Drinking Water From
        Household  Wells
Cover photo courtesy of Charlene E. Shaw, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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                        Table of Contents

                        Introduction	  1

                        What Is Ground Water and
                        How Can It Be Polluted?	  2

                        Where Do Ground Water
                        Pollutants Come From?	  4

                          What Are Some Naturally
                          Occurring Sources of Pollution?	  5

                          What Human Activities Can
                          Pollute My Ground Water?	  5

                        Should I Be Concerned?	  8

                          How Much Risk Can I Expect?	  8

                        What Should I Do?	  8

                          Six Steps to Well Water Safety	  8

                          Protecting Your Ground Water Supply	  9

                          Find Out More - Sources of
                          Information on Well Water	 16

                        Definitions - Common Terms
                        About Wells and Ground Water	 18
EPA816-K-02-003                                               January 2002

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Drinking Water  From Household Wells
         Introduction

         If your family gets drinking water from your own
         well, do you know if your water is safe to drink? What
         health risks could you and your family face? Where
         can you go for help or advice?

         This pamphlet helps answer these questions. It gives
         you general information about drinking water from
         home wells (also considered private drinking water
         sources). It describes types of activities in your area
         that can create threats to your water supply. It also
         describes problems to look for and offers maintenance
         suggestions. Sources for more information and help
         are also listed.

         All of us need clean water to drink. We can go for
         weeks without food, but only days without water.
         Contaminated water can be  a threat to anyone's
         health, but especially to young children.

         About 15 percent of Americans  have their own sources
         of drinking water, such as wells, cisterns, and springs.
         Unlike public drinking water systems serving many
         people, they do not have experts regularly checking
         the water's source and its quality before it is sent
         through pipes to  the community.

         To help protect families with their own wells, almost all
         states license or register water-well installers. Most also
         have construction standards for home wells. In addition,
         some city and county health departments have local
         rules and permitting. All this helps make sure the well is
         built properly. But what about checking to see that it is
         working correctly and the water  is always healthy to
         drink? That is the job of the well owner, and it takes
         some work and some knowledge.

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Drinking Water From Household Wells
What Is Ground Water And
How Can It Be Polluted?

Ground water is a resource found under
the earth's surface. Most ground water
comes from rain and melting snow
soaking into the ground. Water fills the
spaces between rocks and soils, making
an "aquifer". (See Watershed Graphic.')
About half of our nation's drinking
water comes from ground water. Most is
supplied through public drinking water
systems. But many families rely on
private, household wells and use ground
water as their source of fresh water.

Ground water  its depth from the
surface, quality for drinking water, and
chance of being polluted  varies from
place to place. Generally, the deeper
the well, the better the ground water.
The amount of new water flowing into
the area also affects ground water
quality.
                       Ground water may contain some
                       natural impurities or contaminants,
                       even with no human activity or pollu-
                       tion. Natural contaminants can come
                       from many conditions in the watershed
                       or in the ground. Water moving
                       through underground rocks and soils
                       may pick up magnesium, calcium and
                       chlorides. Some ground water naturally
                       contains dissolved elements such as
                       arsenic, boron, selenium, or radon, a
                       gas formed by the natural breakdown
                       of radioactive uranium in soil. Whether
                       these natural contaminants are health
                       problems depends on the amount of
                       the substance present.

                       In addition to natural contaminants,
                       ground water is often polluted by
                       human activities such as

                         Improper use of fertilizers, animal
                          manures, herbicides, insecticides,
                          and pesticides
   Water
   Table
       \
 Recharge Area
f  r r f
    npermeable Ro
A "watershed" is the land
area where water soaks
through the earth filling
an underground water
supply or aquifer. It is
also called a recharge
area. The "water table" is
the line below which the
ground is saturated or
filled with water and
available for pumping.
The water table will fall
during dry seasons. A
well can pump water
from either the saturated
zone or an aquifer.  Wells
must be deep enough to
remain in the saturated

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                                              Drinking Water From Household Wells
  Improperly built or poorly located
   and/or maintained septic systems
   for household wastewater
  Leaking or abandoned underground
   storage tanks and piping
  Storm-water drains that discharge
   chemicals to ground water
  Improper disposal or storage of
   wastes
  Chemical spills at local industrial
   sites

These problems are discussed in
greater detail later in this brochure.

Suburban growth is bringing busi-
nesses, factories and industry (and
potential sources of pollution) into
once rural areas where families often
rely on household wells. Growth is  also
pushing new home developments onto
the edge of rural and agricultural
areas. Often municipal water and
sewer lines do not extend to these
areas. Many new houses rely on wells
and septic tanks. But the people buying
them may not have any experience
using these systems.

