&EPA
                   United States
                   Environmental Protection
                   Agency
                  Office of Pollution
                  Prevention and Toxics
                  Washington, DC 20460
February 1995
EPA 745-R-95-003
TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY
Guidance for Reporting Toxic Chemicals within the
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Category
 1986 rpR      f thC EmerSency Plannin8 and Community Right-to-Know Act of
 1986 (EPCRA) requires certain facilities manufacturing, processing or otherwise

 Ber Wt rePrt thdr envi~tal *4- of such ScSSS
 Beginning with the 1991 reporting year, such facilities also must report pollution
 prevention and recycling data for such  chemicals, pursuant to section 6607 of the
         *"      ^Ct' 42 U-S'C 13106'  When enacted, EPCRA section 313
           H          ftOXlC ChemiCalS that Was comPed of more than 300
rh^     f    H f emf cateSries-  EPCRA secon 313(d) authorizes EPA to add
chemicals to or delete chemicals from the list, and sets forth  criteria for these actions
                                 CONTENTS
      Section 1.    Introduction  	_
            1.1    Who Must Report	  9
            1.2    Thresholds  	''.......!.!!....	  2
            1.3    Chemicals Within the Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds' Cateeoiv'  3
            1.4    De Minimis Concentrations  	           3

      Section 2.    Guidance for Reporting Chemicals within the Polycyclic Aromatic
                  Compounds Category  	                    4
            2.1    Structural Features of Chemicals within the PACs CateeorV       4
            2.2    Formation of PACs	         e  j     
            2.3    Formation of PACs from the Combustion of Fuels . . '.'.'.'.'.'.'."   6
            2.4    Formation of PACs from Major Industrial Processes	.....   7

     Section 3.    CAS Number List of Individual Chemicals within the Polycyclic
                 Aromatic Compounds Category	            14

     Section 4.   CAS Number List of Some Mixtures That Might Contain Chemicals
                 within the Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Category	   15
                                                              Recycled/Recyclable
                                                              PrintedwithSoy/Canolalnkonpaperthat
                                                              containaJleast50%iBcycledflber

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                               Section 1. Introduction

      On November 30, 1994 EPA added 286 chemicals and chemical categories which
include 39 chenTcals as part of two delineated categories, to the list of toxic chemicals
subiect to repo^g under section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community
RteM tc!K?OW Aclf of 1986 (EPCRA), 42 U.S.C. 11001.  These additions are described at
59 FR 61432, and are effective January 1, 1995 for reports due July 1, 1996. Six
chemical categories (nicotine and salts, strychnine and salts, polycyclic aromatic

                                                                               -
S?/^^5hS25qR as appropriate, interpretations  and guidance that the Agency
determines are necessary to facilitate accurate reporting for these categories  This
document constitutes such guidance for the polycyclic aromatic compounds category.

Section 1.1 Who Must Report

       A plant,  factory, or other facility is subject to the provisions of EPCRA section
313, if it meets  U three of the following criteria:

              It conducts manufacturing operations (is include in Standard Industrial
              Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39); and

              It has 10 or more full-time employees (or the equivalent 20,000 hours per
              year); and

              It manufacturers, imports, processes, or otherwise uses any of the toxic
              chemicals listed on the EPCRA section 313 list in amounts greater than the
              "threshold" quantities specified below.

  Section 1.2 Thresholds

        Thresholds are specified amounts of toxic chemicals used during the calendar year
  that trigger reporting requirements.

        If a facility manufactures or imports any of the listed toxic chemicals, the threshold

  quantity will be:

               25,000 pounds per toxic chemical or category over the calendar year.

         If a facility processes any of the listed toxic chemicals,  the threshold quantity will
  be:
               25,000 pounds per toxic chemical or category over the calendar year.

         If a facility otherwise uses any of the listed toxic chemicals (without incorporating it

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 into any product or producing it at the facility), the threshold quantity is:

              10,000 pounds per toxic chemical or category over the calendar year.

        EPCRA section 313 requires threshold determinations for chemical categories to
 be based on the total of all chemicals in the category manufactured, processed  or
 otherwise used.  For example, a facility that manufactures three members of a'chemical
 category would count the total amount of all three chemicals manufactured towards the
 manufacturing threshold for that category.  When filing reports for chemical categories
 the releases are determined in the same manner as the thresholds.  One report is filed'
 tor the category and all releases are reported on this form.

 Section 13 Chemicals Within the Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Category

       EPA is providing lists of CAS numbers and chemical names to  aid the regulated
 community in determining whether they need to report for the polycyclic aromatic
 compounds category. The first list includes  all individual chemicals within the polycyclic
 aromatic compounds category. If a facility is manufacturing, processing, or otherwise
 using a chemical which  is on this list, they must report this chemical.  The second list
 includes chemical mixtures which might contain polycyclic aromatic compounds within the
 category. If a facility is manufacturing, processing, or otherwise using a mixture which is
 on this list and contains a polycyclic aromatic compound from the first list, they must
 report the polycyclic aromatic component. However, this list is not exhaustive  If a
 facility is manufacturing, processing, or otherwise using a  mixture that contains a
 polycyclic aromatic compound from the first  list, they must report the polycyclic aromatic
 component, even if the mixture does not  appear on the second list.

 Section 1.4 De Minimis Concentrations

      The polycyclic aromatic compounds category is subject  to the 0.1 percent de
mmimis concentration with the exception of dibenzo[a,e]fluoranthene which is subject to
the one percent de mmimis concentration. Thus, mixtures that contain members of this
category m excess of the de mmimis should be factored into threshold and release
determinations.

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Section 2. Guidance for Reporting Chemicals within the Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
                                    Category

      Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are part of the broader class of chemicals
identified afpotycyclic organic matter (POM). POM generally refers to matter identified
intheurban aSPhere,usually as suspended particles, produced from the incomplete






carbons  Biphenyl, the simplest example of a biaryl compound, is included on the initial
EPCRA section 313 list. Naphthalene and anthracene, two of the simplest examples of
     ^cSS^ oompcLh,  are also included on the initial EPCRA section 313.
     nineteen individual chemicals  of the delineated polycyclic aromatic compounds
        ^STJho EPCRA section 313 list on November 30, 1994 are also examples
of condensed benzenoid compounds.

 Section 2.1 Structural Features of Chemicals within the PACs Category

       Section 3 lists the nineteen individual chemicals of the polycyclic aromatic
 compounds category added to the EPCRA section 313 list.  Of the nineteen chemicals
 teTarerelativelf staple compounds structurally in that they are composed only of fused
 benzene rings (all contain four or five rings). These ten compounds include






 benzofluoranthene isomers, dibenzo[a,e]fluoranthene, and an mdenopyrene isomer.

