c>E:PA
  United States
  Environmental Protection
  Agency
  Case Study Analysis for the
  Proposed Section 316(b) Phase
    Existing Facilities Rule
   Part A - B
   May 2002

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Office of Water (4303T)
   1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
      Washington, DC 20460
        EPA-821-R-02-002

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     Case Study Analysis for the Proposed
Section 316(b) Phase II Existing Facilities Rule
              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                Office of Science and Technology
                Engineering and Analysis Division

                   Washington, DC 20460
                     February 28,2002

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                                  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DISCLAIMER
This document was prepared by the Office of Water staff. The following contractors provided assistance and support in
performing the underlying analysis supporting the conclusions detailed in this document.

                                              Stratus Consulting Inc.
                                               Abt Associates Inc.
                                                   TetraTech
  i                                 Science Applications International Corporation

The Office of Water has reviewed and approved this document for publication. The Office of Science and Technology
directed, managed, and reviewed the work of the contractors in preparing this document. Neither the United States
Government nor any of its employees, contractors, subcontractors, or their employees makes any warranty, expressed or
implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third party's use of or the results of such use of any
information, apparatus, product, or process discussed in this document, or represents that its use by such party would not
infringe on privately owned rights.

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§ 316(b) Case Studies
Table of Contents
Part A: Evaluation Methods

Chapter Al: Ecological Risk Assessment Framework
A1-1     Problem Formulation
Al-2     Analysis
A1-3     Risk Characterization

Chapter A2: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Fish
A2-1     Introduction
A2-2     Fish Diversity and Abundance
A2-3     Influence of Fish on Aquatic Systems
A2-4     Exterior Fish Anatomy
A2-5     Interior Anatomy
Chapter A3: Aquatic Organisms Other than Fish that are Vulnerable to CWIS
A3-1      Plankton
A3-2      Macroinvertebrates
A3-3      Sea Turtles and Other Vertebrate Species
A3-4      Conclusions

Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect  Effects of CWIS on Birds
A4-1      Direct Effects on Birds
A4-2      Indirect Effects on Fish-Eating Birds
A4-3      Understanding the Effects of Food Reduction on Bird Populations

Chapter A5: Methods Used to Evaluate I&E
A5-1      Overview of Procedure for Evaluating I&E
A5-2      Source Data
A5-3      Biological Models Used to Evaluate I&E
A5-4      Uncertainty

Chapter A6- Fish Population Modeling and the § 316(b) Benefits Case Studies
A6-1      Background
A6-2      Use of Stock-Recruitment Models in Fisheries Management
A6-3      Use of Stock-Recruitment Models to Evaluate CWIS Impacts
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S 316(b) Cose Studies
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A6-4      Uncertainty in Stock-Recruitment Models
A6-5      Precautionary Approach                   ;

Chapter A7: Entrainment Survival                 '•
A7-1      Entrainment Mortality and Entrainment Survival
A7-2      Existing Entrainment Survival Studies       j
A7-3      Analysis by EPA of 13 Existing Studies      '
A7-4      Principles to Guide Future Studies of Entrainment Survival
A7-5      Conclusions                             !

Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts by Water Body Type
A8-1      Development of a Database of I&E Rates    [   '   •
A8-2      CWIS Impingement and Entrainment Impacts in Rivers and Streams
A8-3      CWIS Impingement and Entrainment Impacts in Lakes and Reservoirs
A8-4      CWIS Impingement and Entrainment in the Great Lakes
A8-5      CWIS Impingement and Entrainment Impacts jn Estuaries
A8-6      CWIS Impingement and Entrainment Impacts 'in Oceans
A8-7      Summary and Conclusions                !
                                                 I
Chapter A9: Economic Benefit Categories and  Valuation  Methods
A9-1      Economic Benefit Categories Applicable to the § 316(b) Rule
A9-2      Benefit Category Taxonomies
A9-3      Direct Use Benefits                      I
                                                 i
A9-4      Indirect Use Benefits                     :
                                                 i
A9-5      Nonuse Benefits                         !
A9-6      Summary of Benefits Categories            j
A9-7      Causality: Linking the § 316(b) Rule to Beneficial Outcomes
A9-8      Conclusions                             '
Chapter A10: Estimating Benefits with a Random Utility Model (RUM)
A10-1    Site Choice Model
A10-2    Trip Frequency Model
A10-3    Welfare Estimation
A10-4    Data Sources
A10-5    Limitations and Uncertainties

Chapter All: Habitat-Based Replacement Cost Method
Al 1-1    Overview of HRC Valuation of I&E Resource Losses
Al 1-2    Steps in the HRC

TOCtt

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§316(b) Case Studies
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All-3    Use of the HRC Method for § 316(b) Evaluations
All-4    Strengths and Weakness of the HRC Method

Chapter A12: Threatened & Endangered Species Analysis Methods
A12-1    Listed Species Background
A12-2    Framework for Identifying Listed Species Potentially at Risk of I&E
A12-3    Identification of Species of Concern at Case Study Sites
A12-4    Benefit Categories Applicable for Impacts on T&E Species
A12-5    Methods Available for Estimating the Economic Value Associated with I&E of T&E Species
A12-6    Issues in the Application of the T&E Valuation Approaches
A12-7    Conclusions

Appendix Al

Part B: The Delaware Estuary

Chapter Bl: Background                                     ,
B1 -1      Overview of Transition Zone Case Study Facilities
Bl-2     Environmental Setting
Bl-3      Water Withdrawals and Uses
Bl-4     Socioeconomic Characteristics
Chapter B2:  Technical and Economic Descriptions of In Scope Facilities of the Delaware
Estuary Transition Zone
B2-1      Operational Profile
B2-2      CWIS Configuration and Water Withdrawal

Chapter B3:  Evaluation of I&E Data
B3-1      Transition Zone Species Vulnerable to I&E
          Life Histories of Primary Species Impinged and Entrained
          Salem I&E Monitoring and PSEG's Methods for Calculating Annual I&E
          Salem's Annual Impingement
          Salem's Annual Entrainment
          Extrapolation of Salem's I&E Rates to Other Transition Zone Facilities
          Salem's Current I&E
          Cumulative Impacts: Summary of Estimated Total I&E at All Transition Zone CWIS
B3-2
B3-3
B3-4
B3-5
B3-6
B3-7
B3-8
                                                                                    TOC Hi

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Chapter B4:  Economic Value of !<&E Losses  Based on Benefits Transfer Techniques
B4-1      Overview of Valuation Approach
B4-2      Economic Value of Average Annual Recreatibnal Fishery Losses at the Salem Facility
B4-3      Economic Value of Average Annual Commercial Fishery Losses at the Salem Facility
B4-4      Economic Value of Forage Fish Losses      '.
B4-5      Nonuse Values                           j
B4-6      Summary of Mean Annual Value of Economic Losses at Salem
B4-7      Total Economic Damages for Generating Facilities Regulated Under Phase 2
B4-8      Total Economic Damages for All Transition Zone CWIS
                                                 i
Chapter B5:  RUM Analysis
B5-1      Data Summary                           |   '
B5-2      Site Choice Models                       j
B5-3      Trip Frequency Model
B5-4      Welfare Estimates                        ;
                                                 I
B5-5      Limitations and Uncertainty               '  '          .

Chapter B6:  Benefits Analysis for  the  Delaware Estuary
B6-1      Summary Figures of Salem's Baseline Losses''
B6-2      Potential Economic Benefits due to Regulation
B6-3      Summary of Omissions, Biases,  and Uncertainties in the Benefits Analysis

Chapter B7:  Conclusions                          I
                                                 j
Appendix  Bl: Survival Factors and Other Parameters Used by PSE6 to Estimate IAE Losses
at Salem
Appendix  B2: Delaware Estuary Life History Parameter  Values
                                                                       '
Part  C: The Ohio River Watershed  Case Study
                                               '
Chapter Cl:  Background
Cl-1      Overview of Nine Ohio River Case Study Facilities
Cl-2      Environmental Setting
Cl-3      Water Withdrawals and Uses              '
                                                 i
Cl-4      Socioeconomic Characteristics             i

Chapter C2:  Technical & Economic  Facility Descriptions
C2-1      Plant Configuration                       :
C2-2      CWIS Configuration and Water  Withdrawal  |
TOCiv

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 316(b) Case Studies
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Chapter C3:  Evaluation of I&E Data
C3-1      Ohio River Aquatic Species Vulnerable to I&E
C3-2      Life. Histories of Primary Species Impinged and Entrained
C3-3      Facility Impingement and Entrainment Monitoring Methods
C3-4      Annual Impingement at Nine Ohio River Facilities
C3-5      Annual Entrainment at Nine Ohio River Case Study Facilities
C3-6      Methods Used to Extrapolate I&E Rates to Other Ohio River Facilities
C3-7      Annual Impingement at Nine Ohio River Case Study Facilities
C3-8      Annual Entrainment at Nine Ohio River Case Study Facilities
C3-9      Cumulative Impacts: Summary of Total Ohio River I&E

Chapter C4:  Value of  Baseline I&E Losses  from Selected Facilities on the Ohio River
C4-1      Overview of  Valuation Approach
C4-2      Economic Value of Average Annual Losses to Recreational Fisheries Resulting from I&E at
          Nine Facilities on the Ohio River
C4-3      Economic Value of Forage Fish Losses                                  -
C4-4      Nonuse Values
C4-5      Summary of  Mean Annual Economic Value of I&E at Nine Ohio River Case Study Facilities
C4-6      Extrapolation of Baseline Losses to  Other Facilities on the Ohio River

Chapter C5:  RUM Analysis
C5-1      Data Summary
C5-2      Site Choice Models                                                            . .
C5-3      Trip Participation Model
C5-4      Welfare Estimates
C5-5      Limitations and Uncertainties

Chapter C6: Benefits  Analysis for the Ohio River
C6-1      Economic Benefits of Reduced I&E of Fishery Species At Ohio River Facilities
C6-2     Summary of Omissions, Biases, and Uncertainties in the Benefits Analysis

Chapter C7: Conclusions

Appendix Cl: Ohio River Fish Species Life History Parameter Values
Appendix C2: Species Groups for Ohio  River
Appendix C3: Individual Facility Results for Annual Losses and Value of I&E at  Nine
Facilities on the Ohio River
                                                                                       TOCv

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S 316(b) Case Studies
Table of Contents
 Part D:  The Tampa Bay Watershed Case Study
                                                I      •     •           -               •

 Chapter bit Background
 Dl-1     Overview of Case Study Facilities    .     ;
 Dl-2     Environmental Setting                   I
 Dl-3     Socioeconomic Characteristics            I
                                                I
 Chapter b2: Technical bescription of Case Study Facilities
 D2-1     Operational Profiles                     |
 D2-2     CWIS Configuration and Water Withdrawal |  "

 Chapter b3: Evaluation of I&E bata              ;
 D3-1     Tampa Bay Aquatic Species Vulnerable to I&E
 D3-2     Life Histories of Primary Species Impinged and Entrained
 D3-3     Big Bend Impingement and Entrainment Monitoring Methods
 D3-4     Annual Impingement at Big Bend
 D3-5     Annual Entrainment at Big Bend           !
 D3-6     EPA's Methods for Extrapolating Big Bend's I&E Rates to Other In-Scope Facilities of
          Tampa Bay                     .1
 D3-7     EPA's Estimates of Big Bend's Impingement Extrapolated to Other In-Scope Facilities of
          Tampa Bay                            •
 D3-8     EPA's Estimates of Big Bend's Entrainment Extrapolated to Other In-Scope Facilities of
          Tampa Bay                            |
 D3-9     Cumulative Impacts: Summary of Total I&E of Tampa Bay In-Scope Facilities
 D3-10    Evaluation of Recent Larval Abundance Records as Indicators of Current Entrainment Losses
          at Tampa Bay CWIS                     |
                                                i

 Chapter b4: Value of Baseline !<&E Losses from Four  Facilities on Tampa Bay
 D4-1     Overview of Valuation Approach          :
 D4-2     Economic Value of Recreational Fishery Losses
 D4-3     Economic Value of Average Annual Commercial Fishery Losses Resulting from I&E at Big
          Bend                                  ;
 D4-4     Indirect Use: Forage Fish
 D4-5     Nonuse Values                          j
 D4-6     Summary of Economic Valuation of Mean Annual I&E at Big Bend
 D4-7     Summary of Annual Value of Baseline Economic Losses from I&E at Tampa Bay Facilities
TOCvi

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S 31(>(b) Case Studies
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Chapter D5: RUM Analysis
D5-1      Data Summary
D5-2      Site Choice Model
D5-3      Trip Participation Model
D5-4      Welfare Estimates
D5-5      Limitations and Uncertainty

Chapter D6: Benefits  Analysis for Four Facilities on Tampa Bay
D6-1      Overview of I&E and Associated Economic Losses
D6-2      Economic Benefits of Reduced I&E of Selected Species at Four In-Scope Facilities on
          Tampa Bay
D6-3      Summary of Omissions, Biases, and Uncertainties in the Benefits Analysis

Chapter D7: Conclusions
Appendix Dl: Life History Parameter Values Used  to Evaluate I&E

Part  E: San Francisco Bay/Delta Estuary

Chapter El: Background
El-1      Overview of Case Study Facilities
El-2      Environmental Setting
El-3      Socioeconomic Characteristics

Chapter E2: Technical Description of Facilities
E2-1      Operational Profile
E2-2      CWIS Configuration and Water Withdrawal

Chapter E3: Evaluation of I&E Data
E3-1      Aquatic Species Vulnerable to I&E at the Pittsburgh and Contra Costa Power Plants
E3-2      Life Histories of Species Impinged and Entrained at the Pittsburgh and Contra Costa Plants
E3-3      Facility Methods for Estimating I&E
E3-4      Annual Impingement
E3-5      Annual Entrainment
E3-6      Summary: Combined Impacts of Pittsburgh and Contra Costa

Chapter E4: Economic  Value of I&E Losses Based on Benefits Transfer Techniques
E4-1      Overview of Valuation Approach
E4-2      Economic Value of Recreational Fishery Losses Resulting from I&E at Pittsburgh arid
          Contra Costa
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E4-3      Nonuse Values
E4-4      Summary of Annual Value of Baseline Economic Losses at Pittsburgh and Contra Costa

Chapter E5: Societal Revealed Preference Approach for Valuing Special Status Fish Species
E5-1      Valuing Special Status Species
E5-2      Habitat Restoration Costs
E5-3      Opportunity Costs of Water Use Foregone to Protect Special Status Species Fish
E5-4      Current Abundance and Restoration Targets
E5-5      Total Costs for Special Status Species Fish
E5-6      Conclusions

Chapter E6: Benefits Analysis                     •
                                                  i
E6-1      Summary of Current I&E and Associated Economic Impacts
E6-2      Potential Economic Benefits due to Regulation
E6-3      Summary of Omissions, Biases, and Uncertainties in the Benefits Analysis

Chapter E7: Conclusions
                                                  I
                                                  i-
Appendix El: Life  History Parameter  Values Used to Evaluate I«&E
Appendix E2: Valuing Water  Uses Foregone
Appendix E3: Presentation of Population Estimates
                                                 , i
Part  F: Brayton Point Station Case Study

Chapter Fl: Introduction
Fl-1      Overview of Case Study Facility            [
Fl-2      Environmental Setting                    [
Fl-3      Socioeconomic Characteristics

Chapter F2: Technical  Description of the Brayton Point Station
F2-1      Operational Profile                       :•
F2-2      CWIS Configuration and Water Withdrawal  j
F2-3      Brayton Point Generation                  j
                                                  I
Chapter F3: Evaluation of I&E Data
F3-1      Species Impinged and Entrained at Brayton Point
F3-2      Life Histories of Major Species Impinged and Entrained  •
F3-3      Brayton Point Generating Station's I&E Sampling Methods
TOC viii

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§ 316(b) Case Studies
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F3-4      Annual Impingement and Entrainment                                      .
F3-5      Summary

Chapter F4: Value of I&E Losses at the Brayton Point Station Based on Benefits Transfer
Techniques
F4-1      Overview of Valuation Approach
F4-2      Economic Value of Average Annual Losses to Recreational Fisheries Resulting from I&E at
          Brayton Point Station
F4-3      Economic Value of Average Annual Commercial Fishery Losses Resulting from I&E
          at Brayton Point Station
F4-4      Economic Value of Forage Fish Losses
F4-5      Nonuse Values
F4-6      Summary of Mean Annual Economic Value of I&E at Brayton Point Station

Chapter R>: HRC Valuation of I&E Losses at Brayton Point Station
F5-1      Step 1: Quantify I&E Losses
F5-2      Step 2: Identify Habitat Requirements
F5-3      Step 3: Identify Potential Habitat Restoration Alternatives to Offset I&E Losses
F5-4      Step 4: Consolidate, Categorize, and Prioritize Identified Habitat Restoration Alternatives
F5-5      Step 5: Quantify the Expected Increases in Species Production for the Prioritized Habitat
          Restoration Alternatives
F5-6      Step 6: Scaling Preferred Restoration Alternatives                      •
F5-7      Unit Costs                                                                ,
F5-8      Total Cost Estimation          .
F5-9      Conclusions

Chapter F6: Benefits Analysis for the  Brayton Point Station
F6-1       Summary of Current I&E and Associated Economic Impacts
F6-2       Potential Economic Benefits due to Regulation
F6-3       Summary of Omissions, Biases, and Uncertainties in the Benefits Analysis

Chapter F7: Conclusions

Appendix Frl:  Life History Parameter Values Used to Evaluate I&E
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§ 316(b) Cose Studies
Table of Contents
Part &: Seabrook and Pilgrim  Facilities Case Study
Chapter 61: Background                          i
Gl-1      Overview of Case Study Facilities
Gl-2      Environmental Setting
Gl-3      Socioeconomic Characteristics             !
                                                 i
Chapter G2: Technical and Economic Descriptions of the Seabrook and Pilgrim Facilities
G2-1      Operational Profile                       !
G2-2      CWIS Configuration and Water Withdrawal ;

Chapter S3: Evaluation of I&E Data              :
G3-1      Aquatic Species Vulnerable to I&E at the Seabrook and Pilgrim Facilities
G3-2      Dfe Histories of Most Abundant Species in Seabrook and Pilgrim I&E Collections
G3-3      Seabrook's Methods for Estimating Impingement and Entrainment
G3-4      Seabrook's Annual Impingement and Entrainment
G3-5      Pilgrim's Methods for Estimating Impingement and Entrainment
G3-6      Pilgrim's Annual Impingement and Entrainment
G3-7      Summary and Comparison of I&E at Seabrook and Pilgrim
G3-8      Potential Biases and Uncertainties in I&E Estimates

Chapter 64: Value of !<&E Losses at the Seabrook and Pilgrim Facilities Based on Benefits
Transfer Techniques
                                                 t
G4-1      Overview of Valuation Approach
G4-2      Economic Value of Average Annual Loses to Recreational Fisheries Resulting from I&E at
          Seabrook and Pilgrim Facilities
G4-3      Economic Value of Average Annual Commercial Fishery Losses Resulting from I&E at
          Seabrook and Pilgrim                     :
G4-4      Economic Value of Forage Fish Losses
G4-5      Nonuse Values                          ;
G4-6      Summary of Mean Annual Economic Value of I&E at Seabrook, and Pilgrim
                                                 i
Chapter 65: HRC Valuation  of I&E Losses at the Pilgrim Facility
G5-1    '  Step 1: Quantify I&E Losses
G5-2      Step 2: Identify Habitat Requirements       I
G5-3      Step 3: Identify Potential Habitat Restoration Alternatives to Offset I&E Losses
G5-4      Step 4: Consolidate, Categorize, and Prioritize Identified Habitat Restoration Alternatives
G5-5      Step 5: Quantify the Expected Increases in Species Production for the Prioritized Habitat
          Restoration Alternatives
G5-6      Step 6: Scaling Preferred Restoration Alternatives
G5-7      Unit Costs
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§ 316(b) Case Studies
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G5-8      Total Cost Estimation
G5-9      Conclusions

Chapter G6- Benefits Analysis for the Seabrook and Pilgrim Facilities
G6-1      Overview of I&E and Associated Economic Values
G6-2      Baseline Losses Using HRC Method
G6-3      Anticipated Economic Benefits of Reduced I&E from Various Technologies
G6-4      Summary of Omissions, Biases, and Uncertainties in the Benefits Analysis

Chapter &7- Conclusions

Appendix  61: Life History Parameter Values Used to Evaluate IAE

Part  H:  J.R.  Whiting Facility Case Study

Chapter HI: Background
HI -1      Overview of J.R. Whiting Facility
Hl-2      Environmental Setting
Hl-3      Socioeconomic Characteristics

Chapter H2: Technical and Economic Descriptions of the J.R.  Whiting Facility
H2-1      Baseline Operational Characteristics
H2-2      CWIS Configuration and Water Withdrawal

Chapter H3: Evaluation of L&E Data
H3-1      Species Vulnerable to I&E
H3-2      Life Histories of Major Species Impinged and Entrained
H3-3      J.R. Whiting's Methods for Estimating I&E
H3-4      J.R. Whiting's Annual I&E Without the Net
H3-5      J.R. Whiting's Annual Impingement With the Ne
H3-6      Summary

Chapter H4: Economic Value of I&E Losses  Based on Benefits Transfer Techniques
H4-1      Overview of Valuation Approach
H4-2      Value of Baseline Recreational Fishery Losses at J.R. Whiting Facility
H4-3      Baseline Economic Losses from Commercial Fishing
H4-4      Indirect Use: Forage Fish
H4-5      Nonuse Values
H4-6      Summary of Annual Value of Baseline Economic Losses at J.R. Whiting
                                                                                     TOCxi

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S 316{b) Case. Studies
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14-3      Value of Baseline Commercial Fishery Losses at the Monroe Facility
14-5      Nonuse Values for Baseline Losses at the Monroe Facility

Chapter 15: Streamlined HRC Valuation of I&E  Losses at the Monroe Facility
15-1      Quantify I&E Losses by Species (Step ;1)
15-2      Identify Species Habitat Requirements (Step 2), Identify Habitat Restoration Alternatives
          (Step 3), and Prioritize Restoration Alternatives
15-3      Quantify the Benefits for the Prioritized Habitat Restoration Alternatives (Step 5)
15-4      Scale the Habitat Restoration Alternatives to Offset I&E Losses (Step 6)
15-5      Estimate "Unit Costs" for the Habitat Restoration Alternatives (Step 7)
15-6      Develop Total Cost Estimates for I&E Losses
                                             t
Chapter 16: Benefits Analysis for the Monroe Facility(Step 8)
16-1      Overview of I&E and Associated Losses
16-2      Potential Economic Benefits due to Regulations
16-3      Summary of Omissions, Biases, and Uncertainties in the Benefits Analysis
                                             i
Chapter 17: Conclusions                     •

Appendix II: Monroe Life History  Parameter* Values
                                             I
Glossary                         .   •       1            '.
                                             i
                                             i
References
                                                                                        TOCxiii

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                     Chapter Al: Risk Assessment Framework
                                                          CHAPTER CONTENTS
Al-1
Al-2 _
INTRODUCTION

EPA has defined ecological risk assessment as "a process
that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects
may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one
or more stressors" (U.S. EPA, 1998b).  It is an approach to
impact assessment that involves explicit evaluation of the
data, assumptions, and uncertainties associated with an
impact analysis.  Risk assessments range in level of
analysis and data requirements, depending on management
goals, data availability, and stakeholder concerns.