Most U.S. ground water is safe for
human use. However, ground water
contamination has been found in all 50
states, so well owners have  reason to
be vigilant in protecting their water
supplies. Well owners need  to be aware
of potential health problems. They
need to  test their water regularly and
maintain their wells to  safeguard their
families' drinking water.
                                                         The hydrologic cycle is
                                                         the natural process of
                                                         rain and snow falling to
                                                         earth and evaporating
                                                         back to form clouds and
                                                         fall again. The water
                                                         falling to earth flows into
                                                         streams, rivers, lakes and
                                                         into the soil collecting to
                                                         form groundwater.

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Drinking Water From Household Wells
Where Do Ground Water
Pollutants Come From?

Understanding and spotting possible
pollution sources is important. It's the
first step to safeguard drinking water
for you and your family. Some threats
come from nature. Naturally occurring
contaminants such as minerals can
present a health risk. Other potential
sources come from past or present
human activity  things that we do,
make, and use  such as mining,
farming and using chemicals. Some of
these activities may result in the
pollution of the water we drink.

Several sources of pollution are easy to
spot by sight, taste, or smell. (See "Quick
Reference List.), however many serious
problems can only be found by testing
your water. Knowing the possible threats
in your area will help you decide on the
kind of tests you need.
   Quick Reference List of Noticeable  Problems

   Visible
    Scale or scum from calcium or magnesium salts in water
    Unclear/turbid water from dirt, clay salts, silt or rust in water
    Green stains on sinks or faucets caused by high acidity
    Brown-red stains on sinks, dishwasher, or clothes in wash points to
     dissolved iron in water
    Cloudy water that clears upon standing may have air bubbles from poorly
     working pump or problem with filters.

   Tastes
    Salty or brackish taste from high sodium content in water
    Alkali/soapy taste from dissolved alkaline minerals in water
    Metallic taste from acidity or high iron content in water
    Chemical taste from industrial chemicals or pesticides

   Smell
    A rotten egg odor can be from dissolved hydrogen sulfide gas or certain
     bacteria in your water. If the smell only comes with hot water it is likely
     from a part in your hot water heater.
    A detergent odor and water that foams when drawn could be seepage
     from septic tanks into your ground water well.
    A gasoline or oil smell indicates fuel oil or gasoline likely seeping from a
     tank into the water supply
    Methane gas or musty/earthy smell from decaying organic matter in water
    Chlorine smell from excessive chlorination.

   Note: Many serious problems  (bacteria, heavy metals, nitrates, radon,  and
   many chemicals) can only be found by laboratory testing of water.

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                                            Drinking Water From Household Wells
What are Some Naturally
Occurring Sources of Pollution?

Microorganisms: Bacteria, viruses,
parasites and other microorganisms
are sometimes found in water. Shallow
wells  those with water close to
ground level  are at most risk.
Runoff, or water flowing  over the land
surface, may pick up these pollutants
from wildlife and soils. This is often
the case after flooding. Some of these
organisms can cause a variety of
illnesses. Symptoms include nausea
and diarrhea. These can occur shortly
after drinking contaminated water. The
effects could be short-term yet severe
(similar to food poisoning) or might
recur frequently or develop slowly over
a long time.

Radionuclides: Radionuclides are
radioactive elements such as uranium
and radium. They may be present in
underlying rock and ground water.
Radon  a gas that is a natural
product of the breakdown of uranium
in the soil  can also  pose a threat.
Radon is most dangerous when in-
haled and contributes to lung cancer.
Although soil is the primary source,
using household water containing
Radon contributes to elevated indoor
Radon levels. Radon is less dangerous
when consumed in water, but remains
a risk to health.

Nitrates and Nitrites: Although
high nitrate levels are usually due to
human activities (see below), they may
be found naturally in ground water.
They come from the breakdown of
nitrogen compounds in the soil.
Flowing ground water picks them up
from the soil. Drinking large amounts
of nitrates and nitrites is particularly
threatening to infants (for example,
when mixed in formula).

Heavy Metals: Underground rocks
and soils may contain arsenic, cad-
mium, chromium, lead, and selenium.
However, these contaminants are not
often found in household wells at
dangerous levels from natural sources.

Fluoride: Fluoride is helpful in dental
health, so many water systems add
small amounts to drinking water.
However, excessive consumption of
naturally occurring fluoride can
damage bone  tissue.  High levels of
fluoride occur naturally in some areas.
It may discolor teeth, but this is not a
health risk.

