
er example of a nonwoven fabric.
one or more
ifarMs that
a re looped
                                                                  module III  27

 £a eft type
 to the wet
 The effect of
fortne wet
cleaner In the
stages of
    Nonwpven fabrics tend to be weaker and more easily damaged
 by rubbing than woven or knit fabrics of the same weight. This is
 because nonwoven fabrics are made directly from fibers, and there-
 fore do not benefit from the strength of yarns. Nonwoven fabrics are
 often used for interfacing. Nonwovens can be bonded to a fabric to
 make it more stable. This can cause problems for the cleaner. One
 problem is that the cleaning process can dissolve the adhesive and
 cause the two fabrics to separate, or "delaminate." Another problem
 is that one fabric may shrink more than the other, which can cause
 Each type of fiber reacts differently to the wet cleaning process. How
 a fiber reacts depends on a number ,of factors, including strength,
 elasticity, dimensional stability, absorbency and the effect of chemi-
 cals and heat. These factors have a clear influence on the way a gar-
 ment should be handled in the wet cleaning process.

 3,2.1  Fiber Strength
 Fiber strength is a measure of the amount of force needed to cause a
 fiber to break. It is also called tenacity, and it is measured in grams/
 denier. Fiber strength can change when the fiber is exposed to water.
 Cotton and linen are the only fibers that get stronger when exposed
 to water. Rayons and acetates are examples of fibers that get signifi-
 cantly weaker in water. Polyesters and olefins, which are among the
 strongest of the common fibers, do not get weaker or stronger. The
 strength of these fibers is not affected by water at all. Figure 3-5
 shows the wet and dry strength of different fibers.
    The effect of water on fiber strength is very important for the wet
 cleaner in the stain  removal and cleaning stages of garment care.
 Because the strength of fibers can change when the fibers are wet,
 care must be taken when applying any force to wet fibers. For exam-
ple, rayons and acetates, since they get significantly weaker in water,
could be damaged by scrubbing or harsh agitation. Figure 3-6 shows
the  resistance of different fibers to abrasion.
z8  flla$sadiu$etts Toxio U$e Reduction Institute

3.2.2  Oastidtij and Dimensional Wility
Elasticity is the ability of a fiber to go back to its original length after
being stretched. Fibers that have good elasticity are those that return
to their original length when stretched. Cotton, linen and rayon have
poor elasticity, while wool, nylon, polyester and olefins are very elas-
tic fibers. Fabric structure, which will be discussed  in the next sec-
tion, also has an influence on elasticity.
   The dimensional stability of a fiber is its ability to maintain its
original shape. Fibers with good dimensional stability do not shrink
Elasticity Is
the ability of
back to its
length after
                                                                      fllodule HI  29

             or stretch during cleaning. Fibers with poor dimensional stability
             may shrink or stretch during cleaning.
                Wool and rayon fibers have poor dimensional stability. They tend
             to shrink if not treated with care when exposed to water. When a
             rayon garment shrinks, it can often be stretched back to its original
             shape in the finishing process. However, when a wool garment shrinks,
             it can be difficult to return it to its original shape. Proper care when
             cleaning garments can prevent shrinkage.  For example, wool fabric
             should never be cleaned using moisture with heat, or moisture with
             vigorous agitation, because these combinations can cause felting and
             thus permanent shrinkage.
                Even some fibers with good  dimensional stability can lose their
             shape during the cleaning process. Synthetic fibers tend to have good
             dimensional stability, but exposure to high temperatures can perma-
             nently change their shape. Figure 3-7 shows the elasticity and dimen-
             sional stability of common fibers.

             3.2.3  flbwrbenqj and The Effect of Water On Fibers
A fiber's      A. fiber's ability to take up moisture is referred to as  absorbency. In
             technical terms, absorbency is called moisture regain. Moisture re-
             gain is a measure of the weight of the moisture a fiber absorbs com-
             pared to the weight of the fiber itself. It is measured at a standard
referred to as  temperature and humidity, usually 70° F and 65% humidity. If 100
absorbeHcit.    grams of a fiber absorbs 5 grams of moisture, then the fiber has a
             moisture regain of 5%. Cotton, for example, has a high moisture
             regain of 7%. One hundred grams of cotton will absorb 7 grams of
             moisture. Polyester, on the other hand, has a low moisture regain of
             only 0.2%. One hundred  grams of polyester will only absorb 0.2
             grams of water. Figure 3-8 shows the standard moisture regain for
             common fibers.
                Fibers with a high moisture regain are also called hydrophilic or
             "water-loving" fibers. These fibers possess the ability to absorb wa-
             ter with ease. All natural fibers, as well as rayon and acetates, are
             examples of hydrophilic fibers. These fibers tend to swell when ex-
             posed to water.
                The fact that these fibers tend to absorb water is both an advantage
             and a disadvantage to the cleaner. The primary advantage is that stain

30   Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute


;^£tietateC v >, -
> >"A^yttc^^f^\°;
>> "jLitttsn
:^;^v5* ;:,;?'•
,;!; O/4* ; ^ „*, \
"*"" *- ? „* """j'*' ^ ~" v -
'4^ &*ya»- „ - . ^

;" ;,f:MSbrf , „
, f«s&%
" poor-' ,
fair ^
^ excellent
excellent 'v
* ^
.good -
' 'excellent
>;"nimensfan ^ " '
-^ 	 	 > ^
'good . ^ ^ ' . ' »
x,good : ' - * - 	 -
good if not exposed toN
high temperatures
good jf not fexposed to - *•>'*,
high tempef aturds < *C
good if no| exposed to
high temperatures
. good if not exposed to '- ^
high temperatures
, poor • , •
, good ,
poor v ^
removal is easier, because water and detergent are easily absorbed into
and flushed out of the fiber. The primary disadvantage is that swollen,
saturated fibers can also cause increased shrinkage, wrinkling and loss
of shape of the garment.
   Fibers with a low moisture regain do not absorb water or absorb
only small amounts of water. These fibers are referred to as hydro-
phobic or "water-fearing."
Synthetic and inorganic fi-
bers such as polyester and
nylon are hydrophobic.
These fibers tend to wrin-
kle less when processed in
water. In fact, synthetic fi-
bers  keep their original
shape when processed in
water, just as natural fibers
tend  to keep their shape
when processed in dry
cleaning solvents.           „    .
                            ^iV * sS"*'*| % percentage of f tie dry weight at*7(J°F and
                                                                ft bers keep
                                                                their original
                                                                shape when
/ Acefate
* Acrylic
Ltvett^ '
° 'Mo dacryltc
:/^fo# >
' , < Olefin ,
s * Polyester ,
x;&aya/t ' •
v - '-Silk
\ ,-Wool ' '
11.0- , , -
0.4-4.0 ' >
! 0,01 -Al
- 18.0
                                                                 module III  31

 A number of
 are useful
 fa Me types.
    The majority of garments today consist of blends of natural and
 manufactured fibers. Because synthetic fibers do not tend to be af-
 fected by water, these garments can be easier to clean than garments
 made entirely of natural fibers.
    Some natural fibers are treated with special processes to make
 them easier and safer to clean. Two of these processes are merceriz-
 ing and Sanforizing™. Mercerizing is a process in which cotton fi-
 bers, yarns or fabrics  are held under tension in a cold alkali bath.
 This strengthens the cotton fibers, makes them shinier, and allows
 them to absorb dye better.
    The Sanforizing™ process is a pre-shrinking process. This means
 that the fabric manufacturer shrinks the fabric on purpose. Once the
 fabric is shrunk, it is sent to a clothing manufacturer to be made into
 garments. The result is that the garments will not shrink more than
 two percent when washed and dried in home machines.

 3.2.4  Effect of Qiemicah
 A number of different chemicals are useful for getting out soils and
 stains, and for identifying fabric types. However, these  same chemi-
 cals can also damage certain fibers. It is important for the garment
 care professional to understand the effect of certain chemicals on
 fibers. These chemicals include bleaches, alkalies, acids, and organic
   Bleaches — Bleaches are used to remove color or stains from fab-
 rics. There are two types of bleaches commonly used in fabric care:
 oxidizing bleaches and reducing bleaches. Oxidizing  bleaches in-
 clude hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium perborate, and sodium hy-
 pochlorite (NaCIO), also known as chlorine bleach. Reducing bleaches
 include sodium bisulfite, sodium hydrosulfite and titanium stripper.
 Of all the bleaches used in garment cleaning, chlorine is the most
 harmful to fibers. Most other bleaches could be used safely.
   Acrylics and polyesters are resistant to damage from all types of
 bleaches. Cotton, linen, and rayon fibers are not  harmed by reducing
 bleaches, but can only withstand weak chlorine bleaches for short
periods of time. Wool and silk—and animal fibers in general— will
 deteriorate and dissolve in chlorine bleaches, but are more resistant
to other bleaches. Some synthetic fibers, such as nylon and modacrylic,
32   fllassachujetts Toxio Use Reduction Institute

may also be harmed by chlorine bleaches. Figure 3-9 shows the resis-
tance of different fibers to bleaches.
   Acids and Alkalies — Acids and alkalies are used in laboratories
for fiber identification and in cleaning to remove difficult stains like
rust or blood. As might be expected, acids and alkalies each have
different effects on fibers. Synthetic fibers are generally resistant to
alkalies and acids, with some exceptions. Acrylic and polyester are
sensitive to strong alkalies athigh temperatures. Acetate, nylon 66
and polyester will decompose in strong acids.
   The natural fibers are affected differently by acids than alkalies.
Plant fibers that contain cellulose are sensitive to acids, but are typi-
cally not damaged by alkalies. In fact,  exposing cotton to alkalies
strengthens the cotton fibers.  This is the basis of a process called
mercerization, which was discussed in the previous section. The pro-
tein, or animal fibers, are generally unaffected by acids, but are dam-
aged by even weak alkalies. Figures 3-10 and 3-11 show the effect of
acids and alkalies on different fibers.         ,       •
    Organic Solvents —  Organic solvents, like perchlorqethylene,
petroleum and acetone,  are used to remove a variety of oil-based
stains from fabrics. Natural fibers, both animal fibers and cellulose
fibers, either resist organic solvents or are unaffected by them. This
fact has allowed these fibers to be cleaned in dry cleaning solvents
like perc and petroleum with little or no damage to the fibers. Syn-
thetic fibers, however, may be damaged by organic solvents. For ex-
ample, acetate and modacrylic dissolve in acetone, which is used to
solvents, like
  .j ^ x ^
;?Styada&y^ ^
^^> Nylon " ' ^
! -, polyester **'*i' -
'-*. .^.i&pyo^ , ' "
" «!^fe \ . \
\V-TxK:- s-'n'i
resistant to oxidizing bleaches .\ ~ *
jalghly resistant - '" r . .
'resisteot-.but^clilociitebieacne^'wHl " ^
de^r.oy if anconfeoiled ^ * , " ,
, similar to cottoo ' "> -Jv- ,4 ^ - * •* '% "
some .fibers may be Jhaft»,ed by chlorinel^leacfi
x may be harmed by"chl6rme bleach
5 Highly Jr^sist^tt- V -*„ s "' A '-,
sisiitar to cotton -•'•*' * ,»
, deteriorates in chlorine bleach, ; \ . ' ° „
w|ii yejlow atid dissolve-jn^chlorirfe blestch.
petroleum and
acetone, are
remove a
variety of oil-
from fabrics,
                                                                    fllodule HI   33

          remove nail polish and paint stains. The olefin fibers (polypropylene,
          polyethylene) will dissolve in solvents like perc in temperatures above
          160° F. Since temperatures in a perc dry cleaning machine do not get
          this high, it is possible to dry clean these fibers. Figure 3-12 shows
          the effects of organic solvents on different types of fibers.
             There is one major difference between the effects of organic sol-
          vents  and the effects of water on fibers. The  application of some
          organic solvents to some synthetic fibers, may cause the fibers to
          melt or dissolve. If this happens, there is no way to reverse this effect.
Nylon 66
, Polyester

soluble in acetic acid (33% or stronger);
decomposed by strong acids ' '
resistant to most acids ,
similar to rayon * x
similar to rayon -
resistant to most acids ( . ,~
decomposed by strong mineral acids, resistant 'to
weak acids / " " *
very resistant ,- "-
resistant to most mineral acids; "disintegrated by
96%sulfuric • ~ " >„ ' ',;;
disintegrates in cold concentrated acids
similar to wool, but more sensitive " „ '„ - -
generally unaffected by acid • "
PI n



OTWtft •% 11 - XT^Ot
pure 3»11 £ff
Cotton 	 _
Nylon 66

~~ ' „ "•?*••::• tj-^s-'-y--',- ~- ~— — v. - ^ . . *•,'.-•
little effect from weak- alkalies
resists weak alkalies
swells when treated with caustic soda,
but is not damaged
very resistant
resistant to alkalies
little or no effect , '
very resistant
resistant to cold alkalies ' "
no effect by weak alkalies; swells and loses I "
strength in concentrated alkalies
similar to wool, but damage is slower
attacked by weak alkalies; destroyed by
strong alkalies
Massachusetts Toxics U$e Reduction Institute

When water is applied to natural fibers, the fibers may shrink or lose
their shape. Some of these effects can be reversed, and both of these
effects can be avoided.         ,

3.2.5  Effect of Heat
The effect of heat on fibers is an important factor in both the clean-
ing and finishing of garments. A cleaner should ask himself or herself
a number of  questions before applying heat to a fiber:
   m  Does this fiber melt or decompose, and if so, at what tempera-
   m  Does this fiber shrink when it is heated?
   H  Does this fiber stretch when heated under tension?
   m  Can this fiber be heat-set, or become fixed in a certain state
      after heating?                             .-..,.
   H  If I heat this fiber for a long time, will it damage the fiber and
      make the fabric useless?
   Natural fibers do not melt or soften when they are heated. This
allows them to be exposed to high temperatures. In fact, fabrics made
from natural fibers  may actually need these high temperatures to
remove wrinkles  in the finishing process. Dry heat has very little ef-
fect on natural fibers. However, these fabrics may shrink or stretch if
exposed  to hot water or to moist heat, and must be closely moni-
tored to  achieve the desired result. Wools and rayons require partic-
ular care in moist heat.
The effect of
heat OH
fibers Is an
both the
clean tog and
finishing of
                                                                  flloduie HI  35

"relax, "This
                Synthetic fibers have softening or sticking points ranging from
             260°F (olefins) to 490°F (acrylic). The lower this softening point, the
             more care must be taken when using heat in .the care of a garment.
             Too much heat can cause a fabric to stick to pressing equipment or
             to become permanently heat-set in an undesirable state.      .
                        „                    ^              ^ , >
                        fȣ (rat or Cleaning on Fauna
Wet cleaning can negatively affect fabrics in three main ways:
   •  fabrics can shrink or stretch
   •  colors can bleed
   •  textile finishes may be removed
Understanding these effects can make a cleaner more successful.

