Protect Our Health
 From Source
 National Drinking Wat
 Program Highlights
                        •"" ftik:
©EPA
United States      Office of Water EPA816-K-01-001
Environmental Protection  (4606)    May 2001
Agency              www.epa.gov/safewafll'';

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       For More
            Information

    EPA Office of Ground Water & Drinking Water

          http://www.epa.gov/safewater/
Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 1 (800) 426-4791

        EPA/OGWDW: (202) 260-5543

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Table of Contents
                             :o Tap	• •
                                                                	2
Protect Our Health from Source to Tap	
Protecting Drinking Water Sources .,	
                                                                                 C
Preventing Contamination of Drinking Water	- -	
Underground Injection Control	'
Possible Best Management Practices for Contamination Sources	11

Meeting Infrastructure Needs	
Determining Priorities for Drinking Water Standards	•	19
Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule List	•	21
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations	
National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations	41
Drinking Water Program  Milestones	
 www.epa.gov/safewater
 Protect  Our Health from Source to  Tap

 It takes many levels of protection to ensure tap water is safe to  drink. A variety of safeguards,
 from the drinking water source to the consumer's tap, form multiple barriers against contami-
 nation. These include assessing the vulnerability of drinking water sources to contamination;
 adopting community programs to protect wells and collection systems; setting standards to
 control the level of contaminants in raw water from deep injection wells and shallow disposal
 systems; making sure water is treated by qualified operators; ensuring the integrity of distribu-
 tion systems; setting regulations to control the level of contaminants in tap water; and making
 information available to the public on drinking water quality. EPA, states, tribes, drinking water
 utilities, communities  and citizens share the  responsibility of  protecting America's drinking
 water.
 Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 {800} 428-4791 - www.epa.gov/safewaSer

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                                                                               _	 2

Protecting Drinking Water Sources

Because of population growth, increased urbanization and land development, there is growing
concern over the quality and quantity of the nation's drinking water. Communities must learn
about the sources of and threats to their drinking water to make informed choices to protect
them. As of 2001, all 50 states, Washington, DC, Puerto Rico and several tribes are completing
assessments to make this information available. Source Water Assessments identify the area
of land that most directly contributes the  raw water used for drinking water, and the major
potential sources of contamination to drinking water supplies, describe the susceptibility of
those water supplies, and inform the public about the results of this analysis. Three-and-a-half
years after approval, states must complete these assessments for every public water system,
so that every person will  be able to understand and act on the information to protect their
drinking water. Funding to conduct assessments is available through the Drinking Water State
Revolving Fund program. Assessing and protecting drinking water consists of six steps:

Step 1. Delineate protection area
For each ground water well or surface water intake that supplies public drinking water, the land
area that could contribute water and  pollutants to the  water supply must be delineated and
mapped. For ground water supplies, the map would include land areas-where, if pollutants are
spilled or discharged on the surface, they could filter through the soil to the ground water and
be drawn into a particular well. For surface water supplies, the map would include the land
area in the watershed upstream of the intake.

Step 2. Identify major potential sources of contamination
This inventory includes a list and a map of facilities and activities within the delineated area
that may release contaminants into the ground water supply or the watershed of the river or
lake. Examples of major potential pollutant sources include landfills, underground or above-
ground fuel  storage tanks, residential or commercial septic systems, storm water runoff from
streets and  lawns, farms that apply pesticides and fertilizers, and sludge disposal sites.

Step 3. Determine susceptibility
The next step is to evaluate how susceptible the water supply is to contamination from identi-
fied sources. This evaluation provides information local decision-makers may use to prioritize
approaches for protection. Hydrogeological data and information about contamination sources,
water resource characteristics, or environmental management practices may help determine
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 428-4791 • www.epa.gov/safewatsr

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 susceptibility. States prioritize threats of contamination from identified potential sources or
 specific chemicals. Some states are comparing the susceptibility across public water supplies.

 Step 4.  Release results to the public
 Assessments are not complete until the information is available to the public. Source water
 assessment results help communities understand potential threats and identify priority needs
 to safeguard water supplies. States may release the information to the public in a variety of
 ways. Some plan to convene public workshops; others will have copies available in public
 libraries, local government offices, or water suppliers. Many also plan to post the assessment
 summaries on the Internet. Annual consumer confidence reports community water systems
 must prepare for their customers will also include assessment results.

 Step 5.  Manage sources of contamination
 Once source water assessments are publicized, communities should use the information to
 protect their drinking water. Some tools for source water protection include local land-use
 ordinances, zoning, conservation easements  and land purchases. Examples of best manage-
 ment practices are on page 6. Detailed information on managing sources of contamination and
 data are on the web at www.epa.gov/safewater/protecV ontamdata.html. Set-asides for Source
 Water Protection and Wellhead Protection activities are available through the Drinking Water
 State Revolving Fund.

