in Your
  Prepared by

 The Christmas Seal Peopleฎ
 This booklet will help you understand asbestos:
 what it is, its health effects, where it is in your
 home, and what to do about it.
   Even if asbestos is in your home, this is usually
 NOT a serious problem. The mere presence of
 asbestos in a home or a building is not hazardous.
 The danger is that; asbestos materials may become
 damaged  over time. Damaged asbestos may re-
 lease asbestos fibers and become a health hazard
 LEAVE IT ALONE! Disturbing it may create a
 health hazard where noneexisted before. Read this
 booklet before you have any asbestos material in-
 spected, removed, or repaired.

 What Is Asbestos?

 Asbestos isamineralfiber. Itcanbepositivelyiden-
 tified only with a special type of microscope. There
 are several types of asbestos fibers. In the past,
 asbestos was added to a variety of products to
 strengthen them and to provide heat insulation
 and fire resistance.

 How Can Asbestos

Affect My Health?
From studies of people who were exposed to asbes-
tos in factories and shipyards, we  know that
breathing high levels of asbestos fibers can lead to
an increased risk of:
• lung cancer;
                                          3716   Published by this American Lung Association

 ' Be Found In Tlie Home

Istos cement.
 .  as insulation.
 ling compounds used on wall and ceiling joints. Their

 [ fireplaces may contain asbestos.
 e asbestos compounds.
 atected with asbestos paper, millboard, or cement

Pong on vinyl sheet flooring and adhesives.
 ! coated with an asbestos material or covered with an
 are legal actions filed against it.
 Insist that the contractor use the proper equip-
 ment to do the job. The workers must wear
 approved respirators, gloves, and other protec-
 tive clothing.
 Before work begins, get a written contract speci-
 fying the work plan, cleanup, and the applicable
 federal, state, and local regulations which the
 contractor must follow (such as notification
 requirements andasbestos disposal procedures).
 Contactyour state andlocalhealth departments,
 EPA's  regional office, and the  Occupational
 Safety and Health Administration's regional
 office to find out what the regulations are. Be
 sure the contractor follows local asbestos re-
 moval and disposallaws.Attheendofthejob, get
 written assurance from the contractor that all
 procedures have been followed.
• Assure that the contractor avoids spreading or
 tracking asbestos dust into other areas of your
  home. They should seal the work area from the
  rest of the house using plastic sheeting and duct
  tape,  and also turn off the heating and air
  conditioning system. For some repairs, such as
  pipe insulation removal, plastic glove bags may
  be adequate. They must be sealed with tape and
  properly disposed of when the job is complete.
• Make sure the work site is clearly marked as a
  hazard area. Do not allow household members
  and pets into the area until work is completed.
• Insist that the contractor apply a wetting agent
  to the asbestos material with a hand sprayer
  that creates a fine mist before removal. Wet
  fibers do not float in the air as easily as dry
  fibers and will be easier to clean up.
 • Make sure the contractor does not break re-
  moved material into small pieces. This could
  release asbestos fibers into the air. Pipe insula-
  tion was usually installed in preformed blocks
   and should be removed in complete pieces.
 • Upon completion, assure that the  contractor
   cleans the area well with wet mops, wet rags,
   sponges, or HEPA (high efficiency particulate
   air) vacuum cleaners. A regular vacuum cleaner
   must never be used. Wetting helps  reduce the
   chance of spreading asbestos fibers in the air.
   All asbestos materials and disposable equip-

• mesothelioma, a cancer of the lining of the chest
  and the abdominal cavity; and
• asbestosis, in which the lungs become scarred
  with fibrous tissue.
  The risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma in-
creases with the number of fibers inhaled. The risk
of lung cancer from inhaling asbestos fibers is also
greater if you smoke. People who get asbestosis
have usually been exposed to high levels of asbes-
tos for a long time. The symptoms of these diseases
do not usually appear until about 20 to 30 years
after the first exposure to asbestos.
  Most people exposed to small amounts of asbes-
tos, as we all are in our daily lives, do not develop
these health problems. However,  if disturbed,
asbestos  material may  release asbestos fibers,
which can be inhaled into the lungs. The fibers can
remain there for a long time, increasing the risk of
disease. Asbestos material that would crumble
easily if handled, or that has been sawed, scraped,
or sanded into a powder, is more likely to create a
health hazard.