3.3.1   Shrinkage
The most common form of shrinkage is called "relaxation shrink-
age." During the manufacturing process, fibers and fabrics are con-
stantly stretched in the warp, or length, direction. After manufactur-
ing, the fabric wants to "relax" and return to its natural length. Dur-
ing cleaning, water or solvent can cause the fabric to "relax." This
can result in shrinkage.
   Relaxation shrinkage usually occurs the first time the garment is
cleaned. Woven fabrics generally shrink more lengthwise. This is the
direction of the warp yarns when the fabric was woven. Knitted fab-
rics tend to shrink in both directions.
   There are three other main types of shrinkage: natural shrinkage,
progressive shrinkage, and differential shrinkage. "Natural shrink-
age" depends on the properties of fibers. For example, wool and
rayon tend to shrink, while polyesters do not.
   Shrinkage in wool is often called "felting." Felting can occur when
heat, moisture, and mechanical action are applied to wool fabric. This
causes the wool fibers to interlock and results in shrinkage. A "felted"
fabric feels thicker and more compact than the original fabric.
   "Progressive shrinkage" occurs when a fabric shrinks more each
time it is cleaned. This is an important point to note, because even if
a garment has been cleaned before, it may continue to shrink.
 36   Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

   Differential shrinkage may occur when a garment is constructed
of two or more fabric types. Each fabric may shrink differently, caus-
ing puckering of the seams or baggy linings.

3.3.2  (olorfattnes*
Colorfastness is the tendency of a fabric to hold or lose its color. A
fabric that is "colorfast" will not lose its color and "bleed" on other
garments during cleaning.
   Color can be added to  a polymer, a fiber, a yarn, a fabric, or a
garment. Color is added using dyes or pigments. Different dyes are
used for different fibers, providing varying levels of colorfastness.
The more completely the dye penetrates the fiber, the better the col-
orfastness of the fabric will be. Manufactured fibers tend to  be the
most colorfast. Because the fiber is dyed as a polymer, the color is
deeply imbedded in the fiber structure. When  dyeing is done at a
later stage in the manufacturing process, colorfastness may  suffer.
Some fabrics are printed using pigments, not dyes. These pigments
sit on  the surface of the fiber and  may be sensitive to rubbing or
   Fabric can lose its color for a number of reasons, including:
   m  exposure to  water  or chemicals such as acids,  alkalides,
      bleaches or perc.
   m  exposure to light, especially sunlight
   m  exposure to atmospheric gases
 •  m  exposure to heat
   m  perspiration
   m  abrasion or rubbing
   Garments must be tested for colorfastness before they are cleaned.
This is especially important for dark fabrics and for garments that
are made of both dark and light fabrics. Experienced garment care
professionals, no matter what the cleaning method, will learn which
types and colors of fabrics  are the problems or "bleeders."

3.3.3  Textile Fuii$he$
Finishes are applied to fibers, yarns and fabrics for a variety of rea-
sons. They can be used to modify the appearance of the fabric to
provide a shine or soft feel  to the fabric surface. Finishes can also be
1st fie
tendency ofa-
fabric to hold
or lose Its
                                                                  module III  37

parts, AH
              applied to fabric to reduce its shrinkage, help prevent it from wrin-
              kling, or improve its resistance to water or soil.
                 Finishes can be applied to fabric by mechanical or chemical means.
              The finish can be:
                 •  permanent, which means it lasts as long as the fabric lasts
                 •  durable, which means it lasts for a relatively long time
                 •  temporary, which means it lasts for a relatively short time
                 One of the finishes that is used on fabric is called "sizing." Sizing
              is a chemical treatment that adds body and luster to fabrics. In this
              process the microscopic spaces between the individual fibers are filled
              with starch or resin. This reduces the amount of water the fabric will
              absorbed,  which means the fabric will not swell as much when it is
              cleaned with water.
                 The starch and gelatin sizings used on cottons and rayons are
              usually temporary and may be removed by water.When the sizing is
              removed, fabrics can shrink, lose their shape, or lose their surface
              finish. Some more durable resin sizings last somewhat longer on the
              fabric surface, and  are not affected as much by water.

Garments are made of many different parts. All these parts must be
considered when cleaning the garment. The first part to consider is
the fiber and fabric that the garment is made of. A garment can be
made from a single-fiber fabric, a multi-fiber fabric  (or blend), or
more than one type of fabric.
   •  A garment that is made from only one type of fiber should be
      cleaned according to the properties of that fiber. For example,
      a wool sweater should not be cleaned in hot water with vigor-
      ous agitation. A rayon blouse should be treated very delicately
      and may need some reshaping or stretching during the finish-
      ing process.
   •  A garment made from a fabric blend—such as wool/polyester
      or polyester/rayon—should be cleaned with the properties of
      the more delicate or sensitive fiber in mind. For example, a
      wool/polyester blend should be treated as if it were wool, and
      a polyester/rayon blend should be treated as if it were rayon.
 38   Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

   m  Garments that are made of several types of fabrics can present
      two major problems. If the fabrics are very different colors—
      such a navy blue and white—the darker color must be tested
      for colorfastness before the garment is cleaned. If the fabrics
      are made of different fibers, shrinkage may occur at different
      rates in the different fabrics. The garment should be cleaned
      with the properties of the more delicate or sensitive fiber in
      mind, to best prevent either fabric from shrinking.
   In addition to the fiber and fabric, other parts of the garment also
need to be considered:
   «  Care must be taken  on certain garments that seams, collars,
      and lapels do not pucker. These parts of the garment are often
      made of different materials that shrink at different rates. For
      example, when the fabric shrinks at a different rate than the
      thread or fused  interfacing, puckering can  occur. Often, this
      puckering can be fixed during finishing, but it is better to avoid
      the problem than to  fix it.
   m  Delicate  garments may be prone to seam ravelling and  edge
      fray, especially if the  seams are not secured with proper tailor-
      ing. Seams should be inspected before the garment is cleaned
      in order to determine if this will be a problem.
   m  Plastic buttons and non-fabric trims are typically a problem
      for dry cleaners because plastic and non-fabric trims can melt
      or stick when they come in contact with perc. This is not a
      problem with the wet cleaning process because water will not
      damage these types of materials.
Finishes a re
fibers, ifarns
fora variety
Garment care professionals should know how to identify the fiber
content of a garment. Knowing the types and percentages of fibers in
a garment will help the cleaner determine the best care and treat-
   Federal law requires that certain information be provided with
each garment, including fiber  content and care labelling. These la-
bels are usually attached permanently to the garment. This is not
                                                                 (Hodule III  39

required by law in all circumstances, however, and consumers will
often remove labels for reasons of comfort.                     -
If a garment has no identifying label, the cleaner should take the time
to identify the garment's fiber content.
   The burn test is a simple method of fiber identification. This test
can be done on almost any garment where there is an unexposed
area from which a small sample can be clipped. Never try to do the
burn test on a piece of fabric that is still attached to the garment.
   Different fibers have distinct odors and appearances when they are
burned. Exact identification can be difficult, but the cleaner will al-
most always be able to narrow the identification down to one of three
categories: cellulose, protein, or synthetic. Based on this information,
the cleaner can determine the best method for cleaning the garment.
Figure 3-13 shows the burning characteristics, odor of residue, and
appearance for several cellulose, protein and synthetic fibers.
40  fllasiadiujctU Toxio Use Reduction Institute

< g&fitff* •*
'r"< cotton ^
1?? ?U*
*T^ ;
yellow flame,- melts ^
yellow £fam% continues to% :
! burn when flame* removed
tyellow flatne, cp,ntinue$°td~
burn when flame removed '
yellow flame, continues tosi
acetic acid or -vinegar
^ burning wc-eki, \ ;
or paper -, *
burning wood
or paper
^burning wood I" \'
or paper - „
Ijafd bead — canndt cru°sh
grey fluffy ash
grey Haffy ash ;- !x \
, grey fluffy ash
•Pifefflf v.

N barrisjn short jumps, does
not -bsurn when fJamexemoved „
burns hi short jumps, 'does
no,tLbum when flame removed
burning hair " „ v
^burning fiair
crushable biaclc beadr .
"• crashable black bead „
. v * polyestef "
L ^"N- ^ •** ^
J •* % ^ ^ ^ "v^
% -> \x ^ ^ ^\ , ^
p 4 Adapted %mya
U*. *»Underst •;•. ^xs . -
^ignites and btirns
j \
melts, does^ not burn whetl
flame is removed * ' "x '.
melts,, does nbt burn when
_ flame i& removed
^meltSj burns with sooty
smoke^contiriues to burn < " '„
when flame ^emoyed ,
shrinks front'llame ani°
^melts^mk^ self-extinguish
hj-elts • *
•v^^'^1''* X* h-(
ble by JarteJUsmg, EFI, anrf Torto% PJiylk
fexttles., Poutth Ed|tto% MaeMilla^, MY, 1
acrid ' .
\ acrid *'
burning -wax
chemical odor * , •
N .
x strong " s. " '
.pungent or^sweet odor
s musty
'% N • \ ' .
s> ' * d * * ' ° "» * •, •-
?«. " „ , " '
j . ^ <- >
, hard black bead —
- cannot crush- a
hard bead — p artnot crush
•>. o
amber" bead -7-,
cannot crush, ">"
'hard* bead — cannot crush
hard bead — cannot crush
soft, sticky, gummy
* „ " < » \ '
,- » ^ . -^ V *
                                                                modulo III

         abrasion — the wearing away of material by rubbing against anoth-
            er surface
         abrasion resistance — the ability of a fiber or fabric to withstand
            surface wear and rubbing
         acid —• a substance with a pH less than 7
         akali — a substance with a pH greater than 7
         cellulose — a basic raw material from the cell walls of plants, used in
            manufacturing rayon, acetate, and triacetate fibers
         dimensional stability — the ability of a fiber or yarn to withstand
            shrinking or stretching
         elasticity — the ability of a fiber or fabric to recover its size and
            shape after stretching
         filament— an indefinitely long fiber, measured in yards or meters
         hand—the qualities of a fabric that are felt when the fabric is touched,
            such as softness, firmness, elasticity, and resilience
         bydropbiHc — having an affinity for water; "water loving"
         bydropbobic — having no affinity for water; "water fearing"
         laminate — to compress or bond thin layers together
         luster — to have a shiny or reflective surface
         moisture regain — the  amount of moisture a textile  absorbs as a
            percent of the textile's dry weight
         oxidizing bleach — a bleach that whitens by adding oxygen to the
         pH— a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material
         polymer — a chain-like structure of many molecules used to make
            man-made fibers
         reducing bleach — a bleach that whitens either by removing oxygen
            from a substance or by adding hydrogen to it
         staple fiber — a fiber of relatively short length, measured in inches
            or centimeters
         tenacity — the strength of a fiber
flliMadniietb Toxin Use Reduction Institute

Fiber and Fabric — Burn Test-
Objective: This activity is designed to give participants practi-
        cal experience in performing the burn test, which is
        a simple method of identifying fibers. The follow-
        ing items are considered:
        m melting and/or burning characteristics
        a odor of the fumes-, and
        m appearance, shape, feel, and color of the residue
          or remains after burning.
Tatkf:    You will be given a piece of aluminum foil about a
        foot square. All work should be done over this foil.
        You will also be given small swatches of fabric.
        Separate the fabric into individual yarns. Hold one
        end of the yarn with a pair of tweezers that were
        also supplied.
        First, hold the free end of the yarn close to the
        flame of a match. Do the fibers melt, shrivel up or
        harden? (Melt test). Next, put the yarn into the
        flame to seethe burning characteristics of the fiber
        (burn test). Any reaction to the flame should be
        noted such as; shrinking  back from  the flame, drip-
        ping, color of smoke and whether the fabric is self-
        extinguishing once the flame is removed.
Melt Test

Burn Test

                                                             fllodule HI

                           — Fiber Identification by Tensile Strength
           Objective: This activity is designed to give, participants an
                   understanding of how fibers react when exposed to
                   water. Participants will be classifying fibers based
                   on their reaction to being saturated with water.
           Ta$k:     The instructor will give you two strands of two
                   types of fibers to identify. Working in groups of
                   two, first hold the fiber at each end and pull ends
                   apart to determine how much pressure needs to be
                   applied to snap the strand. Record on a scale of
                   1-5 the pressure required for the strand to break.
                   Next, repeat this process after adding a drop of
                   water to the center of the strand. Finally, switch
                   and allow the other partner to perform both tests.
                   Complete the following chart for the fibers that
                   you are given.
Fiber type
Type 2
Reaction to water
Stronger or weaker?

