United States     EPA/814-B-92-001
       Environmental Protection ApriM992

       Ground Water and Drinking Water
f/EPA  Pocket
        Guide for
        Operators of
        Small Water

This guide has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and approved for publication. Mention
of trade names or commercial products does not consti-
tute endorsement or recommendation for use.

 Guide for
 Operators of
 Small Water
Office of Ground Water
and Drinking Water
U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
Cincinnati, OH 45268

Printed on Recycled Paper


This sampling guide was developed by the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water
and Drinking Water, Cincinnati, Ohio. Jim Walasek, Tech-
nical Support Division (TSD), developed the text for the
guide and  provided overall  project  management Jim
Westrick  and  other TSD staff members reviewed the
guide. Susan Richmond of Eastern Research Group, Inc.
(ERG) Arlington, Massachusetts, edited and coordinated
production of the guide.  Carl Bonvini, Karen Ellzey, and
Aarre Laakso, ERG, designed, illustrated,  and  desktop
published the document.
The cover photograph was taken by Jim Walasek.  Other
photography was provided by Mary Ann Nilsson, Amanda
L. Conaway, and Michele Bolyard, TSD. EPA also would
like to acknowledge Damon Boutche, Erik Mansfield, and
the staff of the Town of Essex Water Department, Essex,
Massachusetts, and Jim Hesler and  Eric Heiser of the
Batavia (Ohio) Waterworks, for the use of their facilities
and assistance in coordinating photography of sampling

 How to Use This Guide	2
      General Sampling Considerations	2
      The Rules	"  2
 General Sampling Considerations	6
   Assemble Equipment	""5
   Ensure Representative Sampling	[ 6
   Collect the Sample	..'"""""""".B
   Record and Report Results	".".".".".7
   Fill Out Chain-of-Custody Forms	"""""""""""""7
   Pack and Transport the Samples	"",Q
   Be Aware of Public Notification Requirements (PNR) "9
 VOC Rule	1n
   Summary	     	12
     Status .......... ... ............                       13
     MCL ........................ . ......... Z!!Z!ZZZZZis
   Monitoring Requirements ........................................... 13
     General ..................................... . ...................... .T  13
     Effective Date ................. . ....................................... -14
     Number of Samples ................................... !!!!"!".".'l4
     Location ........................................ . ........................ -14
     Analytical Methods .................................. !!!"."!.""" 15
   Unregulated Contaminants: 1987.........         ..... *16
   VOCs:1991 [[[ "!"""l8
     Status ......................................                -jg
     MCL .................................. """""""""!.'"""".".".""."l8
   Monitoring Requirements ...................................... '""."IB
     Effective Date [[[ -jg
     Number of Samples ........................ . ............ !!"!!!! ."is
     Location .......... . ..................................................   ^g
     Schedule [[[ !.!!!l9
   Sampling ...................................... . ......... !.."""."..^...,.20
     Sample Containers ................................................. 20
     Procedure .............................. . ........................... .....20
Total Coliform Rule .............. . .......... . ............... t ............. 27
  Summary .................... . ....................................... " ...... 28

      Sampling Plans	t	29
      Effective Date	"	29
      Number of Samples	.........."!!30
      Variances and Exemptions	31
      Sanitary Surveys	32
      Analytical Methods	"!ZZZs2
      Sampling Locations	    33
    Sampling	ZZZ!	34
      Sample Containers....	,	 34
      Procedure	'"	34
 Surface Water Treatment Rule	43
    Summary	     	--
      Treatment Techniques ........................................... 45
   Monitoring Requirements ................................... """  45
      General ............................................ ..."...............   45
      Effective Dates .............................................. ......... 45
      Operator Qualifications ........................... .""!!"."!.'."! 46
      Operating Criteria— Systems with Filtration "."".....46
      Operating Criteria— Systems without Filtration ...... 49
      Variances and Exemptions ..................................... 51
      Reporting and Recordkeeping ...................   ........ 52
     Analytical Methods ........... . ............... ZZZ!"  53
   Sampling— Systems with Filtration ...................... ..."...54
     Turbidity Monitoring ............................................... 54
     Procedure ...........................................    [ ........... 54
     Disinfection Monitoring ................................ ."."...'.'.57
     Procedure..... .................... . .............. ............". ........ 57
   Sampling— Systems without Filtration ......... ......!"".!..61
     Procedure [[[   ...... 61
Lead and Copper Regulation ........... .. .......................... 63
   Summary [[[ .............. 64
     Status .......................            ..........................
    Treatment Techniques ............................................ Q5
  Monitoring Requirements .............................. .....'".....6Q
    General [[[ ............ 66
    Tap Water Sampling .................................... ...........66
    Monitoring for Water Quality Parameters ..... ..........69
    Source Water Sampling ....................................... "79

     Procedure	72
     First-Draw Sampling	73
     Service Line Sampling	.77
Appendix A: Glossary..	81
Appendix B: Standardized Monitoring Framework ...85
Appendix C: Bibliography	87
Contacts	88
Notes	90


This guide is intended to help operators of small water
systems understand and comply with the monitoring re-
quirements  of  the Amendments to the  Safe Drinking
Water Act (SDWA) passed by Congress in 1986. The guide
addresses primarily operators of community water systems
serving less than 3,300 people, or so-called "small systems."
The 1986 amendments outlined a schedule for the U.S.
Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA) to set enforce-
able standards, known as Maximum Contaminant Levels
(MCLs) or treatment techniques for 83 contaminants.
This guide will  cover most of the sampling requirements
for the new regulations that have already been promul-
gated under the 1986 amendments:
•   The Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOC) Rule
•   The new Total Coliform Rule (TCR)
•   The Surface  Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), which
    includes filtration  and disinfection  requirements for
    surface water systems
•   Lead and Copper Regulation

Sampling requirements for new regulations regarding
synthetic organic pesticides,  other  inorganics,  and
new radionuclide standards, which will take effect in
upcoming years, will  be covered in a companion guide
to be published in 1993.

 How to Use This Guide

 The purpose of this guide is to provide quick reference in-
 formation, as well as detailed sampling instructions, for
 complying with the monitoring requirements of the SDWA.
 The guide is composed of the following parts:

 General Sampling Considerations
 The first unit is a brief overview of things to consider when
 sampling for most contaminants. Topics covered include:
 •  Equipment
 •  Representative Sampling
 •  Sample Collection
 •  Recording and Reporting Results
 •  Chain of Custody
 •  Transporting Samples for Shipment
 •  Public Notification Requirements

 You should review this section carefully before performing
 any sampling in the field.

 The Rules
 The main body of the guide is divided into four units that
 summarize the regulations and sampling procedures for
 each contaminant class:
•  The Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOC) Rule
•  The Total Coliform Rule (TCR)
•  The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR)
•  The Lead and Copper (Pb and Cu) Regulation

Each of these  units contains the following sections:

 Unit Opener
An illustrated cover page with a colored tab at the bottom,
which marks the beginning of the unit.  The tab, on which
the  abbreviated name of the rule is written, allows you to
quickly find the appropriate unit by thumbing through the
guide. This tab is repeated, in a lighter color, at the top of
all even-numbered pages and the bottom of all odd-num-
bered pages throughout the unit

 A summary of the rule, including an  introduction to the
 contaminant(s) of concern and a brief status and descrip-
 tion of the regulation.

 List of Terms
 Important terms, including acronyms, used  in the unit,
 listed in alphabetical order in two columns. These terms
 are printed in boldface type where they are introduced in
 the text and are defined in the Glossary in Appendix A.

 The date the final rule was promulgated, along with the
 dates of any modifications to the rule. The  status also
 cites the appropriate Federal Register notice where the
 rule can  be found.  The Federal Register is published
 every day except holidays and can be obtained from your
 local library. Federal Register citations in the guide are ab-
 breviated and read as follows:

                  52  FR  2561

   Volume No.   _ .    '    , ,    Page No.
                 Federal Register
 The Volume No.  refers to the year of publication.  In the
 above example, 52 refers to 1992.  In  1993, the Volume
 No.  would be 53.  The Page  Nos. run  consecutively
 through the year, beginning with page 1 on January 2nd.

 Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
 The enforceable standard set by the rule that specifies
 how much of the contaminant can be present.

 Treatment Technique
 Techniques for contaminant removal and/or control that
 are required under the regulation.

 Monitoring Requirements
A brief description of the monitoring requirements for the
rule.  Information  contained  here may vary, but includes
date(s) the requirements take effect, number and type of
samples required, sampling  location,  compliance sched-
ule, analytical methods, and reporting requirements. This

 section also includes tables and figures to help you deter-
 mine your specific sampling needs.

