&EPA
             United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
              Office of Pollution
              Prevention and Toxics
              7408 '
EPA745-K-95-OQ5
August 1995
EPA's  33/5O Program
Company Profile
       LOCKHEED  MARTI
                                      Printed on Recycled Paper

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                                     EPA's 33/50 PROGRAM
                                      COMPANY PROFILES
 This Company Profile is part of a series of reports
 being developed by EPA to highlight the accom-
 plishments of companies participating in. the 33/50
 Program,  the 33/50 Program is an EPA voluntary
 pollution reduction initiative that promotes reduc-
 tions in direct environmental releases and offsite
 transfers of 17 high-priority toxic chemicals. The
 program derives its name from its overall goals —
 an interim goal of a 33% reduction by 1992 and
 an ultimate goal of a 50% reduction by 1995.  The
 program uses 1988 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
 reporting as a baseline. In February, 1991, EPA
 began contacting the parent companies of TRI
 facilities that reported using 33/50 Program
 chemicals since 1988 to request their participation
 in the 33/50 Program.  As of November, 1995,
 nearly 1,300 companies had elected to participate
 in the Program, pledging to reduce emissions of
 the 17 target chemicals by more than 380 million
 pounds by 1995. Companies set their own reduc-
 tion targets, which may vary from the Program's
 national 33% and 50% reduction goals.

 Industry exceeded the 33/50 Program's interim 33%
 reduction goal by more than 100 million pounds in
 1992.  National emissions of Program chemicals
 were reduced by an additional 100 million pounds
 in 1993, bringing total reductions since  1988 to
   JBt3CHE 33/50 PROGRAM
    CHROMIUM & CQJ^UNDS.,
                     ''
   METHYLISOBSTYLTKBTONE
     -NICKEL & COMPOUNDS- <
           TQLUBNE
           iCHLO^.OE
    " TR1CHLPROHTHXPN1';  .
        "'             '
 * Ais6 rafered. to as mejhyferie chloride
'*"*'          * *"'  "'
more than 685 million pounds (46%). Facilities' TRI projections suggest that the Program's ultimate 50%
reduction goal will be observed to have been achieved or exceeded in the 1994 TRI data, a full year ahead
of schedule. The 1,300 companies enrolled in the 33/50.Program have accounted for most of the Progra-
m's pollution reductions.  Representing just 15% of eligible companies and owning only a third of the facil-
ities reporting Program chemicals to TRI, participants are responsible for 78% of the reductions since
1988 and 98% of the 100 million pounds reduced in 1993.                                          ,

EPA is committed to recognizing companies for their participation in the 33/50 Program and for the
emissions reductions they achieve. The Program issues periodic Progress Reports, in which participat-
ing companies are listed and highlighted. In addition,  Company Profiles, such as this one, are being
prepared to provide more detailed information about how companies have achieved their emissions
reductions. Information presented in these profiles is drawn from a number of sources, including the
company's written communications to the 33/50  Program, extensive interviews with company representa-
tives, the annual TRI reports submitted by the company's facilities (including Pollution Prevention Act
data reported to TRI in Section 8 of Form R),  and, in many cases, site visits to one or more of the com-
pany's facilities. Mention of trade names, products, or services in this document does not convey, and
should not be interpreted to convey, official EPA approval, endorsement,  or recommendation.

Copies of other 33/50 Program Company Profiles, as well as Reductions Highlights documents
summarizing all of these Profiles,  may be obtained by contacting the Program as specified in the box
below. In addition, all written company  communications to EPA regarding the 33/50  Program are avail-
able to the public upon request.
                   an th& 33/5Q PrdgrwA, Contact the TSCA Wattfaeat (W2) 554-1404 or comact JJ/58f
     Prvgram
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               SUMMARY
                  1988 and 1993, Lockheed
           Corporation reduced releases and
           off-site transfers of targeted 33/50
    Program  chemicals  from  5,515,000
    pounds  to  1,298,000 pounds,  approxi-
    mately a 77 percent decrease. These fig-
    ures represent reductions primarily in sol-
    vents,  paints,  coatings, and metal finish-
    ing materials used in aerospace manufac-
    turing processes,  including  cleaning,
    degreasing, painting, bonding, anodizing,
    and plating.
COMPANY BACKGROUND
 r i Jh*s Profile provides highlights of
   I • three particular 33/50  Program
 .&-  chemical reduction projects:
•  eliminating hazardous chemical usage
   and solvent emissions from  cleaning/
.  degreasing operations by substituting
   aqueous cleaning;
•  process changes in the  cleaning and
   coating of printed circuit boards; and
•  eliminating hazardous chemicals and
   paint solvent emissions by using plas-
   tic media blasting.
      Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta Corporation merged on March
      15, 1995 to form Lockheed Martin Corporation. This Profile focuses on
      the former Lockheed business units of Lockheed Martin. It is noteworthy
that the former Martin Marietta companies have made similar progress in elimi-
nating the use of 33/50 Program chemicals to that made by Lockheed.  Martin
Marietta'achievements were well recognized in 1994.  The EPA awarded Martin
Marietta the 1994 EPA Stratospheric Protection Award. Martin Marietta was also
the 1994 winner of the national Renew America Award for Pollution Prevention.
       Lockheed Martin is a Fortune 25 company headquartered in Bethesda,
Maryland. It is the largest defense contractor in the world and the largest aero-
space company in the United States. Lockheed Martin manufactures aircraft, mis-
siles, space launch systems, and satellite and electronic systems; refurbishes air-
                                                                        LOCKHEEO MARTIN
             .  33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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       ^si	'ijTze 'L^cjjieed
       Corporate'Groups
       ll;,:ii!	and Divisions
THE LOCKHEED  CORPORATION
                                                                                         Electronic Systems
                                                                                             Group
                                                                                        Lockheed Sander*