In the context of evaluating the impacts of cooling water
intake structures (CWIS) under §  316(b), the key stressors of interest for an ecological risk assessment are the impingement
and entrainment (I&E) of aquatic  organisms.  The following sections outline the three phases of ecological risk assessment
(problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization) as they apply to EPA's § 316(b) case studies,(see Figure Al-1).


  Figure Al-1: EPA's Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment Applied to § 316(b)
                                                                  Problem Formulation  . ..... , , . „ ...... . •=-.-. — Al-2
                                                                  Analysis . ,,»_. . . X ____ "/. ..... « . ....... '. v .,. .  . A f -2
                                                                  Al~2,l   Characterization of Exposure of Aqua|ic
                                                                        •  Organisms, to CWIS  /.". ,,..,, ,'T, r'. 7 ,  . Aj-2
                                                                 "At-2.2   Characterization ofEcofogicS Effeet?,^,  . M-6

Discussions between
Permittee and EPA
(Planning)



Ecological Risk Assessment
Applied to § 316(b)
Problem F<
Source of Sf
i
Drmulatioi
ress: CWI

i
S



Analysis
— Characterize exposure
to I&E
— Evaluate impacts on
aquatic organisms
.<
•
Characterize Risk














Data acquisition, verification, and monitoring
  Adapted from U.S. EPA, 1998b.
                                                                                                             Al-1

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter Al: Risk Assessment Framework
Al-1  PROBLEM FORMULATION                    '
                                                           i
The problem formulation phase of an ecological risk assessment defines the problem to be evaluated and develops a plan for
analyzing available data and characterizing risk (U.S. EPA, 1998b). This involves formulating a conceptual model of the
relationships between stressors and receptors, selecting assessment and measurement endpoints, and developing a plan for the
analysis of exposure and risk. In the context of § 316(b), the primary stressors associated with CWIS are I&E and the
receptors are the aquatic organisms that are exposed to I&E. Figure Al-2 is a conceptual model indicating the primary and
secondary ecological effects that result from the exposure of aquatic organisms to I&E.

An assessment endpoint is any ecological entity of concern to stakeholders  (U.S. EPA, 1998b). Ecological entities to be
assessed may include one or more entities across a range of levels of biological organization, including individuals,
subpopulations, populations, species, communities, or ecosystems.! Measurement endpoints are the attributes of an assessment
endpoint that are evaluated in a risk assessment.  Attributes of concern may include individual survival, population
recruitment, species abundance, species diversity, or ecosystem structure and function. Ideally, assessment endpoints should
include all species directly and indirectly affected by a CWIS.  Potentially affected organisms include fish, shellfish,
planktonic organisms, sea turtles, and marine mammals.  In most cases, assessment endpoints for the § 316(b) case studies
include only fish and shellfish species because these species are the focus of most facility studies. Measurement endpoints
that should be included in all § 316(b) risk analyses include annual losses of individual organisms, adult equivalent losses,
lost fishery yield, and production foregone, as described in detail in Chapter A4.

Al-2 ANALYSIS                                     •

The analysis phase of an ecological risk assessment focuses on the characterization of (1) exposure to one or more stressors
and (2) the ecological effects that are expected to result from exposure (U.S. EPA, 1998b).

A 1-2.1   Characterization of Exposure of  Aqtiatic Organisms to  CWIS

Exposure characterization describes the potential or actual co-occurrence of stressors and receptors (U.S. EPA, 1998b).  In
the case of CWIS, characterization of exposure involves description of facility characteristics that influence rates of I&E, and
the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the surrounding ecosystem that influence the intensity, time, and
spatial extent of contact of aquatic organisms with a facility's CWIS.
                                                           i
Exposure of aquatic organisms to I&E depends on factors related to the location, design, construction, capacity, and operation
of the facility's CWIS (U.S. EPA, 1976; SAIC, 1994; SAIC, 1995; SAIC, 1996a and b). Table Al-1 lists facility
characteristics as well as characteristics of species and the surrounding environment that  influence when, how, and why
aquatic organisms may become exposed to  and experience adverse effects of CWIS. These characteristics are described in
the following sections based on information provided in EPA's 1976 § 316(b) development document (U.S. EPA, 1976) and
background papers developed for EPA's § 316(b) rulemaking activities by  Science Applications International Corporation
(SAIC) (SAIC, 1994; SAIC, 1995; SAIC, 1996a and b).         ',

a.  Intake  location                                   . i
Two major components of a CWIS's location that influence the rejative magnitude of I&E are (1) the type of waterbody from
which a CWIS is withdrawing water, and (2) the placement of the CWIS relative to sensitive biological areas within the
waterbody. Considerations in siting include intake depth and distance from the shoreline in relation to the physical, chemical,
and biological characteristics of the source waterbody.  In general,; intakes located in nearshore areas (riparian or littoral
zones) will have greater ecological impacts than intakes located offshore, since nearshore areas are usually more biologically
productive and have higher concentrations of aquatic organisms,  j
Al-2

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                  Chapter Al: Risk Assessment Framework
Figure A1-2: Conceptual Model Indicating Sqme Primary and Secondary Effects of Impingement and Entrainment by CWIS
                           §  316b Ecological  Risk Analysis
                                  A Conceptual Mode!
                              Seuree of Stress
                      Cooling Water Intake Structures (CWIS)
                       Exposure of Receptors
                       Populations
                         Communities
                           Ecosystems
                            Primary Effects
                          Increased Mortality &
                           Decreased Viability
Secondary Effects
• Decreased Recruitment
• Decreased Fishing Yields
• Reduced Ecosystem Productivity
                                                                                  J-
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
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                       Table Al-1: Partial List of CWIS Characteristics and Ecosystem and
                                 Species Characteristics InfiUsneing Exposure to ME
                     CWIS Characteristics
            Ecosystem and Species Characteristics
  >•    Depth of intake
  *•    Distance from shoreline
  >    Proximity of intake withdrawal and discharge
  »•    Proximity to other industrial discharges or water withdrawals
  *    Proximity to an area of biological concern
  *    Type of intake structure (size, shape, configuration,
      orientation)
  >•    Approach velocity
  >•    Presence/absence of intake control and fish protection
      technologies
      a.   Intake screen systems
      b.   Passive intake systems
      c.   Fish diversion/avoidance systems
      Water temperature in cooling system
      Temperature change during entrainment
      Duration of entrainment
      Use of intake biocides and ice removal technologies
      Scheduling of timing, duration, frequency, and quantity of
      water withdrawal
      Mortality of aquatic organisms
      Displacement of aquatic organisms
      Destruction of habitat (e.g., burial of eggs deposited in stream
      beds, increased turbidity of water column)
      Type of withdrawal - once through vs. recycled (cooling water
      volume and volume per unit time)
      Ratio of cooling water intake flow to source water flow
Ecosystem Characteristics (abiotic environment):
    Source waterbody type (marine, estuarine, riverine, lacustrine)
    Water temperatures
    Ambient light conditions
    Salinity levels
    Dissolved oxygen levels
    Tides/currents
    Direction and rate of ambient flows

Species Characteristics (physiology, behavior, life history):
    Density in zone of influence of CWIS
    Spatial and temporal distributions (e.g., daily, seasonal, annual
    migrations)
    Habitat preferences (e.g., depth, substrate)
    Ability to detect and avoid intake currents
    Swimming speeds
    Body size
    Age/developmental stage
    Physiological tolerances (e.g., temperature, salinity, dissolved
    oxygen)
    Feeding habits
    Reproductive strategy
    Mode of egg and larval dispersal
    Generation time
 Critical physical and chemical factors related to siting of an intake include the direction and rate of waterbody flow, tidal
 influences, currents, salinity, dissolved oxygen levels, thermal stratification, and the presence of pollutants. The withdrawal
 of water by an intake can change ambient flows, velocities, and currents within the source waterbody, which may cause
 organisms to concentrate in the vicinity of an intake or reduce their ability to escape a current. Effects vary according to. the
 type of waterbody and species present.                          '        t

 In large rivers, withdrawal of water may have little effect on flows because of the strong, unidirectional nature of ambient
 currents. In contrast, lakes and reservoirs have small ambient flows and currents, and therefore a large intake flow can
 significantly alter current patterns. Tidal currents in estuaries or tidally influenced sections of rivers can carry small, passive
 organisms past intakes multiple times, thereby increasing their probability of entrainment. If intake withdrawal and discharge
 are in close proximity, entrained organisms released in the discharge can become re-entrained.
                                                               i
 The magnitude of I&E in relation to intake location also depends on biological factors such as species' distributions and the
 presence of critical habitats within an intake's zone of influence. Species with planktonic (free-floating) early life stages have
 higher rates of entrainment because they are unable to actively avoid being drawn into the intake flow.

 b.   Intake design
 Intake design refers to the design and configuration of various components of the intake structure, including screening
 systems (trash racks, pumps, pressure washes); passive intake systems; and fish diversion and avoidance technologies
' (U.S. EPA, 1976). After entering the CWIS, water must pass through a screening device before entering the power plant.
 The screen is designed, at a minimum, to prevent debris from entering and clogging the  condenser tubes. Screen mesh size
 and velocity characteristics are two important design features of the screening system that influence the potential for
 impingement and entrainment of aquatic organisms that are withdrawn from the water body with the cooling water (U.S. EPA,
 1976).                                                        i

 Approach velocity has a significant influence on the potential for impingement (Boreman, 1977). Approach velocity is the
 velocity of the current in the  area approaching the screen and is measured at the screen upstream of the screen  face in feet per
 second (fps). Approach velocity is directly related to the area of tjhe screen and the size of the intake structure (U.S. EPA,
 1976). The biological significance of approach velocity depends on species-specific characteristics such as fish swimming
 Al-4

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter Al: Risk Assessment Framework
ability and endurance.  These characteristics are a function of the size of the organism and the temperature and oxygen levels
of water in the area of the intake (U.S. EPA, 1976). The maximum velocity protecting most small fish is 0.5 fps, but lower
velocities will still impinge some fish and entrain eggs and larvae and other small organisms (Boreman, 1977).

Conventional traveling screens have been modified to improve fish survival of screen impingement arid spray wash removal
(Taft, 1999).  However, a review by SAIC of steam electric utilities indicated that alternative screen technologies are usually
not much more effective at reducing impingement than the conventional vertical traveling screens used by most steam electric
facilities (SAIC, 1994).  An exception may be traveling screens modified with fish'collection systems (e.g., Ristroph screens).
Studies of improved fish collection baskets at the Salem Generating Station showed increased survival of impinged fish
(Ronafalvy et al., 2000).

Passive intake systems (physical exclusion devices) screen out debris and aquatic organisms with minimal mechanical activity
and low withdrawal velocities (Taft, 1999). The most effective passive intake systems are wedge-wire screens and radial
wells (SAIC, 1994). A new technology, the filter fabric barrier system (known commercially as the Guriderboom) consists of
polyester fiber strands pressed into a water-permeable fabric mat, has shown promise in reducing entrainment of
Ichthyoplankton (free-floating fish eggs and larvae) at the Lovett Generating Station on the  Hudson River (Taft, 1999).

Fish diversion/avoidance systems (behavioral barriers) take advantage of natural behavioral characteristics  offish to guide
them away from an intake structure or into a bypass system (SAIC, 1994; Taft, 1999). The  most effective of these
technologies are velocity caps, which divert fish away from intakes, and underwater strobe lights, which repel some species
(Taft, 1999). Velocity caps are used mostly at offshore facilities and have proven effective in reducing impingement
(e.g., California's San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, SONGS).

Another important design consideration is the orientation of the intake in relation to the source waterbody (U.S. EPA, 1976).
Conventional intake designs include shoreline, offshore, and approach channel intakes. In addition, intake  operation can be
modified to reduce the quantity of source water withdrawn or the timing, duration, and frequency of water withdrawal. This is
an important way to .reduce entrainment. For example, larval entrainment at the San Onofre facility was reduced by 50% by
rescheduling the timing of high volume water withdrawals (SAIC, 1996a).

c.   Intake capacity
Intake capacity is a measure of the volume of water withdrawn per unit time.  Intake capacity can be expressed as millions of
gallons per day (MOD), or as cubic feet per second (cfs). Capacity can be measured for the facility as a whole, for all of the
intakes used by a single unit, or for the intake structure alone.  In defining an intake's capacity it is important to distinguish
between the design intake flow (the maximum possible) and the actual operational intake flow.

The quantity of cooling water needed and the type of cooling system are the most important factors determining the quantity
of intake flow (U.S. EPA, 1976). Once-through cooling systems withdraw water .from a natural waterbody, circulate the water
through condensers, and then discharge it back to  the source waterbody. Closed-cycle cooling systems withdraw water from a
natural waterbody, circulate the water through the condensers, and then send it to a  cooling tower or cooling pond before
recirculating it back through the condensers.  Because cooling water is recirculated, closed-cycle systems reduce intake water
flow substantially. It  is generally assumed that this will result in a comparable reduction in I&E (Goodyear, 1977b). Systems
with helper towers reduce water usage much less.  Plants with helper towers can operate in once-through or closed-cycle
modes.

Circulating water intakes are used by once-through cooling systems to continuously withdraw water from the cooling water
source. The typical circulating water intake is designed to use 1.06-3.53 cfs (500-1500 gallons per minute, gpm) per
megawatt (MW) of electricity generated (U.S. EPA, 1976).  Closed cycle systems use makeup water intakes to provide water
lost by evaporation, blowdown, and drift. Although makeup quantities are only a fraction of the intake flows of once-through
systems, quantities of water withdrawn can still be significant, especially by large facilities  (U.S. EPA, 1976).

If the quantity of water withdrawn is large relative to the flow of the source waterbody, a larger number of organisms is more
 likely to be affected by a facility's CWIS. Thus, the proportion of the source water flow supplied to a CWIS is often used to
 derive a conservative estimate of the potential for adverse impact (e.g., Goodyear, 1977b).  For example, withdrawal of 5% of
 the source water flow may be expected to result in a loss of 5% of planktonic organisms based on the assumption that
 organisms are uniformly distributed in the vicinity of an intake.. Although the assumption of uniform distribution may not
 always be met, when data on actual distributions are unavailable, simple mathematical models based on this assumption
 provide a conservative and easily applied method for predicting potential losses (Goodyear, 1977b).
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
          Chapter Al: Risk Assessment Framework
Primary Eff«cts
Inrraued Mortality &
 Secondary Effects
• Popaldtluns     ~
Al-2.2   Characterization of Ecological  Effects

„,,          .   .    „,..„„   .                  Figure Al -3: Stressor-Effects Pathway
The characterization of ecological effects involves          .    [
describing the effects resulting from the stressor(s) of           j
interest, linking effects to assessment endpoints, and             I
measuring endpoints to evaluate how effects change as a         |
function of changes in stressor levels (U.S. EPA, 1998b).
For EPA's § 316(b) case studies, measures of ecological
effects included measures of both primary and secondary
effects (Figure A1-3). Losses of impinged and entrained
organisms are measures of primary effects and are the most
direct measure of the effects of CWIS on aquatic organisms.
It is necessary to fully evaluate primary effects in  order to
evaluate the consequences of these losses for fishery yields,      [
ecosystem production, or other measures of indirect or          I
secondary effects. The measurement endpoints evaluated for
the § 316(b) case studies are discussed in detail in Chapter
A4.               '                                        i
                                                           I
A1-3  RISK  CHARACTERIZATION                 j

The final step of an ecological risk assessment is the
characterization of risk (U.S. EPA, 1998b).  Risk  refers to
the likelihood of an undesirable ecological effect resulting       !
from the stressor of concern. Because of the intrinsic           !
variability and inevitable uncertainty associated with the
evaluation of ecological phenomena, ecological impacts         '
cannot be determined exactly, and thus only the probability
(or risk) of an effect can be assessed (Hilbom, 1987;             [
Burgmanetal., 1993).                                       |

Risk can be defined qualitatively or quantitatively,              j
depending on factors such as the goals of a risk manager and
data availability (U.S. EPA, 1998b).  Qualitative assessments usually involve best professional judgment. Quantitative
assessments involve calculation of the change in risk (Ginzburg et al., 1982; Ak9akaya and Ginzburg, 1991). The ecological
risk assessments for EPA's § 316(b) case studies used available facility data to quantitatively evaluate impingement and
cntrainment risks to aquatic organisms.                         '
AI-6

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
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 Figure Al-4: Examples of Species Directly Affected by CWIS
                                                   (e.g.Terrapiii. turtles,Sliders)
                                                                                                      I&E of Species
                                                                                                      of Commercial,
                                                                                                       Recreational,
                                                                                                      & Subsistence
                                                                                                        Importance
                                                                                                                         Al-7

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                           Chapter A2: Everything to Know About Fish
                                                         CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                         A2-1
                                                         A2-2
                                                         A2-3
                                                                 A2-3.2
                                                               - A2-3.3
                                                         A2-4
                                                         A2-5
A2-1  INTRODUCTION

Fish are the most numerous and diverse of all vertebrate
groups.  They go back more than 400 million years and
make up over half of all vertebrate species. About 24,600
species in 482 families live in the world today.  Experts
think that thousands more species are yet to be found.

Fifty-eight percent of the world's fish species live in the
sea and 41 percent live in freshwater. This number is
striking, since the volume of freshwater is only 1/7,500th
that of the oceans. One percent, just over 200 species,
move between freshwater and the sea. Most of these 200
species are anadromous, i.e., they reproduce in freshwater
but mature at sea. A few species are catadromous,
spawning in the sea but maturing in  freshwater.

More than three quarters of marine species live on or
along the shallow continental shelves. The deep Waters
beyond, which comprise most of the oceans, have only
about 2,900 fish species.

This chapter provides general information on the
distribution, anatomy, physiology, and ecology of fish
based on information in Wetzel (1983), Nelson (1994),
Ross (1995), Moyle and Cech (1996), and Helfman et al.
(1997).

