United States
              Environmental Protection
Office of Water (4601)
Washington, DC 20460
July 1997
»EPA       Water on Tap:
              A Consumer's Guide to the Nation's
              Drinking Water


                 Foreword 11
Dear Friends of Drinking Wate|r:
We are pleased that EPA has prepifej
report.  This  report provides. infoft|f|
quality of U.S. drinking water safety^!?
variety  of concerns that apply to ri||J
situations. -                  : '  . :V';J.H
         ••'.--         -    .'v'Sf
                            • "    ~-\ "'^
The report stresses the need for all pfj|
individual   and  community-level  |||]
drinking water quality. We urge  yoti:la
utility officials with questions; read rej3|irj
about the local  water supply; and JM
become a good water steward yours^E
Everyone needs  to help prevent Cgft
entering source waters in the first pJajSjb
the watershed goes hand-in-hand 'jjjjn
appropriate treatment is provided by |p
wiin Trie iriiurrriaiiuii uiai nrM lias,jj[
report, but don't stop there. Continue;!^
as you do, you'll also care more ari^
drinking water that nourishes us all. '\*|

 The National Drinking Water Advisoif 12


Water   on  Tap:   A
Consumer's   Guide  to   the
Nation's   Drinking   Water
The United States enjoys one of the best supplies of
drinking water in the world. Nevertheless, many of •
us who once gave little or no thought to the water
that comes from our taps are increasingly asking the
question: "Is my water safe to drink?" While tap
water that meets federal and state standards gener-
ally is safe to drink, threats to drinking water quality
and quantity are increasing. From short-term
disease outbreaks linked to contaminated drinking
water to restrictions on water use during droughts,
we can no longer take our drinking water for

People are asking many questions. How safe is my,
drinking water? Where does my drinking water
come from, and how does it get to my home? My
water may be safe now, but what about in the
future? What can I do to help protect my drinking
water?                    ,

This booklet provides answers to these and other
frequently asked questions. It also describes
changes in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)  ,
that will make new information available to con-
sumers in the near future. The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) wants to help consumers
understand this new information and to encourage
these informed consumers to become engaged -
citizens. The SDWA offers opportunities for
citizens to participate in maintaining high quality
drinking water. It is our shared responsibility,
involving federal, state, and local government;
water suppliers; and the public to help maintain the
quality and quantity of our drinking water.

This booklet also directs you to more detailed
sources of information to help you become an active
participant in ensuring the quality of your drinking
water. You can check with the resources in the
Appendix, or call the EPA's Safe Drinking Water
Hotline at (800) 426-4791 for information on how
to get involved with drinking water protection.
                                                                                 The Bull Run
                                                           ^^if^ys^-?,. 5

How   Safe  Is   My  Drinking
Most community water suppliers deliver high
quality drinking water to millions of Americans
every day. Of the more than 55,000 Community
Water Systems in the United States, only 4,769 or
8.6 percent reported a violation of one or more
drinking water health standards in 1996. (See pages
3 and 4 for more information about what constitutes
a violation.)

Nationwide, drinking water systems have spent
hundreds of billions of dollars to build drinking
water treatment and distribution systems, and they
spend an additional $22 billion per year to operate
and maintain them. Additional monies became
available in 1997 to upgrade drinking water systems
and implement local source water protection
activities. (See page 12 for more details.)

In addition, there is a network of government
agencies whose job is to ensure that public water
supplies are safe. Nonetheless, problems with local
drinking water can, and do, occur.
Why Does EPA Allow Any
Contaminants in Drinking Water?

All sources of drinking water contain some natu-
rally occurring contaminants. Because water is the
universal solvent, many materials are easily dis-
solved upon contact. At low levels, these contami-
nants generally are not harmful in our drinking
water. Removing all contaminants would be ex-
tremely expensive and in nearly all cases would not
provide greater protection of health. A few of the
naturally occurring substances may actually im-
prove the taste of drinking water and may have
nutritional values at low levels.
What Problems Can Occur?	

As development in our modern society increases,
there are growing numbers of threats that could
contaminate drinking water. Suburban sprawl has
    Community Water Systems Violating
      Maximum Contaminant Levels or
        Treatment Standards in 1996
                     _jO% - 6% of Systems
                     • 6% - 11 % of Systems
                     B 11 + % of Systems
encroached upon once-pristine watersheds, bringing
with it all of the by-products of our modern life
style. Actual events of serious drinking water
contamination occur infrequently, and typically not
at levels posing near-term health concern. Nonethe-
less, with the threats of such events increasing, we
cannot take drinking water safety for granted.
Greater vigilance by you, your water supplier, and
your government is vital to ensure that such events
do not occur in your water supply.

Microbiological and chemical contaminants can
enter water supplies. These materials can be the
result of human  activity or can be found in nature.
For instance, chemicals can migrate from disposal
sites and contaminate sources of drinking water.
Animal wastes and pesticides may be carried to
lakes and streams by rainfall runoff or snow melt.
Human wastes may be discharged to receiving
waters that ultimately flow to water bodies used for
drinking water. Coliform bacteria from human and
animal wastes may be found in drinking water if the
water is not properly treated or disinfected. These
bacteria are used as indicators that other harmful
organisms may be in the water.

The potential for health problems from drinking
water is illustrated by localized outbreaks of water-
borne disease. Many of these outbreaks have been

linked to contamination by bacteria or viruses,
probably from human or animal waste. In 1993 and
1994, for example, there were 3,0 reported disease
outbreaks associated with drinking water, 23
associated with public drinking water supplies and 7 •
with private wells.

Certain pathpgens, such as Cryptosporidium, may
pass through water treatment filtration and disinfec-
tion processes in sufficient numbers to cause health
problems.  Cryptosporidium is a protozoa that
causes the gastrointestinal disease cryptosporidiosis.
The most serious, and sometimes deadly, conse-
quences of cryptosporidiosis tend to be focused
among sensitive members of the population, such as
individuals with immune system deficiencies.

A 1993 outbreak.of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee,
Wisconsin, is the largest outbreak of waterborne
disease in the United States. Lake Michigan is the
source of Milwaukee's water, which is treated by
filtration and disinfection. Due to an unusual
combination of circumstances during a period of
heavy rainfall and runoff the treatment plant was
ineffective, resulting in an increase in the turbidity
of the treated water. Increased" turbidity can be, and
was in this case, an indicator of higher levels of
Cryptosporidium.  Over 400,000 persons were
affected by the disease, more than 4,000 were
hospitalized, and over 50 deaths (some counts are as
high as 100) have been attributed to the disease. The
original source of contamination is uncertain.

Nitrate in drinking water at levels above the na-
tional standard poses an immediate threat to young
children. Excessive levels can result in a condition
known as "blue baby syndrome." If untreated, the
condition could be fatal.        .
   Boiling water contaminated with nitrate increases the
   nitrate concentration and the potential risk. Persons
   worried  about nitrate should talk:wittvtheir doctor
   about alternatives to using boiled water in baby
   formula.          _     _      \          -,   -
Naturally occurring contaminants also are being
found hi drinking water. For example, the radioac-
tive gas radon-222 occurs in certain types of rock •
and can get into ground water. People can be
exposed to radon in water by drinking it, while
showering, or when washing dishes. The primary
source of exposure to radon in the home is radon
seeping out of the soil, and into the basement air.
Where Can I Get More Information
About My Water?	

Information on water quality in your area is avail-
able from several sources, including your local
public health department and your water supplier.
You can determine whom to contact by checking
your water bill or by calling your local town hall.

