The Presidential  Green Chemistry
Challenge Awards  Program
Summary of 1997 Award Entries and Recipients	1

Awards	2

   Alternative Synthetic Pathways Award	2

   Alternative Solvents/Reaction Conditions Award	3

   Designing Safer Chemicals Award	4

   Small Business Award	5

   Academic Award	6

Entries From Academia	7

Entries From Small Businesses	13

Entries From Industry and Government	16

Index	40


The Presidential  Green Chemistry

Challenge  Awards  Program

Summary of 1997 Award Entries and Recipients

   President Clinton announced the Green Chemistry Challenge on March 16,  1995, as
one  of his Reinventing Environmental Regulations Initiatives. According to President
Clinton, the Green Chemistry Challenge was established to "promote pollution prevention
and  industrial ecology through a  new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Design for the Environment partnership with the chemical industry." More specifically, the
program was established to recognize and support fundamental and innovative chemical
methodologies that  are useful to  industry  and that accomplish pollution prevention
through source reduction.
   EPA Administrator Carol Browner announced the Green Chemistry Challenge Awards
Program on October 30,  1995. She described the program as an opportunity for individ-
uals, groups,  and organizations "to compete for  Presidential awards in recognition of
fundamental breakthroughs in cleaner, cheaper, smarter chemistry." The Green Chemistry
Challenge Awards Program provides national recognition for technologies that incorporate
green chemistry principles into chemical design, manufacture, and use.
   Entries received for the 1997 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards were
judged by an independent panel of technical experts convened by the American Chemical
Society. The criteria  for judging included health and environmental benefits, scientific
innovation, and industrial applicability. Five projects that best met the scope of the pro-
gram and the criteria for judging were selected for 1997 awards and nationally recognized
on June 24, 1997.
   This document provides summaries of the entries received for  the 1997 Presidential
Green Chemistry Challenge Awards. The approaches described in these summaries illus-
trate how  numerous individuals,  groups,  and organizations from  academia,  small
businesses,  industry,  and government are demonstrating a commitment to designing,
developing, and implementing green chemical methodologies that are less hazardous to
human health and the environment. The approaches described in these summaries also
illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of implementing green chemical method-
ologies and are recognized for their beneficial scientific,  economic, and environmental
   Note: The summaries provided in this document were obtained from the entries received for the 1997
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards. They were edited for space, stylistic consistency, and clarity,
but they were not written by nor are officially endorsed by EPA In many cases, these summaries represent only
a fraction of the information provided in the entries received and, as such, are intended to highlight the nom-
inated projects, not describe them fully. These summaries were not used in the judging process; judging was
conducted on all information contained in the entries received. Claims made in these summaries have not been
verified by EPA.

BHC Company
Alternative Synthetic Pathways


BHC Company Ibuprofen Process

   BHC Company developed a new synthetic process to manufacture ibuprofen, a well-
known, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory painkiller marketed under brand names such as
Advil™ and Motrin™. Commercialized since 1992 in BHCs 3,500 metric-ton-per-year
facility in Bishop, Texas, the new process was cited as an industry model of environmental
excellence in chemical processing technology. For its innovation, BHC was the recipient of
the Kirkpatrick Achievement Award for "outstanding advances in chemical engineering
technology" in 1993.
   The new technology involves only three catalytic steps, with approximately 80 percent
atom utilization (virtually 99 percent including the recovered byproduct acetic acid) and
replaces technology with 6 stoichiometric steps and less than 40 percent atom utilization.
The use of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride as both a catalyst and solvent offers important
advantages in reaction selectivity and waste  reduction. As such, this chemistry is a model
of source reduction, the method of waste minimization that tops EPA's waste management
hierarchy. Virtually all starting materials are either converted to  product or reclaimed
byproduct,  or are completely recovered and recycled in the process. The generation of
waste is practically eliminated.
   The BHC ibuprofen process is an innovative, efficient technology that revolutionized
bulk pharmaceutical manufacturing. The process provides an elegant solution to a preva-
lent problem encountered in bulk pharmaceutical synthesis (i.e., how to avoid the large
quantities of solvents and wastes associated with the traditional stoichiometric use of aux-
iliary chemicals when effecting chemical conversions). Large volumes of aqueous wastes
(salts)  normally associated with such manufacturing are virtually eliminated. The anhy-
drous hydrogen fluoride catalyst/solvent is recovered and recycled with greater than 99.9
percent efficiency. No other solvent is needed in the process, simplifying product recovery
and minimizing fugitive emissions. The nearly complete atom utilization of this stream-
lined process truly makes it a waste-minimizing, environmentally friendly technology.

Alternative Solvents/Reaction

Conditions Award

DryView™- Imaging Systems

   Phototherinography is an imaging  technology whereby a latent image, created by
exposing a sensitized emulsion to appropriate light energy, is processed by the application
of thermal energy. Photothermographic  films are easily imaged by laser diode imaging sys-
tems, with the resultant exposed film processed by passing it over a heat roll. A heat roll
operating at 250 °F in contact with the film will produce diagnostic-quality images in
approximately  15  seconds.  Based on photothermography  technology, Imation's
DryView™ Imaging Systems use no wet chemistry, create no effluent, and require no
additional postprocess steps such as drying.
   In contrast, silver halide photographic films are processed by bathing them in a chem-
ical developer, soaking them in a fix solution, washing them with clean water, and finally
drying them. The developer and fix solutions contain toxic  chemicals such as  hydro-
quinone,  silver, and  acetic acid. In the wash cycle, this chemistry, along widi silver
compounds, is flushed from the film and becomes part of the waste stream. The resulting
effluent amounts to billions of gallons of liquid waste each year.
   Significant developments in photothermographic image quality have  been achieved
that allow it to successfully compete with silver halide technology. During  1996, Imation
placed more dian 1,500 DryView™ medical laser imagers, which represent 6 percent of
the world's  installed base. These units alone have  eliminated  the  annual disposal of
192,000 gallons of developer, 330,000 gallons of fixer, and 54.5 million gallons of conta-
minated water into the waste stream. As future systems are placed, the reductions will be
even more dramatic.
   DryView™ technology is applicable to all industries that process panchromatic film
products. The largest of these industries  are medical radiography, printing, industrial radi-
ography, and military reconnaissance. DryView™ is valued by these industries because it
supports pollution prevention through source reduction.

Albright &
Designing Safer  Chemicals  Award

THPS Biocides: A New Class of Antimicrobial


   Conventional biocides, used to control  the growth of bacteria, algae, and fungi in
industrial cooling systems, oil fields, and process applications, are highly toxic to humans
and aquatic life and often persist in the environment, leading to long-term damage. To
address this problem, a new and relatively benign biocide, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phos-
phonium sulfate (THPS), has been discovered by Albright & Wilson Americas. THPS
biocides represent a completely new class of antimicrobial chemistry that combines supe-
rior antimicrobial activity with a relatively benign  toxicology profile.  THPS's benefits
include low toxicity, low recommended treatment level, rapid breakdown in the environ-
ment, and no bioaccumulation. When substituted for more toxic biocides, THPS biocides
provide reduced risks to both human health  and the  environment.
   THPS is so effective as a biocide that, in most cases, the recommended treatment level
is below that which would be toxic to fish. In addition, THPS rapidly breaks down in the
environment through hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and biodegradation. In
many cases, it substantially breaks down before the treated water enters the environment.
The degradation products have been shown  to possess a relatively benign toxicology pro-
file. Furthermore, THPS does not bioaccumulate and, therefore, offers a much reduced
risk to higher life forms.
   THPS biocides are aqueous solutions and do not  contain volatile organic compounds.
Because THPS is halogen-free, it does not contribute to dioxin or AOX formation. Because
of its low overall toxicity and  easier handling when compared to alternative products,
THPS provides an opportunity to reduce the risk of health and safety incidents.
   THPS has been applied to a range of industrial water systems for the successful control
of microorganisms. The U.S. industrial water treatment market for nonoxidizing biocides
alone is 42 million pounds per year and growing at 6 to 8 percent annually. There are over
500,000 individual use sites in this industry category. Because of its excellent environ-
mental profile, THPS has already been approved for use in environmentally sensitive areas
around the world and is being used as a replacement for the higher risk alternatives.

Small  Business  Award

Coldstrip™, A Revolutionary Organic Removal and

Wet Cleaning Technology

   For over 30  years, the removal of photoresists with Piranha solutions (sulfuric acid,
hydrogen peroxide, or ashers) has been the standard in the semiconductor, flat panel dis-
play, and micromachining industries. Use of Piranha solutions has been associated with
atmospheric, ground, and water pollution. Legacy Systems, Inc. (LSI) has developed a rev-
olutionary wet processing technology, Coldstrip™, that removes photoresist and organic
contaminants for the semiconductor, flat panel display, and micromachining industries.
Coldstrip™ uses only water and oxygen as raw materials.
   LSI's Coldstrip™ process is a chilled ozone process that uses only oxygen and water as
the raw materials. The active product is ozone, that safely decomposes to oxygen in the
presence of photoresist. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water are formed.
There are no high temperatures, no sulfuric acid, no hydrogen peroxide, and no nitric acid,
all of which cause environmental issues.
   The equipment required for the chilled ozone process consists of a gas diffuser, an ozone
generator, a recirculating pump, a water chiller, and a process vessel. The water solution
remains clear and colorless throughout the entire process sequence. There are no particles
or resist flakes shed from the wafer into  the water; therefore, there are no requirements for
particle filtration.
   Using oxygen and water as raw materials replacing the Piranha solutions significantly
benefits the environment. One benefit is the elimination of over 8,400 gallons of Piranha
solutions used per year per silicon wet station and over 25,200 gallons used per year per
flat panel display station. Additionally,  the overall water consumption is reduced by over
3,355,800 gallons per year  per silicon wafer wet station and over 5,033,700 gallons per
year per flat panel display station. The corresponding water consumption in LSI's process
is 4,200 gallons per year and there is no Piranha use.
   In 1995, the U.S. Patent Office granted LSI patent  5,464,480 covering this technolo-
gy. The system has  the lowest environmental  impact of any wet resist strip process,
eliminating the need for thousands of gallons of Piranha chemicals and millions of gallons
 of water a year.
Systems, Inc.

Joseph M.
University of
North  Carolina
at Chapel Hill
and  North
Carolina State
                             Academic  Award
 Design and Application of Surfactants for Carbon

    One dilemma of modern industrial technology is that the solvents required to dissolve
 the environment's worst contaminants themselves have a contaminating effect. Now, new
 technologies for the design and application of surfactants for carbon dioxide (CCh), devel-
 oped at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), promise to resolve this
    Over 30 billion pounds of organic and halogenated solvents are used worldwide each
 year as solvents, processing aids, cleaning agents, and dispersants. Solvent-intensive indus-
 tries are  considering alternatives  that can  reduce or eliminate the negative impact that
 solvent emissions can have in the workplace and in the environment. CO2, in a solution
 state, has long been  recognized as an ideal solvent, extractant, and separation aid.  CO2
 solutions are nontoxic, nonflammable, safe to work with, energy-efficient, cost-effective,
 waste-minimizing, and reusable. Historically, the prime factor inhibiting the use of this sol-
 vent replacement has been the low solubility of most materials in COa, both in its liquid
 and supercritical (sc) states. "With the discovery of CO2 surfactant systems, Professor
 DeSimone and his students have dramatically advanced the solubility performance char-
 acteristics of COa systems for several industries.
   The design of broadly applicable surfactants for CO2 relies on the identification of
 'COi-philic' materials from  which to build amphiphiles. Although CO2 in both its liquid
 and supercritical states dissolves many small molecules readily, it is a very poor solvent at
 easily accessible conditions (e.g., T less than 100 °C and P less than 300 bar) for many sub-
 stances. As an offshoot of Professor DeSimone s research program on polymer synthesis in
 COa, he and his researchers exploited  the high solubility of a select few CO2-philic poly-
 meric segments to develop nonionic surfactants capable of dispersing high solids polymer
latexes in both liquid and sc COa phases. The design criteria they developed for surfactants,
which were capable  of stabilizing  heterogeneous polymerizations in CO2,  have been
expanded to include COa-insoluble compounds in general.
   This development lays the foundation by which surfactant-modified CO2 can be used
to replace conventional (halogenated) organic solvent systems currently used in manufac-
turing and service industries such as precision cleaning,  medical device fabrication,  and
garment care as well as in  the chemical manufacturing and coating industries.

Entries  From  Acadeimia

Biocatalysis/The Use of Genetically Manipulated

Microbes as Synthetic Catalysts

   Fundamentally changing chemical syntheses, as opposed to incremental changes in cur-
rently practiced syntheses, is one strategy for ensuring that environmental improvement
does not occur at the expense of global, economic competitiveness. Examples of this design
principle are found in the syntheses of adipic acid and catechol created by John W. Frost
and Karen M. Draths as well as in this research team's elaboration of the antioxidant activ-
ity of 3-dehydroshikimic acid (DHS). In excess of 1.9 x 109 kg of adipic acid is annually
produced and used in the manufacture of nylon 66. Most commercial syntheses of adipic
acid use benzene as the starting material. Approximately 2.1 x 107 kg of catechol is global-
ly produced each year. Catechol is an important chemical building block used to synthesize
flavors, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymerization inhibitors and antioxidants.
Although some catechol is distilled from coal tar, petroleum-derived benzene is the start-
ing material for most catechol production. The Frost-Draths syntheses of adipic acid and
catechol rely on the  use  of genetically manipulated  microbes as synthetic  catalysts.
Nontoxic glucose is employed as a starting material that, in turn, is derived from renew-
able feedstocks such as plant starch. In addition, water is used as the primary reaction
solvent, and generation of toxic intermediates and environment-damaging byproducts is

Biomimetic Transition Metal  Complexes for
Homogeneous Catalytic Reductive Dechlorination of the
PCBs/One-Step Extraction-Detoxification in Subcritical
and Supercritical Fluids

   Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous in the global environment, toxic, and
generally nonbiodegradable. A family of homogeneous catalysts has been developed at the
University of Georgia for the conversion of PCBs to dechlorinated congeners and nontox-
ic biphenyl by a hydrogenolysis process known as reductive dechlorination (RD). This
unique green chemistry has been demonstrated to occur at room temperature due to the
high reactivity of the homogeneous transition metal catalysts used for activation of the car-
bon chlorine bond. The organophosphorus transition metal complexes used for catalysis
also are extractable in  subcritical solvents used for PCB extraction from soils, sediments,
and animal and human tissue matrices. Hence, coextraction of PCBs and the transition
metal catalyst has been demonstrated, leading to dechlorination and detoxification of the
PCB mixture in one step. This process is compatible with chemical engineering unit oper-
ations  for countercurrent  continuous liquid  extraction,  as practiced in the  chemical
Professor W. John
Frost, Department of
Chemistry, Michigan
State University

Professor Karen M.
Draths, Department of
Chemistry, Michigan
State University
Dr. Charles M. King,
Department of
Chemistry, University
of Georgia
Dr. R. Bruce King,
Department of
Chemistry, University
of Georgia

Professor Richard A.
Gross, Department of
Chemistry, University
of Massachusetts—
Dr. David L. Kaplan,
Department of
Chemical Engineering,
Tufts University
Professor Alan T.
Hatton, Department of
Chemical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute
of Technology

Professor Stephen L.
Buchwald, Chemistry
Massachusetts Institute
of Technology

Linda K. Molnar,
Department of
Chemical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute
of Technology
Biotechnological Routes to 'Tailored' Polymeric Products
of Environmental and Industrial Importance

   Microbial polymerizations offer the potential for the discovery of important new routes
to polymers and materials from renewable resources that involve all aqueous, green chem-
ical routes. A critical problem limiting the utility of such methods is the inability to control
product structural variables that ultimately determine, functional properties. The work of
Richard A. Gross has led to the development of a family of technologies that demonstrat-
ed unprecedented levels of control for nonribosomal mediated microbial polymerizations.
Lipoheteropolysaccharides have been prepared  from renewable resources, and innovative
methods were developed to control the product's fatty acid structure and the degree of sub-
stitution. This has led to a diverse family of new biodegradable bioemulsifiers that have
wide applicability for the stabilization of oil/water emulsions in cleaning and degreasing
formulations, biocosmetics,  green coating technologies, and bioremediation of organic
pollutants. A second technology area has used  polyethylene glycols to regulate microbial
polyester molecular weight, repeat unit composition, and alter repeat unit sequence distri-
bution. Furthermore, this strategy can be used to form microbial polyester-polyethylene
glycol diblock copolymers. It is now possible, therefore, to consider the in-vivo preparation
of synthetic-natural  diblocks. This technology created a number of opportunities for the
preparation of completely biodegradable interfacial agents for blends, the termination of
chains with reactive  end-groups for coupling pharmacologically active molecules, and the
engineering of surfactant molecules. A third technology area has been the development of
new fermentation routes to anionic y-poly(glutamic acid) from renewable resources such
as glucose. These routes have the potential to replace millions of pounds of anionic poly-
mers, such as polyacrylic acid, which is nonbiodegradable and persistent in nature.

