United States
             Environmental Protection
             Office of Pollution
             Prevention and Toxics
EPA 745-K-95-004
June 1995
      's 33/5O  Program
Company Profile
                                    Printed on Recycled Paper


                                         THE 33/50 PROGRAM
                                                                       CBBMCALS $M£MPI>-
                                                                    t SQi
         This Company Profile is part of a series of reports being developed by EPA to highlight the accomplishments
 of companies participating in the 33/50  Program. The
 33/50 Program is an EPA voluntary pollution reduction
 initiative that promotes reductions in direct environmen-
 tal releases and off site transfers of 17 high-priority toxic
 chemicals. The program derives its name from its over-
 all goals — an interim goal of a 33% reduction by 1992
 and an ultimate goal of a 50% reduction by 1995. The
 program uses  1988  Toxics, Release  Inventory  (TRI)
 reporting as a baseline. In February, 1991, EPA began
 contacting the parent companies of TRI facilities that
 reported using 33/50 Program chemicals since  1988 to
 request their participation in the 33/50 Program.  As of
 April, 1994, a total of 1,216 companies  had elected to
 participate in the Program, pledging to reduce emissions
 of the 17 target chemicals by more than 355 million
 pounds by 19-95. Companies are encouraged to set their
 own  reduction  targets,   which may vary from the
 Program's national  33% and  50% reduction goals.
 Company commitments-and reduction pledges continue
 to be received by EPA on a daily basis.
        The 1992 TRI data revealed that releases and
transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals declined by 40%
between 1988 and 1992, surpassing the Program's 1992
interim reduction goal by more than 100 million pounds.
This accomplishment,  together with evidence from
                                                                            s-f         ^

                                                                            as metij^ene cH&jrids .....
analysis of facilities' projected releases and transfers of the 17 priority chemicals,  reported to TRI under the
Pollution Prevention Act, offers strong encouragement that the 33/50 Program's ultimate goal of a 50% reduction by
1995 will be achieved.

        EPA is committed to recognizing companies for their participation in the 33/50 Program and for the emis-
sions reductions they achieve.  The Program issues periodic Progress Reports, in which participating companies are
listed and highlighted; In addition, Company Profiles, such as this one, are being prepared to provide more detailed
information about companies  that have written to EPA  describing significant emissions reduction initiatives.
Information presented in these profiles is drawn from a number of sources, including the company's written com-
munications to the 33/50 Program, extensive interviews with company representatives, the annual TRI reports sub-
mitted by the company's facilities (including Pollution Prevention Act data reported to TRI in Section 8 of Form R),
and, in many cases, site visits to one or more of the company's facilities.  All written company communications to
EPA regarding the 33/50 Program are available to the public upon request.                     '       ,

        EPA does not endorse the performance, worker safety, or environmental acceptability of any of the techni-
cal options discussed in this Profile.  Mention of any product or procedure in this document is for informational pur-
poses only,  and does not constitute a recommendation of any such product or procedure, either expressed or implied
by EPA.               '                                                                .-.'.'
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                                                  0 Replacing a chromic/sulfuric acid.eichant
                                                  with an alkaline etchant;
                                                  • Replacing solvents used for decreasing
                                                  with tacky rollers; and
                                                  • Replacing solvent-based developing and
                                                  stripping processes with aqueous-based

                                                       These  projects resulted in tremendous
                                                cost savings for Unisys. The first project yielded
                                                an annual, cost savings of about $4.88 per circuit
                                               • board,  while the second and third projects yielded
                                                total annual cost savings of about $41,000 and
                                                $340,600, respectively.          '  •  '
                  1988   and   1993,   Unisys
          Corporation reduced releases and off-site
          transfers of  targeted 33/50  Program
   chemicals from  852,443  pounds to  21,130
   pounds, a reduction of approximately 98 percent.
   These reductions resulted largely from chemical
   substitutions and the elimination  of a  solvent
   cleaning process at the company's manufacturing
   operations,  including the St. Paul, Minnesota
   facility.  Reductions also occurred following
   .decreased production and facility  closures that
   occurred over the time period.

          This case  study highlights three 33/50
   Program chemical reduction projects at Unisys:

        Unisys Corporation produces computer hardware, software, and informa-
        tion management services for commercial and military customers.  The
        company also manufactures check sorters, postal sorters, and military
radar units. Unisys provides its services to financial companies, airlines, telecom-
munication companies, and government agencies:  Created in 1986 by the merg-
er of Sperry and Burroughs, Unisys presently employs 48,000 people in 100 coun-
tries. The company is headquartered in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, and has 20 man-
ufacturing facilities across the United States.

       Unisys Corporation has annual revenues of $8 billion.  About 80 percent
"of this revenue is derived from  commercial information systems and services,
while the remainder comes from electronic .systems manufacturing and' services
for the defense industry.

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                            ENVIRON]MENTAL STRATEGY
                ii:	i	!	"	-P
      [he Unisys corporate environmental strategy, initiated in 1982, is outlined
         a  publication  entitled  Environmental  Stewardship  Program.   As
      described in this document, Unisys is committed to a program of environ-
mental stewardship, which entails managing all activities responsibly, with care
and respect for the environment, and not merely complying with government reg-
ulations and requirements.  This Profile highlights some of the company's envi-
ronmental achievements  and provides  an overview of the company's environ-
mental stewardship program.
           "'•",   "             „   ' ,   /    "        ", " ,  i , !' , i, '  .  ,   |M ' '' ' • ' •
       In addition to participating in the 33/50 Program, Unisys is involved in
numerous other environmental programs, including the following:

       The company has established a program to reduce hazardous waste gen-
       erated at their facilities. By re-engineering waste generating processes,
       Unisys has achieved its goal of reducing hazardous waste emissions by
       85 percent between 1988 and 1994.

