OPPT Annual Report
                Fiscal Year 1997


   EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) occupies a strategic position among the
Agency's offices. From this position — where past and present meet — OPPT is applying innova-
tive thinking to implement some of EPA's oldest statutory authorities and programs while creating
a synergy that will propel us toward the next generation of environmental protection. This past
year has been critical to our strategic direction with new projects, new achievements, and new
initiatives that I am proud to present in this Fiscal Year 1997 Annual Report.
   Early in the year, OPPT finalized its reorganization/reinvention plan and, in spite of the tremen-
dous energy that goes into such an effort, the Office still achieved significant programmatic goals
and did it with good spirit. We have been working very hard to improve our efficiency in perfor-
mance, often out of the necessities imposed by a declining resource base. We have invested in ad-
vanced technologies to  speed  our processes and demonstrated innovation in maintaining or in-
creasing the pace of outputs for less cost.
   Perhaps the most significant effort for the long term has been the development of a strategic
plan for OPPT. This plan, aligned with the results-based goals and objectives mandated by the
Government Performance and Results Act, will give us an excellent start toward achieving the
critical commitments we are making to the American people.
   Many of OPPT's accomplishments owe a great deal to vital, ongoing collaboration with our
counterparts in EPA's ten regional offices and our partners in the states, industry, and public inter-
est groups. These people carry out much of the "front line" environmental protection work every
day—showing that preventing pollution pays off, that investing in reduced childhood lead poison-
ing saves millions of dollars in lower health care and education costs, that safe clean-up of PCB-
contaminated sites is demanded at the local level, and that our community right-to-know advance-
ments represent just the tip of the iceberg in empowering people with information.
   OPPT's programs are multimedia in focus. Some of their effects are direct and immediately
apparent, some are integral to other programs and processes; others remain behind the scenes for
years at a time. This report illustrates that broad range of programs and impacts. In our lead pro-
gram, we are establishing the infrastructure designed to bring about environmental improvements
that will protect future generations of children. Our programs for safe chemicals and microorgan-
isms integrate many innovative concepts and applications. Our traditional functions of chemical
testing, risk assessment, and regulatory gatekeeping are being imbued with cutting-edge principles
such as pollution prevention, right-to-know, and green design, for which OPPT is recognized as a
national and international leader.
   This report to our colleagues, stakeholders, and the public provides an update on our recent
activities and helps inform the ongoing dialogue as we refine our approaches to meeting the com-
plex environmental challenges facing our nation.
                                 William H. Sanders, III, Dr. PH., P.E.
                                 Director, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics


                           FY  1997 ANNUAL REPORT

      Business Applications	10
           Environmental Cost Accounting	10
          . Small Business Development Center Pilot Projects	11
      Common Sense Initiative: Computer and Electronics Sector	12
      Environmental Justice through Pollution Prevention Grants	12
      Environmentally Preferable Purchasing	13
      Green Chemistry	:	14
      Persistent, Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBT) Initiative	15
      Pollution Prevention Incentives for States (PPIS) Grants	16
      Pollution Prevention in the Regions	17
      Voluntary Standards Network & ISO 14000 Environmental Management Standards	19

      Benzidine-Based Dyes	22
      Biotechnology	22
      Design for the Environment Program	23
           Community College Partnership	23
           Flexographic Printing	23
           Garment and Textile Care Program	24
           Printed Wiring Boards	24
      Endocrine Disrupters	24
      Exports of Chemicals	25
      International Activities	25
           Commission for Environmental Cooperation	25
          Environment Leaders' Summit	26
          Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission	26
          Harmonization with Canada	27

           Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution	28
       New Chemicals Program	28
           Significant New Use Rules, Premanufacture Notification	28
           SMART Review, ETI for Chemicals	30
       Product Stewardship	30
           Autobody Spray Paints	30
           Methyl Ethyl Ketoxime	30
       TSCA Section 4 Testing	31
           Enforceable Consent Agreements and Test Rules	31
           Harmonized Test Guidelines	33
           Master Testing List	34

       Acrylamide	35
       Acute Exposure Guidelines	36
       Asbestos	36
       Chicago Cumulative Risk Initiative	37
       Formaldehyde Exposure Testing	38
       "Human Health Indoors" Policy Initiative	38
       Lead Programs	•.	38
            Public Education and Outreach Grants	39
            Ongoing Lead Activities	39
       Mercury	42
            Mercury Task Force	42
            Mexico Monitoring Program	43
       Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)	43
       Pesticide Inerts/SAT Review	44
       Refractory Ceramic Fibers	44
       Relative Risk-Based Environmental Indicators Model	44
       Screening Information Data Sets (SIDS)	44
       TSCA Information Rules	45
            Sections 8(a) and 8(d) Information Gathering Rules	45
            Inventory Update Rule Amendments	45
            Section 8(e) CAP Submissions	46

       Children's Health Initiative	48
       Community Environmental Partnership	48
       Confidential Business Information	49
            Accountability	49
            State Access Project	49

        Consumer Labeling Initiative	50
        Customer Service Standards	50
        Electronic Access and Software Development	51
            ECOSAR Software	51
            Electronic Submission of TSCA Data	51
            Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool	51
        Facility Identification Initiative	52
        Pollution Prevention Assessment Framework	52
        Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)	52
            Facility Expansion	53
            Automated Form R	53
            1995 TRI Data	54
            Chemical Use Data — TRI Phase 3 Expansion	54
            Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers	56
            Uses of TRI Data	57
        Tribal Program	57



Cover photos: (children at computer, nature scene) Steve Delaney; (lead abatement) Georgia Tech Research Institute.


 The Year in Review

 The Environmental Protection Agency's Office
 of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) is
 pleased to present this review of our activities
 in fiscal year 1997. Employing a combination of
 regulatory and partnership efforts, and work-
 ing closely with our stakeholders, much
 progress has been made this year on better un-
 derstanding and preventing the risks from toxic
 chemicals that enter our environment. The goal
 of this report is to share what we-have learned
 with the public and to invite active participa-
 tion in our ongoing and planned programs.
    Today's environmental  challenges call for
 flexible, cooperative approaches that tap the cre-
 ativity and enthusiasm of business people, en-
 gineers, chemists, the public, regulators in fed-
 eral, state, and local governments, and even in-
 ternational governments. Acting within the leg-
 islative authorities and boundaries set by Con-
 gress, OPPT has developed a wide range of tools
 to accomplish its goals, including the traditional
 issuing of rules  and regulations as well as
 nonregulatory approaches such as partnerships,
 voluntary agreements, and information dissemi-
   This past year marked the 20th anniversary
 of the Toxic Substances Control Act, or TSCA.
 In 1976, passage of this law offered a promising
 mechanism to help us better understand chemi-
 cal risks, and to address these risks in a compre-
 hensive, multi-media framework. The purpose
 of TSCA is to ensure that the tens of thousands
 of chemicals routinely used in commerce are
used safely—that they are safe for our children,
for our workers, for the general public and for
the environment. What a tremendous vision,
and what a daunting task! Together, we have
made considerable progress in the last twenty
years, but there are many more challenges
ahead. As each new fiscal year approaches, we
search for ways to accomplish our goals more
rapidly, more efficiently, and in a way that best
meets the needs of the public.
   While we still do not have comprehensive
information about the risks of all chemicals that
are present in our environment, in many ways
TSCA has exceeded the promising expectations
which heralded its arrival. Representatives from
other countries routinely visit EPA to learn about
TSCA and how we implement the law. As envi-
ronmental awareness and sophistication in-
creases among the general public, and both in-
dustry and government become committed to
work in partnership to reduce risks, innovative
approaches to applying TSCA have become in-
creasingly possible.
  Legislative Authorities
     • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
     s Section 104(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental
       Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
  7 JB Sections 313 and 322 of the Emergency Planning and
       Community Right-to-Rnow Act (EPCRA)
     a Pollution Prevention Act
     s Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act
     • Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act
     a Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act
                                                                                  Executive Summary  | 1

                  Four Mission Areas

                  OPPTs mission statement focuses on the value-
                  added contributions that OPPT staff and its leg-
                  islative authorities can make to improve envi-
                  ronmental quality. Each of the four components
                  of OPPT's mission is discussed briefly below,
                  and amplified in the descriptions of OPPT's FY
                  1997 activities in the four chapters of this An-
                  nual Report.
                  PROMOTE POLLUTION PREVENTION: The Pol-
                  lution Prevention Act of 1990 made pollution
                  prevention national policy. This change in ap-
                  proach from end-of-pipe control to prevention
                  has focused both regulatory and nonregulatory
                  efforts on reducing waste at the source. What is
                  not created doesn't need to' be managed, de-
                  stroyed, or disposed. Source reduction includes
                  practices that conserve natural resources by re-
                  ducing or eliminating pollutants through in-
                  creased efficiency in the use of raw materials,
                  energy, water, and land. OPPT promotes pollu-
                  tion prevention through voluntary pollution re-
                  duction programs, engaging in partnerships,
providing technical assistance, funding demon-
stration projects, and incorporating cost-effec-
tive pollution prevention alternatives into regu-
lations and other initiatives.
promotes the use  of safer chemicals and pro-
cesses in all the basic operations of the indus-
trial sector. Through a combination of regula-
tory and voluntary efforts, OPPT is requiring,
motivating, and assisting industry to test chemi-
cals in advance of introducing them into the mar-
ketplace, design them at the molecular level to
be less toxic to humans and the environment,
and reengineer chemical processes to make them
safer and less wasteful.
ing pollution is central to the work of  OPPT,
large amounts of toxic chemicals are already
present in the environment from past activities.
OPPT  has developed aggressive programs to
minimize exposure to such highly toxic sub-
stances as lead, asbestos, dioxin, and polychlo-
rinated biphenyls.
                              The Mission of OPPT
                              Promote pollution prevention as a principle of first choice to encourage society to
                              care for and think about the environment in a more protective manner, preventing
                              harm before it occurs.
                              Promote the design, development, and application of safer chemicals, processes,
                              and technologies in the industrial sector of the economy.
                              Promote the reduction of risks in our homes and communities to adults and
                              children, particularly risks due to exposure, and encourage responsible risk
                              management practices throughout the life cycle of major chemicals of concern.
                              Promote public understanding of risks of chemicals and public involvement in en-
                              vironmental decision-making through the development and dissemination of in-
                              formation on toxic chemicals.
2 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 RISKS:  Individual members of the public must
 take responsibility for the integrity of the envi-
 ronment around them. To do that, the public
 must have access to information and data. OPPT
 is committed to providing understandable, ac-
 cessible, and complete information on chemical
 risks to the broadest audience possible.  OPPT
 believes that an informed public is better able
 to make responsible decisions about protecting
 itself and the environment.

 Guiding Principles of OPPT

 As OPPT  carries out each interrelated compo-
 nent of this mission, several principles guide our
 activities.  These include: 1) developing volun-
 tary partnerships; 2) working cooperatively with
 customers and interested parties to further en-
 vironmental protection; 3) protecting children
 and other vulnerable populations from environ-
 mental risks; 4) targeting solutions to specific
 situations  instead of trying to come up with a
 "one-size-fits-all" answer; and 5) reinventing
 government through regulatory flexibility and
 mand and control techniques  of environmental
 regulation have served this country well  in re-
 ducing some of the most severe environmental
 threats, today's environmental challenges and
 societal conditions also invite the use of a broad
 range of cooperative and voluntary approaches.
 OPPT and other EPA offices now engage in many
 voluntary activities with state and local govern-
 ments, the  business and environmental commu-
nities, and academia to prevent pollution and
 achieve environmental improvement.
WORKING COOPERATIVELY: In this spirit of in-
creased cooperation, OPPT has intensified ef-
forts to communicate with our customers. While
 the primary focus of OPPT was previously on
 chemical manufacturers, it is clear today that our
 customers also include environmental and la-
 bor groups, industries that process and use toxic
 chemicals, environmental justice organizations,
 other federal, state, and local governments, con-
 sumer advocacy groups, and the public at large.
 All these parties have a stake in the issues OPPT
 works on, and their input can improve the deci-
 sions EPA makes.
    OPPT is continuing efforts to promote envi-
 ronmentally preferable choices in the design,
 manufacture, and stewardship of chemicals. The
 Office is engaging in dialogue with environmen-
 tal and labor groups to ensure that their needs
 are understood and addressed. OPPT is also
 working with other government agencies to
 ensure that the federal government coordinates
 its programs, and  that states, tribes, and local
 communities have the information they need to
 make informed choices.
 PROTECTING CHILDRENy^ajssessing risk, it
 has become increasingly^ffvicl^nt that some
 populations are more vulffgiabji to the effects
 of toxic substances thajiiOtfes,,.,Children may
Jgejat Mgher^^^5iveral'reasQns,;|'heir neu-
  ologicaLand-rfeproductive svstems%te poten-
               feftBaiaassi.   J       lb|
                            : che^^S; they
   f'potentially exposed
 chemicals because of the!
 and drink they take in
 weight; and their beha
 side and putting objects
 to greater exposure.
 to reduce children's
 and has expanded thl
 parents and the public
 the traditional chejtpiGlt-by-i
 to focus on mdiviQJjil JacmtiJl>;J
 piayingfiut "^
  available to
•is expanding^?
pal approach" "
 .ole ind
                                                                                    Executive Summary  | 3

                  sectors, or the environmental problems faced by
                  an entire community, as appropriate. Though a
                  chemical approach has value in many situations,
                  focusing on facilities, industries, and communi-
                  ties allows us to tailor environmental solutions
                  to a given setting and each unique circumstance.
                  REINVENTING GOVERNMENT: Reinventing the
                  way we approach environmental protection has
                  been a high priority in OPPT. As we approach
                  the 21st century, we must find new ways to as-
                  sure a safe environment for all. OPPT's focus on
                  empowerment through expanded access to infor-
                  mation, on developing and meeting customer
                  service standards, and on community-based en-
                  vironmental  protection and environmental jus-
                  tice reflect Vice President Gore's principles of re-
                  inventing government. OPPT is also working
                  with other Agency-wide reinvention initiatives.
                  OPPT staff have helped EPA's Office of Policy,
                  Planning, and Evaluation in directing Project XL.
                  Under Project XL, companies and regulated en-
                  tities that demonstrate they can achieve superior
                  environmental results than are possible under
                  current regulatory constraints are offered regu-
                  latory flexibility. Similarly, OPPT has been highly
                  involved in the Design for the Environment pro-
                  gram and the Common Sense Initiative launched
                  by Administrator Carol Browner in order to iden-
                  tify "cleaner, cheaper and smarter"  approaches
                  to environmental protection in partnership with
                  industry, the environmental community, and oth-

                   Internal Management
                   Developments in  FY 1997
                  FY1997 saw a streamlining of OPPT's internal
                  management processes, with completion of a
                  reorganization and the first steps in a multi-year
                  strategic planning effort, described more fully
                  below. Other important management changes
include increased implementation of OPPT's
vision of the "paperless office" — a fully net-
worked office that uses electronic transmission
of data and documents to enhance its efficiency.
In addition, OPPT made new strides in setting
and meeting customer service standards to en-
sure that our customers, broadly defined, are re-
sponded to promptly, intelligently, and reason-
ably on a consistent basis. OPPT is constantly
searching for better ways to enable people to
work together, whether they are employees, in-
ternal or external customers, business partners
or stakeholders. OPPT's achievements are made
possible by the combined efforts of approxi-
mately 450 staff members at EPA Headquarters
in Washington, DC and nearly 100 staff in the
ten EPA Regional Offices.
REORGANIZATION: OPPT completed a major
internal reorganization in 1997, designed to in-
crease the efficiency and effectiveness of OPPT's
core processes.  The reorganization served to
"flatten" the organization by reducing the num-
ber of management layers between staff and se-
nior decision-makers. The new structure meets
the National Performance Review directive of
an 11 to 1  staff to management ratio. The reor-
ganization also shifted OPPT in the direction of
a "whole program" model by reorganizing ac-
cording to core program areas while maintain-
ing, for the most part, existing functional Divi-
sions. OPPT staff and employee unions  were
closely involved in the reorganization process.
that both  OPPT Headquarters and EPA's Re-
gional Office reorganizations  are complete,
OPPT has stepped up efforts to communicate
and coordinate with the EPA Regions. The Re-
gional Offices manage our grants to states and
other entities, provide outreach and technical
assistance to the regulated community, encour-
4 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 age state and local government and citizens to
 use publicly-available data collected by OPPT,
 help state and local groups build pollution pre-
 vention programs, operate PCB disposal permit
 programs, participate in many multi-media and
 community-based projects, and perform nearly
 all enforcement and compliance assistance ac-
 tivities for OPPT programs. Effective two-way
 communication has stood the Office in good
 stead for many years now. OPPT will continue
 efforts to ensure that the Office and the Regions
 are sharply focused on priority toxics concerns.
 STRATEGIC PLANNING: OPPT has been actively
 involved in internal long-range strategic planning
 for a period of time. This effort, however, has been
 formalized and expanded as a result of the
 Agency-wide effort to implement the Govern-
 ment Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of
 1993. GPRA requires federal agencies to develop
 long-range strategic plans by September 1997,
 and to prepare annual performance plans, begin-
 ning with fiscal year 1999, that will implement
 the broader strategic plan. By March 2000, GPRA
 requires agencies to present annual program per-
 formance reports to indicate their success in meet-
 ing the goals set out in their strategic plans.
    President Clinton has  observed that GPRA
 requires the federal government to "...chart a
 course for every endeavor...see how well we are
 progressing, tell the public how we are doing,
 stop the things that don't work, and never stop
 improving..." GPRAforces a change infocus from
 programmatic inputs to the achievement of re-
 sults. Over time it is anticipated that the federal
 government will conduct most of its long-range
 planning, resource allocation, and programmatic
 operations and assessment within the context of
 GPRA concepts and requirements.
   In 1997 OPPT drafted a strategic plan to
 guide the Office's operations through 2005. The
five major program objectives of OPPT's plan
are presented below. This plan has been incor-
porated into the Agency-wide strategic plan
(available on the Internet at www.epa.gov).
OPPT will continue to articulate a more detailed
and comprehensive expression of its long-range
plans to meet internal planning needs. In 1998
OPPT will share its strategic plan with a wide
array of stakeholders to help refine OPPT's ob-
jectives, strategies, and performance measures.
After a two to three month comment period, the
plan will be finalized in Summer 1998. (For more
  |O>y ^20(35, lead poisoning will be significantly reduced from ley- ;
  KS sec, jn t|e eariy ;199Qs, witH particular emphasis on children in 1
       h-risk groups.                                          ^
   WfrS&f, --.-•..-•VW,-K*=----: •••£-"-•-• V •„-;-«-•. -V -»..--,,.- -- -J	, ....,-,-„ ,.-u... ,---.,,-_.. ,  .-_, . -.-|
   *"Jy '2005, of the approximately 3,000 high-volume chemicals in ;
   -•-•---".- - ,.    ',',''.,-"-  ,..--';   _   - . _ _.  i,1   i  • ._•.'  .. i    ' .     - ;    .   |j£
       nmerce"and_the ,2,000 chemicals and 40: genetically :i
 jKengineereed microorganisms expected to enter commerce each  ',
 ^::tylar7EPA_wili significantly increase the introduction and use
 lei^i--;----.^,--;1 V^" -•- ~^-:^--^,:-?.-.--:-.-. ,- -,_.-•;•, -,	;.^ ,- ^ vr-. ,r - ..-,-_.,  -.: .:. ^ . .-: ^  ,._^ . _.' -."._g
' "j| by industry of^safer or^"greener" chemicals such that fewer than ,
  ™ 100 cases per year will need regulatory management by EPA.
 PL By 2005, reduce by 25% (from 1992 level) the quantity of toxic ':
    pollutants released, disposed of, treated, or combusted for en- •••
    ergy recovery.  Half of this reduction will be achieved through ;
    pollution prevention practices.                             -;
    By 2005, sign international agreements for import-related Prior
    Informed Consent and for both Long-Range Transboundary Air
    Pollution (LRTAP) and United Nations Environmental Program
    (UNEP) Persistent Organic Pollutants.  Harmonization of 100
    international test guidelines will be completed by the U.S.A. as
    a member of the OECD. On Pollutant Release and Transfer Reg-
    isters, the U.S.A. will make progress on harmonization with
    Canada and Mexico and will take steps  to encourage public
    right-to-know about toxic chemicals and transfers in other coun-
    By 2005, EPA will improve the ability of  the public to reduce
    exposure to specific environmental and public health risks by
    making current, accurate substance-specific information widely
    and easily accessible.
                                                                                      Executive Summary | 5

                   information, contact the Planning and Assessment
                   Branch, 202-260-6394.)
                      Also in 1997, OPPT prepared an annual per-
                   formance plan to become effective in FY1999. The
                   performance plan includes specific annual, per-
                   formance goals contributing to the realization of
                   the longer-term strategic goals. The performance
                   plan also identifies performance indicators that
                   we will use to measure results and the resources
                   required to support these activities. Since the per-
                   formance plan incorporates our budgetary needs,
                   the Congress must review and ultimately ap-
                   prove the performance plan. In each succeeding
                   year OPPT will produce a new annual perfor-
                   mance plan and update the strategic plan.

                   Highlights of
                   OPPT'sJnJtiatives &
                   Achievements in FY 1997
                         ver 100
                           at any:
                        to select E
                   most significant.
                   velop and build"
 •ams and projects underway
iven time, it is almost impos-
 idful of efforts as being the
   iy projects take time to de-
 ie involvement of stakehold-
                   ers; the developrnerlt work, although slow and
                                to Republic, may turn out to be
                                  icejseyeral years down the road.
                      Fortunately, keeping track of OPPT's activi-
                  Jties is becoming easier all the time, thanks to the
                      iaeities of the Internet. OPPT staff have been
                  ^rofkingMi'a-to.Q^se^up-to-date program in-
                   formation available to the public through vari-
                        ?F sites onthe Internet, all accessible via
                        flBIJIliiiBMIilillliBliilililiiFiM,^      -rtuflp
                       ?s home page (wkw.epigov). As an example,
                   it is now possible for Internet users to find out
                   about pollution in their neighborhood just by en-
                   tering their zip code on the Web site.
                      The following pages highlight a number of
                   the more significant activities in OPPT in FY 1997.
• New Chemicals Pollution Prevention Recognition
  Award: The first round of awards from this pro-
  gram recognized five new chemical substances
  developed with pollution prevention in mind.
• Human Health Indoors Policy Initiative: OPPT
  and EPA's Office of Air and Radiation have
  embarked on this new program to focus at-
  tention on indoor environments.
• TRI Successes: FY 1997 saw the first reports for
  the expanded list of TRI chemicals (over 600
  chemicals listed); an increase of 25% in the
  number of facilities required to submit reports
  in the future (now over 31,000); and more than
  1,500 community groups using TRI data in
  their dealings with local government and in-
• Persistent, Bioaccumulative Toxics: The new fo-
  cus on PBT chemicals is a mark of the matu-
  ration of EPA's understanding of chemicals
  and their ecological effects. PBTs will be
  added to OPPT's public information collec-
  tion strategies.
• Lead Poisoning Prevention/Awareness Grants: A
  new initiative in FY 1997 will increase aware-
  ness of  the hazards of lead-based paint and
  the need for lead poisoning prevention among
  high-risk target audiences, with a primary fo-
  cus on children at risk. Some $450,000 will be
  awarded in FY 1998.
• Consumer Labeling Initiative: FY 1997 saw the
  first label improvements announced under
  the  Consumer Labeling Initiative program,
  for pesticide product labels.
• Pollution Prevention Assessment Framework: In
  FY 1997, OPPT and EPA Region 9 developed
  this compendium  of risk assessment meth-
  ods for chemicals that have little or no haz-
  ard data or exposure data.
• 33/50 Program: The 33/50 Program marked
  its conclusion in 1997, exceeding its goal of a
6 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

   50 % toxic chemical reduction set back in 1991.
   Total quantities reported to TRI of the 17 pri-
   ority chemicals covered by the 33/50 Program
   declined 56%, from 1.5 billion pounds in 1988,
   the baseline year, to 664 million in 1995.
•  Endocrine Disruptors: The Endocrine Disrupter
   Screening and Testing Advisory Committee
   was established by EPA in October 1996 to
   advise EPA on a strategy for screening and test-
   ing chemicals, pesticides, and drinking water
   contaminants for their potential to disrupt the
   endocrine system.

