vvEPA
             United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
                Office of Pollution
                Prevention and Toxics
                7408
EPA745-K-95-OOS
November 1995
EPA's 33/50 Program
Company Profile
                 IEMIERSON
                                     > Printed on Recycled Paper

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               EPA's 33/50 PROGRAM
                COMPANY PROFILES
                               it raoMtY £m&ti€ALS y&
                               -	  BY THE 33/50 PROGRAM
                                        *  ' '  BEN2ENE   -
                                      CADMITO& COMPOUNDS
                                     ' CARBON IBTRA^HLORIPE'
                                      ; -   CHLOROFORM
                                     CHROMIUM & dOMPQDNDS
                                      ,' ;-  , CYAM&ES  "' '  ,
                                  — ' METHYL ETHYL KFTONE
                                    " MprHVL'IS0BOTYL'KElEO.N
                                  " ' lmCKEL& COMPOUNDS
                                   * Also referred io as ipethylene clitoria.es"" "
 This Company Profile is part of a series of reports
 being developed by EPA to highlight the accom-
 plishments of companies participating in the 33/50
 Program. The 33/50 Program is an EPA voluntary
 pollution reduction initiative, that promotes reduc-
 tions in direct environmental releases and of/site
 transfers of 17 high-priority toxic chemicals. The
 program derives its name from its overall goals —
 an interim goal of a 33% reduction by 1992 and
 an ultimate goal of a 50% reduction by 1995.  The
 program uses 1988 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
 reporting: as a baseline. In February, 1991, EPA
 began contacting the parent companies of TRI
 facilities that reported using 33/50 Program
. chemicals since 1988 to request their participation
 in the 33/50 Program. As of November,  1995,
 nearly 1,300 companies had elected to participate
 in the Program, pledging to reduce emissions of
 the 17 target chemicals by more than 380 million
 pounds by 1995.  Companies set their own, reduc-
 tion targets, which may vary from the Program's
 national 3.3% and 50% reduction goals.

 Industry exceeded the 33/50 Program's interim 33%
 reduction goal by more than 100 million pounds in
 1992.  National emissions of Program chemicals
 were reduced by an additional 100 million pounds
 in 1993,  bringing total reductions since 1988 to
 more than 685 million pounds (46%).  Facilities' TRI projections suggest that the Program's ultimate 50%
 reduction goal will be observed to have been achieved or exceeded in the 1994 TRI data, a full year ahead
 of schedule. The 1,300 companies enrolled in the 33/50 Program have accounted for most of the Progra-
 m's pollution reductions. Representing just15% of eligible companies and owning only a third of the facil-
 ities reporting Program chemicals to TRI, participants are responsible for 78% of the reductions since
 1988 and 98% of the  100 million pounds reduced in 1993.      '   .  ..                       .

 EPA is committed to recognizing companies for their participation in the 33/50 Program and for the
 emissions reductions they achieve.  The Program issues periodic Progress Reports, in which participat-
 ing companies are listed and highlighted. In addition, Company Profiles, such as this one, are being
 prepared to provide more detailed information about how companies have achieved their emissions
 reductions. Information presented in these profiles is drawn from a number of sources, including the
 company's written communications to the 33/50 Program, extensive interviews with company representa-
 tives, the annual TRI reports submitted by the company's facilities (including Pollution Prevention Act
 data reported to TRI in Section 8 of Form R), and, in many cases, site visits to one or more of the com-
 pany's facilities.  Mention of trade names, products,  or services in this document does not convey, and
 should not be interpreted to convey, official EPA approval, endorsement, or recommendation.

 ^Copies of other 33/50 Program Company Profiles, as well as Reductions Highlights documents
 summarizing all of these Profiles, may be obtained by contacting the Program as specified in the box
 below. In addition, all written company communications to EPA regarding the 33/50 Program are avail-
 able to the public upon request.
     -F#r information' on the 33/5Q Pr&grem,
     Program tfeffdirectfy by phone ait2B2},2&&1&9&7.vrl?y mail at Mail Code 7408,'
                                            $W,
                                                      i
33/50 PRQGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

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                                              paints with powder coating systems, and the
                                              replacement of solvent-based varnish with
                                              water reducible varnish. In addition to these
                                              projects, Emerson also projects future reduc-
                                              tions  through its "Planned Reductions
                                              Program" which targets individual Emerson
                                              facilities  based on the potential to.achieve
                                              reductions in releases and transfers of 33/50
                                              Program  chemicals. In addition, Emerson
                                              has an ongoing Audit Program to evaluate
                                              compliance activities  at facilities, and to
                                              assess  improvements that can be made to
                                              enhance waste reduction efforts.
   SUMMARY

     ~W~~*1merson Electric Co. reduced releases
  '   r~j  and transfers of 33/50 Program chem-=
    M  ^ icalsfrom 5,546,788pounds in 1988
   to 2,156,373pounds in 1993. This translates
   to a reduction of approximately 61 percent,
   which exceeded the Company's 33/50 reduc-
   tion goal of a 50 percent reduction by 1995.

   This case study provides an overview of
   Emerson's efforts  to implement  the 33/50
   Program at its facilities in the U:S. It also
   highlights the reductions achieved by  three
   projects  —  the  replacement   of 1,1,1-
   trichloroethane cleaning with aqueous ultra-
   sonic processes, replacement of solvent-based


COMPANY BACKGROUND
      Emerson Electric Co., headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, ranks among the
      world's largest industrial corporations with 270 manufacturing locations
      and 73,000. employees worldwide. Founded in 1890 as a manufacturer of
alternating current (AC) motors, the Company now manufactures and markets a wide
range of industrial and consumer products.  The Company is comprised of^approx-
imately 50 divisions which are grouped into the following eight business units, each
manufacturing and marketing a number of products:
   • Appliance Components: motors, controls, thermoprotection devices, sensors,
     and electrical heating elements for appliance manufacturers;
,   • Heating. Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Components: compressors, her-
     metic terminals, thermostats, and valves;                :
   • Fractional Horsepower Motors:  electric motors for appliances; heating,
     ventilating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment;
                                                                           EMIsRSON
          33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