       Unisys has a program to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
       at its facilities. By the end of 1993,  the company eliminated th~e use of
       CFCs in precision parts cleaning at their U.S. facilities.  Unisys plans to
       eliminate  CFCs from its refrigeration equipment by the end of 1999
       through a phaseout program.

       Unisys has a proactive recycling program. The company recycles paper,
       plastic,  and aluminum cans and promotes  the use of environmentally
       acceptable packaging materials.

       The company participates in many voluntary EPA programs, including the
       following: Green Lights, a program that encourages the use of energy-
       efficient light fixtures; Energy Star computers, a pro gram that encourages
       the computer industry to voluntarily manufacture energy-efficient prod-
       ucts; and WasteWi$e, a program that encourages industry to reduce
       municipal solid waste.

        Unisys was a participant in the Minnesota-50 Project, which is similar to
       EPA's 33/50 Program and establishes a state-wide goal of a 50 percent
       reduction in releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals by 1995.
               	                "••]	"	"
                             •     The company is an active participant in the Council on Office Products
                                   Energy Efficiency and in the International Standards Organization's effort
                                   to develop an international environmental standard to encourage compa-
                                   nies to incorporate environmental management into their business plans.

                             •     tJmsyj_ has begun auditing the environmental practices of some of its sup-
                            f"^=	^jftiersi	'Altnougn	t^'^d^e^'lstnformal and conducted on a case-by-case
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                                               PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: UNISYS CORPORATION
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       basis, Unisys expects to implement a more formal auditing program in the
       future.              " .-',. •,  ,  -. .. •   V, '  r  • '

       Because of the company's  commitment  to envii'onmental protection,
Unisys and its facilities have received numerous awards for their efforts in pollu-
tion prevention. Some of the accolades received by Unisys include:

 •.     "Recycler of the  Year" finalist, awarded in 1995 by the National Office
       Paper Recycling Project;

 •     The 1994 Governor's Award for Pollution Prevention from the Minnesota
       Office of Waste Management, awarded to the St. Paul'facility;

 •     The 1994 Governor's Award for Pollution Prevention from the State of
       California;     "      ,                 ,

 •     A Waste Minimization Award conferred to the Salt Lake City facility by
       the Department of Public Utilities for Unisys Corporation's efforts in pol-
       lution prevention in 1994;

 •     A 1993 Waste Reduction Award'from the California Integrated Waste
       Management Board, which recognizes companies in California without
       standing programs to reduce, reuse,  and recycle waste; and

 •     The Environmental Leadership Award from the Pueblo Area Council of
       Governments to the Unisys Corporation's Pueblo Colorado facility in
       1993 for their efforts in the areas of waste reduction, recycling, reuse? and
       community service/education.

       In 1988, Unisys reported total releases and transfers of TRI chemicals of
2,039,899 pounds,  of which 42 percent  were of 33/50 Program chemicals
Between 1988 and 1993, the following eight facilities reported releases and trans,-
fers  of 33/50 Program  chemicals  to TRI:   Roseville,  St. Paul,  and  Eagan,
Minnesota; Waterbury, Connecticut; Great Neck, New York; Salt Lake City, Utah;
and San Diego, .California (two facilities).  Exhibit  1 presents company data on
releases and transfers of TRI chemicals for  1988 and 1993. Exhibits 2 and 3 pro-
vide a breakdown  of the company's 1988  data by  chemical and by-media.
Additional data are provided in Appendices A through D at the end of this Profile.

       Unisys reported releases and transfers of the following six 33/50 Program
chemicals since  1988:

Chromium compounds are used primarily in the acidic  solutions used to etch
copper and clean metal surfaces in circuit board manufacturing processes, and are
At Unisys, environmen-
tal stewardship means
designing^ manufactur-
ing, and selling envi-
ronmentally acceptable
information manage-
ment solutions.
-Greg Fisher, Vice
President Regulatory
Affairs, Unisys
            33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: Utii$xs,CoRPORATiON


Ii. 	 ,,i 	 ! 	 <; 	 ; 	 ;; 	 . 	 , 	 	 :,«: 	 	 	 , 	 . 	 < 	 i 	 :,! 	 i 	 > 	 i 	
I'",' 	 Exhibit 1*
Releases and Transfers
of TRI Chemicals by
Unisys Corporation (in
Thousands of Pounds)
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33/50 Chemicals (locos ibs.) 1988 1993
Chromium Compounds 48 <1
Dichloromethane 285 NR
Lead & Compounds 5 NR
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 23 NR
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 378 21
Trichloroethylene 114 NR
33/50 Subtotal* 852 21
Other TRI Chemicals 1,187 173
TOTAL* 2.040 194
NR Not reported to TRI; use below reporting threshold
* Columns do not sum to totals due to rounding.
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Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) was a cleaner used in the manuf
cuit boards and was released as air emissions.

•- •
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irily transferred off'-
for treatment and
loromethane was
for stripping residual
jresist after etching
ivas released entirely
* emissions.
compounds were
ipally used in solder
ig of printed circuit
ds and were trans-
d off-site to publicly
;d treatment works
"Ws) and for recy-
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acture of ceramic cir-
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Unisys pledged a
90 percent reduc-
tion of releases and
transfers of 33/50
Program chemicals
          ....   ,     .1  I  .          II        ,.,     I  I  Ij I .1     I). b
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) is used to develop photoresist prior to etching and
for cleaning circuit board inner layers prior to assembly, and is released primari-
ly as air emissions.
Trichloroethylene (TCE) was used for cleaning circuit board inner layers prior to
assembly, and was released as air emissions.                           .

