vvEPA
         United States
         Environmental Protection
         Agency
          Office of Water
          (4606)
EPA 816-R-99-004
April, 1999
Public Notification
Handbook-Draft for
Comment
            The Required Elements of a Public Notice

2) When the
violation
occurred — •


3) Potential
health
effects 	


6) Actions — 	
consumers
should take


7) What Is v
being done\
to correct the
violation

10) Required -^
distribution
language

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR DRINKING WATER
Tests Show Presence or Coliform Bacteria
• TceJonesvulcwatersystonroutindyniDnitoisforcoIifonnbacteria. Seven percent of our '
samples tested positive during theraonthofMv. ThcstandardisthatnomorethanS percenter
samples may test positive WetookatotalofSt) samples. Since that time, we have been in
What doeithb mean?

Tnis is not an emergency. lfithadbecn.youwouldhavcbcennotifiedimmcdiatcly. Total
coufonn bactena arc generally not harmful themselves.

Coliforms are bacteria w/ifcft are naturally present in the environment and are used as an
indicator that other, potenaalt^iannful. bacteria may be present. Conforms »ere found in 	
more samples than allowed and this \*ax a wanting ofpotentialproblerns. ^ 	
Whatihouldldo? 	
—- 	
YOD do not need to boll your water. However, if vou have specific hold cone*™, aannt.
yourdoctor. Usually coWcrmsarcasign that therccouIdbcaproWem with thcsystcm's _^J
treatraentordistribution systems. Some people, including immuno-compramised, some dderly
mdm&ntsmayb^atincreasedrid:. TTicsepeoplesbcnildscekadviceaboutdrinkingwatcr
uomtheirhealthcareprovideTs. <3indclines on ways to lessen the risk of infection by microbes
arcavajIablefiDmtheSareDnDking Water Hotiincatl (800)426-4791.
Wbtt Is the JoneniUewiteriyitcm doing?

* We loot additional samples for colifonn bacteria which an came back negative. As an added
precaution, we chlormateu and flushed the pipes in the distribution system to make sure bacteria
For more nJotniation^or to learn more about protecting your drinking water please contact John
ODCS " 	 ~ 	 	 	
IfoDvr People, «Kb •< let»B(x mtdenti. DiHent.. rtudenti. or emolovee.. re«h-e w.ter
from vou. it it imnortmnt t i»t von nnvide ttili notice to tlietnhTiJoit m? it in *
conipirooM loc.tioB or bv dit4ct h.r,d or mill deHverv 	 °E"in.


/1) Description
of the
violation
5) Should
sltBrnstG
water
supplies
be used
. —

4) The
population
at risk


8) When the
system will
return to
compliance

- 9) Phone
number for
more
Information

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                                       APR 27 1999
To Interested Parties:

      We are pleased to release this draft Public Notification Handbook for your review and
comment. The Handbook will assist water systems in implementing the revised public
notification regulations to incorporate new statutory provisions under the 1996 Safe Drinking
Water Act (SDWA) amendments. EPA recently released for comment through the Federal
Register the proposed new public notification regulations. We strongly encourage you to review
the proposed new regulations and the Handbook together, and work with EPA and ASDWA to
make the final Handbook useful and effective in helping water systems.

      The Public Notification Handbook is intended to make public water system owners' and
operators' jobs easier and public notices more effective. EPA and ASDWA developed the draft
Handbook wider a Steering Committee comprised of representatives from the American Water
Works Association, Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, National Association of Water
Companies, National Rural Water Association, and League of Women Voters. We held two
public meetings in June and September, 1998 to review and test the effectiveness of early drafts
of the handbook. The draft Handbook is the result of that collaboration.

      If you have suggestions that may improve the usefulness and effectiveness of the
Handbook, please let us know. We welcome comment on all aspects of the Handbook. In
addition to soliciting written comments, we are planning several meetings to improve the
Handbook before its release in final form. These meetings will be scheduled between now and
late summer.  For information on the status of the Handbook or the  schedule of meetings, please
contact the EPA Safe  Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791.

      Please submit written comments on the Handbook by July 3 1, 1999 to EPA, Attn: Carl
Reeverts, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (4604), 401  M Street, S.W., Washington,
D.C. 20460. You may also submit comments to Carl via E-mail at reeverts.carl@epa.gov.

                                 Sincerely,

                                                            M-
Robert Blanco, Director                        Vanessa Leiby, Executive Director
Implementation and Assistance Division          Association of State Drinking Water
Office of Ground Water and                    Administrators (ASDWA)
Drinking Water (OGWDW)

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Public Notification Handbook-
      Draft for Comment
          April 27,1999

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Disclaimer: This handbook is a supplement to, not a
substitute for, the public notification regulations. Thus, it
cannot impose legally-binding requirements on EPA, states,
or water suppliers and may not apply to a particular situation.
EPA and State decisionmakers retain the discretion to adopt
approaches on a case-by-case basis that differ from the
handbook, where appropriate. You should read the
regulations thoroughly to ensure that you are in compliance.
The public notice regulations are in the Code of Federal
Regulations under Chapter 40, Part 141, Subpart Q,
beginning at section 141.200.

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                                      Contents
Acronyms	  j|j

1.      Introduction	  1

2.      How to Use This Handbook	  3
        Appropriate Use of the Templates	  4

3.      Summary of Requirements	  5
        When and how do I need to notify my consumers?  	  5
        Whom must I inform when a violation occurs?	  5
        What kinds of violations require public notice?	  6
        What information do I need to include in each notice for a violation?	  8
        What standard language do I have to include in my notices?	  10
        What information do I need to include for special notices for fluoride and for unregulated
                      contaminant monitoring?	  10
        What information do I need to include if I've been issued a variance or exemption? . .	  10
        Are there formatting requirements for public notices?  	  11
        Will I have to provide notices in languages other than English?	  11
        What information must I provide my primacy agency?	  12

4.      Making Public Notification Work	  	  13
        How can I prepare for public notification before a violation occurs?	  13
        How can I make a notice more easily readable?	  14
        How can I ensure that the media distributes an accurate notice?	  14
        What other steps should I take after issuing a notice?	  15
        How can I prevent overreaction to a public notice?	  15

5.      Tier 1 Notice Requirements and Suggestions	  17
        What is the deadline for issuing a Tier 1 notice?	  17
        Which methods of delivery must I use?	  17
        Suggestions for Effective Public Notification Delivery  		  18
        Suggestions for Layout of the Notice	  19

                     TIER 1 TEMPLATES	 21
                     Nitrate Notice-Template 1-1  	 23
                     Spanish Nitrate Notice-Template 1-1A	 25
                     Fecal Coliform or E. coli Notice—Template 1-2	 27
                     Spanish Fecal Coliform or E. coli Notice -Template 1-2A	 29
                     Waterborne Disease Outbreak Notice-Template 1-3	 31
                     Notice for Turbidity Single Exceedance as Tier 1-Template 1-4	 33
                     Tier 1 "Problem Corrected" Notice—Template 1-5	 35

6.     Tier 2 Notice Requirements and Suggestions	 37
       What is the deadline for issuing a Tier 2 notice?  	 37

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       Which methods of delivery must I use?	 37
       Suggestions for Effective Public Notification Delivery	 38
       Suggestions for Layout of the Notice	 39
                                                i
                     TIER 2 TEMPLATES	\	 41
                     Unresolved Total Coliform Notice—Template 2-1 	 43
                     Resolved Total Coliform Notice-Template 2-2	 45
                     Chemical or Radiological MCLs Notice-Template 2-3	 47
                     SWTR Failure to Filter Notice-Template 2-4	 49
                     SWTR Turbidity Single Exceedance Notice-Template 2-5  	 51
                     SWTR Turbidity Monthly Exceedance Notice-Template 2-6	 53
                     SWTR Disinfection Treatment Notices-Template 2-7  	 55
                     Lead Public Education Notice—Template 2-8	 57
                     LCR Failure to Install Corrosion Control—Template 2-9	 59

7.     Tier 3 Notice Requirements and Suggestions	 61
       What is the deadline for issuing a Tier 3 notice?  	 61
       Which methods of delivery must I use?  	 61
       Suggestions for Effective Public Notification Delivery  	 62
       How can I coordinate Tier 3  notices with the CCR?	 62
       Suggestions for the Layout of the Notice	 63
                                                i
                     TIER 3 TEMPLATES	[	 65
                     Monitoring Violation Notice—Template 3-1  	 67

8.     Special Needs of Non-Community Systems .,	 69
       Summary of Public Notification Requirements — A Recap 	 69
       What are the required methods of delivery?	 69
       Suggestions for the Layout of the Notice	'.	 71
       How should the notice be formatted to get people's attention?  	 71
       How should I tailor the notices to my situation? I	 72
       Suggestions for Effective Public Notice Delivery  	 72
       How can I make posting effective?  	•	 72
       What other methods are available for non-community systems to reach all consumers?	 73

                     TEMPLATES FOR NON-COMMUNITY SYSTEMS	 75
                     Nitrate Notice-Template NC-1 !	 77
                     Fecal Coliform or £. coli Notice-Template NC-2	 79
                     Unresolved Total Coliform Notice—Template NC-3	 81

Appendix A
    NPDWR Violations and Other Situations Requiring Public Notice	 85

Appendix B
    Standard Health Effects Language for Public Notification  	 91

Appendix C
    Translated Phrases	  101
Public Notification Handbook                   ii           DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27, 1999