                                                                                        Lockheed Canada

                                                                                        Lockheed Commercial
                                                                                        Electronic* Company

                                                                                        CalComp
                                                    Lockheed Commercial;
                                                    Aircraft Canter
                                                    Lockheed Support
                                                    Syatatna
                            Lockheed Information
                            Management
                            Service* Company

                            • Lockheed
                              Environmental
                              Systems and
                              Tachnolotfies Company

                            * Lockheed
                             Idaho Technology
                            : Company

                            • Lockheed Support
                            \  System* Incorporated
  ferns;refurbishes air-
>":;:;, ','•' "C . IIIIIII*1:; If J	friv.,ir> >	:«"!'  '.'it!
I	craft: ana £erfor/ns a
     tiffioty'o? aircraft
craft; and performs a variety of aircraft maintenance services.  Lockheed Martin
is also a major contractor to the Department of Energy and provides clients with
environmental remediation and consulting services. Included within these manu-
facturing operations and services are metal  and composite  cleaning/degreasing,
finishing/plating, and painting/coating procedures.
             I ,„         ,     ,     .   	i    ,  	 ' , , „	:; j1,  ,,   '„,'.„„„
        At former Lockheed sites, approximately 78,000 employees work at 450
facilities located  across the United
States and around the world. At the end
of 1993, Lockheed's business mix con-
sisted of 64- percent U.S. government
defense,  13 percent nondefense (pri-
                  '.' space program),"  10
                       and  13  percent
foreign military markets.  In 1994, total
sales for Lockheed totalled  over $13
                            \
billion.   Lockheed corporate groups
and their divisions are shown in Exhibit
                          1.
     ,  "f
        I	:	^	;	'	i:	;	*
                                       "Lockheed Corporation is
                                       committed to conscientious
                                        stewardship of the environ-
                                        ment, employee health and
                            safety, and compliance with all relevant
                            laws and regulations. We will operate
                            facilities in a manner that is environmen-
                            tally responsible and that ensures the
                            health and safety of employees and the
                            public. This is consistent with our com-
                            mitment to active, responsible citizenship
                            in all the communities in which we
                            reside."

                            -Dan Tellep
                            Lockheed Martin Chairman and CEO
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                                          33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE:  LOCKHEED MARTIN
                                                                                   .[;

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     LOCKHEED ' s POLLUTION
     PREVENTION STRATEGY

      Establish partnerships with customers and
      other key stakeholders

      Emphasize environmental technology inno-
      vation                 ,

      Leverage environmental technology across
      the corporation            -

      Integrate a hazardous material manage-
      ment process into all programs

      Institutionalize pollution prevention without
      creating a new institution

      Use extensive metrics to monitor progress
      and focus resources
ENVIRONMENTAL
STRATEGY

       Lockheed's  commitment to
       environmental protection is
       delineated in its Corporate
Management  Policy  Statement
(MPS)  173 and its  Operations
Directive  (OD)  17.   These  two
documents establish the goals of
the corporation and  the  lines of
responsibility,  from top manage-
ment through the  individual oper-
ating companies, to ensure that all
Lockheed operations are conduct-
ed in a manner that protects, the
environment  and  worker safety
and health.
       MPS 173, published in 1972, directs operating company management to
 "ensure that a hazardous material, environmental, safety, and health (ESH) review
 is conducted prior to introduction and/or new use of hazardous materials and that
 programs are established to prevent or reduce waste and emissions whenever fea-
 sible." The MPS also initiated extensive technology and data sharing require-
 ments between departments and Lockheed companies, a formal  self-evaluation
 process, and corporate-wide performance standards.  OD 17, published in 1986,
 establishes key program elements and basic structures such as a hazardous mate-
 rial review process, a pollution prevention program, and a "lessons learned" pro-
 gram at each company. Exhibit 2 shows the high-level organization of Lockheed's
 environmental program.           ..'.'.
       An ESH procedures manual is used throughout the corporation.  This
manual assists  in institutionalizing OD 17  requirements and provides detailed
guidelines for self-inspections, methods of measuring performance, developing
and implementing
new   technology,
and disseminating
"lessons  learned"^
across the corpora-
tion.   In addition,
mechanisms are in
.place   to   ensure
technology transfer
across the corpora-
tion,  including an
Environmental
Technologies  (ET)



Certified
Certified

ESH BOARD AND
CORPORATE STAFF
• / \
ESH TASK ^ Operating ^\ ET TASK
FORCE y^Companies^Y' FORCE

Toxicologists Certified Industrial Hy
Safety Professionals Professional Engineei




gienists
s

Lockheed's environ-
mental programs
are designed to allow
the integration of
ideas between
hands-on labor,    •
engineers, scientists,
and top management.
                                   Exhibit 2
                                   Organization of
                                   Lockheed's
                                   Environmental
                                   Initiatives
              33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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       1          I               I     i                                                    '                          "
   ^^3^!^,h/aa<&^afl1*2	ITask Force,an Advanced Materials Task Force, and regularly scheduled ESH cor-
           |i||||Pi||i!E|	VP	!5pp||	^ora^e conferences." In addition, the corporate ESH staff coordinates business unit
 !i	 :•'!"•   ••<••  ": - ''	Si	:	",v«	-'i!;':|;" 	5"'	"'i'
 sl., i:; ,r'  ,!  Program chemicals,
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                               activities	an3"publis'h"es	a"Kimbntnly "analysis'	o'fTcey issues	arid a pollution pre-
                               vention bulletin.
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                       use