Where Can I Find

Asbestos And  When

Can It  Be A Problem?

Most products made today do not contain asbestos.
Those few products made which still contain as-
bestos that could be inhaled are required to be
labeled as such. However, until the 1970s, many
types of building products and insulation materi-
als used in homes contained asbestos. Common
products that might have contained asbestos in
the past, and conditions which may release fibers,
  DUCTS insulated with an asbestos blanket or
  asbestos paper tape. These  materials may re-
  lease asbestos fibers if damaged, repaired, or
  removed improperly.
• RESILIENT FLOOR TILES (vinyl asbestos,
  asphalt, and rubber), the backing on VINYL
  for installing floor tile. Sanding tiles can release
  fibers. So may scraping or sanding the backing of
  sheet flooring during removal.
  used as insulation around furnaces and wood-
  burning stoves. Repairing or removing appli-
  ances may release  asbestos fibers.  So may
  cutting, .tearing, sanding, drilling, or sawing
  DOOR GASKETS in furnaces, wood stoves, and
  coal stoves. Worn seals can release asbestos
  fibers during use.
  TERIAL sprayed on walls and ceilings. Loose,
  crumbly, or waiter-damaged material may re-
  lease fibers. So will sanding, drilling, or scrap-
  ing the material.
  walls and ceilings, and TEXTURED PAINTS.
  Sanding, scraping, or drilling these surfaces
  may release asbestos.
  and SIDING. These products are not likely to
  release asbestos fibers unless sawed, drilled, or
  use in gas-fired fireplaces.  Also,  other older
  household products such  as  FIREPROOF
What  Should Be

Done  About Asbestos
In The Home?
If yo think asbestos may be in your home, don't
panic! Usually, the best thingis to LEAVE asbestos
material that is in good condition  ALONE.

I   ...... iiiM^^           ..... R?t!;*6(n ..... ifiiliK ..... I
                                  f.JK ..... !:ป'!? Dl
  Major repairs must be done only by a profes-
sional trainedinmethodsforsafelyhahdlingasbes-
  Minorrepairs shoxild also be done by profession-
als since there is always a risk of exposure to fibers
when asbestos is disturbed.
since improper handling of asbestos materials can
create a hazard where none existed. If you never-
theless choose to do minor repairs, you should have
as much information as possible on the handling of
asbestos before doing anything. Contact your state
or local health department or regional EPA office
for information about  asbestos training programs
in your  area. Your local school district may also
have information about asbestos professionals and
training programs for school buildings. Even if you
have completed a training program, do not try
anything more than minor repairs. Before under-
taking minor repairs,  carefully examine the area
around the damage to make sure it is stable. As a
general matter, any damaged area which is bigger
than the size of your hand is not a minor repair.
  Before undertaking minor repairs, be sure to
follow all the precautions described earlier for sam-
pling asbestos material. Always wet the asbestos
material using a fine mist of water containing a few
drops of detergent. Commercial products designed
to fill holes and seal damaged areas are available.
Small areas of material such as pipe insulation can
be covered by wrapping a special fabric, such as
rewettable glass cloth, around it. These products
are available from stores (listed in the telephone
directory under "Safety Equipment and Clothing")
which specialize in asbestos materials and safety

REMOVAL is usually the most expensive method
and, unless required by state or local regulations,
should be the last option considered in most situ-
ations. This is because removal poses the greatest
risk of fiber release.  However,, removal may be
recjuiredwhenremodelingormaldngmajor changes
to your home that will disturb asbestos material.
Also, removal may be called for if asbestos material
is damaged extensively and cannot be otherwise
repaired. Removal is  complex and must be done
only bv a contractor with. speciaLtraining. _Im=	
                                                                               Where Asbestos Hazards Mซ

                                                         1. Some roofing and siding shingles are made of asbfj
                                                         2. Houses built between 1930 and 1950 may have asbes
                                                         3. Asbestos maybe present in textured paint and in pat
                                                         use was banned in 1977.
                                                         4. Artificial ashes and embers sold for use in gas-firej
                                                         5. Older products such as stove-top pads may have :
                                                         6. Walls and floors around woodburning stoves may be p|
                                                         7. Asbestos is found in some vinyl floor tiles and the ba
                                                         8. Hot water and steam pipes in older houses may I
                                                         asbestos blanket or tape.