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Acronyms
CCR
CWS
DBP
EPA
IESWTR
IOC
LCR
MCL
MCLG
MRDL
NCWS
NPDWR
NTNCWS
OGWDW
OW
PN
PWS
SDWA
SMCL
SOC
SWTR
TCR
TT
TWS
VOC
WQP
Consumer Confidence Report
Community Water System
Disinfection Byproduct
Environmental Protection Agency
Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
Inorganic Chemical
Lead and Copper Rule
Maximum Contaminant Level
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level
Non-Community Water System
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations
Non-Transient Non-Community Water System
EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water
Office of Water
Public Notification
Public Water System
Safe Drinking Water Act
Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level
Synthetic Organic Chemical
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Total Coliform Rule
Treatment Technique
Transient Non-Community Water System
Volatile Organic Chemical
Water Quality Parameters
Public Notification Handbook
                      iii
DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27, 1999

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 1.     Introduction
                             This handbook is intended to make public water system owners' and
                             operators' jobs easier and public notices more effective. State and Tribal
                             primacy agencies should find this handbook useful as well. By explaining
                       the revised public notification rule and providing specific examples of notices,
                       EPA hopes to streamline the public notification process and enhance water
                       systems' ability to comply with Federal and State requirements. Public
                       notification of drinking water violations provides a means to protect public
                       health, build trust with consumers through open and honest sharing of
                       information, and establish an ongoing, positive relationship with the community.
                       Public notice can also help consumers understand rate increases and support
                       increased funding for drinking water treatment and protection.

                       The handbook is designed to meet the needs of public water systems of all
                       sizes. Throughout the handbook there are suggestions and instructions
                       targeted to very small community systems (systems that serve 500 people or
                       less). These suggestions, along with other useful hints for creating effective
                       notices, are set aside in shaded boxes throughout the handbook. Some of
                       these instructions may also be applicable to small systems serving more than
                       500. In addition, Chapter 8 specifically addresses the requirements for non-
                       community systems.
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 2.    How to  Use  This  Handbook
                             This handbook contains information to help you prepare and issue a public
                             notice. We strongly recommend that you read this handbook,
                             especially Chapters 2-4, before you are faced with a violation. Listed
                       below are the required actions you must take to respond to a drinking water
                       violation:

                       1.   Determine what tier your violation falls into. Use Table 2 on page 7 for
                           a summary of major violations and your deadline for providing public
                           notice. You can also refer to Appendix A for a listing by contaminant.

                       2.   For Tier 1 violations, immediately consult with your primacy agency
                           when you learn of the violation. You must issue the notice within 24
                           hours as required, even if you are unable to contact the primacy agency.

                       3.   Familiarize yourself with the requirements for public notices. Read the
                           "Summary of Requirements" chapter starting on page 5, which describes
                           content, mandatory language, formatting, and distribution requirements
                           that are applicable to all notices. Chapter 4  provides guidance on working
                           with the media and planning ahead.

                       4.   Determine the appropriate method(s) of delivery. Chapters 5, 6, and 7
                           describe the method of delivery requirements for Tier 1, 2, and 3 notices,
                           respectively, as well as ideas for creating the most effective notice
                           possible. Required methods vary based on  system type. If you are a non-
                           community system, go to Chapter 8, which begins on page 69, for
                           assistance on delivery methods.

                       5.   Develop a notice, modifying the templates to fit your situation. At the
                           ends of Chapters 5, 6, and 7 are templates for commonly occurring
                           violations, along with violation-specific instructions for modifying each
                           template. Chapter 8 contains templates tailored to non-community
                           systems. The instructions for each template are on the front of the page;
                           the corresponding template is on the back. Most violations have required
                           health effects language, which is found in  Appendix B and in some
                           templates.

                       6.   Provide your notice to all persons served as soon as practicable but
                           within the allowed time frame. Use the method of delivery chosen in step 4
                           above.

                       7.   Send a copy of the notice to your primacy agency within ten days after
                           you distribute the notice, along with a letter certifying that all public
                           notification requirements have been met.

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2. How to Use This Handbook
Appropriate Use
of the Templates
The templates in this handbook are designed to help operators create public
notices for a variety of violations. However, it is important to note that the
templates included here are not inclusive and may not be appropriate for
all violations.  Depending on the severity of your violation, it may be
necessary to modify the instructions you give to consumers and to change the
timing of the notice. For instance, if trichloroethylene levels are ten times the
standard (rather than a slight exceedance), you would not want to tell your
customers that they could continue to drink the water. If turbidity exceeds five
turbidity units, depending on other factors, you may need to issue a boil water
notice. In these cases, you should issue a notice immediately, rather than wait
up to 30 days. It is important to consult your local health department or primacy
agency in such situations. In some cases, your primacy agency may instruct
you to make these changes.

Note that the public notice requirements described in this handbook are based
on Federal regulations. States or Tribes may have alternate public notice
requirements or more stringent drinking water standards. You should check
with your primacy agency to make sure you meet its specific
requirements.
Public Notification Handbook
                                  DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27, 1999

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3.    Summary of Requirements
When and how do I
need to notify my
consumers?
 EPA has assigned each violation to one of three categories, or tiers, based on
 the risk of adverse health effects. After you learn of a violation, public notice
 must be provided following the requirements summarized in Table 1 below.
 Delivery requirements for community water systems (CWSs) and non-
 community water systems (NCWSs) differ. Additionally, every new billing
 customer or hookup must be notified of any ongoing violations.
Table 1
Requirements for Issuing Public Notice (Based on Proposed Rule)
Tier
1
2
3
Deadline for
Notice
24 hours*
30 days **
1 year***
Methods to Use
Radio or television or hand delivery or posting
CWS: Mail or hand delivery (+ another method as
needed)
NCWS: Posting, hand delivery, or mail (+ another
method as needed)
CWS: Mail or hand delivery (+ another method as
needed)
NCWS: Posting, hand delivery, or mail (+ another
method as needed)
Go to. . .
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 8
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
* For Tier 1 , systems must consult with the primacy agency during this time period as well.
** The primacy agency may extend this deadline to up to 3 months.
*** EPA strongly recommends consolidating all Tier 3 violations occurring within a given year
into an annual notice, including the Consumer Confidence Report where applicable.
Whom must I
inform when a
violation occurs?
If you are faced with a violation or situation requiring public notification, you
must provide the notice to all persons served by your system. This means
you must take all steps reasonably calculated to inform people if they would not
be reached by the most commonly used methods of notification.

For example, if a community water system mailed a notice to billing customers
only, people who do not receive water bills, such as tenants whose utilities are
included in their rent or people who work in the area served by the system but
live elsewhere, would not receive a notice. Publishing a notice in the
newspaper, or providing copies of the notice to landlords to distribute to their
tenants would help reach those people.  At a non-community system, hand
delivery of notices would reach only those consumers who are present when
the notices are distributed. Posting would reach visitors or newcomers.
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                                 DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27, 1999

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                                                                   3. Summary of Requirements
                         The requirement to include standard language to encourage distribution of the
                         notice to all persons served is designed to increase public awareness of the
                         situation. Use of this language does not relieve you of your obligation to notify
                         all persons served, however.
 What kinds of
 violations require
 public notice?
In general, public notice is required for any of the following violations:

    •   Exceedances of maximum contaminant levels (MCLs);
    •   Violation of treatment techniques;
    •   Monitoring and testing procedure violations; and
    •   Failure to comply with the schedule of a variance or exemption.
                         I
                         j
Other situations (not violations) which require notice include:

    •   Occurrence of a waterborne disease outbreak;
    •   Operation under a variance or exemption;
    •   Exceedance of the secondary maximum contaminant level for fluoride;
       and
    •   Availability of unregulated contaminant monitoring results.

Table 2 on the next page shows the organization of violations and situations
into tiers, based on the seriousness of any potential adverse health effects. For
a complete list of contaminants and their appropriate tiers, refer to Appendix A.
Public Notification Handbook
                                   DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27, 1999

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3. Summary of Requirements
                                             Table 2

              Violations and Situations Requiring  Public  Notice
                                     (Based on Proposed Rule)

                              Notice Required Within 24 Hours

                     Tier 1 Violations and Other Situations Requiring Public Notice:*

  1.  Violation of the maximum contaminant level (MGL) for total coliform, when fecal coliform or E. coli are present
     in the water distribution system (as specified in 40 CFR Part 141.63(b)), or failure to test for fecal coliform or
     E coli after the presence of coliform bacteria in the distribution system has been confirmed (as specified in
     40 CFR 141.21(e);

  2.  Violation of the MCLfor nitrate, nitrite, or combined nitrate+nitrite, as defined in 40 CFR Part 141.62 and
     determined according to 40 CFR Part 141.23(l)(3);

  3.  Violation of the maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDL) for chlorine dioxide, when one or more repeat
     samples taken in the distribution system exceed the MRDL, or when required repeat samples are not taken
     in the distribution system, as defined in 40 CFR Part 141.65(a);

  4.  Occurrence of a waterborne disease outbreak, as defined in 40 CFR Part 141.2; and

  5.  Other violations or situations with significant potential to have serious adverse effects on human health as a
     result of short term exposure, as determined by the primacy agency either in its regulations or on a case-by-
     case basis.

  *   If your system has any of these violations, in addition to issuing public notice, you are required to consult with
     your primacy agency as soon as possible but within 24 hours after you learn of the violation. See Chapter 6
     on Tier 1 public notice for more details.