State agencies also can provide extensive informa-
tion on your water supply and its quality. Each state
has a department responsible for drinking water

EPA maintains general water resources information
at its headquarters and in its 10 regional offices:
Other groups, such as environmental organizations,
also may be able to provide information. Appen-
dix C lists organizations that can answer your
questions and provide additional information.
 How Does EPA Set Drinking Water
 Standards?  !

 EPA has issued drinking water standards, or Maxi-
 mum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for more than 80
 contaminants. (See Appendix A.) The standards
 limit the amount of each substance allowed to be
 present in drinking water.

 A process called risk assessment is used to set
 drinking water quality standards. When assessing
 the cancer and non-cancer risks from exposure to a
 chemical in drinking water, the first step is to
. me'asure how much of the chemical could be in the
 water. Next, scientists estimate how much of the
 chemical the average person is likely to drink. This
 amount is called the exposure. In developing
 drinking water standards, EPA assumes that the
 average adult drinks 2 liters of water each day
 throughout a 70-year life span.

 Risks are estimated separately for cancer and non-
 cancer effects. For cancer effects, a risk assessment
 estimates a measure of the chances that someone
 may get cancer because they have been exposed to a
 drinking water contaminant. EPA generally sets
 MCLs at levels that will limit an individual's risk of
 .cancer from that contaminant to between 1 in
 10,000 and  1 in 1,000,000 over a lifetime. For non-
 cancer effects, the risk assessment estimates an
 exposure level below which no adverse effects are
 expected to occur.

MCLs are set based on known or anticipated
adverse human health effects, the ability of various
technologies to remove the contaminant, their
effectiveness, and cost of treatment. All MCLs are
set at levels that protect public health. The limit for
many substances is based on lifetime exposure so,
for most potential contaminants, short-term exceed-
ances pose a limited health risk. The exceptions are
the standards for coliform bacteria and nitrate, for
which exceedances can pose an immediate threat to

To comply with MCLs, public water systems may
use any state-approved treatment. When it is not
economically or technologically feasible to set an
MCL for a contaminant—for example, when the
contaminant cannot be easily measured—EPA may
require use of a particular treatment technique
instead. The technique specifies the design for part .
of the drinking water  treatment process.
How Many Public Water Systems
Have Exceeded The MCLs And
Treatment Requirements?	,

Currently, the nation's approximately 55,000
Community Water Systems (CWSs) must test for
more than 80 contaminants. In 1996,4,151 systems,
or 7 percent, reported one or more MCL violations,
and 681 systems (less than 2 percent) reported
violations of treatment technique standards.
Who Makes Sure That My Drinking
Water Supply Is Safe?	•
     Percentage of CWSs Violating
    MCLs or Treatment Techniques,
         by System Size in 1996
       Large & Very Large ,
Small & Very Small
25-3,300 Customers
   Source: Safe Drinking Water Information System
they supply does not contain contaminants at levels
higher than the law allows.

Prior to 1974 each state ran its own drinking water
program and set the standards that had to be met at
the local level. As a result, drinking water protec-
tion standards differed from state to state. Since
1974, when Congress passed the original Safe
Drinking Water Act, EPA has set uniform nation-  ,
wide minimum standards for drinking water. State
public health and environmental agencies have the
primary responsibility for ensuring that these
federal drinking water quality standards, or more
stringent ones required by the state, are met by each
public water supplier.

When a state water agency or water supplier
announces that the standard for a particular con-
taminant has been exceeded, that may or may not by
itself be a cause for alarm, but it can be a cause for
action. It is a safety precaution required by the law
to alert .the public to deficiencies in drinking water
Local governments, public water systems, the
states, and EPA work together towards the goal of
ensuring that all public water supplies are safe. For
households on private wells, state and local health
departments usually have some standards for the
drinking water, but it is generally up to the home-
owner to maintain the quality of the drinking water.

Local governments have a direct interest in protect-
ing the quality of their drinking water source, be it
ground water or surface water. They may be respon-
sible for overseeing land uses that can affect the
quality of untreated source water. Public water
systems have a responsibility to maintain sound
treatment works and water distribution networks.
They are responsible for ensuring that the water
           Boil Water Notices
  When microorganisms, such as those that indicate
  fecal contamination  are found in drinking  water,
  water suppliers may b© required to issue "boil water
  notices." Boiling water kills'the organisms that can,
  cause disease. Therefore, the notices  serve as a
  precaution for the publjti

  Boil water notices are being issued more frequently in
  recent years. In fact, in :ip93 notices were issued by
  water suppliers in New: York City and the District of
  Columbia, which together serve more than 7.1  miHion
  people. At least 725 otrjer communities have also
  issued notices affecting ajmost 3 million people in the
  past few years.        j         ".''..

Where  Does  My  Drinking
Water  Come  From?
Drinking water comes from surface water and
ground water. Large-scale water supply systems
tend to rely on surface water resources, and smaller
water systems tend to use ground water. Including
the approximately 23 million Americans who use
ground water as a private drinking-water source,
slightly more than half of the population receives its
drinking water from ground water sources.

Surface water includes rivers, lakes, and reservoirs.
Ground water is pumped from wells that are drilled
into aquifers. Aquifers are geologic formations that
contain water. The quantity of water in an aquifer
and the water produced by a well depend on the
nature of the rock, sand, or soil in the aquifer where
the well withdraws water. Drinking water wells may
be shallow (50 feet or less) or deep (more than
1,000 feet). Your water utility or your public works
department can tell you the source of your public
drinking water supply.
    Percentage of Population Using
   Ground Water and Surface Water
        Ground Water
                           Surface Water
   Source: USGS1986 National Water Summary
 What is a Public Water System?	

 The SDWA defines a public water system as one
 that serves piped water to at least 25 persons or 15
 service connections for at least 60 days per year:
 Such systems may be owned by homeowner asso-
 ciations, investor-owned water companies, local
 governments, and others. Water that does not come
 from a public water supply, and which serves one of
only a few homes, is called a private supply.

Community water systems are public systems that
serve people year-round in their homes. EPA also
regulates other kinds of public water systems—such
as those at schools, factories, campgrounds, or
restaurants—that have their own water supply. The
data shown in this report cover only community
water systems because they are the source of most
drinking water.
How Does Water Get To My Faucet?

In a typical community water supply system, water
is transported under pressure through a distribution
network of buried pipes. Smaller pipes, called house
service lines, are attached to .the main water lines to
bring water from the distribution network to your
house. In many community water supply systems,
water pressure is provided by pumping water up
into storage tanks that store water at higher eleva-
tions than the houses they serve. The force of
gravity then "pushes" the water into your home
when you open your tap. Houses on a private supply
usually get their water from a private well. A pump
brings the water out of the ground and into a small
tank within the home, where the water is stored
underpressure.                     ]
How Do Public Water Suppliers
Treat My Water To Make It Safe?

Water suppliers use a-variety of treatment processes
to remove contaminants from drinking water. These
individual processes may be arranged in a "treat-
ment train" to remove undesirable contaminants
from the water. The most commonly used processes
include filtration, flocculation and sedimentation,
and disinfection. Some treatment trains'also include
ion exchange and adsorption. A typical water
treatment plant would have only the combination of
processes needed to treat the contaminants in the
source water used by the facility. If you want to

               know what types of treatment are used for your
               water supply, contact your local water supplier
               or public works department.
adequately by filtration or sedimentation. Ion
exchange can be used to treat hard water. It can also
be used to remove arsenic, chromium, excess
fluoride,  nitrates, radium, and uranium.