  Generally, material in good condition will not release
  asbestos fibers. THERE IS NO DANGER unless fibers
  are released and inhaled into the lungs.
    Check material regularly if you suspect it may con-
  tain asbestos. Don't touch it, but look for signs of wear
  or damage such as tears, abrasions, or water damage.
  Damaged material may release asbestos fibers. This
  is particularly true if you often disturb it by hitting,
  rubbing, or handling it, or if it is exposed to extreme
  vibration or air flow.
    How To Identify Materials That Contain Asbestos
    You can't tell whether a material contains asbestos
    simply by looking at it, unless it is labeled./ff in doubt,
    treat the material as if it contains asbestos or have it
    sampled and analyzed by a qualified professional. A
    professional should take samples for analysis, since a
    professional knows what to look for, and because there
    may be an increased health risk if fibers are released.
    In fact, if done incorrectly, sampling can be more
    hazardous than leaving the material alone. Taking
    samples yourself is not recommended. If you neverthe-
    less choose to take the samples yourself, take care not
    to release asbestos fibers into the air or onto yourself.
    Material that is in good condition and will not be
    disturbed (by remodeling, for example) should be left
    alone. Only material that is damaged or will be dis-
    turbed should be sampled. Anyone who samples asbes-
    tos-containing materials should have as much infor-
    mation as possible on the handling of asbestos before
    sampling, and at a minimum, should observe the
    following procedures:
    • Make sure no one else is in the room when sampling
       is done.
    • Wear disposable gloves or wash hands after sam-
    • Shut down any heating or cooling systems to mini-
       mize the spread of any released fibers.
    • Donotdisturbthematerialanymorethanisneeded
       to take a small sample.
    • Place a plastic sheet on the floor below the area to be
    • Wet the material using a fine mist of water contain-
       ingafew drops of detergentbeforetakingthe sample.
       The water/detergent mist will reduce the release of
  asbestos fibers.
• Carefully cut a piece from the entire depth of the
  material using, for example, a small knife, corer,
  or other sharp object. Place the small piece into a
  clean container (for example, a 35 mm film canis-
  ter, small glass or pilastic vial, or high quality re-
  sealable plastic bag:).
• Tightly seal the container after the sample is in it.
• Carefully dispose of the plastic sheet. Use a damp
  paper towel to clean up any material on the
  outside of the container or around thearea sampled.
  Dispose of asbestos materials according to state
  and local procedures.
• Labelthecontainerwithanidentificationnumber
  and clearly state when and where the sample was
• Patch the sampled area with the smallest possible
  piece of duct tape to prevent fiber release.
• Send the sample to an EPA-approved laboratory
  for analysis. The National Institute for Standards
  and Technology (NIST) has a list of these labora-
  tories. You can get this list from the Laboratory
  Accreditation Administration, NIST, Gaithers-
  burg, MD 20899 (telephone 301-975-4016). Your
  state or local health department may also be able
  to help.
 11""1' '"9 Ht  i " f iffilffi"!!'1"* -il ' Wf "l"""|rl iff ii* "5311" " tii1	' '"'lSk.1 " f" """F"1 r''il' '(SI '"' 	Bin"-"*••*), jjni'i "*•*-• fS' •[(! filing'1 T. riTaT !
*> rV/'f**^*  * Vv" ''^a J?b/llV"'*A"-^ \*f ^'SPL/ I'
  'r^'.j ff^  -i " "A  \fWWW**(frlซ**w%*?VHf*
         l'_rtป, ป i       ,'     11 \  i    i"      j    i"   v jซ

Istos insulation.
     business-size, self-addressed envelope.
       Asbestos-containingautomobilebrake pads and
     linings, clutch facings, and gaskets should be re-
     paired and replaced only by a professional using
     special protective equipment. Many of these prod-
     ucts are now available without asbestos. For more
     information, read "Guidance for Preventing Asbes-
     tos Disease Among Auto Mechanics," available
     from regional EPA offices.