 Sampling Procedures
 This section contains detailed information about sampling
 equipment and procedures. Where appropriate, this sec-
 tion opens with a brief description of Sample Containers
 that can be used to collect samples in the field. The pages
 that follow describe step-by-step Procedures for proper
 sampling.  Accompanying  photographs  illustrate  correct
 sampling  techniques using proper equipment In some
 cases, split photographic images are used to show details
 of a single step of the procedure or to show a step being
 performed using two different types  of equipment. For
 your convenience in the field, these same illustrated sam-
 pling procedures also are reproduced on durable  foldout
 pages, tucked into the back pocket of the guide.
 Following the units on specific monitoring rules are some
 additional tools to assist you in your sampling in the field:
 •  Appendix A: Glossary. Definitions of important terms
    and acronyms  used throughout  the  guide.  These
    terms and acronyms are listed at the beginning of the
    rules in which they are used and  printed in boldface
    type where they are introduced in the guide.
 •  Appendix B: Standardized Monitoring Framework.
    A description, with illustrative tables, of the framework
    for monitoring  frequency established in 1991. This
    framework was designed to reduce the variability and
    complexity   of  monitoring   for   drinking   water
 •  Bibliography. A list of publications cited throughout
    the guide, that contain more detailed information on
    specific contaminants, monitoring requirements, or
    sampling procedures.
 •  Contacts and  Notes. Several blank pages for your
    use in  keeping  important phone numbers, such as
    those  of  state contacts and  laboratories, and for
    jotting down notes about your own specific sampling
•  Foldout Sampling Procedures and  Pocket. The
    illustrated sampling procedures from the  guide  are
    reproduced   on   durable   foldout  pages   and

    conveniently stored  in a pocket in the inside back
    cover of the guide. To save space, a few of  the
    illustrations and notes from the guide were omitted
    from these pages. You may refer to the original guide
    procedures for this information.
•   EPA Regional Offices. The addresses and phone
    numbers of EPA Regional Offices, along with a map
    of the Regions, are supplied on the back cover of the
    guide for your quick reference.
Specific questiorte regarding monitoring requirements of
the SDWA regulations or sampling techniques/protocols
should be directed to your state drinking water repre-
sentative or the laboratory that will be analyzing the sam-
ples.  You  should  always  check   with  your  state
representative before conducting any sampling.
As  current regulations are revised, updated guidebook
pages will  become available. In addition,  units on sam-
pling  for chemicals covered under Phase II  (including
VOCs, synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs), and inorgan-
ics) and  radionuclides will be available in a companion
guide to this volume to be published in 1993. For informa-
tion concerning these updates, contact:
       Jim Walasek
       Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water
       Technical Support Division
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
       26 West Martin Luther King Drive
       Cincinnati, OH 45268

  General Sampling


  Although sampling techniques  and monitoring  require-
  ments vary under each of the rules in this guide, there are
  some general rules of thumb that are applicable to most
  sampling procedures.

  1.   Assemble Equipment

  Generally, an EPA- or state-certified laboratory will supply
  the containers for sampling. The laboratory also will nor-
  mally add preservatives to the containers, if required be-
  fore  shipping them  to  the  utility. Many  laboratories
  maintain files on their utility clients and automatically send
  out the proper kit prior to the date when compliance sam-
  P^ng  is  required. Coolers or insulated packing boxes for
  shipping samples are also usually provided by the lab for
  the operator's convenience.

  2.   Ensure Representative Sampling

  The result of any laboratory analysis is only as good as
 the sample collected. The objective of sampling is to ob-
 tain a sample that "represents" the true character of the
 water being tested. To achieve this, samples should be
 collected at a specific location, using consistent methods
 This representative sample also must receive proper han-
 dling (preservation, transport, storage, etc.) after it has
 been collected, so its composition will not be altered be-
 fore being analyzed.

 3.   Collect the Sample

 Samples must be collected in the proper number,  at the
 appropriate time and location, and of the proper volume in
 order to satisfy the requirements of specific regulations
 Samples  that fulfill these criteria are called compliance
 monitoring samples.  Requirements are spelled out in
 the  regulations, and are briefly summarized in this sam-
 pling guide. Because  of its limited size,  however the
 guide cannot cover every condition specified in the regula-
tions. Therefore, references to the Federal Register no-

ticesthat contain these regulations are noted at the begin-
ning of each unit of the guide.

4.   Record and Report Results

The results of sampling must be recorded and reported to
the state  according to  the compliance schedule.  The
laboratory that analyzes your samples will usually provide
any forms and/or labels required for recording sampling-
related information. The information that must be reported
•   Type of sample (routine or check)
•   Type of analysis required
•   Date
•   Time
•   Exact location (e.g., Well #2 discharge tap)
•   Sampler's name

If samples are to be collected repeatedly (e.g., quarterly)
from the same location, use an identification code (e.g.,
Well #2) to indicate the site or use the exact same written
description each time.
Often, the sampling results are reported to the state and
back to the  utility on the  same form that the  laboratory
sends to the public water system along with the sampling

5.   Fill Out Chain-of-Custody  Forms

Some states require  that "chain-of-custody" procedures
be followed for compliance monitoring samples. The typi-
cal chain-of-custody form establishes the whereabouts of,
and  person  responsible for, the sample at any point  in
time. A portion of a sample chain-of-custody record form is
shown in Figure 1. Use waterproof ink to fill out your form
as soon as you collect the sample. Print or write legibly
and note any special conditions that could suggest con-

 Figure 1.   Chain of Custody Report
Relinquished by:
Dispatched by:
Method of Shipme
Sample Lab #
Relinquished by
Sample Lab #
Locked in Refrig
Sample Lab #
Locked in Refrig
Received by:
Received for
Lab by:
nt Seal Intact: Yes

Received by:
Removed from
Removed from
6.   Pack and Transport the Samples

In shipping, samples must be protected from breakage
and must be maintained at a constant temperature that is
neither too hot nor too cold. If the samples must be refrig-
erated, cool them with sufficient ice or prefrozen chemical
cold packs (blue ice) to about 4° C (39° F). (tt is also im-
portant to keep the samples from freezing.) If samples re-
quiring refrigeration are collected within driving distance of
the  laboratory, a picnic cooler may be used as a carrying
case. If samples must be shipped, however, they need to
be protected against spillage and breakage, in addition to
being cooled to  the appropriate temperature. As  men-
tioned above, the laboratory will usually supply appropri-
ate   shipping  cases.  Generally,  samples  must  be
transported to the laboratory either the same day they
were taken or by overnight courier.

7.   Be Aware of Public Notification
     Requirements (PNR)

If a public water system becomes aware, based on sam-
pling results, that it has exceeded an MCL or otherwise
violated requirements for compliance with a rule, it must
inform the public as soon as possible. There are two types
of violations:
•   Tier 1  violations—violations of an  MCL, treatment
    technique, or variance or exemption schedule. These
    violations  may be either acute,  which involve an
    immediate risk to human health, or nonacute.
•   Tier 2 violations—violations of monitoring requirements
    or testing procedures, or when a variance or exemption
    is issued.

Each type of violation requires different notification proce-
dures. These procedures for community water systems
are summarized in Table 1.
Information that must  be included in  a public notice in-
•   A  clear  and understandable  explanation  of  the
•   Information about any potential adverse health affects
•   Information about whether particular members of the
    service population, such as infants or senior citizens,
    are  particularly  susceptible to  problems that  may
    result from the violation
•   Steps being taken to correct the problem
•   Whether it is necessary to seek alternative water
•   Any preventive measures that should be taken until
    the problem is corrected

  Table 1.   Summary pf Public Notification



Violation 37 14 45 90
Acute Violations ll-illl PUSs
TV and Radio :iNSifii|Sii; SS:;S|i;;|l Ivi^iililisiS
., . 'it^S™™^ ;-&**':-:•*-<*-*-•

Mail or Hand Delivery3 Quarterty Re&afesvxj:;
Nonacute ViolatiorSiissSs;:
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.. , ::'U*tRfl#.::.::,:
Newspaper :;&#MafcDr;
•1111 Sill lilil
  f Mandatory health information is required tor all Tier 1
    violations ofMCL, treatment technique, or variance or
    exemption schedule.
  2 If no newspaper of general circulation is available, posting or
    hand delivery is required.
  3 May be waived.
  4 Mandatory health information is required for Tier 2 violations
    only when a variance or exemption has been issued.
  5 For monitoring violations, less frequent notice (but no less
    than annual) may be required.
in addition, the notice must be clear and conspicuous and
written  in easy-to-understand language. The notice also
should include a phone number of someone at the public
water system who can be contacted for further informa-
tion. If a large percentage of the service population does
not speak English, the notice must be written in the appro-
priate language as well as in English. For more detailed
information on public notification requirements, see Public
Notification Handbook  for Public  Water  Systems  (EPA
570/9-89-002), Office of Water, U.S. EPA, 1989, or con-
tact your state drinking water representative.