 Step 6. Establish a contingency plan
 Source water assessments will also provide information that should help protect water supplies
 against emergency contamination incidents and ensure a safe future water supply. Many states
 and water suppliers have developed these plans already, relying on civil defense and local
 emergency preparedness and response plans as the foundation of their contingency water
 supply replacement  programs. Resources on contingency planning  are  available at
 www.epa.gov/safewater/protect/contingency. html.
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 {800} 428-4791 • www.epa.gov/safewater                           5

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                                                                                   6
               ^i     *• •*.                      V                               -*' v
     Preventing Contamination of Drinking Water

     To address concern over the nation's drinking water, EPA and a number of partners
     have launched an effort to establish a National Source Water Contamination Preven-
     tion Strategy that will:

     • Provide an overview of the challenges to preserving and protecting safe drinking
       water                                                                   y
                                                     s
     • Define a national vision for prevention
                     „                                                           i*?
     • Clarify goals ana1 objectives establishing performance measures that would guide
       priorities and determine adequacy and timeliness of progress

     ' D?fpribe tne role and importance of data systems and information in advancing this *
       program
                             ""        *•"      *        "          *     ""• n.,
     Preventing contamination of drinking water sources should be a standard part of thfc
     multiple barrrerapproach to providing safe drinking water. It is a collaborative procesf
    .that depends on the awareness? participation and"actions" of federal and,, state ageV"
                                                                               »»
                                                                               J&
                                                                                *vc,
                                                                                .V^X
 efes,.tribal officials local governments, interest groups5, mdividual citizens and the Husi
 ness community.            -      , ~  -  ^  -  -    ~>    «»-,••  ^
    »         *       j         ^ ""*     *ft                                **    '*!'<^K^
 Unking source water protection with source control programs is critical: the Safe Driijk^
 ing Water Act mandates source water assessments but not source water protection"/ ~
 with the exception of the Underground Injection Control program. Therefore, effective"' *
 protection measures must involve  the Clean Water Act and other laws with sourcfe -~
 control mandates,  such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. It is also"' *
 important to integrate water-related programs by institutionalizing links between source^ v
 control and "drinking water programs at the federal, state, tribal, and local level.
 Water  programs were developed to protect separate parts of the "ecosystem or sepa— '
 rate uses of its resources. However, this fragmented approach can be an obstacle to  :
public  health protection.  Rivers,  streams and ground water that are  dunking water ***
sources also have ecological value, and their functions cannot be separated.
Safe Drinking Water HorSine 1 (800) 428-47§1 - www.epaTg^'afevtf'ateT'''''          ^^^-^r	^.	

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 Underground injection Control

 An effective Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program is essential to protecting drinking
 water sources from contamination. Underground injection is the technology of placing fluids
 underground, in porous formations of rocks, through wells or other similar conveyance systems.
 The Safe Drinking Water Act requires EPA to provide safeguards so that injection wells do not
 endanger current and future underground sources of drinking water. Through its UIC Program,
 EPA has developed minimum federal standards to regulate wells that range from deep, techni-
 cally sophisticated, and highly monitored wells to shallow on-site drainage systems, such as
 septic systems, cesspools, and storm water drainage wells. These requirements cover wells
 that discharge a variety of hazardous  and nonhazardous fluids above, into, or below aquifers.
 The EPA groups injection wells into five classes. Each class  includes wells with similar func-
 tions, construction, and operating features so that requirements can be applied consistently
 within each well class. These requirements affect the siting, construction, operation, main-
 tenance, monitoring, testing, and closure of injection wells.  Fluids cannot be injected if they
 may cause a public water system to violate drinking water standards or otherwise adversely
 affect public health. All operational injection wells require authorization under general rules or
 specific permits. Injection wells in Classes I, II, and III generally receive site-specific permits
 through UIC Programs because of the fluids they inject. Most class IV wells are banned.
 EPA estimates that there are over 650,000 Class V wells. Class V injection wells are located in
 every state, especially in unsewered areas where the population is likely to depend on ground-
 water for its drinking water source. These wells are typically shallow, on-site disposal systems,
 such as dry wells, septic systems or drainage systems that inject fluids into or above under-
 ground  sources of drinking water.
 In 2000, EPA began to implement a new Class V Rule which addresses two subtypes of Class
 V wells: large-capacity cesspools and motor vehicle waste disposal wells.  The rule requires
 that existing motor vehicle waste disposal wells close or obtain a permit; prohibits new large-
 capacity cesspools and new motor vehicle waste  disposal wells nationwide; and requires
 closure  of all existing large-capacity cesspools.
 In addition, EPA conducted a study that collected information on other types of Class V wells.
 Based on the analysis of this information, the Agency proposed a determination that no further
federal regulations were required at this time to protect underground sources of drinking water.
Instead, UIC program directors will continue to use their existing authorities to take any neces-


Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 426-4791 « www.epa.gov/safewater                            9

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                                                                                 10
     sary actions to prevent any Class V wells from endangering underground sources of drinking
     water. The public will have the opportunity to comment on the proposal before it is finalized in
     May 2002.
     Possible  Best Management Practices for
     Contamination Sources
|    The following list summarizes possible best management practices to prevent contamination
1    of drinking water sources. Additional information on each set of practices will be available
]    on EPA's Source Water Protection web site, www.epa.gov/safewater/protect.html, in
j    summer 2001.
     Large-Scale Pesticide Application
     • Utilize alternatives to pesticides, through Integrated Pest Management
     0 Ensure proper pesticide application, mixing and loading consistent with label.
     a Consider reduced pesticide use techniques such as soil  incorporation, pre-plant and post-
•       emergent applications, spot treatment, and split applications.
|     • Ensure proper storage and  disposal
|     ° Avoid applying pesticides near drinking water wells, agricultural drainage wells, and surface
       waters.
     Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 428-4791 a www.epa.gov/safewater                         11