                              Notice  Required Within 30 Davs**

                               Tier 2 Violations Requiring Public Notice

  1.  AH violations of the MCL, MRDL, and treatment technique requirements not included in Tier 1;

  2.  Violations of the monitoring requirements where the primacy agency determines that a Tier 2 public notice is
     required, taking into account potential health impacts and  persistence of the violation; and

  3.  Failure to comply with the terms and conditions of any variance or exemption in place.

  **  Primacy agencies may extend this to 90 days.


                                Notice Required Within 1 Year

                  Tier 3 Violations and Other Situations Requiring Public Notice

  1.  Monitoring violations, unless the primacy agency determines that the violation requires a Tier 2 notice;

  2.  Failure to comply with an established testing procedure;

  3.  Operation under a variance granted under §1415 or exemption granted under §1416 of the Safe Drinking
     Water Act; and

  4.  Any other violations and situations determined by the primacy agency to require a Tier 3 public notice
     including exceedance of the secondary MCL for fluoride and the availability of monitoring data for
     unregulated contaminants.
Public Notification Handbook
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                                                                  3. Summary of Requirements
 What information     Your public notice must include specific information in order to be considered
 do I need to include   complete. For each violation and for the occurrence of a waterborne disease
 in each notice for a   outbreak, you must provide a clear and readily understandable explanation of
                        the following:
violation?
                            1.  The violation, including the contaminant of concern, and (as applicable)
                               the contaminant level;
                            2.  When the violation occurred;
                                                 i
                            3.  Any potential adverse health effects from drinking the water;
                            4.  The population at risk, including subpopulations particularly vulnerable
                               if exposed to the contaminant in their drinking water;
                            5.  Whether alternative water supplies should be used;
                            6.  What actions consumers should take, including when they should seek
                               medical help, if known;
                            7.  What you are doing to correct the violation;
                            8.  When you expect to return to compliance;
                            9.  Your phone number or the number of a designee of the public water
                               system as a source of additional information concerning the notice;
                               and
                           10.  A statement encouraging notice recipients to distribute the notice to
                               other persons served, using the standard language given on page 10.

                        Some required elements may not be applicable to your violation. However, you
                        must still address the element in the notice. For example, if it is unnecessary
                        for consumers to boil their water or drink bottled water, you should tell them
                        they do not need to do so. This is especially important for Tier 2 notices, where
                        a violation may have been resolved by the time the notice is issued or may
                        have been the result of a monthly average. You should consult with your
                        primacy agency or a local health department for the appropriate information for
                        some elements of the notice, such as the actions consumers should take. The
                        local health department also can help you determine what other system-
                        specific information, such as population at  risk, should be included in your
                        notice.  Figure 1 contains an example showing how all the content elements fit
                        into a notice.
Public Notification Handbook
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3. Summary of Requirements
                                              Figure 1
                 The  Required  Elements of a  Public  Notice
      2) When the
        violation
        occurred v.
      3) Potential
        health
        effects
      6) Actions v.
        consumers
        should take
      7) What is \
        being done
        to correct
        the violation
      10) Required -
        distribution
        language
 IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR DRINKING WATER
             Tests Show Presence of Coliform Bacteria
                       The Jonesville water system routinely monitors for coliform bacteria.   ^
                       During the month of July, 7 percent of our samples tested positive. The
                       standard is that no more than 5 percent of samples may test positive. We
                       took a total of 50 samples. Since that time, we have been in compliance
                       with the standard.
What does this mean?
                       This is not an emergency. If it had been, you would have been notified
                       immediately. Total coliform bacteria are generally not harmful themselves.
                        Coliforms are bacteria -which are naturally present in the environment and
                        are used as an indicator that other, potentially-harmful, bacteria may be
                       present. Coliforms ~were found in more samples than allowed and this "was a
                        •warning of potential problems.
                       What should I do?
You do not need to boil your water. However, if you have specific health
concerns, consult your doctor. Usually coliforms are a sign that there could
be a problem with the system's treatment or distribution systems. Some ~—~
people, including immune-compromised, some elderly, and infants may be
                       infection by microbes are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at
                       1(800)426-4791.
                       What is the Jonesville water system doing?
We took additional samples for coliform bacteria which all came back
negative. As an added precaution, we chlorinated and flushed the pipes in   >
the distribution system to make sure bacteria were eliminated. This situation
is now resolved.
                       For more information, or to learn more about protecting your drinking water
                       please contact John Jones at 555-1212.
If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or
employees, receive water from you, it is important that you provide this
notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous location or by direct hand
or mail delivery.
                                                                 1) Description
                                                                ^ of the
                                                                   violation
                                                                 5) Should
                                                                   alternate
                                                                   water
                                                                   supplies
                                                                   be used
                                                                                        4) The
                                                                                       — population
                                                                                          at risk
  8) When the
  x system will
/  return to
    compliance
  9) Phone
    number for
    more
    information
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                                            DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27, 1999

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                                                                  3. Summary of Requirements
 What standard
 language do I have
 to include in my
 notices?
    Language to encourage distribution of the notice to all persons served. You
    must include the following language in all notices. Use of this language
    does not relieve you of your obligation to notify all persons served:

        "If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or
        employees, receive water from you, it is important that you provide
        this notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous location or by
        direct hand or mail delivery."
                          I
    Health effects language for MCL violations, treatment technique violations,
    and violations of the conditions of a variance or exemption. You must
    include the health effects language specified in Appendix B for such
    violations.
 What information
 do I need to include
 for special notices
 for fluoride and for
 unregulated
 contaminant
 monitoring?
What information
do I need to include
if I've been issued
a variance or
exemption?
 •   Language for monitoring violations (including testing procedure violations).
    You must include the following language for all monitoring and testing
    procedure violations:
                         i
                         t
       "Because we ["did not monitor or test" or "failed to monitor or test
       completely"] during [compliance period], we do not know whether the
       contaminant was present in your drinking water, and we are unable to
       tell you whether your health was at risk during this time."

 •   Fluoride. If your system exceeds the secondary maximum contaminant
    level of 2.0 mg/l for fluoride but does not exceed the MCL of 4.0 mg/l, you
    must include the special fluoride language provided in Appendix B in your
    notice and fill in the blanks as appropriate. You do not need to include the
    ten elements listed above, as these are addressed in the language. You
    must follow the Tier 3 schedule for delivery. You may include this
    information in your Consumer Confidence Report.
                         I
 •   Unregulated  Contaminant Monitoring. If you monitor for unregulated
    contaminants, you must issue a public notice stating that the results of the
    monitoring are available and give a phone number to call for those results.
    You do not have to include the actual results, unless you are a community
    water system, in which case you must report the results in your Consumer
    Confidence Report. You do not need to include the ten elements listed
    above, but you  must follow the Tier 3 schedule.  You may include this
    information in an annual notice for Tier 3 situations and violations if you are
    a non-transient non-comrpunity system.

 Notices for operating under a variance or exemption have different content
 requirements than notices for the violations described above. If you are
operating under a variance or exemption, you must notify your consumers
within one year of obtaining it and repeat the notice annually for as long as the
variance or exemption exists. You must include the following in your notice:
Public Notification Handbook
                      10
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3. Summary of Requirements
Are there
formatting
requirements for
public notices?
Will I have to
provide notices in
languages other
than English?
    »^  An explanation of the reason(s) for the variance or exemption;
    ^  The date on which the variance or exemption was issued;
    •^  A brief status report on the steps you are taking to install treatment,
        find alternative sources of water, or otherwise comply with the terms
        and schedules of the variance or exemption; and
    !/"  A notice of any opportunity for public input in the review of the variance
        or exemption.

All public notices must meet certain formatting standards.  These requirements
help prevent the notice from being buried in a newspaper and help ensure that
consumers can easily read and understand the notice. Notices must:

    /  Be displayed in a conspicuous way (where applicable);
    ^  Not contain overly technical language or very small print;
    •/  Not be formatted in a way that defeats the purpose of the notice; and
    .^  Not contain language which nullifies the purpose of the notice.

Your primacy agency may have special formatting requirements. Check to be
sure that you meet all its requirements.

Your primacy agency may have established criteria for what constitutes a large
proportion of the people you serve. Check to find out what these criteria are. If
a large proportion of the population you serve does not speak English, you are
required to provide at least partially multilingual notices. If this is the case, your
notice must contain information in the appropriate language(s) regarding the
importance of the notice, or it must provide a phone number or address to call
or write for a translated copy of the notice or for information or assistance in the
appropriate language.

You may wish to provide notices in multiple languages if non-English-speaking
populations are in your service area, whether or not you  have a large
proportion of such people. Although you are not required to provide full
translations of notices, translation is strongly recommended for Tier 1  notices
and for other violations that pose a serious health risk. Primacy agencies may
be able to provide you with some assistance in finding translators, but it is your
responsibility to get the notice translated. Schools and universities often have
students who can translate notices. Make contacts ahead of time with
universities, high school teachers, and other services for low-cost translations.