       The Unisys facility in St. Paul was the largest contributor to releases and
transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals in 1988, and was responsible for 100 per-
cent of MEK and TCE emissions, and 96 percent of dichloromethane emissions
reported by the company. Several facilities (Watefbury, Great Neck, Roseville,
and two in San Diego) reported releases and transfers of only one chemical, TCA.
                                                  GOALS AND  REDUCTION
                             Unisys pledged a 90 percent corporate-wide reduction of releases  and
                      transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals by 1995, using 1988 TRI levels as a base-
                      line — a reduction goal of 767,199 pounds. The company stated that it intended
                      to rely on source reduction measures to achieve reductions, rather than on recy-
                      cling or treatment.
                             To achieve the 90 percent reduction, Unisys, established specific waste-
                      reduction goals for its facilities that would result in a 90 percent reduction of
                                   35/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: UNISYS CORPORATION
                                           lillilll .

            TCE (13.32%)
Chromium Compounds (5.59%)
  TCA (44.39%)
                                                         Dichloromethane (33.46%)
                                                     Lead Compunds (0.53%)

                                                 MEK (2.72%)
TCA, a 100 percent reduction of both TCE and dichloromethane, and a 70 per-
cent reduction in -chromium.  Releases  and transfers of MEK  and lead were
expected to remain the same, but opportunities for reducing releases and transfers
of these chemicals would be evaluated.  In July,  1993, Unisys revised its goals for
chromium by committing to a 95 percent reduction.

       The 33/50 Program at Unisys is administered at the corporate level.  The
program is directly implemented at the facility level by the  environmental and
production management at each facility, along with staff members who decide
which chemicals to reduce or eliminate and the methods for achieving the reduc-

       This  Profile focuses on three-projects undertaken at the company's St.
Paul facility to reduce or eliminate the use of 33/50 Program chemicals.  The St.
Paul facility, which employs about 800 workers, manufactures  printed circuit
boards for the U.S. military. Because the St. Paul facility accounts for the largest
quantity of 33/50 Program chemical releases and transfers of any Unisys  facility,.
the pollution reduction efforts at this facility resulted in the majority of the com-
pany's reductions of 33/50 Program chemicals.  Appendix B at the end of this
Profile contains data on releases and transfers of TRI chemicals  at the St. Paul

       "All three projects involved modifying the production process, for manu-
facturing  printed circuit boards.  Generally,  circuit  boards consist of multiple
                                Transfers Off-site for Treatment/Disposal/Other (8.26%)
  Transfers to POTW (0.58%)
                                                          Air Emissions (91..16%)
                                                                               Exhibit 2
                                      Percentage Breakdown of
                                     33/50 Program Chemical
                                     Releases and Transfers for
                                     1988 (by Chemical)
                                      The pollution reduction
                                      efforts at the St. Paul
                                      facility account fora
                                      majority of the compa-
                                      ny's total reductions.
                                                                               Exhibit 3
                                     Percentage Breakdown of
                                     33/50 Program Chemical
                                     Releases and Transfers for
                                     1988 (by Media)

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                    Exhibit 4
	^'^Qiagram of Printed Circuit
'?^ri^~ri^.J]:foart Manufacturing
 '!""'' ""	.•'    ''   '  «   .  ••' Process
. Ij4	,	;.'	;;	:,:	1	C/rcg|? ooarK are	'.	"
                                                  [Potassrum Carbbhate]    [Cuprlo Chloride]   [Potassium Hydroxide]
                                                                        [Tacky, Rollers]
                                                   [Potassium Hydroxide]   [Ammonium Hydroxide
                                   KEY                            /Ammonium Chloride]

                                   ilSfS.'.'.WfiPSSJS'IS         lnner  Layers O
                                   [New Process ]          Multilayer Boards Q
                                                                      {T,1,1 * THohloraaiftBn&I
                                                                      [Potassium Carbonate]
                                  inner" layers that are laminated  together.  "Outer*1  or ''final'* layers are then
                                 placed on the top and bottom of the stack of inner layers to form a printed circuit
                                 board.  A schematic of "the  process for manufacturing printed circuit boards is
                                 shown in Exhibit 4 and is referred to in the detailed process description that fol-
                                 lows.  i,This	schematic also indicates the chemicals i used in each of the processes ^
                                 discussed in this Profile.
                                         First, a copper-coated inner layer board is covered with a light-sensitive
                                 polymer and the circuit board pattern is imprinted on the polymer using ultravio-
                                 let light (step  1, apply photoresist).  The polymer that is not exposed to light is
                                 then removed (step 2, develop). The bare copper is etched away (step 3, etch) and
                                 the circuit pattern is cleaned of residual resist (step 4, strip). The inner layers are
                                 cleaned and layered on top of each other, final layers of copper-coated board are
                                 placed on the top and bottom, and the package is pressed to produce a board (steps
                                 5-6). Holes are then drilled in the board  and a two-step plating process is used to
                                 coat the holes with copper (steps 7-8).
                                     ''    The circuit pattern is placed on the final layers using analogous  steps
                                  described for the inner layers. The final layer copper board is coated with a light-
                                  sensitive polymer (step 9, apply photoresist) and the area surrounding the circuit
                                  board pattern is imprinted on the board using ultraviolet light.  The polymer that
                                  js not exposed to light (i.e., the circuit board pattern) is removed (step 10, devel-
                                  op^  The circuit board pattern and holes are solder-plated (step 11) and excess
                                  jSolymer is removed (step 12, strip). The circuit pattern is then created by etching
                                  away ail copper except the circuit pattern (the solder plating protects the copper
                                  of the final layer circuit pattern from being removed by the stripping process)
                                  (step 13, etch).