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            1890 as^a
     'manufacturer of:i
 ', ;• alternating current
	r	f^^J' motors,'' 'ffie
	Company now manu-
 factures and markets
      a wide range of
   Industrial and con-
     sumer products.
      Industrial Motors and Crives: integral motors, mechanical power transmission
      equipment, and variable-speed drives;
      Industrial Components & Equipment:  ultrasonic welding and cleaning
      equipment, separating equipment, electrical products, ultrasonic non-destruc-
      tivetesting equipment, industrial and general purpose valves, precision
      carr^ index drives, heating products, and sample preparation equipment;
iii 1
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I1, Exhibit 1
Emerson Electric Co.
Organization Chart

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tation equipment;
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Whlte-Rodgers
Alco Controls
Fusito
Copeland Corporation








Leroy-Somer, Inc
Emerson Power Transmission Corp.-
Drives & Components
Emerson Power Transmission Corp.-
Bearings
U.S. Electrical Motors
Control Techniques
F.G.Wilson




Uebert-Environmental
LJebert-Power
ASTEC
Emerson Computer Power








Vermont American Corp
Emerson Builder Products
Special Products
Western Forge
Louisville Ladder
In-Sink-Erator '
S-B Power Toot Co.
, Ridge Tool Co.



Thtrm.O-Disc.Inc Emerson Motors-Appliance " Branson Ultrasonics Corp. ' Fisher Controls
Mallory Controls Emerson Motors-Hemietlc BueNer International Rosemount, Inc
Digital Appfaice Controls Emerson Motors-Specialty EL. Wteoand-lndustfial Flsher-Rosemount Systems
E.LW«gand-Appliance . SWECO, Inc Xomox Corporation
	 ! 	 ! 	 :": 	 ' ASCO/JOUCOMATIC ' Micro Motion, Inc
Appletori Electric Company Brooks Instrument
, Krautkramer Branson
Commerdal Cam Co., Inc

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Emerson's eight business units and their respective divisions are illustrated in
Exhibit 1. Emerson operates 140 facilities in the United States.  In addition, four
advanced technology research centers complement the Company's engineering
and product development facilities.  The Company sells its products in more than
180 countries and supports its customers through'a network of 3,500 engineering,
manufacturing, sales, and service locations. Today, 88 percent of Emerson products
rank number one or two_in U.S. end-markets.  Worldwide sales for the Company
in 1994 were $8.6 billion.

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ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY

       Emerson's environmental programs are specifically tailored to work within the
       Company's decentralized structure. At the Corporate level, programs are over-
       seen by the Vice President for Environmental Affairs and a staff of environ-
mental professionals who work closely with the management of Emerson's divisions
to develop and implement Emerson's environmental programs. The Company's Ethics
and Environmental  Policy Committee oversees  all of Emerson's environmental
activities. This body reports to the Public Policy Committee of the Company's Board
of Directors, which also reviews Emerson's environmental programs and projects.

Each Emerson division has appointed an environmental coordinator who oversees
the environmental activities throughout the division. In addition, each plant is required
to employ an environmental manager who is responsible for addressing the day-to-
day environmental issues at the plant. This structure provides for the establishment
and evaluation of corporate-wide environmental  programs and  policies, while
maintaining a high level of responsibility at the operating level.

The foundation of Emerson's efforts to incorporate environmental protection into
its production processes is a comprehensive, company-wide training program that
emphasizes an internal set of environmental principles. The major components of
the Company's environmental principles are summarized in Exhibit 2.

The Emerson Electric Environmental Training Program Was established in 1989.
It equips business managers with the knowledge and awareness necessary to
achieve full environmental compliance, and to identify additional opportunities to
reduce or eliminate waste. The program's focus has evolved in recent years from
addressing primarily compliance issues in 1989,  to  discussing more proactive
efforts that include pollution prevention and waste minimization in 1993. Each year,
'more than 250 employees, including environmental managers, division environmental
coordinators, and plant managers, attend program conferences held at various loca-
tions throughout the United States, Mexico, Canada, and Europe.
                        SUMMARY OF EMERSON'S
                      ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES

        Emerson is committed to avoid creating unacceptable risks to the environment. The Company's
        policy is to not only comply with all applicable laws and regulations/but also to reduce and where
        possible eliminate hazardous waste through source reduction and recycling..
        Emerson will also minimize environmental, health, and safety risks to its employees and the com-
        munities in which it operates using safe technologies, facilities and operating procedures and by
        being prepared for emergencies. The Company will conserve energy, and work to improve
        energy efficiency of its products and internal operations.
        The Company will also conduct an annual training program for its environmental managers, to address
        issues regarding relevant laws and regulations, pollution prevention, and technological developments.
        The Company's facilities will be periodically audited to determine compliance with this policy.
        As part of its environmental policy, Emerson will strongly consider and reasonably cooperate with
        government agencies in voluntary waste reduction and energy conservation programs.
 The foundation of
 Emerson's efforts to
 incorporate environ-
 mental protection
 Into its production
 processes Is a com-
 prehensive, com-
 pany-wide training
 program that empha-
 sizes an internal set
 of environmental
 principles.
                                                                                Exhibit 2
Summary of
Emerson's
Environmental
Principles
           33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE:  EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