Spanish templates for nitrate and fecal coliform notices are included with the
templates for Tier 1 violations at the end of Chapter 5. These templates are
exact translations of the English Tier 1 templates, so if the English templates
have to be modified, the Spanish ones must also change. In addition,
translations in several languages of important phrases such as "do not drink
the water" and "boil your water before using" are included in Appendix C.
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                                                                 3. Summary of Requirements
 What information      After you provide the notice to your consumers, you must send your primacy
 must I provide my     agency a copy of each type of notice you distribute (e.g., newspaper, radio,
 primacy agency?      ma'' notices) and a letter certifying you have met all the public notification
                        requirements.  Sample certification language is provided below:

                           The public water system indicated above hereby confirms that public
                           notice has been provided to consumers in accordance with the delivery
                           requirements and deadlines given for each tier in 40 CFR Part 141.202
                           to 141.204. Further, the system certifies that the content and format of
                           this notice meets the requirements of 40 CFR Parts 141.205,141.207,
                           and 141.208.
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 4.    Making Public Notification Work
 How can I prepare
 for public
 notification before
 a violation occurs?
 Integrate planning for Tier 1 public notification into your community
 emergency management plan. When a serious violation occurs, you will
 already have an established chain of command and have other
 departments available to assist you, including working with your local
 health department or sanitarian. Consumers may call the health
 department for information; if you coordinate with the department, you will
 be able to give out consistent information. Also work with your
 community's emergency managers to establish ties with the state office
 that works with NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) to access the
 Emergency Alert System (HAS).  Through memoranda of agreement
 between states and the NWS, communities can broadcast alerts of non-
 weather emergencies, including drinking water violations, via NOAA
 Weather Radio and  NOAA Weather Wire Service.

 As part of planning for Tier 1 notification, work with the media ahead of
 time. Explain to them what constitutes an emergency. Explain to them what
 your needs will be during a crisis.

 Establish contacts with institutions and people who can translate notices
 into other languages for you. See page 11 for more on multilingual notices.

 Obtain fact sheets on contaminants from EPA's Safe Drinking Water
 Hotline at 1 (800) 426-4791 or the Agency's website at
 http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwhealth.html. This way, if your consumers
 call to ask for information, you will be able to help them. The fact sheets
 are updated periodically, so make sure you have the most recent version.
 The Hotline also can provide phone numbers for state lab certification
 offices, where you can get a list of labs certified to analyze tap water.

 If you are going to provide or recommend bottled water, especially for a
Tier 1 violation, you  should confirm ahead of time and periodically
 reconfirm that available bottled water supplies meet the Food and Drug
Administration safety standards.

 Implement ongoing public education programs for contaminants at risk of
violation; that is, contaminants whose levels are below the MCL but have
the potential in the future to exceed it (or have previously exceeded it).
This would apply to naturally occurring contaminants, such as radium,
fluoride, or arsenic, and for recurring pollution problems (e.g., nitrate,
pesticides). With an  education program in place, consumers will be better
informed if a violation occurs.
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                                                            4. Making Public Notification Work
How can I make a
notice more easily
readable?
Assume that consumers only read the top half of the notice (or what can be
read in five seconds). The most important information, especially
instructions to protect consumers' health, should be placed on the top half
of the notice  in large print. Smaller type is appropriate for the less critical
elements, e.g., what the system is doing, an explanation of the cause of
the violation, etc.
How can I ensure
that the media
distributes an
accurate notice?
Try to limit the wordiness of the notice. A question and answer format is
easy to read and guides readers to the important information that is likely
to concern them. Bullets and bold text are also effective.

Highlight the name of your system with bold letters, especially where
people in your area are served by more than one water system. You may
want to print the notices on your system's letterhead which, coupled with
the title of the notice, will make people immediately recognize that the
notice is important.
                                               i
If you write a press release or get a reporter to write a story for the
newspaper, give the newspaper the list of required elements and tell the
press that these elements must be included. The most important
information, including the violation, the population at risk, the instructions to
consumers, and potential health effects, should be near the beginning. Be
sure to include a contact pame and telephone number so the press can call
you for more information.

When you  send the notice to radio and TV stations and newspapers,
write "PRESS RELEASE FOR PUBLIC SAFETY" at the top of the notice to
emphasize its importance.

If the newspaper will not publish a story or press release, you may need to
buy space to print the notice in its entirety. You should buy an
advertisement as close to the front of the paper as possible and make it
large enough that people will easily see it. Legal notices are not
recommended because they rarely meet the formatting  requirements for
notices and are not widely read.

If the press will not run a story on your violation, ask an official from your
emergency management department to participate by reading the notice
on the air or agreeing to an interview. The press may be more likely to air a
notice connected to such officials.

Develop an ongoing relationship with the media. Hold an annual media
day where you can explain how your system operates,  including any
improvements you may be implementing. In addition, look into whether
local news outlets hold community outreach days-this is another way to
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 4. Making Public Notification Work
 What other steps
 should I take after
 issuing a notice?
How can I prevent
overreaction to a
public notice?
    form a relationship with the media. The more informed the members of the
    media are about the water system in general, the more accurate and
    positive they will be when writing about a violation. They will also be more
    likely to give your story the space it needs. Designate one person on your
    staff to serve as a liaison to the media.

Your primacy agency may require you to do follow-up or "problem corrected"
notices for violations, particularly for Tier 1 violations. If it does not, you should
consider issuing such a notice anyway. Sometimes, initial notices can not
provide information on the source of the contamination. Providing a notice with
updated information demonstrates that you are working on the problem.
Consumers will expect to receive official word that the problem is solved or
being addressed. Template 1-5 at the end of Chapter 5 is an example of a
notice for a corrected violation.

Public education can minimize overreaction to a water problem and can help
focus community attention on the source of a problem. Public education about
contaminants, what a public notice means, and specific types of water
problems is an excellent public relations tool. It helps create a sense of
partnership between you and your customers and reduces the prevalence of
the "us versus them" mentality.

Public notification for recurring problems such as nitrate is more effective if
supplemented by a public education program. There are a number of ways to
create awareness of a contaminant problem and of what it means for public
health. These include factsheets, public meetings at community centers,
newspaper or local TV and radio coverage, working with local libraries to
establish a reference section on the problem, newsletters or factsheets  mailed
with monthly bills or otherwise distributed broadly throughout the community.
Information that is helpful to the public includes:

    •   Descriptions of the contaminant(s);
    •   Information on how contaminants get into the water;
    •   What you are doing to prevent or correct the problem;
    •   Why the problem recurs, and what the public can do to prevent a
       recurrence;
       If and why protection measures have a limited effectiveness; and
    •   The impact on the consumer.

While ongoing problems warrant implementing an early and ongoing public
education campaign, public response to a notice can point you to other areas
in which public education would  be useful. For example, if you receive a high
number of calls about a notice, there is probably a need for greater public
understanding of the problem.
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 5.   Tier 1  Notice Requirements and Suggestions
 What is the
 deadline for issuing
 a Tier 1 notice?
      Tier 1 notices must be issued for: violations of the MCL for total coliform
      where fecal coliform or E. coli are present or for failure to test for fecal
      coliform or £ coli after the presence of total coliform is confirmed;
 violations of the MCL for nitrate, nitrite, or combined nitrate and nitrite;
 violations of the maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDL) for chlorine
 dioxide where required repeat samples in the distribution system exceed the
 MRDL or are not taken; the occurrence of a waterborne disease outbreak; or
 other situations which could cause serious health effects, as determined by
 your primacy agency.  Notices must meet content, format, and multilingual
 requirements described in Chapter 3, "Summary of Requirements."

 As soon as practicable but within 24 hours, you must:

    •   Issue a public notice.

    •   Consult with your primacy agency.
                    Required Elements of a
                          Public Notice
    1.  A description of the violation;
    2.  When the violation occurred;
    3.  Potential adverse health effects;
    4.  Population(s) at risk;
    5.  Whether alternative water supplies should be used;
    6.  Actions consumers should take, .including when
       they should seek medical help, if known;
    7.  What you are doing to correct the violation;
    8.  When you expect to return to compliance;
    9.  Phone number for additional information; and
   10.  Standard language encouraging distribution to all.
       persons served.
                                The consultation with the primacy agency
                                is independent of the public notice itself.
                                You must issue the notice within 24
                                hours, even if you are unable to contact
                                anyone at the primacy agency. As a
                                result of the consultation, your primacy
                                agency may set additional public notice
                                requirements. It may ask you to issue
                                repeat notices for continuing violations,
                                "problem corrected" notices, or, if your
                                initial notice does not meet the
                                requirements, another initial notice.

                                Remember to send a copy of the notice
                                and certification to your primacy agency
                                within ten days.
Which methods of
delivery must I
use?
You must use one or more of the following: broadcast media (radio and
television), posting, or hand delivery. The method(s) you choose must be
reasonably calculated to reach all persons served. Therefore, you may need to
use other methods in addition to those previously mentioned. For instance, you
could provide the notice to local radio and television stations; then, to reach
people who don't watch or listen to the news, you could also put the notice in
the newspaper. You must use at least one of the required methods and
whatever other methods are necessary to help you reach all consumers.
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 5. Tier 1 Notice Requirements and Suggestions
 Suggestions for
 Effective Public
 Notification
 Delivery
             Tips for Very Small Community
             Systems
             Very small community systems (those
             serving 500 people or less) in most cases
 can use hand delivery supplemented by posting.

 If your system is relatively small but serves more than
 500 people, hand delivery and posting may work for you.
 If the population served is unlikely to hear a notice over
 the radio or if a radio station is not in range, hand delivery
 combined with posting at grocery stores or banks is
 appropriate. Alternatively, a system serving a rural town of
 2,000 might not have a radio station but could be within
 range of a radio station in a larger town. Such a station
 might be more willing to air a notice than a station in a
 large city. The unaffected population may be less alarmed
 than in a metropolitan area, since listeners are
 accustomed to hearing news about other communities in
 the region. You may still need to use additional methods
 of notification.
When choosing a method for public notification, you should consider
several issues, including the population served, population density (i.e., is
the system rural, urban, or suburban), available manpower, and proximity
to and relationship with radio and television stations and newspapers.
                                Non-community systems should
                                refer to Chapter 8 of this handbook,
                                "Special Needs of Non-Community
                                Systems."
                                Large systems should use a
                                combination of broadcast media and
                                newspaper, if available. You should
                                also supplement media notices by
                                posting in public buildings and
                                delivering multiple copies to clinics or
                                community centers.