                Lockheed's corporate-wide management structure assists in implementing
      1these goals and directives. Elements include an integrated Corporate ESH Board
      *cofrlprised of top Lockheed officials whose decisions ultimately influence corpo-
ijft    rife direction, an ESH Task Force comprised of ESH coordinators from the major
       Operating companies, and an ET task force of scientists and engineers who focus
       bri eliminating  hazardous  materials through  innovations in product design  and
       manufacturing processes.
                                              Lockheed's environmental programs are designed to allow the integration
                                      of ideas between hands-on labori: engineers, scientists, and top management.
                                      Each Lockheed employee is encouraged to be aware of and involved in the issues
                                      and challenges' that face individual Lockheed companies, as well as the corpora-
                                      tion as a whole.
         	,   Partial List of Awards
        	l!	;	!	Received by Lockheed
         ir,;;:;:  ,.  : ^	,A  Companies
       '  '
                             .i','»'i,
                                     SELECTED ENVIRONMENTAL AWARDS PRESENTED TO
                                                         LOCKHEED COMPANIES

                                  Lockheed Corporation:
                                        1994 EPA Stratospheric Protection Award                                         ,

                                  Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC), Sunnyvale, CA:
                                        7994 Honor Roll Award from the nonprofit National Environmental Development Association
                                        1993 National Storm Water Program Excellence Award from the U.S.-EPA
                                        1992-1993 Susanne Wilson Environmental Achievement Award from the County of Santa Clara
                                        1993 Golden Vision Award from the San Francisco Chapter of International Television Associates
                                        1992 Commendation Letter from the City of Palo Alto for waste minimization

                                  Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company (LASC); Marietta, GA:

                                        7993 Merit Award for Paper Recycling from the Cobb Clean Commission
                                        1993 Certificate of Recognition from the National Safety Council
                                        1993 Industrial Lab of the Year Award from the Georgia Water and Pollution Control Association
                                        1992 EPA Certificate of Recognition for reducing painting operation a/remissions

                                  Lockheed Fort Worth Company (LFWC), Fort Worth, TX:

                                        7993 EPA Certificate of Recognition for significant reductions of hazardous air pollutants through
                                             innovative measures
                                        1992 EPA Stratospheric Protection Award

                                  Lockheed Aircraft Services Company (LAS), Ontario, Canada:

                                        1993 EPA Certificate of Recognition for eliminating VOC/HAP emissions

                                                                                                                                   	   I
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                                                                       COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN
                      •jj;;j |:!flg                                     	l^iliiiiiijllliJi

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       In addition to reduced use of 33/50 Program chemicals, Lockheed, by the
end of 1993, reduced corporate-wide use of ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs)
by 88 percent. In March, 1995, Lockheed Fort Worth Company completely elim-
inated all use of ODCs in the manufacture of the F-46 aircraft. ,Also by the end
of 1993, reductions in releases and transfers of all TRI compounds reached 65
percent from ,1988 levels. In addition, many of the individual operating compa-
nies  administer recycling programs, manage energy  and  water conservation
efforts, and conduct community-directed activities addressing toxics-use reduc-
tion.  As a result of these efforts, Lockheed companies have received numerous
awards and commendations from the U.S. EPA^ local regulatory agencies, and
non-profit groups, as shown in Exhibit 3.
OVERVIEW OF 33/5O  PROGRAM AND TRI
CHEMICAL RELEASES^ AND TRANSFERS

      Since 1988, Lockheed operating companies have reported releases and trans-
      fers of 11 of the 17 chemicals targeted by the 33/50 Program. A summary
      of Lockheed's releases and transfers is presented in Exhibit 4. Exhibits 5
and 6 provide a breakdown of 1988 releases and transfers by chemical and by
media. Additional detail is p
profile. The following is a 1
at Lockheed:

Chromium and compounds
minum deoxidizing, anodiz-
ing, and sealing. Chromium
compounds continue to be
used  for several of  these
processes. The majority of
chromium was  transferred
off-site for processing; the
remaining chromium was
emitted   into   the   air.
Virtually  all   chromium
compounds currently used
are transferred off-site. The
remaining chromium is dis-
charged into surface water
or emitted into air.

Dichloromethane is used to
strip paint.   Emissions are
primarily to air, and a small
percentage   of  dichloro-
methane is transferred off-
site.
st of these Chemicals and their source of emissions
were used in metal finishing processes such as alu-
LOGKHEED'S RELEASES AND
TRANSFERS OF TRI CHEMICALS
33/50 Chemicals n.ooos ibsi 1 988 1 993
Cadmium compounds NR NR
Chromium & compounds 34,050 147,849
DichloroTnethane ' 181,350 - 88,085
Lead NR NR
s Methyl ethyl ketone 564,150 115,371
Methyl isobutyl ketone 116,750 23,128
Tetrachloroethylene 498,850 NR
Toluene 530,870 74,884
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,103,150 293,493
Trichloroethylene 2,007,900 482,103
Xylene 478,365 73,198
33/50 Subtotal* ' 5,515.435 1.298.111
Other TRI Chemicals: . 1,327,050 340,378
TOTAL* . - 6,842,485 1,638,489
NR: Not reported to TRI; use below reporting threshold.
* Columns. do not sum to total due to rounding.
From 1985 through
1990, various
Lockheed companies
and departments
investigated the
feasibility of substi-
tuting aqueous/
semi-aqueous,
nonaqueous, and
other alternative
cleaners for ozone-
depleting and other
chlorinated solvents
used in vapor
degreasing.
Exhibit 4
Releases and Transfers
of TRI Chemicals by
Lockheed Corporation
             33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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        TP&rcerifaee Breakdown
     "	!"!	;	;	:	r	i	i.	'	';	r	:	:'	c	!:	•	ft	
..It;:	
Xylene (8.67%)
Tetrachloroethylene (9.04%)
         \
                                Other* (6.03%)
                                  TCE (36.41%)
                                                                     Toluene (9.63%)