                                         The circuit board is cleaned with acid to remove metal oxides, dried in an

trical connections (step 14, solder brighten and fuse).  A permanent, protective
layer of polymer, which acts as an insulator, is then placed on the board using sim-
ilar steps described for the inner and final layers. The polymer is placed on the
final layer board, cured on the board using ultraviolet light, and excess polymer
is removed (step 15, apply and develop solder mask). The final circuit board is
now ready for the assembly .process in which components are attached.

       Three projects undertaken at the St. Paul facility that reduced or eliminat-
ed the use of 33/50 Program chemicals are discussed in this Profile:

•      Replacing a chromic/sulfuric acid etchant for final layer boards with an
       alkaline etchant;

•      Replacing solvents for cleaning inner layers (TCE or TCA) with tacky
       rollers; and

•      Replacing solvents for developing and stripping (TCA and
       dichloromethane, respectively) with aqueous processes.

Project #1: Replacing Chromic/Sulfuric Acid Etchant with an Alkaline

       Chromic/sulfuric acid was used to etch copper from final layers of circuit
boards (step 13 in Exhibit 4) resulting in approximately 25,000 pounds of chromi-
um waste in  1988, which the company transferred off-site.  Because of the high
cost of purchasing and disposing of the chemicals used in this process, Unisys
decided to reduce, and if possible, eliminate the use of chromic/sulfuric acid in
the final sulfuric etching process.  At the time, the disposal cost for chromic acid
was one of the largest environmental costs at the facility.

       As an initial step in reducing the use of chromic acid, the facility invest-
ed about $400,000 in an electrodialytic regeneration system in 1987. This system
was.designed to regenerate  the chromic/sulfuric  acid etchant for reuse and to
recover the copper etched from the boards for recycling.  However, the system
malfunctioned  almost  immediately after  installation and was shut down for
repairs.  In late 1992, after repeated problems and attempts to test and repair the
system, Unisys  realized the system was unreliable and would not provide the
expected cost savings, and shut the system down. The electrodialytic regenera-
tion system was later dismantled and disposed of.

       In 1993, a team of operators, production engineers., maintenance person-
nel, environmental managers, and occupational, safety, and health personnel were
assembled to select an etchant that would be more cost effective and reliable, less
toxic, generate less waste,  and use less rinse water than the chromic/sulfuric acid
       The team considered three alternative etchants:  ammonia-based alkaline
etchant, peroxy/sulfuric acid, and cupric chloride. These etching chemistries rep-
Unisys replaced
chromic/sulfric acid
etchant with alkaline
etchant for 90 percent
of its products.

	=	.-	-	r	:	!	ffi	-	-	;	I	=5:	:	!	- 7:3
resent those most widely used in  the industry.  Peroxy/sulfuric acid was very
expensive and extremely volatile, while cupric chloride could not be used on final
Layer boards since it corrodes the solder coating on the boards (step 11 in Exhibit
4).  Thus, these two alternatives were eliminated from further consideration.  The
team compared the costs of using the third alternative, an alkaline etchant, with
that of chromic/sulfuric acid, and considered such factors as water use, worker
exposure, purchase and disposal costs, and ease of maintenance.  The team deter-
mined that the alkaline etchant was the more cost-effecdye (costs are discussed in
greater detail below).

       Implementation  of the alkaline etchant  also required a change, in  the
equipment used.  Chromic/sulfuric acid is used in an enclosed conveyorized sys-
tem thirough which the items being etched" pass.  However, the equipment used
     ljje~chro^c/sulforiciriiaci(d' is ^not,	suitable	for	the	ammonia-based alkaline
etchant because the  entrance and exit  openings  are large, and ammonia vapors
escaping through these openings would be too  strong for workers to tolerate.
Unisys  had to purchase equipment that  could transport the items to be etched
through the etchant in a closed and automated  system.

       The team selected etchant equipment based on information  gathered a
year earlier when another etchant system at the facility was replaced, and used the
same manufacturer as had been used before.  In July  1993, an alkaline etchant
j^-y—g wag purchased. This  machine has rinse  modules designed to keep virtu-
ally all of the etched copper in the etchant. The copper laden waste etchant is
given to the vendor from whom the etchant is  originally purchased. The vendor
removes the ammonia from this etchant, and the copper oxide that is generated is
sold to the wood preservative industry for use as  a feed stock in the wood preser-
vative chromated copper arsenate. Because the waste etchant is transferred as a
product, it does not require treatment as a RCRA hazardous waste, thereby reduc-
ing the costs associated with waste disposal.

        Although the company wanted to eliminate the use of chromic/sulfuric
acid as an etchant, it determined that the alkaline etchant was not suitable for cer-
tain Unisys products. In particular, the alkaline etchant was not strong enough to
cleanly etch copper layers greater than  four ounces per square foot. Unisys man-
ufactures several products that use copper layers greater than this thickness, for
vvhi'ch it continues to use chromic/sulfuric acid as an etchant.  In addition, a flex-
iblegable'product"Eat requires etching  will not fit through the closed alkaline etch
machines an4, therefore, must be etched in the open system with  chromic/sulfu-
rip 'acid"! Approximately10percent of the production at the'St. Paul facility is still
etched with chromic/sulfuric acid.
                        rrri^r                   	^k^ne'etch^t'syistem"resulted"lnl'a'cbnsiderable cost
                        savings forUni's'y's*	Exhibit's compares tne'costs	of "the two'prbc'esses1':1' The com-"
                        pany incurred about $95,000 in initial capital costs for the alkaline etchant equip-:
                        ment and $1,000 for disposal of the old chromic etch equipment. The purchase
                        and disposal costs for the alkaline etchant, however, are substantially less than
                        that of the chromic/sulfuric acid etchant.  In the first half of 1993, Unisys used
                                      33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: UNISYS CORPORATION

 11,015 gallons of chromic acid etchiant per year at a cost of $2.14 per circuit board
 produced.  Disposal of spent etchant waste (24,695 gallons generated per year)
 cost $4.71 per circuit board.  In addition, disposal of waste sludge, consisting of
 chromium, copper, lead, nickel, sulfate, and sodium salts, cost $0.29 per board.