A2-2 FISH DIVERSITY AND

ABUNDANCE


A2-2.1    Biological  Diversify            ,               '

The behavior, physiology, and morphology offish are very diverse. Fish eat all conceivable plant or animal food items.
Some species form large schools; others have territorial or solitary lifestyles. Fish migrate over short or long distances
looking for food or areas to mate. Extreme examples are some species of Pacific salmon, which swim more than  1,880 miles
(3,000 km) up the Yukon River to reproduce; or the giant blue tuna, which swims throughout the world's oceans seeking
food.  Some species can also walk on land or glide in the air.

Most fish are cold-blooded, but some are  partially warm-blooded. Most species use gills to get oxygen, but some supplement
gill breathing by gulping air.  A few will drown if they cannot breathe air. Some fish make venom, electricity, sound, or light.
Most fish release sperm and eggs into the water or the bottom with little parental care; others build nests, are live bearers, or
mouth brooders. Most fish have fixed sexual patterns, i.e., they are either male or female for their entire lives.  A surprising.
number switch sex at some point in  their lives.  The majority of species reproduce many times over a lifetime; some die after
the first mating.
  Introduction	A2-1
  Fish Diversity and Abundance	, A2-1
  A2-2.I   Biological Diversity	A2-1
  A2-2.2   Distribution and Zoogeography  .,	A2-2
  A2-2.3   Habitat Diversity;	 A2-3
  Influence of Fish an Aquatic Systems	._,...,. A2-3-
  A2-3.1   Responses by Different Aquatic
          Receptors to Fish  ...,	^t.,.',,,., A2^>
          Ecosystems are Complex — Fish
         .^	A2-S
 s Exterior Fish Anatomy .,:,...,	',.,.",	A2;6
  A2-4,!   Fish Shapes	,	.J. V,C..... A247~
  A2-4.2   -Skin afttrScales .%./:,.... v^\	A2&
;;A2-43   Fins . T,'.	"...C".	.'....:.... Af-8
- • A2-4.4   Mouth and Dentition.-'.	;..-	A2-9,
  Interior Ahatoniy^.--.''	t-	I..*.*.	A2-9
  A2-5.I   Skeletal,System	"'.',.......»,,... A2-IO
^,A2-5.2   Musete System ^	:... ,/'A.. A2-1 r
 /A2-S.3   Major Senws Organs  s:c..,.,..._	A2-J2^
,_ A2-5.4   Gircuiafory^System .•	."/.'. ^.. A2-i4*
         'Rc&piratory System ;»/.^	A2-J5
          Air/SwjmxBj:adder..,«.""...,	«.. .«A2-17y
          Digestive System"-*.,.'.',.,.,. JT.T^,, iA2-18"
                                                                ,-A2-5,5
                                                                 A2-5.6
                                                                 •A-2-5.7
                                                                                                            A2-1

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A2: Everything to Know About Fish
 Fish live from one year to over a century. Adult fish range from a 0.4 inch (10 mm) marine goby to the giant 39.4 ft (12 m)
 whale shark. Fish shapes range from snake-like to ball-like, saucer-like, or torpedo-like, with many forms in-between.  Some
 species are sleek and graceful; others are ungainly or grotesque. Fins may be missing or are changed for use as Sexual organs,
 suction cups, pincers, claspers, lures, or to serve other functions. Fish can be highly-colored to drab grey. Finally,
 approximately 50 species lack eyes.

 A2-2.2  Distribution and Zoogeography       I
                                                            t
 Fish live in all possible aquatic habitats on the planet. Most are found in "normal" habitats, such as lakes, rivers, tidal rivers,
 estuaries, and oceans.  Within those habitats, fish are found at elevations of up to 17,000 ft (5,200 m) in Tibet, and depths of
 over 3,300 ft (1,000 m) in Lake Baikal and 23,000 ft (7,000 m) below the ocean surface.  Fish live in water ranging from
 essentially pure freshwater with salt levels close to that of distilled water, to hyper-saline lakes with salt levels over three
 times that  found in the sea. Their habitats extend from caves or springs to the entire ocean,  from hot soda lakes in Africa with
 water temperatures up to 44 "C (111 °F) to deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific, and the Antarctic ocean where
 water temperatures drop to -2 °C (28 °F).

 a.  Freshwater
 Freshwaters support most of the world's fish species, when one considers the volume of available water.  This disparity arises
 from greater productivity, and isolation.

     *•   Freshwaters are quite shallow on average.  Sunlight, which stimulates photosynthesis and increases algal growth, can
         reach a relatively large part of their volume. In contrast, the oceans have a mean depth of 12,100 ft (3,700 m).
         Much of the water column is too deep and dark for photosynthesis and stays unproductive. The shallower
         continental margins, which support most marine species, are an exception.

     *•   Freshwater habitats easily break up into isolated water bodies, creating many distinct "islands" of water over the
         terrestrial landscape. This isolation promotes the formation of new species over time.  Droughts, volcanos,
         earthquakes, landslides, glaciation, and river course adjustments break up habitats. In contrast, marine habitats are
         unbroken over great distances and volumes. They are less likely to form barriers, except on a trans-oceanic scale.  •

 In North America, from the Arctic to the Mexican Plateau, freshwaters belong to a zoogeographic region called the Nearctic.
 This area has approximately 950 known fish species, classified into 14 families.  The most species-rich families are the
 Cyprinids (minnows and related species), Catostomids (suckers and related species), Ictalurids (catfish and related species),
 Percids (darters and  related species), and Centrarchids (sunfish and related species).
                                                                                                     '
 The Nearctic region  in North America is divided into two subregidns, each with many "provinces":

     *•    The Arctic-Atlantic subregion includes the Mississippi-Missouri drainage basins, the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence
         drainage basin, the rivers that drain the Atlantic seaboard; the Hudson Bay drainage basin, the rivers that drain into
         the Arctic Ocean, and the Rio Grande drainage basin.

     *•    The Pacific subregion contains the Pacific drainages frorn the Yukon river to Mexico, and the interior drainages west
         of the Rocky Mountains.                             \

 b.   Oceans                                               i
 The distribution of marine fish in the world's oceans suggests fourimajor marine regions, two of which are associated with
 North America:                                              I
                                                            j

     *•    The Western Atlantic Region includes the temperate shores of the Atlantic seaboard, the Gulf of Mexico, the
         tropical shores of the Caribbean Sea, and the tropical and temperate shores of the Atlantic ocean along South
         America.  Most of the 1,200 fish species in this region live in the West Indian coral reefs.
                                                                                                          .
     *•    The Eastern Pacific Region is split from the rest of the Pacific Ocean by the expanse of water between the continent
         and the Pacific islands. The fish diversity is less than that of the Western Atlantic,  mainly because this region has
         fewer coral  reefs. Several species in the Eastern Pacific Region are closely related  to species in the Western Atlantic
,42-2

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                           Chapter A2: Everything to Know About Fish
        Region, since these two regions were once connected until the Isthmus of Panama formed a barrier around 3 million
        years ago.

Most fish species live in coral reefs. Spcciation drops in temperate or polar regions, even though the number of individual
fish within a species may be quite high. Many species also have relatively small ranges, resulting in a high degree of
endemism (i.e., confinement to relatively small geographic areas). Global distribution of marine fish is hampered by physical
barriers (e.g., land and mid-ocean barriers). Distribution of freshwater fish is limited by land and salt water barriers.

A2-2.3   Habitat Diversity

Different variables determine where fish can live and reproduce.  These variables include dissolved oxygen levels, water
temperature, turbidity, salinity, currents, substrate type, competition, and predation. Lake-dwelling species may prefer deep,
cold, nutrient-poor lakes versus shallow, warmer, nutrient-rich lakes.  Species within lakes may seek out open water areas, the
shallow or deep bcnthic zone, or in-shore areas. A  similar pattern exists in streams and rivers: some fish prefer swifter
waters, whereas others seek pools or quiet backwaters.  Regional species assemblages differ between the cooler, swifter, and
clear headwaters and wanner, slower, more turbid low-land stretches.
Habitat use changes seasonally or throughout
the life of a fish: a species may have eggs and
larvae that are pelagic, juveniles that seek
inshore nursery habitat, and adults that live in
deep, cool, open water. Some fish are flexible
enough to thrive in different habitats: trout,
sunfish, minnows, or smallmouth bass are
equally successful in lakes and streams, as
long as conditions are acceptable. Others,
such as sculpins, are more selective, and only
tolerate a relatively narrow range of
conditions.

A2-3   INFLUENCE OF FISH ON

AQUATIC SYSTEMS

Fish are an intrinsic part of aquatic food webs
due to their numbers and functional diversity,
and their effects as competitors, predators, and
prey. Studies show that fish have direct
effects on the structure and function of aquatic
ecosystems: their presence causes changes in
habitat use, prey population structure,
population dynamics, and nutrient flows.
Large shifts can occur when fish are removed
or eliminated.

A fish's lifecycle starts as a fertilized egg.
The egg hatches in days, weeks, or even
months, based on the species and on water
temperature. Larvae are called sac fry for the
first several days or weeks of their life until
they consume all their yolk. In their first year,
they are called yearlings or age 0+ fish. The
term juvenile is more generic and refers to
sexually immature fish. The age of first
reproduction is species-specific: small,.
Figure A2-1: Simplified Food Web Associated with the Bay
Anchovy
                  Organic Dctrii
                                                                                                            A2-3

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Cose. Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A2: Everything to Know About Fish
 shorter-lived species such as minnows mature in one or two years. Larger or longer-lived species such as sharks, sturgeons,
 or tarpon can take ten or more years to reproduce.              I

 Each fish plays a role in aquatic food webs based on its size, feeding habits, or habitat needs. The term "game fish" refers to
 species wanted by recreational fishers; these fish have high value in a benefits analysis because they are highly valued by
 mankind. The term, even though not based on biology, normally; refers to fish that are predators near or at the top of aquatic
 food chains. Examples of game fish include pike, largemouth bass, salmon, bluefish, snook, or tarpon.

 The term "fora^o JlsN" or "prey fish" is vague because all fish in; their younger life stages are eaten by bigger fish and other
 organisms. Forage fish often refers mainly to smaller species that feed on plant material or small animals (zooplankton, fish
 eggs or xacfty, small crustaceans, etc.) and are themselves eaten, 'even as adults. Examples of forage fish include anchovies,
 rainbow smelt, bluegill sunfish, and numerous minnow species. Their value to humankind in a benefits analysis is less than
 that of game fish, but their biological value to the ecosystem is even more important, because without them, there wouldn't be
 any game fish.                                              ,

 Many predators eat fish. Invertebrate predators include diving beetles, dragonfly larvae, jellyfish, sea anemones, squids, cone
 shells, crabs, and others. Amphibian predators include bullfrogs and other large frog species. Reptilian predators include
 water snakes, aquatic lizards, turtles, and crocodiles or alligators. Bird predators include albatrosses, auks, cormorants,
 eagles, egrets, gannets, goldeneye ducks, herons, kingfishers, loons, mergansers, murres, ospreys, pelicans, petrels, penguins,
 seagulls,  skimmers, spoonbills, storks, terns, and many others. Finally, mammal predators include dolphins, seals, sea lions,
 bears, otters, mink, and raccoons, among others.               !
                                                               •
 This great predatory pressure affects fish distribution. Wading birds, for instance, feed in shallows along weedy edges or
 quiet backwaters. Small fish measuring less than 1.6 inches (<4cm) are safe there, because they can hide among stems,
 leaves, rocks, debris, or other structures. In contrast, larger prey iish avoid shallows and seek deeper water out of the reach of
 wading birds. The deeper water is a relatively safe alternative, because the piscivorous fish that live there are usually gape
 limited (i.e., limited  by the size of prey fish they can swallow because their mouths can open only so wide).

 A2-3.1   Responses  by  Different Aquatic Reieptors to Fish

 •t»  Aquatic plants                                          '
 Grazing by fish (and other organisms) affects plants, by altering plant biomass and productivity, changing the species
 composition of the vegetation, and causing plants to invest energy in growth instead of reproduction  to replace parts lost to
 grazing. Less than 25 percent offish species in temperate streams are true herbivores, compared with 25 percent to 100
 percent in tropical streams. In temperate seas, only 5 to 15 percent of species are herbivores, compared with 30 percent to
 50 percent in coral reefs.                         .            j

 *t*  Zooplankton                                           ;  .             .
 Fish predation in lakes, ponds, and reservoirs can affect zooplankton by forcing changes in their daily vertical migrations.
 During the day, zooplankters hide at depth, on the bottom, or in dense vegetation, to avoid being eaten by fish. The
 zooplankters rise to the surface at night to feed.  These migration patterns become less pronounced when the number  of
 planktivorous fish drops.

 •J*  Benthic invertebrates                                    '
 Benthic invertebrates live on or in the substrate. The population dynamics and behaviors of the benthos can change in
 response to fish predators. Studies have  shown that these changes are subtler than for the more exposed zooplankton.
 Aggressive benthic feeders, such as bluegill sunfish in lakes or creek chubs in streams, can depress local populations of
 benthic invertebrates. More often, the presence of benthic feeders causes behavioral changes in prey to reduce predation. For
 example:
                                                            i
     *   insect larvae move from the surface of rocks to less desirable (but more protective) spots underneath the same rocks;

     *•   crayfish — a favorite bass prey — move less and hide over bottom types that match their colors and make them less
        visible when bass are present;                         1
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A2: Everything to Know About Fish
    >•   the amount of benthic invertebrate drift drops when fish predators are present.

    -3.2   Ecosystems are  Complex — Fish  Predafion and Trophic Cascades

The effects described above show that predators and prey are linked. The next sections show that fish do not live in a
biological vacuum, but interact at different levels with other organisms.

a.   Trophic cascades  and their effects on bioiogicai responses
    »•   A trophic cascade is a kind of "ripple effect" that occurs when the numbers of organisms at different levels within a
        food web change as a result of the addition or deletion of predators or prey. For example, fewer zooplanktivpres are
        consumed when top predators are removed, and therefore the number of zooplanktivores rises. In turn, the increased
        numbers of zooplanktivores deplete populations of zooplankton, reducing predation on phytoplankton and increasing
        algal blooms. The opposite response can occur if top predators are added (for example, by stocking) or
        zooplanktivores are removed (for example, by commercial fishing, disease, or I&E).

Such responses have been seen in freshwater systems, as shown by the following experiments:

     >•   A lake contained the trophic cascade of redear sunfish — snails — epiphytes (i.e., algae that grow on submerged
        plants) - submerged plants. When the sunfish were removed from test plots in the lake, the snail population grew and
        ate more epiphytes. The absence of epiphytes afforded more light for the plants, which grew better than in areas of
        the lake where sunfish were present.

     >•   A similar situation occurred in rivers. This trophic cascade included piscivorous fish (large roach and steel head
        trout) - predators of benthic invertebrates (damselfly nymphs and fish fry) — herbivorous benthos (midges) —
        filamentous algae.  The number of nymphs and fish fry increased when roaches and steel head trout were removed
        from test plots. The predation rate on midges went up and reduced their population levels. The resulting growth of
        the filamentous algae was better than that seen in areas where the roaches and trout remained.

 b.  Trophic Cascades and their effects on physical parameters
 Big changes in physical variables can result from the presence or absence offish predators.  Lakes or reservoirs with hard
 waters and high'pH levels can have "whiting  events" in the summer. Lake Michigan is such a lake. These events occur when
 photosynthesis by phytoplankton is very high in the warm surface layers.  This activity removes dissolved CO2, raises the pH
 of the water even further and causes calcium  carbonate (CaCO3) to precipitate (the solubility of CaCO3 goes down as pH goes
 up) and turns water into a milky, white color. Whiting affects zooplankton feeding, decreases primary productivity, and
 causes nutrients to sink to the bottom.

 In the 1970s, salmonids were stocked in Lake Michigan. By 1983, these fish ate so many zooplanktivorous alewives that
 predation pressures  on zooplankton fell. The lower pressure increased the number of phytoplankton-eating cladocerans and
 led to more grazing on the phytoplankton.  As a result, photosynthetic activity dropped, the rise in pH during the summer was
 lower than normal, little or no CaCO3 precipitated out of solution, and no whiting event took place in 1983.

 The absence of zooplankton-eating fish can affect temperature regimes in smalllakes (<20 km2).  Compared to similar lakes
 with piscivorous fish, such lakes have many zooplankton, which keep the phytoplankton in check. The clarity of the water
 column increases, light goes deeper, and water temperatures are higher at greater depth. Trophic  cascades have been used to
 control eutrophication in lakes because they can generate strong biological and physical responses. Piscivorous fish are
 stocked to lower the number of zooplanktivores, enhancing the populations of herbaceous zooplankters who control the algal
 blooms.

 A2-3.3   Effects .of  Fish ©n the Cycling and Transport of Nutrients

 Fish can affect nutrient cycling. Phosphorus (P) is generally the limiting nutrient for plants in lakes and reservoirs. Fish
 excrete P as soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) through their gills or feces.  SRP is easily taken up by algae.  Studies show
 that fish-excretion is an important source of SRP to lakes and reservoirs and may have direct impacts on primary productivity
 in those systems.
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Fish are found in different trophic levels and feeding groups. They are highly mobile organisms that move nutrients among
compartments. In lakes, bottom feeders such as suckers, carp, or catfish stir up sediments while looking for food.  Nutrients
are resuspended in the water and support algal growth. Some fish!species that live in lakes make daily vertical migrations;
they transport N and P from the deeper, colder layers to the surface, and release these nutrients through excretion and
defecation in areas where most algal growth occurs.

Fish are also major nutrient reservoirs.  In certain lakes, up to 90 percent of the P is tied up in bluegill sunfish. This value
shows the importance offish to primary productivity, at least in nutrient-deficient waters: nutrients in fish are released to the
water by the gills or feces, or during fish decomposition after deatji. Studies in a clear, deep lake showed that P released by
roaches represented around 30 percent of the P budget of the epilimnion during summer stratification. Fish removal
experiments in lakes can also lead to drops in N and P in the water, presumably because the fish increase nutrient levels. Fish
biomass loss from emigration, fishing, or other ways (including I&E) can affect nutrient balances, hence primary productivity.

Fish tie different ecosystems together, particularly species  that spend part of their lives in freshwater and part at sea. Such
fish move large amounts of nutrients when they migrate between habitats. Prolific species, such as menhaden or herring, are
prey for larger piscivorous fish in coastal areas and are major sources of nutrients. The gulf menhaden , an abundant species
in Gulf estuaries, is a case in point. The fish spawn off-shore in late winter. Their larvae enter estuaries to feed. Juveniles
grow by a factor of 80 over a nine-month period; they return to the Gulf in late fall to mature. Each year, an  estimated 5 to
10 percent of the primary productivity in the salt marshes and estuaries is exported into the Gulf in the form of menhaden. Up
to 50 percent of the total N and P lost annually from these  habitats does so in the form of migrating menhaden. The loss in
on? habitat is a gain for another, because menhaden are a major source of prey. The carbon in these fish represents 25 to
50 percent of off-shore production in the Gulf.  Other fish  species with similar lifecycles all along our coastal habitats help
move energy, nutrients, and carbon across aquatic ecosystems.    [

In conclusion, the links and feedback loops in aquatic food webs make it difficult to predict what effects could result from the
loss offish from such systems.  The examples above remind us that every action leads to a reaction, some of which are
unpredictable but can have large effects. Thus, losses of impinged and entrained organisms from the local population can
have cascading effects throughout the food web.
                                                           i

A2-4 EXTERIOR FISH  ANATOMY                ;
Most people can recognize a fish. Its external
shape, the structure and position of its mouth, the
location of fins, or the presence of spines are a few
of the characteristics that vary among species. The
long evolutionary history offish has led to many
changes that help fish use all aquatic environment
habitats.  Some basic patterns are present in the
exterior anatomy of most fish species. These are
discussed below.

The external shape of a fish reflects its lifestyle and
habitat use. For example, the lifestyles of tuna and
flounders have changed the "typical" fish body
shape. Tuna migrate and hunt throughout the
world's oceans.  They have streamlined bodies with
strong muscles and a specially-shaped tail to swim
fast and catch prey. The largest members of this
group, such as the bluefin tuna, are even partially
warm-blooded to raise their endurance and speed.
Flounders, on the other hand, are flat and move less:
they spend much time on the ocean floor buried  in
the sand. They catch molluscs, worms, or fish that
swim by.
Figure A2-2: Exterior Fish Anatomy
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Figure A2-2 details a fish's exterior anatomy and the rest of Section A2-4 describes the major elements of exterior fish
anatomy. Green underlined words refer back to the corresponding figure. The section focuses on those elements that maybe
important to impingement or entrainment. A basic knowledge of scales, for example, may help in understanding survival in
fish that have lost their scales from I&E.

A2-4.1   Fish  Shapes

The "typical" fish is long and cigar-like.  Six general body shapes have developed around this basic design depending on the
species' lifestyle and habitat preferences:


    *•   Rover-predators are streamlined, with well-spaced fins along the body to provide stability and maneuverability.
        These fish are always mobile looking for prey. Examples include bluefin tuna and pelagic sharks.