        PACs can contain atoms other than carbon and hydrogen that either are attached
 to a ring or are part of a ring.  Aza-arenes are the neutral nitrogen analogs of PACs  that
 contain only carbon and hydrogen.  PACs containing fused 5-membered
 nUrS^claming  rings such Is  carbazole are aromatic. PACs can also contain fused 6-
  membered nitrogen helerocycles such as acridine. Of the nineteen chemicals of the
  PAcTcSegory, Lee contain fused nitrogen heterocycles. These three compounds
  u7de two dYbenzacridine isomers and one dibenzocarbazole Corner. Nitroarene,> are
  PACs which contain one to two attached nitro groups.  One mtroarene, 1-nitropyrene, is
  included in the PACs category.

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  Section 2.2 Formation of PACs

        The pyrolysis of hydrocarbon compounds results in the formation of various
  carbon-based radical species which quickly combine to form a variety of compounds
  including polycyclic aromatic compounds. In general, PACs can be formed from any
  pyrolysis or combustion process that involves the burning of organic compounds (those
  containing carbon and hydrogen).

        Factors Affecting the Quantity of PACs Generated from Pyrolysis and Combustion
 Processes.  A number of factors influence how much polycyclic aromatic material will be
 generated from a given pyrolysis or combustion process. These include the pyrolysis or
 combustion method used, method efficiency, temperature range (or maximum),
 temperature duration, and material combusted or pyrolyzed.  The number of processes
 used for industrial and other technical purposes is enormous, and the temperature at
 which these processes operate  can vary significantly. Operating temperatures for
 industrial processes  can be roughly categorized as low (several hundred degrees Celsius),
 medium (up to 800  or 900 degrees Celsius), and high (greater that 800  or 900 degrees
 Celsius).  PACs are generated from processes operating in all three of these
 temperature ranges, however, the higher temperature processes tend to generate
 compounds that are higher in aromatic content.  Incomplete or inefficient combustion
 processes also tend to generate higher quantities of PACs.

       Both the temperature and the duration of the pyrolysis or combustion process will
 affect what types of polycyclic aromatic compounds  will be generated. Typically only the
 most structurally stable PACs (those that are angular in structure such as phenanthrene
 and chrysene,  and to a certain extent, those that have clustered structures such as
 pyrene) will be generated in appreciable quantities from high temperature or long
 duration combustion processes. PACs that are the least stable structurally (those that are
 linear in structure such as anthracene and tetracene, and those that are highly alkylated)
 may be generated initially from high temperature or long duration combustion processes,
 but if formed, will most likely equilibrate to more stable structures during these processes
 unless they are isolated or released immediately after being formed, (as  fugitive emissions,
 for example).  PACs of low structural stability are generated in more appreciable
 quantities from low temperature or short duration combustion processes.

      Non-technical Sources of PACs. Non-technical sources of PACs are those that are
 not controlled  by technological means and consist primarily of forest, brush, and grass
 fires.

      Technical Sources of PACs.  Technical sources  of PACs include those from industry
 as well as from other technological activities. Technical sources of PACs can be roughly
 divided  into several categories including fuel combustion, industrial processes, and
miscellaneous sources.

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      Listed below are several categories of technical sources that generate PACs and
several specific sources within each category. The lists include the main sources that are
known to generate PACs or are suspected of generating PACs.  The lists are by no
means exhaustive.  Future data may disclose additional sources from either current or
new technologies.

Section 23 Formation of PACs from the Combustion of Fuels

       Fuel combustion is  a major source of the energy used in the United States for
transportation and heat and power generation and is a significant source of PAC
emissions.  Sources of PAC emissions from the combustion of fuels for transportation
purposes include the following:

         gasoline powered engines (e.g. automobiles)
         diesel engines (e.g. trucks, buses, and construction equipment)
         two-cycle engines (e.g. outboard motors, and motorcycles, lawn mowers).

Key factors affecting the quantity of PAC emissions generated from the above sources
include the efficiency of the engine involved, the operating temperature of the engine,
and the fuel or fuel mixture used.  Research begun in the late 1960s and continues today
to develop more efficient  engines and fuel mixtures that generate less emissions.
Another source of PAC emissions that is associated with some forms of transportation
but is not part of the actual fuel combustion process is the generation of particulate
emissions from rubber tire wear.

       Sources of PAC emissions from the combustion of fuels for heat and power
generation include the use of following materials as fuels:

        coal
        oil
        gas
        wood.

 As in the combustion of fuels for transportation purposes, key factors affecting the
 quantity of PAC emissions generated from the combustion of fuels for heat and power
 generation include the efficiency of the combustion unit and the operating temperature
 of the unit. Unit type and combustion temperature can vary significantly depending on
 which material is used as the fuel.  For each material that is used, unit type and
 temperature will also vary significantly depending on whether the heat or  power
 generated is for industrial, municipal, or residential purposes.

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  Section 2.4 Formation of PACs from Major Industrial Processes

        Several industrial processes are know to or are suspected of generating significant
  quantities of PACs.  Industrial sources of PACs include processes involved in the
  manufacture of the following materials:

          synthetic fuels from coal processing operations
          synthetic fuels from petroleum refining
          synthetic fuels from feedstocks other than coal and petroleum.
          products other than fuels from coal and petroleum feedstocks

 The intent of most coal processing and petroleum refining operations is the conversion of
 crude fossil fuels into synthetic fuels of higher commercial value.  In addition to coal and
 petroleum, several other natural substances as well as a few synthetic materials are used
 minimally in the manufacture of synthetic fuels (or are currently being investigated for
 this purpose).  Subsequent processing of by-products obtained from the manufacture of
 synthetic fuels (particularly those manufactured from coal and petroleum) results in a
 variety of non-fuel products.

       PACs may be generated as emissions (usually particulate) from industrial
 processes or may be contained  in the intended commercial product or by-products
 Process type and temperature are key factors affecting the quantity of PACs generated
 In addition,  PACs may be present in significant quantities in the crude feedstocks
 (particularly crude petroleum feedstocks) used in these industrial processes.

       Manufacture of Synthetic Fuels from Coal Processing Operations.  Although the
 majority of the  coal mined in the  United States is used directly as a fuel, a significant
 quantity is processed into refined  solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Mined coal and  coal
 dust are natural sources of PACs, however, PACs are known to be generated from
 several coal  processing operations and are suspected of being generated from others.
 Because of the potentially significant variations in the many factors involved in coal
 processing operations (such as source of coal, process design, unit efficiency, and process
 conditions including temperature and pressure), most processing operations should be
 considered possible sources of PACs unless data clearly shows otherwise.