Derivatized and Polymeric Solvents for Minimizing
Pollution During the Synthesis of Pharmaceuticals

   A new class of solvents has been developed that has solvation properties similar to those
of solvents used conventionally in chemical synthesis, separations, and cleaning operations,
but for which the potential for loss by environmentally unfavorable air emissions or aque-
ous discharge streams is minimized. These alternative solvents are derivatives of solvents
currently used in reaction and separation  processes,  tailored so that they are relatively
nonvolatile and nonwater soluble, thereby satisfying the criteria for pollution source reduc-
tion. The solvents can be used as neat reaction or separation media, or they can be diluted
in an inert environment such as  in higher alkanes. Polymeric or oligomeric solvents have
been synthesized using  macromonomers incorporating the desired solvent functionality.
These polymeric solvents are easily recovered using mechanical separations  such as ultra-
filtration rather than energy-intensive distillation processes. This new concept for  the
design and synthesis of solvents offers the potential for significant source reductions in air
and water pollution and can be  considered to be widely applicable to fine chemical and
pharmaceutical synthesis, separations, and cleaning operations. It is expected to reduce the
complexity of downstream processing options  considerably and lead to energy efficient
reaction/separation sequences.

Environmental Advantages  Offered by
Indium-Promoted Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming

Reactions in Water

   In view of increasing demands to reduce emissions during the production of chemical
and pharmaceutical end-products, it is imperative to consider the development of effective
carbon-carbon  bond forming reactions in aqueous media. The work of Dr. Paquette
demonstrates not only that the counter-intuitive notion of organometallic carbon-carbon
bond-forming reactions performed in water is indeed workable but also that high levels of
stereocontrol are attainable. The key to this safe, environmentally friendly technology is the
utilization of metallic indium as the promoter. The metal indium, a relatively unexplored
element, has recently been shown to  offer intriguing advantages for promoting organic
transformations in aqueous solution. The feasibility of performing organometallic/car-
bonyl condensations in water, for example, has been amply demonstrated for  the metal
indium. Indium is nontoxic, very resistant to air oxidation, and easily recovered by simple
electrochemical means, thus permitting its reuse and guaranteeing uncontaminated waste
flow. The power of the  synthetic method, which often can exceed performance levels
observed in purely organic solvents,  includes  no need for  protecting groups, greatly
enhanced ease of operation, and greatly reduced pollution risks.

Environmentally Benign Approach to Chemical
Processing  Using Microwave Irradiation Under Solvent-

Free  Conditions

   An environmentally benign approach was developed by Rajender S. Varma that utilizes
microwave activation of neat reactants either in the presence of a catalyst or  catalyzed by
the surfaces of recyclable support(s) such as alumina, silica,  clay, and 'doped' surfaces,
namely, NaIC>4-silica, iron(III) nitrate-clay (clayfen) and Envirocats® reagents under sol-
vent-free 'dry'  conditions,  thus promoting 'at source' reduction of solvents and excess
chemicals in manufacture. This pollution prevention strategy has been targeted to indus-
trially significant cleavage, condensation, oxidation, and cyclisation reactions that currently
employ toxic, corrosive, and irritant chemicals, and generate hazardous waste. This tech-
nology uses material  science,  molecular modeling and  synthetic  organic  chemistry
expertise, and addresses the needs of the broad chemical community (e.g., polymer, phar-
maceutical, and fine chemical) by efficient production of valuable intermediates  (e.g.,
enones, imines, enamines, nitroalkenes, oxidized sulfur species, and heterocycles). Further,
the technology teaches the pollution prevention theme to younger generations of scientists
and extends to in situ destruction of pollutants and hazardous waste.

Environmentally Benign Supramolecular Assemblies of
Hydroquinones in Polaroid Instant Photography

   This technology represents the first example of supramolecular synthesis in a manufac-
 turing system for pollution  prevention. Using the concepts of molecular recognition and
 self-assembly, a new technique has been developed for the control of molecules within
 films and coatings. This process has a number of environmental benefits including reduced
 synthetic steps, reduced waste generation, reduced solvent usage, and the introduction of
 solventless or aqueous processing. Instead of performing several time consuming, solvent-
 based, chemical reactions  in order to synthesize a series  of candidate compounds  for
 structure activity studies, this technique allows for  the addition of simple,  inexpensive,
Dr. Leo A. Paquette,
Department of
Chemistry, Ohio State
Dr. Rajender S. Varma,
Department of
Chemistry and Texas
Regional Institute for
Environmental Studies,
Sam Houston State
 Dr. John Warner,
 Department of
 Chemistry, University
 of Massachusetts—
 Polaroid Corporation

Professor Marc A.
Anderson, Water
Chemistry Program,
University of
Professor Larry T.
Taylor, Department of
Chemistry, Virginia
Virginia Tech
Intellectual Properties
 readily available 'complexing reagents.' For this to be successful as pollution prevention,
 these assemblies must significantly reduce the number of synthetic reactions carried out.
 Often the formation of these assemblies involve no organic solvents. The supramolecular
 structures can be constructed via solid state grinding or aqueous dispersing techniques.

 Green  Technology for the 21st Century: Microporous

    The Green Technology for the 21st Century: Microporous Ceramics program is dedi-
 cated to both the fundamental understanding and practical environmental applications of
 microporous ceramic materials. These materials are typically used as thin porous films on
 a variety of supports for numerous applications. Such films are composed of nano-partic-
 ulate oxides (i.e., 0.5 to 10 nm in diameter) that are either randomly close-packed to form
 membranes (i.e., 30 percent porosity) or more loosely packed to form catalysts, photocat-
 alysts, and thin film energy storage devices. Because the particle size, surface chemistry, and
 particle packing of these oxides can be controlled, so can the pore size, pore size distribu-
 tion, and  the physical-chemical properties of these materials. As a result, the properties of
 these materials can be tailored for given applications which include reverse osmosis and gas
 separation membranes; high temperature membrane reactors; size and shape selective pho-
 tolysis  membranes; low temperature deep-oxidation catalysts;  room  temperature
 photocatalysts; and energy storage devices such as thin film batteries, ultracapacitors, and
 fuel cells. The Green Technology for the 21st Century: Microporous Ceramics program is
 illustrated using three examples: an indoor air cleaner for the complete oxidation of volatile
 organic compounds; an inorganic photoreactor for the size and shape selective synthesis of
 desired compounds with a minimum of waste; and, finally, an inexpensive, thin film ultra-
 capacitor which exceeds the  U.S. Department of Energy's near-term goal  for this type of
 energy storage device.

A Nontoxic Liquid Metal Composition for Use as a
Mercury Substitute

   Mercury is used extensively in switches and sensors, but it is  toxic to humans and ani-
mals. In addition to being an excellent-conductor of electricity, mercury has significant
surface tension and, unlike any other metal known, remains fluid throughout a wide tem-
perature range which encompasses 0 °C. Because of these properties, mercury is found in
numerous commercial products such as automobiles, thermostats, steam irons, pumps,
computers, and ever, in tennis shoes. In each of these cases, mercury functions as a liquid
electrical switch. Since billions of mercury switches are made worldwide each year, a non-
toxic replacement appears  highly desirable. A  nontoxic, cost-effective alternative  to
mercury that has  comparable performance characteristics has been identified at Virginia
Tech. This green technology provides a gallium alloy containing  indium, zinc, and copper
that conducts electricity, freezes below 0 °C, exhibits high surface tension,  and possesses a
very high boiling point and very low vapor pressure. In addition, nonmercury switches and
sensors can replace mercury  switches and sensors without modifying existing technology.
Mercury also is used in temperature sensors, pressure activated switches, pumps and filters,
slip rings,  liquid mirror telescopes, fluid unions, dental amalgam, and in medical devices
such as  sphygmomanometers and bougies. The nonmercury material also can serve as a
substitute  for elemental mercury in a many of these applications.

Rational Design of Catalytic Reactions for Pollution

   Chemical products manufacturing is a major industrial source of toxic and hazardous
chemicals. Catalytic technologies hold the key to the development of more environmen-
tally benign chemical processes and for the continued improvement of existing processes.
Historically, the design of chemical synthesis catalysts was extraordinarily empirical. Yields
of desired products and operational characteristics were normally optimized based on suites
of experiments run on catalysts made from various manufacturing conditions and blends.
The ability to correlate catalyst behavior to catalyst surface features was extremely limited.
Accordingly, predicting the desired catalyst features for a given application and, from that,
formulating a catalyst manufacturing strategy, was essentially beyond reach. Moreover, the
concept of redesigning catalysts so as to inhibit the formation of undesired coproducts,
toxic materials, and wasteful pollutants was fanciful. A methodology for Rational Catalyst
Technologies was developed at the University of Wisconsin that makes it possible  to design
and optimize catalysts by first understanding the nature of the desired catalyst surface and,
from that, formulating the catalyst. This strategy for the rational design of catalytic reac-
tions has found acceptance worldwide and has been applied successfully to link surface
science research to the development of industrially important catalytic chemical reactions.
Industrial collaborations or applications include ammonia catalysis, the environmental de-
NOx reaction, the water gas shift reaction on magnetite, titania surface species, molybdena
and  vanadia catalysts for clean partial oxidation of  methane, and hydrocarbon  cracking
over acid Y-zeolite catalysts for the clean production  of isobutylene.

The Replacement of Hazardous Organic Solvents with Water
in the Manufacture of Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals

   The use of water as the primary solvent is a realistic approach to green chemistry and
is a very desirable approach for reducing hazardous  organic solvents from plant invento-
ries.  Multiphase reactors have been developed  at the New Jersey Institute of Technology
and  other universities that use water as the reaction  medium in order to avoid the use of
hazardous organic solvents in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and specialty chemicals.
This is the  first technology to show that free radical bromination of organics can be car-
ried  out  in aqueous systems. A unique semicontinuous droplet reactor also  has been
developed for epoxidations.  Before pollution  prevention became  fashionable, organic
chemists  found that water-based reactions gave higher yields at faster rates  under milder
conditions  than organic solvent-based  reactions.  This is incentive enough  for process
change. The fact that these methods offer a new 'non-end-of-pipe' method of eliminating
volatile organic compounds adds a major incentive for process modification.

The SYNGEN Program for Generation of Alternative

   The SYNGEN program attempts to survey all possible synthetic routes to a target mol-
ecule and reduce the vast number of these possibilities quickly and stringently to focus on
only the shortest and cheapest routes. The program first focuses on minimizing  steps and
the central role of prior skeletal dissection to find the best assemblies of the target skeleton
from available starting skeletons. It then presents the ideal synthesis, of construction reac-
tions only, to create the target just  by sequential  constructions uniting  these starting
skeletons. Finally, the digital basis rigorously, but concisely, defines all possible molecular
structures and their reactions. This basis allows the new SYNGEN program  to propose all
Professor James A.
Dumesic, Chemical
Department, University
of Wisconsin at
Dr. John C. Crittenden,
National Center for
Clean Industrial and
Technologies, Michigan
Dr. Henry Shaw,
Chemistry and
Environmental Science
Department, New
Jersey Institute of

Dr. Daniel J. Watts,
Center for
Engineering and
Science, New Jersey
Institute of Technology
Professor James B.
Department of
Chemistry, Brandeis

Professor Tomas
Hudlicky, Department
of Chemistry,
University of Florida
Professor David E.
Nikles, Department of
Chemistry, University
of Alabama
Professor J.W. Harrell,
Department of Physics
& Astronomy,
University of Alabama
Professor Alan M. Lane,
Department of
Chemical Engineering,
University of Alabama
Professor I.A. Jefcoat,
Department of
Chemical Engineering,
University of Alabama
of the short alternative syntheses of any product from real starting materials, in terms of
both their cost and environmental impact.

Synthetic Methodology  'Without Reagents.' Tandem
Enzymatic and Electrochemical Oxidations and

Reductions in the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals

   The prevention of pollution at its source is addressed by the replacement of currently
used methods of oxidation and reduction (all based on metal reagents) with enzymatic and
electrochemical techniques (all  performed in water, alcohols, or other environmentally
acceptable solvents). The combination of enzymatic transformations with electrochemistry,
along with efficient design, yields unprecedented brevity in the attainment of important
Pharmaceuticals from metabolites of the arene cis-diol type. Halogenated aromatic com-
pounds, viewed in many cases as harmful to the environment, are enzymatically converted
to useful synthons and effectively removed from the hazardous waste pool. The residual
mass from enzymatic or electrochemical processes is judged suitable for disposal to munic-
ipal  sewers, thus  further reducing the amount  of actual waste.  The synthesis of a
homochiral cyclitol from halobenzene by several steps involving essentially no reagents
serves as the illustration of the technology. The nomination describes the strategy, logic,
execution, and future projection of this program, which has potential global impact with
attendant benefits to the health and economy of society through managed processing of
aromatic waste to valuable substances. Several patents have already been granted on more
efficient synthesis of pharmaceutical entities.

Waterborne Coating Applications for Video Tape

   Magnetic tape technology is  an important component of the information age and
maintaining a domestic tape manufacturing capability is important to the U.S. economy.
Magnetic tape is manufactured by a continuous web coating process that uses organic sol-
vents, including tetrahydrofuran, methyl  ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl  isobutyl ketone
(MIBK), toluene and cyclohexanone. MEK, MIBK, and toluene are on the list of 189 haz-
ardous  air pollutants and on the list  of 18  chemicals  for the EPA's  33/50 voluntary
pollution  reduction program. Waterborne magnetic tape coating formulations were
designed at the University of Alabama and used to prepare experimental magnetic tape
samples in a pilot coating trial. The formulations contained a blend of a water-dispersed
polyester and an ethylene/vinyl chloride copolymer emulsion. The coatings were thermal-
ly cured with a melamine-formaldehyde cross-linker to give tensile properties that were
comparable to a standard solvent-based binder composition. The pilot tape trial used exist-
ing processing equipment, including calendering and slitting. The tape had good magnetic
properties and excellent adhesion between the pigmented magnetic layer and the base film,
easily exceeding the 8 mm helical scan tape standard of 0.96 N peel force. An economic
impact analysis for the case of using the waterborne video tape coating process in  a con-
ventional tape manufacturing plant showed an 11 percent decrease in hourly operating
costs. The solvent-based process generated almost 650 kg of organic solvent per hour oper-
ation, while the  waterborne process  generated less than 5 kg methanol (from the
melamine-formaldehyde cross-linker) per hour. In addition to pollution prevention, there
was a clear economic incentive to adopt the waterborne video tape manufacturing process.