Fiber type
Cotton or Rayon?

flhfsathutttb Toxics Use Reduction Institute

            By the end of the module participants should be
          able to...
   n  Identify the sources of soils, odors and stains

   m  Understand how mechanical processes and chemical
      agents separate soils, odors and stains from garments

   m  List the appropriate cleaning techniques for removing
      soils, odors and stains

Customers bring garments to commercial cleaners for many reasons.
Several of the most common problems are:
   •  the garment is soiled with dirt
   m  the garment has a spot or stain
   •  the garment has an objectionable odor
   •  the garment is wrinkled or creasecl
   m  the garment has lost its color or brightness
   m  the garment has lost its desired shape or finish
   m  the garment has been worn once and needs to be "cleaned"
      before it can be worn again
   Each of these conditions presents the commercial cleaner with a
specific problem. If the cleaner uses the wrong cleaning process, there
is a risk of damaging the garment. If the cleaner relies on the general
cleaning process, there is a risk that the garment will be cleaned but
the specific problem will remain. The cleaner must use the specific
cleaning process that will solve the problem without damaging the
garment. This will guarantee that the customer will be satisfied when
the garment is returned.
uses the
the re Is a
                                                                module IV  45

 Soils, odors
 Soils, odors and stains are some of the most challenging problems
 that cleaners must solve. It is important to get as much information
 as possible from the customer about the source of the soil, odor or
 stain. If the source is known, it is much easier to choose the correct
 process to remove the problem.

 4.1.1 foih
 Garments can become soiled from many different sources.
 These include:
    •  inorganic dust, dirt and particulates from the air
    •  inorganic dirt from rubbing the garment on dirty surfaces
    •  organic oils from soot and pollen
    •  food and drink
    •  blood and urine
    •  greases, tars, adhesives or other thick, sticky substances
    •  aged skin cells that have flaked off the body
    With the exception of the organic oils and greases, most of these
 soils do not penetrate deeply into the fibers of the fabric. However,
 many of these soils may be tightly attached to the garment. Soils can
 be hard to remove when:
    • they have been ground into the fabric structure by a strong
    • they are attached to the fabric by electrostatic bonding with
      the fibers
   • the ragged surfaces of the soil particles cling to the surface of
      the fabric
   Soil can be removed by:
   • dry mechanical agitation such as beating or scrubbing
   • dry mechanical spinning
   • flushing with a water, surfactant or solvent solution
   The fabricare professional can also  combine these methods  if a
single method does not remove the soil.

4.1.2  Odor*
There are several sources of objectionable odors. These include:
46  fltosadnnettf Toxio UjcRcdudon Injtltutc

   M  decomposing perspiration and body oils ground into the gar-
   •  organic contaminants from foods, solvents, greases or oils
   •  bacteria or mites attracted to organic contaminants on the gar-
   •  particles of smoke and soot from cigarettes or fires
   •  synthetic volatile organic compounds—such as fuels, paints,
      and solvents—that have been transferred to the garment
   Odors typically suggest that some organic process is taking place
on the garment. Either a volatile compound is evaporating, or a food
particle or body cell is decomposing, or bacteria are metabolizing.
The odor itself is not on the garment, but the source of the odor is.
   The techniques that can remove odor are:
   8  removing the source  of the odor by agitation, steaming  or
      washing with a water, surfactant or solvent solution
   •  "airing out" the garment over time in an oxygen rich atmo-
      sphere to allow the source of the odor to completely decom-
   B  disinfecting the garment with a bleach or peroxide
   •  heating the garment to promote rapid oxidation
   m  masking the odor with a more dominant odor or perfume (this
      method does not remove the odor; it only covers up the odor
   The cleaner can also combine these methods if a single method
does not remove the source of the odor.

4.1.3  ftairo
Stains tend to color a fiber in much the same way that a commercial
dye does.  Sources of stains include:
   •  ink
   •  dye
   •  solvents
   •  food and drink
   •  perspiration
   •  blood
   Some stains are drawn up through the fibers by capillary action,
the same way juice or coffee is soaked up by a paper towel. These
pro cess Is
OH t fie
                                                                module IV

             stains stick to the surface of the garment and yarns, but do not pen-
             etrate the fibers. Other stains soak into the fibers themselves. De-
to color a fiber  pending on the type of fiber, stains that penetrate into the chemical
             structure of a fiber may "set" over time. These stains can be very
             difficult to remove.
               The more  a stain contrasts with the color of the garment, the
             more of a problem it is. A red ink stain on a white shirt must be
             completely removed, but a red ink stain on a red, floral garment may
             only need to be hidden. The stain can be hidden by reducing its color
             so that it blends into the background.
               Stains can be removed or hidden by:
               •  flushing with a water, surfactant or solvent solution
               •  bleaching or dyeing
               The cleaner can also combine these methods if a single method
             does not treat the stain successfully.
same way
dye do es,
                         aratin? ioiMdon and ftaim           1
                            m fabric*.            .__< _r_"_, s^'-j

             Separating soil, odor sources and stains  from fabric is a two-step
             process: "get it off" and "keep it off." From the point of view of wet
             cleaning, this process consist of:
               • wetting a fabric and the soil, odor source or stain in order to
                  separate the problem from the fabric
               • holding the soil, odor source or stain away from the fabric to
                  prevent it from soiling the fabric again during the  cleaning
               Different separation techniques are effective at separating differ-
             ent soils, odor sources and stains. Some of these techniques are nie-
             chanical processes; others involve the use  of chemical agents.

             4.2.1  Proce««
             Mechanical agitation removes dirt from a garment by either direct
             force or by breaking and pulverizing dirt particles. Breaking and
             pulverizing results in smaller particles, which are able to leave the
             fabric structure more easily. These smaller particles are able to leave
             the fabric more easily than larger particles.  Mechanical agitation does
48  fflajf achwetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

not work for all soils, however. For example, mechanical agitation
alone may remove sand from a garment but may not be as effective
at removing ground-in dirt. Other techniques are also required for
removing stains.
   Water is a powerful solvent that can help separate certain soils
and stains from fabrics. Some soils dissolve in water that is used to
clean a garment. The mechanical force of water flushing can also
remove some soils, even though the soils themselves do not dissolve
in water.
   Adding certain chemicals to water can help water clean more ef-
fectively. These chemical additives decrease the surface tension of the
water. This allows the water to penetrate the fabric more rapidly and
thoroughly. These chemical additives are called "surfactants" because
of their effects on surface tension.
   Steaming and heating a garment also assist in separating soils and
stains from a fabric. Heat can melt or soften particles. Steam  can
cause particles to expand or lose their electrostatic charges.
   Finally, drying can assist in soil separation as  particles curl, break
or change shape during the evaporation process. A dehydrated parti-
cle or cell is  less  likely to decompose rapidly or to  attract bacteria
and, therefore, less likely to generate odors.

4.2.2  Chemical flints
Detergents. Detergents are a particular kind of surf actant. Detergents
penetrate into tight spaces such as  those between fibers and soils.
Surfactants ease  the process of separation by surrounding the  soil
particle and easing it away from the fabric and into the water. Once
a surfactant has  surrounded a  soil  particle and released it from a
fabric, the problem is to keep the soil particle from attaching itself to
the fabric again. Electrostatic charges help solve this problem.
   Most surfactants and most fabrics carry negative electrostatic
charges in water. These charges repel each other. Every time a soil
particle surrounded by surfactant comes close to the fabric, the neg-
ative charges repel each other. This  keeps the soil particles from re-
attaching themselves to the fabric. The soil particles stay suspended
in water until they are flushed away in a rinse. Figure 4-1 illustrates
this process.
removes dirt
from a
either direct
force or If i/
breaking and
                                                                    fllodulc IV

Into tig fit
as those
fibers and
              ,  Detergent Molecules
              ;  surround the dirt, and
              I  weaken Its attach-
              I  /#«#£ aft? aftfe clotftes
                         7>fcf4? chemical action
                         separates the dirt
                         front the clothes.
 f he separated dtrt  ',
 clothesagatH frejatf&e
,. Jtjs surrounded, ty
r detergentkolecitfes, *
    Surfactants (detergents) are made up of two different parts. One
 portion has an attraction to water which allows the detergent to be
 soluble in water. The other repels water but is attracted to fatty and
 oily compounds. When surfactants are dissolved in water that con-
 tains fabric with fat or oil spots, the surfactants are attracted to the
 fat or oil. Because surfactants are also attracted to water, they tend to
 pull the fat or oil away from the fabric and into the water. This helps
 remove these spots from fabrics.
   Soaps. Soaps are a surfactant that is made when fatty acids are
 combined with alkali. Many soaps include extra alkali. This increas-
 es the effectiveness of the soap. Because most dirt is slightly acidic,
 the alkali in soaps tends to neutralize the dirt. This releases the chem-
 ical bonds that exist between the dirt and the fabric.
   Synthetic Solvents. There are many synthetic surfactants and sol-
 vents on the market. Many of these solvents are made from petro-
 leum. The most common synthetic solvent used for garment cleaning
 is perchloroethylene. Stoddard solvent, which is distilled from petro-
 leum, is also commonly used in dry cleaning.
   Bleaches and Oxidizers. Bleaching does not clean garments; it
merely disinfects them. Whitening, odor removal and some organic
stain removal is often accomplished by disinfection. Disinfection kills
bacteria and mites that may accumulate on organic soils.
   Disinfection is accomplished by oxidation. Chlorinated bleaches
oxidize and dissolve organisms that can then be flushed away in rins-
50  fllaijachujctts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

es. The speed of oxidation can be increased by exposing fabrics to
certain forms of oxygen such as ozone or peroxide.
   Digesters. The separation of some organic materials such as food
or blood from a fabric can be accomplished by biological means.
Enzymes are biologically active organisms that eat and digest organ-
ic soils such as food and blood. This  loosens the soils and breaks
them down into other materials  that can be rinsed away.
   Finishing Agents. Finishing agents are used for a number of pur-
poses. For example, they restore body, resilience and smoothness to
garments after processing. They also make fabric more soil resistant.
This is accomplished by forming a film around the surface of  the
fiber. The film makes it more difficult for soil to become attached to
the fiber. If soil does become attached to the fiber, the film also makes
it easier to remove that soil.
                                                                 module IV


        capillary action — the movement of a liquid in-between fibers
        electrostatic bonding — bonds formed by the transfer of electrons
           from one atom to another
        inorganic — not derived from living organisms
        metabolize — to transform a nutrient from a useful substance to a
        organic — derived from living organisms
        oxidation — the combination of a substance with oxygen
        surfactant— a substance that helps remove material from a surface
           by reducing the surface tension between the material and the sur-
           face to which it is attached
        volatile organic compound (VOC) — an organic compound that
           evaporates easily; technically, a hydrocarbon (except methane and
           ethane) with a vapor pressure greater than or equal to O.lmm Hg
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Objective?! By the end of the module participants should, be able

   m  List and describe the steps required to clean garments
      using dry cleaning

   m  List and describe the steps required to clean garments
      using wet cleaning

   m  Identify three additional alternative methods for cleaning

This module describes dry cleaning and the alternatives processes
that are currently available or under development. This module also
compares conventional dry cleaning with the wet cleaning process.
Most of the commercial garment cleaning in the United States is cur-
rently done using the dry cleaning process. In the future, however,
new cleaning processes may also be widely used. Some of these new
processes are:
   n  carbon dioxide
   m  ozone
   a  ultrasonic cleaning
   •  wet cleaning
   All of these processes have been or are currently being studied as
methods for commercial garment cleaning. Only wet cleaning is cur-
rently ready to be used as an alternative to dry cleaning on a large
commercial scale. The other processes require further testing and
Only wet
clean lug is
read if to be
used as an
to dry
                                                                  module V  53

             5.1.1   DnjGeanin?
             Conventional dry cleaning treats garments in either perchloroethyl-
             ene or petroleum. Perchloroethylene is the solvent used in 80% of
             dry cleaning plants. Petroleum is used in the remaining 20%.
                The machinery used with these solvents has been modified over
             time resulting in four "generations" of machines. All four genera-
             tions are still  in use at this time. The  first generation has separate
             washers and dryers, and operators transfer garments from the wash-
CoHveHtlonal   er to the dryer. For this reason, these are called "transfer machines."
dry cleaning       The second generation combined the washer and dryer into one
treats       unit. The third generation added controls to help reduce perchloro-
garwsHtslH   ethylene vapor emissions. The fourth generation included additional
either        controls that recycle the air in the machine in order to further reduce
percMoroetHtflene vapor emissions. As a result of these improvements, workers are ex-
orpetroleHW,   posed to less perchloroethylene vapor and the machines themselves
             use less perchloroethylene.
                Dry cleaning has proven itself to be  an efficient, affordable, cost-
             effective process for cleaning a wide variety of fibers and fabrics with-
             out causing damage to garments. The primary drawback to dry clean-
             ing is that perchloroethylene and petroleum solvents are hazardous
             substances. Because of the hazards, the use of these solvents is be-
             coming increasingly regulated.
                In order to comply with present and future regulations, the gar-
             ment care  industry has two options. First, the manufacturers  can
             develop another generation of dry cleaning equipment with more
             effective  controls. These machines would use less perchloroethylene
             and petroleum solvents, and release less of these solvents into the
             workplace and the environment. Second, the industry can invest in
             alternative cleaning processes that do not depend on hazardous sol-
             vents. In both cases, dry cleaning facilities will need to replace older
             equipment with new equipment.