               Flocculation refers to water treatment processes that
               combine small particles into larger particles, which
               settle out of the water as sediment. Alum and iron
               salts or synthetic organic polymers (alone, or in
               combination with metal salts) are generally used to
               promote coagulation. Settling or sedimentation is
               simply a gravity process that removes flocculated
               particles from the water.

               Many water treatment facilities use filtration to
               remove remaining particles from the water supply.
               Those particles include clays and silts, natural
               organic matter, precipitants from other treatment
               processes in the facility, iron and manganese, and
               microorganisms. Filtration clarifies water and
               enhances the effectiveness of disinfection.
               Ion Exchange

               Ion exchange processes are used to remove inor-
               ganic constituents if they cannot be removed

Organic contaminants, color, and taste- and odor-
causing compounds can stick to the surface of
granular or powdered activated carbon (GAC or
PAC). GAC is generally more effective than PAC
in removing these contaminants. Adsorption is not
commonly used in public water supplies.
Disinfection (chlorination, ozonation)

Water is often disinfected before it enters the
distribution system to ensure that dangerous mi-
crobes are killed. Chlorine, chloramines, or chlorine
dioxide most often are used because they are very
effective disinfectants, and residual concentrations
can be maintained to guard against biological
contamination in the water distribution system.
Ozone is a powerful disinfectant, but it is not
effective in controlling biological contaminants in
the distribution pipes.
   EPA is in the process of developing regulation's
   limiting the  amount of disinfection  by-products
   (DBFs). DBFs are contaminants that form when
   disinfectants react with organic matter that is in
   treated drinking water. Long-term exposure to some
   DBFs may increase the risk of cancer or other
   adverse health effects.
                                                                                 How Much Does It Cost
                                                                                  To Treat And Deliver
                                                                                  My Drinking Water?
                                                                                   On a per gallon basis, water is
                                                                                   cheap. On average, water costs
                                                                                   are slightly more than $2 per
                                                                                   1,000 gallons, although the costs
                                                                                   tend to be lower for large water
                                                                                   systems. Treatment accounts for
                                                                                   about 15 percent of that cost.
                                                                                    Other costs are for equipment
                                                                                    (such as the treatment plant and
                                                                                    distribution system) and labor
                                                                                    for operation and maintenance
                                                                                    of the system.
              Mudraiion adapted with permission from a publication of the East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, California

How  Much  Drinking
Water  Do  We  Use  In  Our
On average, our society uses almost 100 gallons of
drinking water per person per day. Traditionally,
water use rates are described in units of gallons per
capita per day (gpcd), gallons used by one person in
one day. Of the "drinking .water" supplied by public
water systems, only a small portion is actually used
for drinking. As residential water consumers, we
use most water for other purposes, such as toilet
flushing, bathing, cooking, cleaning, and lawri

The amount of water we use in our homes varies
during the day:

• Lowest rate of use - 11:30 p.m. to 5:00 a.m.

• Sharp rise/high use - 5:00 a.m. to noon. (Peak
  hourly use from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 a.m.)

• Moderate use - noon to 5:00 p.m. (Lull around
  3:00 p.m.)

• Increasing evening use - 5:00 to 11:00 p.m.
. (Second minor peak, 6:00 to 8:00 p.m.)
I've Heard That
Households In
The U.S. Use A
Lot Of Water
Compared To
Countries. Is
That True?

Yes. The United
States uses more
water than other
countries, even those
that are equally well
developed. In the
United States, signifi-
cant amounts of water
are used for lawn and
garden sprinkling,
automobile washing, and kitchen .and laundry
appliances, such as garbage disposals, clothes
washers, and automatic dish washers.
^M***;!1'"" f llll:
Water Use
per Capita
72,000 '
Percentage of Total Water
Use by Category
3, ... '
97 •
0. .
•includes water used for electrical powerand for cooling.
Source: Van Der Leeden, F., F.L. Troise, and O.K. Todd. The Water
Encyclopedia. Lewis Publishers, nc. Second Edition, 1990.
       Common Household Uses of Drinking Water*
                  (Gallons per Capita per Day)
               Bathing, 20 gpcd
           Toilet Flushing, 24 gpcd
                                 Drinking and Cooking, 2 gpcd
                                   Garbage Disposal, 1 gpcd
                                      Dishwasher, 4 gpcd
  S>.5 gpcd
 2.5 gpcd
         Lawn Watering
      and Pools, 25 gpcd
                         Source; Van Per Leedfln, F,, F.L. Troise, and
                         D.K. Todd. The Water Encyclopedia. Lewis
                         Publishers, Inc. Second Edition, \99O. -
We use tap water for various purposes.
A typical family of four on a public
water supply uses about 350 gallons per
day at home. In contrast, a typical
household that gets its water from a
private well or cistern uses about 200
gallons for a family of four. In our
communities an additional 35 gallons of
water per person are used for public
activities such as fire fighting, street
washing, and park maintenance.

Commercial and industrial businesses
may also place heavy demands on public
water supplies in developed countries. In
most water supply systems, the predomi-
nant number of user connections are
residences, but the few connections to
nonresidential customers may account
for a significant portion of the system-
wide water use.

How Do Water Utilities Ensure
Adequate Drinking Water Supplies?

Water utilities forecast water source availability,
growth in population, and water demand to ensure
adequate future water supplies during normal
conditions and periods of drought. When water
shortages are predicted or experienced, water
utilities have many options for conserving water.
Temporary cutbacks or permanent operating
adjustments can help conserve water. Permanent
conservation measures may include:

•  Subsidizing use of water-efficient faucets, toilets,
   and showerheads

•  Public education and voluntary use reduction

•  Billing practices that impose higher rates for
   higher amounts of water use

•  Building codes that require water-efficient
   fixtures or appliances

•  Leak detection surveys and meter testing, repair,
   and replacement

•  Reduction in use and increase in recycling of
   industrial water
Temporary cutbacks may include:

•  Reduction of system-wide operating pressure

•  Water use bans, restrictions, and rationing

How Can I Reduce The Amount Of
Drinking Water I Use?

There are many ways to conserve water that result
in significant reductions. For example, residential
water consumption can be reduced by using water-
efficient fixtures (faucets, toilets, and showerheads)
and appliances, and through better managed lawn
watering. The graphic at the lower left shows the
relative effectiveness of residential techniques used
to reduce water use. Possible water savings are
indicated as a percentage of total interior water use
for conservation methods such as low-water use
toilets, water-efficient faucets, and low-water use

Can Business Also Reduce Water
                                                   Water can be conserved in
                     Ways To Save Water At Home*
                ("Water Savings as Percent of Total Interior Water Use)
       Low-Flow Showerbeads
     (or Flow Restrfctors), 12%
       low-Water Use
   Clothes Washers. 5%
    Low-Water Use Toilets (or
    Plastic Bottles or Water
    Dams in Toilet Reservoir),
       Low-Flow Aerators on
       Faucets (or Replace-
       ment Faucets), 2%

       Low-Water Use
       Dishwasher, 4%
                                                    Insulation on
                                                    Hot Water Lines, .4%
the industrial and
 commercial sectors
 through recycling and
 waste reduction.
 Industry has imple-
 mented conservation
 measures to comply
 with state and federal
 water pollution con-
 trols. Evaluation of
 industrial plant data
 may show that a
 particular process or
 manufacturing step
 uses the most water or
 causes the greatest
 contamination. Such
 areas can be targeted
 for water conservation,
 thus saving on plant-
 wide water use. Also,
 water that is contami-
 nated by one process
 may be usable in other
 plant processes that dp
 not require high-quality

How Will I Know If  My
Drinking  Water  Remains
Safe  In  The Future?
I've Heard That A New Law Was
Passed By Congress. What Will That
Do For My Drinking Water?   	