Entries From  Small  Businesses
Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP)

   Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) is a proprietary technology that uses secondary
materials and byproducts (that might otherwise be considered 'wastes') as raw materials in
a manufacturing process. CEP manufactures commercial products (i.e., industrial gases,
alloys, and ceramics) from heterogeneous organic, organometallic, and inorganic materials
using a molten metal bath as both a catalyst for elemental dissociation and a solution for
reaction engineering. CEP feed materials go through two stages in the metal bath: dissoci-
ation and dissolution of molecular entities to their elements and reaction of these elemental
intermediates to form products. The waste minimization and environmental performance
of CEP  is ensured by the separation of feed from product through elemental dissociation
and the  predictable partitioning afforded by the control of thermodynamic operating con-
ditions.  Employed as an offsite, closed-loop process unit, CEP maximizes environmental
performance for a broad spectrum of secondary materials and byproducts through pollu-
tion prevention, waste minimization, and decreased demand on  ever-diminishing natural

Cross-Linked Enzyme Crystals (CLECs) as Robust and
Broadly Applicable Industrial Catalysts

   Enzymes are proteins that function as highly efficient and selective catalysts. Enzymes
are responsible for the biochemical reactions that are essential to  life, and as such,  they are
unique  in their intrinsic compatibility with living organisms. Their potential as safe and
efficient industrial catalysts has been long recognized, but to date, enzymes have not exhib-
ited the chemical and physical stability associated with more conventional, small-molecule
organic  and inorganic heterogeneous catalysts. Altus Biologies has developed a conceptu-
ally simple and broadly applicable solution to this fundamental problem-die formulation
of enzymes in a cross-linked crystalline form-that  enables enzyme use under the harsh
chemical, physical, and mechanical conditions that characterize most practical industrial
processes. To date, more  than 20 enzymes have been formulated as CLECs and have
demonstrated their utility  on a pilot scale: as industrial  catalysts, in  consumer products
such as  detergents and cosmetics, as  medical and process biosensors, and in the deconta-
mination of waste and hazardous chemicals including insecticides and nerve agents. Two
applications out of this broad portfolio of uses are described—the CLEC-catalyzed synthe-
ses of the  dipeptide artificial sweetener aspartame and of the semi-synthetic  b-lactam
cephalosporin  antibiotic cephalexin.  In  these  applications,  an enhancement in synthetic
efficiency has been demonstrated, with  dramatic source  reductions in the waste streams
associated with these processes. In addition to the potential broad impact of the crosslinked
enzyme crystal technology on source reduction, widespread application of CLECs might
also serve to leverage America's investment in the area of molecular biology beyond the pre-
eminence already established in the biotechnology industry prototype. Novel, though
otherwise impractical, enzymes derived from that technological  base could, through their
stabilization as CLECs, lead to a penetration and dominance of the much larger and
employment-intensive commodity- and fine-chemical manufacturing industry; driven by
the  economic  benefits derived from the implementation of more efficient, competitive,
and 'greener' chemical manufacturing options.
Molten Metal
Technology, Inc.
Altus Biologies Inc.

 Benchmark Products,
 Development of a Nickel Brightener Solution

    Historically, electroplaters of duplex nickel had' to use formaldehyde and coumarin-
 bearing nickel plating solutions to obtain a nonsulfur nickel deposit, which is essential to
 the duplex nickel process, for maximum corrosion protection of external automotive trim
 and bumpers. The Watts' bath, introduced in 1916, made it possible to increase the speed
 of nickel deposit by a factor often by increasing the electrical current density. This devel-
 opment lead to the bright nickel  plating baths known today, which  use organic and
 inorganic additives. Organic aromatic sulfonic acid was later introduced to the Watts' bath
 to  achieve the first practical bright nickel plating solution. In 1936, formaldehyde was
 added to  the solution followed in rapid succession by other additives.  Coumarin, along
 with formaldehyde, became the important ingredients in a variety of nickel plating baths
 referred to as 'semibright'. Today, semibright nickel plating occupies an important position
 in plating. Benchmark Products has developed a nickel brightener solution that, while
 improving the performance of electroplating, also significantly reduces the environmental
 impact by eliminating two toxic ingredients, formaldehyde and coumarin, and substitut-
 ing nonhazardous ingredients.
Circuit Research
Radiance Services
A Nontoxic, Nonflammable, Aqueous-Based
 Cleaner/Degreaser and Associated Parts Washing Systems
 Commonly Employed in the Automotive Repair Industry

   Circuit Research Corporation developed an aqueous based cleaner and associated parts
washing system commonly employed in the automotive repair industry that eliminates the
generation of hazardous waste associated with current parts washing  systems.  Currently,
the majority of parts washers employ a 'Stoddard Solvent,' which, when spent, is mani-
fested as a hazardous waste to a distillation facility that separates the solvent from the
petroleum residue. The new technology employs a nontoxic, nonflammable, aqueous-
based cleaner/degreaser that can be recycled continuously on site by employing oil/water
separation and standard combustion engine filters. Both the oil separation and filtration
apparati are housed within a recently developed parts washer unit, such that the aqueous
cleaner/degreaser is recycled in-situ, eliminating the removal or transportation and special
treatment of spent cleaner material off site. Testing results have shown  that: (1)  the result-
ing oil skimmed from the cleaner  can, under current hazardous waste  definitions, be
managed as a 'spent oil' and combined with spent engine oil for beneficial reuse as  a sec-
ondary fuel, and (2) the filter can be managed under current methods used to recycle other
used combustion engine oil filters.  Circuit Research Corporation believes  there are in
excess of 7,000  parts washers in Minnesota generating approximately  1.5 million gallons
of spent Stoddard Solvent annually. Circuit Research Corporation's alternative technology
could significantly reduce the generation of this waste.

The Radiance Process: A Quantum Leap in
Green  Chemistry

   The Radiance Process, a new water- and chemical-free method of cleaning surfaces, is
a powerful alternative to existing wet chemical processes that use detergents; organic sol-
vents, including CFCs and their successors; and acid or alkaline reagents. The Radiance
Process employs the quantum mechanical effects of laser light and an inert gas,  ordinarily
nitrogen, to clean surfaces. The light lifts the contaminant from the surface and the flow-
ing gas  sweeps it  away. There is  no pollution and no waste besides the removed
contaminant itself. The Radiance Process will lead to significant human health and envi-

 ronmentd benefits through source reduction by reducing toxicity, flammability, explosion
 potential, emissions, discharges, use of hazardous substances in reaction conditions, the
 transport of hazardous substances, and the creation of hazardous wastes. The process is
 inexpensive and readily adaptable to many manufacturing needs. The process has been
 demonstrated on a broad range of products including semiconductor materials, such as sil-
 icon wafers and chrome on quartz photomasks, and industrial metals such as tire molds,
 fuel injectors, brass fixtures, and metal beverage containers. Semiconductor International
 called Radiance a "breakthrough." Advancing Microelectronics called it "radical." Futuretech
 called it "indispensable." In December  1995,  the Radiance Process was selected by
 IndustryWeek magazine as a Technology of the Year, one of only five, calling it "revolution-
 ary." Radiance provides the ultimate Green Chemistry by completely eliminating the need
 for chemicals in cleaning while achieving equal or superior results at a lower cost.

 SuperC™, The  Use of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

   The process SuperC™ permanently consumes large quantities of carbon dioxide (COa)
 to make less-expensive, more durable,  fully recyclable products from industrial wastes or
 ordinary cements.  Even earth will serve as a material. SuperC™ is an economical answer
 to global warming and large-scale pollution. It employs simple reactions to sequester CCh,
 preventing it from entering the atmosphere. It provides lower cost alternatives to forest
 products, steel, aluminum, plastics, composites,  and ceramics by using industrial waste
 streams as feedstocks. It can lengthen the service life of new, and even restore existing, con-
 crete structures and infrastructures. It can stabilize cemented mixed and high-level nuclear
 waste   to   facilitate  long-term  storage  without  further  chemical  evolution.
 Implementation/conversion requires minimal capital investment. The process uses super-
 critical CO2 (at greater than 88.3 °F and greater than  1,071 PSI) to infiltrate fully formed
 products made from wastes like fly ash, blast furnace slag, dust, clay,  or from common
 cements, to produce almost any desired properties or behaviors. In this state, COi behaves
 as a super solvent.  Products made this way cost less, are equal or superior in performance
 to those made in traditional ways, and are fully recyclable without manual segregation.
 They displace products made from higher energy or  ecologically sensitive materials, and
 reduce environmental impact, health concerns, and fossil fuel consumption.

 Utilization of High Performance, Environmentally
 Compliant Chemicals:  GREEN LINE Adhesive,
 Sealant,  and Coating Technologies

   Astutely aware of the national strategy for protecting the environment and promoting
 energy efficiency in buildings, American  Chemical Corporation developed the GREEN
 LINE, a complete stock of specialty adhesives, sealants, and coatings that utilize environ-
 mentally compliant polyvinyl acetate (PVA), acrylic, latex, and epoxy resins technologies.
All methodologies meet Best Available Technology (BAT) standards for minimizing VOC
 exposure, health risks, and hazardous handling practices. Concurrent with the technical
 development of GREEN  LINE products was the  conceptualization of Cost  Benefit
Algorithms and Dynamic Labeling, which permit  federal managers to determine the
degree of'green compliance of the core materials used to manufacture the products and of
the environmental improvements intended by use of such materials. Federal managers and
their staffs are provided with reliable information that can help them make energy-saving,
water-conserving, and maintenance improvements that solve environmental problems and
provide for worker safety. GREEN LINE  products have been successfully used to (1)
reduce both energy use and the environmental impacts of HYAC and air handling distri-
 Materials Technology
American Chemical

Klenzoid, Inc.
bution system repairs and upgrades, (2) conserve potable water resources by facilitating the
repair and rehabilitation  of treatment, storage, and distribution systems, and (3) repair
U.S. Naval ship structures.

Zero Discharge System For Cooling Towers
   The Zero Discharge system is a complete packaged water treatment system to control cor-
rosion  deposition  and biological fouling with  no water discharge  (commonly known  as
'bleed-off') from the system. This bleed-off is widely used by conventional water treatment pro-
grams to dilute the concentration of natural minerals in the water to prevent precipitation.  In
the Zero Discharge system, the recirculating cooling tower water is filtered by a side-stream fil-
tration system to remove suspended solids. A microprocessor control monitors the prescribed
characteristic of the recirculating water through sensors installed in a sample stream. The con-
trol maintains a programmed  pH in the recirculating water along with prescribed levels  of
chemical treatment through actuation of chemical feed pumps. With these  levels being main-
tained  and monitored, the microprocessor, using stored tabular data, calculates the calcium
content necessary to maintain a zero Langelier Saturation Index. The level of calcium is adjust-
ed accordingly by regulating the flow of untreated raw water supplied to the tower as make-up
through a bypass of a calcium removal (e.g., water softener or deionizer) system on the make-
up water line. The health and environmental benefits of the Zero Discharge system are the result
of the water saved  and the significant reduction  of chemicals discharged to die environment.
The Zero Discharge system was patented in the early 1990s and has since been extensively
applied in the metropolitan Philadelphia area. In total, about 30,000 tons of cooling water are
being treated by the Zero Discharge system, which saves about 132 million gallons of water in
the Philadelphia area annually.

 Entries  From Industry  and


 N-(n-butyl) Thiophosphoric Triamide

   Urea is now the favored form of solid nitrogen-containing fertilizer and is rapidly dis-
 placing anhydrous ammonia in the nitrogen fertilizer market. The market share of world
 nitrogen consumption has risen from 5 percent in 1962 to 37 percent in 1986 for urea.
 There are many reasons for this increase. Urea is a source of nitrogen for crop fertilization
 that is easily handled and transported, higher in nitrogen content than other common solid
 nitrogen fertilizers, and can be readily bulk blended with other fertilizer components, such
 as potassium chloride, diammonium phosphate, and other materials, to prepare multi-
 nutrient fertilizers. While urea has many advantages over other nitrogen sources and has
 already captured a greatly increasing market share, a major drawback to the use of urea is
 its tendency to lose a substantial portion of the nitrogen values by ammonia volatilization.
 These losses can easily exceed 30 percent of the available nitrogen in urea under certain cli-
 matic  and soil  conditions.  AGROTAIN® is  a  formulation  containing  N-(n-butyl)
 thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) as the active  ingredient, or, more correcdy, the precursor
 to the active ingredient, which is the oxygen analog of NBPT. NBPT is a urease enzyme
 inhibitor that inhibits the hydrolysis of urea by inhibiting the activity of the urease enzyme
 that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea. This activity is the result of an interaction between the
 urease enzyme and the urease inhibitor. There is no interaction with soil microbes that gen-
 erate the urease enzyme. Moreover, the recommended NBPT treatment rate is only 0.4
 Ibs/acre,  and NBPT is  relatively  unstable  and presents  no problems with long-term
 buildup in the soil. The use of NBPT with urea also is ideally suited for no-till agriculture
 applications. No-till agriculture is an environmentally friendly approach that involves lit-
 tle or no disturbance of the topsoil, resulting in less soil erosion and less energy intensive
 operation. Urea, however,  has not been well  suited for use with surface-applied  no-till
 applications until  the advent of NBPT because of the possibility of substantial ammonia
 volatilization losses.

Alkyl Polyglycoside Surfactants

   Henkel Corporation's alkyl polyglycoside (APG®) surfactants are a class  of nonionic
 surfactants that have  been pioneered and marketed to the detergent and personal care
 industries under the Glucopon® and Plantaren® trade names since 1992 and 1990, respec-
 tively. APG® surfactants  are  manufactured from renewable resources including fatty
 alcohol, derived from coconut and palm oils, and glucose, derived from corn starch. APG®
 surfactants are more innocuous to  the environment than petrochemical-based technolo-
 gies, are readily biodegradable, and have very low ecotoxicity. APG® surfactants are highly
 efficient cleaners and have led to a significant reduction in overall chemical consumption
 in cleaner formulations and ultimately the amount of chemicals released to the environ-
 ment. APG® surfactants also permit the formulation of concentrated cleaners that require
 less consumer product packaging and consequently reduce packaging waste. APG® surfac-
 tants are considerably less toxic and safer to humans and the environment than other major
 surfactants. APG® surfactants permit the formulation of less irritating and safer consumer
 products and significantly  reduce the possible environmental  impact associated with an
 accidental spill. Henkel Corporation's 50 million pound per year APG® surfactant plant
 IMC-Agrico Company
Henkel Corporation

U.S. Department of the
Treasury, Bureau of
Engraving and Printing
Los Alamos National
has been operating in Cincinnati, Ohio, since 1992. A second plant was started up in
Dusseldorf, Germany, in 1995, by Henkel Corporations^ parent company, Henkel KGaA.

An Alternative Solvent, Isomet

   The U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing (the Bureau), the world's largest security
manufacturing establishment, produces currency, postage stamps, revenue stamps, natu-
ralization certificates, U.S. savings bonds, and other government securities and documents.
Until 1991, Typewash, a solvent mixture, was used by the Bureau for cleaning typograph-
ic seals and serial numbers of the COPE-Pack (overprinting presses)  and for cleaning of
sleeves of postage stamp  presses. Typewash is a solvent mixture composed of methylene
chloride (55 percent), toluene (25 percent), and acetone (20 percent). The use ofTypewash
was no longer in compliance with the District of Columbia Environmental Law and the
Federal Air Toxic Law. An alternative solvent, Isomet, was designed and developed to
replace Typewash. Isomet is a mixture of isoparaffinic hydrocarbon (55 percent), propylene
glycol monomethyl ether (10 percent), and isopropyl alcohol (35 percent). Isomet is less
toxic, less polluting, and  environmentally friendly. Isomet was found to be acceptable in
the areas of (1) cleaning ability, (2) solvent evaporation rate, (3) solvent odor, (4) environ-
mental and safety compliance, and (5) cost. Thus, a solvent discharged at the rate of 7,500
gallons per year  was made environmentally friendly. The performance of Isomet is excel-
lent and it has been used for cleaning all postage stamp and overprinting presses in the

Application  of Freeze Drying Technology to the
Separation of Complex Nuclear Waste

   The nuclear industry must comply with increasingly stringent standards for radioactive
material levels present in liquid effluents. Current conventional methods of decontamina-
tion include distillation, ion exchange, precipitation reactions, or chelating agents. Freeze
drying technology (FDT) has been applied to the decontamination of radioactive liquids
and shown to  be  thousands  of times more  effective  than  conventional  methods.
Distillation, ion  exchange, and chelating agents often require multiple passes, and because
additional components (e.g., resins or chelating agents, which in turn must be disposed of
as radioactive) are  typically required for these methods, reductions in the volume of
radioactive waste are rarely realized. FDT will efficiently separate solvents and volatile acids
from complex waste solutions and process liquids. The separated liquids will be virtually
free of radioactive contamination and can be reused or discarded as nonradioactive. FDT
will drastically reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Volume reductions greater than
 1,000 times have been achieved in aqueous solutions, but the exact volume reduction of
nuclear waste will depend on its moisture content. FDT will eliminate the need for stor-
age or destruction of the  liquid component and will lower transportation costs because of
volume and weight reductions. In addition, this technology can be considered safe; no high
temperatures or  pressures are used. The process occurs in a vacuum, so the failure of a com-
ponent would lead to an inward leak  and  the potential for contamination outside the
system is significantly reduced. Finally,  the refrigerant used in this technology is environ-
mentally friendly liquid nitrogen.