       More than 100 specific coal processing operations have been developed  These
 processes can be roughly categorized into four major areas: thermal decomposition,
 hydrogenation, gasification, and  extraction.  Of the major coal processing operations
 developed, the thermal decomposition method (including carbonization or pyrolysis) is
 the process that is most likely to generate significant quantities of FACs. Carbonization
 is used in  the manufacture of coke, a fuel and reductant used in blast furnaces in the iron
 and steel industry. By-products  from carbonization are typically gaseous in form and can
be a significant source of fugitive PAC emissions.  Condensation and rigorous scrubbing
of these gaseous by-products results in the recovery of several mixtures of materials that
include coal tars, light oils, ammonia liquor, and gases. The light oils generated from the

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carbonization process typically contain monocyclic aromatics and crude naphthalene and
may contain small amounts of low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic compounds. The
majority of the PACs generated from coal carbonization are contained in the coal tar
product.  Other major components in coal tars include phenolics and paraffins.

      The carbonization process generally involves destructive distillation of coal in a
coke oven operating at high temperatures (900-1400C).  The mechanism of coal
decomposition is a complex process that is believed to occur via several stages.  The
initial stage of decomposition occurs at temperatures between 450 and 500 C.  It is m
this temperature range that the radical species that eventually combine to form PACs are
generated.  As heating continues, a partially polymerized tar is formed.  This
intermediate material formed during the manufacture of coke is a complex mixture ol
hundreds of hydrocarbon species including PACs with 3 to 8 or more condensed aromatic
rings and an average molecular weight of approximately 300. During the last stage of
coal carbonization, the highly polymerized aromatic components that constitute coke  are
formed (the molecular weights of these components are typically greater than 3000).

       Medium temperature (700-900C) and low temperature  (up to 700C)
carbonization processes, currently not nearly as  common in the United States as the high
temperature process, yield different ratios of solid, liquid, and gaseous products. The
high temperature process typically produces the highest yield of coke and the lowest  yield
of coal tar. The relative ratio of the components that constitute the coal tars produced
by each process will also vary with temperature. The low temperature process typically
produces a tar (low temperature tar) that is highest in paraffin and phenolic content
whereas the high temperature process typically  yields a tar (high temperature or coke
tar) that is highest in aromatic content.

       PACs may be formed from coal gasification, however, in most first and second
generation gasification processes, the oils and tar by-products typical to coal
 carbonization processes are formed in insignificant quantities or are not  formed at all.
 One exception in coal gasification processes is the Lurgi method in which oil and tar by-
 products are  generated in addition to the intended gasification product, synthesis gas (a
 mixture of primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen). As in coal carbonization, PACs
 generated from the Lurgi method may be contained in the oils but are most likely to be
 found in the  crude tars.  Analysis of the components in Lurgi gasification oils and tars
 shows that these materials are very similar to low temperature carbonization oils and
 tars  The quantity of polycyclic aromatic material found in Lurgi gasification by-products,
 particularly the tar by-product, therefore should less than the quantity found in products
 and by-products obtained from higher temperature processes.

       PACs also may be formed from coal hydrogenation (liquification) processes,
 however, this coal processing method is currently of minimal commercial use in the
 United States. The products obtained from  coal hydrogenation include gases, coal oil,
 and residues. The intended product is an oil suitable for use as a commercial fuel.  The
 coal oil obtained from the process boils over a large temperature range (175-550 C).
                                          8

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 Distillation of coal oil into light, medium, and heavy fractions results in material that can
 be upgraded to oils suitable for commercial use as fuels.  If PACs are formed from coal
 hydrogenation, they most likely will'be found in the medium and heavy distillation
 fractions of the coal oil product and in the residues obtained from the hydrogenation.  In
 comparison to  the three carbonization processes, coal hydrogenation is roughly analogous
 to the low temperature carbonization with respect to process operating temperature.
 The maximum  temperature reached during both processes is relatively low, and the
 quantity of PACs subsequently formed therefore should be less than the quantity formed
 from higher temperature processes.

       Manufacture of Synthetic Fuels from Petroleum Refining. Crude petroleum contains
 a range of components  that include gases (natural gas is occasionally included in this
 group), liquids  (including oils and tars), and solids (asphalt and bitumen are often
 included in this group).  The components found in crude oil  are enormous in number
 and type.  Major types of compounds contained in crude oil  include paraffins, aromatic
 compounds, and, to a lesser extent, sulfur and nitrogen-containing compounds.  Almost
 every known  type of aromatic compound has been found in petroleum including PACs
 with two to seven or more condensed aromatic rings.  It has  been estimated that one-
 sixth of the components found in the crude oil distillation fraction boiling from 370 to
 535C are  PACs.

       In addition to being contained in crude petroleum, PACs are known to be
 generated from several  petroleum refining processes and are suspected of being
 generated from others.  The major refining processes are described below. Because of
 the potentially significant variations in the many factors involved in petroleum refining
 processes (such as source of crude petroleum, refinery design, unit efficiency, and process
 conditions  including temperature and pressure), most processes should be considered
 possible sources of PACs unless data clearly shows otherwise.

       The principle products obtained from petroleum refining art? transportation fuels
 and heating oils. The petroleum refining processes used to generate these products are
 enormous in number and type but can be roughly categorized into three general areas.
 Primary distillation separates  crude petroleum into  numerous fractions including light,
 medium, and heavy oils and residues.  Conversion processes (usually cracking) convert
 components in the distillates into compounds  of different molecular weight and boiling
 point.  Upgrading processes (typically  hydrotreating) further refine distillates into
 commercial products.  PACs contained in crude petroleum may be found in the medium
 to heavy oils obtained from primary distillation, but are most likely to be found in the
 residues. The residual fraction is usually vacuum distilled to remove additional oil
 fractions.  Vacuum bottoms may be used as fuel or asphalt or may be converted to coke
by thermal cracking.  Medium and heavy oil fractions typically undergo hydrocracking,
 steam cracking, or  catalytic cracking.  Petroleum tars, common by-products from
petroleum cracking, are similar to coal tars and can contain significant quantities of
PACs. After hydrotreating, final products from these cracking processes include gasoline,
diesel and jet fuel,  and heating oil.