     •  In the second half of 1,993, after implementing the alkaline etch system,
 the company used 2,020 gallons of chromic/sulfuric acid etch and 4,345 gallons
 of alkaline etch per year, which cost about $1.12 per circuit board produced — a
 50 percent reduction in this cost component. Unisys disposed of 3,355 gallons of
 spent chromic/sulfuric acid etch and alkaline etch waste, costing $0.88 per print-
 ed circuit board —  an 81 percent reduction in this cost component. Disposal of
 sludge, generated from the chromic/sulfuric acid etch and alkaline etch cost $0.25
 per board:— a slight decrease from previous sludge disposal costs.
 Fixed Costs:.
        Purchase new equipment
        Dispose of old equipment
    Sunk cost
        $ 1,000
 Annual Costs (per circuit board):

        Chemical purchase           $2.14
        Disposal of waste entchant     $4.71
        Disposal of sludge         '  $0.29
 Total Annual Cost (per circuit board)     $7.13
       By implementing the alkaline etching system and using chromic sulfuric
acid etchant only for spe'cial applications, the company's annual costs dropped
nearly 70 percent, from $7.13 per board to $2.25 per board. In addition, the com-,
pany's water consumption decreased considerably; however, this cost savings can
not be calculated separately, for this process change.                         '

       Although Unisys had been aware of the technical feasibility of using alka-
line etchant since the 1970s, the decision to convert had been delayed because the
etchant could not be used on all products. However,  because of the high cost of
the chromic/sulfuric acid etchant, and the company's wish to eliminate using
33/50 Program chemicals, Unisys decided to split the production line and use the
chromic/sulfuric acid only where it was essential.

Project #2: Replacing Solvents for Degreasing with Tacky Rollers

       Chlorinated solvents (TCE and TCA) were used as degreasers to clean the
inner layers of the printed circuit boards prior to assembly (step 5 in Exhibit 4).
In 1988, this cleaning process released approximately 113,000 pounds of TCE to

                                                  Exhibit 5
                                                                             Comparison of Costs for
                                                                             Project #1 (Etching)
                                                 Unisys now uses
                                                 chromic/sulfric acid
                                                 etchant only where

                                                                 \                 . •
                    II II  I 111 I 111" III  II
                  Exhibit 6
          TJidiy Roller Machine
!"      ' ' I
IIIIIH       111 111 I II
       Unisys eliminated the
      need for solvent clean-
      ing by improved mate-
      rials handling and use
             of tacky rollers.
HI	it	
Tacky rollers'/produce a
    cleanerinner 'tayer"
 board tfjian the solvent
  degreasing machine.
                                                                                    il   ,1.    i '  ,<   nil .1!
                                                                                1	1	II	|	I	I	If IN I I (hill) 11	lllllllllllllllllA    	llllll
                                                             the air.  TCE
                                                             was used for
                                                             this purpose
                                                             until    1989,
                                                             when  it was
                                                             replaced with
                                                             the less  toxic
                                                             solvent, TCA.

                                                                Inner lay-
                                                             ers      were
                                                             cleaned  prior
                                                             to  assembly
                                                             to    remove
                                                             organic  mat-
                                                             ter like finger
prints and loose debris like dust. These contaminants collected on the inner lay-
ers, between the  time the inner layers were produced and the time they were
assembled into circuit boards.

       Unisys eliminated the .need for solvent cleaning by changing two process-
es.  First, in 1987, Unisys began requiring that employees wear gloves when han-
dling the inner layers. This process change reduced the amount of organic matter
that was deposited on the inner layers. Second, about two years later, the compa-
ny introduced a new process to remove loose debris from the boards.

       In 1989, a Unisys employee suggested using tacky rollers instead of sol-
vents to remove  loose debris from the inner layers.  She had used hand-held
rollers covered with tacky paper to remove loose debris while working at anoth-
er Unisys facility, and had discovered that tacky rollers cleaned the boards better
than did TCA.  To test this process change, the St. Paul facility purchased a hand-
held tacky roller from the manufacturer. About six months later, the manufactur-
er of the tacky roller produced a completely automated machine, which the St.
Paul facility purchased. In January 1990, the use of solvents for inner layer board
cleaning was completely eliminated with the implementation of tacky rollers.