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 Small Scale Pesticide Application
 • Read and follow label instructions carefully.
 • Reduce pesticide use by selecting healthy seeds that resist disease, alternating plants each
   year, manually removing weeds and pests, properly maintianing plant health, using biologi-
   cal controls where possible.
 • Ensure proper storage and disposal.
 Agricultural Fertilizer Application
 • Utilize application rates and fertilizer types consistent with actual plant nutrient needs.
 • Time fertilizer application with the period of maximum crop uptake.
 « Utilize techniques to impede runoff such as conservation tillage, buffer strips or filter strips.
 • Ensure proper fertilizer storage and disposal.
 • Avoid applying fertilizer near drinking water wells, agricultural drainage wells, and surface
   waters.
Turfgrass and Gardening Fertilizer Application
•  Eliminate Excess Fertilizer Use.
•  Ensure proper fertilizer application.
•  Avoid applying fertilizer near drinking water wells, agricultural drainage wells, and surface
   waters.
•  Ensure proper storage and disposal.
Septic Systems
•  Establish proper siting criteria.
9  Establish appropriate design and construction criteria.
•  Establish operation and maintenance protocols.
•  Analyze assimilative capacity of soils and receiving waters to determine appropriate density
   of septic systems.
Safe Drinking Water Hotting 1 (800) 426-4791 • www.epa.gov/safewater                           13

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Livestock and Poultry Waste
• Prevent animal waste-to-water contact.
• Ensure proper land application of manure, including avoidance of applying near wells and
  surface waters.
• Implement pasture management techniques such as fencing and planting legumes.
Non-Livestock Waste
• Aerobically compost horse manure.
• Clean up and dispose of companion animal waste.
Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Combined Sewer Overflows
• Consider non-structural prevention methods such as visual inspections, monitoring and
  maintenance programs, employee training and public education.
• Consider structural prevention methods such as upgrading the collection system, construct-
  ing wet weather storage facilities, building new sewer collection systems.
Storm Water Runoff
• Consider pollution prevention practices such as: erosion and sedimentation control mea-
  sures; land use controls; grassed swales; buffer strips; filter strips; storm water ponds;
  constructed wetlands; and BMPs for Class V storm water drainage wells.
Vehicle  Washing
• Use alternative cleaning agents such as phosphate-free, biodegradable detergents.
• Discourage use of cleaning agents containing solvents and emulsifiers.
• Install water recycling systems.
• Provide employee training to prevent vehicle wash water from entering storm water drains,
  prevent spills, or control and manage spills.
Underground Storage Tanks
• Ensure compliance with Federal LIST requirements.
• Consider local registration programs for exempt tanks.
• Consider local land use controls such as zoning, use restrictions, permits, and setbacks.

Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 {800) 426-4791 <• www.epa.gov/safewater                         15

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Above Ground Storage Tanks
 •  Ensure ASTs have corrosion protection for the tank.
 •  Ensure there is a secondary containment area that contains spills.
 •  Follow proper maintenance recommendations.
 •  Consider land  use controls such as zoning, use restrictions, permits and setbacks.
Small Quantity Chemical Use
 •  Avoid excess chemical use.
 •  Ensure proper use and handling of chemicals.
 •  Provide employee training on spill control, and response protocols.
Meeting Infrastructure  Needs
Although our drinking water supply is among the safest in the world, there is concern that
utilities will  need to increase investments in infrastructure to protect public health and the
environment in the future.  EPA estimates public water systems will need to invest at least
$150.9 billion over a 20 year period to continue providing safe water, according to a 2001 study
of US infrastructure needs.
One tool  available to states to fund high  priority infrastructure projects and state and local
activities is EPA's Drinking Water State Revolving  Fund. The goal of the program is to help
ensure that permanent institutions exist in each state to provide financial support for drinking
water needs for many years to come. Through December 31, 2000,
• Congress has provided $3.2 billion in grants to all 50 states and Puerto Rico  to capitalize
  revolving loan funds for infrastructure projects and to fund local activities.
• States have made more than 1,550 low-interest loans totaling $3.2 billion for needed infra-
  structure projects to meet public health and compliance needs.
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 428-4791 * www.epa.gov/safewater                          17

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 • Seventy-five percent of all loans have gone to small water systems. States have reserved
   $515 million for activities that support their drinking water programs, enhance the manage-
   ment ability of water systems and protect sources of drinking water.
 However, solutions to meeting the nation's infrastructure needs must also include tools that
 increase efficiencies within the drinking water industry, such as adequate rate structures,
 consolidation, research and development and other creative incentives. Issues that may help
 to shape national dialogue include:
 • Public health protection - Assuring that drinking  water utilities are first and foremost
   committed to protecting public health
 • Regulatory compliance - Providing support to help drinking water utilities achieve compliance
   with current and future regulations
 • System sustainability - Promoting systems' capacity to provide safe and affordable drinking
   water
 • Financial mechanisms - Developing tools that support drinking water utilities' ability to
   fund capital improvements in a timely, effective and fiscally sound manner
 • Partnerships and stakeholder involvement - Fostering involvement so that responsibility
   for addressing infrastructure needs is shared by all affected entities
Determining  Priorities for Drinking
Water Standards