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       Hydrocracking processes convert high molecular weight compounds to lower
boiling materials. Hydrocracking also results in a decrease in the molecular weight of
aromatic compounds (catalytic and steam cracking do not). Process conditions are
similar to hydrotreating but are generally more extreme (higher temperatures and
pressures are used). Products obtained from hydrocracking processes include diesel and
jet fuels and kerosene.  In catalytic cracking processes, heavy distillates are converted to
lower molecular weight compounds that have boiling points in the range of gasoline and
middle distillates. Process operating temperatures are in the  480-510C range.  Catalytic
cracking produces approximately half of the gasoline consumed in the United States.
Steam cracking is a thermal process used to generate olefinic compounds used in the
manufacture of petrochemicals.  Process operating temperatures are typically 800-850C.

       During catalytic processes (including hydrocracking), the catalyst used becomes
deactivated by deposition of carbon on its active sites. The catalyst is regenerated by
combustion of the deposits at temperatures in the 500-700C range. During this
regeneration process, PACs are likely to be formed in significant quantities.

       Hydrotreating improves the quality of commercial products primarily by removing
sulfur, but also by removing nitrogen, oxygen, and metals. Hydrotreating residues or
crude  petroleum will generate lower boiling materials of higher commercial value.
Catalytic hydrotreating typically results in higher selectivity and faster  reaction rates than
thermal hydrotreating.  If the feedstock used is crude petroleum or residual material, the
catalytic process is often not possible, especially if metal content is high, because of
irreversible deactivation of the catalyst. Typical operating temperatures for hydrotreating
processes are  in the 350-500C range.

       Although the general processes described above are the sources in the petroleum
industry that are most likely to generate significant quantities of PACs, other practices in
the industry may also generate PACs and should  not be excluded.  Flaring waste gas
from petroleum refineries, for example, is a possible source of PAC emissions.

       Manufacture of Synthetic Fuels from Feedstocks Other Than Coal and Petroleum. The
major industrial processes used in the United States in the manufacture of synthetic fuels
(described above) use coal and crude petroleum as feedstocks and include petroleum
cracking for the production of fuels for transportation and heat and power generation,
and coal carbonization for the production of coke for the iron and steel industry. Minor
industrial processes for converting materials other than coal and petroleum to synthetic
fuel products  have  also been developed or are currently under investigation and include
pyrolysis of the following materials:
        biomass
        oil shale
        tar sands
        wood and other cellulose-based materials
                                          10

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        scrap material
        wastes.
 Although the products obtained from pyrolysis of these materials are used primarily as
 fuels, other uses may also be possible. The processes used in the pyrolysis of these
 materials for fuels are in general more controlled that the direct combustion of these and
 similar materials as fuels. The quantity of PACs formed from these processes is, as in
 the coal and petroleum processes described, dependent on the specific pyrolysis method
 used and the operating temperature of the method.

      The pyrolysis of biomass, oil shale, and tar sands results in the formation of solid,
 liquid, and gaseous products, however, these materials currently are not utilized in the
 commercial manufacture of fuels in the United States. A variety of processing methods
 operating in a broad temperature range (450-900C) are used in the pyrolysis of biomass,
 oil shale, and tar sands and include thermal decomposition or coking and, to a lesser
 extent, hydrogenation, gasification, and extraction.  PACs may be generated from the
 pyrolysis of these materials as emissions or may be contained in the heavier liquid and
 solid products.

       The controlled pyrolysis of wood, and to a lesser extent, bag;asse, typically yields a
 solid char or charcoal and can be a source of PAC emissions.  Process operating
 temperatures typically reach 500C. Wood tar is a possible by-product from both the
 combustion of wood as a fuel and the pyrolysis of wood in the manufacture of charcoal.
 Components in wood tar may include PACs.

       Products obtained from the pyrolysis of various scrap and waste materials can be
 solid, liquid, or gaseous in form and may be acceptable for direct use as fuels.or may be
 upgraded to more suitable material.  Scrap materials used include plastics and rubber.
 Waste materials are usually from municipal sources (wood, paper, and some plastics) or
 from agricultural sources (crop residues such as bagasse, rice straw  and hulls, grain stalks,
 corn cobs, and grasses). PACs may be generated from the pyrolysis of these materials as
 emissions or may be contained in the heavier liquid and solid products.

      Manufacture of Products Other Than Fuels from Coal and Petroleum Feedstocks. By-
 products generated from coal processing and petroleum refining are often used in crude
 form as a fuel at the site in which they are produced. The gaseous  by-products from the
 carbonization of coal, for example, were at one time used as a general gaseous fuel until
 the advent of natural gas.  Currently, the bulk of coke oven gas produced during
 carbonization is returned back to the coke oven  as  a fuel source or  is used for other
 industrial heating purposes within the same plant.

      By-products from the coal and petroleum industries more often are processed into
materials suitable for various commercial uses other than as fuels. Certain oil fractions
obtained from petroleum refining, for example, are further processed into  their individual
components or into simple mixtures for use as solvents or chemical  feedstocks.
                                        11

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Petrochemicals are important commercial products and include various low molecular
weight aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Light oils obtained from coal carbonization
are similarly processed but contribute minimally to the chemical feedstock market
compared to the processing of petroleum oils for the same purpose (other materials
currently under investigation as sources of chemical feedstocks include biomass, oil shale,
and tar sands). As mentioned previously, the by-products obtained from coal processing
and petroleum refining that most likely contain PACs are the medium to heavy oils,
crude tars, and residues.

       Coal tars (particularly those obtained from low temperature carbonization) and
petroleum tars are suitable for direct use only as a crude fuel.  Utilization of crude tars
for this purpose is typically not practiced in the United States.  A more common practice
is to distill tars to separate various liquid fractions from residues or pitch. Tar liquids can
be  further fractionated into components that include monocyclic aromatics such as
benzene, toluene, and xylene; hydroxyl-substituted monocyclic aromatics such as phenols,
cresols, and xylols; naphthalene; and pyridine. Pitches can be further processed for use
in asphalt roofing and road applications (described below) or as binders for electrodes
(particularly those used in aluminum smelting).  Tars and pitches are also used in wood
preservatives and in the manufacture of carbon black (described below), tar-epoxy
coatings (used primarily in marine applications such as on ships or off-shore structures),
and hydrocarbon resins (used in rubber, adhesives, inks, paints,  coatings, and flooring).

       Carbon black is used primarily in rubber reinforcement and to a lesser extent as a
colorant for inks, paints, plastics, and paper. Carbon black is generated from the partial
combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons in the gas phase. Process
operating temperatures are typically high (1200-1600C). Viscous oil and tar by-products
obtained from petroleum refining and coal coking are commonly used as feedstocks in
the manufacture of carbon black.  These feedstocks are typically high in aromatic content
and include decant oil (from petroleum cracking in gasoline production), residual
petroleum tars (from steam pyrolysis of petroleum in ethylene manufacture), and coal
tars (from coal carbonization). In addition to being likely components in several of the
feedstocks commonly used in the manufacture of carbon black, PACs may also be
generated from the partial combustion and  thermal decomposition processes.