       The tacky roller machine (Exhibit 6) contains two rollers coated with a
tacky  substance.   A technician manually inserts the  board into the  machine
between the rollers. The rollers pull the board through the machine and roll it
back, returning it to the technician.  The tacky coating on the rollers removes
debris from both  sides of the board  The technician then removes the board from
the machine and layers the clean boards on top of each other.
       The tacky rollers produce a cleaner inner layer board than the solvent
          ^agklng^	wnich' "decreases	trie" profiaEility of producing a damaged
product. The rollers also reduced the labor required to clean and assemble the
boards.  Before using tacky rollers, different workers performed the degreasing
                                            33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: UNISYS CORPORATION
                  	i	fii	(!iii(ii( 11	i	i	i	i"!	PI Hi	in
                      	I	I	illl  I  . 1  I  I t' ' 'I
                                              nni inn in
                                                    llllll II llllllllllll 111 l|ll 111 111 ll|lllllll III I 111 III llllll 111! l|l III II III Illllllll ll|l - lllll I1 ll 111
                                                    i  i i i  ,11 li'i'i ,p iiiii iiiliil	i ill" i
                                                       li "i i
•in	I

Fixed Costs: ...
Sunk Costs
Annual Costs:
Purchase solvents $46,000
Dispose of waste solvents $0
Total Annual Cost $46,000
Purchase of 8 tacky roller $24,000
Disposal of 3 degreasers $60,000
Roller refills $5,000
Dispose of roller refills $0
Exhibit 7
Comparison of Costs for
Project #2
 and the layering of the boards (steps 5 and 6 in Exhibit 4).  Using tacky rollers,
 however, the same worker who layers the boards performs the cleaning.

 -...•'  Using tacky roller machines resulted in cost savings for Unisys. Exhibit
 7 compares the costs of the two processes.  The initial capital cost to purchase
 the tacky roller machines was $24,000, while  the cost to dispose of the solvent
 degreasers was $60,000. The annual cost to use tacky rollers for cleaning is con-
 siderably less than the cost of using solvents.  The annual cost to purchase sol-
 vents was .approximately $46,000 per year (this  cost varies  depending on the
 quantity of solvent used and the price of the solvent).  Because Unisys reclaimed
 most of the  solvent, there were usually no waste solvent disposal costs.  The
^annual cost of using the tacky roller machines is about $5,000 per year, the price
 of rollerrefills.  Each machine has two sets, of rollers:  one permanent set and one
 replaceable set that can be thrown in the trash.  Additionally, converting to tacky
 rollers reduced labor and energy  costs.  Those costs were not quantified by the
 company.  Even ignoring labor and energy cost savings, Unisys achieved annu-
 al savings of $41,000, which provided a payback period of just over two years
 on their capital investment for the new solvent-free cleaning system.

 Project #3: Replacing-Solyjents for Developing and Stripping with Aqueous
   -—•-,...    Processes         "" '-            '

        TCA and/or dichloromethane were used in, three distinct processes in the
 manufacture of printed circuit boards:  to develop and strip inner layer boards
 (steps 2 and 4 in Exhibit 4); to~ develop and strip final layer boards (steps 10 and
 12);  and to develop the solder mask  (step 15). In 1988,  these develop and strip
 processes resulted in  air emissions  of 139,000 pounds of TCA and  274,000
 pounds of dichloromethane.            ;

        Initially, the decision to replace the developer and the stripper was based
 on the need to eliminate the use of dichloromethane.  In the early 1980s,
 dichloromethane was found to be carcinogenic, which led to public health con-
 cerns about the large quantity of dichloromethane emissions to air from the facil-
Using tacky roller
machines resulted in
cost savings for Unisys.

        Sp1	SJ"!	l!!	'";	!	:	!"	l!:^"	^ilj	:	!	'.	'	!«	""l":"":"1	;1?r~	;"	"	"	'	i	!;	:""™"!	^^	""";"!'	!"""	'	"	"	'T^rJTTf.'Tfi^T^	"""'"	~!|!~!1;''":,
                     	i	!i!ii|n
 iiiiiiiiinn n i in 11 inn i in nlnnili i inn 1111
  i    I  (   I *
 Production engineers
decided to switch to a
  completely aqueous
  process to eliminate
the use of all solvents.
       ii iiinin in inn ii
       i iiiii ..... iiiii
        It took f long time to
          develop processes
        that were acceptable
        for military purposes
        and compatible with
         the company's pro-
            duction process.
                              ity]  Because me'developeran3 strippelr had to be compatible with each other,
                              eliminating the dichloromethane stripper meant that an alternative developer
                              needed to be found as well.

                                     Replacing the chlorinated solvents used as developers and strippers also
                              required finding photoresist polymers that were compatible with the alternative
                              chemicals.  As described previously in the circuit board manufacturing process,
                              the developer is used after the photoresist has been exposed to light to fix the
                              exposed polymer and to remove the unexposed polymer.  The stripper removes
                              the exposed polymer after the etching process! The primary barrier to switching
                              develop and strip chemistries was finding a polymer that met the necessary stan-
                              dards and was compatible with the alternative chemistries.

                                     In the early 1980s, Unisys began a program to replace TCA (in develop-
                              ing) with potassium carbonate, and replace dichloromethane (used in stripping)
                              with potassium hydroxide. Substituting these solvents with aqueous solutions
                              was a three-step process The replacement for inner layer boards occurred in the
                              early I9&6s, theJ replacement for final layer boards'occurred in the late 1980s, and
                              the replacement for the solder mask occurred in 1993. The timing of the conver-
                              sions was determined by the availability of alternative photoresist polymers for
                              each of the three steps, since each  consecutive step had increasingly rigorous
                              requirements for the polymer.

                                     For the first conversion (steps 2 and 4 in Exhibit 4), the production engi-
                              neers at the facility had the option of replacing XCA and dicnlpromethane used
                              for the inner layer boards with either a semi-aqueous or aqueous developer and
                              siripper.  The productionengineers  decldec!" to switch to a completely aqueous
                              process in order to eliminate the use of all  solvents.  A team of workers was
                              formed to select the equipment needed to implement the process changes.  The
                              team initially reviewed equipment that was available on the market, sent sample
                              circuit boards to manufacturers to test the processes, and selected an equipment
                               While changes were made to the inner layer process, Unisys tried to
                        replace the developer and stripper used on the final layer boards (steps 10 and 12).
                        HoweverJ the company was unable to find a polymer compatible with the aque-
                        ous developer and stripper that met the requirements for outer layers. The poly-
                        mer coating cured on the final layer board must be more durable than that used on
                        the inner layers because the final-layer coating must withstand exposure to more
                        cEemicals ffian th'e inner-layer coating! It wasrft'until me late 1980s, when better
                        methods became available, that the facility could replace the chlorinated solvent
                        developer and stripper with aqueous solutions.