President Clinton signed the Safe Drinking Water
Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996 on August 6,
1996. The 1996 SDWA amendments require that
consumers receive more information about the
quality of their drinking water supplies and what is
being done to protect them. The amendments also
provide new opportunities for public involvement
and provide an increased emphasis on protecting the
sources of local drinking water.
What Information Can I Expect To

Water suppliers must promptly tell you if your
water has become contaminated by something that
can cause immediate illness. The 1996 SDWA
Amendments specified
new time frames for
notification of violations.
Water systems now have
24 hours to inform their
customers of violations
of EPA standards "that
have the potential to have
serious adverse effects on
human .health as a result
of short-term exposure."
If such a violation
occurs, the system will
announce it through the
media and provide
information about:

• The potential adverse
  effects on human
•  The steps that the system is taking to correct the
  violation, and

•  The need to use alternative water supplies (such
  as boiled water or bottled water) until the prob- ,
  lem is corrected.

Systems will inform customers about violations of
less immediate concern in the first water bill sent
out after the violation, in an annual report, or by
mail within a year.

Beginning in 1998, your state will compile informa-
tion from individual systems so that you can
evaluate the overall quality of drinking water in
your state. EPA must compile and summarize the
state reports into an annual report on the condition
of the nation's drinking water.

The SDWA amendments also require EPA to
publish regulations that will require systems to
prepare consumer confidence reports. These con-

                                      stress efforts to-
                                       protect source


 the public.
               sumer confidence reports at a minimum will pro-

               •  Information about where your drinking water
                 comes from,

               •  Results of monitoring that the system performed
                 during the year, and

               •  Information on health concerns associated with
                 violations that occurred during the year.

               Beginning in 1999, systems will have to prepare
               and distribute the reports annually. Systems serving
               fewer than 10,000 persons will, at the Governor's
               option, be able to make the reports available to the
               public in ways other than mailing them.
               How Often Is My Water Supply

               EPA has established pollutant-specific minimum
               testing schedules for public water systems. To find
               out how frequently your drinking water is tested,
               contact your water system or state agency in charge
               of drinking water.

               The table on this page shows the major groups of
               contaminants and the minimum frequency that
               public water systems must test for them. If a
               problem is detected, there are immediate retesting
               requirements that go into effect and strictinstruc-
Sample Monitoring Schedule
Minimum Monitoring
Acute Contaminants
Protozoa and
Monthly or quarterly,
depending on system size
and type
Continuous monitoring for
turbidity, monthly for total
conforms, as indicators
Chronic Contaminants
Volatile Organics
(e.g., benzene)
Synthetic Organics
(e.g., pesticides)
Lead and Copper
Ground water systems,
annually for 2 consecutive
years; surface water
systems, annually
Larger systems, twice in 3
years; smaller systems,
once in 3 years
Ground water systems, '
once every 3 years; surface
water systems, annually
Once every 4 years
General requirements may differ slightly based on the size or
type of drinking water system.
tions for how the system informs the public about
                            the problem. Until
                            the system can
                            reliably demonstrate
                            that it is free of
                            problems, the
                            retesting is contin-

                            In 1996, one out of
                            five CWSs did not
                            conduct testing or
                            report the results for
                            all of the monitoring
                            required to verify
                            drinking water
                            safety. Although
                            failure to monitor
                            does not necessarily
                            suggest safety
                            problems, conduct-
                            ing the required
                            monitoring and

reporting is critical to ensure that problems will be
detected. Consumers can help make certain moni-
toring and reporting requirements are met by first
contacting their state drinking water agency to
determine if their water supplier is meeting all
requirements. If the water supplier is not meeting
the requirements, consumers can work with local
and state officials and their water supplier to ensure
that the required monitoring gets done,
 Can Water Systems Be Excused
 From Monitoring For Some

 In some cases, yes. Over time, public water systems
 should better understand the likely threats to their
 water supplies by reviewing test results and keeping
 a watchful eye on threats to' their drinking water
 sources. If a system does not have water quality
 problems, it can apply to the state for permission to
 test less frequently for certain contaminants. If, after
 scientific analysis,  state regulators believe it is
 unlikely that human or natural activities will affect
 the system's water quality in the future, they may
 grant the request to avoid unnecessary testing.

 A waiver from the  monitoring requirements in no
 way reduces the water supplier's responsibility to
 provide high-quality water; on the contrary, it is a
 privilege awarded only to the suppliers who can
 ensure the reliable  delivery of safe water to their
. customers. Testing continues, but at a reduced
 frequency. At the first indication of any problem —
 or likelihood of a problem '^- the system must
 notify the state and the state may instruct the system
 to return to a more rigorous monitoring schedule.
 Does This New Safe Drinking Water
 Act Do Anything Else To Keep My
 Drinking Water Safe In The Future?

 The'1996 SDWA includes many new provisions
 that will help states and water systems improve the
 quality of drinking water by preventing problems
 before they occur. Under the new source water
 protection provisions, for example, each state must
 develop a program to identify potential contamina-
 tion threats and determine the susceptibility of
 drinking water sources such as wells or reservoirs to
 activities that may harm the source water. The
 source water assessments will provide the informa-
 tion necessary for states and localities to protect
source water from contamination. Substantial
federal funding is provided to states for assessments
and for source water protection programs if states
choo'se to operate such a program.

The new lay/ also will help prevent problems by
ensuring that water systems are operated by quali-
fied professionals. Each state must carry out an
"operator certification program," including training
and certification for individuals responsible for
operating the drinking water plant. Most states
required operator certification before it was man-
dated by federal law. Many very small water
systems that cannot afford a full-time operator use
"circuit riders" who travel from system to system
providing technical assistance and making sure that
the plant is operating correctly. States must estab-
lish programs to ensure that the water systems have
sufficient technical, managerial, and financial
capacity to reliably deliver safe drinking water.


                               Can  I Help  To  Protect
             My  Drinking  Water
             Drinking water protection is a shared responsibility,
             involving water suppliers, local and state govern-
             ments, business, and individuals. We all have an
             important role to play, and as private citizens we
             have many opportunities. Environmental protection
             activities such as watershed protection projects are
             taking place across the United States. Clean and
             healthy watersheds are vital to safe drinking water.

             Other opportunities to be involved in drinking water
             protection are discussed in the rest of this section.
             What Programs Are Underway To
             Protect Water Supplies?

             Wellhead protection is a process for protecting
             individual communities' underground sources of
             drinking water. These programs focus on areas
             thousands of square feet to a few square miles
             immediately surrounding a community water supply
             well. State and local governments began developing
             wellhead protection programs in the late 1980s, and
             more than 10,000 programs have been started
             throughout the United States.

             Sole source aquifer protection programs also protect
             ground water supplies, but usually over a much .
             larger area than that covered by wellhead protection
             programs. They focus on government-funded
             projects that may affect the aquifer.

             EPA is encouraging states and communities to
             undertake source water protection programs, which
             apply the principles of wellhead protection to
             surface water as well as ground water supplies of
             drinking water.