EPA is currently undertaking several activities to review existing regulations and examine the
need for future regulations.
•  Setting Priorities for the Future: The Contaminant Candidate List is the primary source of
   priority contaminants for the agency's drinking water program. Starting with a list of 60
   contaminants identified in 1998 (50 chemical, 10 microbiological), EPA plans to make regu-
   latory determinations on at least five contaminants by early fall 2001.
•  Ensuring Safety of Existing Standards: The agency is reviewing 66 national primary drink-
   ing water regulations set before 1996. This fall, EPA plans to publish, for public comment,
   protocol and preliminary decisions to revise or not revise these standards; final decisions on
   revisions are expected in August 2002. The protocol includes whether existing MCLs and
   MCLGs are still appropriate, given new  science, methods and treatment technology. The
   1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking  Water Act  require EPA to conduct such a review
   every six years.
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                                           	                                    20

  Research: EPA plans to finalize a research plan for CCL contaminants in fall 2001. The agency
  is also developing a comprehensive strategy for all drinking water research over the next
  5-10 years.  EPA headquarters and regional offices  are  developing these strategies in
  cooperation with states, the National Drinking Water Advisory Council and other partners in
  associations and utilities.
  Data Collection: The primary source of occurrence data to identify emerging contaminants
  is collected via the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. EPA is collecting occurrence
  data on 25 contaminants and developing analytical methods for several others. This data
  will be used to support regulatory decision making about CCL contaminants.


                 i

Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 426-4791 • www.epa.gov/saf8water
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                                                                                22
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     Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule List "(Contd.)
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 Screening Survey of Contaminants"
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    Unregulated Contaniinant Monitoring Ru§e List (Contd.)
               Testing of Contaminants Needing Research on Wlethods^
    (28) Algae^and toxins^               (33} Caliciyiruses*
    (29} Echotfruses*               -    (34}ldenoviruses*
    (30) Coxsackieviruses*               (35}Lead-210*
    (31} Helicobacter pylori*              (36} Poiomum-210*
    (32} Microspondia*
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   For indicated contaminants (*}, further methods development is needed before monitoring cpn occur
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 {800) 426-4791 « www.epa.gov/safewatar
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                                                                                                 24
National  Primary  Drinking  Water Regulations
Microorganisms
Cryptosporidium
as of       as of
01/01/02:   01/01/02:
zero       TT3
Gastrointestinal illness (e.g.,
diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)
Human and animal fecal waste
Giardia lamblia       zero       TT3         Gastrointestinal illness (e.g.,
                                          diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)
                                                  Human and animal fecal waste
Heterotrophic plate   n/a
count (HPC)
           TT3        HPC has no health effects;
                      it is an analytic method used
                      to measure the variety of
                      bacteria that are common in
                      water. The lower the concen-
                      tration of bacteria in drinking
                      water, the better maintained
                      the water system  is.	
                            HPC measures a range of bacteria
                            that are naturally present in the
                            environment
Legionella
zero        TT3        Legionnaire's Disease, a type
                      of pneumonia	
                            Found naturally in water; multiplies
                            in heating systems	
Total Coliforms
(including fecal
coliform and E. coli)
zero
           5.0%4
Not a health threat in itself;
it is used to indicate whether
other potentially harmful
bacteria may be present5
Total conforms are naturally present
in the environment; fecal coliforms
and E. coli come from human
and animal fecal waste.
Turbidity
n/a        TT3        Turbidity is a measure of the
                      cloudiness of water. It is used
                      to indicate water quality and
                      filtration effectiveness (e.g.,
                      whether disease-causing
                      organisms are present). Higher
                      turbidity levels are often
                      associated with higher levels
                      of disease-causing micro-
                      organisms such as viruses,
                      parasites and some bacteria.
                      These organisms can cause
                      symptoms such as nausea,
                      cramps, diarrhea,  and
                      associated headaches.
                            Soil runoff
Viruses (enteric)
zero        TT3        Gastrointestinal illness (e.g.,
                      diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)
                            Human and animal fecal waste

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                                                                                                      26
 Disinfectants and  Disinfection  Byproducts
 Bromate
as of
01/01/02:
zero
as of
01/01/02:
0.010
Increased risk of cancer
Byproduct of drinking water
disinfection
 Chloramines (as C\7
as of       as of        Eye/nose irritation; stomach
01/01/02:   01/01/02:    discomfort, anemia
MRDLG=41 MRDL=4.01
                                         Water additive used to control
                                         microbes
 Chlorine (as CI2)      as of       as of       Eye/nose irritation; stomach
                     01/01/02:   01/01/02:   discomfort
                     MRDLG=41 MRDL=4.01
                                                     Water additive used to control
                                                     microbes
 Chlorine dioxide
 (as CI02)
as of       as of
01/01/02:   01/01/02:
MRDLG=0.81 MRDL=0.81
            Anemia; infants & young
            children: nervous system
            effects
                             Water additive used to control
                             microbes
 Chlorite
as of       as of
01/01/02:   01/01/02:
0.8         1.0
            Anemia; infants & young
            children: nervous system
            effects
                             Byproduct of drinking water
                             disinfection
Haloacetic acids
(HAA5)