                                                                           MEK (10.23%)
                                                                                            TCA (20.00%)
                                               *Other- MIBK (2.12%), Dichloromethane (3.29%), and
                                                    Chromium/Chromium Compounds (0.62%)
                                                                                        II
            ^Toluene and xyiene are used in chemical milling maskants and in painting and
            boating applications. Toluene is a component of a conformal coating sprayed onto
            circuit boards, and xylene is a component of a solvent used to clean spray guns
            and support equipment in the conformal coating process.   Toluene and xylene
            emissions are primarily to air, with their remainders transferred off-site.
                                                                                                                .Tillillllijl! . .IE!" ;:»• "', ,'!
   'I "   I',,, l|",  ' , „       ,      ,           , '  , ,     '   •   ,!,  ',   • ,   •" ''.,.' u "   !!'!!'  , i • ,      ,1  '   •'• '  ,
SSE^SSE* '^Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is used in painting applications^ in the application of
            specialty coatings,  and at  some sites  for cleaning paint application equipment.
                           ,,,.  '   *  	»        w ••                          ,.,          i           _  -
                           lr~i »;3/!rtu ally" all" emlss ions	are to	air, "with "a" small' percentage of the chemical trans-
                               ferred ,prTf-site.	   h_  .    :   ,  ' ,,	i:  : ,	^	 \	

                               JMethyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is used in wipe-cleaning applications.  Emissions
                               |fe fo air, with a fraction of the chemical transferred off-site.

                                    n|| ,,ni  ,n| , in       /in ,  »    „         .,,,.„.     ,' 	    |!|,|,,|,' , , i ' I,,;  I, |  || „ . L.    i' g. • ,	   ' ,„ •  " '• ..  '  I
                               ^^,l-T^ichloroethane_(TCA) is used to clean and  degrease metal, to clean elec-
                               tronics, and to apply specialty coatings! The majority of releases are to air, with
                               a small amount of the chemical transferred off-site.
                                                        Transfers Off-site for (9.19%)
                                                        Treatment/Disposal/Other
                                                                                                Other*(.16%)
                                   Air Emissions (90.65%)

                                       *Other - Transfers to POTW (0.15%), Discharges to Surface Water (0.01%)

                                               33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN
                                           	!.,..:	:>:	:...,	:::::	..,	:?.:	I	::.i:i.	i.:	:.:	-Ji;..:.:::.,.,,	!,,	ii	=....:	;:	":.:.:	:....!	:,,;	:::::.	!.:.!	,1:1..:	SE.::!.:::.	:	sfcii^LjL
                                                                            .;	i	Si	:::

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Trichloroethylene (TCE) was used extensively as a metal cleaner prior to 1992.
Tetrachloroethylene had been used for the same purpose in the late 1980s and vir-
tually all emissions had been to air.  Trichloroethylene emissions are predomi-
nantly to air, with a small quantity of the chemical transferred off-site.

        In the 1988 baseline year,  Lockheed  companies reported  releases  and
transfers of 6,842,485 pounds of all TRI chemicals.   33/50  Program chemicals
accounted for approximately 81 percent of this total,  with releases and transfers
of 5,515,435 pounds.
33/50 PROGRAM  GOALS  AND  REDUCTION
PROJECTS

    In July of 1991, Lockheed joined the 33/50 Program, agreeing to voluntarily
    reduce releases and transfers of targeted chemicals by 33 percent in 1992, and
    by 50 percent in  1995, using 198.8 as a baseline year. Based upon 1988 fig-
ures, these reductions would total 1,820,094 and 2,757,718 pounds, respectively.
In order to reach these goals, the company focussed on seven operations  that
could potentially reduce releases and transfers by using improved, cost-effective
technologies  and more  efficient production methods.  Exhibit 7 outlines the oper-
ations   targeted
for modification,
the     chemicals
historically  used
within       that
process, and the
process changes
enacted to reduce
transfers     and
emissions     of
33/50   Program
chemicals. Three
of    Lockheed's
emissions-reduc-
tion     projects
(labeled 1, 2 and
3  in Exhibit  7)
are the  focus  of
this Profile.
            33/50 PROGRAM CHEMICAL
              ELIMINATION PROJECTS

OPERATION(S)   CHEMICAL(S)     ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
1. Metal cleaning
  and degreasing
2. Electronics circuit
  board coating

3. De-painting
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Trichloroethylene.
Tetrachlorpethyiene
Toluene
Xylene

Dichlofomethane
•Aqueous/semi-aqueous cleaners (Project #1)
• Low vapor pressure wipe solvents
•"No clean" methods
• Water emulsifiable forming fluids
  and lubricants

•UV-cure conformal coating (Project #2)
•Plastic media blasting (Project #3)
4. Electronics circuit
  board cleaning

5. Metal finishing
                     6. Painting
                                   1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Cadmium
Chromium
               Methyl ethyl ketone
               Methyl isobutyl ketone
               Toluene
               Xylene
                     7. Application of   •  1,1,1-Trichloroethane
                      specialty coatings  Methyl ethyl ketone
•Aqueous, alkaline cleaners
• Water-soluble fluxes

• Non-chromium deoxidizers, etchants and
 anodizing solutions
• Solution regeneration and recycling
•Ion vapor deposition aluminum

•High solids paints
•High transfer efficiency paint guns
•Automated paint gun cleaning systems
•Low vapor pressure paint gun cleaning
 solvents
•Robotic painting systems
•Improved parts-handling and sequencing