             5.1,2   Carbon Dioxide: Supercritical and Liquid
             Research is being conducted using carbon dioxide (CO2) in both the
             supercritical and liquid state as a method of cleaning clothes. Car-
             bon dioxide possesses several qualities that make it a desirable alter-
             native for clothes cleaning:

54  masjachuiettsToxio Use Reduction Institute

       it is not toxic to humans
       it is easily recycled
       it is an inexpensive solvent
       it does not cause damage to ozone in the atmosphere
      , it does not cause metal to corrode
       it is non-flammable
       it does not pollute ground water or soil
   .•  it is readily available
   Liquid carbon dioxide has become the primary focus of much of
 the research because it is safer to use and handle than supercritical
 carbon dioxide.
   Carbon dioxide is a molecule formed naturally when two oxygen
 atoms join one carbon atom (C+O+O=CO2). Under normal circum-
 stances, carbon dioxide is an inert gas. Carbon dioxide is familiar to
 everyone. When we breath in, our bodies absorb oxygen from the
 air. When we breath out, much of what we exhale is carbon dioxide
 gas. Carbon dioxide gas is typically found in very low concentra-
 tions in the atmosphere.
   Under conditions of high temperature and pressure, CO2 reaches
 a state called the supercritical phase. Grease and oils dissolve when
 they come in contact with CO2 that is in the supercritical phase. This
 makes supercritical CO2 an effective cleaner. Supercritical CO2 has
 other advantages as well. When the pressure is reduced, grease and
 oil that are dissolved in the supercritical CO2 separate from the CO2.
 The grease and oil can then be disposed of, and the CO2 can be
   Supercritical CO2 has been used by the manufacturing industry to
 clean metal parts for some time. It has been tested  in limited situa-
 tions to determine if it can be used to clean garments. Further testing
 is required to determine if supercritical CO2 is effective, affordable,
 and safe to use as a garment cleaner.
   Liquid CO2 exists at lower temperature and pressure than super-
 critical CO2.  Liquid carbon dioxide was originally developed by the
 aerospace industry for cleaning optical and electrical  parts.  It has
 been modified to dry clean garments.
   Liquid CO2 has no surface tension, which helps it separate dirt
and grease from fabric. It can also be combined with surfactants to
that make It
for clothes.
                                                                 module V  55

das the
ability to
clean tog Is
as a possible
alternative to
dry cleaning.
make it more effective. Like supercritical CO2, liquid CO2 can be
recycled during the cleaning process. It has been reported that liquid
CO2 can clean leather, furs and fine garments without causing dam-
age or degradation.

5.1.3   Ozone Qeanin?ty$tem
The Ozonated Water Continuous Cleaning System is a new process
that is still being studied but is available commercially on a limited
basis. The theory behind the process is that ozone (O3), working as
an oxidizing agent, has the ability to disinfect, deodorize and bleach
fabrics. Ozone can be added to water, in much the same way that
carbon dioxide is  used in carbonated soft  drinks.  Ozonated water
can be combined with detergents to produce a garment that is cleaned,
disinfected and deodorized.
   The garment remains on a  hanger throughout the wash, rinse,
extraction and drying cycles. The ability to let the garment, remain
on the hanger during the cleaning process reduces the amount of
labor used for finishing. The tendency of the garment to crease and
wrinkle is decreased because each garment is processed individually.
   The company conducting the research suggests that with this pro-
cess there is a reduced amount of labor required. The researchers
report no shrinkage, change of shape, or wrinkling and claim that
ornamental buttons do not need to be removed. They also state that
it is cost effective to process clothes using this process.

5.14   Ultrasonic Cleaning
Recent research cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department
of Energy and Kansas City Plant and Garment Care, Inc. determined
that agitation for  a continuous-flow, water-based  clothes washing
process could be provided by ultrasound. When clothes cleaned with
ultrasound were examined, the clothes were clean enough to encour-
age researchers to continue developing this process.
   Ultrasonic cleaning works by the pressure of ultrasonic waves di-
rected at the fabric through a solution of water and soaps. Ultrasonic
waves are sound waves at a frequency that is higher than the human
ear can hear. Ultrasound works because molecules of soil are more
dense than molecules of fiber. The energy from the ultrasound ex-
56  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

 cites the molecules of soil and causes them to separate from the fab-
    Ultrasonic cleaning is currently being  investigated as a possible
 alternative to conventional dry cleaning. The method has been shown
 to be effective, but more testing is required to determine the effect of
 ultrasound on various fabrics.

 5.1.5   UJetCleanin?
 Cleaning garments with water is an age-old technology which is cur-
 rently attracting attention from consumers and cleaners interested in
 using an environmentally friendly method. Unlike traditional laun-
 dering methods, wet cleaning combines the gentle mechanical action
 of hand washing with the convenience of machine laundry. The suc-
 cess of wet cleaning is dependent upon more than just the machine
 itself. Wet cleaning machine operators need to be knowledgeable in
 the area of fiber science because wet cleaning requires a certain amount
 of observation and skill. Success is also dependant upon the combi-
 nation of quality detergents, proper training and commitment to the
   Wet cleaning uses a wet cleaning machine, detergents, additives,
 stain removal agents and a specialized dryer. Conventional additives
 to the wet cleaning process are not considered environmentally haz-
   The cleaning process consists of essentially the same steps as con-
 ventional dry cleaning. Basically the process can be broken down
 into sorting, stain removal, wet cleaning, ,drying and finishing. A
 more detailed description of the process is provided in the Module 6,
 entitled Overview of Wet Cleaning.
Dry cleaning and wet cleaning are currently the two most efficient,
affordable and cost-effective processes for cleaning garments. Figure
5-1 illustrates the dry cleaning process. Figure 5-2 illustrates  the wet
cleaning process. In general, these two cleaning processes are similar.
garments Is
us Ing an
                                                                   module V   57

and wet
the two
HSIng one
and the wet
The basic steps in each process are preparation, washing, drying, and
finishing and assembly. The differences are in the details of each step.

5.2.1  Preparation
In both processes, the cleaner inspects, sorts and removes stains from
the garments before washing. Inspection is basically the same for dry
and wet cleaning. In both cases, the cleaner inspects the garments to
determine what problems may occur in the cleaning process and to
determine the best way to clean the garments.
   If two dry cleaners were given the same garments and asked to
sort them, they probably would not sort them the same way. If two
wet cleaners were given the same test, they probably would not sort
the garments the same way, either. Even so, the dry cleaners would
be using one set of general rules for sorting, and the wet cleaners
would be using another set of rules. The general rules for sorting are
different because the cleaning processes are different. Module 6,
Overview of Wet Cleaning, describes the general rules for sorting for
wet cleaning in more detail.
   The differences between cleaning with solvents and cleaning with
water also result in differences in the stain removal process:
   •  Because the wet cleaning machine removes some water-based
      stains, these stains do not have to be removed before washing.
   •  Pretreated garments need to be dry before they can be put in a
      dry cleaning machine. Pretreated garments do not need to be
      dry before going into a wet cleaning machine. In  fact, it is
      better in some cases to make sure that pretreated garments do
      not dry out, because  this can cause rings to form on the fabric.
      This means that the wet cleaner can remove stains and imme-
      diately put garments in the wet cleaning machine.
    • Several manufacturers have developed stain removers specifi-
      cally  for wet cleaning. Many of these products are less toxic
      than stain removing  agents that are used for dry cleaning.

5.2.2  lUin?andDrp?
The washing and drying processes are the heart of the differences
between dry cleaning and wet cleaning. These differences include:
 58  fllassachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

       Dry cleaning machines and wet cleaning machines have differ-
       ent controls.
       With the exception of older transfer machines, most dry clean-
       ing machines both wash and dry. Wet cleaning machines only
       wash garments. Separate dryers are used for drying garments.
       Many of these dryers have been developed specifically for wet
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                                                   HAN 6
            Clean, !)ry  .  FjnishfRg
            Clothes     & Assembly
                                                                            fllodule V  59

 Tfte washing
   m  Some wet cleaners choose to partially or completely air dry
      certain garments. This can require more space in which to hang
      the garments. It can also increase turnaround time.
   •  Somewhat more care is initially required to monitor the wet
      cleaning process in order to ensure that garments are cleaned
      successfully. The cleaner must have a good knowledge of fi-
      bers, fabrics, and the effects of the wet cleaning process.
   •  Dry cleaning machines use organic solvents like perchloroeth-
      ylene or petroleum as the primary cleaning agent. Water, de-
      tergent and  sizing are added to increase the efficiency of the
      dry cleaning process. Wet cleaning machines use water and
      detergent as the primary  cleaning agent. Soap, sizing, condi-
      tioner and softener are added to the wet cleaning process.
   •  The waste products  produced by dry cleaning machines in-
      clude air and water that are hazardous. Special filters and con-
      trol devices are required to minimize the amount of toxic waste
      that comes in contact with workers and the environment. These
      hazardous wastes also  expose dry cleaners to liability if the
      waste is not disposed of properly. Wet cleaning machines do
      not produce hazardous waste, though some stain removal
      agents may be hazardous.

5.2.3   Fmwhin?andfl«emblij
Garments that have been wet cleaned will require more work in the
finishing step. This happens most often when the cleaner is learning
the wet cleaning process. Less time will be required to finish these
garments as the cleaner and the finisher gain more experience with
the wet cleaning process. The purchase of state-of-the-art finishing
equipment can help shorten finishing time.
60  fflassachusettj Toxi« Use Reduction Institute

inert gas — a gas that does not react with other substances under
   normal conditions
ozone — three oxygen atoms bonded together; a layer of ozone sur-
   rounds the earth high up in the upper atmosphere and blocks out
   harmful rays of the sun
supercritical CO2 — Carbon dioxide in a certain range of tempera-
   ture and pressure that has properties of both a gas and a liquid.
   Supercritical CO2 penetrates fibers and fabrics like a gas but re-
   moves soils like a liquid.           L
toxic — harmful to life
                                                                 module V  61

                    WllWJTFi|l|>li ''"IT
               Garment Cleaning Methods
               Process factors identification
               Objective:  This activity is designed to give participants the
                        opportunity to identify the factors which are criti-
                        cal to wet cleaning.
               Tajk:     In your groups, develop a list of factors (elements)
                        that you believe are critical to the clothes cleaning
                        process. These factors should apply to both wet
                        and dry cleaning.
(eg. time)
62   Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Objective*:  By the end of the module participants should be
          able to....

   m  Understand how and why the wet cleaning process works.

There are a number of factors that are critical to using the wet clean-
ing process successfully:
   m  well trained and skilled personnel
   m  processing garments according to manufacturers' instructions
   m  quality detergents
   m  appropriate finishing techniques
   Most of these are also factors that apply to dry cleaning. In fact,
the wet cleaning process is similar in many ways  to dry cleaning.
Several of the skills used in professional dry cleaning are transferra-
ble to wet cleaning, including:
   a  testing for colorfastness
   ii  sorting of garments
   m  stain removal techniques
   m  pressing
   m  finishing
   Because so many skills are transferrable, the skilled professional
dry cleaner is at a distinct advantage over someone who has no pre-
vious cleaning experience.
   Figure 6-1 illustrates the basic wet cleaning process flow. Each
manufacturer of wet cleaning equipment, however, recommends slight
variations on this process for their machines, including different prac-
tices for sorting, choice of chemicals, machine program cycles, dry-
ing times and humidity levels at the end of the drying cycle.
dry cleaner
Is at a
who nas no
                                                                   flloduleVI  63

                                                      Clean, flry   finishing ,
needs to be
and well-
The cleaning shop needs to be staffed with alert and well-trained
personnel. The counter person needs to examine each garment for
defects such as sun damage, tears, missing adornments, seams and
hems in need of repair or stains. If possible, the following things
should also be determined:
   •  the origin of the stain
   •  the customer's occupation
   •  whether the customer has tried removing the stain
   •  what chemical stain removers may have been used
   •  how long the garment has been stained
   •  whether the garment has been put through a dryer.
   In a professional cleaning plant, the front counter person is very
likely the only person who meets the customer. A counter person
who is well-trained, reasonably paid, and actively appreciated bene-
fits the plant in three ways. First, he or she tends to treat customers
in a courteous and friendly manner. Second, he or she will be more
skilled at identifying soils and stains. Third, he  or she will be less
likely to look for another job,  which will save the cost of training a
    fllaKachujetti Toxics Uje Reduction Imtitute

In cases where the wet cleaner is inexperienced or is trying to in-
crease the percentage of garments that are wet cleaned, it is a good
idea to measure garments. This will allow the cleaner to ensure that
the garment did not change shape or size as a result of wet cleaning.
The cleaner should measure garments before any cleaning steps have
been performed and again after the garment has been cleaned. Once
the cleaner is comfortable with the wet cleaning process and the types
of garments that can be safely cleaned, there will be less need to
   To make comparison easier, and to avoid any confusion, the cleaner
should use a standard procedure to measure garments. To make sure
garments are measured the same way each time, follow these guide-
   H  Use inside seams on legs and sleeves
   m  Measure the right side of the garment
   m  Close the waist and double the measurement
It tea good
Idea to
to ensure
tft at tfie
not change
shape or
size as a
                                                                 IlloduleVI  6s

