v>EPA
National Primary Drinking Water Standards
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
^^^H Contaminants

Fluoride
Volatile Organics
Benzene
Carbon Tetrachloride
p-Dichlorobenzene
1 ,2-Dichloroethane
1 , 1 -Dichloroethy lene
Trichloroethylene
1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
Vinyl Chloride
4.0
zero
zero
0.075
zero
0.007
zero
0.2
zero
IV 1C L
(m«/L)
4.0
0.005
0.005
0.075
0.005
0.007
0.005
0.2
0.002
Office of Water EPA 81 0-F-94-001
4601 February 1994
Washington DC 20460
Potential II call h Itftects from
In«>estion of Water
Skeletal and dental fluorosis
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer, liver and kidney effects
Cancer
Liver, nervous system effects
Cancer
Sources ot Contaminant in Drinking Water
Natural deposits; fertilizer, aluminum indstrs.; H,O additive
Some foods; gas, drugs, pesticide, paint, plastic industries
Solvents and their degradation products
Room and water deodorants, and "mothballs"
Leaded gas, fumigants, paints
Plastics, dyes, perfumes, paints
Textiles, adhesives and metal degreasers
Adhesives, aerosols, textiles, paints, inks, metal degreasers
May leach from PVC pipe; formed by solvent breakdown
Coliform and Surface Water Treatment
Giardia lambia zero TT Gastroenteric disease Human and animal fecal waste
Legionella zero TT Legionnaire's disease Natural waters; can grow in water heating systems
Standard Plate Count N/A TT Indicates water quality, effectiveness of treatment
Total Coliform*
Turbidity*
Viruses
Phase II - Inorganics
Asbestos (>10um)
Barium*
Cadmium*
Chromium* (total)
Mercury* (inorganic)
Nitrate*
Nitrite
Selenium*
Phase II - Organics
Acrylamide
Alachlor
Aldicarb*
Aldicarb sulfone*
Aldicarb sulfoxide*
Atrazine
Carbofuran
Chlordane*
Chlorobenzene
2,4-D*
o-Dichlorobenzene
cis- 1 ,2-Dichloroethylene
zero
N/A
zero
7MFL
2
0.005
0.1
0.002
10
1
0.05
zero
zero
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.003
0.04
zero
0.1
0.07
0.6
0.07
trans-l,2-Dichloroethylene 0.1
Dibromochloropropane zero
1,2-Dichloropropane zero
Epichlorohydrin
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene dibromide
Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
zero
0.7
zero
zero
zero
<5%+
TT
TT
7MFL
2
0.005
0.1
0.002
10
1
0.05
TT
0.002
0.003
0.002
0.004
0.003
0.04
0.002
0.1
0.07
0.6
0.07
0.1
0.0002
0.005
TT
0.7
0.00005
0.0004
0.0002
Indicates gastroenteric pathogens
Interferes w/ disinfection/filtration
Gastroenteric disease
Cancer
Circulatory system effects
Kidney effects
Liver, kidney, circulatory disorders
Kidney, nervous system disorders
Methemoglobulinemia
Methemoglobulinemia
Liver damage
Cancer, nervous system effects
Cancer
Nervous system effects
Nervous system effects
Nervous system effects
Mammary gland tumors
Nervous, reproductive system
Cancer
Nervous system and liver
Liver and kidney damage
Liver, kidney, blood cell damage
Liver, kidney, nervous, circulatory
Liver, kidney, nervous, circulatory
Cancer
Liver, kidney effects; cancer
Cancer
Liver, kidney, nervous system
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Human and animal fecal waste
Soil runoff
Human and animal fecal waste
Natural deposits; asbestos cement in water systems
Natural deposits; pigments, epoxy sealants, spent coal
Galvanized pipe corrosion; natural deposits; batteries, paints
Natural deposits; mining, electroplating, pigments
Crop runoff; natural deposits; batteries, electrical switches
Animal waste, fertilizer, natural deposits, septic tanks, sewage
Same as nitrate; rapidly converted to nitrate
Natural deposits; mining, smelting, coal/oil combustion
Polymers used in sewage/waste water treatment
Runoff from herbicide on corn, soybeans, other crops
Insecticide on cotton, potatoes, others; widely restricted
Biodegradation of aldicarb
Biodegradation of aldicarb
Runoff from use as herbicide on corn and non-cropland
Soil fumigant on corn and cotton; restricted in some areas
Leaching from soil treatment for termites
Waste solvent from metal degreasing processes
Runoff from herbicide on wheat, corn, rangelands, lawns
Paints, engine cleaning compounds, dyes, chemical wastes
Waste industrial extraction solvents
Waste industrial extraction solvents
Soil fumigant on soybeans, cotton, pineapple, orchards
Soil fumigant; waste industrial solvents
Water treatment chemicals; waste epoxy resins, coatings
Gasoline; insecticides; chemical manufacturing wastes
Leaded gas additives; leaching of soil fumigant
Leaching of insecticide for termites, very few crops
Biodegradation of heptachlor
NOTES: * Indicates original contaminants with interim standards which have been revised. TT=Treatment Technique requirement MFL=Million Fibers per Liter