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                                                      ..... ..... !« ..... B ..... '!:• ....... •
IT"
                       	iliiii	i	i	:
1	
           |n ^ direct effort to
        !	reduce releases and
::!:::; 'program'chemlcals'at
	!;	t.,r  i:	iiiw:^1'1 • . j»i,'  	ir*1!'
            ss, Emerson
           fac
i
    Program", to Identify
    and work with facili-
   ties which had poten-
  sx: tlsl far large reduc-
         tlons In releases and
           	transfers' of 33/50
          Program chemicals.
              ji:",:.
                              '. I
                              1'!
                              vi
        As part of Emerson's
         Environmental Audit
           Program, environ-
        mental professionals
        from an Independent
              I HI i    /
        consulting firm annu-
              aliy Inspect and
           review compliance
        activities and environ-
        mental practices of a
        signflcant number of
                      plants.
                                                                                      	;	;	-	,	i"	Hii	,	;	  i
	f!	i	:	!	"	:	"	;	!	r1}	i	i	i	i	s	i	"	:	:«	'.	:	;	:	'	:	r
  Emerson's Environmental Audit Program, initiated in 1993, is a supplement to the
  Company's Environmental Training Program. As part of this program, environmental
  professionals from an independent consulting firm annually inspect and review com-
  pliance activities and environmental practices of a significant number of plants. In
  the program's first year, 25 facilities were audited by independent environmental
  firm's", and  iri 1995'thirty^four plants' are sche'dulecrtb'be audited. The audits focus
  on current compliance practices and also assist in identifying changes in manage-
  ment practices that  will enhance waste reduction and decrease future environ-
  mental liability  or costs.  Emerson also has a surprise audit program in which
  plants to be audited are given only one day's notice before they are inspected.
  Emerson does not view this as a punitive program but rather as a learning effort in
  which problems of an environmental nature can be evaluated and rectified.
                          „:,    ..'    •..   •,  . •   ,   ::.•     . :• :  J     ,:   v    .   , .'.
  In an effort to disseminate information on both simple and complex waste mini-
  mization techniques, one of the Company's divisions — Emerson Motor Company
  - U.S. Electrical Motors — compiled a manual of suggestions to reduce and elimi-
  nate waste. The manual titled "A Common Sense Approach to Waste Minimization"
  includes 101 ideas to reduce and eliminate waste through sound process control
  methods and the replacement of toxic chemicals with less or non-toxic chemicals.

  In a, direct  effort to reduce releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals at its
  faciliSesj	ITmersori	also	d^veTopecT trie	"pTannecJ	SJeHucBpns	Program."  In this
  p'rOgrarri^ individual facilities with the potential for large reductions in releases and
  ;|fansfers"of 5^0r!^|r^"^emj:a3s"S£I^nfitied and'specific reduction goals are
  muffillyS^                                              	anH'envirbnmental	
  personnel at the facility. The facilities are also chosen based on regulatory impact,
  '.ggggg|o:g"rg3u"ctions"and"cost.' These facilities are then expepted to work rapidly to
  ^jign                                               CmLw	«	•	i,	,	 	•	:
  achieve these goals.
  'IlsiWi'ii ? i iS'Tj**,. .•:«:; i: i	; :• • r:sss>:	•' •; i Js~" % asv,i in i W^B	i* as itsi :
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   •  Environmental/Community.Programs developed at the Fisher Controls divi-
      sion in McKinney, Texas via the "Inter-Company Safety & Environmental
      Council", to-advance environmental stewardship in, the community. The plant
      also instituted an Environmental Awareness Team (E.A.T.) to communicate the
      environmental awareness message to local schools and community groups.

OVERVIEW OF 33/5O AND TRI CHEMICAL

RELEASES AND TRANSFERS

   In the 33/50 Program's base year of 1988, Emerson reported a total of 7,399,401
   pounds of releases and transfers of all TRI chemicals. Of this total, 5,546,788
   pounds, or 75 percent, were 33/50 chemicals. Emerson's releases and transfers
of 33/50 chemicals for 1988 and 1993 are presented in Exhibit 3. Additional detail
is provided in Appendices A through D. Exhibits 4 and 5 provide a graphical rep-
resentation of Emerson's 1988 releases and transfers of 33/50 chemicals by release
media and by chemical, respectively.  The following is a list of 33/50 chemicals,
their use at Emerson, and the primary release media associated with each:

   Benzene was used as a thinning agent for paints and coatings, and all releases
   of the chemical were as air emissions.

   Cadmium, compounds were used in metal plating and were present in metals
   processed in manufacturing operations, and all were transferred off-site for
   treatment/disposal.

   Chromium, chromium compounds, nickel, and nickel compounds axe, present
   in metals processed during manufacturing operations. Chromium and nickel are
   released primarily as transfers off-site for treatment/disposal and air emissions,
   with small quantities released to land and transferred to a POTW. Chromium
 /compounds and nickel compounds are primarily transferred off-site for treat-
   merit/disposal.

   Dichlorpmethane is used in solvent cleaning and paint removal applications. It
   is primarily released as air emissions, with smaller quantities transferred off-site
   for treatment/disposal or to a POTW.                          ,

   Lead and lead compounds are components of solder used in electronics man-
   ufacturing operations. Lead was released entirely as air emissions, and lead com-
   pounds were transferred off-site for treatment/disposal.

   Mercury was used in the manufacture of selected electric switches, and thermostats.
   In 1990, a small quantity, of Mercury was transferred off-site for treatment/disposal.

   Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) was used as a paint thinner and as a solvent to flush
   out systems prior to color changes.  Methyl ethyl ketone releases were primarily
   as air emissions, with small quantities transferred off-site for treatment/disposal.
Many divisions of
Emerson Electric Co.
have received awards
and recognition for
their programs and
efforts to reduce
waste and control the
releases of toxic
chemicals.
          33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

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                 EMERSON'S RELEASES AND TRANSFERS
                           OF TRI CHEMICALS
    33/50 Chemicals (1,000 Ibs.)
      Benzene*
      Cadmium Compounds*
      Chromium & Compounds
      Dichloromethane
      Lead & Compounds*
      Mercury*         ,
    .  Methyl ethyl ketone
      Nickel & Compounds
      Tetrachloroethylene
      Toluene
      1,1,1-Trichloroethane
      Trichloroethylene
      Xylene

    33/50 Subtotal**

    Other TRI Chemicals

    Total"
                                      1988
                                       NR
                                       NR
                                        10
                                       158
                                       NR
                                        0
                                        60
                                        20
                                       446
                                       343
                                      2,276
                                       695
                                      1,540