            \    ^
VOC  Rule

U.S. EPA established MCLs for 8 volatile organic chemi-
cals (VOCs) in 1987 and for 10 VOCs in 1991. In addition,
the 1987 Rule (sometimes referred to as Phase I) called
for the monitoring of 51 "unregulated contaminants."
The 1991 rules (also known as Phase II) set standards for
38 contaminants including 10 new VOCs, 8 inorganic
chemicals (lOCs), and 20 other synthetic organic chemi-
cals (SOCs), primarily pesticides. The  10 VOCs and 2 of
the pesticides  regulated by these rules were previously
listed as  Phase I unregulated contaminants.
VOCs can occur in both untreated  and treated  drinking
water. They are generally found at higher concentrations
 in ground water than in surface water. This is because
volatilization (evaporation)  is restricted in ground water.
 Because these organic  chemicals are volatile, they re-
 quire special sampling procedures, such  as being col-
 lected with zero head space (no air above the liquid where
 volatilization can take place).
   Terms Used in This Section

   Compliance Monitoring




   Phase I
Phase II




  *These terms are defined in the glossary at the backofthe guide.


Status:   Final Rule - July 8,1987 (52 FR 25690)

MCL:     Final MCLs for 8 VOCs (Phase I) are shown
           in Table 1. If a system violates any of the
           MCLs, it must notify the public. (See Public
           Notification Requirements, p. 9.)
Table 1 . Final MCLs for 8 VOCs (Phase I)
Compound MCL, mg/L (ppm)*
Vinyl chloride
Carbon tetrachloride
1 ,2-Dichloroethane (1 ,2-DCA)
Trichloroethylene (TCE)
p-Dichlorobenzene (p-DCB)
1 ,1-Dichloroethylene (DCE)
1 ,1 ,1-Trichloroettiane (TCA)
 * To convert mg/L (ppm) to \ig/L (ppb), move the decimal point
 three places to the right (0.005 ppm = 5 ppb).

 Monitoring Requirements

 Check with your state drinking water representative for
 more stringent state guidelines.

 This rule applies to all community and nontransient, non-.
 community water systems (CWS and NTNCWS). Monitor-
 ing is phased in by system size.

Effective Date: January 1,1988; January 9,
The 1987 monitoring requirements were phased in based
on system size, starting January 1, 1988. For systems
serving less than 3,300 people, monitoring must have
begun by January 1,1991.
The compliance requirements for MCLs, variances, and
exemptions became effective for all systems January 9,
After  January  1,  1993,  follow   the  monitoring
requirements of Phase II (see p. 18 of this guide).

Number of Samples
A minimum of one sample must be taken per source. Sys-
tems are permitted  to composite  up to  five samples.
Compositing is done in the laboratory. (See the Final Rule
for the proper procedures.)

Initial Monitoring
Water systems must sample quarterly for both surface
and ground-water sources.

Repeat Monitoring
For each sample that exceeds the MCL, the system must
take repeat samples either  quarterly or at the discretion of
the state. The frequency of repeat sampling is based on
detection, vulnerability, source, and system size.

Ground-water samples must be taken at a point of entry to
the distribution system that  is representative of each well.
Surface water samples must be taken at points in the dis-
tribution system representative of each source  or after
treatment at entry points to the distribution system.
See Figure 1 for examples of how to determine numbers
of samples and locations for sampling.

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'2*209) spogiaLU seues 009 Vd3
                     •saidiues Jnc4ioe||oo IiuajsAs
             em o|Ui Ajjue 01 joud pepuejq pu eje seojnos jnoj
     •so)duies OM) ioe]|oo :pepue|q aie om ip|i|M jo saojnos aaiqi
              •S9]duJBS OHI pe||oo !pepue|q pu OJB saoanos OMJ.
            Buipuoig = QXXX)
                             uoi]nqu;s!a =
       pajmbea |o sjaqiunfj pue suoueooi
       BuijduJES Buiujiujaiaa JOj saiduiexg

 Unregulated Contaminants: 1987

 The 1987 Federal Register notice that announced the first
 phase of the VOC regulation also called for the monitoring
 of 51 "unregulated contaminants." EPA uses this informa-
 tion to establish  new regulations,  evaluate health  risks,
 and keep the public informed of those risks.
 Systems serving fewer than 3,300 persons were required
 to start monitoring for these contaminants after January 1,
 1991. The contaminants are broken down into three lists:
 34 contaminants that must be monitored by all systems, 2
 (EDB and DBCP) that must be monitored only by vulner-
 able systems, and 15 contaminants that are monitored at
 the state's discretion. The three lists follow:
 1. Monitoring Required for All Systems*
 Bromobenzene             1,1 -Dichloroethane
 Bromodichloromethane      1,1 -Dichloropropene
 Bromoform                 1,2-Dichloropropane
 Bromomethane             1,3-Dichloropropane
 Chlorobenzene             1,3-Dichloropropene
 Chlorodibromomethane      2,2-Dichloropropane
 Chloroethane               Ethylbenzene
 Chloroform                 Styrene
 Chloromethane             1,1,2-Trichloroethane
 o-Chlorotoiuene             1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane
 p-Chlorotoluene             1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
 Dibromomethane            Tetrachloroethylene
 m-Dichlorobenzene          1,2,3-Trichloropropane
 o-Dichlorobenzene          Toluene
 cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene      p-Xylene
 trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene    o-Xylene
 Dichloromethane            m-Xylene

2. Monitoring Required for Vulnerable Systems
 Ethylene dibromide (EDB)     1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropro-
                           pane (DBCP)
* Systems serving fewer than 150 connections need only make
their system available for sampling.

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    auazuaqojo|ipuj_-£'3( (.

 VOCs: 1991
 Status:    Final Rules -  January 30, 1991 (56 FR
            3526); July 1,1991 (56 FR 30266)
 MCL:      Final MCLs for 10 VOCs are shown in Table
            2. If a system violates any of those MCLs, it
            must  notify  the  public.   (See  Public
            Notification Requirements, p. 9.)
  Table 2.  Final MCLs for 10 VOCs (Phase II)
MCL, mg/L (ppm)
  Xylenes (total)
Monitoring Requirements
Effective Date: January 1,1993
Monitoring is required for 18 VOCs—the original 8 (Ta-
blel) and the 10 new VOCs (Table 2)—to determine com-
pliance with the MCLs.
Number of Samples
The monitoring requirements are spelled out in the July 1,
1991 rule (superceding the requirements of January 30,
1991), but generally all CWS and NTNCWS must  take

 four consecutive quarterly samples for 1 year starting in
 1993 and then annually if no detects (values greater than
 .0005 mg/L) are found.
 If previous data collected by December 31, 1992 (for ex-
 ample, the regulated and unregulated contaminant data)
 showed no detections, only one sample per year need be
 collected from 1993 through 1995  (see 56 FR 30277 for
Sample locations are the same as for the original 8
(Phase 1) VOCs.

EPA has established a Standardized Monitoring Frame-
work (see p. 85) to help coordinate and synchronize moni-
toring schedules. Within this framework, the state has the
flexibility to determine when each system should sample.


Sample Containers
The laboratory normally supplies containers for sampling.
Recommended containers are glass 40- to 120-mL screw
cap vials with a PTFE-faced (Teflon®) silicone septum.
Each  analytical  method specifies special procedures for
cleaning the containers.
The lab will normally add the proper preservative(s) in ad-
vance. If not, the EPA manual, Methods for the Determi-
nation  of  Organic  Compounds  in Drinking  Water
(EPA-600/4-88/039, December 1988), details the correct
Typical VOC sampling containers and equipment
The lab that supplies the containers will normally provide
sampling instructions with the sampling kit for the type of
monitoring you  are  doing. Refer to those  instructions
when they are provided.
77)e  following instructions and photos illustrate the
general sampling procedures to be followed for col-
lecting VOC monitoring samples.

Select a representative sampling location. For a
surface water system, the plant effluent tap might
be an appropriate sampling location. For a well
discharging directly into the distribution system, a
tap on the well's discharge piping after any treat-
ment would be appropriate.
       If possible, use a non-swivel faucet and remove
       any aerator, strainer, or hose that is present. (You
       may not be able to remove the aerator or find a
       non-swivel faucet.)
        Removing aerator from faucet before starting to sample

        Turn on the cold water for several minutes before
        collecting the sample. Time required will vary de-
        pending  on sampling location, well bore volume,
        and whether or not the pump has been running.
       Fill out the label in waterproof ink. Be  sure  to
       clearly identify the exact sample collection loca-
       tion and the date and time of collection. If the
       sample collection point has a specific coded iden-
       tification, include it on the label and sample  sub-
       mission form.