as of
01/01/02:
n/a6
as of
01/01/02:
0.060
Increased risk of cancer


Byproduct of drinking water
disinfection

Total Trihalomethanes none7      0.10
(TTHMs)             as of       as of
                     01/01/02:   01/01/02
                     n/a6        0.080
                       Liver, kidney or central nervous  Byproduct of drinking water
                       system problems; increased     disinfection
                       risk of cancer
Inorganic Chemicals
Antimony
 0.006       0.006       increase in blood cholesterol;
                       decrease in blood sugar
                                        Discharge from petroleum
                                        refineries; fire  retardants;
                                        ceramics; electronics; solder
Arsenic7
none       0.05        Skin damage; circulatory
                       system problems; increased
                       risk of cancer
                                                                         Erosion of natural deposits; runoff
                                                                         from orchards; runoff from glass
                                                                         and electronics production wastes
Asbestos (fibers
>10 micrometers)
7 million 7 MFL
fibers
per Liter
(MFL)
Increased risk of developing
benign intestinal poiyps
Decay of asbestos cement in water
mains; erosion of natural deposits
Barium
                       Increase in blood pressure
                                                                         Discharge of drilling wastes;
                                                                         discharge from metal refineries;
                                                                         erosion of natural deposits
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1  (800) 428-4791 • www.epa.gov/safawater

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Beryllium 0.004 0.004 Intestinal lesions
Cadmium 0.005 0.005 Kidney damage
Chromium (total) 0.1
Copper 1.3
Cyanide 0.2
(as free cyanide)
0.1 Allergic dermatitis

Discharge from metal refineries and
coal-burning factories; discharge
from electrical, aerospace, and
defense industries
Corrosion of galvanized pipes;
erosion of natural deposits;
discharge from metal refineries;
runoff from waste batteries and
paints
Discharge from steel and pulp mills;
erosion of natural deposits
TT8; Short term exposure: Corrosion of household plumbing
Action Gastrointestinal distress; Long systems; erosion of natural deposit;
Level = term exposure: Liver or kidney
1 .3 damage; People with Wilson's
Disease should consult their
persona! doctor if the amount
of copper in their water
exceeds the action level
0.2 Nerve damage or thyroid
problems
Discharge from steel/metal
factories; discharge from plastic
and fertilizer factories
 Fluoride
4.0
                                             Rone disease (pain and tender-
                                             ness of the bones); Children
                                             may get mottled teeth
                               Water additive which promotes
                               strong teeth; erosion of natural
                               deposits; discharge from fertilizer
                               and aluminum factories
Lead
zero TT8;
Action
Level =
0.015
Infants and children: Delays in Corrosion of household plumbing
physical or mental development; systems; erosion of natural deposits
children could show slight
deficits in attention span and
learning abilities; Adults: Kidney
problems; high blood pressure
Mercury (inorganic)   0.002
0.002
 Kidney damage
Erosion of natural deposits;
discharge from refineries and
factories; runoff from landfills and
croplands
Nitrate (measured     10
as Nitrogen)
10
 Infants below the age of six
 months who drink water
 containing nitrate in excess
 of the MCL could become
 seriously ill and, if untreated,
: may die. Symptoms include
 shortness of breath and
 blue-baby syndrome.
Runoff from fertilizer use; leaching
from septic tanks, sewage;
erosion of natural deposits
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 426-47S1 » www.epa.gov/safewater

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Nitrite (measured
as Nitrogen)
                       Infants below the age of six
                       months who drink water
                       containing nitrite in excess of
                       the MCL could become
                       seriously ill and, if untreated,
                       may die. Symptoms include
                       shortness of breath and
                       blue-baby syndrome.	
                                        gpggs^P^gSj^aagmi^aaaBsag^^
                                         Runoff from fertilizer use; leaching
                                         from septic tanks, sewage; erosion
                                         of natural deposits
Selenium
0.05        0.05        Hair or fingernail loss;
                        numbness in fingers or
                        toes; circulatory problems
                                         Discharge from petroleum
                                         refineries; erosion of natural
                                         deposits; discharge from mines
Thallium
0.0005      0.002
            Hair loss; changes in blood;
            kidney, intestine, or liver
            problems   	
                             Leaching from ore-processing sites;
                             discharge from electronics,
                             glass, and drug factories	
 Organic Chemicals
 Acrylamide
zero        TT9         Nervous system or blood
                        problems; increased
                        risk of cancer
                                         Added to water during sewage/
                                         wastewater treatment
 Alachior
zero        0.002       Eye, liver, kidney or spleen
                        problems; anemia; increased
                        risk of cancer
                                          Runoff from herbicide used on row
                                          crops
 Atrazine
 0.003       0,003       Cardiovascular system or
                        reproductive problems
                                          Runoff from herbicide used on row
                                          crops	
 Benzene
zero        0.005       Anemia; decrease in blood
                        platelets; increased risk
                        of cancer
                                          Discharge from factories; leaching
                                          from gas storage tanks and
                                          landfills
 Benzo(a)pyrene       zero         0.0002      Reproductive difficulties;
 (PAHs)            	increased risk of cancer
                                                      Leaching from linings of water
                                                      storage tanks and distribution lines
 Carbofuran
 0.04        0.04        Problems with blood, nervous
                        system, or reproductive system
                                          Leaching of soil fumigant used on
                                          rice and alfalfa
 Carbon tetrachloride   zero
            0.005       Liver problems; increased risk
                        of cancer
                                          Discharge from chemical plants and
                                          other industrial activities
 Chlordane
 zero        0.002       Liver or nervous system
                        problems; increased risk of
                        cancer
                                                                           Residue of banned termiticide
 Chlorobenzene
 0.1
0.1
Liver or kidney problems
Discharge from chemical and
agricultural chemical factories
 Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 426-4791  « www.epa.gov/safewater
                                                                                    31