                                      5.548

                                      1,853

                                      7.401
 1993
  NR
  NR
  12
  112
  NR
  NR
  NR
   8
  182
  89
  710
  388
  655

2J56

  860

'3.016
    NR = A/of reported, use below reporting threshold
    ' Reported to TRI in one or more years between 1989 and 1992
    " Columns may not sum to total due to rounding
                                             	I!	!	
  "Tetrachloroethylene, i,l,l-trichlordeihane'(TCA), and trichloroethylene
   (TCE) are used as cleaning solvents and are released primarily as air emissions
   and transfers off-site for treatment/disposal, with small quantities transferred off-"
   site to a IPOTW.
                                                                   ,
   Toluene is used as a solvent in paint formulations, and is released primarily as
   air emissions and transfers off-site for treatment/disposal.
                                   ~i         «      i  i
   Xylene is used as a solvent in paint  formulations and as a paint thinner, and is
   released primarily as air emissions, with a small quantity transferred off-site for
   treatment/disposal.
                       i              ,                 i

I33/5O  PROGRAM GOALS AND REDUCTION

PROJECTS
      Er
      <
      i
      Imerson Electric joined the 33/50 Program in June of 1991, at which time the
      Company set a goal of reducing releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chem-
      icals 50 percent by 1995, using 1988 as a baseline.  Since 1988 total releases
and transfers of 33/50 chemicals were 5,546,788 pounds, the program goal trans-
lates to an overall reduction of 2,773,394 pounds by 1995.
The overall coordination of 33/50 Program efforts at Emerson's facilities is handled
by the Corporate Environmental Affairs staff. However, environmental coordina-
tors, including technical staff from each operating unit, were responsible for iden-
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, 33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON Ei
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              Transfers Off-site 14.53%
                                               Air Emissions 85.38%
                                         Transfers to POTW 0.08%
                              Releases to Land 0.01%
tifying areas where releases and transfers of 33/50 Rx^grarn chemicals could be reduced
and eliminated, as well as evaluating and implementing projects to achieve these reduc-
tions.  In addition, every division was encouraged to develop case study reports on
successful reduction projects.  These case studies were then distributed to other facil-
ities that might be able to implement a similar project.  This section describes three
projects that resulted in reductions of releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chem-
icals at Emerson facilities in the U.S.

Project #1: Replace  1.1.1 Trichloroethane Cleaning with Aqueous  and
Ultrasonic Cleaning

The Alco Controls plant located in St. Louis, Missouri used to employ a centralized vapor
degreaser and two small batch vapor degreasers with 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) for
cleaning operations; The products being cleaned were components and parts manufactured
for the air conditioning, refrigeration, and appliance industries.  In June  1992, as part
of an effort to reduce releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals, a team of plant
engineers evaluated alternatives for replacing existing TCA vapor degreasing equipment
with aqueous and ultrasonic cleaning systems.

After investigating a variety of aqueous cleaning systems used at other Emerson facil-
ities, the team  identified several feasible options, including spray wash and ultra-
sonic cleaning systems.  The team gathered information about aqueous cleaning
equipment from a variety of sources, including:  case study reports from other
                                                  Xylene 28%
            1,1,1-Trichloroethane 41.04%
                                                       TCE 12.54%
                                                    Toluene 6.18%

                                                  Tetrachloroethylene 8.03%
                       Chromium 0.17% '
                         Dichloromethane 2.84%   \   MEKI.08%
                          Nickel/Nickel Compounds 0.36%
                                                                                   Exhibit 4
                                                                                   Percentage Breakdown
                                                                                   of 33/50 Program
                                                                                   Chemical Releases and
                                                                                   Transfers for. 1988
                                                                                   (by Media)
                                                                                   Exhibit 5
Percentage Breakdown
of 33/50 Program
Chemicals Releases
and Transfers for 1988
(by Chemical)
           33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE:  EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

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 i!
        A team of engineers
        at the /ilco Controls
        plant evaluated alter-
        natives for replacing
        existing TCA vapor
        degreasing equip-
        ment with aqueous
        and ultrasonic clean-
        ing systems.
                                Emerson facilities, industry journals & magazines, unsolicited vendor contact, and
                                technical conferences such as the International Machine Tool Show and the Society
                                of Manufacturing Engineers Conference.
                      Tfee team of plant engineers developed a two phase implementation process for the
                      aqueous cleaning systems. The first phase included the replacement of a central-
                      ized Baron-Blakesley vapor degreaser with two new systems:  a Branson/ Delta
                      Sonics 4-Stage ultrasonic cleaning system for precision cleaning, and a Ransohoff
                      Immense-Jet spray/immersion washer for cleaning large parts.  A picture of the en-
                      tire aqueous cleaning area is shown in Exhibit 6. To ensure the best cleaning pos-
                      sible,, the team of engineers worked with the designers of Branson and Ransohoff
                      cleaning systems to customize the equipment. Both  systems were installed at Alco
                      Controls in February 1993.
                                                                              I   .    .
                      The Branson/Delta Sonics equipment is made up of a continuous conveyorized system
                      with an overhead hoist used to transfer baskets  of parts through four stages in the
                      cleaning process. The four-stage sequence includes an ultrasonic wash stage, a 4-
                      Way overflow rinse stage, a rust inhibit stage, and a drying stage.

                      Jn the wash stage, the parts are subjected to ultrasonic, agitation which cause alternating
                      patterns of low  and high pressure phases. During the low pressure phases, bubbles
                      or vacuum cavities form in the cleaning agent. In subsequent high pressure phases,
                      these bubbles implode violently, separating the contaminants from the parts. The result
                      is an intense scrubbing action that quickly and effectively cleans the parts. After the
                      parts are washed, they are transferred to a rinse stage where water is sprayed through
                      jets to rinse excess cleaner from the parts.  The clean parts are then sprayed with "flash
                      rusting" treatment in the subsequent rust inhibition stage. Finally, the parts are trans-
                      ferred by conveyor into a hot air drying oven where they remain for approximately
                      two minutes. The new system cleans one basket of parts every two  and a  half
                      minutes, or 24 baskets per hour. In comparison, the old solvent-based system cleaned
                                                                    8
\
                tt, ,4
                  33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE:  EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

                  Ill      II     I   '     III    !>' I  'III" I III I-I

-------
 40 baskets per hour. However, because of inefficiencies resulting from the age of the
 ,old equipment, many parts had to be run through the solvent degreaser several times.