H  Pollution Prevention Incentives for States: 58
   grants awarded, totaling $5 million.
•  Environmental Justice through Pollution Prevention:
   49 grants awarded, totaling $4 million.
•  P2 Information Centers: Over $1 million in grants
   awarded to nine P2 Information Centers.
•  Premanufacture Notification (PMN): EPA re-
   ceived 1,483 PMN submissions from industry
   for new chemicals in FY 1997, compared to
   1,892 in FY1996.
•  PMN Low Volume Exemption: 471 applications
   were exempted from notification require-
   ments because of low production volumes in
   FY 1997, compared to 413 in FY 1996.
H  Polymer PMN Exemption: In the second year of
   this exemption, 78 manufacturers reported us-
   ing this exemption for 210 polymers. As a re-
   sult industry realized cost savings of $5.25 mil-
   lion; EPA saved $231,000 in processing and re-
   view costs. During FY 1997 EPA also reviewed
   232 polymers that could have qualified for the
   polymer exemption if the manufacturers had
   requested it, which would have generated even
   greater saving for industry and EPA.
a  Harmonization  of Environmental Guidelines:
   Eleven health test guidelines were codified
   as final TSCA test guidelines.
   Design for the Environment, Community College
   Partnership: In FY 1997, six regional workshops
   reached more than 600 community college in-
   structors, while 18 training sessions brought out
   more than 150 automotive repair instructors.
   National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure
   Guideline Levjzls^for Hazardous Substances
   (NAC/AEGIjS>^njttee): In FY 1997, the Com-
mittee developed 176 proposed AEGLs for 17
hazardous substaWcgs^
National Lead Laboratorg^Ecredjtation.Program^  ^
Another 26 laboratoriefrw^ere^recog^^d"ItW'^
FY 1997, increasing thjjtotal number ctjae-
credited lead testing j
Pesticide Inerts: 1,1001
in pesticide f ormulat
                       jboratories to 126.
                       tigmicals used as i
                         i were
   OPPT's Structure Activ^Team irr
H  Four Corners International S^htiring-A^greement:
   Since the agreement took effect on^gril 15,
   1996, EPA has received 30 requests!
   U.S.-based companies.
m  Screening Information Data Set
   United States initiated work on 29
   under phase 6 of the SIDS program. OPPT
   peer-reviewed 10 U.S.-sponsored and 15 non-
   U.S.-sponsored Initial Assessment Reports
   and reached closure in OECD on six cases.
m  TSCA Section 4  Testing: During FY 1997, 35
   TSCA Section 4 studies on 11 chemicals were
   received by EPA and included in the elec-
   tronic database.
•  TSCA Section 8(e) Information Submissions: OPPT
   completed initial screening of 300 submissions.
a  Voluntary product stewardship agreements:
   Three agreements were finalized in FY 1997
   involving MEKO and toluidine and
   dianisidine-based dyes.

a  Acrylates: OPPT withdrew the generic aery-
   late significant new use rule (SNUR), revoked
                                                                                       Executive Summary |  7


                     SNURs for 96 acrylate substances, and re-
                     voked Section 5(e) Consent Orders for 121
                     acrylate substances.
                     Significant New Use Rule on Benzidine-Based
                     Dyes: Requires persons to notify EPA at least
                     90 days before commencing the manufacture,
                     import, or processing of dyes containing two
                     benzidine  congeners: o-toluidine and o-
                     dianisidine. ^jjfjlished October 7, 1996 (40
                     CFR Parts 2,arjd-72l)4eff ective November 20,
      •ant New Use Rules
                            al SNURs were issued
 orrrorenensive nealth effects
 ol ZH3Sn^£^r~1997}-i6
Ge '  	'"' i""A'imejr
   mm ^tj^m^ff-^ " *
DiiScyanate- CSepfember 3
       3ET lajKir-^BI^CTn..!.!1*™™
                                                      45 new
new chemi-

iting of phe-
 FR 2607).
1997; 62 FR
     'tice of MailafUlity of the 1996 version of
     I   J Jfl««*'Sfe?
     tastejlTesting-tist was published on De-
cember 13,1996 (61 FR 65936).
Final Biotechnology Rule for microbial products
of biotechnology subject to TSCA: Published
April 11,1997 (62 FR 17910-17958); effective
June 10,1997.
Final Rule on TRI Industry Expansion. Requires
seven additional industries to begin TRI re-
porting (metal mining, coal mining, coal and
oil-fired electric generating facilities, commer-
cial hazardous waste treatment and disposal
facilities, chemical and petroleum wholesale
distribution facilities, and solvent recovery
facilities). Published May  1, 1997 (62 FR
23834), effective January 1,1998.
Chemical Use Expansion of TRI: Advanced
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) pub-
lished on October 1,1996. Over 40,000 com-
  ments were received and reviewed.
• Proposed Rule to add dioxin and dioxin-like
  chemicals (PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-
  furans) to TRI. Published May 7,1997,62 FR

• EPA successfully defended in court the dou-
  bling of the number of chemicals for which TRI
  reporting is required. On August 1,1997, the
  U.S. Court of Appeals affirmed the judgment
  of the District Court which had upheld EPA's
  decision to add 286 new chemicals to the TRI
  list. The Court of Appeals remanded EPA's
  decision on only two of the 286 chemicals.
m EPA's rule of March 18,1996, which harmo-
  nized the transboundary requirements for
  PCBs with all other hazardous wastes and
  allowed for the import and disposal of PCBs
  in the United States, was overturned by the
  U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals on July
  7,1997, in Sierra Club v. EPA, 118 F. 3d 1324
  (9th Cir. 1997). The court found that EPA has
  authority to allow PCB imports, including im-
  ports for disposal, only by granting exemp-
  tion petitions.
                                                                Looking Ahead
                                                                A great deal of activity that has been long in
                                                                development will be coming to fruition over the
                                                                next year, and  another crop of exciting new
                                                                projects will just be starting up.
                                                                   We look forward to building further on the
                                                                themes sounded in this report, bringing the com-
                                                                bined strength of our communities and public
                                                                participation into the environmental arena, and
                                                                empowering people to use innovative solutions
                                                                to protect our health and the environment.
8 | Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

       The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 declared pollution prevention to be the national policy
       of the United States. Pollution prevention, also referred to as source reduction, aims both to
       conserve finite natural resources and to prevent waste and harmful substances from con-
taminating the environment. OPPT manages many programs that directly benefit companies and
communities in applying pollution prevention solutions to improve the environment. With the proper
information and cost accounting in place, pollution prevention often sells itself to corporate deci-
sion makers, saving companies money and resources. OPPT is committed to working through its
many partnership programs and through traditional regulatory activities to build an understand-
ing with industry and communities on the value of pollution prevention approaches.
   OPPT is the primary steward for advancing prevention as the guiding principle within EPA. In
this leadership role, OPPT staff work with EPA senior management, especially the Assistant Ad-
ministrator for Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, to develop and disseminate federal
pollution prevention policy. OPPT provides input to critical Agency planning and budgeting pro-
cesses, regional and state program guidance, and Agency "reinvention" initiatives. As in past years,
OPPT has helped clarify the formal definition of pollution prevention (P2), generate formal P2 po-
sition statements, and publish materials which document EPA's prevention progress.
   For example, OPPT has produced "Pollution Prevention 1997: A National Progress Report,"
which describes the advance of pollution prevention activities among industry, across government
      A Pollution
  prevention staff
   from Thurston
County, WA meets
 with local printer
    to discuss P2
                                                                      Promoting Pollution Prevention  | 9

                      National Pollution
                      Prevention Progress Report
                      Pollution Prevention 1997; A National Progress Report examines
                      successes and challenges in pollution prevention at EPA and
                      other federal agencies, in industry, among states and tribes,
                      educational institutions, communities, and the non-profit sec-
                      tor. The report updates a similar report produced six years
                      ago and documents the nation's progress in achieving and
                      measuring pollution prevention. More than twenty outside
                      authors provide guest commentaries on prevention issues.
                      The report is  available through EPA's Pollution Prevention
                      Information Clearinghouse, 202-260-1023.
A,Najt(o'nal Progra;
                            ion 1997
                            ss Report
                  at all levels, on college campuses and within communities. The report includes guest commentaries
                  from environmental experts and dozens of P2 success stories. OPPT's pollution prevention home
                  page on the Internet is EPA's primary source of online prevention information, with links to a wide
                  variety of other governmental and private prevention sources. A network of regional P2 informa-
                  tion centers will be up and running in 1998, offering centralized and easy access to high-quality P2
                  information and expertise. OPPT also coordinates EPA Headquarters' observance of Pollution Pre-
                  vention Week, held this year  on September 15-21,1997, which featured prevention program dis-
                  plays and distinguished speakers.
                     Also in 1997, EPA granted the first James W. Craig Pollution Prevention Leadership Award,
                  recognizing the outstanding efforts of Dr. Joseph J. Breen, an EPA scientist who was one of the
                  founders of the Agency's Design for the Environment and Green Chemistry programs. This annual
                  award is established in memory of Jim Craig, an OPPT manager who died suddenly of cancer in
                  1995. The award will annually acknowledge EPA staff who effect fundamental and sustained im-
                  provement in the Agency's core programs and processes through the identification and integration
                  of practical prevention solutions to environmental problems.
                     This chapter presents the accomplishments and activities undertaken by OPPT during FY1997
                  to prevent pollution.
                   Business Applications

                   With a network of more than 800 participants,
                   the Environmental Accounting Project encour-
                   ages businesses to understand the full spectrum
of their environmental costs and integrate those
costs into corporate accounting and decision-
making processes. The Project supports infor-
mation exchanges, research, training, and the de-
velopment of methods for highlighting the fi-
nancial benefits of pollution prevention. FY 1997
accomplishments include an upgrade  of
10 |  Annual Report -of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

P2\FINANCE, a software tool designed to help
companies incorporate environmental costs into
their capital budgeting decisions, and several
publications analyzing the potential for apply-
ing environmental accounting to specific indus-
tries (See Publications section at the back of this
report). Regional initiatives this past year (in
EPA Regions 1,4,5, and 10) include training for
state technical assistance providers and permit-
ters, training for certified public accountants that
work with small businesses, and environmen-
tal accounting conferences.
   In January 1997, OPPT staff began a reevalu-
ation of the Environmental Accounting Project's
strategy. Upcoming activities will include an
environmental costing handbook that  empha-
sizes activity-based costing, incorporation of
health and safety costs into Project documents
and activities, and new environmental account-
ing templates compatible  with widely-used
commercial accounting software packages. For
more information, contact Kris Pierre at 202-260-
3068, or Susan Mclaughlin at 202-260-3844.

OPPT  is conducting pilot programs with the
Vermont and  Pennsylvania Small Business De-
velopment Centers (SBDCs) to demonstrate the
value of providing prevention-oriented environ-
mental assistance to small firms in a business
development context. The national network of
nearly  1,000 SBDCs (funded jointly by the U.S.
Small Business Administration and the states)
provides business planning, accounting, and tax
compliance assistance to small businesses. Al-
though the centers have unparalleled access to
small businesses, most of the centers lack in-
house environmental expertise.
   The pilot projects are offering three types of
assistance: technical assistance that emphasizes the
adoption of cleaner technologies; compliance as-
sistance that is geared to help companies stay
ahead of the "regulatory curve;" and business de-
velopment assistance that places environmental
concerns as strategic in business decisions. To
date, both pilots have yielded promising results.
   In the Vermont Pilot, the SBDC's Retired
Engineers and Professionals Program is con-
ducting on-site pollution prevention assess-
ments, and the SBDC is  partnering with other
groups to launch a voluntary challenge/recog-
nition  program. The Pennsylvania SBDC has
trained its own staff in environmental issues,
and is partnering with other groups in offering
environmental seminars for dry cleaners and in
reaching small firms wishing to sell to the Fed-
eral Government. For more information, contact
Ed Weiler at 202-260-2996.
   Business Plan Review Service
   Many young companies are unable to obtain financing because
   of weak or incomplete business plans. OPPT funded a pilot
   project in FY 1997 in which Environmental Capital Network
   (ECN) based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, commissioned seasoned
   investors in environmental technology companies to critique
   the business plans of start-up companies seeking equity financ-
   ing. The purpose of the pilot was to see if companies found
   such advice useful, and how much they would be willing to
   pay for it.
      So far the results seem promising.  The Business Plan Re-
   view Service helped a company that is developing an in-pro-
   cess biomass gasification technology for the pulp and paper
   and the forest products industries to close a $20 million financ-
   ing deal with a major investor. In the second year of the pilot,
   ECN will make an effort to serve companies developing tech-
   nologies or products with multiple environmentally-sensitive
   attributes. For more information, contact Ed Weiler at 202-260-2996.
                                                                           Promoting Pollution Prevention |  11

  OPPT facilitated an informal forum among a small group of commercial and investment bankers, bank regula-
  tors, and bank trade associations in February 1997 to develop a common understanding of why and how banks
  might incorporate information derived from their clients' adoption of the new ISO 14001 (Environmental Manage-
  ment System) standard into routine credit or investment decision-making processes.
     From the discussion, it would appear that the banking community is well aware of the potential informational
  value of processes or procedures which help companies address their environmental performance systematically.
  At the same time, in the absence of accepted methods for quantitatively relating environmental performance to
  financial risk, bankers have little enthusiasm for endorsing or actively promoting industry's adoption of the ISO
  14001 standard — or any other specific environmental management approach.
     OPPT learned an important lesson from the Forum: It will take more than persuasion to enlist the support of
  the banking community to promote industry's adoption of environmental management systems. Unless and until
  environmental performance information can be used productively by banks, activities devoted to collecting such
  information will continue to be viewed as dispensable in an increasingly competitive business environment. For
  more information or a copy of the Forum proceedings, contact Ed Weiler at 202-260-2996.
                  Common Sense
                  Initiative: Computer
                  and  Electronics Sector
                  OPPT works with EPA Regions 1 and 9 in head-
                  ing up the Common Sense Initiative Subcom-
                  mittee on the Computers and Electronics Indus-
                  try Sector. The Common Sense Initiative is an
                  Agency-wide innovative approach to environ-
                  mental protection and pollution prevention that
                  tackles the limitations of traditional regulatory
                  approaches in six industry sectors (automobile
                  manufacturing, metal finishing, computer and
                  electronics, petroleum refining, iron and steel,
                  and printing).
                     The computer and electronics sector —
                  which includes computers, fax machines, tele-
                  phones, televisions, CD players, as well as elec-
                  tronic components of those products such as
                  semiconductors and printed wiring boards —
                  offers a  cutting-edge view of environmental
                  regulatory requirements in a high-tech area. The
sector is also one of the fastest growing large
employers in the United States. About 60% of
these facilities are concentrated in six states:
California, Texas, Massachusetts, New York,
Illinois, and Pennsylvania.
   Three workgroups have been created in the
Computer and Electronics Subcommittee to ad-
dress barriers to electronic product recycling,
reporting and public access to environmental
information, and alternative strategies to regu-
lation. Nine projects are currently underway, in-
cluding such things as residential collections of
discarded electronic equipment and consoli-
dated reporting requirements for electronics
companies. For more information,  contact Chris
Tirpak at 202-260-7538.

Environmental Justice
through  Pollution
Prevention  Grants

In FY1997, OPPT administered the third round
12 |  Annual Report of tire Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 of grants under the Environmental Justice
 Through Pollution Prevention grants program.
 The program promotes three of EPA's highest
 priorities—pollution prevention, environmen-
 tal justice, and community-based environmen-
 tal protection. Environmental justice refers to the
 fair treatment of all people under the same set
 of environmental laws, regulations, and policies,
 regardless of their race, culture, income, educa-
 tion, and other characteristics. Pollution preven-
 tion activities can help reduce  environmental
 risks in disadvantaged and minority communi-
 ties and promote private/public partnerships.
   In cooperation with EPA's Regional Offices,
 49 grants totaling nearly $4 million were awarded
 in economically disadvantaged and minority
 communities. Under this program, OPPT will
 work with the Center for Hazardous Material Re-
 search to develop and implement a confidential
 small business pollution prevention technical as-
 sistance program, and fund the Oil, Chemical &
 Atomic Workers International Union to develop
 pollution prevention projects in partnership with
 environmental justice organizations for workers
 and nearby environmental justice communities.
 For more information, contact Louise Little at 202-

 Preferable Purchasing

OPPT'is helping federal procurement officials
take advantage of the enormous purchasing
power of the federal government to send a clear
signal to manufacturers and service-providers
that environmental performance is an important
factor in making purchasing decisions. OPPT's
Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP)
program is an outgrowth of a Presidential man-
date to have the federal government give pref-
erence to the purchase of products and services
 which are "environmentally preferable." Envi-
 ronmentally preferable products and services
 are those that have a lesser or reduced effect on
 human health and the environment when com-
 pared with competing products or services that
 serve the same purpose.
    In FY1997, the EPP program reached out to
 federal agencies and vendors of environmental
 products through a July 1997 symposium in
 Baltimore which brought together more than 400
 stakeholders—from federal agencies, vendors,
 state and local governments, and elsewhere —
 to exchange ideas and views about environmen-
 tally preferable purchasing. Feedback from the
 symposium will help guide the  EPP program
 develop more practical and user-friendly tools.
    Several pilot projects between EPA, the Gen-
 eral Services Administration (GSA), and the De-
 partment of Defense (DOD) have demonstrated
 the practical application of EPP principles. FY
 1997 accomplishments include:
    •  Continued outreach on the GSA/ EPA pi-
      lot project. Environmental information on
      cleaning products was published in a GSA
      catalogue, written and  video versions
      were provided for U.S.Postal Service
      training, and a cleaning product selection
      tool on the World Wide  Web is near
      completion. Also, a similar effort with la-
      tex paints sold through GSA is under de-
    m  A DOD/EPA pilot project incorporated
      innovative contract language to encourage
      identification and use of environmentally
      preferable construction materials by con-
      tractors responsible for both interior and
      exterior renovations at the Pentagon.
    • Green purchasing was documented at the
     Pentagon and at some of EPA's own fa-
New pilot projects are underway or in the plan-
                                                                         Promoting Pollution Prevention  | 13

                  ning stages. In addition, the EPP Program has
                  prepared case studies and other publications
                  (see Publications at the back of this document).
                  For more information, contact Eun-Sook Goidel at
                   Green Chemistry
                  The goal of the Green Chemistry Program is to
                  foster chemical methods that reduce or elimi-
                  nate the use or generation of toxic substances
                  during the design, manufacture, and use of
chemical products and processes. The program
also supports educational activities and basic
research in environmentally benign chemistry,
and promotes partnerships with academia and
industry in developing green chemistry tech-
   Winners of the 1997 Green Chemistry Chal-
lenge, an awards program that focuses on safer
chemicals, safer chemical manufacturing pro-
cesses, and alternative solvents, are listed in the
accompanying box.
   H BHC Company (a joint venture of BASF and Hoechst Celanese Corporation) for develop-
     ing a greener process to manufacture ibuprofen, the widely used anti-inflammatory drug.
     The new process uses fewer steps that are more efficient and less polluting, and has been
     commercialized in a Texas plant which is the largest ibuprof en facility in the world.
   • Imation Corporation for its DryView™ technology, a photothermography process that
     allows for 'dry' developing of exposed film. In the medical imaging industry alone,
     the DryView technology has the potential to eliminate more than 3 million gallons per
     year of developer, 5 million gallons per year of fixer, and 900 million gallons per year of wash water.
   « Albright and Wilson for its development of THPS biocides as a new class of antimicrobial agents that are less
     toxic, have lower use levels, do not bioaccumulate, and rapidly break down in the environment to non-toxic
     degradation products. The technology has the potential to replace over 42 million pounds per year of more
     toxic and less effective biocides in the industrial water treatment market alone.
   * Legacy Systems for developing a chilled ozone process that uses only water and oxygen to remove photo-
     resists and organic contaminants for the semiconductor, flat panel display, and micro machining industries. In
     addition to eliminating the need for Piranha solutions  (solutions that require strong acids, peroxides, and
     other chemicals with health and environmental concerns), the alternative technology has the potential to re-
     duce overall water consumption by more than 3.3 million gallons per year per silicon wafer wet station and
     more than 5 million gallons per year per flat panel display station.
   • Professor Joseph M. DeSimone  of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for his development of new
     polymers that serve as surfactants in carbon dioxide, thus allowing the more environmentally benign carbon
     dioxide to replace traditional solvent/surfactant systems that emit more than 30 billion pounds of toxic com-
     pounds each year worldwide. Cleaning applications that could benefit from this technology include those in
     the manufacturing and service industry (precision cleaning of microelectronics and optics), medical device
     fabrication, and garment and textile cleaning.
14 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

    The Green Chemistry program also supports
 a variety of educational activities — including
 materials development, tools, courses, and sym-
 posia — to reach chemistry students and pro-
 fessional chemists with a pollution prevention
 message. Materials currently under develop-
 ment include a green chemistry reference com-
 pendium, textbook supplements, and laboratory
 manuals. Tools include databases of green chem-
 istry examples as well as multimedia tools such
 as videos and CDs. Courses under development
 include a training course for professional chem-
 ists and "train the trainer" workshops targeting
 the quick incorporation of green chemistry con-
 cepts and examples in two-year college cur-
 ricula. OPPT's partners in these educational ef-
 forts include the American Chemical Society, the
 National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher
 Education at the University of Michigan, and the
 Partnership for Environmental Technology Edu-
 cation. For more information, contact Tracy
 Williamson at 202-260-3960.