                •  Do not include the waistbands on pants or cuffs on shirts in
                •  Note any additional measurements that are taken
                Figure 6-2 shows the recommended sites for measuring garments.
             Sorting garments for wet cleaning differs from sorting garments for
Sorting       dry cleaning. Each wet cleaning machine and dryer manufacturer
garments     recommends their own individual sorting procedure, but they all make
ftirwet       the same general recommendation: similar garment types should be
cleaning       processed together.
differs from       Wet cleaning machine programs have been developed specifically
sorting       for certain fabric and garment types. Examples of these programs
garments     include: Outergarments. This program is designed for garments that
fir dry        can withstand the greatest amount of mechanical action, heat and
cleaning.       exposure to  water. Items processed in this cycle include non-wool
             coats, dockers, non-wool sport jackets and cotton bedspreads.
                Delicates. Garments processed in this cycle can only withstand a
             limited amount of mechanical action, exposure to water and drying
             time. Some examples of this type of garment include rayons, silks,
             acetates and  fine beaded washables.
                Wools. This fabric by its nature can only withstand a minimum
             amount of mechanical action, heat and exposure to water. Wool and
             wool-blend garments processed in this cycle include coats, suits and
                Heavier weight garments of the same fabric type may require ad-
             ditional drying time. Manufacturers sometimes recommend additional
             sorting for these garments, either before wet cleaning or as they are
             transferred to the dryer.
                Wet cleaning machines produce the best results if the wheel is
             filled to the recommended capacity. Recommendations range from
             50% to 60% capacity, depending on the manufacturer.  In order to
             reach the recommended capacity, the cleaner might choose to mix
             some of the sorted loads.
                If the cleaner mixes sorted loads to make a full load, or if a gar-
             ment has the fiber content tag removed, he or she should always use
             the least aggressive cycle for wet cleaning and drying. For example, if
66  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

the cleaner is unable to identify the fiber content of a sport coat, it
should be processed on the wool cycle to ensure that it is not dam-
aged by the process.
Some garments "bleed" when they are cleaned in water. To help solve
this problem, certain detergents contain agents that reduce the amount
of dye a garment will lose in the wet cleaning machine. These agents
can be added to the wash cycle. These agents do not guarantee that a
garment will not bleed, however. Garments made of fabrics that have
dramatically different colors—such as navy blue and white—should
always be tested for colorfastness.
   A wet cleaner with limited experience should test as many as 1 in
4 garments. This number will drop as the cleaner becomes more
knowledgeable and comfortable with the process. It is difficult to say
how many garments an experienced wet cleaner will test because the
comfort level will vary among cleaners. Experience has shown that
somewhere in the vicinity of i in  10 to 1 in 15 garments will be
routinely tested for colorfastness.
   The cleaner should test for colorfastness with a 1:4 solution  of
wet clean detergent to water. A clean white cloth should be moist-
ened with solution and rubbed on the suspect area with light pres-
sure. If color is transferred to the cloth, then it is likely that the gar-
ment will bleed during the wet cleaning process. Color loss can be
minimized by using vinegar or one of a number of commercially avail-
able products.
Stain removal is a critical part of the professional garment cleaning
process. Many garments are brought in to be processed for this pur-
pose alone. The cleaner's goal is to remove the maximum amount of
stains in the minimum amount of time with the least amount of dam-
age possible to the fabric.
   Each garment should be examined thoroughly but quickly for any
stains before processing. For an experienced cleaner this inspection
A wet
                                                                fllodulc VI  67

 goal is to
 remove the
tltne with
the least
should only take a few seconds per garment. This is time well spent
considering how much time and effort can be lost trying to fix the
problem later. The inspection table should be about three feet by
three feet and lighting should consist of full  spectrum fluorescent
lighting mimicking natural light as closely as possible. ,
   This inspection will catch any stains the counter person may have
missed. This inspection can also help identify the source of the stain.
Odor, location, appearance and feel can also be helpful in identifying
the stain. Once the stain is identified, the cleaner can choose the proper
stain removal agent.
   The wet cleaning machine will remove some water-based stains.
Water-based stains typically make up 70% of the stains a cleaner
encounters. The fact that these stains do not have to be removed by
hand will save the cleaner time. If the cleaner wants to remove water-
based stains at the inspection table, he or she can use the same mix-
ture of 1 part detergent to 4 parts water that is used to test for color-
fastness. Using a flat brush or spatula, apply the mixture to the stains
and  tap gently.
   Grease-based stains must be removed before the garment is pro-
cessed in the wet cleaning machine. Grease-based stains make up
30% of the stains a cleaner encounters. If a grease-based stain is not
removed before washing, there is a risk that the stain will be set on
the garment in the dryer.
   Intermediate stain removal is a process where a heavily stained
garment or one with a problem stain is inspected for stains before it
is put into the dryer. In wet cleaning, because garments need to be
handled between the wet cleaning machine and the dryer, the cleaner
has an opportunity to inspect garments before they are dried. If stains
or soil are still present on the garment, the cleaner can again work on
the garment at the stain removal board. This eliminates the possibil-
ity that the stain will be set in the garment during the drying process.

6.5.1   to Removal Equipment
A  professional garment cleaner should invest in a quality stain re-
moval board that is comfortable for the worker. Two types of boards
are available: cold boards and hot boards. Both cold and hot boards
can  be made from several different materials, including synthetic
68  fllattachuietfe Toxic Use Reduction Institute

materials, plastic laminate, stainless steel or glass. Both cold and hot
boards also have a screened area into which soil and liquid are vacu-
umed. Cold boards come equipped with pressurized air and vacuum
as an option. Hot boards come standard with vacuum, steam and
pressurized air.
   The following tools are also useful for removing stains:
   Steam spray guns. Using a steam spray gun makes stain removal
much more efficient. However, steam should be used with care be-
cause it can also cause problems:
   n  heat from the steam can activate certain chemicals and cause
      damage to the garment
   m  heat from the steam can set the stain
   m  pressure from the steam  spray gun can  distort delicate
   Water spray guns. Water spray guns can be connected to either
the plant water supply or to a steam condensate line. Connecting the
water spray gun to a steam condensate line will provide a more con-
stant pressure.
   Spatula. Spatulas work by massaging the stain removal agent with
a back and forth or tamping motion into the stained area without
damaging the fabric. They  can be made of bone,  metal or plastic.
Spatulas must not have any burrs or sharp edges  that could snag,
pull or otherwise damage fibers. The type of motion used with the
spatula  should be appropriate to the fabric being worked on. For
example, a gentle motion should be used on sensitive fabrics.
   Brushes. Brushes must be used with caution. They can be useful
on a raised stain to break up the soil build-up. If the brush is equipped
with a padded head, the head can be used to break up stains or on
delicate fabrics such as satins and silks. Many cleaners color code
brushes so that the same brush is always  used with the same stain
removal agent. For example, a cleaner might use black brushes for
solvent-based dry cleaning stain removal agents and white brushes
for water-based stain removal agents.
   Cloths. Supplies of clean, print free, absorbent  cloths are also a
necessity at the stain removal board. Excess moisture and colored
stains can be absorbed using these cloths. Grease stains can be flushed
out more  easily with an absorbent cloth  underneath the fabric  to
absorb the soil and water.
invest I'H a
ajralitif stain
                                                                module VI  69

depends in
features of
the wet
machine, the
properties of
the water.
                Drying Equipment. In wet cleaning, garments can go directly from
             the stain removal board to the wet cleaning machine for processing.
             This means that the cleaner does not have to wait for garments to
             dry after stains have been removed.

             6.5.2  tain Removal fluent*
             Several manufacturers have developed stain removal agents specifi-
             cally for wet cleaning. Most companies produce four basic stain re-
             moval agents:
                •  a degreaser that can be used on any grease-based stain such as
                   lipstick, cooking oil or motor oil
                •  a stain remover for tannin-based stains such as coffee
                   and tea
                •  a protein remover for stains such as blood and egg
                •  a neutral stain remover which is a  gentle product for stains
                   such as ground-in dirt
                Stain removal agents that have  been developed specifically for
             wet cleaning also tend to be non-toxic.
    >,6 (leanin? urith UJater                   ,
Successful wet cleaning depends in part on matching the features of
the wet cleaning machine, the  detergent and the properties of the
water. The cleaner should select a wet cleaning machine with the
unique features  that precisely match his  or her needs. The cleaner
must match the type of detergent to the type of fiber and fabric that
is being processed. The cleaner must also  be aware of the properties
of the water, because hard and soft water have different effects on
the wet cleaning process.

6.6.1  UJet Cleaning dlachine
The basic technology of the wet cleaning machine is a drum for tum-
bling and a frequency controlled motor which is controlled by a mi-
croprocessor. This allows the wet cleaner to precisely control the ro-
tation of the wash drum. This precise control produces a cycle that
mimics the gentleness  of hand  washing and provides very  smooth
acceleration and deceleration.
70  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

   Cycle programs for wet cleaning machines control drum rota-
tion, timing, temperature, addition of chemicals, water level and ex-
traction. Some machines come with preprogrammed cycle programs.
The cleaner can also custom-design the cycle programs based on in-
formation  from the chemical and detergent manufacturers. Cycles
can  be created, deleted or altered by the cleaner at any time to im-
prove the performance of the machine.
   It is critical to properly match the cycle with the garment being
processed.  Many fabrics require unique cycles to be programmed
because the fiber is so delicate that even mild agitation could cause
damage to the garment. Machine RPMs and agitation can be pro-
grammed to meet the needs of the fabric or garment.
   There are a number of different wet cleaning machines on the
market. Each machine  has a unique set of features. Before purchas-
ing a wet cleaning machine, a cleaner should carefully determine his
or her requirements. The cleaner should examine the features of the
various wet cleaning machines to  determine which one has the fea-
tures that match those requirements.
   Wet cleaning machines also vary greatly in styles and prices. Each
cleaner must determine what type of system suits his or her particu-
lar business needs.  The level of sophistication of the wet cleaning
machine  and the percentage of cleaning volume that will be pro-
cessed in water should be considered when selecting equipment. While
one cleaner may find a need for a highly programmable wet cleaning
system with all the  bells and whistles, another may find that a less
sophisticated home-style washer can meet his or her needs.

6.6.2 Determents
Detergents  play a critical role in the success of a wet cleaner. Deter-
gents have  been formulated to prevent permanent damage from oc-
curring when certain fabrics are cleaned in water. The three major
functions of detergents  in the cleaning process are:
   m protecting the fiber against damage
   m removing dirt
   a keeping  dirt suspended in the wash water so that the dirt does
     not  redeposit  on the clothes  during  the  cleaning
technology of
the wet
machine is a
motor which is
controlled by a
                                                                 module VI   71

fa Mesa re
factors to
when wet
of the water
   Detergents work most efficiently in warm water. Warm water helps
to increase the surface activity of the chemicals in the detergent. Most
manufacturers recommend a water temperature of about 80°F. How-
ever, some detergents are formulated to work just as well in cold
water. This gives the cleaner the option of using cold water for items
that would be damaged by washing in hot water.
   Surface activity takes place on the surface of the fabric, where the
fibers, the detergent and the soil meet. When detergent foams on the
surface of the fabric, the action of the detergent breaks the connec-
tion between the soil and the fabric. The detergent  detaches the soil
from the fabric, and the soil becomes  suspended in the  wash water.
The detergent also acts as a surfactant to keep the soil suspended in
the wash water. This prevents the soil from becoming attached to the
fabric again. Instead, the soil is washed away when the wash water is
flushed.                 ,       ,
   The cleaner can also choose detergents that help prevent color
loss and protect protein fibers such as wool. Detergents with a slight-
ly acidic pH lessen the tendency of dye to bleed. Detergents at an
alkaline pH are damaging to protein fibers, slightly  acidic detergents
work best with wools. Antishrink and antifelt agents and condition-
ers are sometimes added to the detergent to prevent shrinking, stretch-
ing and felting.

6.6.3  Know Vour Water
Other factors to consider when wet cleaning are the temperature of
the water and its hardness or softness. The temperature of the wash
and rinse water is critical to the success of wet cleaning. Water that is
too cold when it enters the wash drum may not properly clean gar-
ments. Warm water is necessary to obtain the greatest efficiency of
dirt removal. On the other hand, if the water used in the wash or
rinse cycle is too warm, it can cause a change in the shape, size Or
texture of the garment. Water that is extremely soft may require de-
creasing the amount of detergent and increasing the  amount of sizing
added per load.
72  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

The drying of wet cleaned garments requires as much care as wet
cleaning itself. If garments are tumbled in the dryer for too long, the
mechanical action can damage the fabrics. In order to minimize the
mechanical action, drying is typically done at high temperatures for
a brief period of time.
   The dryer capacity should be twice the capacity of the wet clean
unit. In other words, if your wet cleaning machine capacity is 20 Ibs.,
your dryer capacity should be 40 Ibs. This is necessary to allow for
adequate mixing. With adequate mixing, heated air circulates through-
out the dryer and dries the garments quickly and evenly. This mini-
mizes shrinkage, deformation, and wrinkling.
   The dryer  should have controls that monitor temperature and
humidity levels in either the drum or the exhaust air. Tests have shown
that the most shrinkage occurs when the humidity in the drum drops
below ten percent. Most manufacturers therefore recommend drying
fabrics to between 10 and 14 percent residual moisture.
   Currently, there are three types of dryers available. The first are
home dryers, which  are typically time and temperature controlled.
These dryers do not monitor humidity levels. The other two types of
dryers have been developed specifically for use in the wet clean pro-
cess. One measures the moisture in the dryer exhaust air and com-
pares it with the moisture in the room air. The other is equipped with
humidity sensors in the drum that actually measure the residual mois-
ture in the fabrics. Both types of dryers are designed to achieve the
same purpose: to dry the fabrics to a desired moisture level in as
short a time as possible with as little mechanical action as possible.
   Even  though  sophisticated dryers are available, some fabricare
specialists who wet clean garments allow certain garments to partial-
ly or completely  air dry. Professional cleaners who air dry garments
need to have additional space to hang the garments. Air drying also
requires more time, so turnaround time may increase.
Tit e drying of
retires as
wet cleaning.
                                                                 fllodule VI   73

finishing of
Is a critical
either a wet
The finishing of garments is a critical part of the process for either a
wet or dry cleaner. Even if the garment has been cleaned impeccably
it will be unacceptable if it has not been finished in a professional
manner. Consumers expect that a professionally cleaned garment will
look as good or better than it did when it was purchased.
   Certain garments can become a challenge when processed in a
wet cleaning machine. Excess wrinkling, shrinkage or stretching can
occur that requires additional attention. A skilled finisher working
with quality finishing equipment will find that these garments may
require some additional processing time. As finishers become more
experienced with the wet cleaning process, they will develop the skills
that will allow them to  produce a fine product while minimizing
finishing time.
   Certain techniques can  be  used to help prevent finishing prob-
lems. In order to decrease the amount of wrinkling, garments should
be taken out of the dryer immediately after the cycle is completed or
the drying time is finished.  The dryer should be large enough to al-
low clothing adequate room to tumble properly. State-of-the-art fin-
ishing equipment can also help the cleaner achieve the desired gar-
ment finish
74   fllajsachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

1:4 solution — a solution of 1 part detergent and 4 parts of water;
   for example,  1 cup of detergent and 4 cups of water
felting — tangling, shrinking or matting of fibers, generally caused
   by exposing them to heat, moisture and mechanical or chemical
frequency controlled motor— a motor that allows precise control of
   the tumbling rate, as well as smooth acceleration and decelera-

microprocessor — a small device, often called a "computer chip,"
   that uses a program to control the operation of a machine
pH — a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material
residual moisture — the amount of moisture remaining in a fabric
   after drying
KPM — revolutions per minute; the number  of times a drum turns
   every minute
                                                                module VI  75