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2,4-D
 0.07        0,07        Kidney, liver, or adrenal gland
            	problems	
                                          Runoff from herbicide used on row
                                          crops	
Dalapon
 0.2
0.2
Minor kidney changes
Runoff from herbicide used on
rights of way	
 1,2-Dibromo-3-
 chloropropane
 (DBCP)
 zero         0.0002      Reproductive difficulties;
                         increased risk of cancer
                                          Runoff/leaching from soil fumigant
                                          used on soybeans, cotton,
                                          pineapples, and orchards	
o-Dichlorobenzene    0.6
             0.6          Liver, kidney, or circulatory
            	system problems	
                                          Discharge from industrial chemical
                                          factories
p-Dichlorobenzene    0.075
             0.075       Anemia; liver, kidney or spleen
                         damage; changes in blood
                                          Discharge from industrial chemical
                                          factories
 1,2-Dichloroethane    zero
             0.005
             Increased risk of cancer
                              Discharge from industrial chemical
                              factories
1,1-Dichloroethylene
cis-1,2-
Dichloroethylene
trans-1,2-
Dichloroethylene
0.007
0.07
0.1
0.007
0.07
0.1
Liver problems
Liver problems
Liver problems
Discharge from industrial chemical
factories
Discharge from industrial chemical
factories
Discharge from industrial chemical
factories
Dichloromethane
 zero         0.005       Liver problems; increased
                         risk of cancer
                                          Discharge from drug and chemical
                                          factories
1,2-Dichloropropane  zero
             0.005
            Increased risk of cancer
                              Discharge from industrial chemical
                              factories
Di(2-ethylhexyl)
adipate	
 0.4         0.4          General toxic effects or
	reproductive difficulties
                                          Discharge from chemical factories
Di(2-ethylhexyl)       zero        0.006       Reproductive difficulties; liver
phthalate                                     problems; increased risk of
                                             cancer
                                                       Discharge from rubber and chemical
                                                       factories
Dinoseb
 0.007
0.007
Reproductive difficulties
Runoff from herbicide used on
soybeans and vegetables
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) zero
             0.00000003  Reproductive difficulties;
                         increased risk of cancer
                                          Emissions from waste incineration
                                          and other combustion; discharge
                                          from chemical factories
Diquat
 0.02
0.02
Cataracts
Runoff from herbicide use
Endothall
 0.1
0.1
Stomach and intestinal
problems
Runoff from herbicide use
Endrin
 0.002
0.002
Liver problems
Residue of banned insecticide
Safe Drinking Water Hotiine 1 (800) 428-4791  * www.epa.giw/safewater
                                                                                    33

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                                                                                                        34
Epichlorohydrin
zero
            TT9
            Increased cancer risk, and
            over a long period of time,
            stomach problems	
                              Discharge from industrial chemical
                              factories; an impurity of some
                              water treatment chemicals   	
Ethylbenzene
0.7
0.7
Liver or kidneys problems	Discharge from petroleum refineries
Ethylene dibromide    zero
            0.00005     Problems with liver, stomach,
                        reproductive system, or
                        kidneys; increased risk of
                        cancer
                                          Discharge from petroleum refineries
Glyphosate
0.7         0.7         Kidney problems; reproductive
                        difficulties
                                                                          Runoff from herbicide use
Heptachlor
zero        0.0004      Liver damage; increased risk
                        of cancer
                                                                           Residue of banned termiticide
Heptachlor epoxide   zero
            0.0002      Liver damage; increased risk
                        of cancer
                                                                           Breakdown of heptachlor
Hexachlorobenzene   zero
            0.001       Liver or kidney problems;
                        reproductive difficulties;
                        increased risk of cancer
                                          Discharge from metal refineries and
                                          agricultural chemical factories
Hexachloro-
cyclopentadiene
0.05
0.05
Kidney or stomach problems    Discharge from chemical factories
 Lindane
 0.0002     0.0002
            Liver or kidney problems
                              Runoff/leaching from insecticide
                              used on cattle, lumber, gardens
 Methoxychlor
 0.04
0.04
Reproductive difficulties
Runoff/leaching from insecticide
used on fruits, vegetables, alfalfa,
livestock
 Oxamyl (Vydate)      0.2
            0.2
            Slight nervous system effects
                              Runoff/leaching from insecticide
                              used on apples, potatoes, and
                              tomatoes
 Polychlorinated
 biphenyls (PCBs)
 zero        0;0005      Skin changes; thymus gland
                        problems; immune deficiencies;
                        reproductive or nervous
                        system difficulties; increased
                        risk of cancer
                                          Runoff from landfills; discharge of
                                          waste chemicals
Pentachlorophenol
Picloram
Simazine
Styrene
zero
0.5
0.004
0.1
0.001
0.5
0.004
0.1
Liver or kidney problems;
increased cancer risk
Liver problems
Problems with blood
Liver, kidney, or circulatory
system problems
Discharge from wood preserving
factories
Herbicide runoff
Herbicide runoff
Discharge from rubber and plastic
factories; leaching from landfills

 Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 426-4791 » www.epa.gov/safewater