 Filling out the label
Adjust the flow to about 500 mL (1 pint) per min-
ute (approximately 1/8-inch diameter stream).
Hold the vial at an angle and fill it to as near the
top  as possible without  overflowing. Be  careful
not to rinse out the preservative.
Filling the vial

       Carefully complete filling the bottle to form a me-
       niscus (the curved  upper surface of a liquid
       formed by surface tension) or use the vial cap to
       top off the bottle and form a meniscus.
       Topping off the vial with the bottle cap to form a
For  the  collection of chlorinated  samples,  a
dechlorinating agent such as sodium thiosulfate
will generally be pre-added by the lab supplying
the sample containers. It will rapidly  dissolve as
the bottle is filled.

After forming the  meniscus,  add a biocide such
as 1:1 (one part acid to one part water) hydrochlo-
ric acid (HCI) to the sample.  Add one drop of 1:1
HCI for each 20 mL of sample volume. For exam-
ple, for a 40-mL vial, add two drops with a pipette
to the top  of the  meniscus. (The acid  is more
dense than the water and will settle to  the bot-
tom.) Be extremely careful when adding the acid.
Hydrochloric acid causes severe bums.

Adding HCI to the sample

Screw the  cap on the bottle so that the shiny,
white (Teflon1^ side of the septum is in contact
with the water. Do not touch the septum and do
not overtighten!
 Screwing on the cap

Invert the bottle, tap against your other hand, and
check for air bubbles. If any are present, add ad-
ditional water to reform the meniscus and check
        Inverting tfie vial to determine if there are air bubbles
        (left) or no air bubbles (right)
   Hj   Shake the bottle vigorously for 1 minute.
        Repeat above steps (6 - 11) for duplicate (ortripli-
        cate) samples.
        Complete the forms supplied by the lab with the ap-
        propriate information such as PWS  identification
        number, exact sample collection location, date and
        time, type of sample (raw, plant tap, entry point, or
        distribution), and type of analyses to be run. In
        many states, the same form that you fill out wilt be
        used to report the analytical results. Also, complete
        a chain-of-custody form if required.

                            Deliver the samples the same day to the lab, or
                            pack them with ice (to lower the temperature to
                            4°C) and ship to the lab by overnight courier. The
                            samples also need to be protected from freezing.
                             Packing ice around the bottles for shipment to the lab


* V A;:\ 1
vy*v 1
 v* * *;-«

Total Coliform  Rule

The Total Coliform Rule (TCR), which became effective
December 31,1990, S"^cedes the oId Natona. ntenm
Primary Drinking Water Regulations (N PDWRI to™*
mum microbiological contaminant levels (**«*•?
24 1977). The TCR differs from the old rule in that rt .s
based on the presence or absence (P/A) of colrforms
raTher than on the number of coliforms detected ,n the
 samp es  The new rule quires  that coliform po«n»
 Samples be further tested for fecal coUform f £ coin
 and that a set of repeat samples be collected fo  each to-
 tel cdiform positive sample. Furthermore, f col,form; are
 detected, most systems will * ^^*«*?(2£
 tional routine samples the following month. Another differ^
 ence between theold and new rules is that each system
 must now have a written sampling plan that I ste the fre-
 quencies and locations of samples to be collected Tte
 p"an may be reviewed and revised by the regulatory
   Terms Used in This Section
   Fecal Coliforms


   "These terms are defined in the glossary at the back of the


          Final Rule -June 29, 1989 (54 FR 27544)

          Modifications - January 8 1991 (56 FR 636);
          January  15, 1991  (56 FR 1556),  and
          January 1 5, 1992 (57 FR 1850)
           Requirements, p. 9.)
 Monitoring Requirements

 Check with your state drinking water representative for
 more stringent state guidelines.

  This rule applies to all community (CWS) and non-com-
  munity (NCWS) public water systems.

  Sampling Plans
  The state requires a written sample siting plan. This plan
  is subject to state review and revision.

   Effective Date: December 31, 1990
   December 31, 1990.

Number of Samples
The number of samples that must be taken monthly is
      o7*e population served by the water systemja-
     shows minimum monthly monitoring retirements.
      sSTroutlnely sample more than the m,n,mum
to keep track of the system's status.
   	L	—^^•^••^•^^^^•^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1
                                Minimum Routine


   For each routine sample that is total
   system must collect a set of repeat samples and have rt
   ana^for total coliforms. If total coliforms are detected
   fna£ routine or repeat sample, the system n«t««
   five routine samples the ne>ct month. Table 2 shows the
   required frequency for repeat sampling.

         Monitoring and Repeat Sampling
         Frequency after a Total
         Coliform-Positive Routine Sample
   Number of    Number of
Routine Samples   Repeat
   Per Month     Samples
   Number of
Routine Samples
Following Month
*Or fewer.
Each set of repeat samples must include the following:
.  One sample at the same tap as the original sample
-  One sample within five service connections upstream
.  One   sample  within  five  service  connects

 the bottom of p. 33.)
  state waives this requirement
  ff a system has only one service connection, it can collect:
  m  One 1 00-mL sample on each of 4 separate days
  B  TWO 200-mL samples on 2 separate days
  m   One 400-mL sample on 1 day
  See the complete total conform rule for details and excep-
  Variances and Exemptions
              1556)). No exemptions are allowed.

      » Syem Collecting
      Five Samples/Month
Fewer Than
Community    June 29,1994    every 5 years
water system
Non-community June29t1999    everyByears*
water system     	—•

   Membrane Finer (MF) Technique

Sampling Locations
List your approved sampling points (001, 002, etc.) here
and also the  upstream and downstream repeat sample
points (1a, 1b, 1c, etc.). This is only one recommended
way to conduct repeat sampling. Your state may have dif-
ferent requirements for identifying sampling sites
Sampling Point
Name and/or Address


   ' (a) Repeat Sample from    Original  (b) Repeat Sample from
       within 5 Service       Sample     within 5 Service
    Connections Upstream     Site   Connections Downstream
                 (c) Repeat Sample from within
           5 Service Connections Upstream or Downstream


Sample Containers                   containers

tory normally supplies the «JMi            a)so use
        sterilized,        °™
  thiosulfate tablet.
    Typical sa

             monitoring samples.

H     Assemble all of the sampling supplies before you
 •     begin.  The  proper preservative will usually be
       added  by the lab. A dechlorinating agent is used
       when sampling chlorinated waters (such as those
       found in the distribution system). Handle the con-
       tainers carefully as they are usually presterilized.
       Go to the  sampling location(s) specified  in the
       sampling plan. These representative sampling lo-
       cations are usually located in the distribution sys-
       tem and are accessible during the day. Examples
       include hospitals, city buildings, pump  stations,
       restaurants, and dedicated sampling  stations.
       (See  p.  33 for the coliform  sampling location
       form.)  The tap should be clean, free of attach-
       ments (hoses, etc.), and in good repair (no leaks).
       If possible, avoid faucets with swivel  necks and
       drinking fountains.
       If possible, remove any aerator, strainer, or hose
       that is present, as any of these may harbor bacte-
       ria. (You may not be able to remove the aerator or
       find a non-swivel faucet.)
       Removing aerator from faucet before starting to sample

Optional Step: Ftame the tap using canned heat,
an  alcohol  burner,  a butane  lighter, or  paper
torches; or spray the tap with chlorine solution or
wipe it with alcohol. (This step is optional since
many people believe this practice does not kill at-
tached bacteria and is not necessary if the sam-
pling tap is selected carefully.)
 Optional: Flaming the tap with a paper torch before
 collecting the sample
Open the cold water tap for about 2 to 3 minutes
before collecting the sample. (You  may want to
time this step—3 minutes is a long time.) This
clears the service line.

Fill out the label, tag, and lab form in waterproof
Filling out the label
Adjust the flow to about 500 ml_ (1  pint or 2 cups)
per minute (approximately a 1/8-inch diameter
flow). Check for steady flow. Do not change the
water flow once you  have started  sampling,  it
could dislodge microbial growth.
Adjusting the water to a 1/8-inch diameter flow

Q     Remove the bottle cap (stopper, etc.) or open the
**     plastic bag. Be careful not to touch the inside with
       your fingers. Then position the bottle or bag under
       the water flow. Hold the bottle in one hand and
       the cap in the other.

       Do not  lay the cap down  or put it in a pocket1
       Also, take care not to contaminate the sterile bot-
       tle (or bag) or cap with your fingers or permit the
       faucet to touch the inside of the bottle or bag.