 Toxics  (PBT) Initiative

 Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals
 are stable in the environment for long periods
 of time (sometimes many years), build up in the
 environment, particularly in food chains, and are
 toxic to humans and/or animals and plants.
 There has been a great deal of interest in these
 chemicals within the past few years, as PBTs have
been identified all over the world in bodies of
water such as the Great Lakes and oceans, in the
air and in soil. Some PBTs, most notably dioxins,
are extremely toxic, with the potential to cause
harmful effects when very small amounts are re-
leased into the environment. Small quantities of
dioxins are released during certain industrial and
 combustion processes.
    In recent years, more than 15 Agency
 workgroups and task forces have been formed
 to examine the scientific aspects of these pollut-
 ants, evaluate opportunities for addressing
 them, and take actions to reduce the risks asso-
 ciated with them. In 1997, OPPT was instrumen-
 tal in assembling an Agency-wide initiative to
 coordinate a multi-media approach that will pre-
 cipitate a reduction of PBTs in the environment.
 The PBT Initiative was submitted  as part of
 EPA's FY1999 budget request.
    The Initiative will use the full range of EPA
 tools—international, regulatory, programmatic,
 compliance, enforcement, and voluntary—and
 will favor their prevention-based application
 whenever possible, i.e., preventing new PBTs
 from entering, or phased-out uses of PBTs from
 re-entering, the market. Three important initial
 efforts of the Initiative are the following:
    International Activities: The PBT Initiative rec-
 ognizes that international commitments are a
 strong driver for action. Accordingly, it has em-
 braced the  Level 1 list of 12 pollutants in the
 Canada-U.S. Binational Strategy for the "virtual
 Elimination of Persistent Toxics in the Great
 Lakes as an initial set of priority PBTs to target
 for action. Since EPA is also engaged in a range
 of other international negotiations affecting
 PBTs, the PBT Initiative will have a strong work-
 ing relationship with EPA's International Toxics
 Coordinating Committee and other cross-office
 teams which support EPA's preparation for these
    Great Waters Activities: The PBT Initiative
coincides with the efforts of the air, water, and
geographically-based programs (Great  Lakes,
Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and National
Estuaries) to apply cross-media authorities to
achieve continued environmental progress. EPA
published its second Great Waters  Report in
                                                                         Promoting Pollution Prevention  | 15

                  1997, which identifies nearly the same list of
                  pollutants as on the Level I list of the Binational
                  Strategy — pollutants that transfer easily from
                  air (through deposition) to great water bodies
                  and smaller lakes, and that are the cause of many
                  fish consumption advisories. Collaboration be-
                  tween the Air and Water Offices continues on
                  air deposition concerns.
                     Prioritization: After developing an action plan
                  for the Level 1 pollutants under the Binational
                  Strategy, the PBT Initiative will move to select a
                  second round of priority PBTs for action. One fo-
                  cus maybe the Office of Solid Waste's (OSW) Waste
                  Minimization National Plan, which sets goals to
                  reduce the most persistent, bioaccumulative, and
                  toxic chemicals in hazardous wastes.
                     OPPT has embarked on several activities to
                  reduce the proliferation of PBTs. They include:
                     • Developing a  PBT category in the New
                       Chemicals program.
                     • Development of a PBT test rule.
                     • Development of a significant new use rule
                       for dead PBT chemicals. "Dead" PBTs are
                       chemicals no longer produced or used in
                       this country but are still present in the en-
                       vironment (e.g., chlordane and PCBs).
                      • Identifying PBTs listed on the Toxics Re-
                       lease Inventory (TRI). TRI currently in-
                       cludes information on several PBT chemi-
                       cals such as chlordane, lindane, mercury
                       compounds, benzo(a)pyrene, and PCBs.
                       In May 1997, EPA proposed to list dioxins
                       and dioxin-like chemicals (PCBs, poly-
                       chlorinated dibenzofurans) on TRI. Cur-
                       rent reporting thresholds for TRI are too
                       high to capture releases of PBT chemicals
                        at the low levels that are actually released.
                       Therefore, EPA  is considering lowering
                        the reporting thresholds for all TRI-listed
                        PBTs. EPA is also considering how to deal
                        with other chemicals on TRI that have
     been identified as PBTs and whether other
     PBTs should be added to TRI. EPA is also
     evaluating the inclusion of PBTs on TRI
     for monitoring and benchmarking activi-
     ties. For more information,  contact Myra
     Karstadt at 202-260-0658.

Pollution Prevention
Incentives for States
(PPIS)  Grants
The Pollution Prevention Incentives for States
(PPIS) grant program fosters innovative preven-
tion approaches by states and the establishment
of cross-media state and tribal pollution preven-
tion programs. Since the inception of the grant
program in 1989, EPAhas awarded approximately
$49 million. In FY1997,58 grants totaling $5 mil-
lion were awarded by EPA's Regional Offices.
   Through PPIS grants, OPPT seeks to build
state pollution prevention capabilities and to test
innovative pollution prevention approaches and
methodologies at the state level. PPIS is designed
as a state-based program because EPA believes
that states have more direct contact with, and
influence over, generators. The two major na-
tional criteria for the 1997 PPIS grants were (a)
the promotion of cooperation among environ-
mental assistance providers and (b) the advance-
ment of a state's overall goals as defined in its
environmental performance agreements devel-
oped under the National Environmental Perfor-
mance Partnership System (NEPPS). Special em-
phasis was also given to partnering with Manu-
facturing Extension Partnerships centers under
the Commerce Department to develop a coop-
erative system of technical assistance at the state
level to  meet the needs of industry. For more in-
formation, contact Christopher Kent at 202-260-3480.
16 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 Pollution  Prevention
 in the Regions

 EPA's Regional Offices have been active agents
 in promoting the Agency's P2 mission, pursuing
 partnership opportunities with states, industry,
 and a variety of other organizations to develop
 innovative P2 approaches.  Following are ex-
 amples of Regional accomplishments in FY1997:
 a  P2 Integration in Regional Program Man-
   agement. Nearly every  Region has found
   important ways to encourage P2 and multi-
   media approaches in its management activi-
   ties. For example, Region 1's New England
   Environmental Assistance Team provides
   comprehensive, multi-media compliance
   and P2 assistance to selected sectors of the
   regulated community. Region 4 has devel-
   oped  a new Regional P2 Strategy  that en-
   gages all Regional core media programs in
   creating and conducting P2 activities in
   mainstream activities. Region 5's cross-pro-
   gram  P2 Team created a  "Waste Reduction
   in Our Workplace" initiative to further waste
   reduction activities within day-to-day Re-
   gional activities, such as  implementing P2-
   friendly contracts. In Region 7,  the P2 pro-
   gram  provides interns to the  Regional me-
   dia programs for P2 projects through a com-
   petitive selection process.
•  Regulatory Implementation. In its Pollution
   Prevention in Permitting Pilot Project, Re-
   gion 10 has partnered with Intel Corporation,
   the world's largest semiconductor manufac-
   turer, to develop an implementable Clean Air
   Act Title V  operating permit  that incorpo-
   rates both pollution prevention  and permit
   flexibility, and provides a model for other
   companies. This project will soon expand to
   focus on water permitting activities. In Re-
   gion 2, Eastman Kodak Company agreed to
    spend at least $12 million to cut hazardous
    waste in six supplemental environmental
    projects in a RCRA settlement.
    Private Sector Partnerships. In Region 1, the
    "CLEAN" Program has capitalized on
    OECA's new small business and audit poli-
    cies to help promote industry/state/EPA
    partnerships, initially with metal finishers in
    Maine and New Hampshire.
    Cross-Regional Initiatives. The Tri-State
    Geographic Initiative, led by Region 3, is a
            ^ *a ,f -^-T-—-^ ^ *
  pP2 and Local Governments
   X>PPT is helping local governments develop the capacity to
  ^integrate pollution prevention solutions to a wide variety of
  glocal issues. OPPT works with the National Association of
  g: Counties (NACo) to increase pollution prevention efforts at
    the local government level. Activities include providing gen-
    eral P2 outreach and information to NACo's 3QQO-plus mem-
  f*Tber base and developing a Challenge Program to incorporate
  ^environmental considerations into local government purchas-
 ir  ing procedures.
E    OPPT also provides P2 information and outreach to the Na-
il^  tional Association of City and County Health  Officials
^"(NACCHO). A recent joint project was a fact sheet clarifying
jj__  the relationship between pollution prevention, drinking wa-
f~  ter, and public health. NACCHO is currently trying to increase
—  local health department understanding of the potential uses
l_  of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in integrating pollu-
    tion prevention into local public health programs. GIS map-
f__..  ping paints a picture of environmental and health related events
;:   in a geographic context.
      OPPT is also working with the National Association of Phy-
    sicians for the Environment (NAPE) to help them develop a
    national program for the "greening" of health care.  Thus far,
    NAPE has developed a physician's green office guide, which
    is part of a larger effort to develop an entire system of "green-
    ing" manuals, pledges and certificates, and training programs
    for medical offices and institutions. For more information,  con-
    tact Danielle Fuligni at 202-260-4172.
                                                                         Promoting Pollution Prevention  |  17

                     multi-media environmental study involving
                     the states of Kentucky, Ohio, and West Vir-
                     ginia, EPA Regions 3,4, and 5, the Ohio River
                     Valley Water Sanitation Commission, and
                     local environmental agencies, whose pur-
                     pose is to identify P2 approaches to reduce
                     pollution sources in the tri-state area, ad-
                     dressing both businesses and citizens as
                     sources of pollution and as partners in pre-
                     vention. The Great Lakes Regional Pollution
                     Prevention Roundtable, led primarily by
                     Region 5 and involving eight states and
                     Ontario, has created an effective regional P2
                     information and assistance mechanism to
                     help states better address regulatory and
                     other environmental challenges.
                     Targeted Industrial Sectors. The Great Print-
                     ers Project in Region 5, co-led by EPA's P2
                     Policy Staff (now in OPPTS) has enlisted the
                     Council of Great Lakes Governors, the Print-
                     ing Industries of America, the Environmen-
                     tal Defense Fund, and state environmental
                     and technical assistance agencies to make P2
                     the standard practice in the printing indus-
                     try, by developing an electronic consolidated
                     reporting system in Wisconsin. Region 2 has
                     also targeted the printing sector in the New
                     York City area by engaging state agencies and
                     printing trade associations in a Seminar Se-
                     ries for Printers.
                      Community-Based Projects. Under its South
                     Phoenix Pollution Prevention Project for
                      Metal Finishers, Region 9 has partnered with
                      the state, the Lawrence Livermore National
                      Laboratory, the City of Phoenix, and the lo-
                      cal chapter of the American Electroplaters
and Surface Finishers Society to provide P2
technology transfer to metal finishers, first
reaching those located in an environmental
justice community and then more broadly
around the state.
Federal Partnerships. The National Park
Service Project in Region 8 has leveraged the
P2 expertise of the Region and the resources
of the National Park Service to successfully
reduce or eliminate solid and hazardous
waste streams in more than 35 national
parks, thereby lowering ecological risks and
saving millions of dollars.
Recognition and Award Programs. Region
10's Evergreen Award honors environmen-
tal leaders in the business community who
promote a cleaner and safer environment
and save operating costs at the same time.
Region 9's locally-based Green Business Rec-
ognition Program utilizes a multimedia
checklist to reward businesses as diverse as
auto repair shops and wineries that have
strong compliance and pollution prevention
records. In June 1997, Region 7 made eight
Pollution Prevention Awards for Environ-
mental Excellence at the Midwest Pollution
Prevention Conference in Kansas City, Mis-
souri, sponsored by Region 7 and the Region
7 Pollution Prevention Roundtable.
Prevention Tools. Region 9's planned P2
Through Technology Transfer pilot project
will help test a new P2 risk assessment frame-
work, developed in an earlier OPPT project
with Kodak,  and will help regional indus-
tries promote facility-based P2 activities.
18 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

Voluntary Standards
Networks ISO 14000
Management Standards
OPPT manages the 130-member Voluntary Stan-
dards Network, EPA's principal mechanism for
coordinating Agency input to the U.S. Techni-
cal Advisory Group on ISO 14000 and commu-
nicating EPA policies on environmental manage-
ment systems (EMSs). EPA's increasing involve-
ment in voluntary standards and EMSs is a re-
sult of:
   • The new International Organization for
     Standardization  (ISO) Environmental
     Management System standards and Au-
     diting standards  (ISO 14001 and 14010
     respectively), which are being imple-
     mented by organizations worldwide.
   a The National Technology Transfer and
     Advancement Act (NTTAA) and OMB
     Circular A-119, which require that federal
     agencies use voluntary standards in their
     activities where appropriate and partici-
     pate in their development.
   • The emergence of environmental consid-
     erations in GATT and World Trade Orga-
     nization agreements which govern inter-
     national trade.
The Network is responding to these events with
a range of different activities:
    ISO 14000 Series: The Network, working
  closely with the Office of Reinvention, is devel-
  oping an "EPA Position Statement on Environ-
  mental Management Systems and ISO 14001"
  which will be published in the Federal Register.
  This notice will outline EPA's views of the ben-
  efits and weaknesses of these approaches and
.  explain the status of regulatory and enforcement
  incentives based on EMSs and the ISO 14001
    NTTAA and OMB Circular A-119: With the
  Department of Energy, the Network is explor-
  ing the role of the federal government in imple-
  menting or integrating an EMS, providing tech-
  nical assistance, procurement, and performance
  indicators. Members of the Network are devel-
  oping a voluntary standards checklist for EPA
  rule writers. Also, a guideline for EPA employee
  participation in standards developing organiza-
  tions is being drafted. The Network is also work-
  ing toward increasing the involvement of non-
  governmental organizations (NGOs) in ISO
  14000, with the goal of establishing an NGO
  Working Group to participate in the standards
  development and implementation processes.
  OPPT and other EPA offices have also been
  working with representatives from the Region
  3 Environmental Science Center to develop an
  ISO 14001-based EMS demonstration project. For
  more information, contact Mary McKiel at 202-260-
  3584, Eric Wilkinson at 202-260-3575, or Alison
  Kinn at 202-260-1090.
                                                                     Promoting Pollution Prevention |  19


        rkgrougs, Forums, arid Committees
  S,l It '„"!>
  «ii T
 !igS!"iflw"Tj, ' "fpj-"""•'  p-"»— T1pj.,i...TJJT
 .ijL	I	illL	:    i,J[  ,          ;	it
                           I 11>
                           f ^WSfiii
                       J , 2[S 1-;>! TA'S&K1* 'SS l
                                                     rorum meets periodically to examine opportunities for  ^
                                               ^"^^^^^^p^tA^g'^^iu^on'pieveniion'm a cross-media . ?
                                                                            management practices. Con-  J
  I 'states and tribes on toxic eft	
life-renewed a five-year cooperative lor the Forum on State
• - and Tribal Toxics Action (R3STTA| in FY 19971 During
7T1'	||ie year, 'emphasis was placect on increasing Native
T™1"""	''	|m ,*»	:	f:i	,		,,,1,   ,, 	„	,	
jr American participation. A new Pollution Prevention
   Project was formed to secure the counsel of senior state
   and tribal officials to help guide pollution prevention
;•  activities in EPA and to promote the prevention of pol-
   lution in their own environmental programs. FOSTTA
   meetings were convened three times in FY 1997 to ex-
   change information on issues  such as endocrine
   disrupters, biotechnology, children's right-to-know leg-
   islation, the Toxics Release Inventory, and the consumer
   labeling initiative. Contact: Darlene Harrod, 202-260-6904.

   The Pollution Prevention Trade Association Workgroup
   brings together major trade and industry associations
   and EPA staff to improve cpmmunications and help these
   groups promote pollution prevention among their mem-
   ber companies. Contact: Phil Robinson, 202-260-3910.

   In cooperation with the National Conference of State
   Legislatures, OPPT convenes a forum of senior state
   air, water, waste and toxics program directors repre-
   senting the "environmental media" associations. The
                                                   ..... tact:'Lena Hann Ferris, 202-260-2237.
                                                    OFFICE DIRECTORS' FORUM
                                                    Prevention Forum integrates work being done across
                                                    EPA on cross-media and pollution prevention issues,
                                                    such as the Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxics Ini-
                                                    tiative. Contacts: "Kathy Davey, 202-260-2290; Paul Matthai,
                                                    202-260-3385:	"	  "	"
                                                    ONE AND TAG COMMITTEES
                                                    Trie ONE Committee brings together EPA, the Occupa-
                                                    tional Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the
                                                    National institute for Occupational Safety and Health
                                                    (NIOSH), and the Mining Safety and Health Adminis-
                                                    tration (MSHA) on a monthly basis to discuss issues of
                                                    concern and share information. Contact: Matt Gillen, 202-
                                                    260-1801. The TAG Committee meets  quarterly and
                                                    brings together staff from EPA and the Consumer Prod-
                                                    uct Safety Commission (CPSC) to discuss cross-cutting
                                                    issues. Contact: David Piantanida, 202-260-2983.

                                                    PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS COORDINATING
                                                    OPPT is a key player in this Agency-wide committee
                                                    which coordinates EPA's voluntary partnership pro-
                                                    grams, many of which are prevention-oriented. Contact:
                                                    EllieMcCann, 202-260-4168.
20 1  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

         All new chemicals introduced into commerce must be evaluated by OPPT before they can
         be manufactured or imported into this country. This authority, granted under the Toxic
         Substances Control Act (TSCA), is the ultimate embodiment of pollution prevention, as it
allows OPPT to prevent the introduction of unacceptably toxic chemicals into the marketplace be-
fore they can harm public health or the environment. This pre-commercial evaluation also provides
incentives for the swift introduction of safer alternatives to toxic chemicals. Through the
Premanufacture Notification program, Design for the Environment, Green Chemistry, and other
efforts, OPPT encourages the chemical industry at the earliest stages of research and design to pro-
duce and use safer chemicals.
   This pre-manufacture review also extends to new genetically engineered organisms. Biotech-
nology, a new area of scientific interest and commercial activity, is developing and expanding rap-
idly. The evaluation process significantly reduces the possibility that harmful genetically engineered
organisms could be released into the environment.
   All industrial chemicals currently in commerce in the United States, approximately 70,000, are
listed on the TSCA Inventory. OPPT has the enormous task of evaluating the list to identify chemi-
cals that are of most concern. The chemical information gathered, evaluated, and distributed by the
new and existing chemicals programs is the basis for much of the work within the office. Over the
years, OPPT has developed evaluation procedures and models which are used not only by this
A Genencor won a
   New Chemicals
Recognition award
      for its new,
   manufacture of
      indigo dye.
                                                                          Promoting Safer Chemicals  | 21

                    office and within the Agency, but also by the international community. OPPT is a leader in the
                    identification and reduction of risks from chemicals, and is working with states, local communities,
                    industry, federal agencies and other interested and concerned partners, including some in the inter-
                    national community, to ensure improved health and safety for workers and better environmental
                    Benzidine-Based Dyes

                    OPPT is proposing a significant new use rule
                    (SNUR) under TSCA which would require per-
                    sons to notify EPA at least 90 days before com-
                    mencing the manufacture, import, or process-
                    ing of dyes containing two categories of benzi-
                    dine congeners (o-toluidine and o-dianisidine)
                    which are hazardous to human health. Compa-
                    nies that wish to manufacture, process, or use
                    these benzidine congener dyes will need to sub-
                    mit a significant new use notice to EPA. The re-
                    quired notices will give EPA the opportunity to
                    evaluate the intended new use and associated
                    activities before these dyes can be reintroduced
                    into the marketplace, thus protecting against
                    potentially  adverse exposure. Two  leading
manufacturers have already agreed to reduce or
eliminate the risks associated with these dyes.
Similar negotiations with other leading manu-
facturers will begin in the near future. For more
information, contact Carolyn Grandson at 202-260-


The final biotechnology rule for microbial prod-
ucts of biotechnology subject to TSCA was pub-
lished in the Federal Register on April 11, 1997
(62 FR 17910-17958), and became effective on
June 10,1997. The final regulations will be codi-
fied in Part 725 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal
    Under the new regulations, persons intend-
ing to manufacture, import, or process interge-
neric  microorganisms for commercial purposes
in the United States are required to file informa-
tion with EPA at least 90 days prior to initiating
such activities, unless the microorganism or the
activity is eligible for an exemption from report-
ing. Intergeneric microorganisms are microorgan-
isms  resulting from deliberate combinations of
genetic material originally isolated from organ-
isms of different taxonomic genera. EPA selected
these microorganisms for regulatory scrutiny
because of the degree of human intervention in-
volved, the significant likelihood of creating new
combinations of traits, and the greater uncertainty
regarding the effects of such microorganisms on
human health and the environment.
    While fully protecting human health and the
 Farming the plot with the PC-2 strain for alfalfa
 22  j Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics,, FY 1997

 environment, the final rule includes a number
 of reporting exemptions that will help reduce
 the reporting burden on the  biotechnology in-
 dustry. OPPT's draft guidance for industry,
 Points to Consider in the Preparation ofTSCA Bio-
 technology Submissions for Microorganisms, can be
 downloaded  from  OPPT's Internet  site
 (www.epa.gov/ opptintr/biotech).
   OPPT's Internet site also has information on
 microbial biotechnology products reviewed un-
 der TSCA. These new products include the inter-
 generic Sinorhizobium meliloti Strain KMBPC-2. A
 September 1997 Consent Order allowed limited
 distribution of this organism for use as an alfalfa
 seed inoculant.  This microorganism will be the
 first commercialized for environmental use un-
 der TSCA. For more information, contact David E.
 Giamporcaro at 202-260-6362.

 Design for the
 Environment Program
 The Design for the Environment (DfE) Program
 helps industry  make more informed environ-
 mental decisions about the use of alternative
 chemicals, processes, and technologies to pre-
 vent pollution. The DfE program works through
 voluntary partnerships with industry, profes-
 sional organizations, state and local govern-
 ments, other federal agencies, and the public.
 Of the numerous projects underway in FY1997,
 four are highlighted below. For more information
 on the DfE program and specific projects, access the
 DfE Web site at  www.epa.gov/dfe or contact Irina
 Vaysman at 202-260-1312.

 The DfE Program has joined forces with the Part-
 nership for Environmental Technology Education
 (PETE) to form the DfE-PETE Alliance. PETE is a
nonprofit organization established to promote en-
 vironmental technology education through cur-
 riculum development and professional develop-
 ment training for environmental educators. The
 DfE-PETE alliance incorporates DfE and P2 in-
 formation into the curricula of 650 community
 and technical colleges nationwide.
    In FY 1997, PETE hosted six regional work-
 shops introducing more than 600 community
 college instructors to newly developed curricula
 and videos. A series of 18 sessions across the
 country brought more than 150 automotive re-
 pair instructors together for training in teach-
 ing P2 and DfE concepts. Another 76 chemistry
 instructors learned instructional techniques us-
 ing small scale or micro-scale chemistry. The sec-
 ond year of the DfE-PETE Alliance will continue
 these initiatives and focus on the printing indus-
 try and auto fleet maintenance. For more infor-
 mation,  contact Carol Hetfield at 202-260-1745 or
 Irina Vaysman at 202-260-1312.

 The DfE Flexography Project is working in part-
 nership with the flexographic printing industry
 to evaluate the environ-
 mental and cost perfor-
 mance impacts of using
 three different types of
 ink (solvent-based; wa-
 ter-based; and ultravio-
 let  (UV)-curable) on a
 wide  variety of sub-
    With performance
 data, as well as infor-
 mation on health and
 environmental risks,
printers will be more
likely to select alterna-
tive water-based and
UV-cured inks for a
A press worker attends a central impression
flexographic press during a DfE Flexography
Project on-site performance demonstration.
                                                                              Promoting Safer Chemicals |  23

                   broader range of applications.
                      The Project is running field demonstrations
                   during the winter of 1997-98 at volunteer print-
                   ing facilities across the United States and in two
                   plants in Europe. The inks have also been tested
                   in a controlled laboratory setting at the Printing
                   Pilot Plant of Western Michigan University. A
                   full technical report will be available in 1998,
                   along with outreach tools, including case stud-
                   ies, videos, and training materials, to help press
                   operators and facility owners make informed
                   decisions about ways to improve environmen-
                   tal performance and their competitive market
                   position. For more information, contact James Rea
                   at 202-260-0720.