 The  Ransohoff Immerso-Jet Spray/Immersion Washer is a five stage cleaning
 process comprised of a spray wash, immersion wash, spray rinse, immersion rinse,
 and hot air drying. Previous use of similar equipment at other Emerson facilities
 led the team to choose this equipment for its remaining aqueous cleaning operations.
 Parts are cleaned in the machine's single tank, in a continuous batch process with
 two baskets per cycle. Typical parts cleaned in this process include copper fittings
 and tubing, metal stampings, and screw machine parts. These parts are made from
. a variety of materials including steel, stainless steel, brass, copper, and iron.

 The cleaning agent selected for both systems was Elam LF-231, a neutral pH, biodegrad-
 able cleaner that is compatible with the new cleaning systems. As the cleaning solu-
 tion becomes contaminated, waste oil is skimmeioff the top of the solution and is recycled
 with the used cutting oils from machining operations. Metal chips washed from the parts
 are collected in chip strainers, and are sent off-site as scrap metal for recycling.

 In the second phase of Alco Controls' conversion process, a number of small batch
 vapor degreasers were replaced  with  spray cabinets manufactured by Better
 Engineering.  A total of four spray-cleaning cabinets were installed at the facility
 between April and August 1994. The two-step wash sequence of the aqueous cleaning
 system includes a spray wash stage and a  forced air drying stage. Each cleaning
 system operates as a batch process. Parts  to be washed are placed in baskets, the
 number of baskets per cycle varies depending on the type of parts to be washed. The
 different parts cleaned in this system include metal stampings, brass-forgings, and
 valve assemblies made from steel, stainless steel, brass, copper and iron. This process
 also uses Elam LF-231 as the cleaner.

 Implementing the new aqueous cleaning systems at Alco Controls required a total
 capital expenditure of $280,000 ($135,000 for the Branson/Delta Sonics system,
 $65,000 for the Ransohoff washer, and $80,000 for the Better Engineering machines).
 Exhibit 7 details the projected annual  cost savings as a result of the new aqueous
 cleaning  systems.  In fiscal year  1993, the aqueous  systems  resulted in a.cost
 savings of $79,912 compared to the  solvent systems.  In large part due to the
 rapidly increasing price of TCA, the projected cost savings for 1997 are $281,693.
 The new cleaning systems are more effective at cleaning parts and provide a com-
 parable throughput to the equipment previously used in the facility. The Alco Controls
 plant operates on three production shifts per day, but the cleaning systems operate
 only 1-2 shifts per-day.  This schedule has  remained Unchanged despite the equip-
 ment changes that have been made at the facility.

 Overall, implementation of the new cleaning processes at the Alco Controls facility
 reduced facility-wide emissions of 33/50 Program chemicals by 61 percent from 1988
 to 1993 and eliminated all use of TCA in cleaning operations as of 1994.
 Overall, implementa-
 tion of the new
 cleaning processes
 reduced facility-wide
 emissions of 33/50
 Program chemicals
 by 61 percent from
 1988 to 1993, and
 eliminated all use of
 TCA in cleaning
 operations as of
 1994.
In fiscal year 1993,
the aqueous sys-
tems resulted in a
cost savings of
$79,912 compared
to the solvent sys-
tems.
           33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

-------
	 i1 '1' i ii| 	 i 	 1 nil in
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Exhibit 7

Savings Summary
. | , ': ' ,i , '!.', , , " mi I,*1', ll

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IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIB llll 11 111 111 llll III IIIIIIIIII 111 1 1 llll 1 111 111 111 111 1 1 1 111 Illlllllllllilll 11 1 lllllllllllllllllllllllMlllllll Illllllllpl 1 IIIIIIIIII^ 1 ll|lll
*
' "
Solvent Cleaning
1.6 Chemicals
1.1 -Purchases
1.2 -Disposal •
2.0 Maintenance
. - Labor
-Parts
3.0 Regulatory
4.0 Direct Labor
5.0 Utilities
^Electricity
-Water
- Sewage
-Gas
Total Annual Cost .

Aqueous Cleaning
1.0 Chemicals
1.1 -Purchases
1.2 -Disposal
2.0 Maintenance
- Labor
-Parts
3.0 Regulatory
4.0 Direct Labor
5.0 Utilities
- Electricity
-Water 	
- Sewage
- Gas
Total Annual Cost
Base$
FY92
$32,991
9,938
6,040
7,500
13,362
22,495
1,765
20
0
1,690
$95,801
FY93
$45,524
13,125
6,040
17,500.
13,362
22,495,
1,765
20
0
1,690
$121,521

FY92*
-
„
-
-
- ,
-
FY93
$8,216
1,100
1,007
1,500
4,350
22,495
2,736
81
, 124
0
$41,609
FY94
$62,011
77,063
6;040
7,500
13,362
22,495
1,765
20
0
1,690
$191,946

FY94
$8,820
390
1,007
. 1,500
4,350-
22,495
2,736
81
124
0
$41,503
FY95
$84,198
92,363
6,040
7,500
13,362
22,495
1,765
20
0
1,690
$229,433
Ii i
i i i I
FY96
$109,628
110,723
6,040
7,500
13,362
22,495
1,765
20
0
1,690
$273,223

FY95
$9,474
465
1,007
1,500
4,350
22,495
2,736
81
124
0
$42,232
f['jfie Aqueous Cleaning systems were installed in , 199&
5 , , "' ''i ' ':",,' Jl
I*,.- 	 - 	 i 	 5,!-. 	 fi^iiiii 	 liiii.,!,! ; 	 liiriij , i i j
I V'liH I '"III1
• 	 iii^
Solvent Cleaning
Annual Costs
Aqueous Cleaning
Annual Costs
Savings
Capital Costs

Base$
FY92
$95,801
-
-
-
i i
SUMMARY
„ , 	 i,1 	 i 	 	 i 	 in
FY93
$121,521
41,609
79,912
$200,000
FY94
$191,945
41,503
150,442
$80,000
FY95
$229,433
42,232
187,201
-

33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PR
*
mil 	 in «i 	 | il
11 1 , , ill
I1
FY96
$10,181
556
1,007
1,500
• 4,350
22,495
2,736
81
" 124
0
$43,030
FY97
$139,970
132,755
6,040
7,500
13,362
22,495
1,765
20
0
1,690
$325,597

FY97
$10,946
665
1,007
1,500
4,350
22,495
• 2,736
81
124
0
$43,904
i
H ' I /
FY96
$273,223
43,030
230,193
-
"'":; 	 ll;"""": 	 : 	 l'"1 ' 	 ''"
JLU , ,
OFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.
• .-..' ,. ; |, • -'
	 I 	 	 i 	 i 	 ii 	 I..!!,:.! 	 i 	 I..! 	 ill.! 	 i 	 	 i 	 .i 	 i.
FY97
$325,597
43,904
281,693
-
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	 .I 	 	 I. 	 ) 	 ..I 	 |iii| 	 'if 	 	 | 	 l 	 I.