             Source water protection should be a critical part of
             all community water programs. In the past, water
             suppliers used most of their resources to treat water
             from rivers, lakes, and underground sources of
             drinking water before supplying it to our homes as
             drinking water. Now, we understand that if we place
greater emphasis on protecting our sources of
drinking water, the need for treatment can be

The general components of a source water protec-
tion program include:

• Delineation: Identifying the area of land that
  water passes through to reach the drinking water

• Contaminant source inventory: Mapping the
  locations of potential sources of drinking water

• Source water protection area management:
  Using regulatory controls, such as zoning or
  health ordinances, or nonregulatory controls,
  such as technical assistance to businesses and
  public education, to keep contaminants out of
  drinking water supplies.

• Contingency planning: Plan special actions in
  case a sudden event (for instance, a flood or spill)
  occurs that threatens the drinking water supply.

The Partnership for Safe Water is a voluntary self-
assessment and peer-review process to help water
utilities ensure high drinking water quality. Public
water supply systems that use surface water and that
have filtration treatment are eligible to participate.
Contact the American Water Works Association
(see Appendix C) or your water supplier to find out
if they are part of the Partnership.
How Can I Get Involved To Protect
Water Supplies?

Many communities are in the process of implement;
ing source water protection programs. Your local
water supplier can tell you whether your community
has a source water protection program.

Source water protection works by involving all  '
members of the community. Citizens can voice their
support for controlling how land is used near
drinking water intakes.                s

Citizens can also educate their neighbors about the
danger that household chemicals pose to drinking
water supplies. Many communities sponsor house-
hold hazardous waste disposal days to promote   ,
proper handling of waste paints and thinners,.
pesticides, used oil, and other hazardous materials.
Your state or local environmental agency should
have information about such programs in your   .
What Legal Options Do I Have To
Improve My Drinking Water

The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water
Act provide many opportunities for public involve-
ment. The new law gives states flexibility and
funding to tailor'the new program efforts to improve
source water protection and water system capacity
       Successful Source Water
   Elkhart, Indiana began developing a source water
   protection program in the late 1980s, after being
  .forced to close one of its drinking water wellfields.
   when dangerous chemical solvents were found in
   the drinking water supply.        ',            ;

   Officials  jn Elkhart realized that they needed ah.'.
   efficient way to inventory and map all of the potential
   sources of contamination that could reach their new
   'drinking water supply. They discovered that retired
   senior volunteers  are an  excellent  resource for
   conducting the inventories.'    .-"-,-           .

   By working  with  the Service  Corps of  Retired
  ' Executives and the American Association of Retired
  . Persons,". Elkhart recruited 20  senior volunteers,
   from  a list 'of. over. 400 potential volunteers,  to,
   conduct the inventories. Working with city staff, the
   senior volunteers  visited homes and businesses
   throughout Elkhart  and mapped 280 potential
   contaminant  sources; for management. Manage-,
   ment controls include zoning/land use control and :
   technical  assistance.. So far,  Elkhart  has been
   successful in keeping its drinking water sources
   clean.     :   .-.''_  / :      :  v          -.  .-
to meet each state's unique needs and conditions.
The amendments emphasize public participation
and consumer right-to-know to ensure that states'
choices respond to their constituents' needs and
conditions. States must involve or consult with the
public about key decisions on their source water
assessment programs, on how states will work with
water systems to improve their operations, on which
specific drinking water improvement projects they
will fund, and on how much money they plan to use
for their source water protection and capacity
programs. Contact your state drinking water pro-
gram for further information on specific opportuni-
ties to participate.

In addition to commenting on proposed drinking
water regulations, citizens may file lawsuits in
federal court under the federal Safe Drinking Water
Act and many state drinking water laws in response
to violations of drinking water standards by water
suppliers. At least 60 days before filing such a suit,
the citizen must provide notice to EPA, the state in
which the violation allegedly occurred, and the
alleged violator. The purpose of the notice is to
encourage the violator to take voluntary action to
fix the violation before the courts get involved. An
individual believed to have been harmed by a
contaminated drinking water supply may also have
rights and remedies under state law.

Federal and state agencies also may take legal
action to enforce drinking water laws. These legal
actions typically involve public hearings or other
opportunities for citizen comment. The actions can
result in fines or penalties, or in  the rare case of
criminal violations, jail time for a water supplier, or
injunctions to prevent further harmful actions by a
water supplier. Citizens can assist with government
enforcement by providing information to states and
the federal government on potential violations of
drinking water laws, or by participating in enforce-
ment proceedings.

 What  Can  I  Do  If There  Is
 A  Problem  With  My
 Drinking Water?
Local incidents, such as spills and treatment prob-
lems, can lead to short-term needs for alternative
water supplies or in-home water treatment. In
isolated cases, individuals have needed to rely on
alternative supplies for the long term because of
their individual health needs or problems with
obtaining new drinking water supplies.

Local water suppliers are required to notify you if
there is a problem with your drinking water. In
addition, if you suspect a problem, you can hire a
laboratory to analyze your drinking water.
Are Alternative Water Supplies
Available? What About Bottled

Yes, alternative sources of water are available.
Bottled water is sold in supermarkets and conve-
nience stores. Some companies lease or sell water
dispensers or
bubblers and
regularly deliver
large bottles of
water to homes and
businesses. Bottled
water is very
expensive com-
pared to water from
a public water
system. Bottled
water quality varies
among brands,
because of varia-
tions in the source
water used, costs,
and company

The U.S. Food and
Drug Administra-
tion (FDA) regu-
lates bottled water
used for drinking. FDA imposes quality standards
that are equivalent to EPA's drinking water stan-
dards. Source water and product water must be
periodically sampled and analyzed for compliance
with quality standards for microbiological contami-
nants, radionuclides, organics and inorganics. FDA
has adopted regulations to ensure fair labeling
practices. These include standard definitions for
sources such as mineral water, artesian water,
ground water, and distilled water. Requirements are
also established for the nutritional content of bottled
water, as part of normal food labeling regulations.
As an additional safeguard, FDA recommends that
bottled water be handled like other food products
and refrigerated after opening.
            A shopper purchases bottled water during
  Milwaukee, Wisconsin's 1993 Cryptosporidiosis outbreak.

Can I Do Anything In My House To
Improve The Safety Of My Drinking
You can choose to install a home water treatment
device to add a factor of safety, or to address
concerns about the taste of your water. Point-of-use
(POU) systems treat water at a single tap. Point-of-
entry (POE) systems treat water used throughout a
house. POU systems can be installed in various
places in the home, including on the counter top, at
the faucet itself, or under the sink. POE systems are
installed where the water line enters the house.

POU and POE devices are based on various con-
taminant removal technologies. Filtration, ion
exchange, reverse osmosis, and distillation are some
of the treatment methods used. All types of units are
generally available from retailers, or by mail order.
Prices can range well into the hundreds of dollars.
Depending on the method and location of installa-
tion, plumbing changes can also add to costs.

Home filtration units use activated carbon filters,
which adsorb organic contaminants and constituents
that cause taste and odor problems.  Depending on
their design, some units can remove chlorination
by-products, some cleaning solvents, and pesticides.
To maintain the effectiveness of these units, the
carbon canisters must be replaced periodically.
Activated carbon filters are not efficient in remov-
ing metals such as lead and copper.