            By the end of the module participants should be
            able to...

   m  Understand the wet cleaning process based on first-hand

   m  Operate a wet cleaning machine and perform routine

In this module, participants will learn how to operate and maintain a  Iff this
wet cleaning facility. At the same time, participants will discuss skills  module,
that are common to wet and dry cleaning, such as sorting, spotting,  participants
pressing and finishing.                                            will learn
   Participants will split up into five groups, with  each group ob-  ftowto
serving and participating at different wet cleaning stations. The five  operate and
stations are sorting, stain removal, wet cleaning, drying and finish-  maintain a
ing.                                                              wet cleaning
Section 6.3 in the previous module covers general information on the
sorting process. The following additional steps will be covered at the
sorting station:
   •  Sort loads according to machine manufacturers' and detergent
      manufacturers' instructions
   H  Suit pieces should be sorted into same load
   m  Sort complete full loads and half loads
   n  Ties should be pinned inside pant leg or put in a mesh bag
   m  Put all knit sweaters in mesh bag
                                                                  flloduleVlI  77

             Section 6.4 in the previous module covers general information on
             testing for colorfastness, and Section 6.5 covers stain removal. The
             following information and steps will be covered at the stain removal
               •  Start in the morning with dark loads, because dark loads tend
                   to have fewer stains. This means that dark loads can be put in
                   the washer more quickly. While the dark loads are being
                   washed, the cleaner can remove stains from light-colored gar-
               •  Stain removal agents should be biodegradable and non-toxic.
                   If dry cleaning solvents are used, waste should be collected
                   and disposed of as hazardous waste.
               •  Excellent lighting will enhance results
               •  Test for colorfastness
                            Ieamn?                             :
                               7^-> 77.7T-v y     „         _,
             Section 6.6 in the previous module covers general information about
             the wet cleaning process. The following information and steps will
             be covered at the wet cleaning station:
               • Match machine program to load size and type
               • If using for both wet cleaning and laundry, switch machine to
                  wet clean cycle
               • Use only EPA-approved soaps and detergents
               • If the water is very soft, decrease detergent and increase sizing
                  to protect fabric
               • Watch for cracks in the door tubing that can cause leaking
               • Take clothes  out upon completion of cycle
               • If using for both wet cleaning and laundry, rinse between cy-
               • Clean drum after waterproofing or fire retardant cycle
               • Clean suit pieces in the same load
               • Process jackets in the afternoon so the jackets  have time to
                  hang overnight
               • When cleaning down garments use a quick fill and extract cy-
                  cle to completely wet the down
78  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Section 6.7 in the previous module covers general information about
drying. The following information and steps will be covered at the
drying station:
   m  Use a large enough dryer for adequate tumbling
   m  Use the  shortest cycle possible  to prevent relaxation
   m  Take clothes out immediately after processing
   H  Do not dry clothes to less than 10% humidity
   m  Air dry garments when necessary
   H  Very fine and loose weave sweaters should be dried flat
   •  Molded black plastic form hangers work best
Section 6.8 in the previous module covers general information about
finishing.The following information and steps will be covered at the
finishing station:
   •m  Finish garments only when the amount of moisture in the gar-
      ment is the same as the amount of moisture in the air of the
      cleaning facility
   H  Less finishing time is required if the finisher uses stretching
   •  Conditioners, including starches, can reduce finishing time on
      some garments
   m  To bring back nap, brush suedes  with a copper  wire brush
      toward the nap
   m  Heavy wool coats should be brushed with a carding brush to
      pick up the pile
   H  Wipe velvet with a velvet brush to  get all the pile going in the
      same direction
                                                                fllodule VII  79

8o    Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Objective:   By the end of the module participants will be
           able to:

   B  Identify the costs associated with all cleaning facilities,
      both wet and dry

   m  Identify the costs that are specific to wet cleaning

   m  Identify the costs that are specific to dry cleaning

   a  Compare  the costs of wet and dry cleaning

A dry cleaner who  is considering a complete or partial conversion to
wet cleaning will certainly ask the following questions:
   m  What will it cost to convert to wet cleaning?
   m  What will it  cost to operate a wet cleaning facility once I have
   m  How do these costs compare with my current costs for dry
   a  Will I make  money or lose money by converting?
   The information in this module gives  a dry cleaner the tools to
answer these questions.
There are many ways to look at the cost of doing business. One way
is to divide the various costs into categories. For example, we can
separate costs into capital costs, operating costs and intangible costs.

8.1.1 Capital Com
   Capital costs are one-time investments. These are the costs of items
that a cleaner buys once and uses repeatedly in his or her daily oper-
ation. Capital costs include such items as:
money or lose
mo He if by
                                                                 module VIII   81

Sows of the
costs, such
as liability
/Mage, are
obvious as
    m  new equipment and installation
    •  new buildings.
    These items themselves do not get "used up" in the course of
 doing business. These items generally do not get replaced very often,
 but they can be depreciated.

 8.1.2 Operating (om
    Operating costs are ongoing expenses. Generally, operating costs
 are for items that get "used up" in the course of doing business, or
 for items that the cleaner pays for on an "as used" basis. These items
    • consumable materials, such as detergent, sizing, conditioners
      and stain removers
    • utilities, such as water and electricity
    • labor, both direct and indirect, including cleaning, stain re-
      moval and finishing
    • waste disposal
    • regulatory compliance

 8.1.3 Intangible CoM
    Intangible costs are  costs that are difficult to measure in dollars
 and cents. Unlike capital costs or operating costs, intangible costs
 represent things that a cleaner cannot see or touch but still affect the
 cleaner's bottom-line. These costs often include:
    •  public image
    •  community goodwill
    •  product quality
    •  financial liability related to correctly transporting and dispos-
      ing of hazardous  waste
    Some of the costs listed above—such as financial liability and public
image—are not as obvious as others. This can make it  difficult to
completely identify certain costs, like the cost of using perc. If perc,
still bottoms, cartridge filters and filter muck are disposed of illegal-
ly, the dry cleaner  who generated this waste can be made to pay for
cleaning up a hazardous waste site. Negative publicity surrounding
the hazardous waste cleanup can cost as much or more in lost busi-
ness as the cleanup itself.
82  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

8.2.1   Environment Canada'* Test (onvwnon
In August 1995, Canada's federal environmental agency, Environ-
ment Canada, began a project to test the costs and benefits of con-
verting from dry cleaning to wet cleaning. Environment Canada pro-
vided funds to completely replace conventional dry cleaning equip-
ment with wet cleaning equipment at a facility in Hamilton, Ontar-
io. The intent of the project was to clean as many garments as possi-
ble using the wet cleaning process. Funding was provided with the
agreement that only wet cleaning would be performed at the facility.
   It was felt that if the dry cleaning equipment remained in the
facility, the cleaners would tend to use equipment they were comfort-
able with rather than become skilled at wet cleaning. For this reason,
all the dry cleaning equipment was replaced. All garments that need-
ed to be dry cleaned were taken to another facility for processing.
Care  labels were used only as a guide to help decide whether a gar-
ment should be wet cleaned or dry cleaned. Care labels were not
followed rigidly.
   Because the project was not complete at the time this training
manual was being written, it is not possible to include detailed re-
sults. However, some preliminary information is available.
   The information gathered during this project was for the purpose
of comparing the performance and cost of dry cleaning versus wet
cleaning. Information for the first quarter of facility operation shows
that  51% of the total garments taken in were processed in the wet
cleaning machine. During the second quarter, the information shows
that  75% of the total garments taken in were processed in the wet
cleaning machine.
   The results of Environment Canada's project to date have shown
that the costs of wet cleaning are almost identical to the costs of dry
cleaning. More projects need to be done, however, in order to deter-
mine if Environment Canada's results are true for wet cleaning costs
in general.
The intent of
was to
process as
garments as
us ing the
wet clean Ing
                                                                module VIII   83

             8,2.2  The Greener Cleaner Demonstration Shop
             The Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) is an independent,
             nonprofit research and technical assistance organization with a tra-
             dition of working with industry partners to find practical solutions
 The          to environmental problems. Through funding from the USEPA, CNT
results of     initiated the Alternative Clothes Cleaning Demonstration Project with
Environment   the g°al of evaluating the performance and commercial viability of
Canada's     wet cleaning. The CNT research project included:
project to        •  the design, monitoring and evaluation of all aspects of a com-
datenave           mercial shop, The  Greener Cleaner, using only wet cleaning,
showHtHot          and
tnecostsof      *  data collection at two shops relying on both water and tradi-
wetcleaning         tional dry cleaning solvents.
are almost           CNT partnered with a private investor to design The Greener
Identlcalto     Cleaner as an average commercial dry cleaning operation in size,
tnecostsof   prices, and fabric, fiber and garment types  cleaned. The difference
drtf cleaning.    was that all items brought in for cleaning were wet cleaned.
                "Working with an Advisory Committee, two tests were designed
             to measured performance issues on separate groups of garments.
                •  In the first test, CNT measured performance through custom-
                   er satisfaction and through intensive evaluations of a random
                   sample of garments cleaned at The Greener Cleaner. These in-
                   tensive evaluations were conducted by independent evaluators,
                   who inspected 460 customer garments before and after clean-
                •  The second test compared the performance of wet  cleaning
                   and dry cleaning on 52 sets of identical garments. All the test
                   garments specified  dry cleaning in their care instructions  and
                   many were selected  as likely "problem garments" for wet clean-
                   ing. In each set, one garment was wet cleaned, one dry cleaned
                   and the third was  stored and used as the  "control" to help
                   evaluators judge the changes in the cleaned garments.
                The Greener Cleaner also served as a true demonstration shop —
             several hundred cleaning professionals, consumers and regulators have
             taken advantage of the opportunity to tour the shop during business
             hours, watching the wet  cleaning process from start to finish  and
             interviewing shop personnel. When The Greener Cleaner opened its

84  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

doors in May, 1995, fewer than 10 cleaners were using wet cleaning
equipment systems. A year later there were well over 100 cleaners
with wet cleaning systems and a significant percentage of those visit-
ed The Greener Cleaner prior to making their decision.
    For a full copy of the full report, contact CNT (see Appendix B).
The following pages contain a set of draft worksheets developed by
Tellus Institute of Boston that can be used to identify and compare
the costs of wet cleaning versus dry cleaning.  The worksheets are
divided into two categories: one-time investment costs (also referred
to as capital costs) and annual operating costs. These worksheets can
be very useful to a cleaner who is considering different options for
improving his or her facility.
   The  one-time investment cost worksheets can be filled out once
for each option that the cleaner is considering. For example, these
worksheets could be filled out once for upgrading existing dry clean-
ing equipment and once for replacing dry cleaning equipment with
wet cleaning equipment. This will allow the cleaner to compare the
one-time costs of each option.
   The  annual operating cost worksheets can be used to compare
the operating cost of an existing dry cleaning operation with the es-
timated cost of a similar wet cleaning operation. Dry cleaning costs
can be taken from a cleaner's existing accounting records. Wet clean-
ing costs can be estimated based on manufacturer's specifications for
wet cleaning machines and on the results of studies such as Environ-
ment  Canada's test project and the Center for Neighborhood Tech-
nology's study of "The Greener Cleaner. "An equipment distributor
may also be able to help with cost estimates.
                                                                module VIII  85

                       y1  TNT
                  One-Time Investment Cort*
                     Project Title:.
Purchased Equipment
(Purchase, Tax, Delivery)
Protective Equipment, e.g. eyewash station
Solvent Leak Detector
Perchioroethylene Storage & Handling Materials
Spill Containment System
Solvent Filter System
Steam Cabinets for Steam Stripping Cartridge Filters
Housing for Draining/Drying Cartridge Filters
Water Softening Unit
Water Cooling Unit (Chiller)
Refrigerated Condenser
Thermometer for Condenser Coil Temperature Measurements
Water Separator
Solvent Filtration/Distillation Unit
Muck Cooker
Azeotropic Control Devices
Rag Filter
Wastewater Carbon Adsorber
Wastewater Evaporator
Other Water Treatment/Recycle System
Vapor Carbon Adsorbers
Dry Cleaning Machine

Wet Cleaning System
Domestic Washer and/or Dryer
Pressing Equipment

New System
                  *These worksheets are in draft form. For final copy contact Tellus Institute (see Appendix B).
86    fflauadiwettt Toxics Utt Reduction Institute

One-Time Investment (ort$
  Project Title:.
(Labor, Supervision, Materials)
Shop Labor &c Supervision
Contractor/Vendor Fees
Construction Equipment Rental
Old Equipment/Rubbish Hauling 8c Disposal
Electrical Systems
Ventilation/Exhaust Systems

New System
Permitting (City, County, State, Federal)
(Labor, Supervision, Materials)
Shop Labor Sc Supervision
Contractor/Vendor Fees
City, County, or State Business License
City or County Health Department Permit
Perchloroethylene Use Permit
Wastewater Evaporator Permit

New System
                                                                               flloduleVIH   87


               One-Tme Investment Costs
                 Project Title:	
(Labor, Supervision, Materials)
Training in Equipment Operation
Training in Equipment Maintenance
Training in Dry/Wet Cleaning
Safety Training
Cleaning Test Runs
Start-up Supplies

New System
$ .
               One-Time Investment (ort fommanj
                 Project Title:.
                          Category Subtotals

Purchased Equipment (page 1)
Construction/Installation (page 2)
Permitting (page 2)
Start-up/Training (page 3)
New System
Salvage Value
Sale of Used Equipment