       Although specific definitions  exist for asphalt and bitumen, the definitions can
vary, and the terms are often  used interchangeably. Asphalt is  generally defined as any
 material whose predominant constituent is bitumen. Bitumen is generally defined as a
 dark solid, semi-solid, or viscous material, natural or synthetic, that is composed primarily
 of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and includes tars and pitches.  More specific
 definitions describe asphalt as only naturally-occurring material (such as rock and lake
 asphalt; mineral content is high) and bitumen as a product from crude oil (mineral
 content is low and hydrocarbon content is high).  For the purpose of this document, the
 general definitions of asphalt  and bitumen apply.
                                          12

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      As mentioned previously, PACs are possible components in the thermally
degraded materials (including coal and petroleum tars and pitches) tbat ^ojm
used in asohalt roofing and road applications.  PACs are also generated from several
                         applications. PACs have been identified from the air-blowmg
                          to yield material with a higher softening point that is more

                              ^ Procedures used ?n the asphalt mdustry that may
generate PACs includes, for example, asphalt hot-road mixing.
                                          13

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   Section 3. CAS Number List of Individual Chemicals within the Polycyclic Aromatic
                                    Compounds Category
               pr0vidillS the following list of CAS numbers and chemical names to aid
         commuiu
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  Section 4. CAS Number List of Some Mixtures That Might Contain Chemicals within
                       the Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Category

       EPA is providing the following list of CAS numbers and chemical name*; for
mixtures which might contain polycyclic aromatic compounds within the category.  Tins
list wiU aid the regulated community in determining whether they need to report for the
Cyclic aromatif compounds category.  If a facility is manufactunng processing, or
otherwise using a mixture which is listed below and contains a polycyclic aromatic
            from the previous list of individual chemicals, they must report the polycyclic
              ponent  However, this list is not exhaustive.  If a facility is manufactunng,
   ongotherwise using a mixture that contains a polycyclic aromatic compound
from the previous list, they must report the polycyclic aromatic component even if the
mtoe does not appear on the following list.   Threshold calculations for the polycyche
a^matic compounds category should account only for the percentage of the polycychc
aromatic component(s) contained in the mixture.

        CAS definitions are available for most of the  mixtures in the following table
These definitions are provided in an appendix  with the CAS numbers and chemical
names of the mixtures.
       Listing by CAS Number of Some Mixtures That Might Contain Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds within the
                                            Category7	===
                                   =====	
                                    Mixture Name
   Aromatic hydrocarbons. C20-28, polycyclic, mixed coal-tar pitch-polystyrene pyrolysis-derivea

   Aromatic hydrocarbons, G20-28, polycyclic, mixed coal-tar pitch-polyethylene pyrolysis-derived

   Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed coal-tar pitch-polyethylene-polypropylene
   pyrolysis-derived                                                  	
    Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed arom. oil-polystyrene pyrolysis-derived

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28. polycyclic. mixed arom. oil-polyethylene pyrolysis-derived

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed arom. oil-polyethylene-polypropylene
    pyrolysis-derived	.__	
    Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, from decompn. of solvent extd. coal tar
    pitch-2,4,6-trinitrophenol-reaction products	;		

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, from decompn. of iodine-solvent extd. coal-tar pitch
    charge-transfer complexes
    Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, toluene dealkylation distn. residues

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, cyclohexanone-ext. residues

    Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, alkylnaphthalene-toluene thermal hydrodealkylation distn
    residues          	                                         	-
    Petroleum


a
ed



.




tn.

CAS Number ||
130498-29-2
101794-76-7 I
101794-75-6
101794-74-5 1
	 1|
101794-73-4
101794-72-3
101794-71-2
94113-85-6
94113-84-5
93762-97-1
68409-74-5
68333-90-4
8002-05-9 1
   1 It cannot be determined from the mixture name if a chemical from the category is actuaEy contained in the mixture.
                                                 15

-------
      Listing by CAS Number of Some Mixtures That Might Contain Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds within the
                                                    Category7
                                          Mixture Name
 Anthracene oil
 Coke (coal tar), low-temp., low-temp, gasification pitch, calcined
 Tar bases, coal, low-temp., crude
 Tar bases, coal liquefaction, heavy oil fraction
 Extracts (coal), coal tar pitch solvent
 Extracts (coal), coal tar pitch solvent, reaction products with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol
 Extracts (coal), coal tar pitch solvent, reaction products with iodine
 Extract residues (coal), liquefaction heavy acid, alk. ext.
 Extract residues (coal), naphthalene oil acid, alk. ext.
 Distillates (coal tar), low-temp., pitch
Distillates (coal tar), upper, fluorene-low
Distillates (coal tar), high-temp., heavy oils
                                                                                                        CAS Number
                                                                                                       =====
                                                                                                        90640-80-5
                                                                                                       150339-33-6
                                                                                                      
                                                                                                       141785-66-2
                                                                                                      -OHnHHNnB^Hm
                                                                                                       140203-34-5
                                                                                                   130576-63-5
                                                                                                       94113-98-1
                                                                                                       94113-97-0
                                                                                                     -^^^.^.a^
                                                                                                       94113-96-9
                                                                                                      94113-95-8
                                                                                                      140413-63-4
                                                                                                      140203-27-6
                                                                                                      ^^^-^^^^_
                                                                                                      140203-21-0
                                                                                                  140203-20-9
                                                                                                  140203-19-6
                                                                                                 91995-52-7
                                                                                                 91995-51-6
                                                                                                 91995-42-5
                                                                                                 91995-25-4
                                                                                                 90640-86-1
                                                                                                 84989-11-7
                                                                                                 84989-10-6
    Distillates (coal tar), gasification, pitch, full range
    Distillates (coal tar), gasification, heavy oils, pyrene fraction
    Distillates (coal tar), pitch, pyrene fraction
    Distillates (coal tar), pitch, heavy oils
    Distillates (coal tar), heavy oils, pyrene fraction
    Distillates (coal), liquefaction, heavy
    Distillates (coal tar), heavy oils
    Distillates (coal tar), upper, fluorene-rich	
    Distillates (coal tar), upper, fluorene-free
   Pitch, coal tar, high-temp., heat-treated
   Pitch, mixed brown-coal tar-ethylene manufg. pyrolysis oil distn.
   Pitch, brown-coal tar
   Pitch, coal tar, high-temp., secondary
   Pitch, coal gasification tar, low-temp.
   Residues, alkene-alkyne manuf. pyrolysis oil byproduct distn.
   Residues, olefin manuf. pyrolysis oil  distn.
   Residues (coal tar), pitch distn.                                                                  , M
                                                                                                  | 92061-94-4
1 It cannot be determined from the mixture name if a chemical from the category is actually contained in the mixture.
                                                                                                 121575-60-8
                                                                                                 100403-59-6
                                                                                                ^^^-^.
                                                                                                 100403-58-5
                                                                                                94114-13-3
                                                                                                ^^~~~*^-~~mm^^^
                                                                                                94114-12-2
                                                                                                93686-02-3
                                                                                                92062-01-6
                                                    16