What Human Activities Can
Pollute Ground water?

Bacteria and Nitrates: These
pollutants are found  in human and
animal wastes. Septic tanks can cause
bacterial and nitrate  pollution. So can
large numbers of farm animals. Both
septic systems and animal manures
must be carefully managed to prevent
pollution. Sanitary landfills and
garbage dumps are also sources.
Children and some adults are at extra
risk when exposed to water-born
bacteria. These include the elderly and
people whose immune systems are
weak due to AIDS or treatments for
cancer. Fertilizers can add to nitrate
problems. Nitrates cause a health
threat in very young  infants called
"blue baby" syndrome. This condition
disrupts oxygen flow in the blood.

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Drinking Water From Household Wells
Concentrated Animal Feeding
Operations (CAFOs): The number
of CAFOs, often called "factory farms,"
is growing. On these farms thousands
of animals are raised in a small space.
The large amounts of animal wastes/
manures from these farms can threaten
water supplies. Strict and careful
manure management is needed to
prevent pathogen and nutrient prob-
lems. Salts from high levels of manures
can also pollute groundwater.

Heavy Metals: Activities such as
mining and construction can release
large amounts of heavy metals into
nearby ground water sources. Some
older fruit orchards may contain high
levels of arsenic, once used as a
pesticide. At  high levels, these metals
pose a health risk.

Fertilizers  and Pesticides: Farmers
use fertilizers and pesticides to pro-
mote growth and reduce insect dam-
age. These products are also used on
golf courses and suburban lawns  and
gardens. The chemicals in these
products may end up in ground water.
Such pollution depends on the types
and amounts of chemicals used and
how they are applied. Local environ-
mental conditions (soil types, seasonal
snow and rainfall) also affect this
pollution. Many fertilizers contain
forms of nitrogen that can break down
into harmful nitrates. This could add to
other sources of nitrates mentioned
above. Some underground agricultural
drainage systems collect fertilizers and
pesticides. This polluted water can
pose problems to ground water and
local streams and rivers. In addition,
chemicals used to treat buildings and
homes for termites or other pests may
also pose a threat. Again, the possibility
of problems depends on the amount
and kind of chemicals. The types of soil
and the amount of water moving
through the soil also play a role.

Industrial Products and Wastes:
Many harmful chemicals are used
widely in local business and industry.
These can become drinking water
pollutants if not well managed. The
most common sources of such prob-
lems are:

 Local Businesses: These include
  nearby factories, industrial plants,
  and even small businesses such as
  gas stations and dry cleaners. All
  handle a variety of hazardous
  chemicals that need careful manage-
  ment. Spills and improper disposal
  of these chemicals or of industrial
  wastes can threaten ground water
  supplies.

 Leaking Underground Tanks & Piping:
  Petroleum products, chemicals, and
  wastes stored in underground
  storage tanks and pipes may end up
  in the ground water. Tanks and
  piping leak if they are constructed or
  installed improperly. Steel tanks and
  piping corrode with age. Tanks are
  often found on farms. The possibility
  of leaking tanks is great on old,
  abandoned farm sites. Farm tanks
  are exempt from the EPA rules for
  petroleum and chemical tanks.

 Landfills and Waste Dumps: Modern
  landfills are designed to contain any
  leaking liquids. But floods can carry
  them over the barriers. Older
  dumpsites may have a wide variety

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                                              Drinking Water From Household Wells
   of pollutants that can seep into
   ground water.

Household Wastes: Improper
disposal of many common products can
pollute ground water. These include
cleaning solvents, used motor oil,
paints, and paint thinners. Even soaps
and detergents can harm drinking
water. These are often a problem from
faulty septic tanks and septic leaching
fields.

Lead & Copper: Household plumb-
ing materials are the most common
source of lead and copper in home
drinking water.  Corrosive water may
cause metals in pipes or soldered joints
to leach into your tap water. Your
water's acidity or alkalinity (often
measured as pH) greatly affects
corrosion. Temperature and mineral
content also affect how corrosive it is.
They are often used in pipes, solder, or
plumbing fixtures. Lead can cause
serious damage to the brain, kidneys,
nervous system, and red blood cells.
The age of plumbing materials  in
particular, copper pipes soldered with
lead  is also important. Even in
relatively low amounts these metals
can be harmful. EPA rules under the
Safe Drinking Water Act limit  lead in
drinking water to 15 parts per billion.
Since 1988 the Act only allows "lead
free" pipe, solder, and flux in drinking
water systems. The law covers both
new installations and repairs of
plumbing. For more information on
avoiding lead in drinking water, visit
the EPA Website at www.epa.gov/
safewater/PubsAeadl. html

Water Treatment Chemicals:
Improper handling or storage  of water-
well treatment chemicals (disinfec-
tants, corrosion inhibitors, etc.) close
to your well can cause problems.
        Underground
        Storage Tanks
                          Landfills

                    Pesticides and Fertilizers
                Septic tanks are deigned
                to have a "leach field"
                around them  an area
                where wastewater flows
                out of the tank. This
                wastewater can also
                move into the ground
                water

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Drinking Water From Household Wells
Should I  Be Concerned?