                   GARMENT AND
                   TEXTILE CARE PROGRAM
                   In FY 1997, the DfE Dry Cleaning Project ex-
                   panded its efforts to promote environmentally
                   benign alternative technologies for garment and
                   textile care. Renamed the Garment and Textile
                   Care Program, this partnership between EPA
                   and the dry cleaning industry takes a systems
                   approach to the development, fabrication,
                   manufacture, distribution and care of garments
                   and textile products.
                      The historical focus of the Project has been
                   to encourage alternatives to perchloroethylene,
                   or "perc." The expanded project is working co-
                   operatively with key stakeholders to develop a
                   ten-year strategy for the reinvention of the gar-
                   ment and textile industry. One product of this
                   project is  that hundreds of professional dry
                   cleaners have incorporated wet cleaning into
                   their routine garment care. Another alternative
                   technology, liquid CO2, is in the testing and
                   evaluation phase and will become commercially
                   available in 1998. These and other  alternative
                   technologies are presented in Cleaner Technology
                   Substitutes Assessment for Fabricare,  a technical
report on the program's efforts that is currently
undergoing peer review and is expected to be
released in Summer 1998.
   The Project has also established an informa-
tion help line for dry cleaners; developed a Wet
Cleaning Curriculum which will be used by
technical training institutes and dry cleaning
trade associations; and published a range of
outreach material including a Resource Guide
that lists pollution prevention resources for dry
cleaners. For more information, contact Cindy
Stroup at 202-260-3889.

In FY 1997, DfE Printed Wiring Board (PWB)
Project participants completed a draft Cleaner Tech-
nologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA) for the "mak-
ing holes conductive" step of PWB manufactur-
ing. The alternatives examined would replace a
current technology that uses formaldehyde and
other toxic chemicals, consumes large quantities
of water and energy, and generates a significant
amount of hazardous waste.
    In addition to this effort, the DfE project part-
nership team began a second assessment to
evaluate several lead-free alternative surface fin-
ish technologies which can replace the "hot air
solder leveling" process.  The assessment will
look at the potential health and environmental
risks, performance, and costs of alternative tech-
nologies. For more information, contact Kathy Hart
at 202-260-1707.

 Endocrine  Disrupters

Chemicals that can behave as hormones and dis-
rupt endocrine systems are an emerging concern
because of the potential hazard they pose to re-
productive and developmental systems in wild-
life and possibly in humans as well. A great deal
of research and discussion is now underway
within the scientific community regarding the
24 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

adverse impacts of these chemicals. Children
and fetuses may be at particular risk, but addi-
tional research is needed to determine the ex-
tent of the risk and identify the specific chemi-
cals that pose a problem.
   EPA is required to establish a mandatory
screening and testing program for pesticides by
August 1998 under the 1996 Food Quality Pro-
tection Act, and is authorized to screen and test
certain chemicals under the 1996 Safe Drinking
Water Act.  EPA established  an Endocrine
Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Com-
mittee (EDSTAC) in October 1996, charged with
developing recommendations for an endocrine
disrupter screening and testing strategy respon-
sive to these legislative mandates. EDSTAC has
decided to consider human health and ecologi-
cal effects; estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estro-
genic, anti-androgenic and thyroid effects; and
pesticides, industrial chemicals, and important
mixtures in its deliberations.
   EDSTAC, which was established under the
Federal Advisory Committee Act, operates in an
open public forum, with four workgroups. Rec-
ommendations are expected to be issued in
Spring 1998 and will be peer reviewed by EPA's
Science Advisory Board and the FIFRA Scien-
tific Advisory Panel, and will include consulta-
tion with the National Academy of Sciences. For
more information, access the EDSTAC home page at
www.epa.gov/opptintr/opptendo, or the Endocrine
Disrupter Working Group home page at www.epa.
gov/endocrine/frametext.html; or contact Gary Timm
at 202-260-1859 or Anthony Maciorowski at 202-

Exports of Chemicals

TSCA requires EPA to notify importing countries
of the export or the intended export of industrial
chemicals or  mixtures that are subject to certain
regulatory actions under the law. Approximately
1,100 chemicals come under this requirement.
These notices also satisfy the information ex-
change provisions of the Prior Informed Consent
(PIC) procedures under the United Nations En-
vironment Programme. For chemicals banned or
severely restricted in the U.S. and subject to the
PIC procedures, EPA forwards to the designated
national authority of the importing country in-
formation on the chemical's regulatory controls.
In FY1997, 9,429 Section 12 (b) notices were re-
ceived by EPA from exporters.
   As a member of the  Organization for Eco-
nomic Cooperation and Development (OECD),
the U.S. participates in a Complementary Infor-
mation Exchange Procedure intended to help
countries coordinate their chemical control ac-
tivities. In FY 1997,170 Federal Register notices,
brochures, and other documents describing
OPPT activities were sent to member countries,
the most ever distributed in a year since the pro-
gram began. For more information, contact Lisa
Faeth at 202-260-1817.

International Activities
The Commission for Environmental Coopera-
tion (CEC) facilitates cooperation and public
participation in fostering conservation, protec-
tion, and enhancement of the North American
environment for the benefit of present and fu-
ture generations. The CEC was established by
the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) countries in 1994 to address environ-
mental concerns in the context of increasing eco-
nomic and social links among Canada, Mexico,
and the United States. Under its charter, the
North American Agreement for Environmental
Cooperation (NAAEC), the three countries agree
                                                                            Promoting Safer Chemicals | 25

                   to a core set of principles, including reporting
                   on the state of the environment, effective en-
                   forcement of environmental law, improved ac-
                   cess to environmental information, and promot-
                   ing the use of economic instruments to achieve
                   environmental goals.
                      OPPT has been most active in Council Reso-
                   lution #95-5, Sound Management of Chemicals,
                   which focuses on chemical pollutants trans-
                   ported across national boundaries  through air
                   and watersheds and traded products. The first
                   four substances addressed under the Sound
                   Management of Chemicals Program were PCBs,
                   mercury, DDT, and chlordane. Action plans for
                   PCBs, DDT, and chlordane have been signed by
                   environmental ministers of the three countries.
                   The action plan for mercury will be signed in
                   FY1998. For more information, access the CEC Web
                   site at www.cec.org.

                   On May 5-6, 1997, EPA Administrator  Carol
                   Browner hosted the Environment Leaders' Sum-
                   mit of the G7 countries plus Russia (known as
                   "G7 +1" or "The Eight") in Miami, Florida. At
                   the Summit, the eight countries agreed to a dec-
                   laration on Children's Environmental Health
                   and related implementation actions.  These
                   documents provide a framework for domestic,
                   bilateral, and international efforts to improve the
                   protection of children's health from environmen-
                   tal threats and specify concrete actions to incor-
                   porate consideration of children into environ-
                   mental science, risk assessments, and risk man-
                   agement. The Eight also agreed on specific poli-
                   cies and actions regarding lead, drinking water,
                   air quality, environmental tobacco smoke, en-
                   docrine disrupters, and global climate change.
                      The Eight agreed to work to reduce  blood
                   lead levels in children to below 10 micrograms
                   per deciliter. They also committed to the spe-
cific actions outlined in the OECD Declaration
on Lead Risk Reduction. These commitments
extend to a global scale several policies that
OPPT played a major role in developing.
   The Eight agreed to exchange monitoring
data on microbial problems in drinking water
and to collaborate on research to develop disin-
fectant technologies. With regard to endocrine
disrupters, the Eight pledged to coordinate and
cooperate on a research agenda and to support
the OECD initiative to develop a battery of
screening and testing guidelines that considers
the special susceptibilities of children.
   Indoor air quality for children also drew at-
tention.  The Eight will exchange information
on risks to children from indoor contaminants
and from environmental tobacco in particular.
   Recognizing the problem of global climate
change, the Eight expressed their special con-
cern that children are among the most suscep-
tible to more severe heat waves, more intense
air pollution, and the spread of infectious dis-
eases  which are among the potential conse-
quences of climate changes. For more information,
contact Joe Carra at 202-260-1815.

High-level cooperation between the United States
and Russia takes place at many levels in this com-
mission.  Administrator Browner and her Rus-
sian counterpart co-chair the Commission's En-
vironmental Committee; Health and Human Ser-
vices  Secretary Donna Shalala co-chairs the
Health Committee Chair with the Russian Min-
ister of Health. Areas of cooperation under the
purview of these committees extend from micro-
nutrient malnutrition in Russia to protection of
the Arctic ecosystem.
    OPPT co-chairs the Environmental Health
Subcommittee, which  provides a link between
the Environment Committee and the Health
26 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 Committee. This subcommittee is promoting en-
 vironmental health in Russia through the trans-
 fer of basic principles, methods, and technologies,
 with a current focus on lead and pesticides.
   Lead. The subcommittee has helped the Rus-
 sians identify their areas of greatest lead expo-
 sure. From this collaboration, the Russians de-
 veloped a White Paper on the problem of lead
 in Russia which recommends specific actions
 and calls for a Russian federal targeted program.
 At the urging of Vice President Gore, the Rus-
 sians are beginning to implement this program.
 A workshop was held on phasing out lead from
 gasoline.  Experts from the U.S. met with their
 Russian counterparts to discuss the U.S. experi-
 ence with a phase-out.
   U.S. experts from the Centers for Disease Con-
 trol worked with local authorities inSaratov to study
 the extent of lead problems in that Russian city.
 Blood lead samples were taken from 600 kinder-
 garten children.  About 25% of them had lead lev-
 els exceeding 10 micrograms per deciliter ()j,g/dl),
 a percentage comparable to highly-exposed, poor
 inner city children in the U.S. However,  84% of
 children in the vicinity of a battery recycling plant
 in Saratov had levels exceeding 10 (J-g/dl. The
 Saratov study is now being duplicated in three other
 Russian cities — Ekatrinburg, Krasnouralask and
 Volgograd. About  1,000-2,000 children will be
 tested in these cities using a new portable blood-
 lead analyzer. This  new U.S.-developed technol-
 ogy is being used in an operational setting for the
 first time in these cities. This technology has many
 advantages over standard practice including much
reduced cost, instant results, and less opportunity
for mishandling or misanalyzing samples. While
these advantages are critical in the struggling Rus-
sian economy, the technology could also be ex-
tremely helpful in screening large numbers of chil-
dren in any country, including our own.
   Pesticides. At a workshop on pesticides held
 in Russia, three areas for cooperation were iden-
 tified: (1) harmonization of registration  and
 regulation; (2) safe storage and disposal of pes-
 ticides; and (3) monitoring of health effects, epi-
 demiological research and prevention programs.
    Beyond the immediate projects on lead, pes-
 ticides, and other environment and public health
 problems, EPA's efforts are also playing a sig-
 nificant role in building lasting bridges of col-
 laboration and friendship between our two
 countries. For more information, contact Joe Carra
 at 202-260-1815.

 In September 1997,10 OPPT managers travelled
 to Canada to meet with their counterparts in
 Environment Canada  and Health Canada to
 share information concerning new chemical,
 existing chemical, and  testing programs in the
 two countries, improve understanding and co-
 ordination on chemical activities, and explore
 mutually beneficial activities. Major differences
 and the strengths and  weaknesses of both
 country's programs were discussed, as  well as
 specific activities with the Four Corners pilot
 project, Mutual Recognition of Assessments
 (MRAs), and the upcoming New Chemicals
 Workshop in Mexico.
   The Four Corners Pilot Project  is an infor-
 mation sharing system for new chemicals that
 have gone through U.S. review but are not yet
 on the Canadian chemical inventory. It was the
 consensus of Health/Environment Canada and
 EPA that more experience is needed with  the
project before any conclusions regarding its fu-
ture can be drawn. During the meeting U.S. and
 Canadian industry representatives met with the
government  representatives to  discuss
industry's concepts of how a Mutual Recogni-
tion of Assessments agreement might work be-
tween the U.S. and Canada. It was also con-
                                                                               Promoting Safer Chemicals |  27

                  eluded that a joint U.S./Canada risk assessment
                  workshop should be held after the completion
                  of the Four Corners project. For more information,
                  contact Becky Cool at 202-260-8539.

                  POLLUTION (LRTAP)
                  Under tine auspices of the United Nations Eco-
                  nomic Commission for Europe, OPPT partici-
                  pates in negotiations of the Convention on Long-
                  Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP).
                  These negotiations center around development
                  of national air emissions inventories and the
                  control of heavy metals and persistent organic
                  pollutants (POPs). POPs from major stationary
                  sources and mobile sources, and management
                  and control of products containing POPs and
                  heavy metals are also under discussion.  The
                  major product categories of concern to OPPT
                  under these negotiations include-leaded gaso-
                  line and the use of PCBs and mercury in prod-
                  ucts.  The LRTAP POPs negotiations  are ex-
                  pected to conclude in 1998, while the  LRTAP
                  heavy metals negotiations are on a somewhat
                  slower schedule. F.or more information, contact
                  Lin Moos at 202-260-1866.
                   New  Chemicals
                  SIGNIFICANT NEW USE RULES,
                  OPPT may issue a significant new use rule
                  (SNUR) when potential new uses of a new or
                  existing chemical could result in increased ex-
                  posures or releases of the substance and pose
                  an unreasonable risk to human health or the
                  environment. A total of 45 significant new use
                  rules were issued in FY 1997. These rules pro-
                  vide OPPT with the opportunity to review the
interaction of the chemical in a different process
and for different uses.
   In addition, four new chemical SNURs were
revoked. In a separate effort on acrylates, OPPT
withdrew the generic acrylate SNUR, revoked
SNURs for 96 acrylate substances, and revoked
Section 5(e) Consent Orders for 121 acrylate sub-
stances based on a review of carcinogenicity data
on two acrylate substances which eliminated the
health hazard for this category.
   Under Section 5  of TSCA, OPPT reviews
chemical information submitted by manufactur-
ers to detect if newly developed chemicals pose
a threat to human health and the environment.
In FY 1997, the New Chemicals Program re-
viewed 1,483 premanufacture notifications
(PMNs) and received testing data on another 36
substances.  For more information on PMN statis-
tics, contact Becky Cool at 202-260-8539.
   OPPT has been working on a PMN form that
can be used by industry to transmit PMN data
to EPA electronically. As part of the OPPT Elec-
tronic Commerce project, OPPT staff have met
with industry representatives to investigate op-
tions that would satisfy both EPA's needs in
tracking and reviewing PMN data,  and
industry's needs for a simple, affordable, and
dependable electronic transmittal system. When
developed, printable forms will also be included
on the New Chemicals Program's Web site on
the Internet.
   As part of OPPT's customer service stan-
dards, later this year OPPT anticipates meeting
the request of chemical manufacturers for regu-
lar posting  of early PMN regulatory outcomes
on the NCP Web site. For more information, con-
tact Anna Coutlakis at 202-260-3592.
   The NCP Web site (www.epa.gov/opptintr/
newchem) is intended to communicate  general
information about the program and procedures
for review of new industrial chemicals. Target au-
28 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

       1997 New Chemicals Pollution Prevention Recognition Award
I" The New Chemicals Pollution Prevention Recognition Project recognizes selected PMNs submitted for new chemi-
^ cal substances that may constitute safer substitutes or be developed via pollution prevention processes. Recipients
P for 1997 are listed below. For more information, access www.epa.gov/opptintr/newchem.htm, or contact Roy Seidenstein at
                                            '"''"   '''    '''"' "''"   ' "      '     '"'           "'    '  '
     Genencor develpped a biotechnology pathway to environmentally friendly manufacture of indigo dye. Genencor's
     process uses an intergeneric microorganism, glucose and other microbial nutrients instead of hazardous reagents
     like aniline, formaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid to cre-
     ate this commercially important dye, which is used to
     color blue jeans, among other things.
     Union Carbide developed a "splittable surfactant" to
     meet customer needs at industrial laundry and metal-
     working operations. The product satisfies the effluent
     composition limits of publicly owned treatment works
     (POTWs). Customers can use the new technology to
     reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) and fats, oils,
     and grease in effluent, rather than using other more
     toxic surfactants or simply diluting the effluent to meet
     POTW requirements.
     Conrad Industries developed an innovative chemis-
     try/process for recycling many plastics not currently
     recycled and does not require sorting of different plas-
     tics in the waste stream. The technology chemically
     converts used plastic into fuel-grade petroleum feed-
     Engelhard manufactured a new yellow pigment that
     replaces heavy metal and diaryl-based formulations.
     This innovation is expected to reduce human and en-
     vironmental exposure to heavy metals like lead and
     chromium and to diaryl compounds and byproducts
     like dichlorobenzidene, which are used in other yel-
     low pigments. A shift to this new product would lower
     the risk to society of adverse health effects associated
     with the use and release of heavy metals or benzidine
     Huls America developed a non-phosgene process to
     manufacture isocyanates. Isocyanates are typically
Sharon Haynes, Union Carbide senior laboratory technician
in South Charleston, and Albert Joseph, development
scientist, inspect an emulsion after Union Carbide's new
TRITON SP series surfactant has been deactivated,
separating the emulsion into two distinct materials. When
used in laundry detergents, the deactivation allows for rapid
separation of major pollutants that can be recycled or
treated, and the clean effluent discharged.
     manufactured using phosgene, a highly toxic and dan-
     gerous gas. Huls America's new phosgene-free process avoids the many health and environmental hazards re-
     lated to the use of phosgene. Also, the process yields a blocked isocyanate intermediate, which can be stored,
     handled and transported more safely than other isocyanates.
                                                                               Promoting Safer Chemicals  | 29

                  diences are industrial submitters, EPA personnel,
                  and researchers and other members of the gen-
                  eral public. For more information, contact Dave
                  Schntz at 202-260-8994.

                  As part of its regulatory review of new chemi-
                  cal substances for health and environmental
                  risks, OPPT also gives industry suggestions on
                  ways of making new chemicals more safely. In
                  1997, 155 PMNs went through a preliminary
                  SMART Review (Synthetic Method Assessment
                  for Reduction Techniques), and 19 of them were
                  given a more detailed review. Potential solutions
                  were identified  for 70 PMNs and their
                  submitters were contacted.
                     OPPT is developing a computer program of
                  the review process that can be used with exist-
                  ing OPPT databases of green chemistry tech-
                  nologies to allow chemical manufacturers to
                  conduct their own SMART reviews on new
                  chemicals prior to submitting PMNs. For more
                  information, contact Greg Fritz at 202-260-7174.
                     OPPTs Environmental Technology Initiative
                  (ETI) for Chemicals  works within the New
                  Chemicals Program to promote risk reduction
                  within industry sectors as a whole, rather than
                  on a case-by-case basis. Funded originally un-
                  der the government-wide ETI, OPPT's own ETI
                  for Chemicals is encouraging innovation in
                  chemistry, production technologies, and han-
                  dling and disposal practices, for  all chemicals,
                  both new and existing. For more information, con-
                  tact Ken Moss at 202-260-3395.

                  Product Stewardship

                  AUTOBODY SPRAY PAINTS
                  EPA is working with NIOSH, OSHA, and other
                  partners to develop and implement a product
stewardship program for autobody spray paints.
EPA has developed product stewardship re-
quirements under TSCAfor coatings used dur-
ing auto refinishing. Coatings manufacturers
have begun to reformulate their products to re-
lease smaller amounts of volatile organic com-
pounds, as required by;the Clean Air Act.
   The goals of the project are to reduce risks
by (1) improving the use of respiratory protec-
tion and innovative engineering controls; and
(2) integrate industry reformulation efforts with
improvements in worker protection measures
during application of coatings.
   The project is intended as a model for other
use categories with risk reduction potential.
During the past year, the partners have devel-
oped a draft training outline which will become
a standard training module for improving the
use of respiratory protection and other means
of controlling worker exposure, and integrating
these measures with other pollution prevention
measures to reduce risk. A voluntary certifica-
tion program is also under development, and
the partners are identifying metrics for measur-
ing improvements over time. For more informa-
tion, contact Scott Prothero at 202-260-1566.

On July 28,1997, OPPT signed a Product Stew-
ardship Program (PSP) Memorandum of Under-
standing (MOU) with AlliedSignal Inc. cover-
ing methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO), a high pro-
duction volume chemical used primarily as an
antiskinning agent in alkyd surface coatings and
paints. The MOU addresses  issues such as
chemical testing, pollution prevention, waste
minimization, exposure reduction, and chemi-
cal hazard/risk information communication
activities that AlliedSignal has voluntarily
agreed to undertake.
    AlliedSignal agreed to co-sponsor testing of
30 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

MEKO in the international Screening Informa-
tion Data Set program (see Chapter 3). The com-
pany also  agreed that steps to reduce and/or
eliminate releases of and exposures to MEKO
will be included in the company's pollution pre-
vention (P2) program for MEKO operations. In
order to measure P2 progress, AlliedSignal will
provide annual reports of releases to EPAf or the
next five years, similar to TRI release informa-
tion. AlliedSignal also agreed to communicate
the "lessons learned" from the company's P2
program to all of its MEKO customers in an at-
tempt to facilitate their prevention practices.
    OPPT has now signed four Product Steward-
ship Program MOUs. The other three cover the
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, seven alkyl
glycidyl ethers (AGEs), and six siloxanes. For more
information, contact Dave Williams at 202-260-3468.

TSCA Section  4 Testing

Under Section 4 of TSCA, EPA can require pro-
ducers, importers, and processors to test their
chemicals and submit the results of that testing
to EPA for review and possible risk management
action. Some of this testing is aimed at OPPT's
concern with the risks to children from expo-
sure to environmental toxicants. EPA makes test-
ing data publicly available to help the public un-
derstand the risks posed by exposure to chemi-
cals and to facilitate public involvement in en-
vironmental decision-making.
    Since  1979, approximately 550 chemicals
have been the subject of testing actions. The ac-
tions include formal TSCA Section 4 Test Rules,
TSCA Section 4 Enforceable Consent Agree-
ments, and Voluntary Testing Agreements. Dur-
ing FY 1997, 35 TSCA Section 4 studies on 11
 chemicals were received by EPA, placed in the
 public docket, and referenced in EPA's TSCA Test
 Submissions (TSCATS) electronic database. Cur-
rently more than 300 chemicals are being tested
by industry for a variety of health and environ-
mental effects, chemical fate, and exposure moni-
toring in OPPT's TSCA Chemical Testing Pro-
gram. Another 200 chemicals are the subject of
regulatory or voluntary actions aimed at devel-
oping the needed test data. All studies conducted
by industry under TSCA Section 4 are performed
in accordance with established test methods
("guidelines") and must adhere strictly to EPA's
Good Laboratory Practice Standards regulations.
   In August 1997 OPPT initiated work on a sur-
vey to assess customer satisfaction with the TSCA
testing program and to gather information on
ways to improve it. The survey will be conducted
in 1998. For more information,  access the OPPT
Chemical Testing and Information Gathering home
page ativww.epa.gov/opptintr/chemtest/index.htm or
contact Dave Williams at 202-260-3468.