•Aqueous/semi-aqueous solvents and earners
• Low vapor pressure, non-hazardous air
 pollutant solvents and carriers
                                                                 Exhibit 7
The Operations and
Chemicals Targeted for
Modification at
Lockheed and the
Alternative Technology
Substituted
               33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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                                                                                 '      • '.       ~
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          uires multiple
'	•	fi	protessing steps.	
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             lliminating^chjorinatedsolvent usage in metal cleaning

      ..Historically, Lockheed  companies  used chlorinated solvents,  such as
1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE), in vapor degreasing
equipment to clean aircraft components.  Vapor degreasing efficiently cleans,
rinses, and dries the various components prior to their painting, assembly, or stor-
age:Lockheed's corporate goal to develop cleaning methods with minimal haz-
ardous material use and emissions, coupled with the production phaseout dead-
lines for Class I ozone-depleting substances ''under'"me 'Montreal Protocol and the
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, served to focus company efforts on finding
alternatives to chlorinated solvents, such as TCE and TCA, used in this applica-
tion.

       From 1985 through 1990,  Lockheed investigated the viability of substi-.
tuting  aqueous/semi-aqueous, nonaqueous,  and other alternative  cleaners for
ozone-depleting and other chlorinated solvents used in vapor degreasing. During
that time, Lockheed successfully phased out the use of chlorinated solvents to
"precision" clean small space  and  military hardware  components.  However,
many Lockheed operations continued to use chlorinated solvents for large-scale
industrial cleaning.  Such was the case at Lockheed Missile and Space Company
(LMSC) in Sunnyvale, California, where TCA-based vapor degreasing was used
to clean rocket motor components, sucK as casings and nozzle parts, prior to paint-
ing and liner installation.            ..  ,                              ,
                                                        •  ,                   • •                 •   .
                                 In 1987, experts from various LMSC departments, including engineering,
                                 ..—.^..-^ prociuction, facilities, industrial hygiene, and environmental pro-
                          tection, collaborated on an effort to find an alternative to TCA in this application.
                          Within two years, analysis suggested that aqueous cleaning could be substituted
                          for solvent-based metal parts cleaning at LMSC". The National Aeronautics and
                          Space Administration (NASA) agreed with LMSC's assessment and approved the
                          modification of the contract and design requirements for the implementation of an
                          alternate degreasing  operation.  Approval  of this alternative cleaner  allowed
	i  .5	halt	trie"	construction	of	a	5(P!bot	^^^	15-foot wide, TCA vapor
degreaser, which was designed to degrease rocket motor components fabricated
for NASA's Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) project.
  I    I     II          II     I     II    I      III III	1-1	Ill: :litt	"fif..	:.'<;	',!'-.:"  ...'.•]•	I..;,,"	,	
                         j          I          I       I   I I 	Hi'"!* j.,.,1 .'ill :.i|||i|ill||'l!inll . ii'ij1, :' '..Mil IP ''ill	i»4;
       LMSC reviewed over 100 cleaners in their search to find a feasible alter-
native to TCA degreasing. Fifty of the initially reviewed cleaners"wairr anted fur-
ther screening. This initial review addressed the efficiency, product quality,  reli-
ability, employee safety, and environmental benefits of the alternative cleaning
systems compared with chlorinated solvent degreasing  operations.  Ultimately,
the research identified four commercially available alkaline cleaners as possible
replacements  for TCA:  Daraclean 282, Blue Gold, Turco 4338, and Brulin
815GD.
                                             "'     -   i    '       -
       Th.e.next phase in the two-part screening and testing procedure  involved
running a series of optimization studies in which the company cleaned test panels
with each of the candidate solutions and examined them for paint adhesion, adhe-
                                                                                                    •il f ™l
                                        33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: ' TO'CKHEED "JJJRTIN'
                                                        	i	

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 sive bond strength, and part corrosion.  The optimization studies also evaluated
 bath and rinse water chemistry for any negative trends that could be associated
 with heavy usage of the cleaner, such as etching and drag-out (a measure of clean-
 er loss).
                                                     v •
        As part of the optimization studies, testing was also done to compare mea-
 sured amounts of non-volatile residue.,(NVR), a.technique used to determine the
 cleanliness of a degreased surface. All tests conducted by Lockheed on aqueous
 cleaners through June,  1992, demonstrated NVR levels equal to or less than those
 associated with TCA use. For example, during comparison testing at LMSC, pan-
 els degreased with TCA exhibited an NVR  level of  19 rng/sq.ft. while panels
 cleaned with an alkaline solution had an NVR level of 9 mg/sq.ft., less than half
 the NVR level obtained from TCA.  Similar process changes at Lockheed Fort
 Worth for aircraft tube cleaning have also demonstrated higher levels of cleanli-
 ness with aqueous cleaning.         .

        The optimization studies showed that aqueous cleaners worked as well as
 or better than TCA to clean metal parts in large-scale manufacturing operations.
 The Blue Gold and Daraclean 282 aqueous solutions were subsequently adopted.

        Implementing the aqueous cleaning system at LMSC required purchasing
 a new  small-spray washing  machine for the plumbing shop.  This washing
 machine primarily cleans fluid transfer tubing used in launch and missile systems.,
 Conversion of an existing solvent immersion tank to use as an aqueous cleaner
 provided LMSC with the capability to degrease larger objects.  Materials and
 processes and facilities engineers teamed in a traditio'nal design and construction
 approach to select and convert the aqueous degreasing equipment.