     If You  Hire A

     Professional Asbestos


     •  Make sure that the inspection will include  a
       complete visual examination and the careful
       collection and lab analysis of samples. If asbes-
       tos is present, the inspector should provide  a
       written evaluation describing its location and
       extent of damage, and give recommendations
       for correction or prevention.
     •  Make sure an inspecting firm makes frequent
       site visits if it is hired to assure that a contractor
       follows proper procedures and requirements.
       The inspector may recommend and  perform
       checks after the correction to assure the area has
       been properly cleaned.

     If You  Hire A



     •  Checkwithyourlocalairpollutioncontrolboard,
       the local agency responsible for worker safely,
       and the Better Business Bureau. Ask if the firm
       has had any safety violations. Find out if there
   in sealed, leakproof, and labeled plastic bags.
   The work site should be visually free of dust and
   debris. Air monitoring (to make sure there is no
   increase of asbestos fibers in the air) may be
   necessary to assure that the contractor's job is
   done properly. This should be done by someone
   not connected with the contractor.
    Do not dust, sweep, or vacuum debris that
    may contain asbestos. These steps will
    disturb tiny asbestos fibers and may re-
    lease them into the air. Remove dust by
    wet mopping or with a. special HEPA
    vacuum cleaner used by trained asbestos
For more information, contact your local American
Lung Association for copies of:
  —Indoor Air Pollution Fact Sheet —Asbestos
  —Air Pollution In Your Home?
  — Other publications on indoor pollution

For more information on asbestos  in other con-
sumer products, call the CPSC Hotline or write to
the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,
Washington, DC 20207. The CPSC Hotline has
information on certain appliances and products,
such as the brands and models of hairdryers that
contain asbestos. Call CPSC at 1-800-638-CPSC. A
teletypewriter (TTY) for the hearing impaired is
available at 1-800-638-8270. The Maryland TTY
number is  1-800-492-8104.
  To find out whether your state has a training
and  certification program for asbestos removal
contractors, and for information on EPA's asbestos
programs, call the EPA at 202-554-1404.
  For more information on asbestos identification
and control activities, contact the Asbestos Coordi-
nator in the EPA Regional Office for your region, or
your state or local health department.
       STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATION: The statements in this brochure are basedin part upon the results of a workshop concerning asbestos in the home which was sponsored by the U.S.
       CMUURKT Product Safety ComUlian and the American Lung Association rALA). The sponsors believe that this brochure provides an accurate summary of useful information discussed at the workshop and obtained
       from other MUrcc*. However. ALA did not develop the underlying information used to create the brochure and does not warrant the accuracy and completeness of such information. ALA emphasizes that asbestos
       should not be handled, sampled, removed or repaired by anyone other than a qualified professional.

   Sometimes, the best way to deal with slightly
 damaged material is to limit access to the area and
 not touch or disturb it. Discard damaged or worn
 asbestos gloves, stove-top pads, or ironing board
 covers. Check with local health, environmental, or
 other appropriate officials to find out proper han-
 dling and disposal procedures.
   If asbestos material is more than slightly dam-
 aged, or if you are going to make changes in your
 home that might disturb it, repair or removal by a
 professional is needed. Before you have your house
 remodeled, find out whether asbestos materials are

How To Manage An

Asbestos  Problem

If the asbestos material is in good shape and will not
be disturbed, do nothing! Fit is a problem, there are
  Asbestos  Do9s And

  Don'ts For The


  — Do keep activities to a minimum in any areas
  having damaged material that may contain as-
  — Do take every precaution to avoid damaging
  asbestos material.
  — Do have removal and major repair done by
  people trained and qualified in handling asbestos.
  It is highly recommended that  sampling  and
  minor repair also be done by asbestos profession-
  — Don't dust, sweep, or vacuum debris that may
  contain asbestos.
  — Don't saw, sand, scrape, or drill holes in asbes-
  tos materials.
    two types of corrections: repair and removal.