    *•   Lie-in-wait predators have long bodies, flattened heads, and large mouths. Their demtaljins. and analJJns are
        located far back on the body and their caiidaljhi is large. The size and place of most of their fins provide quick,
        forward thrust needed to catch prey. Their colors and secretive behavior make them blend into their surroundings.
        These fish lie in ambush and capture prey by quick-burst swimming.  A typical example of a lie-in-wait predator is
        the pike.

    *•   Surface-oriented fish are smaller, with an upward-pointing mouth, a flattened head, large eyes,  and a dorsal fin
        located toward the tail. Their shape lets them capture small prey living below the water surface. Examples of
        surface-oriented fish include mosquito fish and brook silversides.

    *•   Bottom-dwelling fish generally have a small or nonexistent air (e.g. swim} bladder. They spend much time
        foraging or resting on the bottom. Examples are rays and skates, which are flattened dorso-ventrally; and flounders,
        which lie on their sides.

    *•   Deep-bodied fish are usually flattened sideways, with a body depth measuring at least one-third of their length.
        Their dorsal and anal fins are  long and the ££cfi2££Lfij££ are placed high on the body, directly above the pelvic fins.
        Deep-bodied fish tend to have a protrttsible mouth, large eyes, and a short snout.  Many have spines that increase
        their ability to escape predators, but at the expense of speed. Sunfish are examples of deep-bodied fish.

    *•   Eel-like fish have long bodies, blunt or wedge-shaped heads, and tapered or rounded tails. Their pelvic fins are
        small or missing. Such fish are well adapted to entering small crevices and holes in reefs or rock formations.
        Examples include the American eel and the murray eel.  '

 A2-4.2   Skin  and  Scales                                                   .  -            •

 Skin covers the entire body of a fish. It protects against micro-organisms and helps regulate water and salt balances. It also
 has the pigment cells that give fish their colors. The outer skin layer is the epidermis: it is thin and lacks blood vessels but is
 replaced as it wears off. The derm is is the inner, thicker layer, from which the scales grow. Much mucus is released by
 mucus glands, in the dermis. Mucus covers the fish with a protective layer: it cleans body surfaces, prevents the entry of
 pathogens, helps regulate salt balances, and reduces friction.                                        ,

 Most fish are covered with scales. Some fish are scaleless, others are partially covered. Differences may be big even in
 closely-related species: the leather carp is scale-less, the mirror carp is partly covered with scales, and the common carp is
 fully covered with scales. Scale-less species generally have a tough, leathery skin to compensate.

 Scales are thin, calcified plates that grow out of the dermis and protect the skin. They usually overlap like roof shingles and
 are known as imbricate scales.  Another type of scale, mosaic scales, fit closely together like a mosaic but do not overlap;
 adjacent scales may touch, or they may be separated by a  small space.  The scale structure also varies by fish group:  sharks,
 skates, and rays are covered with plucoid svatex (or dermal denticles), which give these fi§h the rough feel of sandpaper.
 Higher, bony fish, such as sunfish or minnows, are covered by smoother leptoid scales. Scale and mucus loss make fish more
 vulnerable to infections.
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 Scales are colorless; color comes from cells called chromatophores found in the dermis.  Some of these cells contain
 pigments that produce the bright colors seen in fish. Others create various color hues (such as the typical "metallic"
 coloration in some fish species) by scattering or reflecting light.

 Mechanical injuries from impingement and entrainment can abrade the epidermis, dermis and scales, removing them. This
 causes increased susceptibility to infection and osmotic stress.  Frpshwater fish will suffer from excessive water uptake, while
 saltwater fish will lose water (Rottmann et al., 1992).  Abrasion can also cause a reduction in the  lethal shear threshold of a
 fish, creating a greater susceptibility to  injury or mortality from the shear forces created by spatial differences in the velocity
 of moving water ([22024]).                                   [

 A2-4.3   Fins                                          j

 Swimming is a challenge because water is not a solid material, but flows upon impact. Deep-bodied fish tend to fall over on
 their side, because the water provides no support. The body of a fish also shifts sideways as it swims. Fish have developed
 several strategies, including fins, to lend stability and maneuverability for swimming more efficiently through the water.
 Fins are bony or cartilaginous rays projecting from the fish's body, and which are connected by a thin membrane.  Some of
 those rays are articulated and are called soft rays. Others are stiff and are known as spines. Many fish incorporate soft rays
 and spines in their fins to provide flexibility and protection. Some species also have poison glands attached to the base of
 hollow spines to protect against predators.                     j

 Fins have many roles: they are used to swim and maneuver but also serve as rudders, balancers, defensive weapons, feelers,
 sexual structures, sucking disks, and prey or mate attractors.  They have many shapes, colors, and lengths, and are found in
 different locations on the body. Fins come in two varieties: paired fins and vertical (or median) fins.

 a.  Paired fins                                          I
 Paired fins include the pectoral fins and pelvic fins, which are  ventral fins found at the bottom of the body (compared to
 dorsal fins, found on top of the body).  Pectoral and pelvic fins resemble the four limbs of the higher vertebrates: the pectoral
 fins are the forelimbs and are attached to the shoulders; the pelvic fins represent the hind limbs. Neither fin type plays a
 major role in locomotion; they prevent the body from pitching and rolling and to help to brake forward motion.

 <•  PectoralJins
 Pectoral fins are located behind the gill openings. They provide maneuverability, but also balance the body at low swimming
 speeds. Pectorals can have different shapes and functions: flying fish have large pectoral  fins to help them soar in the air;
 mudskippers have modified pectoral fins for crawling on land; and sea robins use the three front rays of their pectoral fins as
 feelers.

 <•  Pelvic JJns                        •                     |
 Pelvic fins are located on the underside of the body but vary in their placement: they may be found in front  of the pectorals
 (e.g.,  in cods, pollock, or winter flounder), below the pectorals (e.g., in largemouth bass, Atlantic croakers,  or darter goby), or
 in the middle of the body (e.g., in salmon, American shad, herring, or striped mullet). The pelvic fin is used to stop, hover,
 maneuver, and balance.  Pelvic fins can become specialized.  Some species have fused pelvic fins, which form a suction disk
 for clinging to rocks and coral. In male sharks, the pelvic fins form claspers, which serve as sperm cell conduits.

 Either one of these fin types may be  absent in fish. Eels lack pelvic fins but have fused dorsal, caudal, and anal fins (see
 discussion below). Lampreys lack pectoral fins. Generally, however, pelvic fins are much more likely than pectoral fins to be
 absent.                                                     ;
                                                            i                                  .

 b.  Vertical fins
 Vertical fins are found along the centerline of the body, at the top, bottom, and back of a fish.  Ogrsa/jff/w,  anal fins, and
 caudal fins are vertical fins found on most fish. Their roles include locomotion, protection, and balance.

 •>  Dorsal fins                                              \
 Dorsal fins are found on top of the body and consist of one or two, (and rarely three) separate fins. They help prevent the fish
 from turning over in the water. Many species incorporate stiff spiiies in their dorsals to protect against predators. The dorsal
 fin may be followed by the adipose fin, a fleshy outgrowth with no rays, typically found in salmonids and catfish. Mackerel-
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like fish have small, detached finlets consisting of a single ray behind their dorsal (and anal) fins. Other species have highly
modified dorsal fins: remoras have a sucker disk used for attaching to sharks, sea turtles, and other large marine animals.
Angler fish have a modified dorsal fin ray that bears a fleshy, moving lure used for attracting prey.

<*  Anal/in
The anal fin is found on the belly of the fish behind the vent, or anus. It is usually a single fin (rarely two) used in balance.
Many species include stiff, sharp spines to protect against predators. The anal fin is absent in rays and skates, which move
about and feed close to the bottom. (Contrary to rays and skates, which have a depressed body shape, flatfish actually lie on
their sides and have normal anal fins.) Anal fins also serve other purposes; in male mosquitofish, the anterior rays of the anal
fin have joined into a single structure used to transfer sperm to the female.

*  Caudal fm
The caudal fin is at the back of the fish and serves mainly to aid in locomotion. Swimming behavior shapes the caudal fin.
Some rover-predators, such as tuna and marlin, have a stiff, quartermoon-shaped forked tail attached to a narrow caudal
peduncle. The deeper the fork, the more active the fish.  Deep-bodied fish and most surface- and bottom-oriented fish have
rounded, square, or only slightly-forked tails.  A few fish, such'as sea horses, lack a caudal fin.

^2-4.4  Mouth and Dentition

The shape, size, and position of the mouth and teeth reflect the fish's habitat and diet.  The^mouths of bottom-feeding fish,
such as carps, suckers, or catfish, generally point downward. In extreme cases, the mouth is tucked underneath the fish, as in •
rays, skates, and sturgeons.  The mouth of surface-oriented fish, such as killifish, mosquitofish, and Atlantic silversides, points
upwards. Most fish, however, have a terminal mouth. Mouths can become highly specialized, with shapes ranging from
long, tube-like, probing structures to large, parrot-like beaks.

Fish do not chew their food; their teeth grab and hold prey until it can be crushed, torn apart, or positioned to be swallowed.
Predators, such as sharks, barracudas, and piranhas, have rows of highly-developed teeth. Most species have teeth that look
alike and are packed along the inner rim of the lower and upper jaw. Teeth typically point inward to prevent prey from
fleeing after capture.  Some predators, including pikes and pickerels, also have teeth on their tongues, gill arches, throats, and
the roofs of their mouths.  Fish that strain the water for plankton or eat plants have few well-developed teeth. Species that
crush coral or clams have fused teeth in the form of a cutting edge, crushing plates, or broad, blunt.teeth arranged like
cobblestones. These species include parrot fish or skates and rays. The number of teeth in fish varies greatly and ranges from
0 to more than 10,000.                                                                        ',

A2-JJ  INTERIOR ANATOMY

Section A2-5 discusses various components of the interior anatomy of a fish. Terms in this section that are green and
underlined are glossary terms that also refer to Figure A2-3 which diagrams many of the internal organs of the striped bass.

The internal anatomy of fish varies less than their external anatomy. All vertebrates share many structures, such as a central
nervous system or an internal skeleton. Other structures are unique to fish (e.g., air of swim Madders (Figure A2-3) for
buoyancy control arid internal gills for gas exchange and salt regulation)'. This section outlines basic features of the internal
anatomy offish. Rather than in-depth review , this section provides a basic understanding of the structure and function of the
major organ systems in fish.                                                                  ,

This knowledge is  important because the systems discussed here  may play a role during impingement or entrainment.  For
example, (1) impinged fish may suffocate if they cannot pass water over their gills due to high water pressures;
(2) anadromous fish adjusting to different salt levels in the water during migrations may be more vulnerable than resident
species to the stresses of impingement; and (3) the air or swim bladder of larval fish may be damaged when they undergo
rapid pressure changes within the cooling system.
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         Figure A2-3: Interior Fish Anatomy


                                   34
                          2,ti
              2,
         1.1
         5.IT
                                                                                       iftb
                                             Source: EPA, based on a drawing by Jack J. Kunz, National Geographic Society, 1969
 1.01 factory System
      l.a Nasal Capsule
      l.b Olfactory Nerve

 2. Nervous System
      2.a Brain
      2.b Spinal Column
      2.c Lateral Line

 3. Skeletal System
      3.a Cranium/Skull
      3.b Vertebra/Backbone
      3.c Neural Spines
      3.d 1" Dorsal Fin Spines &
         Pterygiophore
      3.e 2*1 Dorsal Fin Spines &
         Pterygiophore
      3.f Anal Fin Spines and Support
4. Muscle Segment (myomere)

5. Digestive System    |
     5.a Mouth
     5.b Tongue      j
     5.c Esophagus
     5.d Liver
     5.e. Gall Bladder
     S.f Stomach     I
     5.g Pyloric Caeca
     5.h Intestines     1
     5.i Anus        [

6. Respiratory System  '
     6.a Buccal Cavity
     6.b Gill Rakers   !
     6.c Gill Arches   ;
     6.d Branchial Cavity
7. Circulatory / Cardiovascular
      System
     7.a Ventral Aorta
     7.b Heart
     7.c Spleen

8. Air Bladder

9. Reproductive System
     9.a Ovary

10. Excretory System
      lO.a Kidney
      lO.b Bladder
      lO.c Urinary Duct/Urogenital
          Opening
A2-5.1   Skeletal System                           i

The internal skeleton holds together and protects the soft, internal organs, helps maintain the proper body shape, and serves as
an attachment or leverage point for striated (i.e., skeletal) muscles.

a.  Types of skeletons
Fish belong to three broad groups, based on skeletal differences: !             ,
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 **»   Agnathans                                                 .
 Agnathdm, the jawless fish, are the most primitive of all fish. Most species became extinct 350 million years ago, except for
 the eel-like hagfish and lampreys. Hagfish live in the ocean and scavenge dead fish or other vertebrates.  Lampreys live both
 in marine and freshwater environments; some species parasitize other fish.  Agnathans lack jaws; they also lack a true
 vertebral column, ribs, scales, paired appendages, and other skeletal features typically found in more modern fish.  Instead of
 true hollow vertebrnc (Figure A2-3), hagfish and lampreys have a flexible notochord, a long, cartilaginous rod that acts like a
 primitive backbone.

 *«*   Chottdrichthyes
 Ciwndriclithyes, the cartilaginous fish, include sharks, rays, skates, and the less familiar but striking Chimaeras.  These fish
 do not have true bone; instead, their skeletons are made of cartilage combining hardness and elasticity. Unlike bone, cartilage
 usually does not mineralize (there are exceptions), but instead consists of a flexible matrix made of fibers meshed in a protein-
 like material. Typical Chondrichthyes are also distinct from bony fish for other reasons, including: (1) lack of a air/swim
 bladder; (2) presence of a solid braincase instead of one with many pieces of bone; (3) individual external gill openings
 instead of a single combined opening; (4) primitive fin structure; and (5) tooth-like scales.             ;

 «t*   Osteichthyes                         '
 Osteichthyes, the bony fish, include all other living fish species.  The Osteichthyes have a bony skeleton; notable exceptions
 include primitive bony fish, such as sturgeons or paddlefish, which have only partly ossified skeletons. Boriy fish have gills in
 a common chamber covered by a movable bony open-alum (see Figure A2-2), and fins supported by bony rays radiating from
 the fin base. They usually have a gas bladder to provide buoyancy. The teleosts are the most successful bony fish; most
 aquarium, commercial, and recreational species belong to this group. Teleosts comprise more than 30,000 species and
 subspecies.                     .

 b.  Major components
 The major components of the internal skeleton in modern fish include the following:

       *•  The backbone replaces the notochord of the jawless fish and consists of interlocking hollow vertebrae that run from
         the back of the skntt (Figure A2-3) to the tail. The spjnat.cora (Figure A2-3), which starts in the brain and runs
         through the backbone, is also protected by it. The number of vertebrae range  from 16 to more than 400, depending
         on the fish species. Each vertebra has an upward-projecting spine called the neuralsmne (Figure A2-3). The
         vertebrae found behind the abdominal cavity may also have one or more downward-pointing spines (the haemal
         spines).

       *•  The skull is a complex structure in the head region.  Its major part is the cranium (Figure A2-3), or braincase, which
         protects the brain and several sense organs. The skull is also an attachment point for the lower jaw, the backbone,
         and the shoulder and pelvic girdles. In sharks and related fish,  the skull does not have sutures.  The skull of bony
        . fish consists of many fused bones.

       *•  The ribs or sjnncs. (Figure A2-3) are loosely attached to the vertebrae and surround the fish's abdominal cavity.
         They are small projections in cartilaginous fish, but are fairly well-developed in bony fish.  Unlike in terrestrial
          vertebrates, fish ribs play no part in breathing. They instead transmit muscle contractions during swimming and
          frame the body.  Fish also lack a breastbone to create a rigid rib cage.

       *  The/2fi»3Ji««; (Figure A2-3) are. spine-like bones not directly connected to the rest of the skeleton. They anchor
          both dorsal and ventral fins into the muscles through connecting structure called pjetysiiijihore^ that reach toward or
          may intertwine with both the neural and haemal spines of the vertebrae.

  A2-5.2   Muscle  System

  Muscles comprise one-third to one-half of the mass of an average fish. The activity of the nervous system has little
  consequence except through its action on muscles, which are used both to swim and to aid digestion, nutrition, secretion, and
  circulation. Muscles exert their force by contracting.  If a muscle is attached to different places on the skeleton, the
  contraction creates a pull, resulting ifi movement. Two major types of vertebrate muscle tissue exist:
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     »•  Smooth muscle, the simpler of the two, is under involuntary control.  It is found in the lining of the digestive tract,
        where it provides the slow contractions needed to advance food. It is also found in the ducts of glands connected to
        the gut and the bladder, as well as in blood vessels, genital organs, and other locations (the heart consists of highly
        modified smooth muscle). Although it plays a major role in the well-being offish, smooth muscle is not involved in
        swimming.                                                            •

     *•  Striated muscle (Figure A2-3), forming the "flesh" of the fish, is under rapid, voluntary control. These muscles are
        large, well-formed structures; their main role is in swimming.  Striated muscles are also used to move eyes, jaws,
        fins, and gill covers.                                  |

The biggest muscle mass in fish is the axial musculature, which runs from head to tail on both sides of the body.  It is
arranged in repeating, W-shaped, overlapping segments called inyvmi'res. A tough membrane connects each myomere to its
neighbor. An additional membrane, called the horizontal septum, divides the myomeres into a dorsal and ventral half.

The fish creates a wave along its flanks by contracting opposite muscle segments (Figure A2-3).  The wave gains speed as it
travels backwards and causes the tail to thrust against the resistance of the water, thereby moving the fish forward. There is
little specialization in the axial musculature. One exception are the muscles used for moving the pectoral and pelvic fins.
Each fin has two opposing muscles: one extends the fin, the other depresses it.

A2-5.3   Major Sense Organs                     ;
                                                            i
The sense organs in fish have many uses, including orienting the animals and detecting electrical, mechanical, chemical,
thermal, and electromagnetic signals from their surroundings. The nervous system is split into two main parts: the central
nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)V The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord. The PNS
consists of paired nerves that run outward from the CNS and connect to other areas in the body.  One function of the nervous
system is to tie receptor cells, such as the eyes or lateral line, to effector cells, such as the skeletal muscles.  Receptor cells
detect outside signals; effector cells create a response. Another part, the visceral nervous system, serves the gut, circulatory
system, glands, and other internal  organs.
                                                            I
This section discusses the structure and function of the organs tied to olfaction, taste, equilibrium/hearing, vision, and the
lateral line.

Q.  Olfaction
Many fish have a keen sense of smell.  Certain shark species can detect the odor of blood over great distances in the ocean.
The olfactory epithelium is found at the bottom of specialized holes called nasal pits located in the snout. Unlike the noses
of terrestrial vertebrates, the pits do not open into the kite col? aviiv (Figure A2-3). Each olfactory cell connects to the
olfactory bulk of the brain via nerves.  The olfactory cells project rod-like extensions into the nasal pit. These extensions
detect the odor molecules. Little is known about the exact processes that generate the sense of smell in fish.

b.  Taste
The taste cells are grouped in clusters called taste had\. Each cluster has  30 to 40 taste cells connected to nerve fibers. Taste
buds are usually found in small depressions.  Each sensory cell has a hair-like projection, which may extend to the surface of
the epithelium via the taste pore and detect taste. Fish can detect sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and/or sweetness.

All fish do not experience taste in the same way. Most have taste^buds in their mouth and pharynx, and can therefore taste to
one degree or another. Some, like the bullhead catfish, also have tastebuds over their entire body surface. Others, such as
sturgeons and carp, have taste buds on oral feelers to facilitate finding food in mud or murky waters. Still others have taste
buds covering their heads.

c.  Equilibrium and hearing
Fish do not have the features of hearing found in terrestrial vertebrates (i.e., ear lobes, ear canals, ear drums, ear ossicles).
The basic ear structure in fish and all higher vertebrates is the inner ear, a paired sensory organ found in the skull.  This   .
Structure originally evolved as an  organ of equilibrium and is still used as such by all terrestrial and aquatic  vertebrates. The
ability to hear evolved later.
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The inner ear in fish consists of sacs and canals that form a closed system containing a liquid called an endolymph.  Some of
the internal surfaces of the sacs and canals are lined by a tissue called the macula. The sensory cells that make up the macula
resemble the neuromasts found in the lateral line system discussed below.  These cells connect to auditory nerves in the brain.
Calcium carbonate crystals are deposited on top of the macula and combine to form ear stones called otolitlts.  Depending on
the tilt of the head, the acceleration, or the rate of turning, the otoliths contact the sensory cells in different ways, causing
specific patterns of nerve firings. The CNS interprets these signals and provides data to the fish on its orientation and
movement through space.