                                When you write a notice for radio or
                                television, assume that it will only
                                receive a few seconds of air time.
                                Make sure the most important
                                information, including a phone
                                number to call for more information,
                                will be included.
                           For TV notices, ask the station or cable company to put "scrollers" across
                           the screen similar to National Weather Service announcements for tornado
                           watches. This is a good way to put the notice on TV and reach people who
                           don't watch the news, as well as target a subsection of the TV audience.
                           You can also work the appropriate state office to broadcast alerts on
                           NOAA Weather Radio and NOAA Weather Wire Service.
                                   Selecting a Delivery Method

           Here are some questions to consider when determining how to deliver your notice:

    My system is in a suburban area. How can I write the notice so that it will not alarm the rest of the
    metropolitan area when delivered through the media? Can I be:sure the radio or TV station will give
    the notice the air time it needs?

    Will the local newspaper write an accurate article about the violation? Will it prominently publish a
    press release? Will I need to buy an ad or notice?
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                                                  5. Tier 1 Notice Requirements and Suggestions
                            Send a broadcast fax. Program your fax machine with the fax numbers of
                            all radio and television stations in the area so that the push of a button
                            sends the notice to all of them.

                            It is strongly recommended that you fully translate Tier 1 notices into other
                            languages if there are non-English-speaking populations in your service
                            area. At a minimum, you must include some information in the appropriate
                            language. See page 11 for more information.

                            See Chapter 4, "Making Public Notification Work," for tips on working with
                            the media.
Suggestions for
Layout of the
Notice
Tier 1 notices should convey the urgency of the situation and make clear to
consumers what actions they must take. Templates 1-1 through 1-4 at the end
of this chapter offer sample language and instructions for preparing Tier 1
public notices. Template 1-1A contains Spanish language for a Nitrate notice;
Template 1-2A contains Spanish language for a fecal coliform or E. coll notice.

1.  Title - Public notices for Tier 1 violations, especially those used for
    posting, hand delivery, or in a newspaper, should have an eye-catching
    and attention-getting title. For example, "WARNING" is better than "Public
    Notice." This should be followed by the targeted audience or the population
    at risk, such as "People served by	Water System" for notices alerting
    consumers of fecal coliform violations or disease outbreaks, or "Infants
    under 6 months" for notices alerting consumers of nitrate violations. These
    lines should be in large and/or bold type and centered across the top of the
    page. Notices for TV, radio, or newspaper articles need a more descriptive
    headline, such as "Water System Detects Fecal Bacteria, Consumers
    Should Boil Their Water."

2.   Consumer Actions - The instructions to consumers should be next in your
    notice. This should be a short phrase in large type, such as "Boil Your
    Water" or "Do Not Drink the Water."

3.   Description of the Violation - A short description of the violation should
    follow instructions to consumers in large type. As soon  as consumers read
    "Boil Your Water" for a fecal coliform notice, they will ask why they should
    do so. However, since this is a headline, it should be kept short and
    concise. As another example, for nitrate violations, you could say, "High
    nitrate levels have been detected." Then the level detected should  be listed
    in normal type, followed by the maximum contaminant level (MCL), or
    action level, if applicable. A more detailed explanation of the violation
    should be given in the body  of the notice.
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 5. Tier 1 Notice Requirements and Suggestions
                        4.  Other Consumer Actions — For nitrate violations, the notice should instruct
                            consumers not to boil water, since that may be their first reaction, and
                            explain why. For microbiological violations, provide detailed instructions on
                            using boiled water for brushing teeth, cooking, making ice, etc. If you
                            instruct consumers to use bottled water, you should make sure that locally
                            available brands meet standards.

                        5.  Other Elements — The following order is suggested for the remaining
                            elements: whether (and where) consumers should seek alternative drinking
                            water sources, potential health effects (using the language in Appendix B),
                            date the violation was found, corrective action the system is taking, when
                            the system expects to return to compliance, and a phone number for more
                            information. If you  are coordinating with the local health department,  you
                            may wish to also list its phone number. Do not alter the health effects
                            language in any way.

                        6.  Optional Elements — If you know the source of the contamination, include
                            it in the notice. This information helps the consumer understand why there
                            is a violation and what is necessary to resolve it. It also reinforces the fact
                            that drinking water is a vulnerable resource that must be protected.

                        7.  Public Water System ID Number— You should include your PWS ID
                            number at the bottom of the notice. This will help your primacy agency
                            track compliance and prevent tracking errors between systems with similar
                            names.
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                           TIER  1  TEMPLATES
    The pages that follow contain templates for Tier 1 violations, as listed below. Along with each template
    are instructions, including the required method of delivery and instructions for completing individual
    sections of the notice.

    Mandatory language on health effects, which must be included exactly as written, is presented
    in italics.

    You must also include the following language in all notices.  Use of this language does not relieve you
    of your obligation to notify all persons served:

       If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or employees, receive water
       from you, it is important that you provide this notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous
       location or by direct hand or mail delivery.
   Templates

   Nitrate Notice-Template 1-1
   Spanish Nitrate Notice—Template 1-1A
   Fecal Coliform or E. coli Notice-Template 1-2
   Spanish Fecal Coliform or E. coli Notice -Template 1-2A
   Waterborne Disease Outbreak Notice-Template 1-3
   Turbidity Single Exceedance as Tier 1—Template 1-4
   Tier 1 "Problem Corrected" Notice-Template 1-5
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                      Instructions for Nitrate Notice—Template 1-1
                                      Template on Reverse

 Since exceeding the nitrate maximum contaminant level is a Tier 1 violation, you must provide public
 notice to all persons served as soon as possible but within 24 hours after you learn of the violation. During
 this time period you must also contact your primacy agency. You should also coordinate with your local
 health department. This template is also applicable to nitrite and nitrate+nitrite violations. You must
 use one or more of the following methods to deliver the notice to consumers:

 •   Radio
 •   Television
 •   Hand or direct delivery
 •   Posting

 You may need to use additional methods (e.g., newspaper, delivery of multiple copies to hospitals, clinics,
 or apartment buildings) if necessary to reach all persons served.

 The notice on the reverse is appropriate for hand delivery or a newspaper notice. However, you may wish
 to shorten it before using it for a radio or TV notice. If you modify the notice, you must leave the health
 effects language in italics unchanged.  This language is mandatory.

 Alternative Sources of Water

 If you are providing alternative sources of water for infants, your notice should say where to obtain it.
 Remember that bottled water can also be contaminated. If you are not providing water and you instruct
 consumers to buy bottled water, find out which brands have been tested and meet the standard for
 nitrates and tell your consumers.

 Repeat Notices

 If this is a repeat notice (as required by your primacy agency), or if your system's nitrate levels fluctuate
 around the MCL, you may wish to include an  explanation similar to the following:

 As you may recall, on [date], you were also notified of high nitrate levels that occurred during the	
 quarter of the year. Since that time the water  system has been monitoring the nitrate concentration every
 three months. Seasonal fluctuations in nitrate concentrations have been observed, due to nitrates
 contained in fertilizer. It appears that high nitrates occur during the later summer and fall. Note that
 previous tests prior to [year] show that we were meeting drinking water standards for nitrate.

 Corrective Action

 In your notice, describe corrective actions you are taking.  Listed below are some steps commonly taken
 by water systems with nitrate/nitrite violations. Use the following language, if appropriate, or develop your
own:

•   We are investigating water treatment and other options. These may include drilling a new well or
    mixing the water with low-nitrate water from another source.

After Issuing the Notice

Make sure to send your primacy agency  a copy of the notice and a letter certifying you have met all the
public notice requirements within ten days. You should also issue a follow-up notice in addition to meeting
any repeat notice requirements your primacy  agency sets.
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                                Nitrate Notice—template 1-1

                                     WARNING


     FOR PARENTS OF INFANTS 6 MONTHS AND YOUNGER

                                 Served by [system]


         DO NOT USE THE WATER  FOR  INFANT FORMULA

High nitrate levels have been detected. A routine sample showed a nitrate concentration in the drinking
water of [level and units]. This is above the nitrate standard, or maximum contaminant level (MCL), of
[state/federal MCL].

What does this mean to me?                 ;

•   Do not boil the water. Boiling, freezing, filtering, or letting water stand does not reduce the nitrate
    level. In fact, boiling water can make the nitrates more concentrated. Water, juice, and formula for
    children under six months of age should not be prepared with tap water. Bottled water or some other
    water low in nitrates should be used.

•   Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could
    become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby
    syndrome. Blue baby syndrome is indicated by blueness of the skin.

•   Symptoms in infants can develop rapidly, with health deteriorating over a period of days. If symptoms
    occur in a child less than 6 months old, seek medical attention immediately.

•   Continue to use bottled water for infants until further notice. Adults and children older than six months
    can drink the tap water. However, if you are pregnant or have specific health concerns, you may wish
    to consult your doctor.

•   We learned of the nitrate levels on [date].

What is the water system doing?