During FY 1997, OPPT initiated or developed
TSCA Section 4 Test Rules and Enforceable Con-
sent Agreements (EGAs) to require industry to
conduct health and environmental effects stud-
ies on the chemicals listed below. Most of the
chemicals  are produced domestically or im-
ported in high volumes and have substantial
human or environmental exposure.
    Also in FY 1997, OPPT revised the data tables
that reflect the results of all final studies received
by EPA to date under Section 4 Test Rules and
Enforceable Testing Agreements. OPPT is cur-
rently exploring a number of options for pro-
viding enhanced public access to this informa-
tion (approximately 600 studies on almost 150
 chemicals), including making it available on the
 Internet. For more information, contact Gerry Brown
 at 202-260-7248.
                                                                              Promoting Safer Chemicals |  31

                 test data between the U.S. and other countries.
                    OPPT has published 118 human health,
                 ecotoxicity, environmental fate, and physical
                 chemistry guidelines. OECD has published 55
                 guidelines in these areas. OPP has 97 test guide-
                 lines in these areas as well as 129 pesticide-spe-
                 cific guidelines.
                    Currently, all of physical/chemical proper-
                 ties and environmental fate guidelines, 30 health
                 effects guidelines, and six ecotoxicity test guide-
                 lines have been harmonized between EPA and
                 OECD. Ten health effects guidelines and 13
                 ecotoxicity guidelines have beenharmonized be-
                 tween OPPT and OPP, and some of the new con-
                 solidated guidelines incorporate recent signifi-
                 cant advances in scientific knowledge and meth-
                 odologies, particularly in the areas of neurotox-
                 icity, developmental neurotoxicity, and develop-
                 mental and reproductive biology. They are avail-
                 able to the public through the EPAInternet home
                 page and the Government Printing Office bul-
                 letin board. On August 15,1997, OPPT issued
                  11 revised TSCA test guidelines (62 FR 43820)
                  resulting from the harmonization effort. For more
                  information, contact Michael Cimino at 202-260-
                  3451 or Roger Nelson  at 202-260-8163.
A cornerstone of OPPT's TSCA Chemical Test-
ing Program is the Master Testing List (MTL),
which compiles the list of chemicals that deserve
the highest consideration and warrant testing.
The 1996 MTL (issued on December 13,1996,61
FR 65936) contains over 600 specific chemicals
and more than 15 categories. Virtually all of the
listed chemicals and categories are currently un-
dergoing testing or are the subject of testing ac-
tion development or testing needs development
activities. Since 1992, more than 350 chemicals
and 4 chemical categories have been  added to
the MTL and 150 have been removed.
    In issuing the 1996 MTL, EPA encouraged
responsible companies with product steward-
 ship programs to recognize the importance of
 promptly filling the cited data needs for chemi-
 cals listed on the MTL, on  a voluntary basis
 rather than through rulemaking action. Copies
 of the 1996 MTL are available through OPPT's
 Public Docket and TSCA Hotline; an  electronic
 copy can be downloaded from the Internet at
  For more information, con tact Dave Williams at 202-
34 | Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

       Twenty years ago, Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act in an effort to under-
       stand and address the risks posed by chemical substances to human health and the envi-
       ronment. TSCA gives EPA the authority to regulate the unreasonable risks of a chemical at
any stage in a product's life cycle, including its production, importation, processing, distribution in
commerce, use, and disposal. Lead, asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxin are
leading examples of chemicals that warrant attention throughout their life cycle. This chapter re-
views OPPT's accomplishments in FY1997 and the variety of tools used to control the risks associ-
ated with these chemicals.
Acrylamide grouts are used to seal leaks in sew-
ers and manholes and, to a lesser extent, in struc-
tural water control and geotechnical applications.
Acrylamide is a known human neurotoxicant and
has been classified by EPA as a probable human
carcinogen. The risk is to grouting workers who
are exposed through inhalation and dermal con-
tact to high levels of the substance. These work-
ers face very high individual neurotoxic and can-
cer risks. The upper-bound estimated lifetime
cancer cases arising from grouting exposures is
somewhat greater than one in every 100 workers
engaged in sewer grouting, and four in every 100
engaged in manhole grouting.
   An OPPT regulatory investigation concluded
that grouting work entailed exposures that no
                                                                                     A Lead abatement.
                                                                           Promoting Risk Reduction |  35

                  protective practices short of a ban could reduce
                  to an acceptable level. Based on that study, EPA
                  proposed a rule in 1991 that would have banned
                  all uses of the grout, as well as an alternative
                  grout, N-methololacrylamide (NMA). Since pub-
                  lication of that proposal, further investigation and
                  analysis led EPA to conclude that the cost of ban-
                  ning NMA may outweigh the benefits, and NMA
                  was therefore dropped from the draft final rule.
                     The decision to leave a viable substitute in
                  place reinforced EPA's effort to eliminate worker
                  exposure to acrylamide; however, it elicited
                  questions regarding the suitability of NMA as a
                  substitute. Accordingly, the rulemaking record
                  was reopened to address these questions. The
                  results of the reopening reaffirmed the decision
                  to ban acrylamide grouts, and the final rule is
                  expected to be published in 1998. For more infor-
                  mation, contact Ed Brooks at 202-260-3754.

                  Acute Exposure Guidelines

                  The 34-member National Advisory Committee
                  for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Haz-
                  ardous Substances brings together public and
                  private sector scientists  to develop short-term
                  exposure limits for acutely toxic chemicals. Its
                  goal is to establish scientifically credible acute
                  exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for 300 to 400
                  chemicals at the rate of 30 to 40 chemicals per
                  year. Up to 12 AEGLs can be developed for each
                  chemical. AEGLs can be of critical use in deal-
                  ing with accidental releases of acutely toxic
                  chemicals in the workplace, along transporta-
                  tion routes, and in local communities.
                      In FY1997, the Committee's first full year of
                  operation, the Committee developed 176 pro-
                  posed AEGL values for 17hazardous substances.
                      Recently, discussions and meetings have
                  taken  place with representatives of the Organi-
                  zation for Economic Cooperation and Develop-
                  ment (OECD) as a prelude to the participation of
European countries in the Committee's activities.
If this effort is successful, it would represent a
major step in establishing a uniform set of short-
term exposure limits for a broad range of appli-
cations worldwide. For more information, contact
Roger Garrett at 202-260-4302 or Paul Tobin at 202-


Asbestos removal projects in schools and pub-
lic and commercial buildings are subject to fed-
eral regulation by the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA), EPA's Office of
Air and Radiation  (OAR),  and OPPT under
TSCA. OPPT requires schools to inspect their
buildings for asbestos, prepare management
plans, and ensure  that asbestos abatement
projects are conducted by properly trained and
accredited contractors. OPPT's Asbestos Model
Accreditation Plan (MAP) sets forth standards
for the training and accreditation.
    Both the  MAP and OSHA's  construction
standard for asbestos were amended in 1994-95.
EPA and OSHA subsequently became aware of
inconsistencies in their regulations, and formed
an interagency workgroup to deal with the prob-
lem. In 1997,  the workgroup produced a tenta-
tive plan for resolving the inconsistencies, which
calls for EPA to amend its TSCA-based asbestos
regulations. During the course of the upcoming
rulemaking, EPA will be considering comments
and suggestions from stakeholders on ways to
streamline and add flexibility to  the TSCA as-
bestos programs.
    Since states play a significant role in the ad-
ministration  of the TSCA asbestos programs,
EPA held a conference in May 1997 to discuss
the potential  amendments with the states. Forty
states and the District of Columbia sent repre-
sentatives to the conference, as did the National
Conference of State Legislatures and OSHA. For
36 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 more information, contact Cindy Foumier at 202-
 Risk Initiative
 OPPT takes part in a cooperative effort to address
 cumulative exposure, hazard, and risk issues af-
 fecting residents of Cook County, Illinois and
 Lake County, Indiana. The effort, called the Chi-
 cago Cumulative Risk Initiative (CCRI), has its
 origins in a 1996 petition from 11 community
 advocacy groups requesting that EPAregulate air
 deposits  of dioxins, furans, mercury, cadmium,
 and lead from incinerators in the two counties.
 The petition was denied but OPPT felt that the
 environmental justice issues raised called for a
 more comprehensive, cooperative investigation
 and response. Members of CCRI include EPA Re-
 gion 5, the Office of Research and Development;
 the Office of Air and Radiation; the Office of En-
 vironmental Justice; Indiana and Illinois officials;
 and 11 Chicago-area advocacy groups. CCRI has
 organized its work into four phases.
   Phase I of CCRI involves the development of
 a cumulative "environmental loading profile"
 to catalog the source and nature of toxic emis-
 sions in the study area. The profile will be final-
 ized during the first two quarters of FY 1998.
 Phase I also involves the development of a user-
 friendly, PC-based program that enables users
 to statistically and graphically analyze emissions
 and ambient data from the study area. Work is
 underway to make a nationally applicable pro-
 gram available by the end of FY 1998.
   Phase  II will bring together interested par-
 ties in a workshop (scheduled for third quarter
 of FY 1998) to discuss and reach accords on the
environmental loading profile, the cumulative
risk assessment, and customer service issues.
     -* -»   .      T    ^-
    Regional Efforts on Asbestos
    Region 10: Video for Asbestos School Coordinators
 |£ Even though asbestos regulations have been in place for many  j
 |- years, EPA staff have found widespread misunderstanding and
    confusion on how to implement the regulations, as well as how  :
 |^to manage asbestos in school buildings to best protect children  ";
   rand others from asbestos exposure. The quality of school asbes-  ;
   Jos programs depend heavily on the knowledge, dedication, and  ;
    work of tfie asbestos management coordinator who is required  j
   itq be responsible for asbestos-related activities. EPA Region 10  ;
   : has_developed a 19-minute video to help school asbestos coor-  '\
   Jinators understand their responsibilities, comply with the fed-
   ^eral requirements, and protect the health of the school's occu-
    pants. Designed to be used in conjunction with the manual, How
    to Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: AHERA Designated Person's
   - Self 'Study Guide (1996), the video is available through the TSCA  \
    Hotline, the National Technical Information Service, and EPA's
    Public Information  Center. For more information, contact Jayne
    Carlin at 206-553-4762.
    Region 7: "New Schools"Initiative
    Region 7 has taken a leadership role in the national "New
    Schools" initiative.  This involved a comprehensive review of
    records and reports to generate a list of schools in the Region
    that had not submitted asbestos management plans to the gov-
    ernors or delegated agencies. A related outreach effort included
    compliance and technical assistance to schools that were not
    knowledgeable of the TSCA requirements, which also .helped
    remind many schools that submitted management plans in 1988
    but have since ignored their ongoing responsibilities. As the
    first phase of obtaining compliance, the initiative has also gen-
    erated a list of prospective inspections for the future.
   Phase III will involve a cumulative risk analy-
sis that addresses the most significant environ-
mental hazards; their sources and exposure
pathways; risks of various health effects from
multiple exposure sources and pathways; and
locations and other characteristics defining sen-
sitive populations. The initial planning phase
                                                                              Promoting Risk Reduction |  37

                 has been completed and work has started on
                 methods development.
                    Phase  IV,  pollution  prevention  and
                 remediation activities, is in its initial planning
                 stages. For more information, contact James Boles
                 at 202-260-3969.

                  Exposure Testing

                  Composite wood panels containing urea-form-
                  aldehyde  (UF) adhesive resins are commonly
                  used as building materials in constructing
                  homes and in manufacturing cabinets and fur-
                  niture. These materials and products are a sig-
                  nificant source of indoor concentrations of form-
                  aldehyde, a gaseous chemical that causes irrita-
                  tion of the eyes and respiratory system in hu-
                  mans. Formaldehyde has also been, demon-
                  strated to cause cancer in laboratory animals.
                  Formaldehyde emissions from panels used in
                  manufactured (mobile) housing were first regu-
                  lated in 1984 by the Department of Housing and
                  Urban Development and the panel-producing
                  industry has since adopted voluntary emission
                  standards for their products. However, EPA has
                  been investigating the need for lower emission
                  standards or other controls that would reduce
                  human exposure to indoor formaldehyde con-
                  centrations that can cause irritation.
                     OPPT is currently reviewing  peer review
                  comments on results of a cooperative EPA/in-
                  dustry pilot study designed to evaluate meth-
                  ods and techniques of testing formaldehyde ex-
                  posure in conventionally-built and manufac-
                  tured housing. In FY1998, OPPT will complete
                  its analysis of the peer reviewers' comments and
                  refine its  indoor air models to account  for the
                  pilot study results. A public meeting will then
                  be held to obtain public input on the implica-
                  tions of the results and the need for further ex-
posure testing. For more information, contact
George Semeniuk at 202-260-2134.

"Human Health Indoors"
Policy Initiative

In FY 1997, OPPT embarked on a new Human
Health Indoors Policy Initiative in conjunction
with EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The qual-
ity of indoor environments is an important en-
vironmental health issue. Studies indicate that
people spend as much as 90 percent of their time
indoors and that indoor levels of many pollut-
ants are often two to five times higher than out-
door levels. Children, the elderly, and those with
chronic illnesses, who spend an even greater
time indoors, are more susceptible to pollutants
than the general population.
   Healthy living requires attention to the de-
sign, construction, operation, and maintenance
of homes, schools, workplaces, and to the proper
selection and use of products indoors. To meet
future challenges in the  protection of human
health indoors, the interim Human Health In-
doors Policy Committee,  co-chaired by the As-
sistant Administrator for Air and Radiation and
the Assistant Administrator for Prevention, Pes-
ticides, and Toxic Substances, will produce a
concise action plan that identifies EPA's vision
for the 21st century, and establishes goals, guid-
ing principles, research agendas, and program
commitments. For more information, contact
Doreen Cantor at 202-260-1777.
 Exposure to lead can produce serious health ef-
 fects, particularly in children. Lead poisoning
 can result in IQ deficiencies, reading and learn-
 ing disabilities, impaired hearing, reduced at-
38 I  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 tention span, hyperactivity, anti-social behavior,
 and other problems. Years of using leaded gaso-
 line and lead-based paint have spread this metal
 liberally throughout the environment. Despite
 the strides made over the past ten years in pre-
 venting childhood lead poisoning, nearly one
 million children age five and under may still be
 exposed to lead in the environment.

 In FY 1997, OPPT initiated a  new outreach ef-
 fort the Lead Poisoning Prevention and Lead
 Hazard Awareness Public Education and Out-
 reach Grant Program. Its purpose is to deliver
 public education and outreach products and
 services to increase  lead-based paint hazard
 awareness and promote lead poisoning preven-
 tion among high-risk target audiences (prima-
 rily low-income, minority communities located
 in large metropolitan areas,  or communities
 which consist predominantly of older housing).
 Children living  in these communities are espe-
 cially at risk for elevated levels of lead exposure.
    Funds totaling approximately $450,000 will
 be awarded in FY 1998 for the first round of
 grants under this program. These  grant funds
 will be used for projects that deliver lead haz-
 ard awareness and poisoning prevention infor-
 mation to parents, to care-takers or service pro-
 viders (e.g., pediatricians) of children under six
 years of age, and to other vulnerable popula-
 tions (e.g., pregnant women) in high-risk target
 audiences. For more information, contact Megan
 Carroll at 202-260-7269.

OPPT works to reduce exposure to lead and the
risks of lead poisoning through a variety of on-
going programs  alone and in conjunction with
the Department  of Housing and Urban Devel-
 opment (HUD) and other agencies. Ongoing ac-
 tivities include:
 • Laboratory Accreditation: OPPT maintains a
   National Lead Laboratory Accreditation
   Program to as-
   sure  home-
   owners   that
   analyses   of
   lead samples
   are conducted
   properly. In FY
   1997, the pro-
   gram  recog-
   nized 26 addi-
   tional  labora-
   tories,  increas-
   ing  the  total
   number of ac-
   credited lead
   laboratories  to
   126. For more
   contact  John
   Scalera  at 202-
•  NHANES Data: EPA is setting goals for the lead
   program for the short and long-term (includ-
   ing national  childhood lead  poisoning rate
   goals), and planning programs that focus on
   the highest risk areas. To this end, EPA is ana-
   lyzing recent survey data from the Department
   of Health and Human Services (NHANES 3,
   Phase 2) which shows declines in blood lead
   across the U.S. population. This effort is being
   coordinated with the Centers for Disease Con-
   trol and other federal agencies. For more infor-
   mation, contact Dane Screws at 202-260-1562.
• Identifying Paint Hazards, Dust, Soil: OPPT is
  working on a proposed rule,  as required  by
  Congress, for identifying lead-based paint
  LO          LO CUiDA. 10 ENVENINA,
          {luleiscfsaitetHte'' Par »sipiwn poho
  ntjD i'r Mt trt s dc jtuyj ra pmttim \ en 4g«a potable tCui! cs el ircsutt nlo1* I nw
    (itiee mfio'i tteiiC t»*el illo die plonte ett N Aaxre
   -neaanitsio von plomo pitctte can tr pniiltmi gta>w en a mfto nul
     i> «i la esfwcfe perdida de .tudiuoti * c« dlguiitKt msm K-.MMK ctrefetal ••
y» emMr0Q ft j pu*.^*. t,r pre*eni

                     STUbjts ON LEAb
                     « Renovation and Remodeling Study. As directed in Section 402 of Title X EPA has under-
                       taken a study to determine the extent to which renovation and remodeling (R&R) activi-
                       ties may create a lead exposure hazard for building occupants or for the workers them-
                       selves. Air arid settled-dust samples collected in Phase I of the study showed higher than
                       permissible levels of lead, but blood samples from R&R workers (Phase II) showed little
                       evidence that blood-lead concentrations were exceeding permissible levels. Building oc-
                       cupants, however, may be exposed to considerable amounts of lead in settled dust which
                       far exceeds the current levels in EPA's interim guidance for lead dust. Phase III is examin-
                       ing whether R&R activities are associated with elevated blood-lead levels in children.
                       Phase IV will focus on blood-lead levels in potentially high exposure populations of his-
                        toric building painters and R&R professionals. Final reports on Phases III and IV will be
                        available within the next year. For more information, contact Darlene Watford at 202-260-3989
                        or Dan Reinhart at 202-260-1585.
                      • Laboratory Study of Lead-Cleaning Efficacy. In the past, EPA has recommended using
                        trisodium phosphate (TSP) detergent to clean lead-contaminated dust from surfaces after
                        residential lead hazard control work to achieve post-abatement clearance standards. How-
                        ever, phosphate detergents have negative impacts on the ecology of aquatic ecosystems.
                        EPA conducted this laboratory study to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of 34 commercially
                        available cleaners in removing lead-contaminated dust from residential surfaces. Based
                        on the results, EPA recommends that either a general all purpose  cleaner or a cleaner
                        made specifically for lead should be used for both general cleaning and post-intervention
                        cleaning, rather than water alone. The study also  indicates that the effort-put into the
                        cleaning may be more important than the choice of cleaner. For more information, contact
                        Ben Lim at 202-260-1509.
                      • Lead-Based Paint Abatement and Repair and Maintenance (R&M) Study in Baltimore.
                        This study examined the effectiveness of different levels of repair and maintenance pro-
                        grams in lowering the risk of lead exposure to children. Designed as a longitudinal trial,
                        the study investigated three levels of repair and maintenance (R&M) and outreach to fami-
                        lies aimed at reducing children's exposure to lead in paint and settled dust in their homes,
                        as well as two control groups. The costs for R&M work were capped at $1650, $3500, and
                        $7,000 for R&M Levels I, II, and III respectively. All three levels of R&M intervention were
                        associated with statistically significant reductions in house dust lead loadings; however,
                        dust lead concentrations were significantly reduced following intervention in R&M II and
                        IH, but not in R&M I. The study provided useful information indicating that certain types
                        of interim controls can maximize benefits by lowering the rate of lead exposure to chil-
                        dren at lower costs than comprehensive abatements. For more information, contact Ben Lim
                        at 202-260-1509.
40 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 hazards, lead-contami-
 nated dust, and lead-con-
 taminated soil. A compre-
 hensive risk analysis and
 economic analysis are cur-
 rently under peer review.
 OPPT anticipates publica-
 tion of the proposed rule
 in FY1998. For more infor-
 mation, contact Jonathan
 Jacobson at 202-260-3779.
 CD-ROM. Project: OPPT is
 developing a centralized
 database of its reports on
 lead topics, including lit-
 erature searches, statistical
 reports, and sampling and
 analysis reports. The data-
 base  will be available at
 EPA  and  on  CD-ROM
 (along with user docu-
 mentation) for public dis-
 semination. For more infor-
 mation, contact Sam Brown
 at 202-260-2282.
 Lead-Based Paint Archives:
 The Archive is a collection
 of real world samples from
 testing of portable X-ray
 fluorescence (XRF) instru-
 ments  (which test the
 amount of  lead  in a
 painted surface). Data are
 used  to produce up-to-
 date performance infor-
 mation  on the  instru-
ments. The Archive is cur-
rently being turned over to
HUD. For more information,
contact Sam Brown at 202-
r Regional Initiatives on Lead
_  PA's Regional Offices have initiated a number of creative approaches to prob-
lems of lead, a sample of which follow:
         3: Philadelphia Lead Education and Real Estate Disclosure Compliance
                     ;. Focusing
   £ --  .?•    -:,.--••  ..f ---.-:
iwn on inner city residents who
^±"-^-,,:-- -'.:i'.r v .:::-,,..,'; /-.,:. ..'- ,..J:'T, ,  . 	
ig^bear a disproportionate bur-
Egden $f the threat from lead
    paint, Region 3 has imple-
^ KjmentecLa Landlords. Educar_
    tion Strategy to inform other-
   ; wise hard-to-reach landlords
    about the federal and local
j^- ;lead disclosure laws. In com-
£rr rrrunity-based lead education
The Story Tree Gang in performance
    projects in North Philadelphia (a high-risk area for lead), a group of teenagers
 -"-•  called the "Story Tree Gang" educate local residents using puppetry, music,
 ;   Storytelling, etc. Region 3 is working with a variety of local community groups,
 :   including Healthy Families/Healthy Homes, the Philadelphia Tenants Action
 ••   Group, Parents Against Lead, and the Philadelphia Urban Resources Partner-
 -   ship. The region is using Philadelphia as a model to help officials of the District
 ..I.,  ^of Columbia expand DCs lead poisoning prevention program. For more infor-
    mation, contact Gerallyn Vails at 215-556-2084.
 Region 9: Compliance Assistance Outreach for the Real Estate Disclosure Rule.
    To ensure that families receive both specific information on the lead history of
    housing that they are planning to buy or rent and general information on lead
    exposure prevention, EPA Region 9 conducted extensive outreach to high risk
    areas, including presentations, mailings, partnerships with local lead poison-
    ing prevention organizations, and federal assistance to other outreach organi-
    zations. More than 15,000 copies of lead poisoning prevention materials were
    developed and distributed in English, Spanish, Chinese, and Vietnamese through
    dozens of community groups. In a pilot survey in summer 1997, EPA Region 9
    found that 86 % of prospective tenants and buyers in a northern California area
    received a lead hazard information pamphlet, and that  all real estate  offices
    were utilizing a disclosure form in their sales contracts. While this preliminary
    study is encouraging, the region is planning an aggressive enforcement cam-
    paign to ensure that the public is receiving the required information. For more
    information, contact Harold Rush at 415-744-1094 or Helen Burke at 415-744-1126.
                                                                              Promoting Risk Reduction  | 41

                  •  Lead-Based Paint Debris Disposal Rule: HUD,
                     HHS, several states, advocacy groups, and the
                     regulated community have expressed con-
                     cerns that the costs of testing and disposal of
                     debris containing lead-based paint under
                     RCRA are a significant obstacle to the financ-
                     ing of lead abatement. Stakeholders have also   •
                     expressed concerns that some waste which
                     contains lead-based paint is not explicitly regu-
                     lated by RCRA. OPPT (in conjunction with the
                     Office of Solid Waste) is analyzing alternative
                     management and disposal standards which
                     could be issued as a proposed rule under TSCA
                     for lead-based paint debris. OPPT anticipates
                     proposing this rule by early 1998. For more in-
                     formation, contact Tim Torma at 202-260-4595.
                   • New Training Materials. In September 1997,
                     EPA and HUD announced a  new training
                     program entitled, "Lead-Safe Practices for
                     Building Maintenance  Staff."  Designed for
                     apartment building supervisors and workers,
                     the program provides  instruction in work
                     practices and techniques that can be used to
                     prevent lead hazards when conducting main-
                     tenance work in multi-unit rental properties.
                     Program materials incorporate an interactive
                     learning format, including the use of video
                     instruction and tools for  training workers
                     onsite. For more information, contact Jack
                     Primack at 202-260-3407.
                   • State Authorization (Section 402 Rules). States
                     and tribes have until August 31,1998 to ap-
                     ply  to EPA for authorization to set up their
                     own training, certification, and accreditation
                     requirements (and workplace standards) to
                     ensure the proficiency of contractors who
                     conduct lead-based paint inspections, risk
                     assessments, and abatements in residences
                     and day care centers. Over the next year,
                     OPPT will be working  through Regional Of-
                     fices and the Forum on State and Tribal Toxics
  Action (FOSTTA)to help states and tribes de-
  velop programs that will meet with EPA ap-
  proval. OPPT will also be developing a regu-
  lation to formally implement the federal
  implementation program in non-authorized
  states and tribal lands, and to establish certi-
  fication and accreditation fees. For more infor-
  mation, contact Mark Henshall at 202-260-5089.
• Buildings and Structures. EPA is in the process
  of developing regulations for lead-based ac-
  tivities in buildings and structures. These
  regulations will be similar to the rules for resi-
  dences and day care centers; however, they
  will reflect differences in job structure, type
  of paint used, building materials and design,
  and potential for exposure to lead-based paint
  in the industrial painting sector. EPA held a
  meeting in September 1997 to gain a better
  understanding of the industrial painting sec-
  tor and will continue to gather information
  on the industry over the next year. EPA ex-
  pects to publish a proposed rule for public
  comment in late 1998.  For more information,
  contact Ellie Clark at 202-260-3402.