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 Project #2: Replacement of Solvent-Based Paints with a Powder Coating Svstem
 The Appleton Electric Company facility in Columbus, Nebraska manufactures a wide
 variety of electrical construction components including explosion-proof plugs,
 receptacles, panelboards, and lighting fixtures.  The facility used to employ a
, liquid painting process to coat the electrical construction components. The 'solvent-
 based paint traditionally used in the process contained 33/50 Program chemicals —
 toluene and xylene.                        •

 In the solvent-based painting process, parts were transported on a conveyor through
 two paiijt booths.  In the first booth, parts were painted with the primer, and in the
 second booth, the topcoat was applied using hand-held air spraying equipment. In
 addition to these two paint booths, a third booth was used when one of the other two
 booths was undergoing maintenance.  After the topcoat was applied in the second
 booth, the paint was cured in an oven, which resulted in emissions to the air of sig-
 nificant quantities of toluene and xylene. These emissions amounted to approximately
 320,000 pounds annually and were a cause of great concern for facility management.

 In 1991, Appleton Electric considered methods to reduce air emissions-of toluene
 and xylene from its painting processes.  During the evaluation process, a team of
 plant engineers gathered information about alternative paint formulations from a
 variety of sources, including case study reports, industry journals, trade maga-
 zines, paint vendors, and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Information was
 also gathered through  visits to other manufacturing plants and industries to compare
 process types and material changes. Industries visited by the engineers included a
 manufacturer of satellites, and a manufacturer of motorcycles and jet skis.

 Some of the,alternatives considered included the use of water-borne coatings,' high-
 solids paints, or powder coatings, as well as the installation of VOG incinerators. The
 engineers determined that all options except powder coatings had significant disad-
 vantages. The water-borne coatings required extended drying times and resulted in
 the release of hydrogen gas from the process, which would be potentially hazardous
 to the employees. High-solids paints cost two to three times more than the existing
 paint. The installation of VOC incinerators, costing between $800,000 and $1,200,000,
 would also significantly increase the cost of the final product.  As a result, the team
 of engineers selected a powder coating system as a viable alternative to reduce costs
 while also eliminating emissions of toluene and xylene.      «

 In the testing of the powder coating systems, eight electrical fittings were subjected
 to a paint adhesion test (ASTM:D3359) and a salt spray test (ASTMrB 117-90) for
 1,753 hours. The test results indicated that the powder-coat finish had more than
 twice the corrosion resistance,of the solvent-borne paint finish, and also surpassed
 Appleton's standard for adhesion and other physical properties.   The  powder
 coating system selected was the Nordson Powder Coating System, which was
 installed in the summer of 1992.  The system is  comprised of a spray booth, a
 filter/collector module, a feed hopper, and a series of air filters. Parts are processed
 in the spray booth where they are sprayed with the powder coating.  The powder
 is then oven-baked onto the product at 385°F. A filter/collector module positioned
 directly below the spray booth allows the powder pverspray to be collected and fil-
The new powder
coating system pro-
vides significant
quality advantages
over the solvent-
based paint system,
including improved
finish quality, dura-
bility resilience, elec-
trical insulation, and
resistance to
mechanical damage,
corrosion, impact,
and chemical action.
                                   11
           33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSO^ ELECTRIC Co.

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 II I I I    	1
lllllll	g	
 ii 11   i      System
 i j      '      '!"i'"li
iiii 11  i  1111     iiniii     i n
nil in	 i iii(ii   i  fin 11  i  n 111
*f!	'
 fij:
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Ci,!'
                        the
"*	I
-	tr	;
                  an annu
           i£'
                          —	
            Ing expenses "of
                      ''
 ,tered, after which the excess powder is returned to the feed hopper to be used again
 in the spray process. Air used to contain and recover over-sprayed powder passes
 through a series of filters and is returned to the. plant as clean air. Exhibit 8 illus-
 vllll jili, j	LII iliiliiliii .    	'	5	" ''	:™.	'r	'	*	!	»	'	'
 {rates the powder coating system.
 ilj::ix	 i      i   i ii      i  in i    i        i   li    "   in i   " , j  I    '  '   i
 Appleton Electric recycles the overspray only for the two highest volume colors used
I at the facility.  For other colors, the quantity of oversprayed powder is too small to
i be recycled. The waste powder from these colors is disposed of in a licensed indus-
* trial landfill.  Ninety-five  percent of the  overspray from the two high  volume
! colors is reclaimed and reused in the new powder coating system as compared with
l 35 percent recycling efficiency associated with the original solvent-based painting
* system. The new powder coating system also provides significant quality advan-
! tages over the solvent-based paint system, including improved finish quality, dura-
f bility, resilience, electrical insulation, and  resistance to mechanical damage,
| corrosion, impact, and chemical action.
                               The implementation of the Nordson Powder Coating System and associated equip-
                               J|^j^g^g^"^q[jj5^'^|o^r3iapital expenditure pr"$"o35,200.' However, this process
                               pEange resuJteSin^.a^y^ reduction in operating expenses of $368,057.  In
                               g|3jtibn, me plant also realized a one-time additional savings of $117,079 in mate-
                              |[Iri'aLcosts the year'foliowmjjj"impiemehlafipn''^tHe	powder coaffrig'''^'^^']!!1.	Two	
                               cpntributors to the reduction in operating expenses were the elimination of disposal
                               iiy^,«*|i!|-£-gjg~	generates by	trie solveTiF-Based' pamtirig pfo'ces's "and the elimina-
                                   of the	needTforjipplica'tion of a primer prior to" coating. A primer is no longer
                               llquired because of the increased adhesion and hardness of the powder coating. Other
                               IcslOlYings"include those associated with thinners, booth coatings, flocculent, and
                               "Sefoamers that were	required	wTSeiti" the'cbmpaniyused a liquid painting system.
                                                                           Ill   I l"  I t '  I I      I   « IN  I       V Mill
                               Overall, this project reduced releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals at
                               the Columbus facility by approximately 90 percent between 1988 and 1993, and
                               further reductions are scheduled for 1994.