Old System
88   fllattachusetb Toxics Use Reduction Institute

flnnual Operating Goto
  Project Title:.
Cleaning Supplies
(Purchase, Delivery, Storage)
Perchloroethylene (including any taxes)
Detergent for Dry Cleaning Charge
Solvent Filters
Solvent Filter Additives
Detergent/Soap for Wet Cleaning
Water Repellent
Odor Neutralizer
Fabric Softener
Spotting Chemicals
Spotting Brushes/Bone Scrapers

Current System
$ ,
New System
Clothes Handling Supplies
(Purchase, Delivery, Storage)
Order Tickets/Receipts
Garment Tags
Durable Bags/Baskets
Drapery Tubes and Bands
Safety Pins and Other Clips
Plastic Garment Bags

Current System
New System
                                                                             module VIII  89


                 Annual Operating Co^
                   Project Title:.
Labor and Supervision
(Wage or Salary, Fringe Benefits)

Current System
New System

(for cleaning, steam generation, cooling)





Current System
New System
go    flla($achu$ett$ Toxics Use Reduction Institute

flnnual Operating Costs
  Project Title:.
Maintenance & Waste Management
(Labor & Materials)
Monitoring Perchloroethyiene Mileage
Monitoring Pressure Gauges
Perchloroethyiene Vapor and
Liquid Leak Repair
Cleaning Solvent Storage Tank(s)
Changing Cartridge Solvent Filters
Changing Polishing Filters
Precoating Tubular Solvent Filters
Regeneration of Tubular/
Disc Solvent Filters
Water Cooling Unit (Chiller) Maintenance
Condenser Maintenance
Water Separator Maintenance
Solvent Still Draining and Cleaning
Muck Cooker Draining and Cleaning
Replacing Wastewater Carbon
Adsorber Filters
Wastewater Evaporator Maintenance
Wastewater Treatment/
Recycle Unit Maintenance
Replacing Vapor Carbon Adsorbers Filters
Cleaning Button Trap
Cleaning Lint Trap
Other Cleaning Machine Maintenance

Current System
$ - .. -
New System
$ .
$ .
$ ' '
$ •
$ .


                 flnnual Operating Cort$
                    Project Title:.
Waste Storage, Hauling & Disposal
(Labor, Supervision, Materials)
Used Solvent Filters & Prefilters
Spent Carbon from Vapor/
Wastewater Adsorbers
Filter Muck
Muck Cooker Residue
Solvent Still Sludge
Water Separator Wastewater
Water Treatment/Recycle Unit Sludge
Lint 8c Rags
Solvent Containers
Spotting Chemicals/Containers

Current System
$ .
New System
Regulatory Compliance
(Labor, Supervision, Materials)
Recordkeeping 8c Reporting
Spill Containment/Clean-up

Current System
$ .
New System
92   fllaisadiuf etts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

flnnual Operating Costs
  Project Title:.
  Date:	'-—
          Liability and Insurance

Legal Fees
Site Cleanup 8c Monitoring
Personal Injury
Property/Natural Resource Damage

General Business Insurance
Pollution Liability Insurance

Current System
New System
$ •• .'
$ .
$ . .
Advertising Materials
Signs ' ; -
Business Cards
Advertising Fees

Current System
$ --.-..
New System
             Off-Site Services
Shirt laundering

Current System
$ , -
$ -
New System
$ . -
$ .
$ :
                                                                                   module VIII   93

               flnnual Operating Co$t$
                 Project Title: -

Cost for Damaged Clothing

Current System
New System
               flnnual Operating Cort$ Summary

Cleaning Supplies (page 1)
Clothes Handling Supplies (page 1)
Labor and Supervision (page 2)
Utilities (page 2)
Maintenance & Waste Management (page 3)
Waste Storage, Hauling & Disposal (page 4)
Regulatory Compliance (page 4)
Liability and Insurance (page 5)
Advertising Materials (page 5)
Off-Site Services (page 5)
Claims (page 6)
Current System
New System
$ .
                                                                 Category Subtotals
                 Enter; Total CURRENT Operating Costs
                 Enter; Total NEW Operating Costs
                 Annual Change in Cost/Savings (Current-New)	$
94   fllasjadnjsetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Objective*!  By the end of the module participants should be
          able to...

   n  List and describe the range of features offered by currently
      available wet cleaning equipment

Wet cleaning equipment can be divided into two categories:
   m  wet cleaning machines, or washers
   m  dryers that have been specifically developed for the wet clean-
      ing process
   Both wet cleaning machines and dryers are available with a wide
range of standard and optional features.
Wet cleaning machines have been designed to process a wide range
of garments, including garments that are usually dry cleaned. Manu-
facturers have focused on mechanical agitation and programmable
controls to give the wet cleaner flexible options for safe, efficient
   Some of the new wet cleaning machines use a gentle, rolling ac-
tion to minimize the risk of damage to fabric. These machines pro-
vide wash speeds as low as 5 to 10 rpm and programmable wash
action that allows for minimal agitation, such as 1 second on and 60
seconds off. Other wet cleaning machines use air bubbles to provide
gentle agitation. Gentle wet cleaning machines also have program-
mable spin speeds for extracting water from  garments. Extraction
cycles can be set to match the garment and fabric weight, so that the
maximum amount of water is removed for each type of garment.
   Additional controls are available for water use, water level, tem-
perature, heating, and automatic chemical injection. These features
allow wet cleaners to precisely control the wet cleaning process. These
have been
designed to
process a
 wide range of
that are
usually dry
                                                                 IHodule IX   95

as either a
controls also allow the wet cleaner to automatically process garments
that would ordinarily be hand washed.
   The drum capacity or load size of wet cleaning machines ranges
from 10 to 135 pounds. An important fact to keep in mind is that the
wet cleaning capacity of the machine is 50-60% of the laundry ca-
pacity. This means that  if the cleaner plans to routinely process 25
pound loads on a wet cleaning cycle, the machine purchased should
have a minimum capacity of 50 pounds.
   The amount of water used per wet cleaning cycle should be con-
sidered when choosing a wet cleaning machine, particularly in areas
where water and sewer costs are high. Studies done in Chicago and
Canada show that switching from dry to wet cleaning may increase
water use. However, the studies also show that wet cleaning was still
economically favorable to dry cleaning.
   Machines with automatic detergent feeds should also have either
an alarm on the detergent and/or additive tanks, or  an automatic
shut off. These features ensure that detergents and finishes are added
when garments are processed. Processing garments without deter-
gents  and finishes can result in wasted labor, detergents  and utility
costs. The machine should also  be equipped with enough detergent
dispensers to allow the cleaner to process the full range of garments
that he or she wishes. If skins are to be processed, the machine needs
to be equipped with 2 dispensers in addition to the dispensers needed
for normal garments on the wet clean cycle.
   All currently available wet cleaning machines can  be used as ei-
ther a wet clean system or a standard laundry machine. This allows
the cleaner to process shirts and "dry clean only" garments in one
machine. Another advantage to purchasing a wet clean system is the
ability to process skins. Leathers and furs are generally a high profit
item for the professional cleaner and the ability to process them in-
house can increase profits.

             A number of dryers have been developed specifically for wet clean-
             ing. Most machines have programmable temperature and humidity
             controls that help the cleaner precisely set the amount of moisture
             that remains in the garment at the end of the drying process.
96  fflaHadiujetts Toxic Use Reduction Institute

   Even though the dryers have sophisticated temperature and humidi-
ty controls, the cleaner must pay careful attention to the load size and
the mix of garments and fabric weights. Because different fabrics dry at
different rates, sorting garments by fabric type and weight is even more
important for drying than it is for wet cleaning. Cleaners can also pro-
gram drying cycles specifically for loads that contain a mix of fabrics,
but care is needed to ensure that all garments dry properly.
   Both electric and steam  dryers use considerable energy. An electric
dryer may need up to a 100 amp service to run properly. Cleaners who
are considering installing a  new dryer need to find out if they need to
install 100 amp service to run it. One dryer manufacturer will be mod-
ifying their machine from a three phase to a single phase in the future,
but for now the 100 amp service is necessary. If the cleaner is consider-
ing a steam dryer, he or she must determine if the current boiler has the
capacity to support the dryer. A gas dryer should not be used in a shop
that uses perc.
   Though garments should be removed from the dryer when they are
still  slightly moist to prevent shrinkage, it is often necessary to let the
garment dry completely before finishing. It is possible to let the gar-
ments air dry, or to purchase equipment to speed up this final drying
process. Wind whips are available to blow dry garments, especially those
with heavy areas like shoulder pads and thick waist bands. Drying cab-
inets can be used to dry garments that may be damaged by agitation of
any sort.
   Figure 9-1 summarizes the features that are available on five gentle wet
cleaning machines. Figure 9-2 summarizes the features for five dryers.
Figures 9-3 and 9-4 compares these new machines to conventional dry-
ers and commercial equipment.
    This information was originally published by Environment Cana-
da's Green Clean Project in October, 1995. Wet cleaning technology is
developing rapidly and machines available today may have different
features than those described in the figures. For a copy of the full report
contact Environment Canada (see Appendix B).
A number of
dryers have
for wet
                                                                    module IX  97

" Machine itt
                                           Machine P
                                                                                                        Machine #4
                                                                                       >  MacbiaefS"  ,>
I AWM^ ^4»h Cycle lime
SsawHett Option?
Ibu                            *•

y— faifireawcim ban exehinga ?

tearicTHe« Option?
flimreaoxe Control HS/Moduiition?
 —!)«& ooH wtter fad control
^*—fil frost bottim or top ?
    if&terJfedKuEatiort Dating Cyde ?
      futt tfcqde Ttnfc Option ?
                        :tot Sigi'.i!i
            uV Door Iqccn'on?

  0.1 to 60 sec
  0.1 to 50 sec

250 to 1000 rpm
	'""'	No
  .(Catkin planned)
   Yes {dual also)
       top HI!
   Yes (50 settings)
       up to 6
                         up to 100

                     (prog. 1 ipm ma.)

                       15-30 minutes
                      (Direct to sump)
                      (Option planned)
                    "(3 auto,pre-nuxed)°
                        bottom fill
                      Yes (8 settings!
                         up to 6
                         up to 6
                                                                                       .Yes  >.
                                                                                       fully  "<
                                                                                      must set rrunually
                                           20-30 wastes
                                               Yes \'
                                          (Direct w sump)
                                          {Option planned)
                                                                                         botttjmfill  ,-
                                              tip to?
                                                                                                                 ¥«  (
                                                                                                               ^choices- ^
                                                                                                             U-40, minutes
                                                                                                             '    Yes    ,
                                                                                                              s   Yes1
                                                              s    bdtto&fill
•fes(Noihfo),  v<
                                                                                                                                  <- Zstaadatd
                                                                    Yes ^     '
98     Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

fllodule IX   99

                                                                 (Laundry)  <• /
                                    "[ Dryer     t,
                                    (WCleaa) ,' 1
  ^Qs|npcrature/Heating Control ?
  I Kdanual Tepaperature Adjust ?
  y  * if    11Will !*iiw*'1,1*11  .
    Programmable Microprocessor ?
  L'rogrammable Microprocessor
tl^rogratnmable Drying Cycles ?
•Programmable Cooling Cycles ?
• A ....	-jc Drying Cycle for Moisture? *
  lenipera'ture'SensorStsiplay ?
                       1 »!*•«»«* § J*i
                                'WiilM.lsM »
    '£/j j ^ ^ r -\i a «rei» j Bwraf* «iw w*;
    mble Temperature / Moisture ?
    tljjiJi. IJjiiJUlik at, Jb ra M> nutw, my .IL tBJL.HIJLIU ff ,...!,„.... ,4^^ jjiiMwiiifc  ^
 N?,; ;
                                                              Yes fsome)
                                                                   c  ~  <
                                                                Yes ^o
Yes (some)
                                                                                 #!   Yes-{some}
100   fllastidiuietb Toxio Use Reduction Institute

            By the end of the module participants should be
            able to...
   •  Understand the level of retraining that will be required to
      adapt personnel to the wet cleaning process

   •  Design a functional wet cleaning facility

A properly trained staff and a cleaning facility with a functional lay-
out are two requirements for a successful wet clean business. Shops
should be designed with work load, staffing and turn-around time in
mind. Converting to wet cleaning means that staff will need to be
trained to understand the differences between the wet and dry clean-
ing processes.  When new wet cleaning equipment is installed, the
cleaner should take advantage of this opportunity to improve the
layout of the facility if possible.
As in dry cleaning, the wet cleaning process places an emphasis on
teamwork. Counter personnel need to thoroughly inspect garments
for stains. When a counter person finds a stain, he or she needs to
ask the customer about the origin of the stain and how long it has
been on the garment. This person should also be able to answer most
questions about the wet cleaning process as compared to dry clean-
ing. If necessary, counter personnel  can pass these questions on to
the owner or cleaner.
   The garment then needs to be processed in compliance with the
established procedures of the shop. Stain removal personnel who are
familiar with dry cleaning need to be retrained to use water-based
stain  removal agents  and to  remove only grease-based stains and
A property
facility with
a re two
wet clean
                                                                 module X  101

may require
tHe most
because wet
garments to
wrinkle or
heavily soiled protein-based stains. Most water-based stains will be
removed in the wet cleaning machine.
   Sorting skills are transferrable from dry to wet cleaning, though
the sorting categories may be different. Sorting personnel need to
follow the specific instructions that come with the wet cleaning ma-
chine and with the detergents that are being used.
   Personnel that are accustomed to operating a dry cleaning ma-
chine should have no trouble adapting to the wet cleaning machine.
The principle of selecting an appropriate wet cleaning program for
the load is similar to dry cleaning. Some training may be required to
learn how to properly program a particular wet cleaning machine
for different types of fabrics.
   Personnel responsible for drying garments need to keep in mind
that a percentage of moisture needs to remain in wet cleaned gar-
ments after drying. Most wet cleaning operations in this country fin-
ish the garments  after they have been allowed to hang for 12-15
hours. The cleaner may also choose to air dry some garments if there
is enough time. The cleaner needs to manage the schedule to allow
for these drying times.
   Finishing personnel may require the most amount of retraining
because wet cleaning may cause garments to wrinkle  and/or shrink
more than in dry cleaning. Quality finishing equipment, combined with
more experience, can cut down on the amount of time for finishing.
             The amount of time it takes to completely process garments from
             front counter to final finishing and assembly partly depends on how
             well the cleaning facility is designed. Equipment should be laid out in
             a way that streamlines the flow of garments through the plant and
             allows the staff to complete tasks with as few steps and movements
             as possible. When a piece of equipment is replaced, the new piece
             should not automatically be placed in the same spot. Replacing one
             or more pieces of equipment is an opportunity to improve the exist-
             ing layout.
                To properly analyze an existing or proposed cleaning plant, the
             cleaner should create a scale drawing of the facility. This drawing
 wz  fllattadiuttttjToxiaUie Reduction Imtitute

should include the location of all doors, windows, partitions, ma-
chinery and conveyors, as well as hookups for water and electricity.
The cleaner can use this drawing for two purposes:
   m  to verify that all the equipment fits in the space available, and
      that all the equipment can be connected to the necessary wa-
      ter, electrical, steam and ventilation systems
   m  to trace the path that each garment takes from the time it en-
      ters the building until it leaves, to plan for efficient work flow
    The most efficient work flow paths are roughly a circle or a "U"
shape. Work flow paths that backtrack or repeatedly cross over them-
selves are warning signs that the layout needs to be improved. The
best work flow for a particular plant depends on the size and shape
of the building, the types of garments that are cleaned, and the spe-
cific procedures used by a particular cleaner.
   Most wet cleaned garments are taken out of the dryer when they
reach a 10-15% humidity level. Therefore, when redesigning an ex-
isting plant or building a new one, space must be provided for stor-
ing garments while they are air drying. Additional drying equipment,
such as wind whips and drying cabinets, can also affect the layout of
the facility.
paths are
rough I if a
circle or a "U"
                                                                 module X   103