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 Residues (coal tar), anthracene oil distn
     Listing by CAS Number of Some Mixtures That M^Contain Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds within the
 Residues (coal), coke-oven gas-polycyclic arom. hydrocarbons reaction products distn
 Aromatic hydrocarbons, oolvcvclic. automobile scrap shredder waste pyrolysis products
 Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, scrap cable pyrolysis
 Polyamides, polyester-, wastes, pyrolyzed, pyrolysis oil
  Polyamides, polyester-, wastes, pyrolyzed, pitch residue fraction
  Polyamides, polyester-, wastes, pyrolyzed, heavy oil fraction
  Hydrocarbon oils, arom., mixed with polyethylene, pyrolyzed, middle oil fraction
  Hydrocarbon oils, arom., mixed with polystyrene, pyrolyzed, middle oil fraction
  Hydrocarbon oils, arom., mixed with polyethylene and polypropylene, pyrolyzed, middle oil fraction
' It cannot be determined from the mixture name if a chemical from the category is actuaUy contained in the mixture
xmnds within the










iction
CAS Number
92061-92-2
92061-88-6
94581-00-7
90989-45-0
100801-78-3
100801-77-2
100801-75-0
101227-14-9
101227-13-8
100801-64-7
                                                          17

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 1.
3.



4.



5.



6.
                              References


 M.R. Guerin, "Energy Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons," Pofycyclic
 Hydrocarbons and Cancer, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1978, vol.  1, pages 3-
 QZt*


 J.P. Longwell, "The Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by
 Combustion," National Symposium (International) on Combustion, The  Combustion
 Institute, 1982, pages 1339-1350.


 M. Blumer, "Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Nature," Scientific American  1976
 vol. 234, pages 34-35.                                                 '     '


 Paniculate Pofycyclic Organic Matter, National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
 JL/.^., 19/2.


 A. Streitwieser & C.H. Heathcock, Introduction to Organic  Chemistry, Macmillan
 Publishing Co., Inc., New York,  1981, pages  1030-1056.


Rirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons
New York, 1980.                                                           '
                                      18

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                                    Appendix

101794-76-7 Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed coal-tar pitch-polystyrene
            pyrolysis-derived

      Definition: A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from mixed coal tar
      pitch-polystyrene pyrolysis.  Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic
      hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through
      C28 and having a softening point of 100C to 220C (212F to 428F) according to
      DIN 52025.

101794-75-6 Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed coal-tar
            pitch-polyethylene pyrolysis-derived

      Definition:  A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from mixed coal tar
      pitch-polyethylene pyrolysis. Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic
      hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through
      C28 and having a softening point of 100C to 220C (212F to 428F) according to
      DIN 52025.

101794-74-5  Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed coal-tar
             pitch-polyethylene-polypropylene pyrolysis-derived

      Definition: A  complex combination hydrocarbons obtained from mixed coal tar
      pitch-polyethylene-polypropylene pyrolysis.  Composed primarily of polycyclic
      aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20
      through C28 and having a softening point of 100C to 220C (212F to 428F)
       according to DIN 52025.

 101794-73-4  Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed arom, oil-polystyrene
             pyrolysis-derived

       Definition: A complex combination of hydrocarbons  obtained from mixed
       aromatic oil-polystyrene pyrolysis.  Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic
       hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through
       C28 and having a softening point of 30C to 140C (86F to  284F) according to
       DIN 52025.

 101794-72-3  Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed arom. oil-polyethylene
             pyrolysis-derived

       Definition: A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from mixed
       aromatic oil-polyethylene pyrolysis. Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic
       hydrocarbons  having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through
       C28 and having a softening point of 30C to 140C (86F to 284F) according to
       DIN 52025.

 101794-71-2  Aromatic hydrocarbons, C20-28, polycyclic, mixed arom.

                                         19

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              oil-polyethylene-polypropylene pyrolysis-derived

        Definition:  A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from mixed
        aromatic oil-polyethylene-propylene pyrolysis.  Composed primarily of polycyclic
        aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20
        through C28 and having a softening point of 30C to 140C (86F to 184F)
        according to DIN 52025.
 94113-85-6
 Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, from decompn. of solvent extd. coal tar
 pitch-2,4,6-trinitrophenol-reaction products
       Definition:  A complex combination of organic compounds obtained by addition of
       a picric acid solution to the solvent extract of a bituminous coal tar pitch and
       decomposition of the precipitated pitch-picric acid reaction product with bases.
       Composed primarily of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic compounds.
 94113-84-5
 Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, from decompn. of iodine-solvent extd.
 coal-tar pitch charge-transfer complexes
       Definition: A complex combination of organic compounds obtained by addition of
       iodine solution to the solvent extract of a bituminous coal tar pitch and
       decomposition of the precipitated pitch iodine reaction products.  Composed
       primarily of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic compounds.

 93762-97-1   Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, toluene dealkylation distn. residues

       Definition: A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation
       of products from the thermal hydrodealkylation of toluene. It consists
       predominantly of bi- and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as diphenyl,
       methyldiphenyl, fluorene, and phenanthrene.

 68409-74-5   Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, cyclohexanone-ext. residues

       Definition: A complex residuum from the cyclohexanone extraction of anthracene
       salts.  It consists predominantly of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as
       anthracene.
68333-90-4
Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, alkylnaphthalene-toluene thermal
hydrodealkylation distn. residues
      Definition:  The complex residuum from the distillation of products from the
      thermal hydrodealkylation of alkylnaphthalene and toluene.  It consists
      predominantly of bi- and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalenes,
      biphenyl, fluorene and phenanthrene.