Because ion exchange units can be used to remove
minerals from your water, particularly calcium and
magnesium, they are sold for water softening. Some
ion exchange softening units remove radium and
barium from water. Ion exchange systems that
employ activated alumina are used to remove
fluoride and arsenate from water. These units .must
be regenerated periodically with salt.

Reverse osmosis treatment units generally remove a
more diverse list of contaminants than other sys-
tems.  They can remove nitrates, sodium, other
dissolved inorganics, and organic compounds.

Distillation units boil water and condense the
resulting steam to create distilled water. Depending
on their design, some of these units may allow
vaporized organic contaminants to condense back
into the product water, thus minimizing the removal
of organics.
You may choose to boil your water to remove
microbial contaminants. Keep in mind that boiling
reduces the volume of water by about 20 percent,
thus concentrating other contaminants not affected
by the temperature of boiling water, such as nitrates
and pesticides.
  . All POU and PQ
  to operate §jfi|
  properly, contllf
  and actually.^
  some  vendor^
  tested for confdlms
             •' ^w'sjiS
  Sanitation Foy{iq|
  Association. l.EjES
  treatment unit^H
Where Can I Learn About the
Effectiveness Of These Devices?

Your local library has articles,' such as those found
in consumer magazines, on the effectiveness and
cost of these devices.

Copies of a booklet Drinking Water: Inadequate
Regulation of Home Treatment Units Leaves
Consumers at Risk (December 1991) are available
from the U.S. General Accounting Office, P.O. Box
6015, Gaithersburg, MD 20884-6015 (phone: (202)

Organizations you can contact for more information
on home treatment units are::

       The National Sanitation Foundation
       3475 Plymouth Road
       P.O. Box 1468
       Ann Arbor, MI 48106
       web: http://www.nsf.org

       The Water Quality Association
       Consumer Affairs Department
       P.O. Box. 606
       Lisle, IL 60532
       web: http://www.wqa.org

What  Do   I   Need  to   Know
to   Protect   My   Private
Drinking   Water   Supply?
Approximately 23 million U.S.
citizens rely on their own private
drinking water supplies. Most of
these supplies are drawn from
ground water through wells, but
some households also use water
from streams or cisterns. These
households must take special
precautions to ensure the protec-
tion and maintenance of thek
drinking water supplies.
How Can I Test The
Quality Of My Private
Drinking Water Supply?

Private water supplies should be
tested annually for nitrate and
coliform bacteria to detect con-
tamination problems early. They
should be tested more frequently
and for more potential contaminants, such as radon
or pesticides, if a problem is suspected.

Many laboratories are available to test water
quality. Lists of laboratories certified by your state
or the U.S. EPA may be available from your local
or state public health department Some local health
departments also test private water for free. Phone
numbers for your local, county, or state health
department are available under the government
listings in your phone book.

If you use a private laboratory to conduct the
testing, nitrate and bacteria samples will typically
cost between $10 and $20 to complete. Testing for
other contaminants will be more expensive. For
example, testing for pesticides or organic chemicals
may cost from several hundred to several thousand

The laboratory usually supplies sample bottles.
Depending on the type of test to be completed, the
                  A laboratory technician prepares
                a drinking water sample for analysis
bottles may contain preservatives or include special
instructions for handling the samples. Private water
can most easily be sampled at the drinking water tap
by carefully filling the bottles to avoid spilling or
getting other contaminants into the bottle. For
nitrates and other basic water tests, the bottles can
usually be mailed to the laboratory. Some tests,
such as those for coliform bacteria, may require that
the sample bottles be kept cool until they are
delivered to the laboratory for analysis.

Most laboratories mail back the sample results
within days or several weeks. The results typically
indicate  whether a particular contaminant was
detected in the sample. If a contaminant is detected,
the results will include the concentration of the
contaminant and an indication of whether this
concentration exceeds a drinking water quality
standard. If a standard is exceeded in your sample,
you should retest the water supply immediately and
contact your public health department for assis-

tance. Some problems can be handled quickly. For
example, high bacteria concentrations can some-
times be controlled by disinfecting a well. Filters or
other on-site treatment processes may also remove
some contaminants. Other problems may require a
new sourde of water, such as a new, deeper well. If
serious problems persist, you may need,to rely on
bottled water until a new water source can be
How Can I Protect My Private Water

You can protect your water supply by carefully
managing activities near the water source. For
households using a domestic well, this includes '
keeping contaminants away from sinkholes and the
well itself. Hazardous chemicals also should be kept
out of septic systems.

Several sources of technical assistance are available
to help you protect your water supply. The organi-
zation Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst provides fact
sheets and worksheets to help farmers and rural
residents assess pollution risks and develop man-
agement plans geared toward their circumstances.
For example, Farm*A*Syst helps farmers and
ranchers identify pollution risks from nitrates,
microbes, and toxic chemicals. Home*A*Syst
reaches homeowners who face pollution risks from
faulty septic systems, pesticide use, petroleum
leaks, and hazardous waste disposal. More informa-
tion about the programs is available from:

       Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst Program
       B142 Steenbock Library
       University of Wisconsin
       Madison, WI 53706 "
       e-mail: farmasyst@macc.wisc.edu
       web site: http://www.wisc.edu/farmasyst

Local health departments and agricultural extension
agents can also provide general technical assistance.
They can be found under the government listing in
your phone book. The U.S. EPA Safe Drinking
Water Hotline also provides access to publications
and technical assistance over the phone at (800)
426-4791. The Hotline may also be able to direct
you to other  sources of state and local assistance.

A main potential source of contamination c  private
water supplies is septic systems or other on-site
wastewater disposal systems. If these systems are
not properly sited, designed, and maintained, they
can leak contaminants into drinking water supplies.
Information on septic system design and mainte-
nance is available from local health departments,
state agencies, and the National Small Hows  ,
Clearinghouse at (800) 624-8301. A septic system
design manual and guidance on system maintenance
are available from EPA.
     , Period|c,a
     Slope t|f
     runoff .'.fij/i
     . bacteria^