Application of Green Chemistry Principles to Eliminate
Air Pollution From the Mexican Brickmaking

   A new recirculating design for small brickmaking kilns was investigated as an alterna-
tive to conventional operations, which are a significant source of air pollution. The bricks
used in building many houses and office buildings in Mexico and other parts of the third
world are typically made by hand and fired in small kilns using available fuels such as saw-
dust, treated wood, paper, trash, tires, plastic, and used motor oil. Although these bricks
cost about half of standard high-fired construction bricks, they do not meet the minimum
strength requirements for commercial construction  in the United States.  In  addition, a
major byproduct of this brickmaking industry is a high level of air pollution-—-both par-
ticulates and toxic chemicals—that results from inefficient thermal design of the kilns and
the use of cheap but readily available  fuels. This industry is the third leading cause of air
pollution in the El Paso-Juarez area. Redesign of the kilns to allow efficient energy recov-
ery and to eliminate waste from over- and under-firing makes the use of nonpolluting fuels
(e.g., natural gas) economically attractive. The design challenge is to use inexpensive, read-
ily available materials  and equipment to avoid significant capital outlay.  Laboratory
investigations  and  process modeling were  performed at  the  Los Alamos National
Laboratory, and field tests are being performed at ECOTEC in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, in
cooperation with FEMAP, a private foundation in Mexico, and with the El Paso Natural
Gas Company. The direct benefits of these improvements in the brickmaking process are
reduced air pollution, safer operating conditions, and better  bricks. In addition, process
modeling indicates that fuel consumption can be reduced by approximately 55 percent and
cost analyses project that this will result in an increase in profit of about 35 percent for the
Application of Microchemistry  Technology to the
Analysis of Environmental Samples

   'Green chemistry is an umbrella term addressing such related concepts as waste mini-
mization, pollution  prevention,  solvent  substitution,  environmentally conscious
manufacturing, maximum atom utilization, technologies for a sustainable future, environ-
mental security, and industrial ecology. Another applicable concept, microscale chemistry
(or microchemistry), is the application  of chemical principles and apparatus at a scale
much smaller than currently employed by most bench chemists, thus reducing the volume
of reagents and product by several orders of magnitude. Microscale and green chemistries
both incorporate  waste  minimization,  pollution prevention, and solvent  substitution.
Adoption of green and microscale methods is increasingly essential for the environmental
analytical community as regulations tighten, the costs of waste disposal escalate, and pub-
lic scrutiny  increases. By applying  green chemistry principles and  using  advances in
separation science,  instrumentation, microscale techniques,  and solvent  substitution,
chemists at Argonne National Laboratory developed trace environmental analysis methods
that incorporate source reduction. The techniques reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous
solvents, decrease analysis turnaround time, and significantly reduce the generation of sec-
ondary  wastes associated with  analytical processing.  The success  of these methods
exemplifies the opportunities to reduce  waste generation at analytical laboratories across
the country. With appropriate institutional advocacy, these  principles can be applied
broadly to this large chemical sector.
 Los Alamos National
U.S. Department of
Energy, Office of
Pollution Prevention
U.S. Department of
Energy, Office of
Energy Research
U.S. Department of
Energy, Chicago
Operations Office
U.S. Department of
Energy, Argonne Group
Argonne National

Eastman Chemical
Eastman Chemical
Biodegradable Copolyester

   An integrated resource management approach to the use of materials such as paper,
metals, and plastics considers the entire life of a product from raw materials to final dis-
position. After the useful life of some products, the final disposition depends  on various
options. The products can enter the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream to a  landfill, an
incinerator, or an incinerator with electricity/steam production. They also can  be discard-
ed on land or at sea, be recycled by industry,  or be reused for another purpose by the
consumer. One  growing option,  which Eastman Biodegradable Copolyester 14766  is
designed to complement, is composting. This is a process that essentially mimics nature's
biodegradation process (i.e., carbon cycle) and has been used over the ages  to various
degrees. The process is now recognized to have various benefits, one of which is the reduc-
tion of the amount of waste to landfills or incinerators (both of which are expensive to
build and maintain, not to mention the problems inherent with siting a new one). In addi-
tion,  the compost resulting from biodegradation is a  soil amendment that  adds water
retention and other benefits to soils. In fact, such a compost is  more beneficial to agricul-
tural  soil regeneration  than chemical  fertilizers. Eastman Biodegradable Copolyester
14766, a patented aliphatic/aromatic Copolyester of adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and 1,4-
butanediol, was  engineered to decompose under proper conditions into  water, carbon
dioxide, and biomass. This innovative new product also exhibits such features as low cost,
tensile properties similar to low density polyethylene (LDPE), and a soft feel, and is blend-
able with  natural  polymers such as  starch.  Extensive  biodegradation  and toxicity
evaluations demonstrated definitively that Eastman's new product biodegrades  completely
at rates comparable to paper without negatively impacting the ecosystem. The material can
be extruded into blown film, extrusion coated, and spun into fiber. A plethora of applica-
tions is envisioned for Eastman Biodegradable Copolyester 14766 including compost bags,
personal hygiene items, medical products, and coated paper and board.

Biofiltration Technology

   Biofiltration has been used for decades in the United States in towns and cities for odor
control, and has  also been used in Europe. American companies, however, have been hes-
itant to consider the natural process because it is so different from the widely accepted
conventional control technologies. As part of Tennessee Eastman Division's (TED) Odor
Identification and Control Program, a 1,400 cubic feet per minute gas stream was deter-
mined to be a 'priority' odor source. Though the vent was, at the time, treated by a 12C-20
caustic scrubber, a hydrogen sulfide odor was detected.  One obvious solution to the odor
problem was to increase the frequency of the caustic changeouts. This increased frequency
would greatly increase the operation expenses for the scrubber as well as expose operations
to greater risks of caustic burns resulting from the increased handling requirements. As an
alternative to caustic treatment, biofiltration was investigated as a possible solution. In
biofiltration, micro-organisms supported on  a stationary porous  media bed are used to
destroy pollutants from  waste gases flowing through the bed. The micro-organisms com-
monly occur in nature, and various media  are excellent candidates  for sustaining the
micro-organisms and harboring their nutrients. In July 1993, a pilot biofilter was set up to
test its effectiveness on hydrogen sulfide removal. The pilot biofilter proved that biofiltra-
tion was a technically feasible and economically attractive alternative to the 12C-20 caustic
scrubber for hydrogen sulfide removal from the vent gas stream. Due to this success, a full-
scale biofilter, 12C-1022, was installed  in December 1995  to replace the 12C-20 caustic

 CleanSystem3 Gasoline

   Internal combustion engines produce considerable amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOX)
 as a combustion byproduct. NOX are an air pollutant in their own right and react with
 atmospheric organic compounds in the presence of sunlight to form ozone, a powerful res-
 piratory  irritant.  Despite  a  76 percent  reduction  in  allowable NOX  emissions from
 light-duty gasoline vehicles over the past 25 years, U.S. motor vehicles still emit 3 million
 tons of NOX each year. Source reduction in the context of vehicular NOX means less NOX
 generated in the engine. Steps in this direction have been few (primarily exhaust gas recir-
 culation) and,  being a design feature, are not applicable to older  vehicles. There is,
 therefore, a genuine opportunity for  technology which can reduce the NOX generated in
 vehicle engines  on the road today. Texaco has developed and introduced a patented addi-
 tive  technology based on  novel chemistry which reduces NOX formation  in gasoline
 engines. This additive is present in all CleanSystem3 gasoline sold in the United States.
 Controlled vehicle testing has demonstrated reductions in tailpipe NOX up to  22 percent.
 This additive fulfills the role of traditional deposit control ('detergent') additives in keep-
 ing fuel system components  clean, and provides additional performance in  the area of
 preventing and removing combustion chamber deposits. Cleaner combustion chambers
 retain less combustion heat from one engine cycle to the next, and the resulting lower tem-
 perature leads to the formation of fewer NOX.

 Development and Implementation of Low  Vapor
 Pressure Cleaning Solvent Blends and Waste  Cloth
Management Systems to Capture Cleaning Solvent

   Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS) (formerly General Dynamics Fort
Worth Division) has developed low  vapor pressure  organic solvents. LMTAS patented
 these solvent blends and the technology is being used by the aerospace industry, the mili-
 tary, and various  industries. Additionally  LMTAS substituted one of the new  solvent
blends (DS-104) for a CFC-113 based general purpose cleaning solvent used in the surface
wiping of aircraft parts, components,  and assemblies in all aspects of aircraft manufactur-
 ing. The  substitution resulted in major reductions in solvent use and  air emissions, the
elimination of ozone depleting compounds from cleaning during aircraft assembly, cost
reductions,  and improved chemical handling and usage practices. From 1986 to 1992,
LMTAS produced mainly F-16 fighter aircraft at a rate of 220 to 350 aircraft per year.
Throughout the 6 years, LMTAS used a general purpose wipe solvent containing 85 per-
cent CFC-113 by weight throughout the manufacturing process. The use of the CFC-113
solvent blend resulted in the emission of approximately 255 tons per year of CFC-113 and
45 tons per year of volatile organic compounds (VOC).  The implementation  of DS-104
at LMTAS has reduced wipe solvent VOC emissions to 7  tons per year in 1993, 3 tons per
year in 1994,, and 2 tons per year  in 1995, with no CFC emissions. After the LMTAS
implementation, other companies and military operations throughout  the United States
have implemented this technology. Additionally, this technology has been implemented in
several countries, such as Australia, Canada, Greece, Israel, Mexico, the Netherlands, South
Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey.  Several other European countries will implement this technol-
ogy in 1997. This technology was developed primarily for aerospace; however, it has found
applications in many other industries such as automotive, various prison manufacturing
operations, postal operations, electronics, building maintenance, steel, and nondestructive
testing methods.
Texaco, Inc.
Lockheed Martin
Tactical Aircraft

Rochester Midland
U.S. Department of
Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory
Development of a New  'Core' Line of Cleaners

   Cleaning is an important practice and necessity of modern civilization. An effective
cleaner must be able to penetrate through soil to disrupt and destroy the complicated types
of bonding that cause it to adhere to the surface being cleaned. Most modern cleaners are
comprised of surface active agents derived from petrochemical resources. While these com-
ponents are effective, they tend to be environmentally harsh and depend upon a natural
resource whose supply is finite and limited. The market for these products is estimated to
be in the range of $5 billion, which equates to approximately 5 billion pounds of product
annually. The impact of developing chemistries that are less polluting during the extrac-
tion, manufacturing, use, and disposal of these products is, therefore, quite significant, as
are the human health and safety impacts. During the past few years a new family of clean-
ers was developed that are less toxic and have reduced impacts to  both people and the
environment when  compared to traditional products used for the same purpose. The
chemistries incorporated  into these products resulted  in products that  are readily
biodegradable, comprised of zero  to very low volatile organic components and ozone
depleting substances, effective in their intended purpose (i.e., cleaning), and economically
competitive. In addition, these products have low human and aquatic toxicity and low cor-
rosivity. Main molecular  components  of these products are  derived from renewable,
bio-based resources that are lower polluting and typically less toxic than their petrochem-
ical  alternatives. This  new 'core'  line  of cleaners is an  innovative approach to the
formulation of an important series of products and is the safest yet developed in its field.

DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste
Management Samples

   DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE
Methods) is a document that provides new technology and consolidated methods to ana-
lytical chemistry laboratories around the  country. These laboratories are working on one of
die world's most challenging environmental issues: Cold War legacy waste. Sampling and
analytical technologies that minimize waste production are given priority over traditional
methods. It has been demonstrated, for example, that some of the technologies produce 60
to 70 percent less hazardous and radioactive waste than other available technologies. The
guidance information in DOE Methods  also helps minimize the number of analyses and
saves time and money.  Guidelines  are provided on how to (1) efficiently develop a sam-
pling and  analysis  program,  (2)  effectively  and  efficiently sample  waste, (3) handle
radioactive samples safely, and (4)  select appropriate analytical methods. Cross  references
allow the users to select from currently  available standard methodologies. DOE Methods
has been available for both DOE and commercial use since 1992.  It  is  updated every 6
months,  diereby accelerating the release  of new technology to speed EM  operations. The
significance of the document is in its unique application to the analysis of radioactive com-
ponents and highly radioactive mixed waste. The document currently contains about 65
sampling and analytical methods,  many of which are focused on the mixed-waste issue.
The highly challenging world of environmental problems cannot be solved without effec-
tive sampling and analytical methods. DOE Methods takes a major step  in the resolution of
this problem.

Carbon Dioxide Dry  Cleaning Technology

   DryWash™ is a patented, Hughes-specific liquid carbon dioxide garment dry cleaning
technology and is a safe, ecologically acceptable, and cost effective alternative dry cleaning
process. Currently, the dry cleaning industry uses perchloroethylene (PCE) (85 percent of
establishments),  petroleum-based or stoddard solvents (12 percent  of establishments),
CFC-113 (less than 2 percent of establishments), and 1,1,1 trichloroethane. All conven-
tional  dry cleaning solvents  present. health risks,  safety risks, or are environmentally
detrimental. PCE is a suspected carcinogen, petroleum-based solvents are flammable and
smog producing, and CFC-113 is an ozone depletor and targeted to be phased out by the
end of 1995. Health risks due  to exposure to cleaning solvents and the high costs of imple-
menting and complying with  safety and environmental restrictions and regulations, have
made dry cleaning  a much  more difficult business  in  which to achieve profitability.
Solvents are suspected of contaminating ground water, air, and food products (i.e., in near-
by markets). For these  reasons, there is an  ongoing search  for alternative,  safe, and
environmentally  friendly cleaning technologies, substitute solvents, and methods to con-
trol exposure to  dry cleaning chemicals. DryWash™  reuses carbon dioxide, a naturally
occurring byproduct of combustion that is a readily available, inexpensive, and unlimited
natural resource. It is also chemically stable, noncorrosive, nonflammable, nonozone
depleting, and nonsmog producing.  Performance has been demonstrated to  major dry
cleaning equipment manufacturers worldwide and  to the EPA. Actual garments, along
with International Fabricare Institute (IFI) st?ndardized cleaning test fabrics, were used for
the demonstrations. The performance of the DryWash™ cleaning process was quantified
favorably against commercial  perchloroethylene cleaning by  Los  Alamos  National
Laboratory, using IFI standards.