                                                                   12
                                          33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.
                            I ij||^^^^^^                  ni i Inn i INI 11 i|nn i |nnn nn nniiini I nil n n n n in n n in i ill in in 11 in i q in i n  in in n|ili|i in i in n n ni|i in i i| n in 11 j 11 In I iiiininini nil n nilui n 11 in iiinini i n i ii||ln| i||ii|i |n in i in n 11 in p in
                                     	I	I
              I'll
                                                                   Mil*
                                                                                     1111(11111111


                                                                                       "I'

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Project #3: Replace Solvent-Based Varnish with Water Reducible Varnish
The Emerson Motor Companies (EMC), based in St. Louis, Missouri, manufacture
fractional horsepower motors for appliances and specialty products.  One compo-
nent of these motors, the stator core which is comprised of coiled wire, is coated
in varnish.  Varnishing the stator assembly served multiple functions including:
sealing the unitsj holding wires in place, providing insulation, and providing noise
reduction. The varnish used was xylene-based and had a volatile organic compound
(VOC) concentration of 5.0 pounds/gallon as applied. Thus, the high percentage
of xylene in the mixture resulted in high VOC emissions from the coating process.
Several of EMCs facilities have replaced the xylene-based varnish with a water-
reducible varnish.  The EMC Kennett, Missouri plant is representative of the
changes implemented company-wide.

In collaboration with P.D. George Co., a vendor of varnish systems, the team of engi-
neers at St. Louis and Kennett, Missouri tested alternative varnish systems. In the old
formulation, a xylene-based varnish is thinned or reduced with xylene to obtain the
desired consistency for application. In the new formulation, a water-reducible varnish
is used allowing the company to  use water to thin the varnish for  application.
Although the new varnish system still contains volatile organic compounds, water is
used as a thinner reducing the VOC concentration to 2.6 pounds/gallon as applied.

The facility initially had problems maintaining desired viscosity and  temperature
of the water-reducible  varnish. However, the facility solved this problem by pur-
chasing a supplementary automated viscosity control system to maintain the pH and
the viscosity of the water-reducible varnish, and by installing a heat system to main-
tain temperature stability. This ensured proper quality control and performance stan-
dards for the  new system.  No other new equipment or  process changes were
needed to implement the water-reducible varnish.

The new varnish systems were implemented a year after testing and evaluations were
done in collaboration with the vendor. Each viscosity controller costed $20,000,
and EMC installed three controllers to supplement the  new varnish systems.
Switching to a water-reducible varnish reduced VOC emissions at the Emerson Motor
.Company facility in Kennett, Missouri by 44,000 pounds per year, while saving the
facility $17,000 a year in solvent purchases.  In addition, the process change
reduced employee exposure to potentially hazardous solvents and also reduced the
Company's liability associated with storing and disposing hazardous materials.  The
water-reducible varnish also has a higher flash point than the solvent-based varnish,
which reduces the possibility of fire/explosion hazards.

The Kennett,  MO facility -of  Emerson Motor  Companies worked closely with
vendors in developing a low-solvent varnish that meets required performance spec-
ifications.  This new low-solvent varnish is currently being phased in at most
Emerson Motor Company facilities.
Switching to a water-
reducible varnish
system reduced VOC
emissions at the
Kennett, MO facility
by 44,000 Ibs. per
year, while saving the
facility $17,000 a year
in solvent purchases.
                                   13
          33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMBR^OI?' ELECTRIC Co.

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                                    CS          	Illiiliii^^^
                                    i;-!	ffr?:*^	:	'!	!	L;	w	"	;^7?r^	:	^w*Tir.	:	"!;	i;1!'*

                !	^Exhibit	
                                                                                 Non 33/50 Chemicals

                                                                               133/50 Chemicals
!	•	Emerson s Progress	
     7&)i'a#fc Meeting	
             :	I:	55/50 Goals
                •iiii'i ' ""i	,'".; „.  i. "'in!
                                                          1988    1989    1990    1991     1992     1993
                                                    33/50 Goal: 50% Reduction In releases and transfers of 33/50 chemicals by 1995
f
S,},,;;
f	
          	;	I;	:
                Exhibit IP''
                If'' '•  '""'I'\
               NNNii|||i|a|nNig—iiigininni|i-n-iii|! !'! fPilllllllli
        ''';' ,, Percentage Break
                          ancf:i, _
                tscs'jor 199$,
                    Chenricall
f:	:":'"
ij	;	
                                 33/5O PROGRESS

                                        Emerson was successful in reaching the 33/50 Program's  1992 goal of a 33
                                        percent reduction in releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chemicals one
                                        year ahead of schedule, and as of the end of 1993 had achieved a 61 percent
                                 reduction.  Exhibit 9 illustrates the Company's reductions from 1988 to  1993,
                                 while Exhibits 10 and 11 show 1993 releases and transfers of 33/50 Program chem-
                                 icals by chemical and  release media, respectively.  The major contributors to
                                 Emerson's success include the following reductions:
                            Tetrachloroethylene
                            Toluene
                            1,1,1 Trichloroethane
                            Trichloroethylene
                              ii i       i ii
                            Xylene
263,294 pounds (59 percent reduction)
254,102 pounds (74 percent reduction)
1,566,215 pounds (69 percent reduction)
307,134 pounds (44 percent reduction)
      i  ii in  11 in i     i mi (i   i  •    \
884,230 pounds (57 percent reduction)
                                                                 TCE 18.01%
                                                  1,1,1-Trichloroethane /(&£
                                                        32.93%
                                                                   "^ •
                                                                    >r-<5 :--?
                                                         Chromium &
                                                     Chromium Compound
                                                            0.56%
                                                                                         Xylene 30.40%
                                                             Dichloromethane
                                                                 5 20%      Compounds 0.35%
                                                                                 Toluene 4.11%