Appendix A:
VoWII* Organic*
Vtnyl Chlorrfa
Conform and Surface Water Tre
QianM* LamUs
Standard Plate Count
Tool CoBorm •
Tufbtdify '
Asbottos (>10um)
Chtomtan * (total)
Marcory " (inorganic)
Nitrate •
Sttonlum •
Adtpale, (d» (2-etrtyihexyl))
0.4 .
National Primary Drinking Water Standards
Potential Health Effects from
Ingestion of Water
Skeletal and dental lluorosis
Liver, Nervous system effects
Gastroenteric disease
Legionnaire's disease
Indicates water quality, effectiveness of
Indicates gastroenteric pathogens
interferes with disinfection, filtration
Gastroenteric disease
Circulatory system effects
Bone, lung damage
Kidney effects
Liver, Wdney, circulatory disorders
' Thyroid, nervous system damage
Kidney, nervous system disorders
Liver damage
Kidney, liver, brain, intestinal
Cancer, nervous system effects
Decreased body weight
Cancer ,
Mammary gland tumors
Nervous, reproductive system effects
Nervous system and liver effects
Liver and kidney effects
Liver, kidney, blood cell damage
Liver, kidney, nervous, circulatory
Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water
Natural deposits; fertilizer, aluminum industries; water additive
Some foods; gas, drugs, pesticide, paint, plastic industries
Solvents and their degradation products
Room and water deodorants, and "mothballs"
Leaded gasoline, fumlgants, paints
Plastics, dyes, perfumes, paints
Textiles, adheslves and metal degreasers
Adheslves, aerosols, textiles, paints, inks, metal degreasers
May leach from PVC pipe; formed by solvent break down
Human and animal fecal waste
Indigenous to natural waters; can grow in water heating systems.
Human and animal fecal waste,
Soil runoff
Human and animal fecal waste -'•
Fire retardants, ceramics, electronics, fireworks, solder
Natural deposits; asbestos cement in water systems
Natural deposits; pigments, epoxy sealants, spent coal.
Electrical, aerospace, defense industries
Galvanized pipe corrosion; natural deposits; batteries, paints
Natural deposits; mining, electroplating, pigments.
Electroplating, steel, plastics, mining, fertilizer
Crop runoff; natural deposits; batteries, electrical switches
Animal waste, fertilizer, natural deposits, septic tanks, sewage
Same as nitrate; rapidly converted to nitrate
Natural deposits; mining, smelting, coal/oil combustion
Electronics, drugs, alloys, glass
Polymers used in sewage/wastewater treatment
Synthetic rubber, food packaging, cosmetics
Runoff from herbicide on corn, soybeans, other crops
Runoff from use as herbicide on corn and non-cropland
Soil fumigant on corn and cotton; restricted in some areas
Leaching from soil treatment for termites
Waste solvent from metal degreasing processes
Herbicide on orchards, beans, coffee, lawns, road/railways
Soil fumigant on soybeans, cotton, pineapple, orchards
Paints, engine cleaning compounds, dyes, chemical wastes
Waste industrial extraction solvents
Not**; •Contaminants with Interim standards which have been revised. TT=Special treatment techniques required
MFLomMon libers per liter. +=less than 5% positive samples

Organics (continued)
trans-1 ,2-Dichloroethylene
2,4-D ",
Ethylene dibromide
Heptachlor epoxide
. Hexachlorocyclopentadiehe
Oxamyl (Vydate)
PAHs (benzo(a)pyrene)
Phthalate, (di (2-ethylhexyl))
1 ,2,4-Trichlorabenz'ene
Xylenes (total)
Lead and Copper
Other Interim Standards
Beta/ photon emitters
Alpha emitters
Combined Radium 226 /228
Total Trihalomethanes
. (mg/L)
. 0.02
0.05 .
' * zero
. zero
0.05 '
'' 0.005
0.007 '
. 0.00000003
0.1 '
0.7 .
' 0.04
• 0.0002
0.0005 .
. 1 '
4 mrem/yr
Potential Health Effects
from Ingestion of Water
Liver, kidney, nervous, circulatory
Liver, kidney effects; Cancer •
Thyroid, reproductive organ damage
Liver, kidney, eye effects J
• Liver and kidney damage
• Liver, kidney, gastrointestinal
> Liver, kidney, heart damage
Liver, kidney, nervous system
Liver, kidney damage
Kidney, stomach damage
Liver, kidney, nerve, immune, circul.
Growth, liver, kidney, nerve effects
1 Kidney damage
Liver and kidney effects, and cancer
Cancer ,
Kklney, liver damage
Liver, nervous system damage
Liver, kidney, nervous, circulatory
Cancer '
Liver and kidney damage'
Liver, kidney damage
Kidney, liver, nervou's system
Liver, kidney, nervous system
Kidneys, nervous system damage
Gastrointestinal irritation
Cancer .
- Cancer
Bone cancer
Skin, nervous system toxicity
Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water
Waste industrial extraction solvents
Paint stripper, metal degreaser, propellant, extraction
, Soil fumigant; waste industrial solvents
Runoff of herbicide from crop and non-crop applications
Chemical production by-product; impurity in herbicides
Runoff of herbicide on land & aquatic weeds
Runoff from herbicide on wheat, corn, rangelands, lawns
Herbicide on crops, land/aquatic weeds; rapidly degraded
Pesticide on insects, rodents, birds; restricted since 1980
Water treatment chemicals; waste epoxy resins, coatings
Gasoline; insecticides; chemical manufacturing wastes
Leaded gasoline additives; leaching of soil fumigant
Herbicide on grasses, weeds, brush
Leaching of insecticide for termites, very few crops
Biodegradation of heptachlor •
Pesticide production waste by-product
' Pesticide prpduction'intermediate
Insecticide on cattle, lumber, gardens;, restricted 1983
Insecticide for fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock, pets
Insecticide on apples, potatoes, tomatoes
Coal tar. coatings; burning organic matter: volcanoes, fossil fuels
Coolant oils .from electrical transformers; plasticizers
Wood preservatives, herbicide, cooling tower wastes
PVC and other plastics
Herbicide on broadleaf and woody plants
Herbicide on grass sod, some crops, aquatic algae
Plastics, rubber, resin, drug industries; leachate. from city landfills
Improper disposal of dry cleaning and other solvents
Gasoline additive; manufacturing and solvent operations
Insecticide on cattle, cotton, soybeans; cancelled 1982
Herbicide on crops, right-of-way, golf courses; cancelled 1983
Herbicide production;. dye carrier '..
Solvent in rubber other organic products; chemical production wastes
By-product of gasoline refining; paints, inks, detergents
Natural/industrial deposits; plumbing, solder, brass alloy faucets
Natural/industrial deposits; wood preservatives, plumbing
Decay of radionuclides in natural and man-made deposits
Decay of radionuclides In natural deposits
Natural deposits
Natural-deposits; Smelters, glass, electronics wastes; Orchards
Drinking water chlorination by-products
Notes: "Contaminants with interim standards which have been revised. TT=Special treatment techniques required
+=Action Level 0.01 5mg/L #=Action. Level 1.3mg/L pCi=picocuries

               Appendix  B
               American Water Works Association.
               Water Quality and Treatment. Fourth
               Edition. 1990.

               Bowen, Paul T., Jimmy F. Harp, John
               W. Baxter, and Robert D. Shull.
               Residential Water Use Patterns.
               American Waterworks Research
               Foundation. 1993.

               Chanlett, Emil T. Environmental
               Protection. McGraw-Hill Book
               Company, 1973.                  ,

               Clark, John W., Warren Veissman Jr.,
               and Mark J. Hammer. Water Supply
               and Pollution Control. Second
               Edition. International Textbook
               Company, 1971.

               Corbitt, Robert A. Standard Hand-
               book of Environmental Engineering.
               Chapter 5, Water Supply. McGraw-
               Hill, Inc., 1989.

               Goodman, Alvin S. Principles of
               Water Resources Planning. Prentice-
               Hall, Inc., 1984.

               Kramer, M.H., et al. Waterborne
               Disease: 1993 and 1994. Journal of
               the American Water Works Associa-
               tion, March 1996.

               Metcalf& Eddy, Inc. Wastewater
               Engineering: Collection, Treatment,
               Disposal. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1972.

               Nalco Chemical Company. The Nalco
               Water Handbook. Second Edition
               edited by Frank N. Kemmer. Chapters
               35 and 40. McGraw-Hill Book

               Pontius, F.W. SDWA: A Look Back.
               Journal of American Water Works
               Association. February 1993.
Pontius, F.W. Federal Drinking
Water Regulation Update. Journal of
American Water Works Association.
February 1993.

Solo-Gabriele, H. and S. Neumeister.
£7.5. Outbreaks ofCryptosporidiosis.
Journal of the American Water Works
Association, September 1996.

Symons, James M. Plain Talk About
Drinking Water—Questions and
Answers About the Water You Drink.
Second Edition, The American Water
Works Association. 1994.