                               In the late 1980s, Unisys began testing aqueous-based systems for the
                        final solder mask (step 15). However, it took a long time to develop a process that
                        was both acceptable for military purposes  and compatible with the company's
                        process!   Because the solder mask is a permanent coating that remains on the
                        board, military standards (mil specs) for this process were more rigorous than for
                                      33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: UNISYS CORPORATION
                   (111	'
t ,1 , , 1 II
' 1
	 l| |L|II ,i i | 1 ' I h i L ill" [" I 1 1 I'll I1 III 111 I
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polymers used in earlier processes. At the time, there were products available that
met  the mil, specs, but these-products were  hot compatible  with the  Unisys
process. The company did not want to invest the money to research and develop
a new process.  In 1993, the manufacturer of the solvent-compatible solder mask
used by Unisys discontinued production and the facility was forced to find an
alternative solder mask.  By  this time, products had been .developed that were
compatible with the Unisys process' and with the mil specs.  By converting to an
aqueous-compatible solder mask, Unisys replaced TCA with potassium carbonT-
ate, which completely eliminated the use of TCA at,the St. Paul facility.

       Replacing the solvents used for developing and stripping with aqueous
processes  required a large capital investment for equipment for each process
change (see Exhibit 8). The developer and stripper equipment for the inner layer
boards cost  about $330,000.,  The developer and stripper equipment for the final
layer boards cost  about $160,000, and the solder mask developer equipment  cost
about $87,000. The annual purchase cost of chemicals, however, has dropped
considerably following the implementation of the aqueous processes.  The annu-
al cost of chemicals for developing  inner and final layer boards dropped from
$63,000 when using TCA to  $4,900 when using potassium carbonate.  In addi-
                    CONTINUE USE OF SOLVENTS
                                             IMPLEMENT AQUEOUS PROCESSES
   Fixed costs:
     Purchase new equipment     Sunk costs
   Annual costs:
     Chemical purchase
develop and strip inner and final layer boards


         $329,500                 $14,000
   Fixed costs:
     Purchase new equipment

   Anuual costs:
     Chemical purchase ,
                             develop solder mask
         Sunk costs               $1)7,000
         $27,400     •             $2,300

tion, the annual cost of chemicals for stripping inner and final, layer boards
declined from  $266,500 when using dichloromethane to  $9,100 when using
potassium hydroxide.  With the solder .mask developer, annual chemical costs
dropped from $27,400 when using TCA to $2,300 when using potassium carbon-
ate.   • • .     •         ".            ,•-.;••         '     •,',..'

       The replacement of solvents for developing and stripping with aqueous
processes resulted in tremendous savings  for Unisys. Substituting solvents for
developing inner and final layer  boards with aqueous processes resulted in an
annual savings of $316,000, on a capital investment of $490,000.  Replacement
of solvents  with aqueous  processes for solder mask developing resulted in an
annual savings of $25,000 on an $87,000 capital investment.
                                                                             Exhibit 8
                                                                             Comparison of Costs for
                                                                             Project #3
                                                         Conversion to aqueous
                                                         processes required
                                                         large capital invest-
                                                         ments but resulted in
                                                         lower annual costs.

                        '"'1	1	1   	"
                              Ill II   II  rt  II  II III ul    IB   1 ill j        i  ra III r Ml  * JIM   J        *     I .  1  j j
                                    In addition to the costs discussed above, other significant costs included
                             chemical disposal costs, equipment disposal costs, and changes in wastewater
                             treatment costs. However, Unisys was not able  to provide quantitative estimates
                             of these costs. The company also incurred significant costs developing new waste
                             treatment methods for wastes from the aqueous system.  The most significant
                             issue was developing a process for removing the heavy metals from the aqueous
                             ijya&e.  The aqueous chemicals made the wastewater treatment process more dif-
                             ficult because they cheiate metals, thereby making these metals more difficult to
                             separate from the cleaning solution in the treatment process.  It took Unisys near-
                             ly a year to develop  a waste treatment method that worked consistently and eco-
.  ,	;;:	:	>	::	tin	;	;	•	i.	i-i	
Il	j	in	;	;„;,„;;	;,;	;;!	;	j	;	isj	
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                tf 311^6FSOf
                 '»»	•	• -• "t>  '	'₯'
:;  v.:,'-: "V;:1;:."	;•••'•:•.;/:;;	"  :, ;.::•.••:•'•..".v::;  ./: ;:'•:.'. >",;;;h: •'.;';,:' ;•,••;  ',  :.
              v,   • -     	     '    ' " '.	!" '	  :" "
       Unisys reduced releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals by
over 831,313 pounds between 1988 and 1993 —- a 98 percent reduction from
852,443 pounds to 21,130 pounds. As shown in Exhibit 9, the company has sur-
passed its goal of a 90 percent reduction in releases and  transfers  of 33/50
Program chemicals.  Of the  six 33/50 Program chemicals used by Unisys, the
largest reductions were from  chromium compounds, dichloromethane, TCA, and
TCE.  Use of dichloromethane  and TCE  has  been  completely eliminated.
Releases and transfers of TCA have decreased by 95  percent since 1988. The use
of chromium compounds dropped below the  10,000 pound reporting threshold.
Exhibits  10 and 11, show the percentage breakdown of 1993 33/50 Program chem-
ical releases and transfers by chemical and by media, respectively.
                  1  ' •         •     .             •      'i1
       The  sources for the company-wide reductions of 33/50 Program chemi-
cals  are  illustrated in Exhibit 12.  Of the total reductions, 65 percent were
achieved by process changes  made at the St. Paul facility, and one percent result-
ed from process changes made at other facilities. The remaining 34 percent of
reductions resulted from decreases in production and closure of manufacturing
operations.  The company  has  significantly reduced it's size, from 120,000
                Exhibit 9
             s_ Corporation's