       Holding bottle under the water flow with cap in other
       hand (left) and holding plastic bag under flow (right)

       Fill the bottle to the shoulder or to about 1/4 inch
       from the top. If using a plastic bag sampling con-
       tainer, fill it to the marked fill line.
        Bottle filled to the shoulder (left) and bag filled to the fill
        line (right)

1 ft   Place the cap on the bottle  and screw it down
 • ^*   tightly.  If using a plastic bag, pull the wire tabs
        and whirl the bag  three times for a tight seal.
        Samples should be iced immediately, if possible.
        Tightening cap on plastic bottle (left) and whirling
        plastic bag to seal (right)
Turn the tap off. Replace the aerator, strainer, or

Check that the information on the label is correct
(or check the lab form and attach it to the bottle
with a rubber band).
Attaching lab form to bottle with rubber band

Complete any additional lab forms that came with
the sample bottle, including the chain-of-custody
form (if required by the state), with the necessary
       Filling out the chain-of-custody form

1 A  The samples must reach the laboratory within 30
 1 ^  hours of collection. If the laboratory is nearby, ice
       and deliver the samples there directly. If not, send
       the samples overnight by U.S. mail or by an over-
       night courier. It is recommended that all samples
       be  refrigerated or iced (cooled to 4° to 10°C). All
       samples received in the laboratory are to be ana-
       lyzed on the day of receipt
       Packing ice around bags for shipment to lab (left) and
       placing plastic whiribag into the mailing tube (right)


Surface Water Treatment Rule


"The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) was estab-
lished because EPA feels that all surface waters  and
ground waters under the direct influence of surface water
(UDI) are at some risk from contamination by various mi-
croorganisms. To protect the public from waterbome dis-
eases, all public water systems using  surface water
sources or ground water UDI are required to disinfect and
may be required by the state to install filtration to remove
or inactivate  disease-causing organisms. A public water
system may  avoid the filtration requirement by meeting
certain source water quality and site-specific conditions.
 Terms Used in This Section*

 Giardia lamblia

 HPC Bacteria


 Legion ella





*77?ese terms are defined in the glossary at the back of the guide.

 Status:    Final Rule - June 29,1989 (54 FR 27488)

 MCL:      None. The regulation  establishes specific
             treatment techniques requiring disinfection of
             all  and  filtration   of  most  surface  and
             ground-water UDI systems, in place of MCLs.

 Treatment Techniques:
 Treatment technique  requirements (for  systems  with
 disinfection  only  or  for  systems  with   filtration  and
 disinfection) are established in place of MCLs for;
 •  Giardia lamblia
 •  Viruses
 •  HPC bacteria
 •  Legionella
 •  Turbidity

 Monitoring Requirements

 Check with  your state drinking  water  representative for
 more stringent state guidelines.


 This rule applies to all public water systems using surface
 water sources or ground-water UDI.
 The SWTR  classifies these surface water systems into
 three categories for the purpose of establishing treatment
 technique and monitoring requirements:

 1. Ground-water sources under the direct influence of
   surface water. This is a new classification of ground-
   water sources that might include shallow wells, springs,
   and infiltration galleries. States will review systems to
   determine which are at risk and must, therefore, com-
   ply with the requirements of the SWTR. Ground-water
   sources UDI must provide disinfection but may be able
   to avoid providing filtration.

2. Surface water systems  that can  avoid filtration.
   These systems must continuously meet stringent crite-
   ria for source water and site-specific conditions in order
   to avoid providing filtration.

 3. Surface water systems that filter. Many states may
   require all surface water systems to provide filtration in
   addition to disinfection. Systems that provide both dis-
   infection and filtration must also meet stringent operat-
   ing and monitoring conditions.

 Effective Dates
 December 31,1990 Systems in the first two categories
                   must begin meeting  new monitoring
                   and reporting requirements.

 December 31,1991 Applicable systems  in the first two
                   categories must begin meeting all
                   requirements to avoid filtration (un-
                   less state has determined that they
                   must add filtration).

 June 29,1993      Systems directed to  add  filtration
                   must have filtration installed.

                   Systems with filtration must meet
                   new operating standards plus moni-
                   toring and reporting requirements.

 June 29,1994      States must determine which CWSs
                   using ground water are DDL

 June 29,1999      States must determine which non-
                   CWSs using ground water are UDI.

 Operator Qualifications
 Systems that are covered by the SWTR must be operated
 by qualified operators (as defined by the state).

 Operating Criteria—Systems with Filtration

 Turbidity Monitoring
Turbidity measurements must be made every 4 hours on
representative samples of filtered water (grab samples).
The state may reduce the sampling frequency to once per
day for slow sand filtration and for systems serving less
than 500 persons (regardless of the type  of filtration).
Continuous turbidity monitoring may be  substituted for

grab sampling  if the  measurements are validated on  a
regular basis.
Filtered water turbidity must at no time exceed 5 NTU. For
the treatment techniques listed below, turbidity in 95 per-
cent of monthly samples must not exceed the following
Conventional or direct filtration              0.5 NTU
Slow sand filtration                         1 NTU
Diatomaceous earth filtration                1 NTU
Other filtration technologies                 1 NTU
The analytical method to be used for monitoring turbidity  is
Method 214A (Nephelometric Method) found in Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 16th
Edition (1985, American Public Health Association et al.).

Disinfection Monitoring
The disinfection process must be sufficient to ensure that
the total treatment process can reliably achieve at least
99.9 percent (3-log) removal and/or inactivation of Giardia
lamblia cysts and 99.99 percent (4-log) removal and/or in-
activation of viruses.
Entering the distribution system. The residual disinfec-
tant concentration in the water entering the distribution
system cannot be less than 0.2 mg/L for more than  4
hours. If the residual concentration in a sample is below
0.2 mg/L, the system must take another sample within 4
hours and notify the state by the end of the next business
day. The system also must advise the state of whether the
residual was restored to at least 0.2  mg/L within 4 hours.
(Refer to Table 1 for sampling frequency.)
In the distribution system. Each month, disinfectant resid-
ual samples must be collected at the same frequency and lo-
cation as samples for total coliforms (see the Total Colrform
Rule, p. 27). Disinfectant residuals in the distribution system
must also be "detectable" in 95 percent of the samples.

Figure 1 and Table 1 summarize the sampling locations
and frequencies for monitoring the performance of public
water systems that provide filtration.           ^____
  Figure 1.  Monitoring Locations for Systems with
Table 1. Monitoring Frequencies for Systems
with Filtration
System Size
Every 4
Disinfectant Residual
Frequency as
 *State may reduce to 1/day for systems serving <500.
 Continuous turbidity monitoring may be substituted if validated.

 Operating Criteria—Systems without
 Systems that do not currently provide filtration, and are
 seeking to avoid having to provide filtration in the future,
 must meet stringent requirements for source water quality
 and other site-specific conditions. Some of these  criteria
 include an annual onsite inspection, compliance with the
 TCR, and  compliance with current THM  regulations.  In
 addition, systems seeking to avoid filtration will require
 much more monitoring.

 Source Water Monitoring
 Source (raw) water turbidity samples must be collected
 ahead of the first (or only) point of disinfection. Generally,
 turbidity should not exceed 5 NTU at any time. If turbidity
 does exceed 1 NTU, a raw water coliform (total and/or fe-
 cal) sample must also be collected.
 Coliform concentrations in 90 percent of the source water
 samples analyzed during the previous 6 months must not
 exceed 20/100 ml for fecal conforms and  100/100 mLfor
 total coliforms. These samples must be collected  before
 the point of disinfection application and must be collected
 on separate days if more than one sample per week is re-

 Disinfection  Monitoring
 The disinfection  treatment process used by systems not
 providing filtration must also ensure 99.9 percent (3-log) re-
 mcval/inactivation of Giardia cysts and 99.99 percent (4-log)
 removal/inactivation of viruses. CT values  must be calcu-
 lated based on temperature, pH, contact time, and the peak
 hourly flow and disinfectant concentration at the first con-
 sumer's tap. The disinfectant residual must also be moni-
tored both entering and within the distribution system.
The requirements for the  disinfectant residual  are the
same as those described for systems with filtration. (See
Table 3.)

 Figure 2 and Tables 2 and 3 summarize the requirements
 for sampling locations and frequencies that must be met
 by a system desiring to avoid filtration.
Figure 2. Monitoring Locations for Systems
without Filtration





Control Program
Coliform, Turbidity
Contact Time*
 * CT calculations are based on the residual disinfectant
 concentration® in mg/L multiplied by the contact time in
 minutes. Contact time is measured from the point of
 disinfectant application to the point of residual
 measurement (before the first customer).
Table 2. Monitoring Frequencies for Systems
without Filtration
System Size
Source Water
Fecal or Total Coliforms
Every 4
"Continuous turbidity monitoring may be substituted if validated.