The DUCARE  'Zero Effluent'Recycle Chemistry System

   The printing  and publishing pre-press industry is undergoing a revolutionary  change
driven  by advances in imaging technology from a craft-based industry to one relying far
more on digital imaging and printing technology. From a user perspective, this new tech-
nology is more environmentally benign than the process  it replaces. Several iterations of
improvements  in hardware and software will be required before digital imaging complete-
ly replaces conventional chemical imaging. The DUCARE system is a 'bridge' between the
current and developing systems. It is designed as a 'drop in  for conventional processing and
enables the customer to continue utilizing their current equipment, thus avoiding a finan-
cial burden while still eliminating the adverse environmental impact. DUCARE is an
environmentally  proactive way for customers to prevent any film processor effluent from
going down their drain. Typically, customers discharge the effluent to the drain,  pay to
have it hauled  away and disposed, or use expensive high maintenance equipment for on-
site treatment.  The effluent contains hazardous chemicals (as defined by SARA Title III),
very  high BOD and COD, and  high silver and pH extremes. DUCARE, offered only by
DuPont, solves these problems using several industry firsts. A new developer was invented
which has no SARA Title III chemicals and is based on a vitamin C isomer. The chemistry
is designed to use 25 to 40 percent less product than conventional chemistry and is recy-
cled  at its manufacturing sites to insure high quality and  'like new' performance. The
wash-water recirculating  unit reduces water use up to 99 percent. This system can be used
worldwide, wherever a cost effective reverse distribution system can be set up.
Hughes Environmental
Systems, Inc.
DuPont Company

California-Pacific Lab &
 The ECO Funnel

   The ECO Funnel and Container is a new product designed to prevent volatile toxic air
contaminants from evaporating into the laboratory work environment and into the atmos-
phere through the laboratory fume hood system.  Typically, a simple funnel is used in
pouring waste solvent into a waste bottle or carboy.  In most cases, the funnel is left on top
of the bottle permanently during the day, resulting in significant emission  due to evapora-
tion of volatile organic  compounds  (VOCs) from  the bottle  into  the  laboratory
environment or fume hood. It may seem that contamination of the atmosphere from such
sources may not be large enough to be important or significant; however, exact measure-
ments  have  proven  the contrary. For example, an 8-liter carboy filled with 8 liters of
dichloromethane will emit 500 mL (1.5 pounds) of this solvent into the atmosphere in 5
Jays. The emission will vary depending on the type of solvents used. The  fume hood face
velocity also  can affect the evaporation rate. However, for a typical fume hood at 700 cubic
feet per minute and a typical 4 liter waste bottle with a regular funnel containing 1000 mL
tetrahydrofuran, 1000 mL acetone, and 1500 mL dichloromethane,  the emission rate was
0.09 pounds per 8 hours or 33 pounds per year. California-Pacific Lab and Consulting
designed and patented a new funnel that has a lid connected to a shut-off ball that double
seals the system. The funnel stem is also longer and sealed to the bottle cap in order to pre-
vent emission from the side of the stem. Under the same conditions as described above for
the 4-liter waste bottle with a standard funnel, the ECO Funnel and  Container resulted in
                              zero emissions.
Elimination of Ozone-Depleting Chemicals in the
Printed Wire Board and Electronic Assembly and Test

   IBM-Austin is a manufacturing and development facility. Operations include the man-
ufacture of printed wire board (PWB) in the Panel Plant facility and electronic circuit cards
in the Electronic Card Assembly and Test (ECAT) facility. In 1992, IBM-Austin com-
pletely eliminated the use of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances from its PWB
and ECAT processes. This elimination program resulted in 100 percent reduction of CFC-
113 (1988 peak usage of approximately 432,000 pounds) and 100 percent reduction of
methyl chloroform (1988 peak usage of approximately 308,000 pounds) from IBM-
Austin's PWB and ECAT processes. These accomplishments were achieved by converting
to an aqueous-based photolithographic process in the PWB facility in 1989, an interim
aqueous cleaning process in  the ECAT facility in  1991 and 1992, and a final No-Clean
process (eliminating the aqueous cleaning process) in the ECAT facility. Changing from a
solvent-based photolithographic process to an aqueous-based process eliminated  methyl
chloroform (MCF) from PWB panel manufacturing (1988 usage of 181,000 pounds). The
interim  process changes  to  aqueous  cleaning eliminated MCF from manufacturing
processes in ECAT (1989 peak usage of 196,000 pounds) and were largely responsible for
eliminating CFC-113 from all manufacturing processes at the IBM site. Although CFC-
113 was  eliminated from the site in 1991 and MCF was  eliminated in 1992, ECAT's
ultimate goal was to convert all ECAT processes to No-Clean manufacturing processes.
This conversion was completed in 1993.

 Environmental Improvements From Redesigning the
 Commercial Manufacture of Progesterone

    For more than 40 years, the steroid bisnoraldehyde (BNA) has been produced at
 Pharmacia & Upjohn because it is a key intermediate for the commercial synthesis of prog-
 esterone and corticosteroid classes of pharmaceuticals. Recently, a redesigned route to BNA
 was implemented. This new synthetic route to progesterone is founded on both the devel-
 opment of a new fermentation  process which improves the utilization of a renewable,
 naturally derived feedstock from 15 to 100 percent,  and the development of a chemical
 oxidation process that offers high selectivity and reduced waste streams. The fermentation
 employs a genetically modified bacterium to convert soya sterols directly to a new synthetic
 intermediate, bisnoralcohol. The new chemical process oxidizes bisnoralcohol to bisno-
 raldehyde, a key intermediate for the registered, commercial manufacture of progesterone.
 Contrary to standard chemical methods for oxidizing alcohols to aldehydes, the nominat-
 ed process does not use hazardous or noxious materials and does not generate toxic waste
 streams. The new bisnoralcohol route exemplifies the synergism possible between  bio-
 chemical and chemical process  development.  It eliminated  a process with a  running,
 recycled inventory of 60,000 gallons of ethylene dichloride (EDC), a known carcinogen,
 which needed up to 5,000 gallons of EDC input annually. The new route produces the
 same amount of product as the previous route with 89 percent less nonrecoverable organ-
 ic solvent waste and 79 percent less aqueous waste. The new route also has the  chemical
 selectivity required for high quality bulk pharmaceutical manufacture and can be applied
 to the oxidation of other primary alcohols. By implementing this redesigned, commercial
 synthesis of BNA, Pharmacia & Upjohn has substantially reduced the chemical waste asso-
 ciated  with manufacturing progesterone,  while  simultaneously  improving process
 economics through a dramatic increase in feedstock utilization.

 Environmentally-Driven Preparation of Insensitive
 Energetic Materials

    An innovative approach was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to
 synthesize l,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and  other insensitive energetic
 materials through the use of Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution  chemistry (VNS). TATB
 is a reasonably powerful insensitive high explosive (IHE), whose thermal and shock stabil-
 ity is considerably greater than that of any other known material of comparable energy. The
 high cost of TATB ($100 per pound) has precluded its use for civilian applications such as
 deep-hole oil explorations. TATB is manufactured in the United States by nitration of the
 relatively expensive and domestically unavailable 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) to  give
 2,4,6-trichloro-l,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TCTNB), which is then aminated to yield TATB.
 The new VNS method developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the  syn-
 thesis of TATB has many 'environmentally friendly advantages over the current method of
 synthesis of TATB. Most significantly, it allows the elimination of chlorinated species from
 the synthesis of insensitive energetic materials. The new synthesis of TATB uses unsym-
 metrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), a surplus propellant from the former Soviet Union,
 and ammonium picrate (Explosive D), a high explosive, as starting materials in lieu of the
 chlorinated species, TCB. Several million pounds of Explosive D are targeted for disposal
 in the United States; 30,000  metric tons of UDMH also await disposal in a safe and envi-
' ronmentally responsible manner. The use of these surplus energetic materials as feedstocks
 in the new VNS method of synthesizing TATB allows an improved method of demilita-
 rization of conventional munitions that also should offer significant savings in production,
 thereby making this IHE more accessible for civilian applications.
Pharmacia & Upjohn
U.S. Department of
Defense, Office of
U.S. Department of
Energy, Weapons
Supported Research
Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory

Lockheed Martin
Tactical Aircraft
DuPont Company
Implementation and Verification of Aqueous

Alkaline Cleaners

   Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS) was the first aerospace company
to implement innovative aqueous cleaning technology for cleaning tubing and honeycomb
core. Tubing is used in the aerospace industry for transferring pressurized oxygen within an
aerospace vehicle. Honeycomb core is used in the aerospace industry for producing bond-
ed structural parts. Both applications  require that the parts  meet stringent cleanliness
requirements. These requirements were previously met by using cold  cleaning or vapor
degreasing with chlorinated solvents. These  solvents included  1,1,1-trichloethane (TCA)
and trichloroethylene  (TCE). These  chlorinated solvents are toxic, and TCA is an ozone
depleting compound.  The use of chlorinated solvents posed a threat to the environment
because the solvents were commonly released into the air during cleaning operations and
because the likelihood of a spill during their use was significant. These  solvents were suc-
cessfully replaced with aqueous cleaning technology. As of November 1993, 100 percent
of tubing manufactured at LMTAS (including oxygen tubing) is being cleaned in an aque-
ous cleaning system. As of May 1994, 100 percent of all honeycomb core used at LMTAS
is also being cleaned in an aqueous cleaning  system. Implementation of aqueous cleaning
technology at LMTAS eliminated approximately 360 tons of air emissions per year and
resulted in a  cost savings of $490,000 per year. In addition to replacing chlorinated sol-
vents with the innovative aqueous cleaning technology, LMTAS also explored the use  of
environmentally safe methods for quantifying surface contaminants on parts cleaned by
various cleaning technologies. Traditionally,  extraction with CFC-113 followed by gravi-
metric or FTIR analysis has been used for quantifying  surface contaminants. The use  of
CFC-113 is undesirable due to its ozone depleting potential.  LMTAS  has demonstrated
the usefulness of carbon dioxide coulometry for determining the amount of residue
remaining on a surface after cleaning and has used this technique for comparing the clean-
ing effectiveness of various cleaning technologies.

 The INFINITY Process

   The INFINITY dyeing process was developed as an alternative method to manage the
dyeing cycle for nylon textiles. Over  8 billion pounds of nylon textiles are consumed each
year and most are dyed to meet aesthetic and functional demands. In the United States
alone, consumption of dyes for nylon exceeds 30 million pounds, much of which is left in
the spent dye bath after the fabric is dyed. This waste must be treated  to avoid pollution
of downstream waterways.  Mills are meeting regulatory requirements through conven-
tional process control techniques and  end-of-pipe  treatment. The INFINITY dyeing
process lets mills reduce their consumption of dyes and other chemicals by 25 percent, and,
in some applications, water and steam use per dye cycle is cut in half. Conventional meth-
ods use  up to 4,000  gallons  of water,  20 pounds of dye, and 10 pounds of dye assist
chemicals per 1,000 pounds of fabric. The INFINITY dyeing process uses only 75 percent
of the dye previously required, half the water, and less dye assist chemicals to get the same
fabric color. In addition, dye discharge into mill effluent streams can be reduced as much
as tenfold. A mill with a 90 percent exhaust rate may discharge 500 pounds of unused dye
into the mill's wastewater treatment stream each week. With INFINITY, the same mill can
move to 99 percent exhaust, reducing the amount of dye discharged  to 50 pounds per
week; a significant step toward attacking waste at the source. The process is currently being
used  at nylon textile mills in  the United States, and work has begun on the feasibility of
using the process on wool, cotton, and polyester blend fabrics. Cost savings by most mills
using this process could easily exceed $100,000 per year.

 Innovative Techniques for Chemical and Waste
 Reductions in the Printed Wire Board Circuitize Process

    IBM produces 1.7 million square feet of multilayer circuit boards per year in a manufac-
 turing plant in nordi Austin, Texas. Aqueous chemical baths and rinse water are processed at
 a pretreatment plant where acidity is neutralized and dissolved copper is removed prior to dis-
 charge to a sanitary sewer for further treatment in a POTW. In 1991, the treatment process
 produced 1,417 tons of metal hydroxide sludge, a RCRA F006 hazardous waste. In  1992, a
 team of environmental engineers, manufacturing engineers, and laboratory personnel was
 formed to reduce hazardous waste sludge generation at the water treatment plant by mini-
 mizing waste generation in the imaging line. Areas of key importance to sludge reduction
 were identified as acid used in cleaning operations and developing solutions used prior to
 etching operations. Minimizing acid in the waste water reduces the amount of lime needed
 to neutralize die waste water. Reducing the developing solution reduces the carbonates in the
 waste water that precipitate as calcium carbonate in the presence of lime. By 1994, the team
 accomplished a 90 percent reduction in hydrochloric acid used in cleaning for an annual sav-
 ings of approximately $340,000 in chemical cost. Additional work allowed  for a 40 percent
 reduction of developing and stripping solutions used in die imaging area, for an annual sav-
 ings of approximately $75,000. These  changes resulted in an approximately 75 percent
 decrease in use of lime at the pretreatment plant. This decrease, in combination with reduced
 carbonate usage in developing solutions, resulted in a decrease in sludge production  of over
 670 tons per year (based on first half 1994 results)  and a 47 percent reduction from 1991
 sludge generation, for an additional savings of $250,000 in sludge disposal costs. This pro-
 ject has shown that waste  minimization through  chemical source reduction can  reduce
 expenses as well as reduce waste.

 INVERT Solvents in Aircraft Paint Stripping

   Recent changes in regulations affecting the aircraft stripping industry have resulted in
 increased  research into new, more environmentally and lexicologically friendly formula-
 tions. The Dow Chemical Company has developed a new line of solvent continuous
 microemulsions, which have merit in aircraft paint stripping, to aid in the reduction of reg-
 ulated chemicals as well as  lower flammability and  volatile organic compound (VOC)
 levels. These solvent products are marketed under  the INVERT trademark. Formulating
 with INVERT solvents allows for the inclusion of greater than 40 percent water in aircraft
 paint strippers so that worker exposure to chemicals, flammability,  and VOC levels  can be
 reduced.  INVERT solvents are solvent continuous microemulsions that contain approxi-
 mately 50 percent water, low surfactant levels (i.e., less than 5 percent), and approximately
 45 percent solvents and cosolvents. Paint stripping formulations can easily be prepared,
 using INVERT as a base, through the addition of active stripping solvents  along with per-
 formance enhancing ingredients such as thickeners, activators, and evaporation retardants.
 Hydrocarbon-based stripper formulations often have low flash points and  high VOC lev-
 els. The  incorporation of water significantly increases fire point, and  water  addition
 reduces VOC levels. INVERT solvents offer an economical and effective way to incorpo-
 rate water into hydrocarbon-based strippers to reduce  flammability and VOC concerns
without sacrificing performance. When  methylene chloride is used as a stripping solvent,
exposure and regulatory issues may call  for a reduction in use level. The use of INVERT
solvent technology allows preparation of solvent continuous microemulsions  with  low
methylene chloride content (i.e., less than 20 percent), while maintaining an excellent level
of performance. The use of INVERT solvents in the aircraft stripping industry allows users
to reduce worker exposure to regulated chemicals and to reduce emissions of volatile  chem-
icals, while maintaining a high standard of performance and economic benefit.
The Dow Chemical

Praxair, Inc.
Los Alamos National
Liquid Oxidation Reactor (LOR)

   Praxair, Inc. has developed a unique process that allows the safe oxidation of organic
chemicals with pure  or  nearly pure oxygen. This technology,  known as the Liquid
Oxidation Reactor  (LOR), provides significant environmental advantages  compared to
conventional, air-based oxidation processes. The use of oxygen in  place of air reduces the
total gas throughput  to the reactor, thereby  reducing the compression energy and the
amount of vent gas that must be treated prior to atmospheric release. In addition, the oxy-
gen use can positively affect the chemistry of the reaction, allowing the operation of the
process at lower temperatures or pressures, thereby improving selectivity without sacrific-
ing production rate. The use of the Praxair LOR increases the overall rate of reaction and
volumetric productivity of hydrocarbon oxidations while increasing selectivity and reduc-
ing the loss of solvent and reactant to carbon oxides. The increased chemical efficiency with
oxygen results in substantial raw materials cost saving, and a 96 percent reduction in the
quantity of waste gases. The cost of product purification and waste disposal is reduced sub-
stantially. In addition, the lower temperature operations afforded by the  LOR process
reduces the loss of reactant or solvent to byproducts and to waste streams that also can con-
tribute to environmental problems and must be treated prior  to release. The LOR will
enable a large and important segment of the U.S. chemical industry to realize more effi-
cient use of raw materials, reduced environmental emissions, and  energy savings. Because
the LOR also allows for higher productivity, lower capital  costs, and,  consequently,
improves competitiveness, there are significant incentives for the implementation of the
technology. Average operating-cost savings and productivity gains worth $5 to $20 million
per plant per year have been projected.