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      Contaminants
MCLC; MCL
(nig/L) (nig/D
         Potential Health Kttects from
               digestion of Water
                                                                                    Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water
  Phase n -Organics (continued)
  Lindane                   0.0002
  Methoxychlor              0.04
  Pentachlorophenol
  PCBs
  Styrene
  Tetrachloroethylene
   Toluene
   Toxaphene
   2,4,5-TP
   Xylenes (total)
   Lead and Copper
   Lead*
   Copper
   Phase V - Inorganics
   Antimony
   Beryllium
   Cyanide
         O.OC02    Liver, kidney, nerve, immune, circu.
         0.04      Growth, liver, kidney, nerve
         0.001     Cancer; liver and kidney effects
         0.0005    Cancer
         0.1       Liver, nervous system damage
         0.005     Cancer
        ~T
                                          Insecticide on cattle, lumber, gardens; restricted 1983
                                          Insecticide for fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock, pets
                                          Wood preservatives, herbicide, cooling tower wastes
                                          Coolant oils from electrical transformers; plasticizers
                                          Plastics, rubber, resin, drug industries; leachate from city landfills
                                          Improper disposal of dry cleaning and other solvents
   Nickel
   Thallium
          Liver, kidney, nervous, circulatory
0.003     Cancer
0.05      Liver and kidney damage
10        Liver, kidney; nervous system

          Kidney, nervous system damage
          Gastrointestinal irritation
          •^^^^••H

          Cancer
          Bone, lung damage
          Thyroid, nervous system damage
          Heart, liver damage
0.002    Kidney, liver, brain, intestinal
Gasoline additive; manufacturing and solvent operations
Insecticide on cattle, cotton, soybeans; cancelled 1982
Herbicide on crops, right-of-way, golf courses; cancelled 198
By-product of gasoline refining; paints, inks, detergents
                                                    NaturaVindustrial deposits; plumbing, solder, brass alloy faucets
                                                    Natural/industrial deposits; wood preservatives, plumbing
                                                     Fire retardants, ceramics, electronics, fireworks, solder
                                                     Electrical, aerospace, defense industries
                                                     Electroplating, steel, plastics, mining, fertilizer
                                                     Metal alloys, electroplating, batteries, chemical production
                                                     Electronics, drugs, alloys, glass   	
     •rganics
    Adipate, (di(2-ethylhexyl))  0.4

    Dalapon                   0.2
    Dichloromethane          zen
          0.4        Decreased body weight;
                     liver and testes damage
          0.2        Liver, kidney
          0.005     Cancer
                                           Synthetic rubber, food packaging, cosmetics

                                           Herbicide on orchards, beans, coffee, lawns, road/railways
                                           Paint stripper, metal degreascr, propellant, extraction
    Dinoseb
    Diquat
    Dioxin
    Endothall
    Endrin
    Glyphosate
    Hexachlorobenzene
    Hexachlorocy elope ntadiene
           0.007     Thyroid, reproductive organ damage
           0.02      Liver, kidney, eye effects
           0.00000003 Cancer
           0.1        Liver, kidney, gastrointestinal
           0.002     Liver, kidney, heart damage
                                            Runoff of herbicide from crop and non-crop applications
                                            Runoff of herbicide on land & aquatic weeds
                                            Chemical production by-product; impurity in herbicides
                                            Herbicide on crops, land/aquatic weeds; rapidly degraded
                                            Pesticide on insects, rodents, birds; restricted since 1980
    Oxamyl (Vydate)
    PAHs (benzo(a)pyrene)
    Phthalate, (di(2-ethylhexyl)
           0.7       Liver, kidney damage
           0.001     Cancer
           0.05      Kidney, stomach damage
           0.2       Kidney damage
           0.0002    Cancer
           0.006     Cancer
                                            Herbicide on grasses, weeds, brush
                                            Pesticide production waste by-product
                                            Pesticide production intermediate
                                            Insecticide on apples, potatoes, tomatoes
                                            Coal tar coatings; burning organic matter; volcanoes, fossil fuels
                                            PVC and other plastics	
     Picloram                  0.5      0.5
     Simazine                  0.004    0.004
     1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene     0.07     0.07
     1,1,2-Trichloroethane      0.003    0.00-	
     Other Proposed (P) and Interim (I) Standards
     Beta/photon emitters (I) and (P)zero     4 mrem/yr Cancer
     Alpha emitters (I) and (P)  zero     15 pCi/L  Cancer
     Combined Radium 226/228 (1) zero     5 pCi/L   Bone cancer
     Radium 226*(P)           zero     20 pCi/L  Bone cancer
     Radium 228*(P)           zero     20 pCi/L  Bone cancer
     Radon (P)                zero     300 pCi/L Cancer
                      Kidney, liver damage
                      Cancer
                      Liver, kidney damage
                      Kidney, liver, nervous system
                                            Herbicide on broadleaf and woody plants
                                            Herbicide on grass sod, some crops, aquatic algae
                                            Herbicide production; dye carrier
                                            Solvent in rubber, other organic products; chemical production waste
                                                      Decay of radionuclides in natural and man-made deposits
                                                      Decay of radionuclides in natural deposits
                                                      Natural deposits	
                                                      Natural deposits
                                                      Natural deposits
                                                      Decay of radionuclides in natural deposits
     Uranium (P)
     Sulfate (P)
     Arsenic*(I)
     Total Trihalomethanes (I)
    zero     0.02
    400/500 400/500
    0.05     0.05
    zero     0.10
             Cancer
             Diarrhea
             Skin, nervous system toxicity
             Cancer
   Natural deposits
   Natural deposits
   Natural deposits; smelters, glass, electronics wastes; orchards
   Drinking water chlorination by-products	
NOTES: * Indicates original contaminants with interim standards which have been revised.
       t Action Level = 0.015 mg/L          t Action Level = 1.3m g/L
                                      TT=Treatment Technique requirement
                                      pCi = picocurie - a measure of radioactivity
                                                             MFL=Million Fibers per Liter
                                                             mrem = millirems - a measure of radiation absorbed by the body

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