United States
             Environmental Proteclton        Office of Water            EPA 814/F-94-001
             Agency                    4601                         •» ._
             	OU1                         February 1994


             FACT SHEET
  SffflK? lnTfhLmpB°n r°lleCti0n RU'e ('CR) was published ln  » Federal «***«i February
  (59 FR 6332). This FR notice proposes requirements for monitoring microbial contaminants and Idi
  byproducts by public water systems.  It also proposes reporting requirements for Se^t pS
  operating data and requirements for conducting bench and pilot scale testing for publHater systeml

  Microbial Monitoring

  If die rule is promulgated as proposed, microbial monitoring would be conducted to assess the occurrence
  certain microbial pathogens and indicator organisms and to evaluate the rttocllvw^exiffiS
  practices. Surface water systems or ground water systems under the direct influence of surface water

  Ms±s^° 1 0i000 *w or more would be required to conduct ^w^S5^J
  100,000 people or more would be required to monitor for Giardia. Cryptosporidium viruses fecal

                                servin9 at least 10-000-
 The very large systems (100,000 or more) would be required to conduct monthly source water monitorino for
 18 consecutive months beginning no earlier than 3 months after promulgation, but no later than OctobeM 995
 The large systems (10,000 - 99,999) would begin this yearlongP bimonthly sampling? *,ril 199  or eartier'

 n,nS,l?flemay a'S° "e fequired <0 rep°rt information concerning watershed characterises and tollmeni

 Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Monitoring

 !f nRP^nS,-nr0hmH9at?d a! Pr°P°sed' the DBP monitoring data would be used to: 1) evaluate the occurrence
 of DBFs in finished water, 2) examine source-water characteristics that influence DBP formation 3) validate or

 orrr8""9 ^^XT**™ of DBP formation and 4>define <*>*w«™ t^^'SSSS.
 Only systems serving 100,000 or more persons would be required to conduct the DBP monitoring  DBP and
 microbial monitoring would be required to be done concurrently.
                                                                           * f
 Sample locations, frequencies and DBFs which would be measured are shown in Table 1. Additional monitorina
 would be requ,red for specific DBFs generated by the use of alternative disinfectants or hyS^^SW
 Treatment plant operational data would also be reported for use in refining existing DBP predictive models.

 Bench- and Pilot-scale Testing
    tern iS»KP?mUl9atfndnartS^roposed' DBP Precursor <*™^ studies would be required for certain Subpart
H systems that serve 100,000 or more people, and systems that serve 50,000 or more people that use bnly
ground water and add a disinfectant.  These systems would be required to begin monitoring for total organic
l^Jl? 1^   n  m?n,thswa!ter Promulgation. No study would be required for: 1) systems with an annual
average of <40 ^g/L total tnhalomethanes (TTHMs) and <30 ng/L haloacetic acids (HAAs) and which use only
chlorine as dis.nfectant, 2) Subpart H systems which do not exceed an annual average TOO level of 4 0 rng/L

• "*$£ ,- "*'-* "XtV-^ , ' Table 1.0BP Sampling1 '1
' Para?netef ^"^sSsljjffif i
pH, alkalinity, turbidfty, temperature, calcium I
total hardness, total organic carbon, UV^,
Disinfectant residual
THMs, haloacetic acids, haioketones, haloacetonitriles, chloropicrin, chloral hydrate
pH, alkalinity, temperature, total hardness, disinfectant residual
Simulated distribution system testing
Total organic halides (TOX)
' Additional monitoring is required for systems
* 1. treatment plant intake; 2. after air stripping
using hypochlorite, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chtoramin
; 3. before and after filtration; 4. at each disinfection point;
where chlorine is applied; 6. distribution system entry point; 7 after filtration; 8. at 4 points in distribution
iocattan* frequency
1,3,4.6 Monthly
1 Monthly
1,2 Monthly
5,6 Monthly
6,7,8 Quarterly
8 Quarterly
6 Quarterly
1,6,7,8 Quarterly
5. at end of each process
in the treatment plant influent or 3) ground water systems which have an average TOC level of 2.0 mg/L or le&
in the treated water at the entry point to the distribution system.

The proposed bench- and/or pilot-scale treatment studies would evaluate granular activated carbon (GAC) o
membrane processes.  GAC bench testing would be done with rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) whilt
pilot testing would be conducted in at least 2-inch pilot columns. Both bench- and pilot-scale membrane testiru
would be conducted to  assess flux  loss and seasonal variation.  Guidance would be provided on the stud;

The bench- and pilot-scale studies would include simulated distribution system (SDS) testing with chlorine t«
determine DBF formation  as  well as chlorine demand.   Extensive water quality monitoring and proces
information would also be required.  Affected systems would begin the DBP precursor removal study not late
than  18 months after the rule is promulgated and submit a report to EPA not later than September 30,1997

General  Information
While some states may  choose to participate in the implementation of this rule, EPA has primary responsibilit
for its implementation. The rule is intended to provide EPA with a strong base of information for developing th
next generation of regulations for controlling disinfection byproducts and pathogenic organisms, so it is importar
that accurate information is obtained.  EPA would develop a data reporting software  package to facilitate th
reporting of data  by the utilities.

Laboratories would be required to be approved by EPA prior to conducting analyses for the ICR. For informatio
on the  approval process, they should contact EPA at the following address:  ICR Laboratory Coordinator, U.5
EPA, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Technical Support Division, 26 W. Martin Luther King Driv
Cincinnati, OH 45268.

See the Federal Register for details of the proposed rule.  EPA is requesting public comment on a number <
yet unresolved issues.
For More Information   Contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791.