[Describe corrective action.]                      [

•   We will inform you when this problem has been corrected. We anticipate resolving the problem by
    [date.]
                                             I
•   For more information, please contact	at	.
    If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or employees, receive water from you,
    it is important that you provide this notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous location or by direct
    hand or mail delivery.
                                               Water System ID:
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               Instructions for Spanish Nitrate Notice—Template 1-1A
                                    Template on Reverse

The template on reverse is an exact Spanish translation of template 1-1 for nitrate. All the instructions of
template 1-1 apply. If you modify the English template, you should modify this template accordingly.
Schools or universities may be able to provide low cost translations. See page 11 for suggestions on
multilingual notices.
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                          Spanish Nitrate Notice—Template 1-1A


                                      AVISO


  PADRES  DE FAMILIA CON BEBES  DE 6 MESES  DE EDAD Y

                                   MENORES


               Servidos por [system] o en la vecindad de [area]


   NO USEN EL AGUA PARA  PREPARAR ALIMENTOS PARA

                                      BEBES

Altos niveles de nitratos han sido detectados. Una muestra de rutina mostrd una concentracibn de
nitrates en el agua de [level and units in Spanish]. Este nivel esta por encima de la norma, o nivel
maximo de contaminacion (NMC) de [state/federal MCL in Spanish].

iQue significa esto para mi?

•   No hierva el agua.  Hervir, congelar, filtrar o dejar el agua en reposo no reduce el nivel de nitratos.
    De hecho, al hervir el agua puede aumentar aun mas la concentracibn de nitratos. Agua, jugo o leche
    en polvo para bebes menores de seis (6) meses de edad no debe prepararse con agua de la pluma.
    Debe emplear agua embotellada u otra agua baja en nitratos.
•   Bebes menores de seis (6) meses que ingieran agua con nitratos en exceso del nivel maximo de
    contaminacidn (NMC) pueden enfermar seriamentey, de no sertratados, pueden morir. Los
    sfntomas induyen dificultad en respirar y sfndrome de bebe azul. El sfndrome de bebe azul se refiere
    al color azulado que toma la piel del bebe.
•   Los sfntomas en los bebes pueden desarrollarse con rapidez, con el deterioro de su salud en los dfas
    subsiguientes. Si los sintomas ocurren en infantes menores de seis (6) meses de edad, busque
    atenci6n medica inmediatamente.
•   Continue dandole agua embotellada a sus  bebes hasta prbximo aviso. Adultos e infantes mavores de
    seis (6) meses de edad pueden tomar el aqua de la pluma. Sin embargo, si usted esta embarazada o
    tiene algun problema de salud en particular, puede optar por hacer una consulta  con su medico.
•   Supimos del nivel de nitratos en la siguiente fecha: [date in Spanish day-month-year]

iQue esta haciendo :Ia Oficina de Agua  Potable?

[describe corrective action in Spanish]

•   Le informaremos cuando el problema haya sido corregido. Anticipamos que resolveremos el
    problema el [date in Spanish day-month-year]
•   Para mayor informacidn, por favor p6ngase en contacto con	al	.
SI otras personas, tales como inquilinos, residentes, pacientes, estudiantes o empleados reciben agua de
usted, es importante que usted les provea copia de esta notificacidn, ya sea colocandola en un lugar
visible, distribuyendola a mano, o mediante el correo.
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            Instructions for Fecal Conform or E. coll Notice—Template 1-2
                                     Template on Reverse

Since exceeding the fecal coliform or E. coll maximum contaminant level is a Tier 1 violation, you must
provide public notice to all persons served as soon as possible but within 24 hours after you learn of the
violation. During this time, you must also contact your primacy agency. You should also coordinate with
your local health department. One or both agencies should tell you whether to instruct consumers to boil
water. You must use one or more of the following methods to deliver the notice to consumers:

•   Radio
•   Television
•   Hand or direct delivery
•   Posting

You may need to use additional methods (e.g., newspaper, delivery of multiple copies to hospitals, clinics,
or apartment buildings) if necessary to reach all persons served.

The notice on the reverse is appropriate for hand delivery or a newspaper notice. However, you may wish
to shorten it before using it for a radio or TV notice. If you modify the notice, you must leave the health
effects language in italics unchanged. This language is mandatory.

Population Served

Make sure it is clear who is served by your water system—you may need to list the municipalities you
serve.

Corrective Action

In your notice, describe corrective actions you are taking. Listed below are some steps commonly taken
by water systems with fecal coliform  or E. caff violations. Use the following  language, if appropriate, or
develop your own:

•   We are chlorinating and flushing the water system.
•   We are increasing sampling for coliform bacteria to determine the source of the contamination.
•   We are repairing the wellhead seal.
•   We are repairing the storage tank.
•   We are restricting water intake from the river/lake/reservoir to prevent additional bacteria from
    entering  the water system and restricting water use to emergencies.

After Issuing the Notice

•   Send a copy of the notice and a certification letter to your primacy agency within ten days from the
    time you issue the notice.
•   It is a good idea to issue a "problem corrected" notice when the violation is resolved. See Template
    1-5.
Public Notification Handbook                  27          DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27,1999

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                        Fecal Coliform or E. coli Notice—Template 1-2


                                     WARNING

                              Effective Immediately

                             People served by [system]
                                               |

                   BOIL YOUR WATER BEFORE USING

Fecal coliform [or E. co//] bacteria were found in your water supply on [date].

•   Bring all water to a boil, let it boil for one minute, and let cool before using, or use bottled water. Boiled
    or bottled water should be used for drinking, making ice, brushing teeth, washing  dishes, and food
    preparation until further notice.

What does this mean to me?

•   Fecal conforms and E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated
    with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause diarrhea, cramps, nausea,
    headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, and
    people with severely compromised immune systems.

•   The symptoms above are not caused only by organisms in drinking water, but may be caused by
    other factors. If you experience any of these symptoms and they persist, you may want to seek
    medical advice. People at increased  risk should seek advice about drinking water from their health
    care providers.

What is the water system doing?

[Describe corrective action.]

•   We will inform you when tests show no bacteria and you no longer need to boil your water. We
    anticipate resolving the problem by [date.]

•   For more information on this situation, please contact	at	. Guidelines on  ways to lessen the
    risk of infection by microbes are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1(800) 426-4791.

    If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or employees, receive water from
    you, it is important that you provide this notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous location or
    by direct hand or mail delivery.
                                                Water System ID:
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     Instructions for Spanish Fecal Coliform or E. coli Notice -Temp/ate 1-2A
                                   Template on Reverse

The template on reverse is an exact Spanish translation of template 1-2 for fecal coliform or E. coli. All the
instructions of template 1-2 apply. If you modify the English template, you should modify this template
accordingly. Schools or universities may be able to provide low cost translations. See page 11 for
suggestions on multilingual notices.
Public Notification Handbook
29
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                   Spanish Fecal Coliform or E. coli Notice -Template 1-2A

                                        AVISO
                           Efectivo  Inrnediatamente

                          Personas Servidas por [system]

                HIERVAN EL AGUA  ANTES DE  USARLA
Bacterias coliformes fecales (E. coli) fueron encontradas en su servicio de agua el dia [date in Spanish
day-month-year].

Hierva toda el agua, dejela hervir por un minuto, y dejela reposar antes de usarla, o utilize agua
embotellada. Agua hen/ida o embotellada debe ser usada para beber, hacer hielo, lavarse los dientes,
lavar los platos y para preparar la comida hasta proximo aviso.

iQue significa esto para mi?

•   Coliformes fecales o E. coli son bacterias cuya presencia indica que el agua esta contaminada con
    desechos humanos o de animates. Microbios de esos desechos pueden causar diarrhea, c6licos,
    nausea, dolores de cabeza u otros sintomas. Pueden representar un peligro para la salud de
    infantes, niftos y nifias de corta edad y personas con sistemas immunolbgicos en alto riesgo.

•   Los sfntomas descritos arriba no ocurren solamente debido a los microbios. Tambien pueden ser
    causados por otros motives. Si usted siente estos sintomas y estos persisten, usted puede optar por
    hacer una consulta con su medico.  Personas en sjtuaciones de alto riesgo deben consultar con sus
    proveedres de servfcios medicos.

£,Que esta haciendo la Oficina de Agua  Potable?

[describe corrective action in Spanish]

•   Le informaremos cuando las pruebas demuestren que no hay bacterias y que usted ya no necesita
    hervir su agua. Anticipamos que resolveremos el problema el [date in Spanish day-month-year]

•   Para mayor informaci6n, por favor p6ngase en contacto con	al	.
    Gufas sobre metodos para reducir el riesgo de contraer una infeccion por microbios esta disponible
    en la Linea Caliente Sobre Agua Potable en el 1-800-426-4791.
Si otras personas, tales como inquilinos, residentes, pacientes, estudiantes o empleados reciben agua de
usted, es importante que usted les provea copia de esta notificacidn, ya sea colocandola en un lugar
visible, distribuyendola a mano, o mediante el correo.
Public Notification Handbook                 30          DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27, 1999

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         Instructions for Waterborne Disease Outbreak Notice-Template 1-3
                                     Template on Reverse

 Since a waterborne disease outbreak is a Tier 1 situation, you must provide public notice to all persons
 served as soon as possible but within 24 hours after you learn of the violation. You must also contact your
 primacy agency during this time. You should also coordinate with your local health department. One or
 both agencies should tell you whether to instruct consumers to boil water. You must use one or more of
 the following methods to deliver the notice to consumers:

 •   Radio
 •   Television
 •   Hand or direct delivery
 •   Posting

 You may need to use additional methods (e.g., newspaper,  delivery of multiple copies to hospitals, clinics,
 or apartment buildings) if necessary to reach all  persons served.