        The aqueous degreasing process currently in operation at LMSC requires
 multiple processing steps (see Exhibit 8). First, the metal part to be cleaned is
 lowered into the aqueous degreasing tank. The aqueous solution in the tank is
 mechanically agitated, creating a scrubbing motion both inside.and outside of the
 immersed part. As the  metal part is removed from the tank an external and inter-
 nal rinse spray is activated.  The mist created by the spray is blown down, and
 fumes  are exhausted into a scrubbing unit.   The nominal amount of chemical
 residue captured in the scrubber is moved to a wastewater treatment facility for
 processing and possible reuse. The metal part is then placed into a chamber for
 final rinsing and drying. The spent solution in the final rinse and drying tank is
 constantly monitored for consistency to allow for its reuse.

        Wastewater from the cleaning operation is  directed to a holding tank
 where its composition is monitored.  If the water is determined to be recyclable,
 it is sent through a series of filtration and regeneration steps, followed by a reverse
 osmosis unit and a deionizer. Finally, it is stored in a deionized water tank. If the
water is not recyclable, it is transported to an on-site wastewater treatment sys-
tem, which was operational before the implementation of aqueous cleaning.
Among the advan-
tages of aqueous
cleaning over TCA
degreasing is the
elimination of the
need for expensive
emissions
control equipment.
Another advantage of
aqueous cleaning
over TCA
degreasing is lower
operating costs.
              33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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m	i	i	
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             '^i^degreasing.
                        '^II^uIIlI,
                            :::::::"D
                                                                 WATER
                                                                DEIONIZER
                                                     (DEIONIZED^.    A A.	
                                                    WATER TANKj    §|f
                                                                          REVERSE OSMOSIS
                                                                                UNIT
                                                   -RINSE SYSTEM-
                                                   EXHAUST SYSTEM

                                                                     j—i
                                                                      La
                                   VENT    AQUEOUS
                                     |   DECREASING/
                                     I     RINSE TANK

                                   Jl
FINAL RINSE
AND DRYING
TANK



                                                                                       FILTRATION/
                                                                                       REGENERATION
                                                                                       SYSTEM :
                                                                        (HOLDING^
                                                                          TANK  J
                                                                             -RECYCLE LOOP-
                                                                                           ^To WASTE
                                                                                           TREATMENT
                                   The advantages of aqueous cleaning over TCA degreasing include:
                                      • Elimination of chlorinated chemical emissions and reduced environmental
                                         impacts;
                                      • Elimination of the need for expensive emission control equipment;
                                      • Reduction in the cost and risk of hazardous material storage and handling;
                                      • Double containment and leak detection monitoring are no longer
                                        mandatory;
                                      • Monitoring devices for volatile organic compound emissions are no longer
                                     ,   required; and
                                      • Reduced energy consumption.
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                                                                  ^^^                                   ....... !^^

    Disadvantages of implementing aqueous degreasing include:
       • Additional processing steps compared to cleaning with TCA;
       • Additional, operator time and expertise;
       • Additional floor space and equipment to properly clean, rinse, and dry the
         components; and
       • Support equipment necessary to prepare and recycle rinse water.

      " LMSC is pleased with its conversion from solvent clegreasing to aqueous
degreasing.  This  process change provided the company with a solution for
addressing its concerns regarding solvent use and occupational safety and health.
Lockheed representatives also state that aqueous cleaning has led to a high degree
of customer satisfaction due to improved product quality, reduced operating costs,
reduced  potential for environmental, health, and safety regulatory non-compli-
ance, arid improved overall work-area cleanliness.

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Project #2: Eliminating solvent usage from printed circuit board coating
            operations
   ,         .              •              -•.;•'•             .
      : As part of Lockheed's continuous effort to eliminate environmental emis-
sions, Lockheed Aircraft Services.Company (LAS), headquartered in Ontario,
California, implemented a "zero emissions" technique for coating printed circuit
boards used in flight data recorders.

       Printed circuit boards installed in applications where they may be exposed
to contamination or moisture are often coated with a protective layer to prevent
damage.  These coatings are referred to as conformal  coatings. Historically, LAS
spra'yed circuit boards with a methyl methacrylate adhesive coating containing
toluene and dimethylbenzene. This coating formulation produced volatile organ-
ic compound (VOC) emissions of 660 grams/liter of  coating. After applying the
coating to the circuit boards, the spray gun and support equipment required clean-
ing with a solvent containing xylerie.

       The  solvent-based coating process previously used by  LAS required a
labor-intensive 24-hour processing cycle per board. During the process, an aver-
age of 10 percent of the boards had to be reworked because of drip marks or insuf-
ficient coating thicknesses.

       To aid in their search for an alternative to toluene and xylene, LAS teamed
with Southern California Edison's Clean Air  Technologies Program.  Working
together, Lockheed and Southern California Edison sought a coating that would
reduce solvent emissions, reduce costs, and improve productivity. The research
team identified an innovative technology using solvent-free conformal coating
cured with ultraviolet light,  and in 1993 LAS adopted this process.

       In the UV-cure conformal coating process, the coating is sprayed on one
side of the print-
ed  circuit board
inside  a  spray
booth. The  coat-
ed board  is then
placed  on  the
conveyor  belt of
the curing system
(pictured      in
Exhibit  9)  for
exposure  to UV
light." After pass-
ing through the
instrument,   the
board  is  turned
over,   and   the
process is repeat-
ed.   The whole
Working together,
Lockheed and
Southern California
Edison developed
a coating that elimi-
nated solvent
emissions, reduced
costs, and improved
productivity.
 Exhibits
 The Ultraviolet Curing
 System
              33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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     cure coating
        oe superi-
;	BFfo	$ie soivent-
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   based process.
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                                               minutes,  which saves almost 24-hours compared
                   with the previously used solvent-based coating process.