                                  05 O
1 	 •-

   Chromium Compounds (0.53%)
                                                    VGA (99.47%)
employees and $10 billion of revenue in 1988, to 48,000 employees and $8 bil-
lion of revenue in 1993.                                       ,

       At the St. Paul facility, the majority of reductions in releases and transfers
of 33/50 Program chemicals resulted from process changes.  At this facility, the
use of dichloromethane and TGE decreased by 100 percent since 1988. Releases
and transfers of TCA at this facility decreased 91 percent, while use of chromium
compounds dropped below the reporting threshold.
                          Transfers .Off-site for Treatment/Disposal/Other (1.00%)
   Transfers to POTW (0.52%)
                                                  Air Emissions (98.48%)
  ,     Exhibit 13 presents data on the sources of reductions in releases and trans-
fers of 33/50 chemicals at the St. Paul facility. Seventy-one percent of the reduc-
tions were achieved by substituting aqueous processes for TCA as the developer
and dichloromethane as the stripper. Twenty percent of the reductions resulted
from replacing TCE with tacky rollers, and five percent were achieved by replac-
ing chromic acid etchant with an alkaline etchant.

       Although not a part of its 33/50 Program goal, Unisys has reduced emis-
sions of TRI chemicals not targeted by the 33/50 Program. Releases and transfers
of non-33/50 TRI chemicals  decreased by 85 percent, from 1,187,456 pounds in
1988 to 173,297 pounds in 1993. At the St.  Paul facility, releases and transfers of
                                                                               Exhibit 10
                                                                              Percentage Breakdown of
                                                                              33/50 Program Chemical
                                                                              Releases and Transfers
                                                                              for 1993 (by Chemical)
                                                                              Exhibit 11
Percentage Breakdown of
33/50 Program Chemical
Releases and Transfers for
1933 (by Media)

               1	IF1"'	:""i	r	"Tils!'	"IF:	•	:;
 !!!	I	i	
                             !i	!!!'	Ill
  !r	:	:	;	:	:::	7	:	Exhibit 12
:,:!!||	[	!""'	* Sources of Reductions in

                           Decreased Production or Plant
                           Closings (34%)
                                                                  Implementation of Alkaline Etching Process (St. Paul) (3%)
                                                                                                    Implementation of
                                                                                                    " leveloping/Stripping
                                                                                                    Process (St. Paul)
                                      Projects at Other Unisys Facilities (1%)
                                                               Implementation of Tacky Rollers
                                                               (St. Paul) (14%)
                                                           Other Projects (4%)
                                   Implementation of Alkaline
                                   Etching Process (5%)
                                   Implementation of
                                   Tacky Rollers (20%)
                                                                                          Implementation of
                                                                                          Aqueous-Based  .
                                                                                          Process (71 %)
                                                   Total St. Paul facility reductions in releases and transfers = 562,207 pounds
                                  non-33/50 TRI chemicals have decreased by 86 percent, from 495,589 pounds in
                                  1988 to 70,575 pounds in 1993.  The largest reductions in releases and transfers
                                  'at"the St. Paul Facility are for copper, CFC-I15, and sulfuric acid, wfiicE decreased
                                  97, 88, and 85 percent, respectively, since 1988.  These reductions may be attrib-
                                  uted to several factors: copper use has declined due to reduced'production, CFC-
                                  113 is being phased out under the Montreal Protocol,  and sulfuric acid used in
                                  etchant processes has been replaced.
                                  FUTURE  CHALLENGES

                                          Despite the success of Unisys in reducing the use of 33/50 Program chem-
                                  icals, the company continues to investigate methods to eliminate the use of 33/50
                                  Program and other TRI chemicals.  Company-wide, Unisys plans to  eliminate
                                  CFCs by 1999 and is currently phasing out CFC-refrigerants from its facilities by
                                  converting to non-CFC refrigerants in existing equipment or by replacing outdat-
                                  ed equipment.  The company's Roseville facility recently replaced lead used in
                                  soldering with tin and. bismuth  in some processes.  At its St.  Paul facility, several
	I	I	II	 	
     rlljijy	I1	i'	ill i*	ill
                                                 33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE:  UNISYS CORPORATION

                                                       Siirjiiliiit'ttiiiiiHiiiiinjiiiiiiiiiiS^                                 ''liiiiTiilialiliiiiii'iiiiiifliil'iiii!!!!!
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projects are being planned to further reduce the use of 33/50 Program chemicals.
The need to completely eliminate the use of chromic acid as an etchant is under
discussion, and methods to reduce the use of methyl ethyl ketone needed for the
manufacture of ceramic circuit boards are being researched.

 For additional information on any of the infor-
 mation provided in this case study, please con-
 tact the following individual:
                                           Greg Fischer
                                           Vice President Regulatory Affairs
                                           Unisys Corporation
                                           25725 Jeronimo Road
                                           Mission Viejo, CA 92691
                                           Tel:  (714)380-5532
                                           Fax:  (714) 380-6634


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