    REPAIR usuallyinvolves either sealingor covering
    asbestos material.
      Sealing (encapsulation) involves treating the
    material with a sealant that either binds the
    asbestos fibers together or coats the material so
    fibers are not released. Pipe, furnace, and boiler
    insulation can sometimes be repaired this way.
    This should be done only by a professional trained
    to handle asbestos safely.
    over or around the material that contains asbestos
    to prevent release  of fibers. Exposed insulated
    piping may be covered with a protective wrap or
      With any type of repair, the asbestos remains in
    place. Repair is usually cheaper than removal, but
    it may make later removal of asbestos, if necessary,
    more difficult and costly. Repairs can either be
    major or minor.
— Don't use abrasive pads or brushes on power
strippers to strip wax: from asbestos flooring.
Never use a power stripper on a dry floor.
—Don't sand or try to leivel asbestos flooring or its
backing. When asbestos flooring needs replacing,
install new floorcovering over it, if possible.
 — Don't track material that could contain asbes-
tos through the house. If you cannot avoid walk-
ing through the area, have it cleaned with a wet
mop. If the material is from a damaged area, or if
a large area must be cleaned, call an asbestos pro-

proper removal may actually increase the health
risks to you and your family.


Professionals: Who

Are  They,  And What

Can They Do?

Asbestos professionals are trained in handling
asbestos material. The type of professional will
depend on the type of product and what needs to be
doneto correct the problem. You may hire a general
asbestos contractor or, in some cases, a professional
trained to handle specific products containing as-
   Asbestos professionals can conduct home in-
 spections, take samples of suspected material,
 assess its condition, and advise about what correc-
 tions are needed and who is qualified to make these
 corrections. Once again, material in good condi-
 tion need not be sampled unless it is likely to be
 disturbed. Professional correction or abatement
 contractors repair or remove asbestos materials.
   Some firms offer combinations of testing, as-
 sessment, and correction. A professional hired to
 assess the need for corrective action should not be
 connected with an asbestos-correction firm. It is
 better to use two different firms so there is no
 conflict of interest. Services vary from one area to
 another around the country.
   Thefederalgovernmenthas training courses for
 asbestos professionals around the country. Some
 state and local governments also have or require
 training or certification courses. Ask asbestos pro-
 fessionals to document their completion of federal
 work in your home should provide proof of training
 and licensing in asbestos work, such as completion
 of EPA-approved training. State and'local health
 departments or EPA regional offices may have
 listings of licensed professionals in your area.
                                                   9. Oil and coal furnaces and door gaskets may have asbl
  If you have a problem that requires the services
of asbestos professionals, check their credentials
carefully. Hire professionals who are trained, expe-
rienced, reputable, and accredited — especially if
accreditation is required by state or local laws.
Before hiring a professional, ask for references
from previous clients. Find out if they were satis-
fied. Ask whether the professional  has handled
similar situations. Get cost estimates from several
professionals, as the charges for these services can
  Though private homes are usually not covered
by the asbestos regulations that apply to schools
and public buildings, professionals should still use
procedures described  during federal or state-ap-
proved training. Homeowners shouldbe alert to the
chance of misleading claims by asbestos consult-
ants and contractors.  There have been reports of
firms incorrectly claiming that asbestos materials
in homes must be replaced. In other cases, firms
have encouraged  unnecessary removals or per-
formed them improperly. Unnecessary removals
are a waste of money. Improper removals may
actually increase the health risks to you and your
family. To guard against this, know  what services
are available and what procedures and precau-
tions are needed to do the job properly.
   In addition to general asbestos contractors, you
may select a roofing, flooring, or plumbing contrac-
tor trained to handle asbestos when  it is necessary
to remove and replace roofing, flooring, siding, or
 asbestos-cementpipethatis part of a water system.
Normally, roofing and flooring contractors are
 exempt from state and local licensing require-
 ments because they  do not perform any other
 asbestos-correction work. Call 1-800-USA-ROOF
 for names of qualified roofing contractors in your
 area. (Illinois residents  call 708-318-6722.) For
 information on asbestos in  floors,  read "Recom-
 mended Work Procedures for Resilient Floor Cov-
 ers." You can write for a copy from the Resilient
 Floor Covering Institute, 966 Hungerford Drive,
 Suite 12-B,Rockville,MD 20850. Enclose a stamped,

                                                                               SSHlifts1'11 '* 3i i!,!!'*! iUI f!ป, f1;1 mtsvi	mBC*>
                                                                               	 '	I-,'	i: iir	„,ป' *,!* i'ipldii rt: Jiil, in i	#aA\ ilife^ nil	ป•;!:	
                                                                                   •-""1-	—""""jisigs..