You should be aware because the Safe
Drinking Water Act does not protect
private wells. EPA's rules only apply to
"public drinking water systems" 
government or privately run companies
supplying water to 25 people or 15
service connections. While most states
regulate private household wells, most
have limited rules. Individual well
owners have primary responsibility for
the safety of the water drawn from
their wells. They do not benefit from
the government's health protections for
water systems serving many families.
These must comply with federal and
state regulations for frequent analysis,
testing, and reporting of results.

Instead, household well owners should
rely on help from local health depart-
ments. They may help you with yearly
testing for bacteria and nitrates. They
may also oversee the placement and
construction of new wells to meet state
and local regulations. Most have rules
about locating drinking water wells
near septic tanks, drain fields, and
livestock. But remember, the final
responsibility for constructing your
well correctly, protecting it from
pollution, and maintaining it falls on
you, the well owner.

How Much Risk Can I Expect?

The risk of having problems depends
on how good your well is  how well
it was built and located, and how well
you maintain it. It also depends on
your local environment. That includes
the quality of the aquifer from which
you draw your water and the human
activities going on in your area that can
affect your well water.
Some questions to consider in protect-
ing your drinking water and maintain-
ing your well are:

  What distance should my well be
   from sources of human wastes such
   as septic systems?
  How far should it be from animal
   feedlots or manure spreading?
  What are the types of soil and
   underlying rocks? Does water flow
   easily or collect on the surface?
  How deep must a well be dug to
   avoid seasonal changes in ground
   water supply?
  What activities in my area (farming,
   mining, industry) might affect my
   well?
  What is the age of my well, its
   pump, and other parts?
  Is my water distribution system
   protected from cross connections
   and backflow problems?
What Should I Do?

Listed below are the six basic steps you
should take to maintain the safety of
your drinking water. After the list you'll
find "how to" suggestions for each
point to help you protect your well and
your drinking water.

1. Identify potential problem sources
2. Talk with "local experts"
3. Have your water tested periodically.
4. Have the test results interpreted and
   explained clearly.
5. Set a regular maintenance schedule
   for your well, do the scheduled
   maintenance and keep accurate,
   up-to-date records.
6. Remedy any problems.

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                                          Drinking Water From Household Wells
Protecting Your Ground Water Supply

When Building, Modifying Or Closing A Well
  Hire a certified well driller for any new well construction or modification
  Slope well area so surface runoff drains away
  When closing a well:
   - Do not cut off the well casing below the land surface
   - Hire a certified well contractor to fill or seal the well

Preventing Problems
  Install a locking well cap or sanitary seal to prevent unauthorized use of,
   or entry into, the well
  Do not mix or use pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, degreasers, fuels, and
   other pollutants near the well
  Never dispose of wastes in dry wells or in abandoned wells
  Pump and inspect septic systems as often as recommended by your local
   health department
  Never dispose of hazardous materials in a septic system
  Take care in working or mowing around your well

Maintaining Your Well
  Each month check visible parts of your system for problems such as:
   - Cracking or corrosion,
   - Broken or missing well cap,
   - Settling and cracking of surface seals
  Have the well tested once a year for coliform bacteria, nitrates, and other
   contaminants
  Keep accurate records in a safe place, including:
   - Construction contract or report
   - Maintenance records, such as disinfection or sediment removal
   - Any use of chemicals in the well
   - Water testing results

After A Flood  Concerns And Advisories
  Stay away from the  well pump while flooded to avoid electric shock
  Do not drink or wash from the flooded well to avoid becoming sick
  Get assistance from  a well or pump contractor to clean and turn on the
   pump
  After the pump is turned back on, pump the well until the water runs clear
   to rid the well of flood water
  If the water does not run clear, get advice from the county or state health
   department or extension service
  For additional information go to http://www.epa.gov/safewater/consumer/
   whatdo. htm

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Drinking Water From Household Wells
1. How Can I Spot Potential
  Problems?