Magnetic Separation for Treatment of Radioactive

Liquid Waste

   High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is the application of intense magnetic
fields to  selectively separate solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. The HGMS process
has demonstrated promise for the treatment of waste streams containing actinide at Los
Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The caustic liquid waste generated by operations in
the LANL Plutonium Processing Facility (TA-55) can produce up to 30,000 L of liquid
effluent  annually, with an average alpha activity of 10'° dpm/L. Treatment and disposal of
the liquid effluents at the LANL Waste Water Treatment Facility (TA-50) can ultimately
produce up to 15 tons of TRU solid waste per year. In order to avoid the TA-50 treatment,
the goal at TA-55 is to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to less than 5.8  x 10s
dpm/L.  Physical separation processes, such as HGMS, are particularly attractive because
no additional waste is generated during processing. HGMS is capable of concentrating the
actinides in process waste streams to form a low volume, actinide-rich stream for recycling,
and a high-volume, actinide-lean stream for direct  discard. The proposed technology has
been demonstrated successfully on a laboratory scale at TA-55  where results from screen-
ing experiments on radioactive caustic liquid waste water indicate that over 99.9 percent
extraction of Pu activity can be achieved using HGMS (represents decontamination  levels
 of three orders of magnitude to about 4.4 x 105 dpm/L). The application of this technol-
 ogy to radioactive liquid waste effluents would eliminate radioactivity from the source, in
 addition to reducing the volume of transuranic solid waste that is produced with the cur-
 rent treatment technologies. The hazard of pumping radioactive liquid waste to offsite
 facilities would also be eliminated because treatment of TA-55  effluent would occur prior
 to transportation.

 NAFIONMembrane  Technology

    Membrane technology is now recognized as state-of-the-art for chloralkali chemical
 production, which constitutes  the second largest commodity chemical volume produced
 globally. NAFION membranes are acknowledged as the world leader in bringing about a
 technology 'revolution,' which has made the membrane electrolyzer system the technolo-
 gy of choice over the  incumbent  mercury amalgam  cells  and asbestos  diaphragm
 electrolyzers. While significantly reducing the environmental impact of the old technolo-
 gies, membrane systems  confer the advantages of a new electrolysis process  with lower
 investment and lower operating costs. Before NAFION and membrane technology, the
 production of chloralkali chemicals was dependent on either mercury amalgam cells or
 asbestos diaphragm systems. While these systems may be operated safely, they pose health
 and environmental concerns in use and disposal. Membranes, such as NAFION, now offer
 a more environmentally friendly and  economically attractive alternative, which accounts
 for the rapid global adoption of membrane technology. Another rapidly emerging applica-
 tion of NAFION is in the area of alternative energy, where electricity is produced from the
 'combustionless burning'  of hydrogen with oxygen in air via a membrane fuel cell. Fuel cell
 technology, with hydrogen as a fuel, is pollution-free. NAFION membranes often are cited
 in the many commercial developments of membrane fuel cell systems. As membrane fuel
 cells mature in the commercial mass market, more global energy needs will be served by
 renewable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly sources of power.

 Nalco Fuel Tech NOxOUT® Process

   Nalco Fuel Tech develops and markets air pollution control technologies worldwide.
 Nalco Fuel Tech's flagship technology, NOxOUT®, reduces harmful nitric oxide emissions
 of stationary combustion sources to yield nitrogen gas and water, leaving no disposal solids.
 The NOxOUT® process meets  today's environmental challenges by using less toxic chem-
 istry, reducing or eliminating toxic releases to the environment, converting wastes to more
 environmentally  acceptable  discharges, and  reducing energy  consumption. The
 NOxOUT® process provides an economical solution for complying with the stringent reg-
 ulatory requirements for NOX reduction from fuel combustion sources. NOxOUT® can
 reduce NOX emissions by 75 percent,  compared to the 20 to 50 percent reduction from
 existing treatment. The NOxOUT® process is being used commercially.  It can be used on
 new combustion units for small industrial units to large utility installations or it can be
 retrofitted to  existing units. The environmental benefits are significant NOX  reduction,
 elimination of byproduct  disposal, toxic use elimination of SARA Title III chemicals, and
 increased energy efficiency.

Nalco TRASAR® Technology

   Nalco's TRASAR® Technology is impacting the way the world manages water by help-
ing customers reduce pollution  at its source and conserve energy. These  applications are a
complete cradle-to-grave approach to water management. The initial process consists of
adding low levels of inert fluorescent 'trace'  to Nalco's products. The  trace allows con-
trolled  chemical application instantaneously  and automatically.  Chemical  'treatment
reductions of 20 to 30 percent have resulted from this process. The second stage of the
process consists of the direct, automatic detection of the treatment chemical. By fluores-
cent tagging of the treatment chemical, users can detect the chemical's presence in systems
where low-level detection was not possible. This stage allows correlation to the variations
in treatment consumption and to the variations in the water system's operation. The
processes' final stage is based on the desired performance, such as corrosion protection or
 DuPont Company
Nalco Fuel Tech
Nalco Chemical

Nalco Chemical
Rohm and Haas
the prevention of foaming in the process system. Monitoring of the desired performance
allows further chemical adjustment. This technology allows less consumption and more
effective use of industrial process water, reduced chemical usage, energy conservation, the
measurement of the fate of the chemical additives,  the detection of industrial and biocide
treatment for enhanced risk management, and the minimization of environmental release.

Nalco  ULTIMER™ Polymer Technology

   Industrial processes require water as a raw material or processing aid. This water must
be treated to remove harmful waste and contamination prior to discharge to the environ-
ment.  High molecular weight, water soluble polymers  are  used to accomplish the
solid/liquid separation in  industrial water and waste treatment applications. A class of
polymers, known as polyacrylamides, performs this separation. In 1996,  shipments of
polyacrylamides in the United States exceeded 200 million pounds. The worldwide mar-
ket is $1  billion. In 1995, Nalco continued its technological innovation by introducing to
the marketplace  the  first major  innovation  in water treatment flocculants  since the
development of inverse emulsion polymers. These new ULTIMER™ polymers of high
molecular weight polyacrylamides are environmentally responsible since they eliminate oils
and surfactants yielding oil-free sludge. ULTIMER™ polymers contribute nearly zero
volatile organic content as compared to oil emulsion polymers. This technology is more
effective  than existing technology and eliminates  potential human health  and environ-
mental hazards in worldwide  use.  Toxic use reduction  and  pollution prevention are
achieved by eliminating environmental discharges that present environmental hazards and
by reducing the amount of solid waste disposed to landfills.

A New  Chemical Family of Insecticides Exemplified by

CONFIRM™ Selective Caterpillar Control Agent and

the Related Selective Insect Control Agents MACH 2™


   The value of crops destroyed worldwide by insects exceeds tens of billions of dollars. Over die
past 50 years, only a handful of classes of insecticides have been discovered to combat this
destruction. Rohm and Haas Company's invention of a new class of chemistry, the diacylhy-
drazines,  is a significant new addition to the tools available to growers. Three members of this
family have been or are in the process of being commercialized to date: CONFIRM™, MACH
2™, and INTREPID™. Not only are diese materials effective in controlling target pests, but, in
addition, they present the grower widi significandy safer alternatives than those currendy avail-
able. EPA recognized these unique features by classifying the first two members of diis family as
reduced risk pesticides. CONFIRM™ is a breakthrough in caterpillar control. It is chemically,
biologically, and mechanistically novel. It effectively and selectively controls important caterpil-
lar pests  in agriculture without posing significant risk to  the applicator, the consumer, or the
ecosystem.  It will replace many older, less effective, more hazardous insecticides.  MACH 2™ is
chemically and mechanistically related to CONFIRM™, but, unlike  CONFIRM™, it is used
to control an entirely different type of insect in an entirely different setting, namely turf grubs in
soil. MACH 2™ is a low use rate product that is substantially safer to  humans and to nontarget
organisms (e.g., earthworms, birds, and fish) than other currendy employed turf and lawn insec-
ticides. INTREPID™ is the newest member of the  diacylhydrazine class. It shares all the
desirable attributes of CONFIRM™ (i.e., extraordinary caterpillar selectivity as well as excellent
safety to  humans,  nontarget organisms, and the ecosystem) and has the additional advantage of
significandy greater caterpillar potency, which translates into a wider range of use.

 A New Process for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals

    In an effort to reduce the amount of waste generated at its East Hanover site, Sandoz
 Pharmaceutical Corporation has evaluated all site processes in order to make improve-
 ments  in the  utilization of solvents  and minimize the waste byproduct while also
 improving operating efficiency. One process in particular was identified that appeared to
 offer significant opportunities for such process restructuring. After 2 years of research, all
 the essential elements of the new process have now been demonstrated. The new process
 uses a single new solvent for both reaction medium  and separation, which  significantly
 reduces the  overall solvent requirements and permits recycling of the used solvent by sim-
 ple distillation. As  a  result, the process waste index is  reduced  from the  current 17.5
 pounds of waste generated per pound of product to 1.5 pounds, resulting in a projected
 reduction of 170,000 pounds per year in waste generation. Furthermore, the amount of
 solvent used per batch is cut in half,  thereby significantly reducing the usage of solvent with
 attendant lower risks of worker exposure and accidental releases to the environment. The
 decision to proceed with development of a new process, despite the potential problem of
 obtaining FDA approval of the process changes, is due primarily to the favorable econom-
 ics of the new process. Conservative estimates of annual savings are  around $775,000,
 compared to an investment of $2.1 million to develop and implement the new process,
 which is equivalent to a return on investment of 36.7  percent and  less than a 3 year
 pay-back time. It is estimated that over 75 percent of the manufacturing savings are due to
 process improvements rather than disposal costs of unused solvent, illustrating the process
 optimization benefits characteristic for pollution prevention innovations.

 No-Clean Soldering

    CTS Corporation Resistor Networks produces solid ceramic resistor networks in vari-
 ous single in-line, dual in-line, surface mount, and through-hole packages with standard or
 custom circuit designs. Through CTS Corporation's commitment to a responsible envi-
 ronmental policy,  many of its manufacturing methods have been modified with the goal
 of reducing or eliminating hazardous waste byproducts. One such method to reduce waste
 was the implementation of  a No-Clean  soldering process. This No-Clean soldering
 process, which began in March of 1993,  has eliminated the use of wave  oil, soldering flux-
 es,  and solvent cleaning. Changing  to the No-Clean soldering process involved installing
 hoods over the solder pots. Using the hoods, an inert atmosphere  is maintained over the
 molten solder. By using the inert atmosphere, oil and flux are no longer required. The parts
 are clean after solder  and thus no  solvent  cleaning is needed. Previously, TCA (1-1-1
 Trichloroethane) and TCE (1,1,2 Trichloroethylene) were used as part of a post-solder
 cleaning operation to remove flux and wave oil residues. Due to the elimination of flux and
 wave oil, these cleaning operations became unnecessary. Therefore, the amounts of waste
 TCA and TCE from soldering operations were reduced from 9,900 pounds and 226,000
 pounds in 1992, respectively, to zero in 1995. As an added benefit  of eliminating solvent-
 based cleaning operations, air emissions due to the use of these chemicals have dramatically
 decreased. From 1992 through 1995, TCA and TCE related air emissions from soldering
 operations have been reduced from  99,000 pounds and 250,000 pounds, respectively, to
zero. A cleaning operation, not related to soldering, generated a small amount of TCE air
 emissions in 1995. This operation was eliminated in June of 1995. The No-Clean solder-
 ing process has eliminated the generation of waste oil, flux, and cleaning solvents at the
solder operation. Workers are no longer exposed to fumes from fluxes,  oils, and cleaning
solvents, which are  typical of soldering operations. The product quality also has been
 Sandoz Pharmaceutical
CTS Corporation
Resistor Networks

Technic, Inc.

Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory
DuPont Films
Noncyanide Silver Electroplating

   A proprietary, noncyanide silver electroplating process, Techni-Silver Cy-Less L, was
developed by Technic. Cyanide based processes for electroplating have been extensively
used in the United States for the last 50 years. Due to the hazardous nature of cyanide,
extensive safety precautions must be incorporated when manufacturing  electroplating
chemicals, transporting the solutions to user sites, using the electroplating process, and dis-
posing waste solutions. For example, if cyanide based solutions become too acidic, large
amounts of poisonous cyanide gas are created. Historically, the electroplating industry has
suffered many accidents due to the use of cyanide, which on a few occasions have resulted
in death. Alternatives to cyanide-based solutions had been developed for all metals com-
mercially electroplated except  silver.  The  noncyanide silver electroplating process
developed by Technic provides an alternative that is noticeably less toxic than the cyanide
process and inherently safer with regard to accident potential. In addition,  tests  clearly
show that the  noncyanide formulation is capable of producing sound, thick (i.e., around
125 um) silver deposits that are extremely fine-grained and exhibit properties comparable
to those produced in silver cyanide formulations. With the success of the  noncyanide
chemistry, Technic has made it possible to operate an entire plating facility without having
to use any cyanide compounds.

Petretec*™ Polyester Regeneration Technology

   Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is the fastest growing polymer. Becuase of their inher-
ent thermal stability, PET-type thermoplastics lend themselves to direct recycling and serve
as a raw material for the production of a number of products. For example, the success of
PET bottle recycling is well known. This process annually diverts more  than 600 million
pounds of PET bottles per year from landfills. This technology requires waste with a high
purity content and can only be used for carpeting or pillows. It usually cannot be reused
to make new bottles. Additionally, there are a large number of uses for PET in which the
material is dyed, coated, or mixed with  a copolymer. The bulk of these materials are not
suitable for direct recycling, so they are typically landfilled. However, the patented DuPont
Petretecsm polyester regeneration technology provides an environmental alternative to land-
fills. The DuPont Petretecsm process unzips  the PET molecule and breaks it down into its
raw materials, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol (EG). The process allows
the monomers to retain their original properties so they can be reused over and over again
in any first^quality application. The process accepts polyester with a variety of contami-
nants at higher levels than other processes. The process reduces dependence on oil-derived
feedstocks and diverts polyester from the solid waste stream. In the Petreted™ process, scrap
PET reacts with methanol vapor at an elevated temperature (i.e., greater than 260 °C) to
produce a vapor stream of DMT,  EG, and excess methanol. A glycol azeotroping agent,
methyl p-toluate  (MPT), is added, and the components are separated.  Purification is
accomplished by extensive  fractional vacuum distillation. The products are then shipped
back to PET  fiber, film, and resin producers. Each  kilogram  of DMT made  by the
Petretec5"1 process reduces the demand  for about 0.5 Kg of the traditional raw material
known as paraxylene, an oil-derived basic  petrochemical. The Petretecsm process is FDA
approved and provides an economical way to reuse materials with higher contaminant lev-
els  than other recycling  methods. DuPont  converted its  Cape Fear facility, near
Wilmington,  North Carolina, to a methanolysis plant. The new plant can handle more
than 100 million pounds of scrap PET and 30 million pounds of EG annually, and is eas-
ily expandable.