8002-05-9    Petroleum

      Definition:  A complex combination of hydrocarbons. It consists predominantly of


                                        20

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      aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons.  It may also oontam smal  amounts
      of nittogen, oxygen and sulfur compounds.  This category encompasses light,
               and heavy petroleums, as well as the oils extracted from tar sands.
      shale oils and liquid coal fuels are not included in this

90640-80-5   Anthracene oil
       Definition:  A complex combination of polycyclic
       from coal tar having an approximate distillation range of
       400.degree.C (572.degree.F to 752.degree.F).  Composed pnmaiily of
       phenanthrene, anthracene and carbazole.

 141785-66-2 Tar bases, coal, low-temp., crude

       Definition:   The reaction product obtained by neutralizing the acidic extract of
       alkaSwashed low-temperature coal tar middle oil with an alkaline solution such
       a"us7oSum hydroxide, to obtain the free bases. Composed primarily of a
       complex mixture of aromatic nitrogen bases.

 140203-34-5  Tar bases, coal liquefaction, heavy oil fraction

       Definition:  The heavy oil obtained by the high pressure *ydTO^tfanrf
       bituminous coal is subjected to acid extraction and then neutralized.  The crude
       basTthus otoined contain polynuclear nitrogen aromatics such as qumolme,
       acridine, and phenanthridine.

  130576-63-5  Extracts (coal), coal tar pitch solvent

        Definition:  Solvent extract of bituminous coal tar pitch. Composed primarily of
        polycyclic  aromatic hydrocarbons.

  94113-98-1   Extracts (coal), coal tar pitch solvent, reaction products with
               2,4,6-trinitrophenol



         of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  94113-97-0   Extracts (coal), coal tar pitch solvent, reaction products with iodine

         Definition: Extract obtained by adding an iodine solution to the solvent extract of
         a SSmLous coal tar pitch.  Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic
         hydrocarbons.

   94113-96-9   Extract residues (coal), liquefaction heavy acid, alk. exit.
                                            21

-------
      from h^ I,'- T        ] [011 btamed by debasinS and dephenolating the heavy oil
      from the high pressure hydrogenation of bituminous coal  Composed primarily of
      unsubstituted and alkyl-substituted aromatic polynuclear hySrbomS "^
      partially hydrogenated and may contain heteroatoms.

94113-95-8  Extract residues (coal), naphthalene oil acid, alk. ext.


                             fl
                                          by debasinS and dephenolating the middle oil
                                            n of bituminous coal. Composed primarily
        nh       *H                      substituted and unsubstituted aromatic and
        naphthemc hydrocarbons and heterocycles as well as paraffinic hydrocarbons

  140413-63-4  Distillates (coal tar), low-temp., pitch
       o
      coal
                                               the heat treatment of low temperature
                     having an approximate distillation range of lOO.degree.C to
                     ^                            Con*osed  - a

 140203-27-6  Distillates (coal tar), upper, fluorene-low

       Definition: A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by the
       S T ^ f ^ fraCti0nal distillates from tar oil"  Jt consists of aromatic
       polycychc hydrocarbons, primarily diphenyl, dibenzofuran and acenaphthenl

 140203-21-0  Distillates (coal  tar), high-temp., heavy oils
                                   n   fraCti0nal distillation of high-temperature coal
                                dKlllation range of 280.degree.C to 450.degree.C
       rn                -degree.F).  Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear
       aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds.

140203-20-9  Distillates (coal tar), gasification, pitch, full range

       Definition:  The distillate obtained during the heat treatment of pitch obtained
       f fnr >f S381^1011 tar hav*ng an approximate distillation  range of 100 deeree C
       ^o^0^GS^'P ? 752-d*ZV' Composed priity JafoS
       and other hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds and aromatic nitrogen compounds.

140203-19-6  Distillates (coal tar), gasification, heavy oils, pyrene fraction
                                   the fractinal disti"ation of coal gasification tar
                approximate boiling range of 350.degree.C to 450.degree C
                 f t0 f2^6^66'17)-  Composed primarily of phenanthrene and
      anthracene homologs, tetranuclear aromatic hydrocarbons which may also contain
      heteroatoms, high-boiling aliphatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons "nd polynuS
                                       22

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91995-52-7   Distillates (coal tar), pitch, pyrene fraction

       Definition: The redistillate obtained from the fractional distillation of pitch
       distillate and boiling in the range of approximately SSO.degree.C to 410.degree.C
       (716.degree.F to 770.degree.F).  Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear
       aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds.

91995-51-6   Distillates (coal tar), pitch, heavy oils

       Definition:  The distillate from the  distillation of the pitch obtained from
       bituminous high temperature tar. Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear
       aromatic hydrocarbons and boiling  in the range of approximately SOO.degree.C to
       470.degree.C (572.degree.F to 878.degree.F).  The product may also contain
       heteroatoms.

91995-42-5   Distillates (coal tar), heavy oils, pyrene fraction

       Definition:  The redistillate obtained from the fractional distillation of pitch
       distillate boiling in the range of approximately SSO.degree.C to 400.degree.C
       (662.degree.F to 752.degree.F). Consists predominantly of tri- and polynuclear
       aromatics and heterocyclic hydrocarbons.

 91995-25-4   Distillates (coal), liquefaction, heavy

       Definition:  The heavy oil obtained by distillation in the range of approximately
       SOO.degree.C to SSO.degree.C (572.degree.F to 1022.degree.F)  of coal oil from the
       catalytic hydrogenation of coal and coal- derived products.  Composed primarily of
       polynuclear aromatics and naphthenes.  The product contains  sulfur, oxygen and
       nitrogen  compounds.

 90640-86-1   Distillates (coal tar), heavy  oils

       Definition: The distillate from the fractional distillation of coal tar having an
       approximate distillation range of SOO.degree.C to 400.degree.C (572.degree.F to
     ,  752.degree.F). Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
       and heterocyclic compounds.

 84989-11-7   Distillates (coal tar), upper, fluorene-rich

        Definition: A complex combination of hydrocarbons  obtained by the
        crystallization of the fractional distillates from coal tar. It consists of aromatic and
        polycyclic hydrocarbons, primarily fluorene and acenaphthene.

  84989-10-6   Distillates (coal tar), upper, fiuorene-free

        Definition:  A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by the
        crystallization of ta oil. It consists of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, primarily
        diphenyl, dibenzofuran and acenaphthene.

                                           23

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  121575-60-8 Pitch, coal tar, high-temp., heat-treated

        Definition:  The heat treated residue from the distillation of high temperature coal
        tar.  A black solid with an approximate softening point from SO.degree.C to
        180.degree.C (176.degree.F to 356.degree.F). Composed primarily of a complex
        mixture of three or more membered condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons.