The potential for pollution entering
your well is affected by its placement
and construction  how close is your
well to potential sources of pollution?
Local agricultural and industrial
activities, your area's geology and
climate also matter. This document
includes a checklist to help you find
potential problems with your well.
Take time to review it in the  box
labeled "Protecting Your Ground water
Supply." Because ground water con-
tamination is usually localized, the best
way to identify potential contaminants
is to consult a local expert. For ex-
ample, talk with a geologist at a local
college or someone from a nearby
public water system. They'll know
about conditions in your area. (See
item # 5)

2. Have Your  Well Water Tested

Test your water every year for total
coliform bacteria, nitrates, total
dissolved solids, and pH levels. If you
suspect other contaminants,  test for
these also. Chemical tests can be
expensive. Limit them to possible
problems specific  to your situation.
Again,  local experts can tell you about
possible impurities in your area.
Often county health departments do
tests for bacteria and nitrates. For other
substances, health departments,
environmental offices, or county
governments should have a list of state
certified laboratories. Your State
Laboratory Certification Officer can
also provide one. Call EPA's Safe
Drinking Water Hotline, (800) 426-
4791, for the name and phone number
of your state's certification officer.

Before taking a sample, contact the lab
that will perform your tests. Ask for
instructions and sampling bottles.
Follow the instructions carefully so you
will get correct results. The first step is
getting a good water sample. It is also
important to follow advice about
storing the samples. Ask how soon they
must be taken to the lab for testing.
These instructions can be very different
for each substance being tested.

Remember to test your water after
replacing or repairing any part of the
well system (piping, pump, or the well
itself.) Also test if you notice a change
in your water's look, taste, or smell.
The chart below ("Reasons to Test Your
Water") will help you spot problems.
The last five problems listed are not an
immediate health concern, but they
can make your water taste bad, may
indicate problems, and could affect
your system long term.
10

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                                               Drinking Water From Household Wells
Reasons to Test Your Water
 Conditions or Nearby Activities:
 Recurring gastrointestinal illness
 Household plumbing contains lead
 Radon in indoor air or region
 is radon rich
 Corrosion of pipes, plumbing
 Nearby areas of intensive agriculture
 Coal or other mining
 operations nearby
 Gas drilling operations nearby
 Dump, junkyard, landfill, factory,
 gas station, or dry- cleaning
 operation nearby
 Odor of gasoline or fuel oil, and
 near gas staion or buried fuel tanks
 Objectionable taste or smell
 Stained plumbing fixtures, laundry
 Salty taste and seawater, or a
 heavily salted roadway nearby
 Scaly residues, soaps don't lather
 Rapid wear of water
 treatment equipment
 Water softener needed to
 treat hardness
 Water appears cloudy, frothy,
 or colored
Test for:
Coliform bacteria
pH, lead, copper
Radon

Corrosion, pH, lead
Nitrate, pesticides, coliform bacteria
Metals, pH, corrosion

Chloride, sodium, barium, strontium
Volatile organic compounds,  total
dissolved solids, pH, sulfate,
chloride, metals
Volatile organic compounds

Hydrogen sulfide, corrosion,  metals
Iron, copper, manganese
Chloride, total dissolved solids,
sodium
Hardness
pH, corrosion

Manganese, iron

Color, detergents
                                                                             11

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Drinking Water From Household Wells
3. Understanding Your Test
   Resu/ts

Have your well water tested for any
possible contaminants in your area.
Use a state-approved testing lab. (See
below for sources of approved labora-
tories.) Do not be surprised if a lot of
substances are found and reported to
you.

The amount of risk from a drinking
water contaminant depends on the
specific substance and the amount in
the water. The health of the person also
matters. Some contaminant cause
immediate and severe  effects. It may
take only one bacterium or virus to
make a weak person sick. Another
person may not be affected. For very
young children, taking in high levels of
nitrate over a relatively short period of
time can be very dangerous. Many
other contaminants pose a long-term or
chronic threat to your  health  a little
bit consumed regularly over a long
time could cause health problems such
as trouble having children and other
effects.

EPA drinking water rules for public
water systems aim to protect people
from both short and long term health
hazards.  The amounts of contaminants
allowed are based on protecting people
over a lifetime of drinking water. Public
water systems are required to test their
water regularly before delivery. They
also treat it so that it meets drinking
water standards, notify customers if
water does not meet standards and
provide annual water quality reports.
Compare your well's test results to
federal and state drinking water
standards. (You can find these stan-
dards at www.epa.gov/safewater/
mcl.html or call the Safe Drinking
Water Hotline 800-426-4791.) In  some
cases, the laboratory will give a very
helpful explanation. But you may have
to rely on other experts to aid you in
understanding the results.