The inner ear also captures sound waves. Sound waves carry farther in water than in air and are therefore a source of
information to fish. Whereas cartilaginous fish (e.g., sharks, ray, skates) respond only to very low vibrations, most bony fish
hear a range of sounds.  Fish do not have external hearing structures; sound is believed to pass through the skull into the inner
ear. The vibrations cause the otoliths to shake, generating the effect of hearing.

Sound must generate head vibrations for fish to hear.  Some fish have "hearing aids" to better capture sounds.  These aids rely
on the gas in air/swim bladders to amplify the vibrations of sound in water. The swim bladder in herrings has an extension
that reaches forward and carries vibrations directly to the inner ear.  Catfish and carp use a different method: bony processes
of the anterior vertebrae form a chain called the Wcherian ossicles,  which connect the swim bladder to the head region.
These modifications show the importance of sound to fish.

d.   Vision
The basic anatomy offish eyes resembles that of other vertebrates.  The cornea is the outermost layer, through which light
enters the eyeball. The  cornea is followed by a lens, which serves to bend and focus the light rays on the retina in the back of
the eye.  Muscles attached to the lens allow fish to focus on nearby or far away objects. Ocular fluid fills the interior of the
eye and the space between the cornea and lens. Fish have evolved a tapetum to let the eye catch more light. This is a highly
reflective tissue that mirrors the light back onto the eye. Unlike terrestrial vertebrates, fish lack a pupil to control the intensity
of the incoming light.                       .

The retina in fish is composed of rods and c'flfu'.v, which are light-gathering cells containing visual pigments. Rods  have more
pigments than cones and are more sensitive to dim light. Cones work only at higher light levels  and are usually missing in fish
that live in low-light habitats, such as the deep sea. Different pigments have distinct molecular structures and are sensitive to
specific wavelengths. When light hits visual pigments, a chemical reaction is started that results in nerve impulses.  These are
carried by the optic nerve to the brain for processing.

Fish  have adapted to deal with the unique optics of water and the different light conditions that exist in aquatic environments.

 •*«   Refraction
 Refraction refers to the  bending of light as it passes from one medium to another, such as from air to water or from water to
tissue. The cornea and  ocular fluids of fish do not refract light. Fish lenses are good at bending light, and make  images free
 of aberrations or distortions by changing the refractive properties of the tissues within the lens. Light passing through the lens
 follows curved paths  to form sharp images on the retina.

 This arrangement is a problem when fish need to focus on nearby or far away objects.  Mammals focus by changing the
 curvature of the lens. Fish cannot do that. Most fish move the  lens toward or away from the retina along the optical axis. As
 a general rule, freshwater species accommodate less than do marine species; useful vision is more limited.in the more turbid
 waters of lakes and rivers, compared to ocean water.

• ***   Light absorption
 Water's light absorption properties change with depth.  Longer wavelengths (reds and greens) are quickly removed  at the
 surface; only shorter  wavelengths (blues) go farther down. Deep water fish have visual pigments sensitive to blue light. A
 change in spectral quality with depth affects fish that move between the seas and inland waters.  Adult salmon in the ocean,
 for example, have rod pigments that best absorb in blue end of the spectrum. As the fish migrate into shallower freshwater,
 their pigments are gradually replaced by new ones that are more sensitive to the redder end of the spectrum.
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  *J*   Color vision                                    .      :
  Fish can see colors if they live in relatively shallow or clear water. Consequently, numerous tropical fish species display
  brilliant colors.          •                                  ,                     '                 .
                                                           I
  e.   Lateral  line                                       1
  Most fish have a "lateral ///"'"(Figure A2-3) running along their Iflanks from head to tail. The lateral line provides spatial and
  temporal information. It is so sensitive that blinded fish can locate fish or other nearby objects. A fish can also feel the
  motion of its own body relative to the surrounding water: as it approaches an object, the pressure waves around the fish's
  body are slightly distorted. The lateral line detects these changes and enables the fish to swerve. Low frequency sound waves
  generate pressure waves in the water column, which are also detected by the lateral line.

  The lateral  line can be single, double, or forked, consisting of thousands of tiny sensory organs that lie on the skin surface
  within small pits. These sensory organs connect to the brain.  At the bottom of each pit is a ne.uromast, a small structure that "
  detects vibrations and water movement around the fish. The neuromast consists of sensory hairs enclosed in a gel-filled
  capsule that protrudes into the water. The neuromasts send out electrical impulses to the brain.  The enclosed sensory hairs
  bend when  a pressure wave distorts the gelatinous caps. This movement either increases or decreases the frequency of nerve
  impulses depending on the bending.  It is this change hi frequency which is sensed by  the fish.

  A2-5.4   Circulatory  System
                                                           i
 The circulatory system transports and distributes various substances including oxygen, nutrients, salts, hormones, or vitamins
 to cells throughout the body; and removes waste products such as carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes, excess salt, or
 metabolic water. The circulatory system also maintains proper physiological conditions within the body, fights diseases, heals
 wounds, and serves as an accessory to the nervous system through the endocrine (i.e., hormone) system.

 The major parts of the circulatory system are the blood and the circulatory vessels.

 a.  Blood                                               i
 Blood fills the circulatory system vessels. Blood's liquid "matrix," called blood plasma, contains several cell types:
                                                           |
      *•  Rctl Mood cells are packed with  hemoglobin, which  contains iron atoms to carry oxygen to the cells and carbon
         dioxide away from the cells.                         '
                                                           i
      >•  H hitf blood cclh fight infections and other diseases,   i

     *•   Tltro/ttbocytt's help the blood to  clot.                [

 The life span of blood cells ranges from hours to months, depending on cell type.  The body must therefore make new cells to
 replace old ones. Blood-forming tissue in fish is found in one or more of the: spJi'en (Figure A2-2), kidneys (Figure A2-3),
 gonatb (sex organs), fiver (Figure A2-3),  and hear! (Figure A2-3;and Figure A2-4). Bone  marrow does not form blood cells
 in fish.                                                    i
 b.  Circulatory vessels
 The circulatory system includes the heart, arteries and veins, capillaries, and the lymphatics.
                                                           |
 The heart of a typical fish, a modified tube with four sequential chambers, is found close to the gills.  Oxygen-poor blood
 enters the sinus vcnmtis, and is pumped through the atrium, and M?£±fc into the buthujt-.(Figure A2-3) or conus arteriosus.
 From there, it is pumped out of the heart, into the yentrg±gsrta. The ventricle does most of the pumping. One-way valves
 prevent blood from flowing backward.' The ventral aorta runs toward the gills and branches into parallel aortic arches that
 run through each gill.  After the blood is re-oxygenated, the blood vessels rejoin into one large dorsal aorta, which carries the
 blood to the organs.
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                                  Figure A2-4: Bill and Heart Anatomy
                            Gill
 Arteries carry higher-pressure, oxygen-rich blood. When they reach their target organs, the arteries split into smaller branches
 called arterioies. These enter the organ and continue to divide until they become so narrow that red blood cells can pass
 through them only single-file. At this point, the blood vessels are called capillaries. The microscopic capillaries are the most
 important part of the circulatory system.  Whereas blood is simply carried through the arteries and veins, blood in the
 capillaries releases oxygen and nourishment to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide and other wastes. The capillaries rejoin
 and form larger venulcs. The venules merge into veins, which carry the oxygen-poor blood out of the organs and back to the
 heart. The venous system is at a lower pressure than the arterial system because pressure is lost as blood passes through the
 capillaries.

 Bony fish also have a lymphatic system, a network of vessels running parallel to the venous system, returning excess fluids
 from the tissues  to the heart. The lymphatics are not connected to the arterial blood supply, but instead arise from their own
 dead-end capillaries within the tissues. The excess fluid is captured as  lymph and returned to the venous system.

 A2-5.5   Respiratory System

 Fish are aerobic., i.e., they must breathe oxygen. Most fish obtain their oxygen from the water. Extracting oxygen from water
 is difficult because (1) water is a thousand times denser and 50 times more viscous (at 68 °F [20 °C]) than air; (2) when
 saturated, water contains only 3 percent of the oxygen found in an equal volume of air; and (3) oxygen solubility in water
 decreases with increasing temperature.  Fish expend much energy moving water over their gills; they have evolved efficient
 gills to maximize oxygen uptake while minimizing the cost of breathing.

 a.   Basic gill  anatomy
 Gills are similar among groups offish.  The paired gills are internal and located in the pfiaiyngeal region, specifically the
 branchial cavity.  They are supported by flexible rods called gill ban.  The number of gill bars ranges from four to six.  On
 the side facing the pharynx, the gill bars carry stiff strainers called M/.0?/il±S (Figure A2-3 and Figure A2-4). Though not
 used in breathing, some species use gill rakers to strain out food particles. A typical gill bar has two  large gMlMaiiieitts
 (Figure A2-3 and Figure A2-4), which point outward (i.e., away from the pharynx and  into the branchial cavity).  Each gill
 filament supports many gill la'mcllae, where the gases are exchanged.
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 An average of 20 lamellae are found on each mm of gill filament.  Lamellae are covered by tissue one cell layer thick to
 optimize gas exchange. Those of adjacent gill filaments usually touch or mesh together, which favors contact between the
 gills and water. The gill surface area varies by a factor of 10 (on a per weight basis) and depends on the animal's activity!
 Active swimmers like white shark or tuna have larger gill surface areas than do sedentary fish like sunfish or carp. A fish
 such as a 44-pound sea bass has a respiratory surface of about 60 'ft2.
                                                           I
 b.  Gas  exchange                                     •
 When the fish opens its mouth to breathe, the branchial cavity is closed by a stiff operculuin  (in bony fish) or a series of flap-
 like gill septa (in cartilaginous fish) to prevent oxygen-rdepleted water from re-entering the branchial cavity.  The operculum
 and septa also help keep a negative pressure in the buccal cavity v/hen the mouth opens, forcing water to rush in. As the fish
 closes its mouth, the buccal cavity becomes smaller and water is forced backward over the gills.

                                                                '
 Breathing water has drawbacks, partly due to its low oxygen content.  Gills increase oxygen uptake using a cauntercurrent
 exchange mechanism. The gill lamellae face the incoming water,  which always moves from  the buccal cavity to the branchial
 cavity. Blood flows through the lamellae in the opposite direction. When blood first enters the lamellae, it encounters water
 low in oxygen (the "upstream" gill lamellae have already removed some oxygen). The blood entering the lamellae contains
 even less oxygen.  This difference lets the small amount of oxygen still present in the water move into the blood. The oxygen
 content of blood flowing into the incoming water goes up, out so does that of the ever "fresher" water. A nonstop oxygen
 flow in favor of the blood all along the lamellae results.  Oxygen keeps moving into the bloodstream until the blood leaves the
 lamella. Through this process, fish remove up to 80 percent of the oxygen from the water. Carbon dioxide moves in the
 opposite direction based on the same principle.

 c.  Other gill  functions                               ;
 The central role of gills is to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide.  Gills also have other functions due to their large
 surface area and close contact with water.                     I
 *t"   Osmoregulation
 Gills, together with kidneys, are used in oxmoreffiilatton: the
 control of salt and water balances. The internal fluids of
 freshwater fish are "saltier" than the surrounding water.  When
 blood moves through the gills, salt diffuses from the blood into
 the water, whereas water tends to move into the body. The
 kidneys release the extra water as dilute urine to keep a proper
 internal water balance. Freshwater fish also drink little or no
 water. Any salt loss is made up by chloride ce/tx located in gill
 filaments and lamellae. These cells move salts from the water
 into the blood to make up for the loss.  Mucus covers the gills,
 which protects them from injuries but helps in osmoregulation.

 This situation reverses in marine bony fish: their internal fluids
 are less "salty" than their surroundings: water in the blood
 moves out of the body, but salts move in.  These fish  drink
 freely to make up for water loss. Drinking sea water brings
 salts into the  body; these salts are excreted by both the gill
 chloride  cells and the kidneys.
3? Osmoregulation is a vital physiological need for
fish and other aquatic organisms. This is
particularly true for anadromous fish, which move
from the ocean into freshwater habitats to spawn,
and whose offspring niigrate'back into the ocean to
mature. These species undergo profound
physiological changes over relatively short periods
of time to adapt to and survive in drastically
different osmotic environments. f3ome:species may
be less:able to survive physical shock or extreme   r
stress during .this transitional period, and could
therefore be more susceptible to mortality from
impingement.
Cartilaginous fish (and some primitive bony fish) also live in salt water but maintain their water balance differently. These
fish keep high levels of urea in their blood, which causes their internal fluids to be saltier than seawater. Some water enters
the gills, and the kidneys produce moderate amounts of urine. These fish need little or no additional water and drink
infrequently.                                                ;

•I*   Hear exchange                                  .      '
Most fish are cold-blooded: their body temperature equals that of the water.  Internal heat created by muscle activity is lost to
the environment when the fish's blood passes through the gills to extract oxygen from water.  Pelagic fish, such as certain tuna
and sharks, are exceptions.  These fish have countercurrent heat exchangers in their muscles to keep much of the heat inside
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and prevent it from being lost through the gills. Their body temperatures can be up to 20-25 °F (-6.7 to -3.9°C) higher than
that of the surrounding water.                             •      .          .

»«*   Excretion                                                                                       .       •
Freshwater and marine bony fish release their nitrogenous wastes through their gills.  Blood moves the waste, in the form of
urea, to the gills. There, urea changes into toxic ammonia, which quickly diffuses into the water. Cartilaginous fish
(i.e., Chondrichthyes) keep high levels of urea in their blood and lose very little of it through their gills to help in
osmoregulation.

»J*   Predation
Gills have evolved to catch prey in plankton feeders, which swim with their mouths open. These fish have numerous; fine,
and long gill rakers that strain plankton. Examples include the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), the gizzard shad, and the
Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

A2-5.6  Air/Swim Bladder                                                          .

Buoyancy is the tendency of an object to float or rise in water, and depends on the object's density versus that of water.  An
aquatic organism With a density like water is weightless, neither rising or sinking. Less effort is needed to keep it from
sinking or to move about. Most fish regulate their density to reach neutral buoyancy.

a.   Strategies to increase buoyancy
Fat is less dense than water. One way to reduce body density, and increase buoyancy, is to increase body fat. About one-third
of a fish's body weight needs to be fat to make the fish weightless in seawater.  Several shark species increase buoyancy in this
manner: they have huge livers full ofsqaalene, a fatty substance that provides buoyancy, being much less dense than
seawater.  Buoyancy is also attained by storing gases within the body. Many bony fish have ah air/swim bladder for this
purpose.                                                             '                                 .

The amount of body volume that must be in the form of gas to achieve "weightlessness"  depends on the saltiness of the water.
Freshwater contains less salt than seawater; it is therefore less dense and provides less buoyancy. Swim bladders in
freshwater fish range from 7 to 11 percent of body volume, while those of marine fish range from 4 to 6 percent of body
volume.

b.  Structure and function
Fish would be neutrally buoyant at only one depth, if air/swim bladderfe had  a fixed amount of gas. Water pressure increases
as water depth increases.  When a fish swims to a lower depth, the increased pressure compresses the gas in the swim bladder,
lowering its volume and increasing the density of the fish. The fish must swim more actively to compensate for this to prevent
its denser body from  sinking further. Water pressure decreases expanding the volume of gas in the swim bladder, when a fish
swims toward the surface. Without the ability to change the amount of air in the swim bladder, a fish becomes less dense and
rises to the surface like a cork.

The volume of gas in an air/swim bladder, and hence its pressure, needs adjusting as a fish changes depths. Most fish have an
air/swirn bladder that is isolated from the outside of the body and air pressure within the bladder varies when gas moves from
the bladder to nearby blood vessels and back again.  In some species, such as carp, a pneumatic duct joins the air/swim
bladder with the ewmhggus. This connection acts as a " valve" to release extra gas as the fish swims toward the surface, or to
take up gas by gulping air at the surface before swimming toward the bottom..

It is simple to remove gas from an expanding air/swim bladder: the pressure forces the gas into the surrounding blood
capillaries, which carry it away. Filling up a bladder is more difficult because it is done against the high pressures already in
the bladder.

In most bony fish (i.e., Osteichthyes), gas enter the air/swim bladder through the red hoily. The name comes from a structure
known as the rctc mirahile (the "marvelous net"), a dense bundle of capillaries arranged side by side in countercurrent
fashion. Blood leaving the area carries gases at the same pressure found in the air/swim bladder. The gas pressure of blood
coming into the area is much lower, similar to that in the surrounding water. Gases move from the outgoing blood to the
incoming blood, not unlike the gas exchange process in the gills. The red body boosts the process by releasing compounds
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that raise the incoming blood's oxygen level. When the gas pressure in the red body exceeds that within the swim bladder,
gas moves into the latter. Gas uptake and release is not immediate; swim bladders can burst when fish caught at great depth
come to the surface too fast.                  ••              |

c.  Effect  of  entraintnent on the swim bladder
Changes in pressure can have a dramatic and often lethal effect on fish with swim bladders.  Cooling water systems contain
both positive and negative pressure differentials. A large positive pressure change will cause the swim bladder to implode.
The effects of negative pressure changes appear to be more damaging. Negative pressure changes can cause the swim bladder
to explode if the pressure across the membrane cannot be equalized fast enough.  Pressure effects may be the leading cause of
mortality in larvae of bluegill, carp, and gizzard shad.  Gas disease may also result from a negative pressure change.  Gas
becomes more soluble in a negative pressure system, and following the release of pressure, hemorrhaging of blood vessel
walls may occur around the eyes, gills, fins,  and kidneys.        j
                                                           I

A2-5.7  Digestive  System                        |

The digestive system processes ingested food to meet the energy needs of fish.
                                                           |
The digestive system of fish has four major functions:

   •  >•   Transportation: Swallowed food moves through the various gut sections for handling. Solid wastes must be
         removed at the end.                                 :
     *•   Physical treatment: Food must be reduced in size by muscular action before it can broken down by digestive
         chemicals. Fluids  are added to turn the  food into a soft, pasty pulp.
     ••   Chemical treatment: Food is turned into simpler compounds in the "digestive" phase.
     *•   Absorption: The products of digestion  are absorbed thrbugh the intestinal wall and either distributed as fuel or
         stored for later use.

The digestive system starts at the mouth (Figure  A2-3), which captures prey.  Food is passed through the buccai cavity into
the muscular pharynx, where it is swallowed into the tube-like esQnhqsui\ (Figure A2-3). The esophagus uses smooth muscle
to transport food to the stamach (Figure A2-3) (note that some fish' such as chimaera, lungfish, and certain teleosts do not
have a stomach;  the esophagus connects directly  to the intestine (Figure A2-3)). In many fish, a muscular sphincter exists
where the esophagus meets  the stomach.  The stomach, when present, can be either a "U"- or "V"-shaped tube or a straight,
cigar-shaped organ. Its internal wall is deeply folded and rich with mucus-secreting glands.  Other glands release digestive
acids, and enzymes such as  pepsin and lipases, to break down protein and fats. At the end of the stomach, many bony fish
have extensions  called fli:/gj.vc_ggp<^ (Figure A2-3), which may help  digest and absorb food.

The pancreas is a major source of digestive enzymes, that form an "intestinal juice" to break down fats, proteins, and
carbohydrates into simpler molecules. The intestine has glands Which produce more digestive enzymes, or mucus to lubricate
food passage.  Intestinal contractions move the food along. The inner lining of the intestine is deeply folded to increase the
surface area for absorption. All Chondrichthyes  and some primitive bony fish have an intestinal spiral valve, which looks like
an auger enclosed in a tube. This valve increases the surface area; of the gut because the food must twist through the intestine
insfead of moving straight through. The length of the intestine in'bony fish varies: herbivores have long, coiled intestines, but
carnivores have short, straight intestines. After digestion is complete, the wastes pass through the rectum and are excreted via
the ajttt\ (Figure A2-3).                                      ;
                                                           !               •          9
The fivgr (Figure A2-3) is not directly tied to digestion but is associated with it. This organ produces bile and bile salts,
which help pancreatic enzymes split and absorb fats. Bile collects in the gafl_hladder (Figure A2-3) before it enters the
intestine. The liver is a major storage organ. Blood leaving the intestines passes through the liver; fats, amino acids (building
blocks for protein), and carbohydrates (simple sugars)  are removed and stored there. The simple sugars are stored as
glycagen and released to the blood when a burst  of energy is needed.
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                                                         CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                         A3--I
                                                         AS2
                                                         A3-4
Plankton	"....'		A3-1
A3-1.1  "PhytoplanktoiT?	... .l	 A3-1
A3-I.2  -Zooplanfctan ,s.	-<.v-*	/.-A3-J
A3-1.3 tlchthyoptokton ...... .'JvC"	A3-2
"Macrainvertebratslr...'.	—'. f	 A3-2
Sejj Turtka, and OtBsr Vertebrate-Species .,...„'.. A3-3
Conehisjpns  . *,'
INTRODUCTION

Chapter A2 focused specifically on fish species. Fish are
of particular concern in the context of
§ 316(b) because of their importance in aquatic food webs
and their commercial and recreational value. However,
numerous others kinds of aquatic organisms are vulnerable
to cooling water intake structures .(CWISs), including
diverse planktonic organisms, macroinvertebrates such as
crabs and shrimp, and aquatic vertebrates such as sea
turtles. These other organisms are discussed briefly in this
chapter based on information compiled for EPA's § 316(b)
rulemaking activities (SAIC, 1995).