Table 3. Monitoring Frequencies for Systems
without Filtration
System Size
for CT cate.*
Disinfectant Residual
Dist. System
Dist. System
Frequency as
 These parameters include pH, temperature, disinfection
 contact time, and residual concentration.

 Systems that fail to meet these requirements will have to
 install filtration and follow the monitoring requirements for
 systems that filter.
Variances and Exemptions
Variances from the disinfection requirements are not al-
lowed under the SWTR.
Exemptions are not allowed for disinfection requirements
at the point of entry to the distribution system. They may,
however, be granted for other requirements. Check with
your state drinking water representative for details.

Reporting and Recordkeeping

Systems with Filtration
Surface water systems (and ground-water systems UD1)
that provide nitration must report monthly beginning June
29,1993, or when filtration is installed (whichever is later).
Table 4 shows the information to be reported.
 Table 4.  Reporting Requirements for Systems
           with Filtration
  Information or Report  When
  Filtered water turbidity

  Waterbome disease
Within 10 days after the end of
the month (EOM)

Within 10 days after EOM

As soon as possible (but no
later than the end of the next
business day)
*CT calculations are recommended and may be required by
Primacy agencies.

Systems without Filtration
Surface water systems and ground-water  systems UDI
that do not provide nitration must report monthly beginning
December 31,1990. Table 5 shows the information to be re-

Sampling—Systems with Filtration

Turbidity Monitoring
The turbidity sample should be representative of the sys-
tem's filtered water. This sample could  be taken from
combined filter effluent, clearwell effluent, or plant effluent,
or be the average of each filter's effluent. States will spec-
ify where the turbidity samples must be collected for com-
H     Collect the sample in a clean glass or plastic bot-
 1     tie from the designated sample collection point.
       Collecting the turbidity sample from the filter effluent
       Collecting the sample from combined niter effluent
       (left) and finished plant effluent (right)

Calibrate the turbidimeter. (Follow the manufac-
turer's operating instructions.)
Calibrating the turbidimeter according to
manufacturer's instructions
Transfer the sample to a clear colorless glass
sample tube after first gently shaking the sample
and allowing any bubbles to escape. Do not han-
dle the tube where the light will strike it If bubbles
form on the inside of the tube, tap gently with your
finger to dislodge the bubbles.
 Transferring the sample to a glass sample tube

4 Carefully wipe the outside of the sample tube with
a laboratory tissue to remove water droplets, con-
densation, and fingerprints.
 Wiping the outside of the tube
 Place the tube into the instrument and read tur-
 bidity on the proper scale setting.
 Placing the tube into the instrument
 Record the result.

Disinfection Monitoring

Entering Distribution System
The disinfection sample should be taken at the entrance
to the  distribution system. For example, a high service
pump discharge (where water is pumped into the distribu-
tion system) would be atypical location.
 Collecting a grab sample at the high service pump discharge
If using a continuous monitor, record the lowest disinfec-
tant residual each day.
 Taking the reading off the chart recorder

If collecting grab samples, follow these steps:
Collect the samples at different times during the
day (at intervals prescribed by the state). See Ta-
ble 1 in this section for frequency (based on sys-
tem size).
        Analyze the sample as soon as possible but always
        within 15  minutes.  Analyze in accordance  with
        Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
        Wastewater, 16th Edition (1985, American Public
        Health Association et al.) or use methods approved
        by the state (for example, a test kit).
        Record the result.
         Recording the result of analysis

 Within Distribution System
These samples should be collected at the same points as
those collected for compliance with the TCP, that is, the
points established by the TCR sampling plan.
Sampling in the distribution system
•I      Collect a minimum of 100 mL of sample.

Analyze the sample as soon as possible but al-
ways within 15 minutes. Analyze  in accordance
with Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water and Wastewater (1985, American Public
Health Association  et al.)  or use methods ap-
proved by the state.
 Holding up DPD color comparator to determine
 chlorine residual
 Record the result.

Sampling—Systems without Filtration

Monitoring began  on December 31, 1990, for surface
water sources and ground-water sources UDI (or will be-
gin 6 months after the state determines that ground water
is UDI).
1        Collect source water prior to the first (or only)
        point of disinfectant application and measure for
        fecal coliform or total coliform density.  Systems
        serving less than 500 persons must sample once
        each week. Systems serving from 501 to 3,300
        persons must sample twice each week.
        Measure turbidity of source water taken prior to
        the first or only point of disinfection every 4 hours.

       Calculate total inactivation ratio based on CT val-
       ues daily. (System must ensure 99.9 percent in-
       activation of Giardia cysts and 99.99 percent
       inactivation of viruses.)  Information needed to
       calculate CT includes the residual  disinfectant
       concentration (mg/L),  disinfectant contact time
       (minutes),  pH,  and the water temperature fol-
       lowing each point of disinfection.
                        16   32
                                    63   39   95
                                                 19  3
                      Log loactivfltiaa*
               Q.S  1-0  13  2.0 23   3.0
                                                0.5  I.
                25   50  75   99  12*  149
                26   SI  77  102  12JI  V.j
                26   S3  79  105
                27 : 54  81  108
                28   55  83  111  13*  16$
                28   57  85  U3  142  170
                29   58  87  116  145  17*
                30   60  90  119  149  179
                3&   61  91  m  152  1821  37
                31   62  93  124  15$   1861  38
        Checking CT values
Determine the disinfectant residual of the water
entering and within the distribution system. The
residual disinfection concentration of water enter-
ing the distribution system should be sampled at
the same frequency as for systems with filtration.
(See Tables 1  or 3.)

For water within the distribution system,  measure
the residual  disinfectant  concentration at  the
same point and time that total coliforms are sam-
        Report the results. (Some states may provide a
        form for reporting results.)

Pb and Cu

Lead and Copper Regulation


The U.S. EPA has determined that lead and copper are a
health concern at certain levels of exposure. Young chil-
dren and pregnant women are especially at risk from high
levels of lead in their blood. Some of the most pronounced
effects in children are interference with growth, deficits in
IQ, and altered physical and mental  development. EPA
has estimated that 600,000 children will have their blood
lead level reduced  as a result of this new rule. Copper
health effects include stomach and intestinal distress, liver
and kidney damage, and Wilson's disease.
This rule establishes  a treatment technique requirement
for lead and copper that includes optimum corrosion con-
trol treatment and source water treatment In addition, the
requirements also include provisions for public education
and lead service line  replacement.
Monitoring for lead and copper will begin July 1,1993, for
systems that serve less than 3,300 people. One-liter sam-
ples will need to be collected initially from household taps
twice a year from as many as 20 locations (depending on
the size of the water system). In addition, monitoring for
other water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, and
calcium will be required if the action levels are exceeded.
 Terms Used in This Section*
 Action Level (AL)


 Entry Point

 First-Draw Sample

 Followup Monitoring

 High-Risk Homes

 Lead Pipe
Lead Service Line (LSL)

Lead Solder

Reduced Monitoring

Standard Monitoring

90th Percentile Lead Level

Wilson's Disease
*These terms are defined in the glossary at the back of the guide.

Status:    Final Rule - June 7,1991 (56 FR 26460)

MCL:      The existing  MCL for lead of 50 ppb will
            remain  in effect until December 7, 1992.
            After that time, the new rule establishes a
            treatment technique  requirement triggered
            by exceeding the action level (AL). Table 1
            shows the action levels for lead and copper.
 Table 1.   Action Levels for Lead and Copper
                          Action Level* (mg/L)
*Measured in 90th percent/to st consumers' taps.

Treatment Techniques:
The treatment technique requirements for small systems
are triggered by exceeding the applicable AL, measured
in the 90th percentile at consumers' taps.  The 90th
percentile lead  level means 90 percent of the samples
collected  must be equal to  or lower than the  action
levels for lead and  copper.    Treatment  technique
requirements for lead include:
•  Optimal corrosion control treatment
•  Source water treatment
•  Public education
•  Lead service line (LSL) replacement

Treatment technique requirements for copper include:
•  Optimal corrosion control treatment
•  Source water treatment

 Monitoring Requirements

 Check with your state drinking water representative for
 more stringent state guidelines.

 This rule applies to all community (CWS) and nontran-
 sient, noncommunity water systems (NTNCWS).

 Tap Water Sampling

 Initial Monitoring
 All tap water samples are first-draw samples collected from
 the cold water tap of a kitchen or bathroom sink (see p. 73).
 All small systems shall monitor  during each  6-month
 monitoring period until:
 •  System exceeds the lead or copper action level, in
   which case,  implement corrosion control treatment
   and continue monitoring, or
 •  System meets the lead or copper action level for two
   consecutive  periods,  in  which case, reduce the
   number of tap water sampling sites (see Table 2) and
   collection frequency to once per year. (If the system
   meets the requirements  for  3  consecutive years,
   monitoring frequency may be reduced to once every
   3 years.) The state must approve these reductions in
   sampling frequency.