The following organizations may be
able to help:

 The state agency that licenses water-
  well contractors can help you
  understand your test results. It will
  also provide information on well
  construction and protection of your
  water supply. The agency is usually
  located in the state capital or other
  major city.  It is often part of the
  department of health or environ-
  mental protection. Check the blue
  "government pages" of your local
  phone book or call the American
  Ground Water Trust at (614) 761-
  2215 or the EPA Hotline at (800)
  426-4791 for your licensing agency's
  phone number.
 The local health department and
  agricultural agents can help you
  understand the test  results. They
  will have information on any known
  threats to drinking water in your
  area.  They can also give you sugges-
  tions  about how to protect your well
  water.
 The state drinking water program
  can also help. You can compare your
  well's water to the state's standards
  for public water systems. State
  programs are usually located in the
  state  capital or another major city.
  They are often part  of the depart-
  ment of health or environmental
12

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                                            Drinking Water From Household Wells
regulation. Again, consult the blue
"government pages" in your local
phone book for the address and
phone number or call or the EPA
Hotline  (800) 426-4791.
The Safe Drinking Water Hotline at
(800) 426-4791, mentioned above
 can help in many ways. The
Hotline can provide a listing of
contaminants public water systems
must test for. EPA also has copies of
health advisories prepared for
specific drinking water contami-
nants. The EPA Hotline staff can
explain the federal regulations that
apply to public water systems. They
compare your lab results to the
federal standards. In addition, they
can give you the phone number and
address of your state drinking water
program, and of your state labora-
tory certification officer. That officer
can send you a list of approved labs
in your area.
4. Well Construction and
   Maintenance

Proper well construction and continued
maintenance are keys to the safety of
your water supply. Your state water-
well contractor licensing agency, local
health department, or local water
system professional can provide
information on well construction. (See
the two graphics below. One shows
three types of well locations and how
surface water drains. The other lists the
distances from the well  to guard
against possible sources of pollution.')

Water-well drillers and pump-well
installers are listed in your local
phone directory. The contractor
should be bonded and  insured. Make
certain your ground water contractor
is registered or licensed in your state,
if required.  If your state does not
have  a licensing/registration program
contact the  National Ground Water
Association. They have a voluntary
                                                      The well should be
                                                      located so rainwater
                                                      flows away from it.
                                                      Rainwater can pick up
                                                      harmful bacteria and
                                                      chemicals on the land's
                                                      surface. If this water
                                                      pools near your well, it
                                                      can seep into it, poten-
                                                      tially causing health
                                                      problems.
                                                                         13

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Drinking Water From Household Wells
certification program for contractors.
(In fact, some states use the
Association's exams as their test for
licensing.) For a list of certified con-
tractors in your state contact the
Association at (614) 898-7791 or (800)
551-7379. There is no cost for mailing
or faxing the list to you.

Many homeowners tend to forget the
value of good maintenance until
problems reach crisis levels. That can
be expensive. It's better to maintain
your well, find problems  early, and
correct them to protect your well's
performance. Keep up-to-date records
of well installation and repairs plus
pumping and water tests. Such records
can help spot changes and possible
problems with your water system. If
you have problems, ask a local expert
to check your well construction and
maintenance records. He or she can see
if your system is okay or needs work.

The graphic on the next page shows a
good example of an animal-proof cap
or seal and the casing of a well.
Protect your own well area. Be careful
about storage and disposal of house-
hold and lawn care chemicals and
wastes. Good farmers and gardeners
minimize the use of fertilizers and
pesticides. Take steps to reduce erosion
and prevent surface water runoff.
Regularly check underground storage
tanks that hold home heating oil,
diesel, or gasoline. Make sure your well
is protected from the wastes of live-
stock, pets, and wildlife.

 5. Talk With Local Experts

Good sources of information and
advice can be found close to home. The
list below tells about some "local
experts":

  The local health department's
   registered "sanitarian" is a health
   specialist. He  or she likely knows the
   most about any problems with
   private wells.
                                   50ft.
                                   Septic Tanks


                                   50ft.
                                   Livestock Yards
                                   Silos Septic
                                   Leach Fields
                                   100ft.
                                   Petroleum Tanks
                                   Liquid-Tight
                                    Manure Storage
                                   Pesticide and Fertilizer
                                    Storage and Handling


                                   250 ft.
                                   Manure Stacks
                To keep your well safe,
                you must be sure
                possible sources of
                contamination are not
                close by. Experts suggest
                these separation
                distances as a minimum
                for protection  farther is
                better.
14