A3-1  PLANKTON

Plankton includes microscopic organisms, plant or animal, that are suspended in the water column and are neutrally buoyant.
Because of their physical characteristics, most planktonic organisms are incapable of sustained mobility against the flow of
water. Consequently, plankton drift passively in prevailing currents and have limited ability to avoid CWIS.

A3-1.1   Phyfoplankton

Phytoplankton are free-floating plants, usually microscopic algae, which are primary producers in many aquatic environments.
Primary productivity can be reduced by passage of phytoplankton through CWIS, especially during summer. In warm
climates, a greater portion of the year may be affected. Some plants in lower latitudes may decrease primary productivity to
some extent throughout the year.                                                                      '   .

Losses of phytoplankton rarely occur beyond the immediate vicinity of the CWIS. Possible exceptions include areas where
mixing within non-entrained water is limited or slow, such as in enclosed bays or waters where substantial portions of water
are withdrawn  for cooling. In these cases, the effects of entrainment on algal primary productivity and biomass may persist
and be apparent beyond the vicinity of CWIS.

A3-1.2   Zoopbnkton

Zooplankton are free-floating planktonic animals. Most zooplankton species have relatively short population regeneration
times (from days to weeks), and therefore zooplankton populations are able  to recover from entrainment losses relatively
rapidly.
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  Source: USGS, 2001a
 A3-1.3  Ichthyoplankton

 Ichlhyoplankton includes egg and larval stages offish species.
 entrainment is relatively high. In contrast, eggs that are demersal and attach

 A3-2  MACROINVERTEBRATES
When egg and larval stages are pelagic, vulnerability to
            to plants or sediments are rarely entrained.
Macroinvertebrates are invertebrate organisms that are large enoiigh to be seen with the naked eye.  Macroinvertebrates
include many familiar crustaceans, such as lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimp, and prawns. Such organisms live in sediments,
the surface of sediments, hard surfaces (e.g., rock pilings), or the Water column itself. It is not uncommon for
macroinvertebrate species to use different habitats at different parts of their life cycle. Macroinvertebrates such as shrimps are
quite mobile and capable of moving throughout the water column in large schools, increasing their susceptibility to I&E.  On
the other hand, crabs and lobsters live on the bottom and typically do not swim in the water column. However, early life
stages of these species are frequently planktonic.                !
                                                           i
Comparatively few studies have been devoted to CWIS effects on macroinvertebrates. Available information suggests that
macroinvertebrates with hard exoskeletons (e.g., blue crab) have relatively high survival rates following impingement.
However, molting individuals are often found dead in impingement samples. Sessile adults of species such as clams and
oysters are not typically entrained. However, because such species are often broadcast spawners with planktonic egg and
larval stages, population abundance can be reduced by CWIS. In addition, because many macroinvertebrates serve as
important prey items for many freshwater and marine fishes, declines as a result of CWIS can adversely affect aquatic food
webs.
  Source: NOAA, 2002b.
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  Source: NOAA, 2002c.

 A3-3  SEA  TURTLES AND OTHER VERTEBRATE SPECIES

 CWIS effects on vertebrates in aquatic environments are of greatest concern for sea turtles, including several species that are
 currently state- or federally-listed as threatened or endangered. Sea turtles, seals, and other aquatic vertebrates can die if they
 are drawn into intakes or are impinged on intake screens.
   Source: NMFS, 2001e
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 S 316{b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation'Methods
Chapter A3: Aquatic Organisms
 A3-4  CONCLUSIONS                               (

 Although most I&E studies focus on fish species, it is important to bear in mind that many other kinds of aquatic organisms
 are vulnerable to I&E, either during early development or throughout their life cycle, depending on factors such as size,
 swimming ability, reproductive strategy, and other life history characteristics.                                •

 It is also important to note that in addition to direct harm from I&E, most aquatic organisms are also susceptible to indirect
 impacts as a result of the impingement or entrainment of prey items. Unfortunately, few studies consider how CWIS impacts
 may disrupt aquatic food webs (however, see Summers, 1989).

 In addition, although indirect effects on fish species whose prey are impinged or entrained are generally acknowledged, there
 has been little consideration of indirect effects of CWIS on non-fish species. In an effort to address this knowledge gap,
 Chapter A4 discusses CWIS effects on bird species.            i
A3-4

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods    Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of-CWIS
                                                                i Direct Effects on Bints'',
                                                                  Indirecf Bffiits oil Fish-Eatmg Birds	,..., A4-I
A4-1.   DIRECT EFFECTS ON BIRDS

Although most direct effects of cooling water intake
structures (CWIS) are on fish and shellfish, there are
occasional cases of direct harm to birds. For example, the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Green Bay, Wisconsin
has recorded direct mortality of nestling double-crested
cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) at the Point Beach
Nuclear Power Plant (Memorandum from Environmental
Contaminants Specialist to Special Agent Roy Owens,
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Green Bay Field Office,
Februaiy 4, 1993).  During one incident in September and October of 1990, 74 cormorants were impinged at the facility.
According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, this number represents 3.2 percent of the total potential productivity of the
species. It was concluded that the geographic extent of the impact was much larger than a single colony in Wisconsin because
the losses were nestlings that otherwise would have entered the free-flying population. Another incident of avian
impingement occurred at the Seabrook Station in 1999. Between February 20 and March 16, twenty-nine white-winged
scoters were impinged at the facility's cooling water intake structures.  The intake structures are located at a depth of
approximately 40 feet below the surface, and mussels often attach to the structures. It is believed that after diving down to
feed on the mussels on the intake structures, the scoters were drawn into the cooling system (North Atlantic Energy Service
Corporation, 1999).

A4-Z!   INDIRECT EFFECTS  ON FISH-EATTN& BIRDS

Although direct mortality of birds can occur, most effects are indirect as a result of losses offish and shellfish that provide
food for birds. For some fish-eating birds, such  as cormorants, kingfishers, grebes, ospreys, and terns, fish are a necessary
component of the diet. For others, such as gulls, fish are a regular but less essential dietary component. More than 50 bird
species out of the 600 in North America fall into the former category, and 20 fall into the latter (Tables A4-1 and A4-2). The
birds listed in Tables A4-1 and A4-2 usually obtain their fish prey from freshwater ecosystems such as lakes, ponds, marshes,
or rivers (e.g., ospreys and kingfishers), or from estuarine or coastal marine environments (e.g., loons and cormorants). Many
species such as grebes and auks spend part of the year (typically the breeding season) in freshwater environments, but winter
on the coast.  These birds while in their summer or winter ranges may occupy areas that could be affected by existing or future
CWIS.  Some birds (e.g., shearwaters) depend on fish prey, from offshore marine areas.  Since these prey are unlikely to be
affected by CWIS located inland or on the coast, these birds are not considered in this chapter. Also, most birds are relatively
flexible and opportunistic in their choice of prey, and some birds may consume fish, but only rarely; these birds (e.g., red-
winged blackbirds) are not included in the tables.

In addition to birds that depend largely on fish for their diet, many species consume aquatic invertebrate prey, such as
crustaceans, annelids, mollusks,  etc. Bird species that are at least partially dependent on aquatic invertebrates from freshwater
wetlands or coastal marine and estuarine habitats for at least part of their annual cycles are shown in Table A4-3. These
species may be vulnerable to the secondary effects of CWIS since the planktonic life stages of their prey may be impacted and
the local adult communities eventually affected. However, they are probably less vulnerable than the piscivorous birds listed
in Tables A4-1 and A4-2 since, unlike fish, it is less likely that most adult invertebrates, which, are typically bottom-dwelling,
will be directly affected by intake structures.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods     Chapter A4: birect and Indirect Effects of CWTS
   White winged scoters (Melanittafusca) are one of the 15 species of sea ducks found in North America. They spend most of the year in
   costal marine waters and migrate inland to nest and raise their young as do most sea ducks. White wings nest on freshwater lakes in the
   boreal forests of interior Alaska and western Canada and winter in large bays and estuaries along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts.

   Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1999               '
 ,; Photo source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1999         :
                                                              !                                 ,,                         j
 j The double-crested cormorant is a bird of salt, brackish and fresh waters. It breeds mainly along the coasts, but also around inland lakes. I
 i As soon as they return from their wintering grounds on the U.S. east coast south to the Gulf of Mexico, they appear throughout the St.   \
 | Lawrence system. They are particularly fond of islands for nesting. The nest is made of a mass of branches which they build in a tree, on j
 ; a ledge or on a clifftop.                                                                                                   >

 j Cormorants are 61-92 cm (2 to 3 ft) long, with thick, generally dark plumage and green eyes. The feet are webbed, and the bill is long
  with the upper mandible terminally hooked. Expert swimmers, cormorants pursue fish underwater. The young are born blind, and the
  parents feed the nestlings with half-digested food which is dropped into the nests. Later, the young birds poke their heads into the gullet
  of the adults to feed. Cormorants are long-lived; a banded one was observed after 18 years.
               :                                               !
  Average clutch size is three or four eggs. After being incubated by both parents for 24 to 29 days, the chicks hatch unprotected by any
  down.  They grow rapidly and fledge when the are five to six weeks old. Cormorants are diving bird and feed mainly on fish caught
  close to the bottom. The double crested's diet consists offish such as Capelin, American Sand Lance, gunnels, Atlantic Herring and
  sculpins, as well as crustaceans, molluscs and marine worms.       :
                                                              ;                                  '
                                                              ;
  Source: Environment Canada, 2001                             '
  Photo source: Environment Canada, 2001
 While at their breeding, migration, or wintering sites, the birds listed could be close to one or more existing or planned CWIS,
 and could be affected by the operation of these facilities. CWIS have the potential to adversely affect these bird populations
 indirectly by reducing their available food supply (eggs, larvae, jiiveniles and/or adult fish and invertebrates) through
 impingement and entrainment (I&E).                          |

 Generally, the larger the bird, the larger its prey. Ospreys or bald eagles may take fish that weigh a few pounds. However,
 many North American fish- and invertebrate-eating birds typically exploit smaller prey species or the younger age groups of
 larger fish.  For example, common terns breeding in Massachusetts feed their young the age groups of species such as
 sandeels or silversides that are typically less than 6 inches long (Galbraith et al., 1999). CWIS could potentially reduce the
 availability of the birds' fish or invertebrate prey either directly, by reducing the densities of the larval and older organisms
 that the birds exploit (through I&E), or indirectly, by reducing thfe numbers of eggs or larvae to the extent that the density of
 the older age groups that larger birds rely on is reduced locally. Also, fewer larger fish or adult invertebrates (i.e., the
 breeding stock) could affect the availability of small prey in the next generation. These cause-effect  interactions are displayed
 in Figure A4-1.                                               ;
A4-2

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods     Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS

                  Table A4-1: North American Birds that Eat Fish as o  Major Pigtgiy_COTnj»nent___	__^__	
                                                 Major Dietary Component               	
            Species '
                                                                        Distribution9
 Red-throated loon              i summer: lakes in arctic Canada and Alaska;
                               j winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts south to California and Georgia
 Pacific loon                    i summer: lakes in arctic Canada and Alaska;
                               jwinter: Pacific coast south to California
 Arctic loon                    i summer: lakes in Alaska;
                               i winter: Pacific coast south to California
	i	'•:	r	I	.-.. — ,	,	,— -,-	J-V-'-TV	"•"•-	'	::"".• ":"•.	-	"""	    I ,
 Common loon                  isummer: lakes in Canada and northern U.S.;
                               i winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts south to Texas and California                          •   •
 Horned grebe                  Isummer: freshwater wetlands in Canada and north-western U.S.;
                               i winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts south to Texas and California
 Pied-billed grebe               [Resident in freshwater wetlands throughout U.S.
	-i-	-	
 Red-necked grebe              isummer: freshwater wetlands in Canada and northern Great Lakes;
                               i winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts south to California and Georgia
 Clark's grebe                  isummer: freshwater wetlands in western U.S.;                    '      -    .
                               jwinter: Pacific coast
 Western grebe                 isummer: freshwater wetlands in Canada and western U.S.,
                               i winter: Pacific coast                                                 	;
 American white pelican         isummer: lakes in Canada and western U.S.;
                               i winter: California and Gulf of Mexico coasts                                                         ;•
 Brown pelican                 jresident: Pacific and Atlantic coasts from Washington and New York south to California and Gulf of       ;
                               I Mexico
 Anhinga                      jresident: Atlantic coastal wetlands from South Carolina south to southern Texas
 Neotropic cormorant           jresident: coastal wetlands in Texas
 Great cormorant               isummer: maritime east Canada;                                      .
                                [winter: Atlantic coast south to South  Carolina                            ..„.....'.....	„..
 Double-crested cormorant       isummer: lakes in Great Lakes, west U.S. and north-east U.S.;
                                i winter: entire Pacific and Atlantic coasts
 Brandt's cormorant              jresident: Pacific coast from Canada to California
 Pelagic cormorant              isummer: Alaskan coast;
                                [winter: Pacific coast from southern Alaska to California
 Least bittern                   isummer: freshwater wetlands from east coast of U.S. to midwest states;          .
                                j winter: Gulf coast and south Florida                                       :
 American bittern                isummer: freshwater wetlands throughout Canada and U.S.;
                                j winter: wetlands on both coasts south to California and Texas
 Green heron                   j summer: freshwater wetlands from Atlantic  coast to midwest states and Oregon and Washington;
                                i winter: California, gulf of Mexico and Florida coastal wetlands
 Tricolored heron                [resident: Atlantic coastal wetlands from New York south to Florida and Gulf of Mexico
 Little blue heron                isummer: freshwater wetlands in Gulf of Mexico States;
                                j resident: coasts of Gulf Coast and Florida north to New York
 Reddish egret                  jresident: coastal wetlands in Florida and Gulf Coast       	•	
 Snowy egret                   isummer: freshwater wetlands in western States;
                                ; winter: California coast
                                [resident: coastal wetlands from Massachusetts south to Gulf Coast States
 Great egret                     isummer: freshwater wetlands in Mississippi Valley States;
                                jresident: Atlantic coastal States from Mid-Atlantic south to Gulf of Mexico;
                                ;winter: California coast   ,                                                                        :
 Great blue heron                isummer: freshwater wetlands in northern U.S. States and Canada;
                                i winter and resident: wetlands in inland southern states and both coasts of Canada and U.S. south to
                                jCalifornia and Gulf of Mexico
 Wood stork                    [resident: coastal wetlands in Florida  and Gulf of Mexico	

.                           '    ""         '   '     ""        '   '      "   * 	'"'       '	'  ''	A4-3~  "

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods     Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS

 	Table A4-1: North  American Birds that Eat  Fish as & Major Dietary Component (cent.)
 	Major Dietary Component
             Species
Distribution*
  Roseate spoonbill              [summer and resident: coastal wetlands in Florida and Gulf of Mexico
  Common merganser            [summer: lakes in Canada and north-west U.S.;
                               [winter: lakes and rivers in interior and coastal U.S. south to California and North Carolina
  Red-breasted merganser        [summer: lakes in Canada;
                               [winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts fi;om Canada south to California and Gulf of Mexico
  Hooded merganser             jsummer: lakes and rivers in Canada and  Great Lakes States;
                               j winter: Pacific coast from Canada south  to California and from New York south  to Gulf of Mexico.
                               [Also winters in interior states of south-east U.S.
  Osprey                       [summer: inland and coastal wetlands from Canada south to Great Lakes, Pacific Northwest, and
                               [ Florida and Gulf of Mexico;       '
 _	   _ ->(  _            [resident: Florida and Gulf Coast states
  Bald eagle                    [ summer: lakes and rivers in Canada, Great Lakes, north-eastern U.S., Pacific Northwest, and some
                               [western states;                   >
                               [winter: Midwestern and western states and both coasts south to Mexican border
  Sandwich tern                 [Atlantic coastal areas from Mid-Atlantic states south to Gulf of Mexico
  Elegant tem                   [summer: Southern California coast
  Rpyal tem                    [Summer and resident Atlantic coasts; from Mid-Atlantic states south to Gulf of Mexico;
                               [winter: southern California coast   j
  Caspian tem                   [summer Canadian wetlands, Great Lakes, and some western states;
                               [winter: Florida and Gulf of Mexico coasts, southern California coast
  Roseate tem                   [summer: coasts of Newfoundland south to New York
  Forster%tern                   [summer: inland wetlands in central Canada and western States of U.S.  Also summers on coastal
                               [marshes in Gulf of Mexico;
                               [winter: southern California and south Atlantic coasts south to Florida and Gulf of Mexico
 Common tem                  [summer: inland lakes of Canada and northern U.S. states and coastal Atlantic from Newfoundland
                               [south to North Carolina           •
 Arcticjern^	    •          [summer: tundra in Arctic Canada  and arctic coasts south to Newfoundland and Maine
 Least tem                     [summer: Atlantic and California coastal dunes south to Florida and Gulf of Mexico. Also rivers in
                               [Mississippi Valley               '
 Black skimmer                 [summer: inland and coastal wetlands in southern California;
                               [resident and winter: Atlantic coast from New York south to Florida and Gulf of Mexico
 Common murre                ['winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts south  to New York and California
 Razorbill                      [winter: Atlantic coast south to Mid-Atlantic states
 Black guillemot                [resident: Atlantic coast from arctic sputh to New England
 Pigeon guillemot               [resident: Pacific coast from Arctic south  to California
 Marbled murrelet     '          [resident and winter: Pacific coast south to California
 Rhinoceros auklet              [resident and winter: Pacific coast south to California
 Atlantic puffin                 [resident and winter: Atlantic coasts from Newfoundland south to New England
 Homed puffin                 [resident and winter: Pacific coasts fro Alaska south to Washington
 Tufted puffin                   [resident and winter: Pacific coasts from Alaska south to California
 Belted kingfisher               jsummer: lakes and rivers throughout Canada;
	[resident and winter: lakes and rivers throughout U.S.
 Note: Excluded are species that are rare or have highly restricted distributions, that feed mainly offshore, or that eat  fish only very rarely.
 • These distributions are approximate.  For more detailed representations see, for example, Kaufrnan, 1996.
 Source: Kaufman, 1996.                                         '
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods    Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS

                Table A4-2: North  American Birds that eat Fish as c Frequent bfetory Component
                                                Frequent Dietary Component
        Species
                                                                   Distribution3
 Clapper rail            Iresident: Atlantic coastal marshes fro New England south. Also San Francisco Bay
	-	4-	
 King rail               j summer: inland marshes from Atlantic coast to midwest;                            .
                       ! resident and winter: Coastal marshes from Mid-Atlantic States south to Florida and Gulf of Mexico
 Whooping crane        jwinter: Texas coast                                               •             ;;
 Heerman's gull         jail year: Oregon and California coasts
 Laughing gull          iresident: Atlantic coasts from New England south to Gulf of Mexico
 Franklin's gull          ;'summer: prairie wetlands in central Canada and northern  U.S.
	-i	-	•	•	
 Bonaparte's gull        i summer: forested wetlands across Canada;
                       Iwinter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts from Canada south to California and Gulf of Mexico
 Ring-billed gull        i summer: lakes in central Canada, Great Lakes and Maritime Provinces;               t
                       i winter Atlantic coast from New England south to Mexico, Pacific coast from Canada south to Baja, and interior
                       isouthern states of U.S.
 Mew gull              I summer: freshwater wetlands in western Canada;
                       jwinter: Pacific coast from Canada south to California
 California gull         j summer: lakes in central Canada and western U.S.;
                       iwinter: Pacific coast from Washington south to California
 Herring gull            i summer: inland and coastal lakes across Canada;
                       jwinter: Pacific and Atlantic coasts from Canada south to Mexican border
 Glaucous gull          i summer: arctic;
                       Iwinter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts south to Mid-Atlantic  States and California
 Iceland gull            i summer: arctic;
                       jwinter Atlantic coast from Canada south to New York
 Thayer'sgull           j summer: arctic;
                       jwinter: Pacific coast from Alaska south to California
 Western gull           Iresident: Pacific coast from Canada south to Baja
 Glaucous-winged gull   iresident: Pacific coast of Canada;
                       jwinter: Pacific coast'of U.S.
 Great black-backed gull Iresident and summer: Maritime provinces south to Mid-Atlantic States
 •••-•	— ~	"	-t 4.. T.....				.....		  ...	.............	
 Black tern             I summer prairie and forested wetlands across Canada and in Midwestern and western states of U.S.
 	-	-	--4	—;	•	:	   -	"	"	'
 Ancient murrelet       i summer: Alaska
                       Iwinter: Pacific coast from Alaska south to California
 American dipper       iresident: rivers throughout western States of U.S.	.	
                                                                                                                       A4-5