 The notice on the  reverse is appropriate for hand delivery or a newspaper notice. However, you may wish
 to shorten it before using it for a radio, TV notice, or posting. Within 10 days after issuing the notice, send
 a copy to your primacy agency.

 Describing the  Outbreak

 If known, list any organisms detected, the number of affected people, any water treatment problems
 contributing to the outbreak, and any sources of contamination, such as flooding.

 Potential Health Effects

 No mandatory health effects language exists for waterborne disease outbreaks. You may wish to use the
 sentence below, if appropriate, or contact your primacy agency or health department. These symptoms
 are common to many diseases caused by microscopic organisms:

 •   Symptoms may include nausea, cramps, diarrhea, jaundice, and associated  headaches and fatigue.

 Population at Risk

 Some people who contract waterborne diseases can be affected more severely than others, as described
 on the reverse page. The specific language on the reverse is not mandatory, but you must provide
 information on the population at risk. In addition,  make sure  it is clear who is served by your water system-
 -you may need to list the municipalities you serve.

 Corrective Action

 In your notice, describe the corrective actions you are  taking. Listed  below are some steps commonly
taken by water systems with waterborne disease outbreaks. Use the following language, if appropriate, or
develop your own:

•  We are repairing our filtration system.
•  We are increasing sampling for disease-causing organisms.

It is a good idea to issue a "problem corrected" notice when the outbreak is under control. See Template
1-5.

Make sure to send your primacy agency a copy of the  notice and a letter certifying you have met all the
public notice requirements within ten days.
Public Notification Handbook                   31           DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27,1999

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                      Waterborne Disease Outbreak Notice-Template 1-3


                                     WARNING

                             Effective  Immediately
                                               i
                                               i                        :
                             People served by [system]
                                               i                        '-

                   BOIL YOUR WATER BEFORE  USING

 Disease-causing organisms have gotten into the water supply. We learned of an outbreak from [agency]
 on [date].

 •   Bring all water to a boil, let it boil for one minute, and let cool before using, or use bottled water. Boiled
    or bottled water should be used for drinking, making ice, washing dishes, brushing teeth, and food
    preparation until further notice.

 What does this mean to me?
                                               i
 •   These organisms are causing illness in people served by the water system, according to the	
    Health Department. [Describe the outbreak].

 •   [Describe symptoms of the waterborne disease.] If you experience one or more of these symptoms
    and they persist, contact your doctor.

 •   Some people, including immuno-compromised people, some elderly, and infants may be at increased
    risk. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers.

 What is the water system doing?

 [Describe corrective action.]

 •   We will inform you when you no longer need to boil your water. We anticipate resolving the problem
    by [date].

 •   For more information on the situation, please contact	at	. Guidelines on ways to lessen the
    risk of infection by microbes are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1 (800) 426-4791.
                                                                       •
       If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or employees, receive
       water from you, it is important that you provide this notice to them by posting it in a
       conspicuous location or by direct hand or mail  delivery.
                                               : Water System ID:.
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  Instructions for Notice for Turbidity Single Exceedance as Tier 1-Tempfate
                                     Template on Reverse

 If your primacy agency has designated this turbidity single exceedance as a Tier 1 violation, you must
 provide public notice to all persons served within 24 hours after you learn of the violation. (Turbidity is not
 Tier 1 by regulation, but may frequently be elevated to Tier 1 by the primacy agency. Water systems are
 subject to different turbidity standards depending on system type and size. Some systems have limits of 5
 NTU, while others have limits of 1 NTU.) You should also coordinate with your local health department.
 One or both agencies should tell you whether to instruct consumers to boil water. You must use one or
 more of the following methods to deliver the notice to consumers:

 •   Radio
 •   Television
    Hand or direct delivery
 •   Posting

 You may need to use additional methods (e.g., newspaper, delivery of multiple copies to hospitals, clinics,
 or apartment buildings) if necessary to reach all persons served.

 The notice on the reverse is appropriate for hand delivery or a newspaper notice. However, you may wish
 to shorten it before using it for a radio or TV notice or posting. If you modify the notice, you must leave the
 health effects language in italics unchanged. This language is mandatory.

 Population Served

 Make sure it is clear who is served by your water system-you may need to list the municipalities you
 serve.

 Corrective Action

 In your notice, describe corrective actions you are taking. Listed below are some steps commonly taken
 by water systems with turbidity single exceedance. Use the following language, if appropriate, or develop
 your own:

 •   We are sampling both untreated and treated water for the presence and concentration of coliform
    bacteria.
 •   We are monitoring  chlorine levels and will adjust the amount of chlorine added as necessary.
 •   We shut down the water plant and cleaned all the filters.

 Source of the Problem

 If you know why the turbidity is high, explain it in your notice. For instance, unusual conditions, such as
 heavy rains and flooding, can overburden the water plant, and treated water may therefore not meet the
 standards.

After Issuing the Notice

 •   Send a copy of the notice and a certification letter to your primacy agency within ten days after you
    issue the notice.
 •   It is a good idea to  issue a "problem corrected" notice when the violation is resolved. See Template
    1-5.
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                  Turbidity Single Exceedance Elevated to Tier 1-Template 1-4

                                      WARNING

                              Effective Immediately

                              People served by [system]


                 BOIL YOUR WATER  BEFORE DRINKING

Turbidity (cloudiness) levels in your water supply were above the limit of 5 turbidity units on [date]. Levels
reached [number] turbidity units.
                                               I
•   Bring all water to a boil, let it boil for one minute, and let cool before using, or use bottled water. Boiled
    or bottled water should be used for drinking, making ice, washing dishes, brushing teeth, and food
    preparation until further notice.

What does this mean to me?

•   We routinely monitor your water for turbidity, which tells us whether we are effectively filtering and
    disinfecting the water supply.

•   Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium
    form/crab/a/ growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease causing organisms. These
    organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause symptoms such as nausea,
    cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.

•   The symptoms above, however, are not caused only by organisms in drinking water, but also by other
    factors. If you experience any of these symptoms and they persist, you may want to seek medical
    advice.

•   Some people, including immuno-compromised people, some elderly, and infants may be at increased
    risk. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care  providers.

What is the water system doing?

[Describe corrective action.]

•   We anticipate resolving the problem by [date.] We will inform you when turbidity returns to appropriate
    levels and when you no longer need to  boil your water.

•   For more information on this situation, please contact	at	. Guidelines on ways to lessen the
    risk of infection by microbes are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at  1(800) 426-4791.

       If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or employees, receive water
       from you, it is important that you provide this notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous
       location or by direct hand or mail delivery.
                                                 Water System ID:
Public Notification Handbook
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          Instructions for Tier 1 "Problem Corrected" Notice—Temp/ate 1-5
                                     Template on Reverse

 It is a good idea to issue a notice when a serious violation has been resolved. Although EPA regulations
 do not require such notices, your primacy agency may require you to issue one.  You should coordinate
 with your local health department as well. Below are some recommended methods for a "problem
 corrected" notice. You should but are not required to use the same methods you used for the original
 notice.

 •   Radio
 •   Television
 •   Newspaper
 •   Hand or direct delivery
 •   Posting

 You may wish to use additional methods (e.g., delivery of multiple copies to hospitals, clinics, or apartment
 buildings) if necessary to reach all persons served.

 The notice on the reverse is very general and can be used for any violation. However, to  help restore
 consumers' confidence in the water system, you should modify the notice to fit your situation. Although the
 public should have seen your initial notice, there may be additional information you learned after the notice
 was issued. Therefore, you should describe the violation again and discuss how the problem was solved.
Public Notification Handbook                  36           DRAFT FOR COMMENT April 27,1999

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                       Tier 1 "Problem Corrected" Notice—Template 1-5

                     DRINKING WATER PROBLEM CORRECTED

 Customers of [system] were recently notified of a problem with their drinking water and were advised to
 [describe recommended action]. We are pleased to be able to report that the problem has been corrected
 and that it is no longer necessary to [describe recommended action]. We apologize for any inconvenience
 and thank you for your patience.

 As always, you may call	at	with any comments or questions.

 If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or employees, receive water from you, it is
 important that you provide this notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous location or by direct hand or
 mail delivery.
                                                Water System ID:
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 6.    Tier 2 Notice Requirements  and  Suggestions
 What is the
 deadline for
 issuing a Tier 2
 notice?
 Which methods of
 delivery must I
 use?
      Tier 2 notices are required for violations of maximum contaminant levels
      (MCLs), maximum residual disinfectant levels (MRDLs), and treatment
      technique requirements not included in Tier 1; monitoring
violations (if required by the primacy agency); and failure to comply with
the terms and conditions of a variance or exemption. Tier 2 notices are
considered less urgent than Tier 1 violations because there is little immediate
risk to consumers or the system may have already returned to compliance by
the time the notice is issued. Tier 2 notices must meet the content, format and
multilingual requirements described in detail in Chapter 3.

Tier 2 notices must be issued as soon as practicable but within 30 days after a
violation is discovered. Extensions of the 30-day deadline to up to three
months from the date of the violation may be granted by the primacy agency;
you should check with your agency.