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      Tetrachloroethylene    zero
            0.005
            Liver problems; increased
            risk of cancer
                              Discharge from factories and dry
                              cleaners   '               	
      Toluene
                        Nervous system, kidney, or
                        liver problems	
                                                                                 Discharge from petroleum factories
      Toxaphene
zero        0.003       Kidney, liver, or thyroid
                        problems; increased risk
                        of cancer
                                          Runoff/leaching from insecticide
                                          used on cotton and cattle
      2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
0.05
0.05
Liver problems
                                                                                 Residue of banned herbicide
|     1,2,4-Trichiorobenzene0.07        0.07        Changes in adrenal glands
                                                      Discharge from textile finishing
                                                      factories
      1,1,1-Trichloroethane  0.20
            0.2
            Liver, nervous system, or
                              Discharge from metal degreasing
                              sites and other factories
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 0.003
0.005
Liver, kidney, or immune
system problems
Discharge from industrial chemical
factories
      Trichloroethylene     zero
            0.005       Liver problems; increased
                        risk of cancer
                                          Discharge from metal degreasing
                                          sites and other factories
      Vinyl chloride
zero
            0.002
                                                   Increased risk of cancer
                                          Leaching from PVC pipes; discharge
                                          from  plastic factories	
       Xylenes (total)
             10
             Nervous system damage
                               Discharge from petroleum factories;
                               discharge from chemical factories
       Radionuclides
       Alpha particles
 none'
 as of
 12/08/03:
 zero
 15 pico-     Increased risk of cancer
 curies per
 Liter (pCi/L)
                               Erosion of natural deposits of
                               certain minerals that are
                               radioactive and may emit a form of
                               radiation known as alpha radiation
       Beta particles and
       photon emitters
 none'
 as of
 12/08/03:
 zero
 4 millirems  Increased risk of cancer
 per year
 (mrem/yr)
                               Decay of natural and man-made
                               deposits of certain minerals
                               that are radioactive and may
                               emit forms of radiation known as
                               photons and  beta radiation
       Radium 226 and
       Radium 228
       (combined)
 none'
 as of
 12/08/03:
 zero
 5 pCi/L      Increased risk of cancer
                               Erosion of natural deposits
       Uranium
 as of       as of        Increased risk of cancer;
 12/08/03:   12/08/03:   kidney problems
 zero        0.03
                                           Decay of natural and man-made
                                           deposits

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                                                                                                     38
Motes	___________—_-«___«______—_———.
1  Definitions
   •  Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) - The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no
      known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety and are non-enforceable public health goals.
   •  Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs
      are set as close to MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consider-
      ation. MCLs are enforceable standards.
   •  Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG) - The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there
      is no known or expected risk to  health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control
      microbial contaminants.
   •  Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL) - The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There
      is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.
   •  Treatment Technique (TT) - A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.

2  Units are in milligrams per liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. Milligrams per liter are equivalent to parts per million
   (ppm).
3  EPA's surface water treatment rules require systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence
   of surface water to (1) disinfect their water, and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the
   following contaminants are controlled at the following levels:
   •  Cryptasporidium:(as of January 1, 2002} 99% removal
   •  Giardia lamblia: 99.9% removal/inactivation
   •  Viruses: 99.99% removal/inactivation
   •  Legionella: No limit, but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are removed/inactivated, Legionella will also be
      controlled.
   •  Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU); systems
      that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0.5 NTU for conventional or direct filtration) in
      at least 95% of the daily samples in any month. As of January 1, 2002, turbidity may never exceed 1  NTU, and
      must not exceed 0.3 NTU in 95% of daily samples in any month.
   •  HPC: No more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter

4  No more than 5.0% of samples may be total coliform-positive in a month. (For water systems that collect fewer than
   40 routine samples per month, no more than one sample may be total coliform-positive during a month). Every sample
   that has total coliforms must be analyzed for either £ coli or fecal conforms to determine whether human  or animal
   fecal matter is present (fecal coliform and £ coli are part of the total coliform group). There may not be  any fecal
   coliforms or£ coli.

5  Fecal coliform and £ coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with  human or
   animal wastes. Disease-causing microbes (pathogens) in these wastes can cause diarrhea, cramps, nausea, head-
   aches, or other symptoms. These pathogens may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, and people
   with severely compromised immune systems.

6  Although there is no collective MCLG for this contaminant group, there are individual MCLGs for some of the individual
   contaminants:
   •  Haloacetic acids: dichloroacetic acid (zero); trichloroacetic acid (0.3 mg/L)
   •  Trihalomethanes: bromodichloromethane (zero);  bromoform (zero); dibromochloromethane (0.06 mg/L)

7  MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. This standard was set


Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800)428-4191 « www.epa.gov/safewater                                  39

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                                             	               	40


  prior to 1986 and therefore, does not have an MCLG. (For arsenic: In January 2001, EPA published a new standard
  requiring public water supplies to reduce arsenic to 0.01  mg/L by 2006. EPA is reviewing the science and costing
  analysis of the rule. For status updates, call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or check the web site.)
8 Lead and copper are regulated by a Treatment Technique that requires systems to control the corrosiveness of their
  water. If more than 10% of tap water samples exceed the action level, water systems must take additional steps. For
  copper, the action level is 1.3 mg/L, and for lead is 0.015 mg/L.
9 Each water system must certify, in writing, to the state that when it uses acrylamide and/or epichlorohydrin to treat
  water the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified, as follows:
  Acrylamide =  0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent); Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent).
National Secondary  Drinking Water  Regulations
 Aluminum
0.05 to 0.2 mg/L
Odor
 Chloride
250 mg/L
3 threshold
odor number
 Color
15 (color units)
pH
6.5-8.5
 Copper
1.0 mg/L
Silver
0.1  mg/L
 Corrosivity
noncorrosive
Sulfate
250 mg/L
 Fluoride
2.0 mg/L
  Foaming Agents
0.5 mg/L
Total Dissolved
Solids (TDS)
500 mg/L
  Iron
0.3 mg/L
Zinc
5 mg/L
  Manganese
0.05 mg/L
A National Secondary Drinking Water Regulation is a non-enforceable guideline regarding contaminants that may cause
cosmetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color). Some states choose to adopt them as enforceable standards.
 Safe Drinking Water HotSine 1 (800) 426-4791 • www.epa.gov/safewat8r
                                                                  41