 EPA's Mercury Task Force was established so
 that programs throughout EPA could share in-
 formation and promote mercury risk manage-
 ment actions. The task force is chaired by OPPTS,
 Region 5, and the Office of Water. Thus far, the
 task force has developed an Agency position on
 the Department of Defense's sales of its hold-
 ings of 11 million pounds of surplus mercury;
 identified the need to investigate protective
 mercury stabilization technologies for high con-
 centration mercury wastes; raised awareness
 that a multi-media approach is necessary with
 mercury issues; and developed a regular forum
42 | Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 for information exchange. For more information,
 contact Karen Maker at 202-260-3894.

 Under the auspices of the North American Com-
 mission for Environmental Cooperation, OPPT
 is involved in the implementation of the North
 American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on
 Mercury. Working cooperatively with the Mexi-
 can government, OPPT is assisting in the devel-
 opment of a national monitoring program for
 mercury and other heavy metals in Mexico. The
 ultimate goal is for Mexico to use the data ob-
 tained from the monitoring program to estab-
 lish management plans for the prevention or
 minimization of anthropogenic inputs of mer-
 cury and other heavy metals to the environment.
    A mine tailings site in Zacatecas, Mexico has
 been selected as the location for a pilot monitor-
 ing project. The pilot will  serve as a template
 for the development of the national monitoring
 program which will also establish a database for
 heavy metals. During the  course of the pilot,
 OPPT will be helping Mexico improve its capac-
 ity to perform cost-effective sampling and analy-
 sis techniques  for the monitoring program. In
 addition, OPPT will support efforts to establish
 a tri-national comparative database with  the
 United States and Canada. For more information,
 contact Greg Susarike at 202-260-3547.

 Biphenyls (PCBs)
PCBs are mixtures of a certain class of carcino-
genic synthetic organic chemicals which are no
longer allowed to be manufactured in the United
States. OPPT has been working on new disposal
regulations — the first comprehensive review
of PCB disposal requirements in 19 years — and
expects to issue a final rule in FY1998. The new
 rule will lower costs to the regulated commu-
 nity, reduce duplication, and harmonize disposal
 standards with other federal programs.
    To lessen the chances for mismanagement of
 PCB wastes, OPPT published a rule on March 18,
 1996, whichharmonized the import requirements
 for PCBs with all other hazardous wastes and al-
 lowed for the import and disposal of PCBs in the
 United States. On July 7,1997, the U.S. Ninth Cir-
 cuit Court of Appeals overturned this rule in Si-
 erra Club v. EPA, 118 E 3d 1324 (9th Cir. 1997). The
 Court concluded that EPA lacked authority to is-
 sue the rule under section 6(e) (1) of TSCA. Instead,
 the Court found that Congress intended for EPA
 to regulate the import of PCBs under TSCA sec-
 tion 6(e)(3). Section 6(e)(3) bans the manufacture
 of PCBs (which includes the import of PCBs) un-
 less EPA issues an exemption in response to a pe-
 tition under section 6(e)(3)(B). Thus, the court
 found that EPAonly has the authority to allow PCB
 imports, including imports for disposal, by grant-
 ing exemption petitions. The Agency cannot issue
 a general rule under section 6(e)(l) allowing im-
 port for disposal. EPA is currently assessing the
 impacts of  the decision  on  the future
 transboundary management of PCB waste.
    Also on the international front, in February
 1997, environmental ministers  of Canada,
 Mexico and the United States approved the PCB
 Regional Action Plan for North America. This
 plan seeks to  achieve the regional goals of vir-
 tual elimination of PCBs in the environment,
 environmentally sound management of existing
 PCBs throughout their life cycle, and manage-
 ment of PCBs  as one element of comprehensive
 environmental  management programs. The
 three nations are currently working together on
the implementation of the action items outlined
in the PCB Regional Action Plan. For more infor-
mation, contact Peter  Gimlin at 202-260-3972 or
Tony Baney at 202-260-3933.
                                                                             Promoting Risk Reduction  | 43

              inerts/SAT Review
              InFY 1997, OPPTs Structure Activity Team (SAT),
              a group of in-house expert scientists who evalu-
              ate the potential health and environmental haz-
              ards of new and existing chemicals, assessed ap-
              proximately 1,100 chemicals used as inerts in
              pesticide formulations. To do the assessment, the
              SAT gathered readily available physical/chemi-
              cal property and toxicity test information on the
              chemicals. This information was then supple-
              mented with an analysis of structure-activity re-
              lationships. Each chemical was then reviewed in
              terms of its potential health, environmental, and
              ecological effects. The Office of Pesticide Pro-
              grams will use the SAT findings to screen pesti-
              cide formulations. For more information, contact
              Becky Jones at 202-260-3461.

               Refractory Ceramic  Fibers
              Refractory ceramic fibers are a probable human
              carcinogen, and are used in industrial settings,
              primarily as a lining in high temperature fur-
              naces, heaters, and kilns, where they could pose
               a hazard to workers. In FY1997, the Refractory
               Ceramic Fiber Coalition completed the fourth in
               a five-year program of worker monitoring. The
               data show continued reductions in most areas.
               Once all data have been collected, EPA will work
               with OSHA and NIOSH to determine whether
               or not these fibers should be regulated. For more
               information, contact Sam Brown at 202-260-2282.

               Relative  Risk-Based
               Indicators Model
               OPPT has developed an environmental indica-
               tors model to measure the impacts of TRI chemi-
cals on chronic human health of the general
population. This computer-based screening tool
permits quick but sophisticated risk-based
analyses of TRI release information by a wide
array of users, and should promote the public's
understanding of risk-related issues. The flex-
ibility of the model also allows for trends analy-
sis, ranking and prioritizing chemicals for stra-
tegic planning, risk-related targeting, and com-
munity-based environmental protection.
   Under development since 1991, the method-
ology for the indicators model was revised in
1997 and reviewed by the EPA Science Advisory
Board. A prototype Windows 95 version of the
model is currently being tested. OPPT has pur-
sued a variety of applications of  the model in
several EPA offices. For example, early analyses
of multi-media and air-specific emissions were
utilized in the Baltimore Environmental Partner-
ship and welcomed by the community. In an-
other activity, the toxicity weights developed for
the indicators were used by OECA in its Sector
Facility Indexing Project as a first step in pre-
senting risk-related issues for five industry sec-
tors. OECA's Federal Facilities Office also pub-
lished a report based in part on risk-related
 analyses provided by the Indicators model.
    OPPT is  modifying the Relative Risk-based
 Chronic Human Health Indicator to allow it to
 be used in environmental justice evaluations of
 the distribution of environmental impacts across
 populations in particular geographic areas. For
 more information, contact Nicolaas W. Bouwes at
 202-260-1622 orStevenM. Hassur at 202-260-1735.

 Screening Information
 Data  Set (SIPS)

 OPPT is working with the Screening Informa-
 tion Data Set (SIDS) Program, a voluntary pro-
 gram operated through OECD, to share the bur-
| Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 den of testing high production volume chemi-
 cals and assessing their risks. When complete
 data sets and risk assessments become available,
 member countries can take consistent action to
 reduce the risk of chemicals of concern to hu-
 mans and the environment.
    In FY 1997, OPPT peer-reviewed 10 U.S.-
 sponsored and 15 non-U.S.-sponsored SIDS Ini-
 tial Assessment Reports. The reports for the 10
 U.S.-sponsored chemicals are being finalized.
    OPPT took a more active role in chemical
 selection in FY 1997, informing industry of 92
 candidates for U.S. sponsorship and  asking
 sponsors to come forward for  about 15. When
 this approach proved unsuccessful, OPPT in-
 formed industry that it would initiate work in-
 house on 30 chemicals as U.S.-sponsored chemi-
 cals if industry failed to sponsor an adequate
 number. After this announcement, companies
 began to assume sponsorships, making an EPA
 in-house effort largely unnecessary. The total
 number of U.S.-sponsored chemicals initiated in
 FY 1997 was 28, with 22 of those sponsored by
 industry. A total of 77 chemicals have been initi-
 ated in the OECD SIDS program.
    OPPT intends to continue working with
 U.S. industry to move these chemicals through
 the process and, in the next year, assist in the
 selection and induction of additional U.S.-spon-
 sored chemicals into the SIDS Program. The
SIDS Program complements OPPT's Chemical
Testing Program by saving resources in nego-
tiating testing agreements. Approximately
three-quarters of the SIDS assessments are con-
ducted by other countries. Information on com-
pleted cases is available through the United
Nations' International Register of Potentially Toxic
Chemicals. For more information, contact Vanessa
Vu at 202-260-1243.
 TSCA  Information
 OPPT uses the authority of TSCA Sections 8(a)
 and 8(d) to require chemical producers, import-
 ers, and processors to submit unpublished
 health and safety data and exposure data to EPA.
 OPPT usually issues these rules at the request
 of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee.
    During FY 1997, and in response to the
 Clinton Administration's call for "reinventing
 government," OPPT completed work on major
 revisions to its TSCA Section 8(d) health and
 safety data reporting rule. The revisions, sched-
 uled for publication in early FY 1998, are ex-
 pected to result in substantial cost savings for
 industry as well as EPA. Specifically, the revi-
 sions involve the types of studies and the grade/
 purity of each substance for which reporting is
 required, the length of the reporting period, and
 the adequacy of the file search needed by indus-
 try to comply with the requirements of Section
 8(d). For more information, contact Keith Cronin at

 The Inventory Update Rule (IUR) updates the
 TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory every
four years by collecting basic production infor-
mation for about 9,000 chemical substances with
high production volume (10,000 pounds or more
annually).  This information helps EPA screen
chemicals based on their relative risk potential
and set national priorities for more in-depth risk
assessment and risk management activities.
                                                                             Promoting Risk Reduction  [ 45

                    During FY 1997, the IUR workgroup final-
                  ized its technical and economic analyses for pro-
                  posed amendments to the IUR. Proposed
                  amendments to the IUR (originally called the
                  Chemical Use Inventory) will adjust thresholds
                  and exemptions, add exposure-related informa-
                  tion, and make some basic administrative and
                  confidential business information (CBI) changes.
                  The amendments are expected to enhance the
                  effectiveness of current and future data, reduce
                  CBI claims, and support private sector steward-
                  ship efforts. A draft rulemaking package is
                  scheduled for Agency review in the second quar-
                  ter of FY 1998; IUR amendments are expected
                  to be proposed in the Federal Register in Spring
                  1998. For more information, contact Susan Krueger
                  at 202-260-1713.
                  SECTION 8(E)
                  CAP SUBMISSIONS
                  TSCA Section 8(e) requires anyone with infor-
                  mation that a chemical presents a "substantial
                  risk" of injury to health or the environment to
                  report that information to EPA. Between 1978
and 1992, the Agency received approximately
1,350 new 8(e) submissions. A voluntary Com-
pliance Audit Program (CAP) in 1992 stemming
from an enforcement case produced 10,522 new
8(e) submissions. To handle this large increase
in submissions, OPPT developed a triage-based
screening process. Results of the screening are
recorded in the 8(e) triage database, which is
publicly available. During 1997, OPPT com-
pleted an initial screening of 300 submissions.
This included both new submissions and the
remaining TSCA 8(e) CAP submissions.
   OPPT will continue to screen and share in-
formation submitted under TSCA 8(e)  and  its
voluntary analog, FYI (For Your Information)
submissions. The volume of submissions is
highly variable, but it is estimated that 200 to
300 8(e) and FYI submissions will require screen-
ing annually. OPPT is working with industry to
develop an electronic format for 8(e) and other
TSCA reporting requirements. A quality assur-
ance review of the most recent version of the
8(e) triage database is expected to be completed
in FY 1998. For more information, contact Terry
O'Bryan at 202-260-3483.
46 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

        Recognizing that public information is a vital link in improving public health and environ-
        mental protection, OPPT continues to find innovative ways to promote public understand-
        ing. This chapter discusses OPPT's efforts to empower the public with information, form
partnerships, increase public awareness, and improve data quality and access with the intention of
encouraging greater and informed public involvement in decision-making.
   In meeting this goal there is no more valuable resource  than the Toxics Release Inventory, a
publicly available, annual inventory maintained by OPPT. TRI is a database of toxic chemical re-
leases and transfers from manufacturing and federal facilities nationwide. TRI was established by
the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) which promotes
planning for chemical emergencies and the public's right to know about toxic and hazardous chemi-
cals in their communities. Over the years, TRI has evolved into one of the most widely-used and
action-motivating information resources in the environmental arena.
   Public empowerment has also received a boost from the widespread availability of information
on the Internet. OPPT has devoted considerable time over this past year to building and expanding
its coverage on the World Wide Web, and continues to work on making databases and other types
of information available through the Internet.
   FY 1997  also saw the conclusion of the 33/50 Program, which exceeded its goal of spurring
significant reductions in toxic releases by participating companies. During this past year, the Ford
A Public meeting
    of the South
                                                              Promoting Public Understanding of Risks  | 47

                 Foundation and Harvard University recognized the 33/50 Program in their Innovations in American
                 Government program, highlighting it as among "the best that American government has to offer"
                 and one of the nation's leading examples of government reinvention.
                 Health  Initiative
                ' OPPT has made great strides in protecting
                 children's health.  In conjunction with OPP, a
                 Strategy on Environmental Health Threats to
                 Children was developed which describes our
                 commitment and plan to implement EPA'sNa-
                 tional Agenda To Protect Children from Environmen-
                 tal Health Threats. Over the years, OPPT has
                 worked to improve our understanding of the
                 risks posed to children by environmental chemi-
                 cals. A major accomplishment has been the de-
                 velopment of new test guidelines to assess pre-
                 natal toxicity and reproductive toxicity.
                     An interagency workgroup began to gener-
                                           ate  these guide-
                                           lines in the early
                                           1990s under the
                                           leadership of
                                           OPPT and OPP.
                                           Originally, the
                                           prenatal  toxicity
                                           test was designed
                                           to assess potential
                                           toxicity to a devel-
                                           oping organism
                                           only during the
                                           embryonic stage
                                           of development.
                                           This guideline has
                                           now been modi-
                                           fied to include ex-
                                           posure during the
                                           fetal stages as
                                           well.  The repro-
ductive toxicity test was designed to detect ef-
fects from both prenatal and postnatal exposures
over two generations. This guideline has been
modified to include a more thorough assessment
of the reproductive and immune systems, growth
and development, sexual maturation, and senes-
cence. The guidelines were also modified to in-
clude endpoints for the detection of endocrine
disrupters and some neurological endpoints that
will trigger a decision on the appropriateness of
conducting a separate and more thorough devel-
opmental neurotoxkity test.
    The prenatal and reproductive  toxicity
guidelines were finalized in FY1997. They will
be  harmonized with similar efforts by OECD.
For more information, contact Jennifer Seed at 202-

 Environmental Partnership

The South Baltimore Community Environmen-
tal Partnership is OPPT's first "hands-on" project
to identify more effective ways to address envi-
ronmental issues by enabling communities to take
 the lead in decisions that affect their local envi-
 ronment. In May 1996, OPPT and the Region 3
 Office joined with local Baltimore residents,
 business representatives, and state and local
 government officials to start a community-based
 approach to environmental protection for South
 Baltimore and Northern Anne Arundel County.
 This  project is taking place in a working class,
 heavily industrialized area that includes the
 neighborhoods of Cherry Hill, Brooklyn, Brook-
 lyn Park, Curtis Bay, and Wagner's Point.
48 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

    The partnership opened an office in the com-
 munity (March 1997), selected a new executive
 leadership committee (May 1997) which provides
 more day-to-day leadership and management
 capabilities, and is in the process of applying to
 become a non-profit organization. Non-profit
 status will allow the partnership to  apply for
 the grant and foundation money necessary to
 maintain a strong presence in the community.
 In April 1997, four working committees (Eco-
 nomic Development; Trash, Illegal Dumping,
 and Housing; Human Health Effects; and
 Water Quality, Parks, and Natural Resources)
 presented their preliminary findings and recom-
 mendations for action. A fifth committee, the Air
 Committee, is working hard to complete its as-
 sessment of the community's air quality and to
 finish its plan for action. Currently, the commit-
 tees are conducting environmental education
 workshops and a variety of community clean-
 up activities.
   Building consensus in a community is not
 easy, but the Baltimore project is moving for-
 ward. Ultimately, this project will serve as a
 model for other communities addressing their
 environmental and economic concerns. For more
 information, contact Hank Topper at 202-260-6750.

 Business  Information

OPPT receives and manages a large amount of
confidential business information (CBI) on the
thousands of toxic chemicals in its purview. Pro-
tecting this material from unauthorized disclo-
sure is a major priority for the office. In FY1997,
OPPT undertook several major efforts to im-
prove TSCA CBI accountability. OPPT examined
the processing and review functions of the pro-
  gram thoroughly and developed an action plan
  for program improvement. OPPT conducted a
  complete ana!;rsis of the CBI tracking system —
  focusing on system stability, integrity, and over-
  all data management capabilities. OPPT staff
  have also investigated other data management
  systems and conducted onsite testing of alter-
  native tracking systems in Fall 1997.
     Audits were done on more than a half million
  CBI records covering all CBI received by the Con-
  fidential Business Information Center (CBIC) be-
  tween October 1993 and December 1996. CBIC is
  the official point of receipt, distribution and stor-
,  age for TSCA CBI documents. Additional audits
  are being conducted to cover the CBI received by
  EPA for FY 1997. Continuing in FY 1998, frequent
  audits will be conducted to ensure that the new
  document accountability and protection measures
  are remaining effective.
    As a result of a probe into CBIC's account-
  ability procedures, OPPT initiated an internal
  CBI "data call-in"  which gave OPPT staff a
  chance to assess their continuing need to retain
  CBI in secure work areas. For more information,
 contact Deborah Williams at 202-260-1734.

 Despite the important role states play in environ-
 mental and public health protection, they do not
 always  have available the scientific health and
 safety data necessary to make the best possible
 chemical management decisions. Afour-state pi-
 lot project conducted in 1995 offered the states of
 New York, Georgia, Illinois, and Wisconsin ac-
 cess to all TSCA-derived data, including CBI. The
 states reported that the data were not available
 elsewhere, would improve  chemical manage-
 ment goals, and could provide the basis for regu-
 latory relief to industry. Both states and industry
 trade groups have urged EPA to make TSCA data,
 including CBI, more widely available to states.
                                                                 Promoting Public Understanding of Risks  | 49

                  Over the past year, OPPT has been developing a
                  vehicle by which states will routinely secure ac-
                  cess to all TSCA data. OPPT expects this vehicle
                  to be in place in 1998. For more information, con-
                  tact Scott M. Sherlock at 202-260-1536.
                  Labeling Initiative

                  The goal of the Consumer Labeling Initiative is
                  to foster pollution prevention, empower con-
                  sumer choice, and improve consumer under-
                  standing of safety, environmental, and health in-
                  formation on household consumer product la-  ,
                  bels. Initial efforts focused on indoor insecti-
                  cides, outdoor pesticides, and household hard
                  surface cleaners, including antimicrobial and
                  floor, basin, tub, and tile products. This is a
                  multi-phase pilot project done in partnership
                  with local, state, and federal agencies, manufac-
                  turers of consumer products, trade associations,
                  public interest groups, market research experts,
                  and others.
                     FY 1997 saw  the first label improvements
                  announced under the program for pesticide
                  product labels. These included:
                     •  Changing label headings to replace the
                        term "inert" with "other ingredients";
                     •  Replacing the heading "Statement of Prac-
                        tical Treatment" with "First Aid;"
                      B Using common names instead of the com-
                        plex, formal chemical names of ingredi-
                        ents; and
                      • Putting toll-free emergency telephone
                        numbers on all pesticide product labels.
                        EPA's National Pesticide Telecommunica-
                        tions Network number can be used by
                        small companies that cannot  afford to
                        maintain their own hotlines.
                   Also announced in FY 1997 was a one-year effort
                   to identify the best way to communicate mean-
ingful information on product ingredients to con-
sumers, and to convey useful storage and dis-
posal information that takes into account local
differences in recycling and household waste
management programs. Industry partners
launched a major consumer research program to
learn how consumers interact with labels.. For
more information, contact Mary Dominiak at 202-260-
7768; Julie Lynch (202-260-4000); Amy Breedlove
(703-308-9069); or Jean Frane (703-305-5944).

Service  Standards

OPPT has undertaken several customer service
projects in concert with the goals of Executive
Order  12862 "Setting Customer Service Stan-
dards," which requires the government to be
held accountable for the quality of products and
services it provides to the public. By implement-
ing customer service standards and by conduct-
ing surveys, focus groups, and using other feed-
back tools, OPPT is seeking to continually im-
prove its information products and services.
    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
has approved EPA's request to assess customer
satisfaction with EPA's Partnership Programs.
Over the next three years, several programs will
use feedback cards to collect information on how
well, and with what degree of courtesy, the
public's needs are being met. For more informa-
 tion, contact Darlene Harrod at 202-260-6904.
    Currently, OPPT is using a mail-out survey
 to evaluate customer satisfaction with OPPT and
 OPP docket services. A telephone survey is also
 underway to evaluate customer service on the
 Toxic Release Inventory-User Support (TRI-US)
 hotline. Based on the survey results, OPPT will
 consider making changes to TRI-US, including
 changing the kinds of information products made
 available to users. OPPT will also  decide on an
50 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 ongoing means of gathering customer feedback.
 For more information, contact Georgianne McDonald
 at 202-260-4182.