                                                                            Tetrachloroethylene 8.45%

                                                                    Nickel & Nickel

                          I /IliiBia1!"Hlilf'lliili'I'BIII'IIBIIilKlii;"?1 WIBfIII'FBSiP J8!"''',";V"'KD,'MJii1'11:1"1!!!!'ililii111;:!'"!1!!1'!!!. SB'Wfiife1 "iJ1,,!'i'UtI; iBiililllilllSlillltiaiWf'iH IK'^illlCllllJilllllililililllilliiilliF1'!!!!!!!!!!!!!!;1!!1,1'! fK;' !';l!l"|lill i!ni,illiilSlSliiy'Ji'i'^SllilEliuaiilH l>i<'.ttftff:'f^SS^MtX'

                          . i ..... |	  .. |.......  ill'lji 11,:' Iliilllill 
-------
Many of Emerson's facilities have found that changes in raw materials, manufac-
turing processes,.and chemical usage have not only reduced chemical releases to
the environment, and thereby diminished Emerson's potential future environmental
liability, but have also resulted in significant cost savings for the Company. Examples
of the most widespread and effective material and process changes that Emerson
implemented include the following:          ,    -   •   ,

   • The replacement of 1,1,1 -trichloroethane vapor degreasing and cold
     cleaning operations with aqueous cleaning systems.
 .  •  Installation of powder coating systems to replace solvent-based paints.
   •  Switch to water-based paints to replace solvent-based paints.
   •  Use of alternative varnish formulations that contain no 33/50 Program chemicals.
   •  Use of alternative adhesive formulations and other manufacturing mate-
      rials that do not contain 33/50 chemicals.
                                     Air Emissions 89.61%
            Transfers Off-site 10.33%
                                  /  ^Transfers to POTW 0.03%
                                 Releases to Land 0.03%
FUTURE EFFORTS

    In 1993, Emerson selected 22 facilities to participate in the Planned Reductions
    Program discussed earlier. Exhibit 12 lists the facilities included in the program
    and their progress as of the end of 1994. The total reduction goal for these 22
facilities was 1,804,000 pounds by the end of 1994 from a 1993 baseline.  By the
end of 1994, 16 facilities had achieved their goals early, four had achieved 50 percent
or more of their reduction goals, and two were expected to achieve their goals in
1995 and 1996. The facilities that had achieved their goals accounted for 1,125,000
pounds of reductions, and those that had partially achieved their goals added an addi^-
tional 346,000 pounds of reductions for a total reduction of 1,471,000 pounds, or
82 percent of the original Planned Reductions Program goal. In 1995, Emerson will
also continue its. Planned Reductions Program by selecting approximately 10 facil-
ities for which specific 33/50 chemical reduction goals will be set.
                                                                              Exhibit 11
                                                                              Percentage-
                                                                              Breakdown of
                                                                              33/50 Program
                                                                              Chemical Releases
                                                                              and Transfers for
                                                                              1993(by Media)
                                  15
          33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

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                  i	
                         CONTACT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

                         For additional information on this case study, please contact:
                            Mr. Harold Lamboley, Jr.
                            Vice President, Environmental Affairs
                            Emerson Electric Company
                            8000 W. Florissant
                            P.O. Box 4100
                            St. Louis, MO 63136-8506
                            Tel: (314) 553-3800
                            Fax:(314)553-1365
                                          Mr. Clarence Myers
                                          Manager, Environmental Affairs
                                          Emerson Electric Company
                                          8000 W. Florissant
                                          P.O. Box 4100
                                          St. Louis, MO 63136-8506
                                          Tel: (314) 553-1007
                                          Fax: (314) 553-1365
                                                        16
Ii In i Ih i i Ji ill    ill
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                                   33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.
Ililtill
                                                                                          in i n i n n 11 plni in n win i IP n mi I

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        EMERSON ELECTRIC Co;
PLANNED REDUCTIONS OF 33/50 CHEMICALS IN 1993 & 1994
Division
Appleton
ASCO
Brooks
Brooks •
Copeland
EMC
EMC
EMC
EPT
ISE
Liebert
Mallory
Mallory
T-O-D
USEM
VAC
VAC
VAC
Western
Forge
White-
Rodgers
Wiegand
Wiegand
TOTALS
Location
Columbus, NE
Parsippany, NJ
Hatfield, PA
Statesbpro, GA
Sidney, OH
Ava, MO
Kennett, MO
Rogers, AR
Maysville, KY
Racine, Wl
Columbus, OH
Frankfort, IN
Sparta, TN
Mansfield, OH
Philadelphia, MS
Lincolnton, NC
Lyndonville, VT
Ocala, FL
Colorado Springs, CO
Logansport, IN
Ogden, UT
Murfreesboro, TN

Reductions
in Pounds
1.99,800
39,000
14,300
-• : 14,100
50,700 '
100,000
60,000
28,300
14,000
225,000
189,000
56,000
184,800
192,300
124,000
82,000
53,800 .'
36,900'
56,900
12,500
56,900
13,700
1,804,000 '
Status
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Expected FY96
Achieved 50% of reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved 93% of reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Expected by June 95 '•
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved 55% of reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved reduction goal
Achieved 96% of reduction goal ' .
Achieved reduction goal.
1 ,471 ,000 pounds achieved by
end of 1994 (82% of reduction goal)
                                                        Exhibit 12
Emerson Facilities — -
"Planned Reductions
Programs" 1993-1994
                     .17
  33/50 PROGRAM COMPANY PROFILE: EMERSON ELECTRIC Co.

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