            By the end of the module participants should be
          able to...
   m  Understand the current state of garment care labeling
      liability associated with wet cleaning

Under a Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulation (36 FR 23883,
1971; amended 48 FR 2273, 1983), apparel manufacturers are required
to attach care labels stating a single care method for the proper and safe
care of a garment. Because only one care method must be on the label,
manufacturers may use a "dry clean only" label even though wet clean-
ing may be a safe option. Since wet cleaning is a "new" and developing
care method, appropriate care instructions have not yet been developed.
As a result, there is not yet a Federal Trade Commission approved wet
clean label. This means that if a fabricare specialist deviates from a la-
bel's recommended cleaning method and damage occurs, the customer
may try to make the cleaner liable for any damage.
   The United States government is in the process of reviewing the
FTC Care Labeling Regulations. In a June  15, 1994 "Request for
Comments Concerning Trade Regulation Rule on Care Labeling of
Textile Wearing Apparel and Certain Piece Goods," the FTC requested
public comment on the modification of the current care labeling reg-
ulations in the following three areas:
   1.  whether to use symbols instead of words;
   2.  whether to provide information for consumers about whether
      a garment could be both washed and dry cleaned;
   3.  clarification of manufacturers' testing requirements
   On December 28, 1995, the FTC published a proposed rule and
further request for comment. Though the deadline for comments was
March 13,1996, no final rule has been published. Several groups are
Since wet
clean Ing Is a
care method,
nave not yet
                                                                flloduk XI  105

 Is a wet
tne cleaner Is
clean Ing a
garment, and
tne cleaner Is
also liable fir
 working on care labeling practices for the fabricate industry, both in
 the United States and in Europe.
    One of the care symbols that the U.S. government is considering
 is a wet clean symbol. Adding a wet clean symbol to the labeling rule
 would reduce the risk involved with wet cleaning by allowing a cleaner
 to return garments damaged by wet cleaning to the manufacturer for
 payment. The labeling rule changes are being proposed partly be-
 cause professional cleaners would  like  to wet clean garments cur-
 rently labeled "dry clean only."
   Common sense and the current care label rules leave wet cleaners
with three choices for cleaning a garment:
   • clean the garment according to the care label, if one is attached,
      even if that means sending the garment out for dry cleaning
   • wet clean the garment, after examining the garment and deter-
      mining that wet cleaning will not damage the fabric     :
   • reject the garment because it is too soiled, not colorfast, or not
      appropriate for wet cleaning
   If a garment is damaged by the wet cleaning process, the fabricare
specialist can use the same customer relation techniques that are used
by dry cleaners. If, for example, the color of a skirt from  a suit has
become slightly brighter after wet cleaning, the operator could offer
to process the jacket for free so that it would match the skirt. The
cleaner can save the cost of paying for the skirt and win back the
customer's confidence.
   Ultimately, the cleaner is responsible for choosing the best meth-
od of cleaning a garment, and the cleaner is liable for the result whether
the garment is wet or dry cleaned. Following the care label can re-
duce this liability, but cannot remove it completely. Even  when the
recommendation on the care label is followed, cleaners often accept
liability for damage to garments. This allows the fabricare specialist
to satisfy the customer and increase the chance of repeat business.
   With proper training and skill, wet cleaning more garments should
not increase the number of claims for damaged garments. Experi-
ence to date has shown that a skilled wet cleaner should not have
any more claims than an equally skilled dry cleaner.
106   fllaHachujetts Toxic* U$e Reduction Institute

          endix  A
As demand increases, manufacturers are developing and marketing
new equipment. For that reason, the information in this appendix
may not include all current resources.
UMGeanin? Machine;
Aqua Clean
   Neal Milch, Kevin Daley
   Aqua Clean Systems, Inc.
   461 Doughty Blvd.
   Inwood, NY 11696-1384
   Fax 516-371-4204

   Chris Dolan
   Iowa Techniques Inc.
   PO box 1322
   Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52406
   Fax 319-364-6502

DAE WOO Air-Power Washer
   1111 Plaza Dr. #750
   Schaumburg, IL 60173
   Fax 708-995-9609
Fashion Ace Equipment
   Hyok Su Kwon
   514 Warren Blvd.
   Bromall, Pa. 19008

Miele Kreussler (not currently in
US market)
   Bernard Sessman
   Miele Professional
   22D Worlds Fair Drive
   Somerset, NJ 08873
   Fax 908-560-7469

Pellerin Milnor Corporation
   Leroy Trevigne
   PO Box 400
   Kenner, LA 70063-0400
   Fax 504-468-9307
                                                          Appendix A  107

                John Tipps
                Clean Concepts
                  Technology Inc.
                2154 West NW Highway
                Suite 200
                Dallas, Texas 75220-4220
                Fax 214-409-03 8 8

                Tom Fleck
                3595 Industrial Park Drive
                Marianna, FL 32446-9458
                Fax 904-526-1509

             Ultrasonic Cleaning
             Allied Signal Aerospace
               Tom Hand,
               D/ME1-7, 2B3S
               P.O. Box 419159
               Kansas City, MO
               Fax 816-997-7081

             Garment Care
               David Porter
              •2018 Swift St.
               N. Kansas City, MO 64116
 COz Cleaning
 Caled Chemical
    William Bernard
    26 Hanes Drive
    Wayne, NJ 07470
    Fax 201-696-4290

 Determent Manufacturers
 Caled Chemical
    Mike Meilor
    26 Hanes Drive
    Wayne, NJ 07470
    Fax 201-696-4290

    1111 Plaza Dr. #750
    Schaumburg, IL 60173
   Fax 708-995-9609

Fabritec/Stamford Research
   Bob Knippling
   200 Industrial Road
   Cold Spring, KY 41076
   Fax 606-781-8280

   Michael Achin
   6625 Scottsdale Road
   Scottsdale, AZ 85250
   Fax - 602-991-1563
108  fllattadiutttt; Toxia Use Reduction Institute

R.R. Streets
   Manfred Wentz
   184 Shuman Blvd.
   Naperville, IL 60563-8464
   Fax 708-416-4266
Wet Cleaning Technologies
   David Lafer
   130 Morristown Road
   Bernardsville, NJ 07924
                                                             Appendix A  109


          endix B
Center for Neighborhood
   2125 West North Avenue
   Chicago, IL 60647
   Fax 312-278-3840

Federation of Korean Dry
Cleaning Associations
   54 East Avenue
   New Canaan, CT 06840

Greenpeace U.S.
   Jack Weinberg
   1436 U St. NW
   Washington, D.C. 20009

International Fabricare Institute
   Mary Scalco
   12251 Tech Road
   Silver Spring, MD 20904
   Fax 301-236-9320
Neighborhood Cleaners
   Bill Seitz
   252 W. 29th Street
   New York, NY 10001
   Fax 212-967-2240

North East Fabricare
   Peter Blake
   343 Salem Street
   Wakefield, MA 01880
   Fax 617-224-0166

Tellus Institute
   Deborah Savage
   11 Arlington Street
   Boston, MA 022116-3411
   Fax 617-266-8303

Toxics Use Reduction Institute
   1 University Avenue
   Lowell, MA 01854
   Fax 508-934-3050
                                                           Appendix B  m

             UCLA-Pollution Prevention
             Education & Research Center
                Jessica Goldheart
                3250 Public Policy Building
                Los Angeles, CA 90095-1656
                Fax 310-825-1575
Government fl?enci«
Environment Canada
   Brad Gumming
   Pollution Prevention &
   Abatement Division
   Environment Canada
   4905 Dufferin St.,
   2nd Floor
   Downsview, Ontario
   M3H 5T4
                                            U.S. EPA
                                              Design for Environment
                                              401 M Street, SW (7406)
                                              Washington, DC 20460
                                              Fax 202-260-0981

                                              Pollution Prevention Information
                                              Clearinghouse (PPIC)
                                              Fax 202-260-0178
                                              e-mail: ppic@epamail.epa.gov
112  Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

           endix  C
Behery, Hassan, Fundamentals of Textiles, Clemson University, Pro-
   fessional Development Series., PD 22 A, 1986.

Blackler,Catie, Richard Denbow, William Levine, Kathy Nemsick and
   Ruth Polk, A Comparative Analysis of P ere Dry cleaning and an
   Alternative Wet Cleaning Process, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Nation-
   al Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, April 18,

Ernsky, K., Principles of Aquatex Washing System, September 26,

Environment Canada &c Green Clean Project Participants, Final Re-
   port for the Green Clean Project, Environment Canada, Oct. 1995.

Federal Trade Commission, Proposed Rules, Federal Register 16 CFR
   Part 423, Vol. 59, No. 114, June 15,1994, pp. 30733-30735.
Federal Trade Commission, Proposed Rules, Federal Register 16 CFR
   Part 423, Vol. 60, No. 249, December 28,1995, pp. 67102-67108.

Hackman, J. Richard, Greg Oldham. Work Redesign. Reading, Mass.,
   Addison Wesley, 1980.

International  Fabricare Institute,  Fundamentals of Dry Cleaning
   Operations, Silver Spring, Maryland: IFI, July 1996.

Kao, Fu-Jung, Samuel P. Sawan, PhD., Supercritical Fluids as Substi-
   tutes for Dry Cleaning Solvents: Evaluation of Enzyme Activity
   for Satin Removal, Toxics Use Reduction Institute, University of
   Massachusetts Lowell, Technical Report No. 28, 1995.

Moser, Leon,  "Introduction to Textile Fibers, Properties, and End
   Uses," presentation to USEPA Design for Environment Technical
   Work Group, North Carolina State University, January 27,1994.
                                                             References  113

             Price,Arthur, Allen C. Cohen, JJ.Pizzutois Fabric Science, 6th edi-
                tion, New York, NY: Fairchild Publications, 1994.

             Rice, Bonnie, Jack Weinberg, Dressed to Kill, A Greenpeace/Pollu-
                tion Probe Report, Prepared for Pollution Probe, April 1994.

             Schwass, C.J., and Jane Rising (IFI), SEFA's  Wet Cleaning Work-
                shop, Southeast Fabricare Association, 1995.

             Sietz,William, Daniel Eisen, Fabrics Today and Dry Cleaning, Neigh-
                borhood Cleaners Association, New York.

             Sietz,William, Daniel Eisen, Principles & Practices of Dry
                Cleaning, New York School of Dry Cleaning, Inc, New York.

             Tortota, Phyllis G., Understanding  Textiles, Fourth Edition, New
                York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992.

             US EPA, Clearing the Air on Clean Air: Strategies for Perc Dry clean-
                ers, Video Teleconference, Sponsored by: Tennessee Dept. Of En-
                vironment and Conservation, Tennessee Valley Authority, The
                University of Tennessee Center for Industrial Services, U.S. Envi-
                ronmental Protection Agency, May 12, 1994.

             US EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project, Profile of
                Dry Cleaning Industry,  (EPA document #  EPA 310-R-95-001),
                U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., September 1995.

             US EPA, International Roundtable on the Pollution Prevention and
                Control in the Dry Cleaning Industry — Proceedings, National
               Technical Information Service, May 27-28, 1992. (EPA Docu-
               ment #EPA/774/R-92/002 ), Washington, D.C.: US EPA, Novem-
                ber 1992.

             US EPA, Multiprocess Wet Cleaning Cost and Performance Compar-
               ison of Conventional Drycleaning and an Alternative Process (EPA
               document # EPA 744-R-93-004.), September 1993.

             Vasquez, Cynthia, Wet Clean Machines, Chicago, Illinois: Center for
               Neighborhood Technology, August 1995.
n/j  fllauadiusetti Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Wallace, Debora, Edward Groth III, Ellen Kirane, Barbara Warren
   andjean Halloran, Upstairs, Downstairs: Perchloroethylene in the
   Air, in the Apartments above New York City Dry Cleaners, Con-
   sumers Union of United States, New York, October 1995.

Wolf, Katy, "Case Study: Pollution Prevention in the Dry Cleaning
   Industry: A Small Business Challenge for the 1990s," Pollution
   Prevention Review, (Summer 1992):314.1
                                                               References  115