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  S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods     Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS
                       Table A4-3; North American Birds that gat Mainiy Aquatic Invertebrates
      Species
                  Distribution*
                                                                      Specie
                                                                                 Distribution*
  Eared grebe    [ summer: freshwater wetlands in western Canada
                 jand U.S.;
                 [winter: Pacific coast from Vancouver south to
                 [southern California
                                               [Piping plover       [ summer: coast, lake and river beaches in
                                               I                   [northern Midwest and New England;
                                               |                    I winter: Atlantic coastal beaches from New
                                               I.                   | England south to Mexico
  Black-crowned  .[summer: inland and coastal wetlands in southern   I American
  night-heron     [Canada and across whole of U.S.;                iioystercatcher
                 [winter and resident: coast of Florida and Gulf of   !'
                 [Mexico                                       i
                                                                   [resident: Atlantic coastal beaches from New
                                                                   [England south to Texas
  Yellow-
  crowned night-
  heron
I resident and summer visitor to interior and coastal
[wetlands in south-eastern States of U.S.
 [Black oystercatcher  [resident: Pacific coastal beaches from
 [                   [Canada south to California
  White ibis      [resident: south east Atlantic coast from South      i Black-necked stilt
                 [Carolina to Texas                              i!
                                                                  jsummer: alkaline marshes in western States;
                                                                  [winter: California, Florida and Gulf of
                                                                  I Mexico coasts
  Glossy ibis    [resident and winter coastal marshes on Atlantic
                [coast from New England south to Texas
                                               [Greater yellowlegs
                    [summer: northern Canada;
                    [winter: Atlantic coast from New York south
                    ito Mexico
  White-faced    jsummer: lakes in some western States of U.S.;
  ibis           [winter: Gulf of Mexico and coastal and interior
                [California
                                               [Lesser yellowlegs   [summer: northern Canada;
                                               [[                  [winter: Atlantic coast from New York south
                                               [>                  ito Mexico
  Roseate
  spoonbill
•resident: Florida and Gulf Coast coastal wetlands
•jjVillet
i:
                                                                  [summer: wetlands in some western States
                                                                  [and saltmarshes on Atlantic coast from New
                                                                  [England south to Mexico;
                                                                  [winter: Atlantic coast from New England
                                                                  [south to Mexico and California coast
  Greater scaup   ! winter: throughout Atlantic and Pacific coasts of    i Spotted sandpiper
                [U.S.                                          i
                                                                  I summer: inland wetlands throughout Canada
                                                                  [and mid and northern U.S. States
                                                                  [winter. Florida and Gulf of Mexico coasts
  Lesser scaup   jsummer: prairie wetlaads in western states;
                [winter: wetlands in southern states and Pacific and
                [Atlantic coasts from Canada south to Mexico
  Common eider  [winter: New England coast
                                               [Long-billed curlew  [winter: Texas and California coasts
                                               [Marbled godwit     [summer: wetlands in northern prairies
                                               [;                  [winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts from
                                               i:     .             [Delaware to Texas and California
 King eider     [winter: New England coast

 Harlequin duck [summer: rivers in western Canada and Pacific
                [Northwest
                [winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts as far south as
                iCalifomia'and New England
                                              [ Ruddy turnstone     j winter: Atlantic coast south of New England
                                              [Surfbird            [winter: Pacific coast from Canada to
                                              !                   [California
 Oldsquaw      [summer: arctic
                [winter: Pacific and Atlantic coasts south to
                [California and Texas
                                              •Red knot
                   iwinter: Florida coast
 Black scoter    iwinter: Pacific and Atlantic coasts south to
                [California and Texas
 Surf scoter     fsummen northern Canada;
                ['winter: Pacific and Atlantic coasts south to
                [California and Texas
                                              [Sanderling          [winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts from New
                                              i  [                  [York south to Texas and Vancouver to Baja
                                              [Western sandpiper   iwinter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts from New
                                              I  !                  [York south to Texas and Vancouver to Baja
 White-winged   Isummer: northern Canada;
 scoter          [winter: Pacific and Atlantic coasts south to
                [California and Texas
                                              [Least sandpiper      [winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts from New
                                              [                    I York south to Texas and Vancouver to Baja
 Common      [winter: freshwater and coastal wetlands throughout [Purple sandpiper
 goldeneye     [U.S.                                          [
                                                                  [winter: Atlantic coast from Canada south to
                                                                  i Mid-Atlantic States
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S 316(b) existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods     Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS

Table A4-3: North American Birds that Eat Mainly Aquatic Invertebrates (cont.)
Species
Barrow's
goldeneye
Bufflehead
Limpkin
Black-bellied
plover
Snowy plover
! Distribution9
i summer: rivers in northern Rocky Mountain States;
I winter: Rocky Mountain States
I summer: Canadian wetlands;
•[winter: freshwater and coastal wetlands throughout
iu.s.
[resident: Florida wetlands.
jwinter. Pacific and Atlantic coasts south to Mexico
•summer: alkali lakes in western U.S.;
i resident: coastal wetlands in California arid Gulf
jCoast
Species j Distribution'
Rock sandpiper i winter: Pacific coast from Canada south to
1 California •
Dunlin i winter: Atlantic coast from New York to
i Texas and San Francisco Bay
Dowitcher species 1 winter: Atlantic and Pacific coasts from
iNorthern U.S. south to Baja and Mexico

 Wilson's plover President: Atlantic coast wetlands from New York
               i south to Gulf Coast

               I summer: arctic;
               iWinter Pacific and Atlantic coast wetlands from
               ICanada south to California and Mexico
   These distributions are approximate.  For more detailed representations see, for example, Kaufman, 1996.
                                    Figure A4-1: Potential CWIS Effects on
                                    Fish-Eating Birds and Their Prey



Potential CWIS
effects on fish
and birds
I

' I
Local reductions
in numbers of
smaller .fish


Reduced prey
for smaller fish-
eating birds


Effects on smaller
fish-eating birds:
• survival
• reproduction



•
•
•
Local reductions j
in numbers of j
larger fish \
j


Reduced prey j
for larger fish- j
eating birds }


i
Effects on larger I
fish-eating birds:
• survival )
• reproduction I
i
                                                                                                                       A4-7

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluatioh Methods    Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS


 A4-3   UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF FOOD REDUCTION ON BIRD POPULATIONS

 Many scientific studies have confirmed the link between the abundance of available food and the viability of bird populations.
 EPA reviewed recent papers published in the peer-reviewed literature that describe effects of food shortages on fish-eating
 birds. One of the goals of these studies was to identify linkages between food shortages and adverse impacts on birds,
 irrespective of the underlying cause of the shortage1. While EPA's review of these studies did not reveal any documented
 linkages between I&E and effects on bird populations, the principle remains the same: independent of the stressor, a reduction
 in the food supply can adversely affect bird populations. Table A4-4 summarizes a sample of the reviewed studies, and
 Boxes A4-1 and A4-2 describe the findings of two studies in greater detail.  Several broad conclusions can be drawn from this
 body of literature:                                        f

     *•   Chicks offish-eating birds can starve and quickly die (in a few days) if food is scarce or unavailable during a short
         window of natal development.                      !

     *   The amount of food that is available before and during the birds' breeding seasons can affect courtship and initiation
         of breeding, number of eggs laid, chick survival, frequency of renesting, and other important reproductive factors.

     »•   Insufficient amounts of food may force parents to forage, farther and wider, resulting in fewer and smaller feeds per
         chick per day. This may increase the risk of starvation j

     »•   Food shortages can result in increased food theft, as chicks and adults steal food from each other.

     *•   Food shortages during the breeding  season usually affect chicks and fledglings before the adults.

     *   Inadequate nutrition during development can have significant physiological consequences (e.g., calcium deficiencies
         and poor skeletal development).                    j

     ••   Super-abundant food can lead to increased breeding success.
  Causes of food shortages included spawning failure in fish, shifting weather patterns, effects of pollutants, and other factors.
A4-8

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§ 316(b) Existing"Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods     Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS
     Table A4-4: Examples of Studies Showing Relationships between Quantity and Quality of Fish Prey and
                         Survival, Behavior, and Reproductive Success of Fish-Eating'Birds	•_	
    Country    j Water-body j   Target Species
                                   Study Description
                                Summary
                                                                                                       Reference
 USA
i Laboratory  j Belted kingfisher
j Effect of food supply on
I reproduction
i Extra food resulted in earlier'Kelly and Van Home,
! nesting, heavier chicks, and  11997
! greater frequency of second  i
i clutches                   I
 USA
I Reservoir   j Double-crested
i           -| cormorant
j Identification of factors
jassociated with densities
i of cormorants
i Fish availability correlated  i Simmonds et al., 1997
I with cormorant density     I         .               \
 Spain
lEbro Delta  lAudpuin's gull
i Availability of trawler
; discards and
jkleptoparasitism
I Reduced discards led to
; increased rates of
; kleptoparasitism
                                                                                                iOro, 1996
The
Netherlands
Northern
Ireland
France
Norway/Russia
USA
Germany
Germany
South Africa
UK
•Inland
i waters
i Lough
jNeagh
I Rhone
i Delta
• Barents Sea
i Pacific
: Ocean
[North Sea
jNorth Sea
! Indian
i Ocean
I Atlantic
i Ocean
i Black tem
! Great cormorant
i Little egret
iKittiwakes, murres,
1 puffins
iKittiwakes, gulls, and
: puffins
1 Common tern
j Common tern
i African penguin,
iCape gannet, Cape
i cormorant, swift tern
j Arctic tern
i Impacts of acidification
ion fish stocks and chick
; growth and survival
i Identification of factors
i associated with densities
': of cormorants
iFood abundance and
•reproductive success
iFish availability and
i reproduction of birds
i Diets and breeding
i success
iFood supply and
i kleptoparasitism
iFood supply and chick
: survival
iPrey availability and
i breeding success
iFish abundance and
ibreeding success
! Reduced fish stocks led to j Beintema, 1997
i calcium deficiencies and i
lincreased mortality »• ;
iFish availability correlated [ Warke et al., 1 994
i with cormorant density •
i Increased food led to jHamer et al., 1 993
i increased reproductive .[
i success and fledgling i .
i survival i
i Reductions in fish stocks i Barrett and Krasnov,
; impaired breeding success H996
i Diet switching led to jBaird, 1990
i reduced breeding success j
j Reduced food supply caused j Ludwigs, 1998
i increased kleptoparasitism i
i Reduced food caused iBecker et al., 1 997
i increased chick mortality j
•Reductions in anchovy I Crawford and Dyer, 1995
i stocks resulted in reduced i
ibreeding success • i
i Reduced fish stocks lowered j Suddaby and Ratcliffe,
iegg volume, clutch size, and i 1997
ibreeding success i
                                                                                                                   A4-9

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods     Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of CWIS
  Box A4-1: Fish Availability Affects Breeding Success in Arctic Terns

  >  The arctic tern is a small, circumpolar, fish-eating bird that typically obtains its prey in the inshore marine environment. Unlike the
  •  closely related common tern, arctic terns do not generally breed or feed in freshwaters.

  ,  In the United Kingdom, the Shetland Islands are one of the strongholds of the species. Large breeding colonies of thousands of
  I  pairs of birds can be found there.  Such large breeding colonies require an abundant and predictable food supply.  In the Shetlands
  1  the most important food species is the sandeel, which occurs in vast shoals in the inshore waters. Before the 1980's, sandeels were
  f  largely ignored by the UK fishing industry. However, beginning in the late 1970's, they became an increasingly sought after catch
  ;  as their value as fodder for farm animals was recognized. This led to a huge sandeel fishing industry that, since it was largely
  i  unregulated, resulted in the 1980s in massive depletion of the fish stocks.  This study by Monaghan et al. (1989) investigated the
    effects of this stock depletion on the breeding biology of arctic terns;in the Shetlands (where the sandeels were overfished) and at
    Coquet Island in England (where food supplies were not reduced). •

    Of the interesting differences found in the breeding biology of the terns from the two colonies, many could be ascribed to the
  ;  reduction in prey availability at the Shetland colony. The Shetland birds delivered smaller sandeels to their nests than did the
  ,  Coquet birds, indicating that the fishing industry had removed the larger (and more nutrient- and energy-rich) fish. Also, because of
    this, the chicks in the Shetland colony grew at a slower rate than the Coquet chicks and the majority of the chicks in the colony died
    a few days after hatching. The Coquet chicks had more rapid growth rates arid far better survival.

  ,  The adult birds were also affected by the reduced sandeel stocks. During the breeding season, the adults in the Shetland colony lost
  i  weight and became lighter than the adults at Coquet, suggesting a food shortage effect.

  !  This study clearly demonstrates the importance of having an adequate and predictable fish food supply for arctic terns during the
    breeding season and on their ability to raise chicks.               I
  Box A4-2: Oceanic Currents, Human Fisheries, Anchovy Abundance, and the Abundance of Peruvian and Chilean Seabird Populations.

   Several fish-eating seabirds breed in extremely large colonies on islands off the coasts of Peru and Chile. The breeding populations
  } of these cormorants and boobies probably number several million in;a typical year. These huge populations are made possible by an
   extremely rich supply of anchovies, which, in turn, depend on upwelling associated with the Humboldt current bringing nutrient-rich
  I cold water to the surface close to the nesting islands (Harrison, 1983). In typical years, these birds can easily raise their young by
   exploiting the rich fish prey base.                               ;

   However, every 10 or so years an El Nino event forces the upwelling south and deprives the seabirds of their anchovy prey.  In these
  ; years, the birds may have reduced reproductive success or may fail to breed at all.  Further, the birds may desert their normal ranges
   and spread north and south along the Pacific coast into areas where they are not normally seen (Murphy, 1952).

  . In the last few decades a new factor has complicated this pattern. The human anchovy fishery has now reduced the numbers offish
  ; to the extent that even in good years the numbers of breeding birds and their success may be reduced.

   The sensitivity of these seabirds to temporal and spatial disturbances'in the dependability of their food supply highlights the critical
  , relationship between the availability offish prey and their population status.


This information shows that the responses offish-eating birds to food shortages can range from behavioral changes
(e.g., greater foraging efforts or increased food theft) to more dramatic responses (e.g., clutch abandonment, chick mortality,
failure to attempt to breed). It is not likely that I&E by CWIS has resulted in such large-scale die-offs and reproductive
failures. Such obvious responses would have been observed and reported. CWIS I&E effects are, therefore, likely to be more
subtle.  However, even these types of responses could have longer-term population impacts.

The studies reported in Table A4-1 show that chicks in particular are prone to rapid starvation and increased mortality during
early development. During that period, sufficient amounts of high quality food (i.e., nutritionally and energetically rich) must
be available to ensure successful fledging. The potential effects of I&E could be magnified if the depletion of a localized
high quality fish resource forces parents to switch to a lower quality food or to forage further afield,  resulting in a decrease in
the rate of food delivery to the chicks and an increased starvation; risk. Alternatively, I&E effects on local food supplies could
affect bird populations when they are under stress from some other factor (e.g., severe weather or contaminants).  Thus,  the
potential effects of I&E on bird populations, though perhaps subtle, cannot be discounted.
A4-JO

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods    Chapter A4: Direct and Indirect Effects of-CWZS

Even when enough food is available to allow a "normal" reproductive event, any additional food can increase the survival rate
of nestlings and increase overall breeding success (Hafner et al., 1993; Suddaby and Ratcliffe, 1997). This at least partly
rebuts the commonly used argument that surplus fish production has no ecological value and can therefore be removed
without affecting.the local ecosystem. It also suggests that even though the I&E of large numbers offish might not actually
adversely affect birds, the removal of that extra food resource could just as easily prevent them from realizing their full
reproductive potential.                                                 .

Even if a bird species can switch to another food source, significant effects are still possible if the replacement food has lower
caloric or nutritional quality (Beintema, 1997). Recently hatched chicks can be particularly vulnerable to changes in food
availability, starving and dying in a short time. Such risks may be of particular concern if the CWIS removes large numbers
offish or other aquatic prey in bird foraging areas during the breeding season.

In conclusion, this review of the ornithological literature underscores the link between adequate food supplies and survival
and reproductive success in fish-eating birds.  In particular, the low degree of behavioral flexibility combined with severe
food shortages can result in reduced survival or increased reproductive failure. As the data shown in Table A4-3 suggest,
localized food shortages caused by I&E are likely to affect bird populations differently depending on their dietary
requirements.  Species that can readily switch to an alternative prey may be less vulnerable, and those others that are entirely
dependent on fish stocks may be more vulnerable. This leads to two conclusions: 1) any impacts associated with the removal
of prey fish by I&E are likely to be species-specific, and 2) birds entirely dependent on fish (e.g., ospreys or loons) have a
greater risk of being adversely affected compared to species \yith more flexible dietary requirements.
                                                                                                               A4-11

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                  Chapter A5: I&E Methods
This chapter describes the methods EPA used to evaluate
impingement and entrainment (I&E) at the case study
facilities, including methods used to forecast the
consequences of I&E losses of early life stages for the
adult population, fishery harvests, and population biomass
production.  Section A5-1 outlines the overall approach,
Section A5-2 describes the source data, Section A5-3
presents details of the biological models used, and Section
A5^4 discusses uncertainties in the analyses.  Chapters A9 •
(benefits transfer), A10 (Random Utility Model), and Al 1
(Habitat-based Replacement Cost) discuss how these loss
estimates are valued for the case study benefits analyses.

A5-1   OVERVIEW OF PROCEDURE FOR

EVALUATING I&E
 CHAPTER CONTENTS

 A5-1    Overview of Procedure for Evaluating I&E	 A5-1
 A5-2    Source Data 	,	A5-1
         A5-2.1   Facility I&E Monitoring	,	 A5-1
         A5-2.2   Species Evaluated,.... T		A5-I
         A5-2..V  Life History Data  	:...A5-2
-A5-3   ^Biological Models. Used to Evaluate I&E......... A5-3
         A5-3.1   Modeling Age-I Equivalents	A5-3
         AS^/'^Modelmg Foregone Fishery Yield  ..;,*,.. A5-4.
     "' "  AS-S.S*", Modeling Foregone ProtfiictioH	£?., AS-6
      * ^A5-3.4   Evaluation of Forage Species'Losses  ?A", A5-7
.A5-4    Uncertainty .},:.l....,—-fe	^."V,(	,	. A5-9
       , A5»4.14' ""Structural Uncertainty ,V .^i?	,%./A3-9
       .  A5-4,£'^ammeterUncertaintjr ,.^vx>.j"««
       •^A5-4.3  • tticertainties RelataS to lEpgtnei9S6g" "• • !*,
The same general procedure for evaluating I&E records
was followed for each facility, but with appropriate' facility-specific considerations pertaining to data availability and .
identification of predominant species composition. The basic approach estimated losses to fishery resources resulting from
species-specific and life-stage-specific I&E. Losses were expressed as (1) foregone age 1  equivalents, (2) foregone fishery
yields, and (3) foregone biomass production using common fishery modeling techniques (Ricker, 1975; Hilborn and Walters,
1992; Quinn and Deriso, 1999).  These foregone resources were modeled using facility-specific I&E rates combined with
relevant species life history characteristics such as growth rates, natural mortality rates, and fishing mortality rates.


A5-2   SOURCE DATA


A5-2.1   Facility  I&E Monitoring

The inputs for EPA's analyses included the empirical I&E counts reported by each facility. The general approach to I&E
monitoring was similar at most case study facilities. Impingement monitoring involved sampling impingement screens or
catchment areas, counting the impinged fish, and extrapolating the count to an annual basis.  Entrainment monitoring typically
involved intercepting a small portion of the intake flow at a selected location in the facility, collecting fish by sieving the
water sample through nets or other collection devices, counting the collected fish, and extrapolating  the counts to an annual
basis. EPA used life stage-specific annual losses for assessment of entrainment losses and assumed that all fish killed by
impingement were age 1  at the time of death. Although these general sampling procedures were followed by most facilities,
specific methods of collecting and reporting I&E data, and the complexity and time span of analysis, differed substantially
among case study facilities.  To the extent possible, EPA considered and evaluated facility-specific monitoring and reporting
procedures, as described in EPA's individual case study reports.