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                                           Drinking Water From Household Wells
Local water-well contractors can tell
you about well drilling and construc-
tion. They are also familiar with
local geology and water conditions.
Look in the yellow pages of your
phone book or contact the agency in
your state that licenses water well
contractors. Call the National
Ground Water Association (NGWA)
at (614) 898-7791 or (800) 551-
7379 to find NGWA-certified water-
well contractors in your area.
Officials at the nearest public water
system may explain any threats to
local drinking water and may be
developing plans to address poten-
tial threats. They may advise you on
taking samples and understanding
tests done on your water. Ask the
local health department or look in
your phone book for the name and
address of the closest system.
Local county extension agents will
know about local farming and
forestry activities that can affect
your water. They may also have
information about water testing.
The Natural Resources Conservation
Service (NRCS) replaced the old
U.S. Soil Conservation Service. It is
part of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. The NRCS and the U.S.
Geological Survey have information
about local soils and ground water.
They can tell you where a local
water supply is located and how it is
recharged or replenished. They
would know of any pollution threats
and if radon is a problem in the
area. Look for both in the blue pages
of your local phone book.
Local or county planning commis-
sions can be good sources. They
know about past and present land
uses in your area that affect water.
Your public library may also have
records and maps that can provide
useful information. Nearby colleges
and universities have research arms
that can provide facts and expertise.
They may also have a testing lab.
                                                     An animal or vermin
                                                     proof cap prevents
                                                     rodents from entering
                                                     your well, being trapped
                                                     and dying. Paving around
                                                     your well will prevent
                                                     polluted runoff from
                                                     seeping into your water
                                                     supply.
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Drinking Water From Household Wells
6. Fix Problems Immediately

If you find that your well water is
polluted, fix the problem as soon as
possible. You may need to disinfect
your water, have a new well drilled,
replumb or repair your system. Con-
sider hooking into a nearby community
water system  (if one is available). If
you have a new well drilled or connect
to a community water system, the old
well must be closed properly. Consult
"local experts" for help. You might
consider installing a water treatment
device to remove impurities. Informa-
tion about treatment devices can be
obtained from the following sources:

Water Quality Association
EO. Box 606
4151 Naperville Road
Lisle, IL 60532
WMAV.wqa.org

National Sanitation Foundation
EO. Box 130140
789 N Dixboro Road
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-0140
(734) 769-8010, (800) NSF-MARK
www.nsf.org

U.S. Environmental Frotection Agency
(to visit in person)
Office of Water Resource Center
1200 Fennsylvania Avenue, NW
Ariel Rios Building
Washington, DC 20460
Fhone: (202)  260-7786

Monday through Friday,
except federal holidays,
8:30AM - 4:30FM ET

E-mail address:
center.water-resource@epa.gov
There are many home water treatment
devices. Different types remove different
pollutants or impurities. No one
device does it all. Also, you must
carefully maintain your home treatment
device so your water stays safe. For more
information, get a copy ofEPA's pam-
phlet, "Home Water Treatment Units"
from the U.S. EPA Resource Center or
call the Hotline at (800) 426-4791.
Find Out More

To find out more about your watershed
and its ground water visit "Surf Your
Watershed" at www.epa.gov/surf. Also
look at the "Index of Watershed
Indicators" at www.epa.gov/iwi. These
websites can also tell you possible
sources of problems. Companies with
permits to release their wastewaters in
your area are listed. You can see if they
meet pollution control laws. You can
also learn how your watershed com-
pares to others in the country.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture
and EPA support a program to help
farmers, ranchers and rural
homeowners. Called Farm*A*Syst or
Home*A*Syst, it helps identify and
solve environmental problems, includ-
ing protecting drinking water. Obtain a
copy of the Home*A*Syst question-
naire/checklist that can help you find
possible threats to your water supply
from:

National Farm*A*Syst/Home*A*Syst
Program
303 Hiram Smith Hall
1545 Observatory Drive
Madison, WI 53706
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                                            Drinking Water From Household Wells
Ph: 608.262.0024, Fax: 608.265.2775
homeasys@uwex. edu

For more information on current and
future federal drinking water standards
and for general information on drinking
water topics and issues, contact the EP A
at www.epa.gov/safewater or at:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Ground Water and
Drinking Water
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460

Or call:

The Safe Drinking Water Hotline
(800) 426-4791
The hotline operates from 9:00 AM to
5:30 PM (EST)
The hotline can be accessed
on the Internet at
www. epa.gov/safewater/drinklink. html