 Followup Monitoring
 Followup monitoring will not be required until after installa-
tion of  optimal corrosion control and source water treat-

ment. For small systems, this will not occur until at least
January 1,1998.
After the state specifies water quality parameter values,
monitor lead and copper during each subsequent 6-month

Sampling Location
For sampling in community water systems (CWSs), use
high-risk, single-family structures that
•   Contain copper pipes with lead solder installed after
    1982, or
•   Contain lead pipes, and/or
•   Are served by a lead service line.
For NTNCWS, select buildings that meet the criteria above.
Use the form on p. 68 to list your sampling sites.

Effective Date: July 1,1993
Six-month monitoring periods begin July 1,1993.

Number of Samples
The number of samples that must be taken per 6-month
monitoring period is based on the population served by
the water system. Table 2 shows the minimum number of
monitoring sites required by the rule. Collect one sample
for lead and copper analysis from each site.
Table 2. Monitoring— Number of Sites*
101 to 500
*Per 6-month monitoring period.

            Sampling Locations

Use this space to list the locations of your sampling sites.
Street Address/Location
 * States will establish their own criteria for coding samples
 under this rule.

Monitoring for Water Quality Parameters
If your system exceeds the lead or copper AL, the follow-
ing water quality parameters also will need to be moni-
tored (see Table 3).
Table 3. Monitoring for Water Quality Parameters
Min. Sample
Parameter Volume, mL
pH 25
Alkalinity 100
Calcium 100
Conductivity 50
Water temperature 1 000
Silica 50
Orthophosphate 50
Holding Time
Test immediately
1 4 days
6 months
28 days
Test immediately
28 days
48 hours
The last two parameters in the table must be monitored
only when inhibitors containing phosphate or silica com-
pounds are used. Do not use glass containers when sam-
pling lor silica (since silica is a component of glass).
The minimum number of sites required for additional tap
water monitoring is shown in Table 4 below.
Table 4. Number of Tap Sampling Sites for Water
Quality Parameters*
501 to 3,300
*Per 6-monih monitoring period.

Initial Monitoring
•   Tap samples—Two samples per 6-month monitoring
•   Entry points—Two samples per 6-month monitoring

Followup Monitoring
(After installation of optimal corrosion control equipment
and source water treatment, which will not occur until at
least January 1,1938)
•   Tap  water samples—Two  samples  per  6-month
    monitoring  period  for  every  parameter  except
    temperature and conductivity
•   Entry points—One sample every 2 weeks for pH,
    alkalinity,   and   inhibitor   (dosage    rate   and

After the state specifies water quality parameter values for
optimal corrosion control, monitor during each monitoring
period in which the system exceeds the lead or copper
Table 4 also lists the reduced monitoring requirements if
the state-specified water quality parameters are main-
tained. See the complete rule or guidance document for
the exact requirements.

Source Water Sampling
Source water sampling is required for systems that fail to
meet the lead or copper AL in tap samples.
•   Initial monitoring—Collect one source water sample
    from each entry point to the distribution system within
    6 months after the exceedance.
•   Followup monitoring—Collect an  additional source
    water  sample from each entry  point  during two
    consecutive 6-month monitoring periods.

Table 5 shows the schedule for compliance with the lead
and copper requirements for small systems.
 Table 5.  Compliance Schedule for Small Systems
 July 1993       Begin tap water monitoring

 January 1994   Recommend optimal corrosion
                 control equipment to state1

 January 1995   Conduct corrosion control studies2

 January 1996   Optimal corrosion control
                 treatment designated by state3

 July 1996       Complete corrosion control studies
                 and recommend treatment to

 January 1997   Optimal corrosion control
                 treatment designated by state2

 January 1998   Complete installation of corrosion
                 control treatment3

 January 1999   Complete installation of corrosion
                 control treatment2
                 Complete followup monitoring
                 and submit results to state3'

 July 1999       Water quality parameters designated
                 by state3

 January 2000   Complete followup monitoring and
                 submit results to state3'4

 July 2000       Water quality parameters designated
                 by state2
  1  Assumes system exceeds lead or copper action level during
    first monitoring period.
  2  Smai systems required to conduct comparative treatment
  3  Small systems for which state specifies optimal treatment
    without studies.
  4  Systems that continue to exceed action level begin 15-year
    lead service line replacement program.


Sample Containers
Sampling containers for lead and copper may be made of
plastic or glass and should be at least 1 liter in volume. A
1-liter plastic bottle is most commonly used and can be
marked with a fill line for precise measurements. While 1-
quart collapsible containers may also be used, they need
to be filled completely to hold 1 liter.
 Typical sampling containers for lead and copper
 The lab that supplies the sampling containers will normally
 provide instructions with the kit for the type of monitoring
 you are doing. Refer to these instructions when they are
 provided. Samples will either be collected by system per-
 sonnel or by the homeowner. If the homeowner is collect-
 ing the sample, be sure to review the procedure with him
 or her when you drop off the kit.
 The following Instructions and photos Illustrate the
 general sampling procedures for collecting lead and
 copper first-draw samples.

First-Draw Sampling
All tap samples should  be first-draw samples,
taken from a kitchen cold water tap or bathroom
sink tap. This means that the water in the plumb-
ing system should have stood motionless in the
pipes for at  least 6 hours. If the homeowner will
be collecting the samples, instruct him or her not
to use any water (including the flushing of toilets)
for at least 6 hours prior to collecting the first-draw
sample. This sample could be collected either first
thing in the morning or after returning from work, if
no water has been used during that period.
        Delivering sampling kit to homeowner
       Fill out the sample la be I (s), indicating the date
       and time of sample collection,  location, type of
       sample (first-draw, service line, etc.), and sam-
       pler's name.

 Filling out the sample label before affixing it to the
 collapsible container
Before turning on the water, remove the cap from
the container and position the container under the
kitchen or bathroom sink faucet. Turn on the cold
water and begin filling the container.
Holding bottle under the tap (left) before turning on the
water (right)
Fill to the 1 -liter mark on the bottle (or when using
collapsible containers, fill completely). Turn off the

Add approximately 3 mL of 1:1 nitric acid (HNOa)
to the sample bottle to preserve the sample. Be
extremely careful  when adding the acid. Nitric
acid causes severe bums. Indicate on the label
whether the sample has been acidified.
 Using pipette to add acid preservative to the bottie

 Tightly cap the bottle to  prevent leakage. For
 samples collected  in a  collapsible  container, a
 special insert (called a CAPLUG®) can be used to
 provide a better seal.
 Inserting the CAPLUCP into the collapsible container
 and tightening the cap
Pack the bottles and/or collapsible container for
shipment and return them to the lab for analysis.
Packing the collapsible container in the box for

Service Line Sampling
Service line sampling may be required if, after installing
corrosion control and/or source water treatment, a system
still exceeds the AL in tap samples. Systems required to
conduct lead service line replacement programs also may
be required to sample lead service lines.

       Ilf a lead service line sample is required, there are
       three ways to help ensure that service line water
        is being sampled:
        a)  At the tap, flush a known volume of water
            from household plumbing before collecting
            the  sample. This is the  water contained in
            the  pipes between the sampling tap and the
             lead service line. Use a container of known
             volume such as a pitcher or bucket (or any
             container with graduations) for measuring
             the  volume of water wasted. Use Table 5 to
             look up the volume to be wasted.
          Table 5.  Approximate Volume in Gallons
                   for Various Sizes and Lengths of
                   Copper* Pipe
          Pipe Size
      Length of Pipe
         *Volumes will vary somewhat for other types of pipes.

 Collecting the volume to be Hushed

 b)  For single-family homes, allow the water to
     run until there is a significant change in its
     temperature. This indicates that you are now
     getting  water from  the lead service  line
     outside the home. This temperature change
     will usually be from cold to colder, but could
     go  the  other way,  especially  in  warm
     climates.  Check the temperature of  the
     running water with  a thermometer or by
     placing your hand in the stream and noting
     the temperature change by feel.

C)   Locate or install a sampling tap directly on
     the lead  service line and sample from this
Checking the water temperature with a thermometer
(lefi) and with vour hand fright)

After step 1a or 1b, immediately collect the sample
in a 1-liter  plastic  bottle or collapsible  container
while the water is still flowing. For 1c, turn the serv-
ice line tap on and collect the water immediately.
Filling the collapsible container with water from the
lead service line
Acidify the sample with approximately 3 mL of 1:1
nitric acid (HNOs).  Be  extremely careful when
adding the acid. Nitric acid causes severe bums.
Indicate on the label whether or not the sample
has been acidified.
Using a pipette to add acid preservative to the
collapsible container.