Polycarbonate/Polydimethylsiloxane  Copolymers for
 Thermal Print Media

   The process to make polycarbonates using bischloroformates and bisphenols or diols
was developed and commercialized in the early 1990s by the Polymer Products Unit of the
Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York. The original process to produce the
polycarbonate of bisphenol A, diethylene glycol, and bisaminopropyl polydimethyl-silox-
ane was developed in 1992 and commercialized in 1993 for Use in a new thermal print
media product. Concerns over waste and air emissions, as well as cost and capacity issues,
prompted a research and development effort to replace this polymer before production vol-
umes increased to  forecasted  high levels.  The new process to produce  a  similar
polycarbonate/polydimethylsiloxane copolymer was certified early in 1994. Improvements
include the following: (1) the new process is made in the solvent in which the polymer is
coated, and is delivered to the manufacturing  department dissolved in that solvent, elimi-
nating the methanol precipitation, methanol washing, and vacuum  drying steps; (2) in the
new process, triethylamine is used as the  acid acceptor instead of pyridine, making the
water wash waste streams less hazardous; (3) the new process uses the commercially avail-
able diethylene glycol  bischloroformate,  eliminating the need  to  manufacture the
bisphenol A bischloroformate at Kodak in Rochester (the bisphenol A bischloroformate
synthesis uses phosgene as a key reactant, and its purification produces large quantities of
hazardous waste containing heptane and silica gel). The new process will yield over 1.2 mil-
lion pounds of hazardous waste reductions and more than 3,000 pounds of air emissions
reductions from 1994 to year end 1996.

PORTA-FEED® Advanced Chemical Handling  Systems

   During the 1980s, disposal of chemical residues and their containers was a potential
human health and environmental risk for chemical users and the public. In 1985, Nalco
developed the PORTA-FEED® Advanced Chemical Handling system for chemical appli-
cations worldwide. It is the largest private fleet of returnable containers in the world at a
capital cost of $220 million. These 101,000 units are owned, monitored, maintained, and
cleaned by Nalco as a cradle-to-grave risk management process. The program consists of
the units, a computerized tracking system, a zero defect delivery system, and a systematic
maintenance and cleaning program. This pollution prevention program has prevented the
disposal of more than 3 million drums and 30  million pounds of chemical waste. In 1985,
33 percent of Nalco's annual sales of $659 million were shipped in 500,000 nonreturnable
drums. Seven percent of 1995 annual sales of $1.2 billion were shipped in nonreturnable
drums. By the year 2000, Nalco expects to have eliminated the disposal concerns from 10
million drums and 100 million pounds of chemical waste worldwide. The system benefits
are the reduction  of human and environmental risk from transportation  to disposal,
reduced chemical inventory, and renewable resource implementation.

The Production of Cumene with Zeolite Catalyst:         i
Mobil/Badger Cumene Process

   Cumene is manufactured in very large  volumes for subsequent conversion to  phenol
and acetone. The existing worldwide demand for cumene is about 7 million metric tons
per year. The production of cumene  by alkylation of benzene with propylene has, in the
past, been carried out commercially over two catalyst systems: solid phosphoric acid (SPA)
or aluminum chloride (AlCls). Both SPA and A1C13 present severe environmental prob-
lems; SPA catalyst is wet, corrosive, and might contain hydrocarbons, while waste AlC^ is
Eastman Kodak
Nalco Chemical
Mobil Technology

DuPont Company
Monsanto Company
a corrosive liquor that also might contain hydrocarbons. Both are classified as hazardous
wastes. The Mobil/Badger Cumene process uses a new zeolite catalyst developed by Mobil,
tested by Badger, and first commercialized in 1996. The environmental features of this
process are many. The catalyst is environmentally inert, requires no special packaging or
handling, and can be returned to Mobil at the end of its useful life. Very high yields are
achieved; this results in less byproducts and waste streams and in reduced consumption of
raw materials. Byproducts are LPG and a small residue stream useful as a high value fuel;
neither presents an environmental hazard. High product purity results in improved yield
and greater throughput in downstream phenol units, with lower production of byproducts
and waste streams. Lower consumption of utilities leads to environmental improvement in
their generation. Existing cumene facilities can, with retrofit,  derive  the environmental
benefits of a new facility. By the middle of 1998, approximately 85 percent of the demand
for cumene in the United States will be met by new and upgraded facilities using this tech-

Reduction of Carbon  Tetrachloride Emissions at the
Source by the Development of a New Catalyst

   Phosgene is an important intermediate in  the synthesis of polycarbonate plastics, high
performance polymers, agrichemical intermediates,  and  urethane foams. Current global
production is about 10 billion pounds per year. Although the process chemistry is selec-
tive, the byproduct carbon tetrachloride (CCU) is generated at a rate of 300 to 500 ppm,
amounting to 5 million pounds per year globally. Since carbon tetrachloride is a carcino-
gen, an ozone depleting chemical,  and a greenhouse gas, it was desirable to reduce or
eliminate this undesirable byproduct. A DuPont team discovered a  new catalyst that was
produced in Siberia, Russia. After much laboratory work, it was decided to try a plant test,
a scaleup of greater than 250,000 times. The catalyst was purchased,  shipped from Siberia,
and implemented in less than 1 year after the start of the program. After 1.5 years of com-
mercial production,  the new catalyst has  consistently demonstrated  high phosgene
production rates and achieved a 90 percent reduction in  the level of carbon tetrachloride
generation (i.e., to less than 50 ppm, apparently a new global record). By conceptualizing,
identifying, testing, securing from Russia, and implementing a novel phosgene production
catalyst (well within the proposed 18 month deadline), the team saved the business a cost
of $2 million associated with the installation of a new abatement furnace,  which would
have been the only other alternative. Furthermore, the resulting need for fewer catalyst
changes in the reactor, as well as the prevention of maintenance costs that would have been
associated with the abatement furnace, will save approximately an additional $400,000 per
year. The catalyst technology is being offered for license globally, which could reduce emis-
sions of CCU by up to 5 million pounds per year.

Roundup Ready™ Technology

   Roundup Ready™ technology  is  the mechanism  by  which crop  selectivity  to
Roundup® herbicide has been introduced into crop plants. Roundup®, the world's largest
selling herbicide, controls almost all weeds but shows little selectivity in crops. Roundup®
has excellent environmental characteristics and the active ingredient of glyphosphate has
been given a category E status (evidence for not being a carcinogen)  by EPA. The mode of
action of the herbicide is also known precisely. A set of unique genes (Roundup Ready™)
were discovered and introduced into crop  plants to protect them from damage by the her-
bicide. Commercial launch began in 1996 with soybeans in the United States and will be
followed by  cotton and corn in 1997 to 1998. Current research and development programs
will soon thereafter lead to commercialization in other oilseed crops,  such as rape seed, and

 m sugarbeet. Additional potential applications include wheat, rice, forestry, and vegetable
 and salad crops. Roundup Ready™ Technology has changed the spectrum of herbicides
 used. Farmers who planted Roundup Ready™ soybeans in 1996 reduced herbicide use by
 10 to 35 percent with better weed control and generally did not use a preemergent or resid-
 ual, post-emergent herbicide. Roundup® herbicide has no 'carry-over' in the soil, does not
 limit crop rotations, and is compatible with no-till crop production  (a practice that is
 expanding in the United States and elsewhere). This technology extends to a wider aspect
 of agriculture and food production the ability to use one of the most beneficial and envi-
 ronmentally benign farm chemicals ever discovered.

 Solvent Replacement and Improved Selectivity in
 Asymmetric Catalysis  Using Supercritical Carbon

   The use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a substitute for organic solvents already rep-
 resents an important tool for waste reduction in the chemical industry and related areas.
 Coffee decaffeination, hops extraction, and essential oil production as well as waste extrac-
 tion/recycling,   and a  number of analytical  procedures already  use this  nontoxic,
 nonflammable, renewable, and inexpensive compound as a solvent. The extension of this
 approach to chemical production, using CO2 as a reaction medium, is a promising
 approach to pollution prevention. Of the wide range supercritical carbon dioxide reactions
 that have been explored, one class of reactions has shown exceptional promise. Los Alamos
 National Laboratory has found that asymmetric catalytic reductions, particularly hydro-
 genations and hydrogen transfer reactions,  can be carried out in supercritical  carbon
 dioxide with selectivities comparable or superior to those observed in conventional organ-
 ic solvents. Los  Alamos has discovered, for example, that asymmetric hydrogen  transfer
 reduction of enamides using ruthenium catalysts proceeds with enantioselectivities  that
 exceed those in  conventional solvents. The success of asymmetric catalytic  reductions  in
 CO2 is due in part to several unique properties of CO2 including tuneable solvent strength,
 gas miscibility, high diffusivity, and ease of separation. In addition, the insolubility of salts,
 a significant limitation of CO2as a reaction solvent, has been overcome by using lipophilic
 anions, particularly tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluorornethyl)phenyl)borate. These discoveries
 demonstrate an environmentally benign and potentially economically viable alternative for
 the synthesis of a wide range of specialty chemicals such  as pharmaceutical and agro-
Splittable Surfactants, A New Class of Surfactants
Developed by Union Carbide Corporation

   Union Carbide has developed a new class of surfactants, 'Splittable Surfactants,' that
will provide a substantial reduction in emulsified organics discharged in wastewater streams
generated by a wide variety of industries. The new surfactants exhibit superior end use per-
formance, as compared to current waste treatable surfactants and other proposed treatment
schemes, which have not gained widespread use due to limitations in performance. Waste
streams containing Union Carbide's 'Splittable Surfactants' are quickly, easily, thoroughly,
and irreversibly 'split' and deactivated,  via a chemical trigger, into nonsurface active com-
ponents, allowing separation of the oily waste components from the water stream. A more
concentrated  oily waste is generated, facilitating incineration for fuel value and a highly
biodegradable, essentially nontoxic  water stream  is  discharged to treatment facilities.
Before splitting and deactivation, 'Splittable Surfactants' have an environmental profile
comparable to conventional nonionic surfactants. Upon deactivation, both the hydrophilic
 Los Alamos National
Union Carbide

Stepan Company
 Stepan Company
and  hydrophobia components  biodegrade  rapidly;  the hydrophilic  component that
remains in the wastewater is essentially nontoxic to aquatic life. The Splittable Surfactant
technology is the focus of the first industry partnership under the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Initiative for Chemicals.

Stepan  Company PA Lites Polyester Polyol

   Stepan  Company's Polyester  Polyol  product,  manufactured  using  the Phthalic
Anhydride Process Light Ends (PA Lites), uses a previously categorized waste as a raw mate-
rial in its manufacture, thereby eliminating the material s disposal via incineration. This
Polyester Polyol is the basic raw material for the manufacture of various types of insulating
wallboard used in the home construction and commercial building industry.  By substitut-
ing traditional raw materials with PA Lites, Stepan Company is providing the construction
industry and consumer with a cost effective alternative to traditional building construction
products.  Benefits from this product  substitution go beyond  the elimination of a waste
requiring disposal. With its substitution as a raw material, it has reduced the requirement
for phtalic anhydride, the traditional raw material for the polyol product, and the air emis-
sions associated  with  its manufacture. As part of the development of this process, the
distillation operation in the phtalic anhydride facility was also improved. An estimated 350
tons per year of organic waste material has been  eliminated with the development and
implementation  of this technology. This  not only represents a significant  reduction in
waste requiring disposal by incineration,  but also  the air emissions associated with these
processes. Since  this previously categorized waste material is now used on site to produce
Polyester Polyol, potential exposure to the general public during offsite transportation to
disposal facilities has been eliminated. This project resulted in two economic benefits. The
first is the savings associated with the transportation and disposal via fuel blending for
energy recovery. On an annual basis  the expected savings is $200,000. The second eco-
nomic benefit is the raw material savings due to the replacement of the Pure PA with the
PA Lites material on a pound for pound basis. This results in  additional savings of $20,000

STEPANFOAM® Water-Blown Polyurethane Foam
HCFC-Free, Environmentally Friendly, Rigid

Polyurethane Foam

    STEPANFOAM®  Water-Blown Polyurethane  Foam  is a product that replaces CFCs
 and HCFCs with water as the blowing agent in rigid polyurethane foam. Due to its unique
 and innovative  chemistry, U.S. patent applications are  pending for this product. Rigid
 polyurethane foam is  a plastic material that provides a unique combination of insulation
 value and structural rigidity for common products such as picnic coolers, entry doors, and
 water heaters. Historically, polyurethane foams used in insulating applications incorporat-
 ed trichlorofluoroethane  (CFC-11)  as  the blowing agent.  However, CFCs, such  as
 trichlorofluoroethane, have been demonstrated to play a large role in the chemical destruc-
 tion of Earth's  stratospheric ozone layer, which acts as a filter for  harmful ultraviolet
 radiation. Today, most polyurethane foams  have replaced  trichlorofluoroethane  with
 HCFC-l4lb  as the blowing agent.  Although it has an ozone depletion potential that is
 lower than that  of CFC-11, HCFC-l4lb is also considered an ozone-depleter. The Stepan
 Company has remained committed to addressing these issues, through the development of
 a lower cost, technologically advanced polyurethane foam, which replaces environmental-
 ly unfriendly and potentially hazardous blowing agents with water. STEPANFOAM®
 Water-Blown Foam eliminates emissions of CFCs and HCFCs into the environment; it

 ultimately reduces the mass of solid waste requiring disposal, and it offers a safer alterna-
 tive Wo-wing agent than other technologies are currently offering. The final, and perhaps
 most important, property considered in the development of STEPANFOAM® Water-
 Blown  Foam as an  alternative to  HCFC-blown products is  its insulative  capacity.
 Outstanding flow characteristics, combined with a fine cellular structure, maximize the
 insulation capability of STEPANFOAM® Water-Blown Foam. At the same core density,
 the physical properties of the two systems  are nearly identical. By replacing CFC and
 HCFC with water in its formulations, Stephan has eliminated its use of as much as 2 mil-
 lion pounds per year of CFCs and will eliminate as much as 1 million pounds per year of
 Synergy CCS™ Precision Cleaning Solvent:  A
 Government/Industry Solution to a Complex
 Environmental Problem

    Synergy CCS™ had its beginnings at the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant
 (managed and operated by AlliedSignal Inc.) when the plant began an effort focused on
 the elimination of toxic,  restricted, or environmentally  damaging solvents. Experience
 derived from this solvent substitution and elimination  effort proved beneficial when,
 through its Technology Transfer Program, Kansas City Plant personnel were asked for help
 by a small manufacturer needing a safe, one-step  cleaning solvent. Synergy CCS™
 Precision Cleaning Agent was formulated to meet this need. Synergy CCS™ is a blend of
 environmentally derived products that forms a safe,  powerful, yet  distillable precision
 cleaning solvent capable of being heavily loaded with contaminants. Synergy CCS™ is
 comprised of natural components that have been in industrial use for over 45 years: d-
 limoene, a solvent derived  from  citrus byproducts,  and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, a
 solvent produced from the waste products  of corn,  oats,  and sugar production.
 Individually, these materials are already used for cleaners, paint stripping formulations, and
 agricultural applications. The solvent was further developed  and adopted by a Hewlett-
 Packard Co. division, patented, and licensed to Petroferm, Inc., a worldwide leader in sales
 and technical support for alternative solvents and cleaning technologies. This partnership
 demonstrates how government and private industry can  work together to develop safe
 chemical alternatives to solve environmental problems while simultaneously improving
 America's industrial competitiveness.

 Use of Carbon Dioxide as an Alternative Green Solvent
for the Synthesis of Energetic  Thermoplastic Elastomers

    Thermoplastic elastomers based on triblock oxetane copolymers containing azido func-
 tional groups offer an improved binding material for solid, high-energy formulations.
 Current technology uses chemically cross-linked energetic prepolymer mixes that intro-
 duce the problems of thermally labile chemical linkages, high end-of-mix viscosities, and
 vulnerability to  premature detonation. These materials are also nonrecyclable and generate
 large amounts of pollution during disposal. The use of energetic thermoplastic elastomers
 eliminates the need for chemical cross-linking agents, makes processing easier due to their
 low melt viscosities, and eliminates the need for solvents  during casting. Their superior
 processing qualities and the ease of demilitarization and recycling make these materials a
 much more environmentally sound choice for energetic binders. However, their synthesis
 still involves the use of large  quantities of toxic chemicals,  such as methylene chloride, as
 solvents. Carbon dioxide has been proven to be a viable, environmentally responsible
 replacement solvent for many synthetic and processing applications. It is cheap, easily recy-
Allied Signal Federal
Manufacturing and
U.S. Navy, Office of
Naval Research
U.S. Navy, Naval
Surface Warfare Center
Aerojet Propulsion

Professor Joseph M.
DeSimone, Department
of Chemistry,
University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill

Alliance for
Technology (AET)
U.S. Navy, Office of
Naval Research
U.S. Navy, Naval
Surface Warfare Center
U.S. Army Armament
Research, Development
and Engineering Center

Los Alamos National

clable, and available from current sources. Research at the University of North Carolina has
shown  that  carbon  dioxide is a viable solvent  for the polymerization  of vinyl ether
monomers. Furthermore, polyoxetanes can be polymerized in carbon dioxide with molec-
ular weight,  molecular weight distribution, and functionality maintained. The University
of North Carolina has demonstrated the  synthesis of both nonenergetic and  energetic
homopolymers and random copolymers.