You can get a list of Federal drinking
water standards from the EPA website.
In addition, the EPA Office of Ground
Water and Drinking Water gives
chemical and health risk information
for a number of drinking water prob-
lems through its Safe Drinking Water
Hotline  (800) 426-4791. This informa-
tion is also on the internet at
www.epa.gov/safewater. If you do not
have a computer, most public libraries
offer internet access. Even though
federal standards do not apply to
household wells, you can use them as a
guide to potential problems in your
water. Be aware that many states have
their own drinking water standards.
Some are stricter than the federal
rules. To get your state standards,
contact your state drinking water
program or local health department.
Other sources of information include:

Ground Water Protection Council
http://gwpc.site.net

American Water Works
Association
www.awwa.org

National Rural Water
Association
www.nrwa.org

National Drinking Water
Clearinghouse
www.estd. wvu.edu/ndwc

Rural Community
Assistance Program
www.rcap.org

U.S. Geological Survey
water.usgs.gov

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Natural Resources
Conservation Service
www.nrcs.usda.gov

Water Systems Council
www.watersystemscouncil.org
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Drinking Water From Household Wells
   Definitions

   Aquifer - An underground formation
   or group of formations in rocks and
   soils containing enough ground
   water to supply wells and springs.

   Back/low - A reverse flow in water
   pipes. A difference in water pres-
   sures pulls water from sources other
   than the well into a home's water
   system,  for example waste  water or
   flood water. Also called back
   siphonage.

   Bacteria - Microscopic living
   organisms; some are helpful and
   some are harmful. "Good" bacteria
   aid in pollution control by consum-
   ing and  breaking down organic
   matter and other pollutants in septic
   systems, sewage, oil spills,  and soils.
   However, "bad" bacteria in soil,
   water, or air can cause human,
   animal,  and plant health problems.

   Confining layer - Layer of rock that
   keeps the ground water in  the
   aquifer below it under pressure.
   This pressure creates  springs and
   helps supply water to wells.

   Contaminant - Anything found in
   water (including microorganisms,
   minerals, chemicals, radionuclides,
   etc.) which may be harmful to
   human health.

   Cross-connection - Any actual or
   potential connection between a
   drinking (potable) water supply and
   a source of contamination.
Heavy metals - Metallic elements
with high atomic weights, such as,
mercury chromium cadmium,
arsenic, and lead. Even at low levels
these metals can damage living
things. They do not break down or
decompose and tend to build up in
plants, animals, and people causing
health concerns.

Leaching field - The entire area
where many materials (including
contaminants) dissolve in rain,
snowmelt, or irrigation water and
are filtered through the soil.

Microorganisms - Also called
microbes. Very tiny life forms such
as bacteria, algae, diatoms, para-
sites, plankton, and fungi. Some can
cause disease.

Nitrates - Plant nutrient and
fertilizer that enters water supply
sources from fertilizers, animal feed
lots, manures, sewage, septic
systems, industrial wastewaters,
sanitary landfills, and garbage
dumps.

Protozoa - One-celled  animals,
usually microscopic, that are larger
and more complex than bacteria.
May cause disease.
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                                            Drinking Water From Household Wells
Radon - A colorless, odorless
naturally occurring radioactive gas
formed by the breakdown or decay
of radium or uranium in soil or
rocks like granite. Radon is fairly
soluble in water, so well water may
contain radon.

Radionudides - Distinct radioactive
particles coming from both natural
sources and human activities. Can
be very long lasting as soil or water
pollutants.

Recharge area - The land area
through or over which rainwater
and other surface water soaks
through the earth to replenish an
aquifer, lake, stream, river, or rnarsh.
Also called a watershed.

Saturated zone - The underground
area below the water table where  all
open spaces are filled with water. A
well placed in this zone will be able
to pump ground water.

Unsaturated zone - The area above
the ground water level or water
table where soil pores are not fully
saturated, although some water may
be present.

Viruses - Submicroscopic disease-
causing organisms that grow only
inside living cells.
Watershed - The land area that
catches rain or snow and drains it
into a local water body (such as a
river, stream, lake, marsh,  or
aquifer) and affects its flow, and the
local water level. Also called a
recharge area.

Water table - The upper level of the
saturated zone. This level varies
greatly in different parts of the
country and also varies seasonally
depending on the amount  of rain
and snowmelt.

Well cap - A tight-fitting, vermin-
proof seal designed to prevent
contaminants from flowing down
inside of the well casing.

Well casing - The tubular lining  of a
well. Also a steel or plastic pipe
installed during construction to
prevent collapse of the well hole.

Wellhead - The top-of a structure
built over a well. Term also used for
the source of a well or stream.
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