Tightly recap the bottle to prevent leakage. If us-
ing a collapsible container, a CAPLUG® can be
used to provide a better seal.
Pack the bottles and/or collapsible containers for
shipment and return them to the lab for analysis.

Appendix A
90th Percentile     Ninety percent of the samples collected
Lead Level         must be lower than the action level of
                   0.015 for lead, and 1.3 for copper. If more
                   than 10 percent of the samples collected
                   ate greaterthan the action levels, the
                   treatment technique requirements are
                   triggered. The rule contains procedures
                   for calculating this value.
Action Level (AL)
Concentration that determines the
treatment requirements in the lead and
copper rule.
A preservative (usually acid, to lower the
pH) added to the sample to prevent
microbial degradation.
Monitoring required by a rule.
Compositing       Combining more than one sample for
Process of wearing away or dissolving
(of plumbing material) by water or other
chemical agent
Product of the residual disinfectant
concentration in mg/L and the disinfectant
contact time in minutes fC" x T).
Community Water System—A PWS that
serves at least 15 service connections or
25 year-round residents.
The reagent used in a colorimetric test to
determine residual disinfectant
E. co//
A pathogen that can cause severe
gastroenteritis, including diarrhea and
vomiting. (Escherichia coli)
Entry Point        A place where water enters the
                  distribution system, and usually must be

Exemptions        Atime delay (or release) from
                   compliance issued to a PWS due to
                   compelling factors (such as economics).
Fecal Coliforms
A group of related bacteria, associated with
fecal matter of warm-blooded animals,
whose presence in drinking water indicates
the possible presence of disease-causing
organisms and indicates the water is not
safe for human consumption. Their
confirmed presence is considered an acute
violation of the TCR.
First-Draw Tap
Giardia lamblia
One liter sample of tap water that has
been standing in pipes for 6 hours or
more and is collected without flushing the
Monitoring required after a PWS installs
treatment Followup monitoring is
required for lead, copper, and other water
quality parameters.
Federal Register.
A parasitic protozoan species that infects
the gastrointestinal tract
 High-Risk Homes
 Homes with lead solder installed after
 1982, lead pipes, and/or lead service
 Heterotropic plate count bacteria. Their
 presence in high numbers may indicate
 deficiencies in water treatment or
 insufficient distribution system residual.
 Destruction of a microorganism.
 Inorganic chemical.
 Lead Pipe
 Any pipe containing 8 percent or more
 Lead Service Line
 A service line made of lead which
 connects the water main to the building
 Lead Solder        A solder containing 0.2 percent ormore
 Legion ell a
 A bacterium that causes a type of
 pneumonia called Legionnaires' Disease.

Maximum Contaminant Level—
Enforceable standard that specifies how
much of a contaminant can be present in
drinking water.
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal—
Nonenforceable goal that specifies the
level of contaminant at which there is no
health concern.
Non-community water system
National Interim Primary Drinking Water
National Primary Drinking Water
Nontransient, noncommunity water
system—Public water supply that
regularly serves at least 25 of the same
persons for over 6 months each year but
is not a community water system.
Examples include schools, hospitals, and
Nephelometric Turbidity Unit—A measure
oftheturbitidy, or cloudiness, of water.
Phase I
The first phase of EPA's regulatory
development approach. It covers the first
8 VOCs to be regulated.
Phase II
The second phase of EPA's regulatory
approach. Phase II covers additional
VOCs, pesticides, and inorganic
Parts per billion (equivalent to ng/L).
Parts per million (equivalent to mg/L).
Primacy responsibility for implementing
the requirements of the SDWA. Nearly all
states have Primacy.
Promulgated       Put a regulation into effect by formal
                  public announcement.
Polyftetrafluoroethylene); commonly
known as Teflon?

Public Water Suppry-^A system that
regularly supplies at least 15 service
connections or 25 people.	_
A schedule that allows a system to
monitorwith toss frequency if the system
meets the requirement for a certain
number of years.	

Safe Drinking Water Act-^Act passed in
 1974 greatly expanding the scope of
 federal responsibility forthe safely of
 drinking water. Amended in 1986.
                    Trihalomethanes—Chemicals formed
                    when chlorine reads with organic
                    materials and chemical contaminants in
                    drinking water. THMs consist of
                    chloroform, bromodichloromethane,
                    bromoform, and dibromochloro methane.
                     —-	^^_——        •—
                     An official permit issued to a PWS that is
                     not able to comply with an MCL (or a
                     treatment technique) due to source water
                     quality problems.
                      An infectious agent smaller than bacteria.
                      Volatile organic chemical (or compound).
                      A system is considered vulnerable if the
   rtSySlwIll la wt n^i*««».——	
   analysis of several factors shows
                       ,iicuy*w **• «***»•*—• ——-
                       usceptibility to contamination.
                      Document that permits system to not
                      Excessive copper retention and toxic
                            .. _i_ii	:_ »ILM IK for anrl htm in.
    excessive IA»PJ^I iw»i «•»"••«	
    accumulation in the liver and brain.

Appendix B

Standardized Monitoring Framework


    nu^er of samples required for comphanoe.

Table 2 shows the schedule for the first two 9-year compli-
ance cycles. The first 9-year compliance cycle begins on
January  1, 1993. The first 3-year compliance period,
which runs on a calendar year basis (i.e., January 1 to
December 31), extends from 1993 to 1995; the second
period extends from  1996 to  1998;  and  the  third from
1999 to 2001.
The second 9-year compliance cycle begins in 2002.
Table 2. Schedule of First Two 9-Year Compliance
First 9- Year
Beginning of
2nd 9-Year
Jan 1
Jan 1
Jan 1
-Dec 31, 1993
-Dec 31, 1994
-Dec 31, 1995
Jan 1
-Dec 31, 2002
Initial and repeat base sampling frequency requirements
are generally the same for all systems regardless of size
or water source (surface or ground water).

Appendix C
Drinking Water Regulations Personal Computer ^Applica-
tions (DRIPSS) Electronic Bulletin Board (aka,  reg in a
box")  Available to EPA and state regulators, local public
healih officials, outreach providers, and others responsible
for implementing drinking water Pr°gram^^^03^9'
0420 for further  information. To access DRIPSS with a
modem, dial 1-800-229-3737.
Inorganic Chemical Sampling  and Analytical  Require-
ments, National  Primary Drinking Water Regulat.ons. 40
CFR Part 141.23.
 Lead and Copper Rule Guidance Manual, Vol. 1-1991.
 U S  EPA  Office of Ground  Water and Drinking Water.
 NT1S PB 9211-2101. September. $35 plus $3 for shipping.
 (Volume 2 is expected in May 1992.) Order by calling 1-
 800-336-4700 or writing to NTIS,  5285 Port Royal Rd.,
 Springfield, VA 22161.
 Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in
 Drinking Water. 1988. EPA-600/4-88/039. U.S. EPA.
 Public Notification Handbook for Public Water Systems.
 1989. EPA 570/9-89-002. U.S. EPA, Office of Water.
 The Safe  Drinking Water Act A Pocket Guide to the Re-
 quirements for  the Operators of Small Water Systems.
  U.S. EPA Region 9.
  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewa-
  ter, 17th ed. 1989. American Public Health Association et al.
  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-
  water, 16th ed.1985. American Public Health Association et al.
  SWTR Guidance Manual for Compliance with the Filtra-
  tion and Disinfection  Requirements for Public Water Sys-
  tems  Using Surface Water Sources. 1991. American
  Water Works Association (AWWA). Order by calling 303-
  795-2449 or writing  to  AWWA Member Services,  6666
  West Quincy Ave., Denver, CO 80235.





        l"lst paragraph - Small systems are defined as
      Those seeing %300 or .ess (people).

V°C Sf U- NOTE: All systems should have competed

        rpT8iremRee5lated  monHoring .s also  required

         i,i,^uiwuuivc                n  (Phase V)-

               increase the number of v°cs for

       state drinking water representative  for current
SWTR Section                         ._.,_*   «,
       P.47 - Delete the words "Each month, before In
       the distribution system."  Some systems collect
       samples once each calendar quarter.
       p 49 - Delete the word  "Generally," in the first
       paragraph (second sentence) under the heading
       "Source Water Monitoring."
 Lead and Copper Section
       P 64 3rd para. - Change lor systems that serve
       less 'than 3,300 people" to  "for systems that
        serve 3,300 or less people."
        P.73, Para.  1 - In first sentence, add the words
        "cold water" after bathroom sink  so it  reads
        "...bathroom sink cold water tap."

        Back Cover - Change EPA Region 10 phone
        number from number shown to 1-800-424-4EPA,