                       Advantages offered by the UV-cure coating process include:
                           • Improved product quality;
                           • Lowered material costs;
                           • Reduced per-board cycle process time;
                           • No reworking of boards necessary;
                           f Zero, emissions of 'pollutants into the atmosphere; and
                           • Rapid return on investment.
                               ...........    " ...............   ' .           '              . 1  '  " "   i •  i   ' , '
                       Limitations of the UV-cure coating process include:
                            The size of the UV equipment limits the height and size of circuit boards;
                            Workers must -wear protective gloves.
                                                 ' ' "    • •      1
                                                                          wii*11!! :
                           The UV-cure conformal coating is a 100 percent solids material consist-
                    ing of a single component UV-sensitive polymeric coating, Dymax Multi-Cure
                    984-LVF.  This polymer is specifically formulated for rapid curing at room tem-
                    perature when exposed to  long- wave (320-380 nanometer) UV light.
       LAS considers the new technique to be superior to the  solvent-based
process.  The UV system produces a more uniform coating with no "drip marks,
fpd the coating requires no rework.  After spr'ayfrig,"the applicator requires no
cleaning, minimizing time and costs associated with cleanup activities.  Also, the
UV system uses one-fourth of the raw materials required by solvent-based coat-
ing operations, and any residual spray material can be recovered and reused. The
UV conformal coating meets Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) specifica-
tions for protective coatings and is approved for use by the U.S. Air Force.
                                                       	I11'11-	'	!-	 '	
                           By adopting the new process, LAS has increased the plant's circuit board
                    production potential" while "entirely eliminating toxic air emissions.  In addition,
                    '^"^j^g'fgQp' |.p the new process requires" mmimaT'training and reduces the time
                    liriployees spend on each part.

                           Initial capital expenditure costs for the UV-cure coating equipment were
                    $16,260.  LAS  environmental personnel estimated that substituting the UV-cure
                    process for the  previously used solvent- based coating process would provide an
                    annual cost savings of more than $560,000.  The company initially estimated a
                    payback period of two to three months based on  historical production levels.
                    .ijowe'ver, ffie day after"the ijy^-y^g sy'stem" was" installed LAS received an
                    pnusually large purchase order requiring 100 circuit boards to be coated and cured
                    |p	pn'e	3ayl	Because	of this	high	v6lume"of work, the process change paid for
                    itself in a single day, and LAS realized a $30,000 savings in the first month of the
                    UV-coating system's operation. At current'decreased production levels, cost sav-
                    ings are approximately $60,000 annually. Exhibit 10 compares the solvent-based
                    coating method with the UV-cure coating method.
                      •  ii
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                                   33/SO PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN
                                                    ni, i1	       .
                                                                         i'liUili

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           COMPARISON OF COATING TECHNIQUES

                                   SOLVENT-BASED     UV-CURE COATING

         Capital cost, of new equipment               —            $16,260
         Regulatory compliance
           - SCAQMD permit         .  .  '.       Yes        .     Exempt
           - Air scrubbing and monitoring            Yes                No

         Processing/curing time               >24 hours         5-10 minutes

         Percentage parts reworked                10-15                 0

         VOC(g/I)                      ,660                <1

         Estimated Annual Costs               $845,400            $281,160
Project #3:  Eliminating hazardous chemical use during paint stripping
             by using plastic media blasting

        One step in refurbishing aircraft is to remove old paint from components
and the airframe prior to the application of new paints and coatings.  Historically,
this process required the use of dichloromethane, a potential human carcinogen
and one of the chemicals targeted by the 33/50 Program. In 1988, LAS, LADC,
and LFWC began testing a  new paint stripping method, Plastic Media J3 lasting
(PMB), which strips paint effectively without  using hazardous liquid chemicals.
This case history covers the LAS project.

        Lockheed specialists selected this method for two reasons. First, PMB is
considered to  be  the Best Available Control  Technology (BACT) by  the
California South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD).  Using
BACT  is required under the Clean Air Act in serious nonattainment areas for par-
ticulates, a criteria air pollutant.  Second, PMB provides an economical solution
to aircraft paint stripping.
    1 i                  .                   .      r             .
        Plastic Media Blasting involves impingement of aircraft surfaces with
plastic beads. PMB equipment uses high-velocity air to project small, irregular-.
ly shaped plastic particles onto surfaces to mechanically remove paint and other
coatings. The beads, leased to LAS from US Technology (UST) in Canton, Ohio,
are usually 16 to 40 mesh in size (mesh is a sizing term relating to the number of
openings per linear inch of a network, such as a screen; the smaller the mesh size,
the larger the pellet). The lease price is $2.50/lb., which includes all packaging,
shipping, handling, and return of spent media.  The process is  similar to sand
blasting, but is more controlled due to the use of plastic media instead of sand.
The beads are hard enough to remove paint, but soft enough to prevent damage to
substrate materials.
                                                                               Exhibit 10
A Comparison Between
the Solvent-based  .,
Coating Technique and
the UV-Cure Coating
Technique
Plastic Media
Blasting involves
impingement of.
aircraft surfaces
with plastic
beads.
              33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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                                 Advantages of PMB include:
                                     • Elimination of liquid cleanup and disposal;
                                     • No personnel exposure to toxic chemicals;
                                     • Elimination of environmental hazards and liability associated
                                      •with liquid chemical stripping;
                                     • Plastic beads can be used for almost all types of paint stripping and coat
                                      ing removal operations. Beads are available in different sizes and hard
                                      r^eSs values for use in a variety of applications; and
                                     ,• Time required to strip an aircraft reduced by 50%, with a 70% savings of
                                      personnel time compared with chemical stripping.