 Electronic Access and
 Software Development

 OPPT is working on a new version of the
 ECOSAR software program that predicts the
 environmental toxicity of chemicals to aquatic
 organisms using structure activity relationships
 (SAR). The new version, due out in 1998, will
 be much more user-friendly. Users will no longer
 need a working knowledge of organic chemis-
 try and the SARs used by OPPT. Instead, they
 can simply input  a chemical's structure or its
 Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number.
 ECOSAR will analyze the chemical structure
 and select the SARs that OPPT would use in as-
 sessing the chemical. A toxicity profile for the
 chemical will be printed automatically. The new
 ECOSAR will include new and updated SARs,
 and can be used in a Windows configuration.
 For more information, contact Gordon Cash at 202-
 260-3900 or Vince Nabholz at 202-260-1271.

 OPPT is pursuing a voluntary program for elec-
 tronic submissions to facilitate reporting, allow
 for quicker public access, reduce industry com-
 pliance costs, reduce the likelihood of error in
 inputting data, and conserve valuable Agency
 data handling and storage resources. Biweekly
meetings were held with industry in FY1997 and
three pilot projects were conducted in the areas
of export notifications, premanufacture notifi-
cations, and test submissions to explore issues
of data security, data integrity, and authenticity.
 Draft standards are being developed based on
 experience from the pilots and will be presented
 at a public meeting in FY 1998. Once standards
 are discussed and revised, EPA will announce
 them in the Federal Register and invite industry
 to voluntarily submit TSCA data electronically.
 The first such notice is scheduled to appear in
 early 1998. For more information, contact John
 Nowlin at 202-260-8918.

 The Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool
 (WMPT) is a Windows-based software program
 that provides a screening-level assessment of the
 persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and tox-
 icity of chemicals. The software allows users to
 rank the long-term risks of chemicals, taking into
 account chemical quantities, and thus set pri-
 orities for source reduction and recycling. A joint
 product of EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW)
 and OPPT, WPMT currently ranks about 900
 chemicals and has additional data on 3,800 other
   When finalized, the WMPT will be a tool that
 can help promote understanding of health risks
 by empowering the public with information on
 the relative hazard of chemicals to which they
 are exposed. A beta-test version of the WMPT
 and User's Guide were available for public com-
 ment through October 7, 1997. The Office of
 Solid Waste  and Emergency Response's
 (OSWER's) home page has received several
 thousand inquiries related to the WMPT  since
 the system was posted. Future enhancements to
 the system-will be made in response to public
 comments. Possibilities include such features as
 consideration of photolysis/hydrolysis, addi-
 tional exposure information, and toxicity data.
An updated version of the WMPT and User's
Guide will be issued in July 1998. The system is
                                                                Promoting Public Understanding of Risks  | 51

                 available through the RCRA Hotline (800-424-
                 9346) or can be downloaded from OSWER's
                 home   page   (www.epa.gov/epaoswer/
                 hazwaste/minimize). For more information, con-
                 tact Jay Jon (OPPT) at 202-260-7971 or Mark
                 Rnlston (OSW) at 703-308-8595.

                 Identification Initiative
                 The Facility Identification Initiative is a project
                 to streamline the collection of identifying infor-
                 mation from facilities subject to federal environ-
                 mental reporting requirements. Identifying in-
                 formation generally includes such elements as
                 name of the facility, address, parent company,
                 and contact person. The goal of the initiative is
                 to provide states, environmental interest groups,
                 the regulated community, and the general pub-
                 lic with easier access to the environmental data
                 submitted by federally regulated facilities. OPPT
                 proposed this initiative based on recommenda-
                 tions from a 1994 National Advisory Council for
                 Environmental Policy and Technology task force
                 report on improving Agency information re-
                 sources management.
                     In Spring 1997, an EPA working group was
                 formed to implement the initiative. A separate
                 state working group was established under a
                 cooperative agreement with the Environmental
                 Council of the States. By December 1997, the two
                 working groups were expected to determine a
                 mutually acceptable set of EPA/state business
                 practices and data standards by which any state
                  may assume the primary role of facility data
                  manager with the goal of establishing a national
                  facility linking file. For more information, contact
                  Diane Sheridan at 202-260-3435.
Assessment Framework
In FY1997, OPPT and EPA Region 9 developed
the Pollution Prevention Assessment Framework,
a compendium of structure activity-based risk
assessment methods for chemicals that have little
or no hazard data or exposure data. The com-
pendium includes case studies that show how to
conduct screening-level risk assessments and
identify pollution prevention opportunities.
OPPT and Region 9 conducted a three-day work-
shop in October 1997 in San Jose, CA to test and
further disseminate the framework. Response to
the workshop has been strong from states, pub-
lic interest groups, and industry. For more infor-
mation, contact Bill  Waugh at 202-260-3489 or Don
Rodier at 202-260-1276.
 Toxics Release
 Inventory (TRI)
 TRI celebrates its tenth year in operation in 1997.
 TRI provides information to the public on releases
 and other waste management information for
 more than 600 chemicals and chemical catego-
 ries from certain industry sectors. With this in-
 formation, communities know what toxic chemi-
 cals are present in their neighborhoods, and fa-
 cility managers can identify opportunities for
 source reduction and compare their progress to
 other facilities around the country.
    The TRI program has been a huge success in
 many ways, even serving as a model for countries
 around the world (see section on PRTRs on page
 56). Facilities report their TRI information annu-
 ally to EPA and the state in which they are located.
 The information includes the amounts of each
 listed chemical released to the environment at the
 facility; amounts of each chemical shipped off-site
52 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 for recycling, energy recovery, treatment, or dis-
 posal; amounts of each chemical recycled, burned
 for energy recovery, or treated at the facility; and
 maximum amounts of the chemical present on-
 site at the facility during the year. EPA has devel-
 oped numerous publications and resources for
 easy access to TRI data; additional handbooks are
 in development as well • (See Information Re-
 sources at the end of this/document for details.)
    TRI has undergone a series of expansions,
 beginning in 1994 with a doubling of the num-
 ber of chemicals on the TRI list for which report-
 ing is required, followed in 1997 with the addi-
 tion of seven industries required to report releases
 to TRI, and now with consideration of a "Phase
 3" expansion to require chemical use data to be
 reported, rn FY1997, EPA went to court for the
 second time in two years to defend the addition
 of 286 chemicals to the TRI list. On August 1,1997,
 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Co-
 lumbia Circuit affirmed the judgment of the U.S.
 District Court for the District of Columbia which
 had upheld EPA's TRI chemical expansion deci-
 sion. The Court of Appeals remanded EPA's de-
 cision on only two of the 286 chemicals.

Announced by Vice-President Al Gore on Earth
Day 1997, EPA issued a final rule requiring ap-
proximately 6,100 facilities in seven additional
industries to begin TRI  reporting. The new in-
dustries added are:
   m Metal mining
   • Coalmining
   • Coal and oil-fired electric generating
   a Commercial hazardous waste  treatment
     and disposal facilities
   • Chemical wholesale distribution facilities
   • Petroleum bulk terminals and bulk plants
   • Solvent recovery facilities.
 The newly added industries will be subject to
 TRI reporting requirements beginning on Janu-
 ary 1,1998 and their first TRI reports will be due
 on or before July 1, 1999. For more information,
 contact Tim Crawford at 202-260-1715.

 One of OPPT's goals in administering the TRI
 program is to simplify reporting while still col-
 lecting the required data. The availability of
 Automated Form R (AFR) reporting software is
 helping to meet that goal.
    AFR software allows facilities the option of
 creating TRI reports on their own computers and
 sending EPA a floppy disk rather than filling out
 printed forms. This is usually easier for the facil-
 ity and eliminates rekeying of the data by EPA.
 The results are faster processing, fewer data entry
 errors, and improved data quality. Since its incep-
 tion, the program has grown in popularity. Now,
 in addition to a growing number of facilities us-
 ing the software, more and more states (which also
 receive TRI data) are accepting floppy disks cre-
 ated by AFR software instead of printed forms.
    In 1997, in response to demand, OPPT dis-
 tributed AFR for Windows software to all TRI
 facilities (a DOS version was available on re-
 quest). AFR software (both Windows and DOS
 versions) were also available for downloading
 from the TRI home page on the Internet
 (www.epa.gov/opptintr/formr.htm). The Web
 site was especially helpful in communicating
 with TRI facilities during the reporting period.
 It enabled OPPT to post improved versions of
 the software, more detailed instructions, and
 answers to frequently-asked questions. Facilities
were also able to communicate their questions
directly to the EPCRA Reporting Center using
e-mail over the Internet.
   Beginning with the 1995 reporting year, cer-
tain facilities reporting to TRI were eligible to
                                                                   Promoting Public Understanding of Risks  |  53


                  submit a simplified reporting form called Alter-
                  native Form Ainstead of Form R. Approximately
                  3,000 facilities took advantage of this reporting
                  option, reducing the total reporting burden for
                  industry by 113,000 hours. For more information,
                  contact Jan Erickson at 202-260-3801.

                   1995 TRI DATA
                  The most recent TRI data—from reporting year
                  1995 — include, for the first time, information
                   on the 286 chemicals added to the TRI in 1994.
                  Releases for the newly added chemicals totaled
                   237.7 million pounds, approximately 10 percent
                   of total TRI releases. The newly added chemi-
                   cals have all been assessed at moderately high
                   to highly toxic.
                      Figure 1 shows the air, water, and land dis-
                   tribution of the 2.2 billion  pounds  of all TRI
                   chemicals released in  1995.  Figure 2 illustrates
                   the trend in the amount of releases reported,
                   1988-1995. Figure 3 shows the disposition on-
                   site and off-site of wastes managed in 1995.
                      Toxic chemical releases declined 4.9 percent
                   from 1994 to 1995. Releases to air decreased by
                   almost seven percent, but  releases to under-
                   ground injection wells increased a dramatic 19.5
                   percent.  Since 1988, overall reported releases
                   have declined by 46 percent. (See Figure 3.)
                      The amount of toxic chemicals in waste gen-
                   erated by facilities increased 3 percent from 1994
                   to 1995, continuing the trend of increased gen-
                   eration of production-related waste (up 6.8 per-
                   cent from 1991 to 1995). Facilities expect little or
                   no progress in reducing the generation of waste
                   over the next two years.
                      Future TRI data will be even more useful
                   because it will include information on seven
                   additional industry sectors added in April 1997.
                   These industry sectors have significant releases
                   of TRI chemicals and directly support manufac-
                   turing activities currently covered under TRI.
     Distribution of TRI Releases, 1995
Figure 1
          TRI Releases, 1988-1995
   Billions of Pounds
   3.0 T
H Total Air Emissions
• Surface Water Discharges
D Underground Injection
  Releases to Land
Figure 2
This expansion is expected to spur reductions
in chemical releases in these industry sectors,
similar to TRI's effects on other manufacturing
sectors. These facilities must make their first re-
ports to TRI by July 1,1999; the information will
be available to the public in 2000.

The addition of chemical use information repre-
sents Phase 3 of TRI expansion. EPA has been ac-
tively exploring the utility of chemical use data to
public decision making. Use data could expand
the public's ability to evaluate a range of impor-
tant environmental issues in more depth than is
54 | Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997


                                                   Figure 3
                           Community Right-to-Know 1995 Toxics
                                                                  Off-site Transfers for Waste Management*
                                                                          (Millions of Pounds)
On-site Releases and Other Waste Management
          (Millions of Pounds)
' 2.4 million pounds were reported without valid waste management codes
'* Publicly owned treatment works
                                                                        Promoting Public Understanding of Risks | 55

                 currently possible. An Advanced Notice of Pro-
                 posed Rulemaking (ANPR) was published on Oc-
                 tober 1,1996, as part of EPA's response to Presi-
                 dent Clinton's directive to develop "an expedited,
                 open, and transparent process for consideration
                 of reporting under EPCRA on information on the
                 use of toxic chemicals at facilities, including infor-
                 mation on mass balance, materials accounting, or
                 other chemical use data." The ANPR announced
                 EPA's intentions to develop a proposed rule in re-
                 sponse to this issue, provided background infor-
                 mation on chemical use and materials accounting
                 information, listed preliminary data elements, ex-
                 plained how the project relates to other Agency
                  and Administration priorities, and included over
                  30 questions for feedback and comments.
                     OPPT held three public meetings in October
                  and  November of 1996 to listen to the public
                  about the issue of chemical use reporting. Five
                  days of well-attended meetings were held in
                  Boston, Baton Rouge, and Washington, DC.
                  Over 40,000 comments were received by the time
                  the comment period for the ANPR closed at the
                  end of February 1997.
                     OPPT has reviewed the comments and issues,
                  has  reviewed the experience of two state pro-
                  grams (Massachusetts and New Jersey) that al-
                  ready collect chemical use  information, and is
                  continuing to evaluate a number of other issues.
                  OPPT believes that chemical use data could im-
                  prove EPA's ability to evaluate facility source re-
                  duction and pollution prevention performance,
                  focus emergency planning efforts related to the
                  transportation of chemicals through communi-
                  ties, provide a handle on the amounts of toxic
                  chemicals going into products, and contribute to
                  improvements in worker safety and health. EPA
                  is currently looking at options for chemical use
                  reporting, and a decision on how best to proceed
                  is expected by early 1998. For more information,
                   contact Matt Gillen at 202-260-1801.
The dramatic success of TRI in the United States
in making emissions information available to the
public on a facility-specific and chemical-spe-
cific basis has led other countries and interna-
tional organizations to work toward the imple-
mentation of similar systems,  known interna-
tionally as Pollutant Release and Transfer Reg-
isters (PRTRs).
   Since PRTRs were highlighted at the 1992
Earth Summit as effective tools for managing
chemicals, OPPT has been an active participant
supporting several international projects, in-
cluding OECD's development of a PRTR Guid-
ance for Government Manual; a Council Recom-
mendation by the Environment Ministers of the
26 OECD nations calling on member states to
implement PRTR systems that include commu-
nity right-to-know; a study of industries that
report to PRTR systems; and a PRTR Conference
in Japan scheduled for 1998.
    OPPT has supported efforts of the United
Nations Institute for Training  and Research
 (UNITAR) working with industrializing nations
 and regional organizations on PRTR develop-
 ment. Pilot projects in Mexico, Czech Republic,
 and Egypt should begin yielding results in the
 next year; Mexican industries in the state of
 Queretaro, for example, will be required to re-
 port emissions to the PRTR for the 1997 report-
 ing year. OPPT is also assisting the North Ameri-
 can Commission for Environmental Coopera-
 tion in preparing its next annual report compar-
 ing U.S. and Canadian PRTR data.
    In 1997,  PRTRs and their role in effective
 chemicals management were again highlighted
 on the fifth  anniversary of the Earth Summit.
 As the number of countries with PRTRs is ex-
 pected to grow from the present six to more than
 30 in the next few years, the U.S. experience has
56 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 offered other countries a broad array of options
 and resources, including industry training and
 guidance manuals. OPPT's expertise and finan-
 cial support have been essential ingredients in
 promoting PRTRs that are publicly accessible
 and multi-media. For more information, contact
 John Harmon at 202-260-6395.

 OPPT is collecting and sharing information on
 TRI's uses in enhancing public awareness of po-
 tential risks posed by toxic chemicals released into
 the environment by industrial facilities.  These
 success stories (see box for examples) can offer
 useful ideas to other communities. In the past 10
 years, TRI has spawned a number of similar state
 and local programs as well as various organiza-
 tions that promote the use of TRI data. More than
 1,500 community groups use TRI data in their
 dealings with local government and industry.
 Also, EPA is working with 86 cities to institute a
 network to collect and disseminate information
 to the public regarding chemical releases to air,
 water and land. For more information, contact Maria
 Hendriksson at 202-260-8301.
    OPPT is also developing a community hand-
 book and user's manual, forthcoming in 1998,
 that will provide more assistance to  the public
 in using TRI data and understanding each data
 element on the TRI reporting form. For more in-
formation, contact John Harmon at 202-260-6395.
OPPT is committed to working in partnership
with Native American Tribes to foster effective
communication and establish an environmen-
tal program for Tribes that promotes pollution
prevention and protects the environment and
human health. OPPT has formed a Committee
on Native American Tribal Issues and desig-
                          nated a Tribal Coordinator. During FY 1997,
                          emphasis was placed on increasing Native
                          American participation in the Forum on State
                          and Tribal Toxics Action (FOSTTA). A represen-
                          tative of a tribe was named Chair of the Tribal
                          Affairs Workgroup. Tribal officials also partici-
                          pate in the Pollution Prevention Project and ro-
                                Pata Use Success Stories
                           |iiigh(ighteci at TRi/RTK Conference
                                September 1997 Toxics Release mventory/Right-to-Know
                           ^Conference held in.Washington, DC was the largest TRI confer-
                           i£*-=.7T ,i , ' .-. ,._-i---. •" -  -'  -'.-  .-• -  -'". "'" '  - -= """-"-    "-      ~ " "-    '  •        "• •
                                                                  t-to-know was high-
 plighted. EPA Administrator Carol Browner, Assistant Adminis-
 fftrator Lynn Goldman and Region 3 Administrator Michael
 l&Cjbeprovidedkeynote addresses. Examples of how TRI data
^|ave been successfully used were presented at the conference,
g including the following:
     Industry: Rhone-Poulenc, ranked the 6th largest chemical com-
H^; pany worldwide, openly embraced TRI for creating commu-
p r hity dialogue, forcing industry to focus onrisk issues, and pro-
£   viding a method for measuring progress. Since the company
jjr-7— began reporting to TRI, it has reduced toxic emissions by 50
li   percent and is recycling 90 percent of the chemicals it uses.
;«r • States: Examples of states that have recently instituted TRI-
I'    based initiatives include Tennessee and Louisiana, two states
     with a large number of industrial facilities. Tennessee's 2000
L    fr^tiative on ™* pollution emphasizes industry outreach and
     has experienced an increased participation of local facilities.
     Louisiana's Environmental Leadership Program targets the
     local chemical industry and stresses voluntary reductions of
     emissions beyond compliance.
   s  Advocacy: Grassroots groups and non-profit organizations
     have, in the past, successfully lobbied for state laws such as
     the Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) and a Toxics
     Right-to-Know charter amendment (Oregon). Don't Waste
     Arizona, Inc. successfully sued facilities for failure to comply
     with EPCRA. Instead of paying fines to EPA, court judgments
     required companies to apply payments toward facility im-
                                                                  Promoting Public Understanding of Risks  | 57

                  tate participation in FOSTTA's Lead Project.
                      In Spring 1997, OPPT conducted a survey of
                  other EPA offices to identify effective programs
                  beneficial to tribes and to determine if a Tribal
                  Program Proposal could be prepared for FY
                  1998. Options developed were commented on
                  by tribal representatives from the EPA Regions,
                  the American Indian Environmental Office, the
                  National Indian Workgroup, the Tribal Opera-
                  tions Committee, and various members of Na-
                  tive American tribes. The proposal is currently
                  being finalized and the selected options for FY
                  1998 will be adopted.
   Also for FY 1998, OPPT plans to design a spe-
cial communications package for Native Ameri-
can Tribes that incorporates computer access and
promotes dialogue and coordination with other
federal agencies involved with lead testing and
awareness programs on tribal lands. OPPT and
the Office of Pesticide Programs will be coordi-
nating and developing a Tribal Training Program
in FY 1998 to ensure that OPPT employees have
the necessary knowledge of, and sensitivity to,
Native American history, culture, and laws. For
more information, contact David Piantanida at 202-
260-2983 or Man/ Lauterbach at 202-260-9563.
SB | Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

                                                               site at www.wpa.gov/dfe
 Case Study #6: Printed Wiring Board Project: Pollution Prevention Beyond Regulated Materials,
 EPA/744/F-97/006,4 pages, May 1997.
 Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: A Methodology and Resources Guide, EPA/744/R-95/002,
   540 pages, December 1996.
 Design for the Environment Project Releases Direct Metalization Performance Results, 6 pages, Janu-
   ary 1997.
 Dry Cleaning Fact Sheet, EPA/744/F-93/004,2 pages, June 1997.
 Flexography Project Case Study #1: Reducing VOCs in Flexography, EPA/744/F-96/013,4 pages,
   March 1997.
 Flexography Project Case Study #2: Learning from Three Companies that Reduced VOC Emissions,
   EPA 744/F-96/016,4 pages, June 1997 (also available in Spanish).
 Implementing Cleaner Technologies in the Printed Wiring Board Industry: Making Holes Conductive, EPA/
   744/R-97/001, 60 pages, February 1997.
 Making the Most of Your Cleaning Business: Dry Cleaning/Wet Cleaning Case Studies and Financial Analysis
   Work Sheets (Draft),  54 pages, March 1997. The two factual case studies and financial analysis
   worksheets in this document can assist U.S. commercial dry cleaners in assessing their options to
   minimize or eliminate perc waste and emissions.
 Lithography Project Bulletin #3: Vegetable Ester Blanket Washes, EPA/744/F-96/014,4 pages, Oc-
   tober 1996.
 Lithography Project Bulletin #4: A Worksheet to Help You Choose A Better Wash, EPA/744/F-96/
   015, 6 pages, October 1996.
 Printed Wiring Board Case Study 5: A Continuous-Flow System for Reusing Microetchant, EPA/
   744/96/024,4 pages, December 1996.
 Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive, Volume 1,
   EPA/742/R-97/002a, 423 pages, June 1997; Volume 2, EPA/742/R-97/002a, 402 pages, June 1997.
   These documents present the evaluation of six formaldehyde-free alternatives to the standard
   electroless copper process for performing the making holes conductive function during the manu-
   facture of printed wiring boards.
Resource Guide for Garment and Textile Care Professionals, EPA/744/K-96/004,15 pages, September
  Unless otherwise indicated, to order, contact:
  Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse, tel: 202-260-1023, fax: 202-260-0178,
  or order directly from www.epa.gov/opptintr/p2home/ppicdist.htm
                                                                                        Publications  |  59

                  Screen Printing Project Publication List, EPA/744/F-96/021,8 pages, March 1997.
                  Training Curriculum for Alternative Clothes Cleaning & Instructor's Manual, EPA/744/R-97/004a, 114
                    pages, May 1997; EPA/744/R-97/004b, 180 pages, May 1997.
                  Wet Cleaning, EPA/744/K-96/002,16 pages, May 1997.
                  Your Screen Reclamation System, EPA/744/F-96/023,4 pages, May 1997.

                  Applying Environmental Accounting, to Electroplating Operations: An In-Depth Analysis. A study of the
                    feasibility and potential applicability of environmental accounting practices in the electroplating
                    industry. EPA/742/R-97-003,54 pages, May 1997.
                  Environmental Accounting Documents Available from the U.S. EPA, 6 pages, Fall 1997.
                  Environmental Accounting Project: Quick Reference Fact Sheet, 1 page, September 1997.
                  Environmental Cost Accounting for Chemical and Oil  Companies: A Benchmarking Study. This report
                    summarizes an environmental cost accounting benchmarking study of five major U.S. and Mexi-
                    can companies that are currently developing environmental  accounting systems. EPA/742/R-
                    97/004,59 pages, June 1997.
                  P2/FMANCE Software Version 3.0 and P2 Finance User's Manual (Lotus 1-2-3 Version 3.4 for DOS),
                    December 1996.
                  Valuing Potential Environmental Liabilities for Managerial Decision-Making: A Review of Available Tech-
                    niques. This report describes publicly available approaches and tools that have been developed
                    specifically for estimating the monetary value of potential, preventable environmental liability costs.
                    EPA/742/R-96/003,114 pages, December 1996.