Following the initial notice, you must repeat the notice every three months for
as long as the violation persists, unless your primacy agency determines the
situation warrants a different repeat notice frequency. In such cases, repeat
notices must be no less frequent than once a year. If the public notice is
posted, it must remain in place during the length of the violation. For total
coliform MCL violations, for example, you are not in compliance again until
samples collected during the month following the violation meet the standard.
You must also notify new billing customers or hookups of any ongoing
violations prior to or at the time their service begins.

Unless directed otherwise by the primacy agency, if you operate a community
water system, you must provide notice by:
                       1.
 1.  A description of the violation;
 2.  When the violation occurred;
 3.  Potential adverse health effects;
 4.  Population(s) at risk;
 5.  Whether alternative water supplies should be used;
 6.  Actions consumers should take, including when they
    should seek medical help, if known;
 7.  What you are doing to correct the violation;
 8.  When you expect to return to compliance;
 9.  Phone number for additional information; and
10.  Standard language encouraging distribution to all
    persons served.
    Mail or other direct delivery to each customer receiving a bill or other
                              service connections, and
                              2.  Any other method reasonably
                                  calculated to reach other people
                                  regularly served by the system if they
                                  would not normally be reached by the
                                  first method. Such methods may
                                  include publication in a local
                                  newspaper, posting in public places, or
                                  delivery to community organizations.
                Required Elements of a
                      Public Notice
                              Unless directed otherwise by the primacy
                              agency, if you operate a non-community
                              water system, you must provide notice by
                              the following methods (see Chapter 8 for
                              more information):
Public Notification Handbook
                     37
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 6. Tier 2 Notice Requirements and Suggestions
Suggestions for
Effective Public
Notification
Delivery
               Compare the cost of mailing
               and labor for hand delivery
   before choosing a method. Because notice
   delivery is not required immediately after
   this type of violation, hand delivery may not
   be necessary. However, it may be cheaper
   and in some cases may take less time than
   putting together a mailing. If your notice
   deadline coincides with your billing
   schedule, you may be able to include your
   notice in the bill at no extra cost. Whichever
   method you choose, you should
   supplement it with posting in common
   areas and gathering places, such as
   banks, grocery stores, and restaurants. If a
   daily or weekly newspaper is available, you
   may wish to purchase an  ad to publish the
   notice, or have the newspaper write a story
   on the violation.
1.  Posting the notice in conspicuous locations or by mail or direct delivery to
    each consumer, and
2.  Any other method reasonably calculated to reach other people served by
    the system if they would not normally be reached by the first method. Such
    methods may include publication in a local newspaper or newsletter
    distributed to consumers, use of e-mail to notify employees or students, or
    delivery of multiple copies in central locations.

For both system types, there are a few cases where you may be able to
reach all persons served with the first method you choose. In such cases, you
may not need to use additional methods.  At a gas'station, for instance, posting
would be sufficient to reach all persons served.

•   If you mail the notice, send it to all service connections, if possible, and  not
    just billing customers. Be sure to tell owners or managers of home owners
    associations, apartment buildings, or resort rental properties to pass the
    information along to their tenants. You may wish to send multiple copies of
    the notice to building managers. Billing customers can be reached via
    inserts in their water bills, if the bills are  distributed and received within 30
    days of the violation.

•   Notices in newspapers may be in the form of an article or a paid
    advertisement. However, articles are more effective than paid notices
    because they are more likely to be noticed and read. Work with the local
                     newspaper to write an article on the violation and what
                     the system is doing  to correct it. Be sure that anyone
                     at the paper who writes or edits ah article knows what
                     items must be included to meet the requirements for
                     public notification. If your  system is located in the
                     suburban area of a large city, you should request that
                     your notice be placed in the weekly community news
                     section. Also, focus on getting articles published in
                     smaller community newspapers, homeowners
                     association newsletters, or similar publications.
               Tips for Very Smali
               Community Systems
                         Paid advertisements offer an advantage because
                         you are guaranteed the notice will appear exactly
                         as you write it. Try to purchase ad space in the
                         front section of the paper. Legal notices tend to get
                         lost in the back of the paper where few people
                         read them. If your notice must appear with other
                         paid notices, a descriptive title becomes very
                         important. The header "notice" may be overlooked,
                         but the mention of the community's drinking water
                         supply gets people's attention.
Public Notification Handbook
                      38
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                                                 6. Tier 2 Notice Requirements and Suggestions
Suggestions for
Layout of the
Notice
Tier 2 notices should answer the most common questions people will have
about the violation: What does this mean to me? What should I do? What is the
water system doing? The tone of a Tier 2 notice is less urgent than that of a
Tier 1 notice. A question and answer format that anticipates consumers'
concerns is recommended for each section. Templates 2-1 through 2-9 at the
end of this chapter offer sample language and instructions for preparing Tier 2
public notices.

1.   Title - The notice should have a descriptive title but should not be overly
    alarming. The title "Drinking Water Notice" or "Important Information about
    Your Drinking Water" would be more appropriate than "Drinking Water
    Alert." Follow with a subtitle describing the situation, such as: "Tests Show
    Levels of [Contaminant] Above Drinking Water Standards."

2.   Describe What Happened - The notice should briefly describe what
    happened and give some background as to how the violation was
    discovered. For example, say that you routinely test the water and that the
    most recent samples showed a violation. Provide a context for the
    exceedance by giving the applicable drinking water standard and whether
    the exceedance is a monthly, quarterly, or other type of average. If the
    problem has already been corrected, be sure to communicate this clearly.

3.   Explain How the Violation Affects  Consumers - Be clear that the situation
    is not an emergency and that consumers would have been notified
    immediately if it had been. In the case of treatment technique violations,
    explain that treatment is  important to preventing disease outbreaks but that
    there is no evidence of disease or bacteria in the water. For turbidity
    exceedances, explain how high turbidity levels may be related to the
    presence of organisms in drinking water.

4.   Explain What Consumers Should  Do - Next, the notice should tell
    customers what they  need to do, even if no action is necessary. This will
    usually be: "you do/do not need to seek other sources of drinking water."
    Since people's first reaction is to boil their water, explain the effect of
    boiling (i.e., whether boiling is necessary, has no effect, or is harmful). Tell
    consumers that if they have specific health concerns, especially for the
    young, old, or immuno-compromised (undergoing chemotherapy, HIV-
    positive,  or other immune system  problems), they may want to consult their
    doctors.

5.   Describe What You Are Doing to Correct the Problem - Inform consumers
    of the steps you are taking to correct the problem, such as the installation
    of new treatment,  increased frequency or type of monitoring, or your
    collaboration with  the appropriate state agency. Tell them when you expect
    the drinking water to again meet the standard. Provide the name and
    telephone number of someone who can answer any questions consumers
    may have. When'giving out contact information, invite people to learn more
Public Notification Handbook
                      39
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 6. Tier 2 Notice Requirements and Suggestions
                            about protecting their drinking water by saying: "for more information, or to
                            learn more about protecting your drinking water,  please contact..."

                         6-  Optional Elements — If you know the source of the contamination, include
                            it in the notice. This helps reassure consumers that you have investigated
                            the problem and are taking steps to address it. It also reinforces the fact
                            that drinking water is a vulnerable resource that must be protected.

                         7.  Public Water System ID Number— You should include your PWS ID
                            number at the bottom of the notice. This will help your primacy agency
                            track compliance and prevent tracking errors between systems with similar
                            names.
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                           TIER 2 TEMPLATES
    The pages that follow contain templates for Tier 2 violations. Along with each template are
    instructions, including the required method of delivery and instructions for completing individual
    sections of the notice.

    Mandatory language on health effects, which must be included exactly as written, is presented
    in italics.

    You must also include the following language in all notices. Use of this language does not relieve you
    of your obligation to notify all persons served:

       If other people, such as tenants, residents, patients, students, or employees, receive water
       from you, it is important that you provide this notice to them by posting it in a conspicuous
       location or by direct hand or mail delivery.
    Templates

    Unresolved Total Coliform Notice-Template 2-1
    Resolved Total Coliform Notice-Template 2-2
    Chemical or Radiological MCLs Notice-Template 2-3
    SWTR Failure to Filter Notice-Template 2-4
    SWTR Turbidity Single Exceedance Notice-Template 2-5
    SWTR Turbidity Monthly Exceedance Notice-Template 2-6
    SWTR Disinfection Treatment Notices—Template 2-7
    Lead Public Education Notice-Template 2-8
    LCR Failure to Install Corrosion Control—Template 2-9
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           Instructions for Unresolved Total Coliform Notice-Template 2-1
                                     Template on Reverse

This template is applicable to systems required to take less than 40 samples per month. See below for
language applicable to systems taking 40 or more samples. Since exceeding the total coliform bacteria
maximum contaminant level is a Tier 2 violation, you must provide public notice to all persons served as
soon as possible but within 30 days after you learn of the violation. Persistent total coliform problems can
be serious. Check with your primacy agency to make sure you meet all requirements. You must issue a
repeat notice every three months for as long as the violation persists, unless your primacy agency
determines the situation warrants a different repeat notice frequency.

Community systems must use one of the following methods:

•   Hand or direct delivery
•   Mail, as a separate notice or included with the bill

Non-community systems must use one of the following methods:

•   Posting
•   Hand delivery
•   Mail

In addition, both community and non-community systems must use another method reasonably calculated
to reach others if they would not be reached by the first method.  Such methods could include
newspapers, e-mail, or delivery to community organizations.

The notice on the reverse is appropriat