                                 Disadvantages of PMB include:
                                     • Requirement of employee certification and training in the use of PMB and
                                      equipment operating experience in order to efficiently remove paints and
                                               .,...                    ..    ,
                                      Paint stripping facilities must be modified to accommodate the PMB
                                                and handle the dust^ generated during operation; and
                                     ,?,LEmployees required to wear personal protective clothing and ear protec-
                              W^^'l^'^'tion.         '     '   '
                                              LAS used PMB solely on small components, but extended its
                              application to different sizes and types of parts such as radomes, flight control sur-
                              Jages, nacenes, and cargo ramps.  In 1990, LAS operators stripped a complete C-
                              130 airframe in  a demonstration for the U.S. Air Force, exhibiting a personnel
                              jinje savings of nearly 70 percent, and an elapsed time span savings of 50 percent
                              compared with chemical stripping. The successful results prompted the Air Force
                              to approve the process for future PMB stripping of all C-130 aircraft at LAS.
              |;
IT
                                     The environmental, health, and safety impacts of PMB are significantly
                              less than those of chemical paint stripping.  PMB eliminated the annual use of
                              hundreds of gallons of stripper and the production of thousands of gallons of con-
                              laminated water associated with chemical stripping, all of which had to be dis-
                              posed of as hazardous wastev With PMB, the media is recaptured through the
                          *" j equipment, separated from the  contaminants, and then returned to UST.  UST
                             j transports the spent media to its facility in Canton, Ohio, where it is used as a sub-
                              stitute for calcium carbonate in the manufacture of products such as bathroom
                              sinks, countertop sinks, and shower floors. The paint waste is reduced to one 55-
                             "gallon	3"fu"m"	o'f~Sry	speint"meSia	p'er	ifi'-T^U	aircraft'" and""disposed" of as hazardous
                             AVaste.  The waste generated by PMB is significantly less than that of chemical
                              stripping, which can yield 60,000 gallons of waste liquid and five drums of waste
                              sludge per C-130 aircraft.
                                     =T-^              l             \   I h     III      IJ l»     h
                                     Lockheed estimates that conversion to PMB, based solely upon work-
                              hour decreases and product scheduling, accounts for approximately a $1 million
                              InffQal savings.  Associated hazardous waste and chemical cost savings have not
                                    uantified by the company, but would add to this amount. As a result of such
                                                                   perioH	for "the "project was less than six

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33/50 PROGRAM PROGRESS AND TRI DATA
SUMMARY

       The projects profiled here provide  notable examples of efforts made
across Lockheed Corporation to reduce toxic chemical usage. Through undertak-
ings such as these, Lockheed  surpassed its  33/50 Program commitment far in
advance of set deadlines, reporting 1,298,111 pounds of releases and transfers of
33/50 Program chemicals in 1993, compared to 5,515,435 pounds in 1988. This
represents an overall reduction of approximately 77 percent.   This reduction
included a,comple,te elimination of releases and transfers of cadmium compounds,
lead compounds,  and tetrachlorpethylene.   The other  major contributors to
Lockheed's success include the following reductions:
      bichloromethane
      Methyl Ethyl Ketone  -
      Methyl Isobutyl Ketone-
      Toluene
      1,1,1-Trichloroethane  -
      Trichloroethylene
      Xylene              -
88,085 pounds (51 percent)
115,371 pounds (.80 percent)
23,128 pounds (80 percent)
74,884 pounds (86 percent)
293,493 pounds (73 percent)
482,103 pounds (76 percent)
73,198 pounds (85 percent)
  -     Although it was not part of its stated 33/50 Program goal, Lockheed also
achieved significant reductions in releases and transfers of non-33/50 TRI chem-
icals during the period 1988 to 1993. Total non-33/50 TRI releases and transfers
were 340,378 pounds in 1993, down 986,672 pounds (66 percent) from the 1988
baseline. Exhibit 11  illustrates the reductions  in 33/50 Program and other TRI
chemical releases and transfers at Lockheed. Exhibits 12 and 13 provide a break^
down of Lockheed's 1993 releases and transfers by chemical and by media.
      •o in
      = £
      mo
      si
      sE
      « v>
                                       PI Non-33/50 Chemicals

                                         133/50 Chemicals
                                                          33/50
                                                          Goal
                   1988   1989   1990    1991 „ 1992    1993
                                                                          Exhibit 11
                                  Lockheed's Progress
                                  Toward Meeting Its
                                  33/50 Program Goals
             33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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                 Exhibit	12	

        :i;:J Chemica) "Releases an3
           ti&j&g&for
 	v	~f	i	^	F	:	t	PF	
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Report",  a Lockheed Martin publication containing information on technical
developments.  The distribution of this publication encourages implementation of
such technological progressions.

       Current efforts are focused on helping all-Lockheed Martin companies
take full advantage of process advancements in the following areas:

       • Eliminating all Class I ODCs used in manufacture and maintenance
        of products;
       • Eliminating solvents from degreasing and cleaning operations;
       • Reducing VOC/HAP use and emissions in painting operations;
    .   • Eliminating chromium and cadmium from plating,  anodizing, deoxidizing,
        primer painting, and sealant materials; and
       • Recycling of process solutions and rinse waters through electrodialysis,
        ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis.
CONTACT FOR  FURTHER INFORMATION
  For additional information on any of the infor-
  mation provided in this case study, please con-
  tact the following individual:
Stephen Evanoff, P.E., DEE, R.E.M.
Corporate Environment, Safety,
 and Health
Lockheed Martin Corporation
7921 Southpark Plaza
Suite 204
Littleton, CO  80120
TEL: (303) 971-1880
FAX: (303) 971-6065
              33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: LOCKHEED MARTIN

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