                  Cleaning Products Pilot Project Fact Sheet, EPA/742/F-97/001,4 pages, February 1997.
                  Cleaning Products Pilot Project, EPA/742/R-97/002,20 pages, February 1997.
                  Environmental Marketing Claims, EPA/744/F-97/005, 8 pages, April 1997.
                  Selling Environmental Products to the Federal Government, EPA/742/K-97/002,1 page foldout,
                     May 1997.
                  Update #1: Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program, EPA/742/F-96/002,6 pages, February 1997.
                     Unless otherwise indicated, to order, contact:
                     Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse, tel: 202-260-1023, fax: 202-260-0178,
                     or order directly from www.epa.gov/opptintr/p2home/ppicdist.htm
60 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 LEAD PUBLICATIONS                                    Available from the National Lead
                                                       Information Center (1-800^24-LEAD).
 Finding a Qualified Lead Professional for Your Home. Informational pamphlet in question and answer
   format that explains what kinds of lead inspection services are available and what to consider
   when hiring lead professionals. English only.
 Laboratory Study of Lead-Cleaning Efficacy, EPA 747-R-97-002, March 1997.
 Lead-Based Paint Abatement and Repair and Maintenance (R&M) Study in Baltimore: Findings Based on
   the First Year of Follow-Up, EPA/747-R-97-001, August 1997.
 Lead Exposure Associated with Renovation and Remodeling Activities, EPA/747/R-005, 006, 007, 008.
 Lead In Your Home: A Parent's Guide to Poisoning Prevention. Comprehensive guide for parents wish-
   ing to learn more about the health effects of lead and steps they can take to prevent childhood
   lead poisoning in their homes. For more information, contact Megan Carroll at 202-260-7269.
 Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home. 13-page informational pamphlet that describes the haz-
   ards of lead and the analyses that can be performed to determine the lead status of a dwelling.
   Developed under Section 1018 of the Residential  Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of
   1992. English and Spanish.


 Chemicals in the Environment. Free publication, published 3 times a year.  Each issue has a theme,
   focusing on activities and information products and services associated with that theme. Sub-
   scribe to: CIE Editor, U.S. EPA (7407), 401 M Street, SW, Washington, DC 20460.
 Chemicals in Progress Bulletin. Free publication, published twice a year, describing OPPT programs
   and activity status. Subscribe to: CIPB, U.S. EPA (7409), 401M Street SW, Washington, DC 20460.
 Pollution Prevention News. Free 12-page bimonthly newsletter covering pollution prevention activi-
   ties of EPA, states, communities, industry, international. Features calendar of events, case stud-
   ies, interviews, EPA news, topical issues. Subscribe to: PPN, U.S. EPA  (7409), 401 M Street SW,
   Washington, DC 20460.

 TRI PUBLICATIONS                          Availableonlineatwww.epa.gov/opptintr/tri
 2995 TRI Public Data Release report, EPA/745/R-97/005, April 1997.  1995 State Fact Sheets, EPA/745/
   F-97/001, April 1997.  Call 800-535-0202, or fax request to 703-412-3333.
 TRI Information Kit, EPA 749-P-94-002 (Free). Available from NCEPI, call 800-490-9198, or 513-489-
   8190, or fax request to 513-489-8695.
1995 State Data Files on Disk (dBASE Lotus), up to 67 disks for all states. Available from The Gov-
   ernment Printing Office, 202-512-1530.
  Unless otherwise indicated, to order, contact:
  Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse, tel: 202-260-1023, fax: 202-260-0178,
  or order directly from www.epa.gov/opptintr/p2home/ppicdist.htm
                                                                                           Publications |  61

                   OTHER PUBLICATIONS
                   Drinking Water, Pollution Prevention, and Public Health, 8 pages, February 1997.
                   Internet Guide to Promote Concern for the Environment. Contains descriptions and computer addresses
                     for 50 Internet sites related to community-based environmental protection. Also available on
                     OPPT's home page. For more information, contact Thomas Tillman at 202-260-7605.
                   OPPTS Catalogue of Tools. A catalogue of tools, resources, and  programs on the characteristics and
                     effects of pesticides and industrial  chemicals. Includes databases, analytic tools, information
                     hotlines, technical guidelines, and descriptions of programs and initiatives that may be useful in
                     protecting local environments. The catalogue will be available as a printed manual and on the
                     Internet. For more information, contact Joe Schechter at 202-260-1540.
                   Points to Consider in the Preparation ofTSCA Biotechnology Submissions for Microorganisms. Available
                     online atwww.epa.gov/opptintr/biotech.
                   Pollution Prevention 1997: A National Progress Report. EPA 742-R-97-00, 286 pages, June 1997. Execu-
                     tive Summary, EPA 742-S-97-001,13 pages, June 1997.
                   Tlie Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Program: Awards Recipients, EPA/744/K-97/003,
                     22 pages, September 1997. This document provides a collection of the academic, small business,
                     and industrial recipients of the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Program. Pro-
                     vides a summary of technologies for which these individuals and organizations were selected to
                     receive the award.
                      Unless otherwise indicated, to order, contact:
                      Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse, tel: 202-260-1023, fax: 202-260-0178,
                      or order directly from www.epa.gov/opptintr/p2home/ppicdist.htm
62 | Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997


 r ollowing is a listing of key information resources available from OPPT and EPA relating to toxic
 chemicals and pollution prevention.

 Asbestos Ombudsman Clearinghouse/Hotline                               800-368-5888
 The Asbestos Ombudsman Clearinghouse/Hotline provides general asbestos information to the
 public.  Operated by EPA's Small Business Ombudsman's Office, it also assists small businesses in
 complying with EPA regulations. Call 703-305-5938 in the Washington metropolitan area.

 Chemical Assessment Desk                                                202-260-3998
 EPA's Chemical Assessment Desk is available to Agency personnel to answer questions on existing
 chemicals regarding health and environmental risk, toxicity, environmental persistence, exposure
 potential, production, use, and regulatory status. Inquiries from the general public are usually
 referred to the appropriate EPA hotline.

 EPCRA  Hotline                                                           800-535-0202
 The EPCRA Hotline provides information on the TRI program, including the availability of TRI data,
 TRI information products, and sources of support for TRI data users. The hotline operates Monday
 through Friday, from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. (Eastern Standard Time) in English and Spanish.

 Lead Hotline                                              800-LEADFYI (800-532-3394)
 The Lead Hotline provides general information on lead poisoning and prevention.  The hotline
 distributes a basic information packet on lead that includes the EPA brochure "Lead Poisoning and
 Your Children," three fact sheets, and a list of state and local contacts for addition information. It is
 available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week in English and Spanish. Requests for documents may.be,,
 faxed (202-659-1192) or e-mailed (ehc@cais.com). Callers with more specific questions are reared * *""
 to the Lead Clearninghouse, which provides additional informational materials, such as^fe^aY
 publications, selected journal articles, updates on and summaries of lead-related federal Igtws^and
 regulation, such as the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (Trf
 OSHA interim final rule on lead in construction, and lead-related federal grant progre
National P2 Center for Higher Education, University of Michigan
The National Pollution Prevention Center (NPPC) for Higher Education was established thrc
private-public partnership at the University of Michigan in 1991 to collect, develop and df
nate materials on pollution prevention. Materials developed by the NPPC include resourj
annotated bibliographies, problem sets, case studies, teaching notes, syllabi, and videos in the fol-
lowing discplines: accounting, architecture, business law, chemical engineering, chemistry, envi-
ronmental studies, industrial engineering, materials and logistics management, operations research
                                                                                          Resources  | 63

                  and industrial ecology, and sustainable agricul-
                  ture.  NPPC also conducts an internship pro-
                  gram for students interested in pollution pre-
                  vention as well as a Design for the Environment
                  Executive Education workshop.
                      NPPC is emphasizing the Internet in its
                  outreach activities and is planning to focus on
                  sustainability in its research over the coming
                  years. For information or to order materials, the
                  NPPC can be reached at 430 E. University, Ann
                  Arbor, MI 48109-1115; tel: 313-764-1412; fax: 313-
                  936-2195; email: nppc@umich.edu, or  on the
                  World Wide Web (www.snre.umich.edu/
* Waste Reduction Resource Center
I (EPA Regions 3&4)
" www.owr.ehnr.state.nc.us/wrrcl.htrn

tti Great Lakes Regional Pollution
is Prevention Center (EPA Region 5)
jf www.inhSiUiuc.edu/hwric/hmlhome.html
" Resources and Information
^*lor Pollution Prevention in the Southwest
" (EPA Region 6)
1 .Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention
s Resource Center (EPA Region 10)
^ pprc.pnl.gov/pprc/
                   OPPT Library
                   The OPPT Library at EPA Headquartes in
                   Washington, DC maintains a collection of  \__                     __      	1, _„„,.„ 1 I
                   books, journals, newspapers, and government
                   documents in support of the TSCA and EPCRA programs. The library's collections include publi-
                   cations in the areas of chemistry, toxicology, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, and environmental,
                   health, and safety. Special collections are also maintained on pollution prevention, biotechnology,
                   and risk assessment. The library supports walk-in and telephone reference Monday through Fri-
                   day from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. E.S.T. Requests for information can also be submitted via e-mail
                   (library-tsca@epamail.epa.gov) or the Library's web site (www.epa.gov/opptintr/library/libacces).

                   Pollution Prevention Information Centers
                   EPA awarded over $1 million in grants to establish five new regional P2 Information Centers and main-
                   tain the four existing centers. The centers' goals are to provide a centralized source for high quality P2
                   information and expertise, minimize duplication of publication and training efforts among states, in-
                   crease collaborative efforts to leverage existing resources, and synthesize new and existing P2 informa-
                   tion. The new regional centers should be up and running in FY 1998 and will focus primarily on state
                   information needs. The centers will supply and update information through the Internet for training,
                   case studies, and technical aids. For more information, contact Beth Anderson at 202-260-2602.

                   Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC)                       202-260-1023
                   PPIC is EPA's distribution center for documents and information on pollution prevention. A refer-
                   ence and referral telephone service is available to answer questions, take orders for documents, or
                   refer callers to appropriate contacts.  Hours of operation are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to
                   4:30 p.m. (Eastern Standard Time). Documents may be ordered by phone, fax (202-260-0178), e-mail
                   (ppic@epamail.epa.gov), or from the P2 Web site (www.epa.gov/oppintr/p2home).
                      A special collection of documents relating to pollution prevention, waste minimization, and
                   alternative technologies is maintained in the EPA OPPT Library.  This collection is available for
64 | Annual Report o/fte Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

browsing during visitor hours (8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time) and through EPA's
Online Library systems (OLS). OLS is available through a synchronous (modem) communication
at 919-549-0720, with 7 data bits, even parity, 1 stop bit, and half duplex.

TSCA Assistance Information Service                                        202-554-1404
The TSCA Assistance Information Service provides information and technical assistance about pro-
grams implemented under TSCA, ASHAA, and AHERA. The hotline typically handles questions
involving the handling and disposal of PCBs, asbestos in schools and public buildings, registration of
new chemicals (e.g., premanufacture notification), import certification, and reporting requirements
under TSCA. Documents available through the hotline include Federal .Register notices, asbestos guide-
books, Chemical Hazard Information Profiles, and the Chemicals in Progress Bulletin. Open to all
callers, including the general public, the hotline operates Monday through Friday, from 8:30 a.m. to
5:00 p.m. E.S.T. Requests for documents can be faxed 24 hours a day to 202-554-5603.

TRI User Support                                                           202-260-1531
TRI User  Support provides general TRI information and publications to EPA staff,  other federal
agencies, industry, environmental and public interest groups, libraries, the international commu-
nity and citizens. Information is provided in a variety of formats including printed reports, online
databases, CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and computer diskettes. TRI User Support also provides
services such as literature searches, training and demonstrations of the TRI online system, and
referrals to EPA regional or state TRI contacts and other TRI resource centers. For more information,
contact Lisa Flemming, tel: 202-260-1531, fax: 202-401-2347.


CORR (Chemicals on Reporting Rules)                         www.epa.gov/opptintr/coor
CORR contains DBASE (.DBF) files which link TSCA chemicals to Federal Register Notices. To find out
how a particular chemical is regulated under TSCA, search the CORR CHEMICAL file. The file includes
the chemical's Chemical Abstract Service number, Premanufacture Notice number, applicable TSCA
and EPCRA Section 313 sections, and corresponding Federal Register citations. A separate FEDREG file
contains summaries of the final and proposed rules published in the Federal Register that are cited in the
CHEMICAL file. The database is updated quarterly in January, April, July, and October. It is available
from the TSCAHotline (202-554-1404) on diskette, through the Internet (www.epa.gov/ opptintr/CORR),
and through RTK-Net. For more information, contact Jim Bradshaw at 202-260-1543.

Envirofacts                                                          www.epa.gov/enviro
Envirofacts is a national information system that allows users to retrieve environmental informa-
tion from  seven major EPA databases on Superfund sites, drinking water, toxic, and air releases,
hazardous waste, water discharge permits, and grants information. In addition, three integrated
databases — the  Facility Index System, the Master Chemical Integrator, and Locational Reference
Tables — are accessible via Envirofacts. The system provides query forms that retrieve information
from the various databases and then generates facility-based reports using the information. Results
of queries can also be mapped via Envirofacts' "Map On Demand" feature.
                                                                                              Resources | 65

                   IRIS                                                         www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris
                   The Integrated Risk Information System - IRIS - is an electronic database containing information
                   on human health effects that may result from exposure to various chemicals in the environment.
                   IRIS is intended for those without extensive training in toxicology, but with some knowledge of
                   health sciences. It is a tool that provides hazard identification and dose-response assessment infor-
                   mation. Combined with specific exposure information, the data in IRIS can be used for character-
                   ization of the public health risks of a chemical in a particular situation that can lead to a risk man-
                   agement decision designed to protect public health. To aid users in accessing and understanding
                   the data in the IRIS chemical files, the system provides extensive supporting documentation.
Beginning in
                                            ' year thereafter, EPA has published a CD-ROM containing the Toxics
                   Release Inv'e^of^^^S^^M- provides the entire TRI database for 1987 through 1995 on two
                                            qwsfqr searching on many fields, e.g., by chemical, company, kind of
disks and inalormat.l
release, or zip code, across multiple, years of data. Users can also conduct multiple and complex
searAes^esp'ectllLy use|uFto individuals or groups wishing to analyze trends or perform statistical
analyses. The CDJlIJiS'also provides a wealth of other TRI information, including a tutorial, TRI
Staff? Fact Sheets, TR?l5ata "Releas'elfppk, TRI Reporting Form, and Chemical Fact Sheets. Current
          of the TRI
                                          -KOlf is over 4,000, including libraries, universities, and public interest
                   gro'tips. Through a graVit with the National Science Teachers Association, a cross-disciplinary set of
                      g^m materials'lind activities using TRI data will be developed for the second half of the 1997-
                           "year ; O*PPT plans to release a user-friendly Windows version next year and is investigat-
                       itSerliSeas for educational and multi-media applications. For more information, contact John Nowlin
                                "8. The CD-ROM caribe ordered from U.S. GPO, 202-512-1800, S/N 055-000-00556-7 ($43)
                              ;J 800-553-6847, PB 9'6503214 ($45).
                   TSCATS   """                                               www.rtk.net/www/data/tsc
                   The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions - TSCATS - is an online index to unpublished,
                   non-confidential studies covering chemical testing results and adverse effects of chemicals on health
                   and ecological systems. Four types of industry documents are included in TSCATS: Section 4 chemical
                   testing results; Section 8(d) health and safety studies; Section 8(e) substantial risk of injury to health
                   or environment notices; and voluntary documents submitted to EPA known as a For Your Informa-
                   tion (FYI) notice.
                   INTERNET ACCESS
                   To access the vast amount of environmental information on the Internet, here are some useful World
                   Wide Web addresses related to OPPT's activities:

                   EPA [[[ www.epa.gov
                   EPA's Web site contains a vast array of information. The home page provides a list of categories that

 about EPA's projects and programs; find out about laws and regulations; locate EPA offices, labs,
 and regions; browse through EPA publications; get the latest news and upcoming events; discover
 new databases and software tools; or see what grants and fellowships are available. In addition, the
 Home Page provides links to a range of other resources both inside and outside the agency.

 OPPT	www.epa.gov/opptintr
 OPPT's home page has seven broad categories that users can click on to link to sites that provide
 more in-depth information on topical areas in each category. OPPT's programs and projects, publi-
 cations, databases and software can all be accessed through the home page. In addition, a section
 for "Kids" provides information tailored for children, students, and teachers; and a section for "Con-
 cerned Citizens" provides information designed to help consumers and communities. Users can
 also link to other information resources - dockets, clearinghouses, libraries, and hotlines - for spe-
 cific concerns.

 Pollution Prevention	www.epa.gov/oppintr/p2home/index
 OPPT's Pollution Prevention home page links users to information about pollution prevention pro-
 grams and activities both inside and outside of EPA. Specifically, users can choose from the follow-
 ing categories: EPA's  pollution prevention programs and projects;  publications, such as OPPT's
 PPN newsletter; the latest announcements on conferences, training and Federal Register notices;
 grant programs  for pollution prevention activities at the state, local,  and tribal level; The Pollution
 Prevention Act of 1990 and subsequent policy statements that have influenced the implementation
 of pollution prevention by EPA; and other informational resources and links.

 Chemical Testing and Information	www.epa.gov/opptintr/chemtest/index.htm
 The Chemical Testing and Information home page provides an overview of TSCA with links to
 more specific information on: TSCA's Chemical Testing Program including the Master Testing List,
 the Interagency Testing Committee, Screening Information Datasets, and High Production Volume
 Chemical List; TSCA's Information Gathering Activities including the PAIR Form Filing Package;
 and TSCA's information Sharing and Access Program.

 Enviro$en$e	es.epa.gov
 Enviro$en$e is an integrated environmental information system developed by EPA to encourage
 common sense solutions, such as pollution prevention, to environmental problems. It contains in-
 formation on EPA's laws, executive orders, policies, and guidance, in addition to documents, case
 studies, and proceedings from other federal and state agencies, the National Pollution Prevention
 Roundtable, industry, academia, and non-profit organizations.

 New Chemicals Program	www.epa.gov/opptintr/newchem
 The New Chemical Program's home page contains a broad overview of the program with links to:
 informational and guidance documents about the program; status reports on recent PMN filings,
 exemptions, and reasonableness of risk findings; the TSCA inventory; SNURs and SNUNs, and
Section 5(e) orders.
                                                                                          Resources   67

1995 TRI Data	54
33/50 Program	6,47
Accountability of CBI Data	,	46
Acrylamide	35
Acute Exposure Guidelines	36
Asbestos	36,37
Asbestos Ombudsman/Clearinghouse	63
Autobody Spray Paints	30
Automated Form R	53
Baltimore (Community Environmental Partnership) 47,48
Bankers' Forum	12
Benzidine-Based Dyes	22
Biotechnology	22
Business Applications	10
Business Plan Review Service	11
Canada	25,27
Chemical Assessment Desk	63
Chemical Testing and Information home page	67
Chemicals on Reporting Rules (CORR)	65
Chemical Use Data - TRI Phase 3 Expansion	55
Chicago Cumulative Risk Initiative	37
Children's Health Initiative	48
Clearinghouses	63
Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) .... 25
Common Sense in the Computer
   and Electronics Sector	12
Community Environmental
   Partnership (South Baltimore)	48
Community College Partnership (DfE)	23
Confidential Business Information (CBI)	49
Consumer Labeling Initiative	50
Core TSCA National Conference	32
Customer Service Standards	50
Databases	65
Design for the Environment (DfE)	23,59
Dry Cleaning (DfE)	23
ECOSAR Software	51
Electronic Submission of TSCA Data	51
Endocrine Disrupters	24
Enforceable Consent Agreements and Test Rules	31
Envirofacts	65
Environment Leaders' Summit	26
Environmental Justice through
  Pollution Prevention Grants	12
Environmental Cost Accounting	10, 60
Environmentally Preferable Purchasing	13,60
Environmental Technology
  Initiative (ETI) for Chemicals	30
Enviro$en$e	67
EPA's Web site	67
EPCRA Hotline	63
Exports of Chemicals	25
Facility Identification Initiative	52
Flexographic Printing (DfE)	23
Formaldehyde Exposure Testing	38
Forum of State and Tribal Toxics Action (FOSTTA)	20
Four Corners Pilot Project	27
G7 & 1	26
Garment and Textile Care Program (DfE)	24
Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission	26
Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)	5
Green Chemistry	14
Green Chemistry Challenge Awards	14
Harmonized Test Guidelines	33
Hotlines	63
"Human Health Indoors" Policy Initiative	38
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)	66
International Activities	25
Internet	47, 66
ISO 14000,14001	12,19
James W. Craig Pollution
   Prevention Leadership Award	10
Lead Hotline	63
Lead Programs	38
Lead Publications	61
Local Governments	17
 68 |  Annual Report of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, FY 1997

 Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)	28
 Master Testing-List	„.. 34
 Media Association Pollution Prevention Forum	20
 Mercury	42,43
 Methyl Ethyl Ketoxime	30
 Mexico	25,43,56
 National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure
   Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances	36
 National Pollution Prevention Center for
   Higher Education, University of Michigan	63
 National Pollution Prevention Progress Report	9,10
 Native American Tribes	55
 New Chemicals Program	28
 New Chemicals Pollution Prevention
   Recognition Award	29
 New Chemicals Program home page	67
 Newsletters	61
 Organization for Economic Cooperation
   and Development (OECD)	25,33-34,45,56
 Office Directors' Forum	20
 ONE and TAG Committees	20
 OPPT Library	64
 OPPT home page	67
 Partnership Programs Coordinating Committee	20
 PCBs	43
 Persistent, Bioaccumulative
   and Toxics (PBT) Initiative	15
 Pesticide Inerts/SAT Review	44
 Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers	56
 Pollution Prevention Assessment Framework	52
 Pollution Prevention home page	67
 Pollution Prevention Incentives
   for States (PPIS) Grants	16
 Pollution Prevention Information Centers	64 '
 Pollution Prevention Information
   Clearinghouse (PPIC)	64
 Pollution Prevention Trade
   Association Workgroup	20
Pollution Prevention Week	10
Premanufacture Notifications	28
Printed Wiring Boards (DfE)	24
 Product Stewardship	30
 Refractory Ceramic Fibers	44
   Coordination with Regions	4
   Pollution Prevention in the Regions	17
   Regional Initiatives on Lead (Regions 3,9)	41
   Regional Efforts on Asbestos (Regions 7,10)	37
 Relative Risk-Based Environmental Indicators	44
 Russia	26
 Screening Information Data Set (SIDS)	44
 Significant New Use Rules	22,28
 Small Business Development Center Pilots	11
 SMART Review	30
 Software Development	51
 State Access to CBI Data	49
 Strategic Plan	5
 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)	16,47,52,61
 TRI Facility Expansion	53
 TRI Phase 3 Expansion	54
 TRI Public Data Release	66
 TRI User Support	65
 TRI/RTK Conference	57
 Tribal Program	57
 TSCA Assistance  Information Service	65
 TSCA Sections 8(a) and 8(d)
   Information Gathering Rules	45
 TSCA Section 4 Testing	31
 TSCA Section 8(e) CAP Submissions	46
 TSCA Information Rules	45
 TSCA Interagency Testing Committee	33
 TSCA Inventory	21
 TSCA Inventory Update Rule Amendments	45
 TSCA Section 4 Enforceable Consent Agreements and
   Test Rules	30
 TSCATS (Toxic Substances Control
   Act Test Submissions)	31,66
 Uses of TRI Data	57
Voluntary Standards Network & ISO
   14000 Environmental Management Standards	19
Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool	51
Workgroups, Forums, and Committees	20
                                                                                    Index of Projects |  69