Van der Leeden, Frits, Fred L. Troise,
and David K. Todd. The Water
Encyclopedia. Second Edition. Lewis
Publishers, Inc., 1990.

Veissman Jr., Warren, and Claire
Welty. Water Management: Technol-
ogy and Institutions. Harper & Row,
Publishers, 1985.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology
Assessment. Are We Cleaning Up? 10
Superfund Case Studies—Special
Report. OTA-ITE-362, June 1988.
U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency Publications

Manual of Individual Water Supply
Systems. EPA-570/9-82-0'04, October

Home Water Treatment Units—
Filtering Fact from Fiction. EPA 5707
9-90-HHH. September 1990.

Guidance in Developing Health
Criteria for Determining Unreason-
able Risks to Health. Draft. October
 Is Your Drinking Water Safe? EPA
. 570/9-91-005. September 1991.  .

 National Primary Drinking Water
 Standards. EPA 810-F-94-001.
 February 1994.

 Drinking Water Treatment for Small
 Communities—A Focus on EPA's
 Research. EPA/640/K-94/003. May

 Is Your Drinking Water Safe? EPA

 Safe Drinking Water: Health/Safety
 Requirements and Resulting Costs.
 EPA 810-K-94-001. November 1994.

 Lead And Copper Rule: Fact Sheet.
 EPA 570/9-91-400. January 1995.

 Surface Water Treatment Rule: Fact
 Sheet. EPA 570/9-91-300. January

 The Phase I Rule: Fact Sheet. EPA
 570/9-91-026FS. January 1995.

 The Phase II Rule: Fact Sheet. EPA
 570/9-91-027FS. January 1995.

 The Phase VRule: Fact Sheet. EPA
 811-F-92-001. January 1995.

 Strengthening the Safety of Our
 Drinking Water: A Report on
 ' Progress and Challenges and An
 Agenda for Action. EPA 810-R-95-
 001. March 1995.

 The National Public Water System
 Supervision Program. FY1995
 Compliance Report. EPA 812-R-96-
 001 i October 1996.

 Office of Ground Water and Drinking
 Water Publications. EPA 810-B-96-
 001. June 1996.

Appendix  C
Sources  of Additional
American Water Works
Public Affairs Department
6666 West Quincy Avenue
Denver, CO 80235
Web: http://www.awwa.org

Association of Metropolitan Water
1717 K Street, NW; Suite 1102
Washington, DC 20036
Fax:(202)785-1845 •

Association of State Drinking
Water Administrators •
1120 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Suite 1060      • - ..
Washington, DC 20036
Fax: (202) 293-7656

Environmental Working Group
1718 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Suite 600
Washington, DC 20009
Phone: (202) 667-6982
Fax: (202) 232-2592
Web: http://www.ewg.org

Friends of the Earth
1025 Vermont Avenue, NW
Suite 300
Washington, DC 20005
Phone: (202) 783-7400
Fax: (202) 783-0444

Groundwater Foundation
P.O. Box 22558
Lincoln, NE 68542
Phone: (800) 858-4844
Fax: (402) 434-2742
Web: http://groundwater.org

Know Your Watershed
1220 Potter Drive, Room 170
West Lafayette, IN 47906-1383
League of Women Voters
Education Fund
1730 M Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036
Fax:(202)429-0854   .

National Association of Water
1725 K Street, NW; Suite 1212
Washington, DC 20006

National Drinking Water Clearing-
West Virginia University
P.O. Box 6064
Morgantown, WV 26506-6064
E-mail: webmaster@estd.wvu.edu
Web: http://www.ndwc.wvu.edu

Natural Resources Defense Council
1200 New York Avenue, NW
Suite 400
Washington, DC 20005
Phone: (202) 289-6868
Web: http://www.igc.apc.org/nrdc/

National Rural Water Association
2915 South 13th Street
Duncan, OK 73533
Phone: (405) 252-0629
Web: http://www.cais.com/nrwainfo/

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Rural Utility Service
1400 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20250
Web: http://www.usda.gov/rus

U.S. Geological Survey
Hydrologic Information Unit
419 National Center
Reston, VA 22092
; 401 M Street,-SW
Washington, DC 20460
Water Resource Center
Phone: (202) 260-7786
SDWA Hotline: (800) 426-4791.
Web: http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW
EPA Regional Offices

EPA Region 1
(CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT)

EPA Region 2
(NJ, NY, PR, VI)
Phone: (212) 637-3725

EPA Region 3
(DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV)

EPA Region 4
(AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN)
Phone: (404) 562-9424

EPA Region 5
(IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI)

EPA Region 6
(AR, LA, NM, OK, TX)
Phone: (214) 665-7155

EPA Region 7
(IA, KS, MO, NE)

EPA Region 8
(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY)

EPA Region 9
(AZ, CA, HI, NV, AS, GU)
Phone:(415)744-1818  ,

EPA Region 10
(AK, ID, OR, WA)


             A protozoan associated with the
             disease cryptosporidiosis in
             humans. The disease can be
             transmitted through ingestion of
             drinking water, person-to-person
             contact, or other exposure routes.
             Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute
             diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomit-
             ing, and fever that last 1-2 weeks
             in healthy adults, but may be
             chronic or fatal in immuno-
             compromised people.


             Contact between a person and a
             chemical. Exposures are calcu-
             lated as the amount of chemical
             available for absorption by a

             Giardia lamblia

             A protozoan, which can survive in
             water for 1 to 3 months, associated
             with the disease giardiasis. Inges-
             tion of this protozoan in contami-
             nated drinking water, exposure
             from person-to-person contact,
             and other exposure routes may
             cause giardiasis. The symptoms of
             this gastrointestinal disease may
             persist for weeks or months and
             include diarrhea, fatigue, and

             Maximum Contaminant
             Level (MCL)

             Maximum permissible level of a
             contaminant in water which is
             delivered to any user of a public
             water system.

Inorganic compounds that can
enter water supplies from fertilizer
runoff and sanitary wastewater
discharges. Nitrates in drinking
water are associated with meth-
emoglobinemia, or blue baby
syndrome, which results from
interferences in the blood's ability
to carry oxygen.


Chemical molecules that contain
carbon and other elements such as
hydrogen. Organic contaminants
of concern to drinking water
include chlorohydrocarbons,
pesticides, and others.

Per capita

Per person; generally used in
expressions of water use, gallons
per capita per day (gpcd).

Point-of-Use Water

Refers to devices used in the home
or office on a specific tap to
provide additional drinking water

Point-of-Entry Water

Refers to devices used in the home
where water pipes enter to provide
additional treatment of drinking
water used throughout the home.


Elements that undergo a process
of natural decay. As radionuclides
decay, they emit radiation in the
form of alpha or beta particles and
gamma photons. Radiation can
cause adverse health effects, such
as cancer, so limits are placed on
radionuclide concentrations in
drinking water.


The potential for harm to people
exposed to chemicals. In order for
there to be risk, there must be
hazard and there must be expo-

Treatment Technique

A specific treatment method
required by EPA to be used to
control the level of a contaminant
in drinking water. In specific cases
where EPA has determined  it is
not technically or economically
feasible to establish an MCL, EPA
can instead specify a treatment

Total Coliform

Bacteria that are used as indicators
of fecal contaminants in drinking

Toxicity  .

The property of a chemical to
harm people who come into
contact with it.

Volatile  Organics

Chemicals that, as liquid, evapo-
rate into the air.
ft 0, & GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1997-521-281/90255