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                                                                                      42
Drinking Water Program Milestones
Determining Priorities for Drinking Water Regulations         	

EPA is developing proposed rules for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and Stage
2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; and final rules for the Long Term 1  Enhanced Surface
Water Treatment Rule, Ground Water Rule, Radon and Arsenic. The agency is also developing a secondary
standard for Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Dates of promulgation are subject to change. For the most up-to-
date information, contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800) 426-4791, or check the web site,
www.epa.gov/safewater.
 Contaminant Candidate List
Nov. 2001
                               2003, then every 5 years
Final decisions on whether or not to
regulate five or more contaminants
Next CCL list published	
 Six-Year Review
October 2001
Notice of Intent on preliminary revise/
not revise decisions for National
Primary Drinking Water Regulations
set prior to 1996.
                              HI
                               August 2002
                         Final decisions on which regulations
                         need to be revised.
                               2002, then every 6 years   • Next review cycle begins.
 Data Collection via the
 Unregulated Contaminant
 Monitoring Rule
Ongoing
EPA is collecting data on 36
contaminants to support
regulatory decisions on the CCL
contaminants.
 Research
Fall 2001
Ongoing
CCL Research Plan
Developing a comprehensive strategy
for all drinking water research for the
next 5-10 years.    	
 Radionuclides
December 2000
                               December 2003
Final National Primary Drinking Water
Regulation
Implementation	
 Filter Backwash Recycling Rule   May 2001
                               May 2004
                         Final Rule
                         Implementation
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 426-4791 « www,epa,§ov/safewater
                                                       43

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                                                                                          44
  Interim Enhanced Surface
  Water Treatment Rule
  Stage 1 Disinfectants and
  Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  December 1999

  January 2002
"**"' "
  December 1999

 January 2002

 January 2004
Protecting Drinking Water Sources from Contamination
• Final National Primary Drinking Water
  Regulation
* Implementation
• Final National Primary Drinking Water
  Regulation
' Implementation: large surface water
  systems implementation
1  Implementation: ground water
 systems and small surface water
 systems
 Source Water Assessment
 Drinking Water Contamination
 Prevention Strategy
2003
Ongoing
2001
Ongoing
           	v^w^^M^^B^HHI^^^H^B^^^^g
 Complete and Publicize Assessments
 Source Water Protection
 Final Strategy on Internet
 Implement Strategy
                  	^^^^^^^^^^^^^^"wfl™Tn^'''?*'g>™8
Underground Injection Control     March 2001
                              April 30, 2001
                              May 31, 2002
                              February 2002

                              April 2002
                              Ongoing through 2003

                              January 2002

                             2000 thru 2008:
                             April 2000

                             April 2000
                        Study of the Risks Associated With
                        Class I Underground Injection Wells
                        Class V Phase II Determination:
                        • Proposal
                        • Final
                       South Florida Wastewater Disposal Well
                       Final Rule
                       Class I Municipal Well Final Rule
                       States revise UIC 1422 primacy
                       programs for Class V Phase I Rule
                       Coal Bed Methane Hydro-Fracture Study
                       Phase I                            '
                       Class V Phase I Rule Implementation:
                       • All new large capacity cesspools
                        banned
                       • All new motor vehicle waste disposal
                        wells banned

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                                                                                          46
                                April 2005

                                January 2006
                                January 2008
                          All existing large capacity cesspools
                          closed
                          All existing motor vehicle waste
                          disposal wells closed or under permits
                          in source water protection areas
                          All motor vehicle waste disposal wells
                          closed or under permits in all other
                          regulated areas	
Drinking Water Information
 Consumer Confidence Report     Every July
                        Deadline for public water systems to
                        distribute annual water quality reports
                        to their customers.
 Public Notification
May 2002
Implementation of new requirements
to make notification easier and more
effective. Systems violating drinking
water standards must provide notice
to customers within 24 hours.
  Databases
Winter 2001
Implement new strategy designed to
examine regulatory burden requirements
for environmental data and integrate
cross-program information needs	
Support for Water Systems
  Drinking Water State
  Revolving Fund
Annual
2005
  Allot funds
  Publish next report assessing national
  drinking water needs	
  Capacity Development
Sept. 2002, then
every 3 years
States must submit reports to their
governors and make them available to
the public.       	
  Operator Certification
  Training
Feb. 2001
                                Ongoing
States must submit programs for
agency approval.
EPA's Drinking Water Academy provides
training and information to help EPA,
States, Tribes, and others increase their
capability to implement the 1996 Safe
Drinking Water Act Amendments. See
www. epa.gov/safewater/dwa.html
Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1 (800) 426-4791 « www.epa.gov/safewater
                                                          47

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