  100403-59-6 Pitch, mixed brown-coal tar-ethylene manufg. pyrolysis oil distn.

        Definition: The residue from the joint distillation of brown coal tar and pyrolysis
        residual oil from ethylene plants. Composed primarily of polynuclear aromatic
        and naphthenic hydrocarbons which can be alkyl- and vinyl-substituted and can
        contain heteroatoms, paraffin hydrocarbons and high-boiling mono- and dinuclear
        phenols.  It is a black solid with a softening point of 60.deeree.C (140 desree F1
        according to  DIN 52025.                                          '     '  '

 100403-58-5  Pitch,  brown-coal tar

        Definition: The residue from the distillation of brown coal tar formed by
        carbonization up to 1250.degree.C (2282.degree.F).  Composed primarily of
        polynuclear aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons and heterocycles, paraffin
        hydrocarbons and high-boiling mono- and dinuclear phenols. It  is a black solid
       with a softening point of SO.degree.C to 120.degree.C (122.degree.F to
       248.degree.F) according to DIN 52025.

 94114-13-3    Pitch,  coal tar, high-temp., secondary

       Definition: The residue obtained during the distillation of high boiling fractions
       from bituminous coal high temperature tar and/or pitch coke oil, with a softening
       point of 140.degree. to ITO.degree.C (284.degree.F to 338.degree.F) according to
       DIN 52025. Composed primarily of tri- and polynuclear aromatic compounds
       which also contain heteroatoms.

94114-12-2   Pitch, coal gasification tar, low-temp.

       Definition:  The residue from the distillation of bituminus coal pressure
       gasification tar.  A black solid with a softening point of greater than 60.degree.C
       (140.degree.F) according to DIN 52025 and composed primarily of a complex
       mixture of polynuclear aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons that may be alkyl
       substituted and may contain heteroatoms, high boiling aliphatic hydrocarbons and
       polynuclear phenols.

93686-02-3   Residues, alkene-alkyne manuf.  pyrolysis oil byproduct distn.

       Definition:  A complex combination  of hydrocarbons obtained as a residue from
       the distillation of residual oils that are obtained by the pyrolytic recovery of
       alkenes and alkynes from mineral oil products or natural gas.  It consists
       predominantly of tri- and polynuclear aromatic and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons

                                         24

-------
      and has a softening point approximately SO.degree.C to ISO.degree.C
      (140.degree.F to 356.degree.F) according to DIN 52025.

92062-01-6   Residues, olefin manuf. pyrolysis oil distn.

      Definition-  A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained as a residue from
      Se Slation of residual oils that are obtained by the pyrolytic recovery of
      alkenes and alkynes from petroleum products or natural gas. It consists
      pSminan^f tri- and ^olynuclear aromatic and ^^^^^
      having a softening point of 20.degree.C to 60.degree.C (68.degree.F to
       140.degree.F) according to DIN 52025.

 92061-94-4   Residues (coal tar), pitch distn.

       Definition: Residue from the fractional distillation of pitch distillate boiling in the
       range of approximately  400.degree.C to 470.degree.C (752.degree.F to
       878xLgree F). Composed primarily of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and
       heterocyclic compounds.

 92061-92-2   Residues (coal tar), anthracene oil distn.

       Definition: The residue from the fraction distillation of crude anthracene boiling
       STe approximate range of 340.degree.C to 400.degree.C (644.degree F to
        752 degree.F). It consists predominantly of tri- and polynuclear aromatic and
        heterocyclic hydrocarbons.

  92061-88-6  Residues (coal), coke-oven gas-polycyclic arom. hydrocarbons reaction
              products distn.
        to 122 degree F .  The residue consists predominantly of substituted aromatic di-
        and polynuclear hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing compounds.


  94581-00-7   Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, automobile scrap shredder waste
               pyrolysis products

         Definition- Pyrolysis product obtained from the thermal treatment of the organic
         ?dSr waste arising from automobile scrap.  Composed primarily of
         mono- to tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkyl derivatives.

   90989-45-0   Aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic, scrap cable pyrolysis;

         Definition:  Fraction formed by the thermal treatment  of scrap cables at about
         700C (1292F) with extensive exclusion of air. Consists chiefly of mono- to
                                            25

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        tetranuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkyl derivatives.

  100801-78-3  Polyamides, polyester-, wastes, pyrolyzed, pyrolysis oil

        Definition: The oil obtained from the pyrolysis of textile wastes from a
        polyarmde/polyester fiber mixture at 600.degree.C to SOO.degree.C (1112.degreeF
        to 1472.degree.F). It consists predominantly of benzene and naphthalene and
        their homologs, benzonitrile and other di- and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  100801-77-2  Polyamides, polyester-, wastes, pyrolyzed, pitch residue fraction

        Definition: A residue from the distillation of textile waste pyrolysis oil.  It consists
        predominantly of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons boiling in a range above
        350.degree.C (662.degree.F).

 100801-75-0  Polyamides, polyester-, wastes, pyrolyzed, heavy oil fraction

        Definition:  A fraction from the distillation of textile waste pyrolysis oil.  It consists
        predominantly of benzonitrile, naphthalene and homologs and other di- and
        polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons boiling in the range of 200.degree C and
        350.degree.C (392.degree.F to 662.degree.F).

 101227-14-9  Hydrocarbon oils, arom.,  mixed with polyethylene, pyrolyzed, middle oil
              fraction

       Definition:  The oil obtained from the heat treatment of polyethylene with
       aromatic oils.  It consists predominantly of naphthalene and  its homologs,
       1,3-diphenylpropane and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons boiling in a
       range of approximately 200.degree.C to 400.degree.C (392.degree F to
       752.degree.F).

101227-13-8  Hydrocarbon oils, arom., mixed with polystyrene, pyrolyzed, middle oil
             fraction

       Definition:  The oil obtained from the heat treatment  of polystyrene with aromatic
       oils.  It consists predominantly of naphthalene and its homologs,
       1,3-diphenylpropane and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons boiling in a
       range of approximately 200.degree.C to 400.degree.C (392.degree F to
       752.degree.F).

100801-64-7  Hydrocarbon oils, arom., mixed with polyethylene and polypropylene
             pyrolyzed, middle oil fraction

      Definition:  The oil obtained from the heat treatment of a
      polyethylene/polypropylene mixture with aromatic oils.  It consists predominantly
      of naphthalene and its homologs, 1,3-diphenylpropane and other polynuclear
      aromatic hydrocarbons boiling in  a range of approximately 200.degree C to
      400.degree.C (392.degree.F to 752.degree.F).


                                        26

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