The Use  of Chloride Oxide, the Foundation of
Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF) Bleaching for Pulp and

Paper, as a Pollution Prevention Process

   The use of chlorine dioxide as a pollution prevention process to substantially or com-
pletely replace  chlorine in the  first stage of chemical pulp bleaching is  a  unique
implementation of chlorine dioxide chemistry. It can be applied  to the entire bleached
chemical pulp and paper industry, both in the United States and abroad. By employing raw
material substitution and process modifications, this technology has allowed the pulp and
paper industry to meet the source reduction objectives of the Pollution Prevention Act of
1990. With  this new application of sophisticated chlorine dioxide chemistry, the pulp and
paper industry virtually eliminated dioxin  from mill waste waters  and our nations water
bodies. This technology has answered the industry's calls for a more benign chemical pulp
bleaching agent. Virtual elimination of dioxin from  mill waste waters and  continuing
nationwide ecosystem recovery provide a strong measure of chlorine dioxide's success and
die industry's environmental progress. In fact, downstream of U.S. pulp mills bleaching
with chlorine dioxide, fish dioxin body burdens have declined rapidly and  aquatic ecosys-
tems continue to recover.  For example, the Mead Paper Company's  Escanaba Mill,  in
Michigan, implemented pollution prevention strategies beginning with the use of low pre-
cursor defoamers in  1989. In 1990, the mill increased chlorine dioxide substitution. These
process  modifications  decreased dioxin in final mill effluent  to nondetectable levels.
Consequently, dioxin body burdens declined more  than 90 percent in less than 4 years.
These indicators of progress toward broader ecosystem integrity demonstrate the success of
chlorine dioxide as 'green chemistry.'

Waste Reduction in the Production of an Energetic
Material by Development of an Alternative Synthesis

   1,3,3-Trinitroazetidine (TNAZ) is a promising new melt-castable explosive that has sig-
nificant potential for providing environmental benefits and capability improvements in a
wide variety of defense and industrial applications. Initial lifecycle inventories on various
munitions revealed that up to 50 percent of the lifecycle pollution burden was associated
with the demilitarization of the munitions, and in particular, the  use of thermoset poly-
meric binders that require removal with water jet  cutting. TNAZ is  the only energetic
material other than  trinitrotoluene (TNT) that can be melt-cast in existing TNT loading
plants. Demilitarization of TNAZ simply requires heating the device above the melting
point and pouring the liquid out, rather than the complicated and destructive methods
used for RDX- and HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives. The stability of TNAZ in the
melt allows it to be easily recycled. TNAZ has performance slightly better than that of
HMX, the most powerful military explosive in current use. Thus, TNAZ may offer 30 to
40 percent improvements  in performance as a replacement for TNT-based formulations
such as Composition-B. The alternative synthesis of TNAZ, developed at the Los Alamos
National Laboratory, allows TNAZ to be produced in a waste-free process that also elimi-
nates die use of halogenated solvents. This alternative synthesis produces 5.3 pounds of

waste per pound of product compared to the original synthesis of TNAZ, which produces
1,200 pounds of waste per pound of product. The alternate technology has been trans-
ferred to industry, where it has been scaled up to  production-plant quantities. Further
improvements in waste reduction have been demonstrated in the laboratory that may even-
tually lead to a process giving little more waste than one pound of salt per pound of TNAZ.

Water-Dispersible Hot-Melt Adhesive  Raw Material

   Current technologies make recycling and disposal of paper products difficult. The hot-
melt adhesive industry has been searching for an answer in the form of a water-dispersible
raw material. Previous attempts to satisfy this need were often deficient in both critical per-
formance requirements and cost. Government regulations are not yet direcdy mandating
improved adhesive raw materials, but the needs are real and urgent just the same. The lack
of regulatory changes does not encourage adhesive  manufacturers to introduce products
based on expensive raw materials. Eastman AQ 1350 water-dispersible hot-melt adhesive
raw material represents die best of both worlds. The water dispersibility of Eastman AQ
1350 is due to the random incorporation  of sodiosulfonate groups along with polymer
backbone. These ionic functionalities also facilitate the excellent adhesion of Eastman AQ
1350 to a variety of substrates. Some of the key features of Eastman's new product are low
cost, 100 percent water-dispersible in ordinary tap water, nondispersible in ionic solutions,
superior adhesion to  polyolefin films, and comparable key physical properties to conven-
tional formulations.  Eastman  AQ 1350  is part of a new family of water-dispersible
polymers that provide the hot-melt adhesive industry with an innovation that addresses
long-standing needs in very large, applicable areas. These products not only overcome the
lack of water-dispersibility inherent to the  current generation of technology but also are
differentiated from the competitive generation of technologies by their ability to be dis-
persed into water coupled with insolubility in saline solutions.  This tunable solubility
mechanism also can be employed as a method for product recovery; thus, it is legitimate
to call Eastman AQ 1350 an advanced technology of a 'smart material.'

West Fork Biotreatment Project

   Asarco has developed a biotreatment system for removing metals from mine water prior
to its discharge to the waters of the state. Asarco owns and operates two lead mines and a
lead smelter and  refinery in southeast  Missouri. Recent changes in the Water Quality
Standards required Asarco to explore water treatment alternatives. One of the alternatives
considered was biotreatment. Preliminary results from a tank test and proof-of-principle
test conducted in  1993, were very encouraging and  plans were made for a scale size oper-
ation to be built. In early 1994 a pilot plant biocell was constructed and filled with a
substrate mixture of sawdust from an abandoned sawmill, alfalfa hay, cow manure from a
dairy, mine tailings, and lime rock. All material used  was acquired locally. Sulfate Reducing
Bacteria (SRB) were cultivated within the anaerobic environment of the substrate. SRB are
abundant in nature and are found predominantly in bogs and swamps. The SRB produce
hydrogen sulfide gas as a byproduct that acts as a sulfiding agent to precipitate the dissolved
metals from the mine water. The system also removes significant amounts of nitrates. The
pilot plant reduced  metals to below the Water Quality Standards set by the State of
Missouri for protection of aquatic life. Different operation scenarios were implemented to
explore the limits of the system. For 2  years, through extremes of ambient temperature,
water flow rates, and metals loadings, the biotreatment system operated efficiendy. The sys-
tem reverses the process which put the lead in the dissolved form and returns it to a lead
sulfide (PbS), an original inert form of lead ore. The PbS remains in the substrate for the
life of the plant which is  estimated, based on carbon consumption, to be in excess of 30
Eastman Chemical
Asarco Incorporated

     years. No chemicals were used, therefore, no chemicals must be transported on highways
     at risk of spilling. No daily sludges are generated that have to be disposed of in landfills,
     and water quality is improved. Construction of a full-scale plant was completed in July
     1996. Start-up was completed in November and the full-scale plant is currently treating
     1,500 GPM and is allowing West Fork Mine to comply with the NPDES permit limits.

Award winners are indicated with *.

* Albright & Wilson Americas
THPS Biocides: A New Class of Antimicrobial Chemistry	4
Alliance for Environmental  Technology (AET)
The Use of Chlorine Oxide, the Foundation of Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF)
Bleaching for Pulp and Paper, as a Pollution Prevention Process	38
Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing arid Technologies
Synergy CCS™ Precision Cleaning Solvent: A Government/Industry Solution to a
Complex Environmental Problem	37
Altus Biologies Inc.
Cross-Linked Enzyme Crystals (CLECs) as Robust and Broadly Applicable
Industrial Catalysts	13
American Chemical Corporation
Utilization of High Performance, Environmentally Compliant Chemicals:
GREEN LINE Adhesive, Sealant, and Coating Technologies	15
Anderson, Professor Marc A., Water Chemisty Program,
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Green Technology for the 21st Century: Microporous Ceramics	10
Asarco Incorporated
West Fork Biotreatment Project	39
Benchmark Products, Inc.
Development of a Nickel Brightener Solution	14
*BHC Company
BHC Company Ibuprofen Process	2
California-Pacific Lab & Consulting
The ECO Funnel	24
Circuit Research Corporation
A Nontoxic, Nonflammable, Aqueous-Based Cleaner/Degreaser and
Associated Parts Washing Systems Commonly Employed in the
Automotive Repair Industry	14
CTS Corporation Resistor Networks
No-Clean Soldering	31
*DeSimone, Joseph M., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and
North Carolina State University
Design and Application of Surfactants for Carbon Dioxide	6
The Dow Chemical Company
INVERT Solvents in Aircraft Paint Stripping	27

    Dumesic, Professor James A., Chemical Engineering Department,
    University of Wisconsin-Madison
    Rational Design of Catalytic Reactions for Pollution Prevention	11

    DuPont Company
    Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions at the Source by the
    Development of a New Catalyst	34
    The DUCARE 'Zero Effluent'Recycle Chemistry System	23
    The INFINITY Process	26
    NATION Membrane Technology	29

    DuPont Films
    Petretec""  Polyester Regeneration Technology	32
    Eastman Chemical Company
    Water-Dispersable Hot-Melt Adhesive Raw Material	39
    Biodegradable Copolyester	20
    Biofiltration Technology	•	20
    Eastman Kodak Company
    Polycarbonate/Polydimethylsiloxane Copolymers for
    Thermal Print Media	33
    Frost, Professor W. John, Department  of Chemistry,
    Michigan State University
    Biocatalysis/The Use of Genetically Manipulated Microbes as Synthetic Catalysts . . 7
    Gross, Professor Richard A., Department of Chemistry, University of
    Biotechnological Routes to 'Tailored' Polymeric Products of
    Environmental and Industrial Importance	8
    Hatton,  Professor T. Alan, Department of Chemical Engineering,
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Derivatized and Polymeric Solvents for Minimizing Pollution During the
    Synthesis  of Pharmaceuticals	8
    Hendrickson, Professor James B., Department of Chemistry,
    Brandeis University
    The SYNGEN Program for Generation of Alternative Syntheses  	11
    Henkel Corporation
    Alkyl Polyglycoside Surfactants	17
    Hudlicky, Professor Tomas, Department of  Chemistry,
    University of Florida
    Synthetic Methodology 'Without Reagents.' Tandem Enzymatic and
    Electrochemical Oxidations and Reductions  in the Manufacture of
    Pharmaceuticals	12
    Hughes  Environmental Systems, Inc.
    DryWash™ Carbon Dioxide Dry Cleaning Technology	23

 Elimination of Ozone-Depleting Chemicals in the Printed Wire
 Board and Electronic Assembly and Test Processes	24
 Innovative Techniques for Chemical and Waste Reductions in the
 Printed Wire Board Circuitize Process	27
 DryView™ Imaging Systems	3
 IMC-Agrico Company
 AGROTAIN® N-(n-butyl) Thiophosphoric Triamide.	17
 King, Dr. Charles M., Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia
 Biomimetic Transition Metal Complexes for Homogeneous Catalytic Reductive
 Dechlorination of the PCBs/One-Step Extraction-Detoxification in
 Subcritical and Supercritical Fluids	/
 Klenzoid, Inc.
 Zero Discharge System for Cooling Towers	16
 * Legacy Systems, Inc.
 Coldstrip™, A Revolutionary Organic Removal and Wet Cleaning Technology ...  5
 Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems
 Development and Implementation of Low  Vapor Pressure  Cleaning
 Solvent  Blends and Waste Cloth Management Systems to  Capture
 Cleaning Solvent Emissions	21
 Implementation and Verification of Aqueous Alkaline Cleaners	26
 Los Alamos National Laboratory
Application of Freeze Drying Technology to the Separation of
 Complex Nuclear Waste	18
Application of Green Chemistry Principles  to Eliminate Air
 Pollution From the Mexican Brickmaking Microindustry	19
 Magnetic Separation for Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste	28
 Solvent Replacement and Improved Selectivity in Asymmetric Catalysis
 Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide	35
 Materials Technology Limited
 SuperC™, The Use of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide	/5
 Mobil Technology Company
 The Production ofCumene with Zeolite Catalyst: Mobil/Badger
 Cumene Process	33
 Molten Metal Technology, Inc.
 Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP)	/3
 Monsanto Company
 Roundup Ready™ Technology	34

    Nalco Chemical Company
    PORTA-FEED® Advanced Chemical Handling Systems	33

    Nalco TRASAR® Technology	29
    Nalco ULTIMER™ Polymer Technology	30

    Nalco Fuel Tech
    Nalco Fuel Tech NOxOUT® Process	29
    Nikles, David E., Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama
    Waterborne Coating Applications for Video Tape Manufacture	12
    Paquette, Dr. Leo A., Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University
    Environmental Advantages Offered by Indium-Promoted Carbon-
    Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions in Water	9

    Pharmacia & Upjohn
    Environmental Improvements From Redesigning the Commercial
    Manufacture of Progesterone	25

    Praxair, Inc.
    Liquid Oxidation Reactor (LOR)	28
    Radiance Services Company
    The Radiance Process: A Quantum Leap in Green Chemistry	14

    Rochester Midland Corporation
    Development of a New 'Core' Line of Cleaners	22

    Rohm and Haas Company
    A New  Chemical Family of Insecticides Exemplified by CONFIRM™
    Selective Caterpillar Control Agent and the Related Selective Insect Control
    Agents MACH 2™ and INTREPID™	30
    Sandoz Pharmaceutical Corporation
    A New Process for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals	31
    Shaw,  Dr. Henry, Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey
    Institute of Technology
    The Replacement of Hazardous Organic Solvents with Water in the
    Manufacture of Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals	11

    Stepan Company
    Stepan  Company PA Lites Polyester Polyol	36
    STEPANFOAM® Water-Blown Polyurethane Foam: HCFC-Free,
    Environmentally Friendly, Rigid Polyurethane Foam	36"
    Taylor, Professor Larry T., Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech and
    Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties
    A Nontoxic Liquid Metal Composition for Use as a Mercury Substitute	10

    Technic, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Noncyanide Silver Electroplating.	32

Texaco, fnc.
CleanSystem3 Gasoline	21

U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence
Livermore Laboratory
Environmentally-Driven Preparation of Insensitive Energetic Materials	25

U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory
Application ofMicrochemistry Technology to the Analysis of
Environmental Samples  	19

U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste
Management Samples	 22

U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Engraving and Printing
An Alternative Solvent, Isomet	18

U.S. Navy, Office of Naval Research; U.S. Navy, Naval Surface Warfare
Center; U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering
Center; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Aerojet
Waste Reduction in the Production of an Energetic Material by
Development of an Alternative Synthesis	38

U.S. Navy, Office of Naval Research; U.S., Navy, Naval Surface Warfare
Center; Aerojet Propulsion; and Professor Joseph M. DeSimone,
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Use of Carbon Dioxide as an Alternative Green Solvent for the
Synthesis of Energetic Thermoplastic Elastomers	37

Union Carbide Corporation
Splittable Surfactants, A New Class of Surfactants Developed by
Union Carbide Corporation	35

Varma, Dr. Rajender S., Department of Chemistry and Texas Regional
Institute for Environmental Studies, Sam Houston
State University
Environmentally Benign Approach to Chemical Processing Using Microwave
Irradiation Under Solvent-Free Conditions	9

Warner, Dr. John, Department of Chemistry, University of
Massachusetts—Boston and Polaroid Corporation
Environmentally Benign Supramolecular Assemblies ofHydroquinones in
Polaroid Instant Photography	 . 9