A5-2.2  Species  Evaluated

EPA conducted detailed species-specific loss analyses for species that were most predominant in facility collections or had
special significance (e.g., threatened or endangered status). I&E was analyzed in terms of losses to the commercial or
recreational fishery (for those species that are fished), or as loss of the forage prey base (for those species that are not fished).
A small fraction of species that were identified in I&E records were not evaluated on a species-specific basis by EPA because
of a lack of life history information. These species were treated as an aggregate, and their I&E rates were expressed as a
fraction of the total I&E.
                                                                                                            A5-1

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                             Chapter A5: I&E Methods
 ,45-2.3   Life History Data

 The life history data used in EPA's case studies usually included|species-specific growth rates, the fraction of each age class
 vulnerable to harvest, fishing mortality rates, and natural (nonfishing) mortality rates.  Each of these parameters was also
 stage-specific, with the exception of mortality rates which are typically constant for fish older than a given catchability
 threshold.                                                   t

 EPA obtained life history data from facility reports,, the fisheries literature, and publicly available fisheries databases (e.g.,
 FishBase). To the extent feasible, EPA used species-specific and region-specific life history data most relevant to local  ,
 populations near the case study facility. Detailed citations are provided in life history tables accompanying each case study
 report.

 A static set of life history parameters was used for all data analyses.  No stochastic or dynamic effects such as compensatory
 mortality or growth, or random environmental variation were used.
 In cases where no information on survival rates, was available for individual life stages, EPA deduced survival rates for an
 equilibrium population based on records of lifetime fecundity using the relationship presented in C.P. Goodyear (1978) and
 below in Equation (1):
                                                                                                        (Equation 1)
  where:
         SB,  —    the probability of survival from egg to the expected age of spawning females
        fa   =    the expected lifetime total egg production
Published fishing mortality rates (F) were assumed to reflect combined mortality due to both commercial and recreational
fishing. Basic fishery science relationships (Ricker, 1975) among mortality and survival rates were assumed, such as:
  2-A/ + F

  where:

        Z
        M
        F

  and

  S = e<-*

  where:
                                                                                       (Equation 2)
the total instantaneous mortality rate          ;
natural (nonfishing) instantaneous mortality rate
fishing instantaneous mortality rate           ;
                                                                                       (Equation 3)
                 the survival rate as a fraction
,45-2

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                  Chapter A5: X&B Methods
A5-3  BIOLOGICAL MODELS  USED TO EVALUATE I&E

The methods used to express I&E losses in units suitable for economic valuation are outlined in Figure A5-1 and described in
detail below.

A5-3.1   Modeling Age-1 Equivalents

The Equivalent Adult Model (EAM) is a method for expressing I&E losses as an equivalent number of individuals at some
other life stage, referred to as the age of equivalency (Horst 1975a; C.P. Goodyear, 1978; Dixon, 1999). The age of
equivalency can be any life stage of interest. The method provides a convenient means of converting losses offish eggs and
larvae into units of individual fish and provides a standard metric for comparing losses among species, years, and facilities.
For the § 316(b) case studies, EPA expressed I&E losses as an equivalent number of age-1 individuals. This is the number of
impinged and entrained individuals that would otherwise have survived to be age 1 plus the number of impinged individuals
(which are assumed to be impinged at age 1).

The EAM calculation requires life-stage-specific entrainment counts and life-stage-specific mortality rates from the life stage
of entrainment to the life stage of equivalence. The cumulative survival rate from age at entrainment until age 1 is the product
of all stage-specific survival rates to age 1. The calculation is:
         *./max
   '.  = s • T~T ii
          ;=y+i
                                                                                                    (Equation 4)
  where:
S*  =
                cumulative survival from stage,/ until age 1
                survival fraction from stagey to stagey + 1
                2Sje-^l+Sj) = adjusted Sj
                the stage immediately prior to age 1
Equation 4 defines £,-_,, which is the expected cumulative survival rate (as a fraction) from the stage at which entrainment
occurs,./, through age 1.  The components of Equation 4 represent survival rates during the different life stages between life
stagey, when a fish is entrained, and age 1. Survival through the stage at which entrainment occurs,/, is treated as a special
case because the amount of time spent in that stage before entrainment is unknown and therefore the known stage specific
survival rate, Sj, does not apply because Sj describes the survival rate through the entire length of time that a fish is in stagey.
Therefore, to find the expected survival rate from the day that a fish was entrained until the time that it would have passed into
the subsequent stage, an  adjustment to 5} is required. The adjusted rate S*j describes the effective survival rate for the group
offish entrained at stagey, considering the fact that the individual fish were entrained at various specific ages within stagey.

Age-1 equivalents are then calculated as:
                                                                                                    (Equation 5)
  where:
               =   the number of age-1 equivalents killed during life stagey in year k
               =   the number of individuals killed during life stagey in year k
               =   the cumulative survival rate for individuals passing from life stagey to age 1 (equation 4)
                                                                                                            A5-3

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  S 3I6(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                            Chapter A5: I&E Methods
  The total number of age-1 equivalents derived from losses at all stages in year k is then given by:
  /?
  ' ~ Jmia
                                                                                                      (Equation 6)
   where:
 AE\k
                     the total number of age-1 equivalents derived from losses at all stages in year k
 These calculations were used to derive the total age-1 equivalents for each species and year of sampling at each case study
 facility.                                                   j

 A5-3.2  Modeling Foregone Fishery Yield    i

 Foregone fishery yield is a measure of the amount offish or shellfish (in pounds) that is not harvested because the fish are lost
 to I&E. EPA estimated foregone yield using the Thompson and Bell model (Ricker, 1975). The model provides a simple
 method for evaluating a cohort offish that enters a fishery in terms of their fate as harvested or not-harvested individuals. The
 method is based on the same general principles that are used to estimate the expected yield in any harvested fish population
 (Hilbom and Walters, 1992; Quinn and Deriso, 1999).

 The key parameters of the Thompson and Bell model are natural mortality rate (M), fishing mortality rate (F), and weight at
 age (in pounds) of harvested fish. The general procedure involves multiplying age-specific harvest rates by age-specific
 weights to calculate an age-specific expected yield (in pounds).  The lifetime expected yield for a cohort offish is then the
 sum of all age-specific expected yields, thus:
                                                                                                     (Equation 7)
  where:
 Jt
Sj,,
We
Fe
Z
                 foregone yield (pounds) due to I&E losses in year k
                 losses of individual fish of stagey in the year k
                 cumulative survival fraction from stagey to age a
                 average weight (pounds) of fish at age a
                 instantaneous annual fishing mortality rate for fish of age a
                 instantaneous annual total mortality rate for fish of age a
 Figure A5-1 outlines the modeling of foregone fishery yield.  EPA partitioned its estimates of total foregone yield for each
 species into two classes, foregone recreational yield and foregone commercial yield, based on the relative proportions of
 recreational and commercial state-wide aggregate catch rates of that species.  Pounds of foregone yield to the recreational
 fishery were re-expressed as numbers of individual fish  based on the expected weight of an individual harvestable fish.
 Chapter A9 describes the methods used to derive dollar values fair foregone commercial and recreational yields for the case
 study benefits analyses.                                      '
AS-4

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                  Chapter A5: I4E Methods
 Figure A5-1: Several Approach Used to Evaluate 1&E Losses as Foregone Fishery Yield
                                                Number of Fish Killed
                                                (multiple life stages)
                         Evaluation of
                        Fishery Species
                             Estimate Age 1
                              Equivalency
                           (multiple life stages)
          Report as
          Common  -
         Loss Metric
                                     Sum Across
                                     Life Stages
Year Class Aggregate
 Age 1 Equivalents
                       Not
               Not  Harvest.
             Valued
                                    Yes
                            Estimate Primary
                            Foregone Fishery.
                                 Yield
                                                    Total Foregone
                                                    Fishery Yield
                                                Evaluation of Forage Species
                                                That Contribute to Production
                                                    of Fishery Species
                                              Estimate Foregone
                                                 Production
                                             (multiple life stages)
                                                       Sum Across
                                                       Life Stages
Year Class Aggregate
Foregone Production
  Report as
•• Common
 Loss Metric
                                            Use Methods Described
                                            in Chapter A9 to Estimate
                                            Secondary and Tertiary
                                            Foregone Fishery Yield
                                     Commercial
                                       Fraction
                                         . Recreational
                                            Fraction
                                    Determine Foregone
                                    Commercial Harvest
                                        as Pounds
                                     Determine Foregone
                                     Recreational Harvest
                                        as Number of
                                       Individual Fish
                                        •Monetize
                                                                    Monetize
                                                                                                               A 5-5

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation" Methods
                                                                                        Chapter A5: I&E Methods
  A5-3.3   Modeling Foregone  Production        '

  In addition to expressing I&E losses as lost age 1 equivalents (and subsequent lost yield, for harvested species), I&E losses
  were also expressed as foregone production. Foregone production is the expected total amount of future growth (expressed as
  pounds) of individuals that were impinged or entrained, had they not been impinged or entrained.  The foregone production of
  forage species (those species not harvested for recreational or commercial fisheries) is used to estimate the subsequent
  reduction in harvested species yield that results from a decrease in the food supply (details provided in Section A5-3.4).1 This
  indirect effect on harvested species yield can then be added to estimates of foregone yield that result from direct I&E losses of
  harvested species to provide an estimate of total foregone yield (Figure A5-1).

  Production foregone is calculated by simultaneously considering the age-specific growth increments and survival probabilities
  of individuals lost to I&E, where production includes the biomass accumulated by individuals alive at the end of a time
  interval as well as the biomass of those individuals that died before the end of the time interval. Thus, the production
  foregone for a specified age or size class, /, is calculated as:     j    .
C,AWe(c'-z"-l)
     G,-Z,
                                                                                                        (Equations)
  where:
         Pt   =   expected production (pounds) for an individual during stage i
         G,   =   the instantaneous growth rate for individuals of stage /
         N,   ~   the number of individuals of stage i lost to I&E (expressed as equivalent losses at subsequent ages)
         Wi   =   average weight (in pounds) for individuals of stage/
         Zt   »   the instantaneous total mortality rate for individuals of stage/
 Pp the production foregone for all fish lost at stagey, is calculated as:
            fy
                                                                                                        (Equation 9)
  where:
                 the production foregone for all fish lost at stagey
                 oldest age group considered                  ]
    the total production foregone for fish lost at all stages j, is calculated as:
   ,  ' Foregone production of harvested species lost through I&E (i.e., fhe amount of future production of harvested fish species lost
 because of I&E) is also calculated in this process because it is necessary for the monetization of the indirect effects of a reduction in the
 food supply (see Section A3-4 for details).                        \
A5-6

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A5: I&E Methods
                                                                                                  .  (Equation 10)
  PT =  . I Pj
       /"'min
 where:
          j.  =   the total production foregone for fish lost at all stages./
          mm =   youngest age group considered
A5-3.4  Evaluation of Forage Species  Losses

Foregone production of forage species due to I&E losses may be considered a reduction in the aquatic food supply, and
therefore a cause of reduced production of other species, including harvested species, at higher trophic levels.  I&E losses of
forage species have both immediate and future impacts because not only is existing biomass removed from the ecosystem, but
also the biomass that would have been produced in the future is no longer available as food for predators (Rago, 1984;
Summers, 1989).  The Production Foregone Model accounts for these consequences of I&E losses by considering losses of
both existing biomass and the biomass that would have been transferred to other trophic levels but for the removal of
organisms by I&E (Rago, 1984; Dixon, 1999).  Consideration of the future impacts of current losses is particularly important
for fish, since there can be a substantial time between loss and replacement, depending on factors such as spawning frequency
and growth rates (Rago, 1984).                                      .

EPA evaluated I&E losses of forage species (i.e., species that are not targets of recreational or commercial fisheries) using
two general approaches. The first approach expressed losses as numbers of age 1 equivalents. These losses were valued
based on hatchery replacement costs as described in Chapter A9.  The second approach, referred to in this document as the
"ecological  approach," was developed by EPA to provide a way to value lost forage in  terms of the reductions in losses of
harvested species that result from loss of their prey base. In this case, the economic value of lost forage species is derived
from the value of foregone production of harvested species as described in Chapter A9.

The ecological approach uses two distinct estimates of trophic transfer efficiency within two kinds of food web pathways to
relate foregone forage production to foregone fishery yield. The  two estimates, termed secondary and tertiary foregone yield,
reflect (1) that portion of total forage production that has high trophic transfer efficiency because it is directly consumed by
harvested species (secondary foregone yield), and (2)  the remaining portion that has a low trophic transfer efficiency because
it is not consumed directly by harvested species but instead reaches harvest species indirectly after passage through other parts
of the food web (tertiary foregone yield).  This is illustrated in Figure A5-2.

The basic assumption behind EPA's approach to evaluating losses of forage species is that a decrease in the production of
 forage species can be related to a decrease in the production of predator species through a factor related to trophic transfer
 efficiency.  Thus, in general,
                                                                                                     (Equation 11)
  where:
         P  =  the biomass production of a predator species (in pounds)
         k   =  the trophic transfer efficiency (a scalar with magnitude typically about 0.10)
         Pf  =  the biomass production of a forage species (in pounds)
 Equation 11 is applicable to trophic transfer on a species-to-species basis where one species is strictly prey and the other
 species is strictly a predator. For the § 316b case studies, commercially or recreationally valuable fish were considered
 predators.
                                                                                                               A5-7

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluatiori Methods
                               Chapter A5: I&E Methods
  Figure A5-2: Trophic Transfer Model for Valuation of Foregone Biomass Production (FP) of Forage Species by
  Estimating Consequential Reductions in Commercial and Recreational Harvest
                              Forage species
                                I&E losses
                                 Foregone
                              production (FP)
                     High efficiency
                        pathway
                                20% of FP
                                                      Low
                                                   efficiency
                                                    pathway


80% of FP
                                      k, = 0.09
                                                                      ,=0.10
Intermediate
trophic levels
k3= 0.009
                                                                  J k, = 0.09
                              FP of harvested
                                  species
                                Foregone
                               commercial
                             and recreational
                                 harvest
                                Monetize
It is difficult to determine, on a community basis, an appropriate Value of k that relates aggregate forage production and
aggregate predator production, since the actual trophic pathways ;are complicated.  Therefore, for the purposes of the benefits
case studies, EPA assumed a general value of k = 0.09 for a direct prey-to-predator transfer, and assumed that 20 percent of
forage production would be consumed directly by commercially or recreationally important predators.  EPA also assumed that
the remaining 80 percent of forage production would be consumed indirectly by commercially or recreationally important
predators (via other intermediate predators), and that k for these irophic routes would be scaled by an additional factor of 0.1.
Thus:                                                     :
A5-8

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S 316{b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                           Chapter A5: I&E Methods
 and
  where:
        P  =
        *•  =
                                                                                                    (Equation 12)
                                                                                                    (Equation 13)
aggregate of foregone production of all forage species lost to I&E
secondary production of commercially or recreationally important predator species
tertiary production of commercially or recreationally important predator species
trophic transfer efficiency constant with value 0.09
trophic transfer efficiency constant with value 0.009 = £,&2
Foregone commercial and recreational fish production estimated by these two models is referred to here as secondary
production and tertiary production, respectively. The associated foregone yield is referred to as secondary foregone yield and
tertiary Foregone yield. The net effect of this dual pathway model for trophic transfer is an assumed trophic transfer efficiency
of 0.025, which is the weighted net transfer efficiency (0.2&, + 0.8&3).

A5-4  UNCERTAINTY

The modeling methods used for the § 316(b) case studies, modeling assumptions, and results are presented in each case study
report in a manner intended to provide the reader with a clear and complete understanding of how and why particular
procedures were selected and executed. However, despite following sound scientific practice throughout, it is impossible to
avoid numerous sources of uncertainty that may cause the reported results to be imprecise or to carry potential statistical bias.
Uncertainty of this nature is not unique to EPA's studies of I&E effects (Finkel, 1990),

The case study analyses attempt to model a process that is enormously complex.  The analyses are an interdisciplinary process
that span several major fields of study, including aquatic and marine ecology, fishery science, estuarine hydrodynamics,
economics, and engineering, each of which acknowledges its own complex suite  of interacting factors. A formal
quantification of variability and uncertainty (which could be accomplished by analytic means or by Monte Carlo methods)
would require information about the variance associated with each part of this large set of factors, but much of that
information is lacking. Nonetheless, because EPA took care to use the best biological models and data available for its I&E
evaluations and economic analyses, E'PA believes that the case study results provide a reliable, scientifically sound basis  for
estimating of the potential benefits of the proposed § 316(b) regulations. EPA notes that the models used are based on
standard fisheries methods.

The following discussion outlines the major uncertainties in the  case study analyses.  Uncertainty may be classified into two
general types (Finkel, 1990).  One type, referred to as structural uncertainty, reflects the limits of the conceptual formulation
of a model and relationships among model parameters. The other general type is parameter uncertainty, which flows from
uncertainty about any and all of the specific numeric values of model parameters. The following discussion considers these
two types of uncertainty in relation to the models used by EPA to evaluate I&E.

 A5-4.1   Structural  Uncertainty

The models used by EPA to assess the economic consequences of I&E simplify a very complex process. The degree of
 simplification is substantial but necessary because of the limited availability of empirical data.  Table A5-1 provides examples
 of some potentially important considerations that are not captured by the models used in the case studies. EPA believes that
 these structural uncertainties  will generally lead to inaccuracies, rather than imprecision, in the final results.
                                                                                                              A5-9

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 S 316(b) Existing Focilities Benefits Cose Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                             Chapter A5: I
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                      Chapter AS: I&E Methods
        Table A5-2: Parameters Included in EPA's X$E Assessment Model that Are Subject to Uncertainty
       Type
Factors
Examples of Uncertainties in Model
 Monitoring/loss     Sampling regimes           i Sampling regimes subject to numerous plant-specific difficulties; no established
 rate estimates                                  ; guidelines or performance standards for how to design and conduct sampling regimes
                   Extrapolation assumptions    : Extrapolation to annual I&E rates requires numerous assumptions required by
                                              ! monitoring designers and analysts regarding diurnal/seasonal/annual cycles in fish
                                              [presence and vulnerability and various technical factors (e.g., net collection
                                              i efficiency; hydrological factors affecting I&E rates)
                   Species selection            i Facilities responding to variable sets of regulatory demands; criteria for selection of
                                              i species to evaluate not well-defined; flexible interpretation; variations in data
                                              i availability in resulting time series
                   Sensitivity offish to I&E     i Through-plant mortality assumed to be 100 percent; some back-calculations required
                                            •  Jin cases where facilities had reported only I&E rates that assumed <100 percent
                                              ; mortality
 Biological/life      Natural mortality rates     •  jUsed stage-specific natural mortality rates (M) for >10 stages perspecies
 history            Growth rates                j Simple exponential growth rates or simple size-at-age parameters used
                   Geographic considerations    i Migration patterns; I&E occurring during spawning runs or larval out-migration?
                                              jLocation of harvestable adults; intermingling with other stocks
                   Forage valuation            1 Harvested species assumed to be food limited; trophic transfer efficiency to harvested
                                              ! species estimated based on general models
 Stock             Fishery yield           -     | Used one species-specific value for fishing mortality rate (F) among all ages for any
 characteristics                                 i harvested species; used few age-specific constants for fraction vulnerable to fishery
                   Harvest behavior            iNo assumed dynamics among harvesters to alter fishing rates or preferences in
                                              I response to changes in stock size; recreational access assumed constant (no changes
                                              jin angler preferences or effort)
                   Stock interactions         •  U&E losses assumed to be part of reported fishery yield rates on a statewide basis; no
                                              j consideration of possible substock harvest rates or interactions
                   Compensatory growth       jNone
                   Compensatory mortality      INone
 Ecological system  Fish community            j Long-term trends in fish  community composition or abundance not considered
                                              ! (general food webs assumed to be static); used simple three-cornpartment predation
                                              •model and constant values for trophic transfer efficiency (specific trophic interactions
                                              i not considered)
                   Spawning dynamics         i Sampled years assumed to be typical with respect to choice of spawning areas and
                                              Itiming of migrations that could affect vulnerability to I&E (e.g., presence of larvae in
                                              I vicinity of CWIS)
                   Hydrology                 i Sampled years assumed to be typical with respect to flow regimes and tidal cycles
                                              i that could affect vulnerability to I&E (e.g., presence of larvae in vicinity of CWIS)
                   Meteorology                j Sampled years assumed to be typical with respect to vulnerability to I&E (e.g.,
                                              ipresence of larvae in vicinity of CWIS)	
A5-4.3  Uncertainties Related to Engineering

EPA's evaluation of I&E consequences was also affected by uncertainty about the engineering and operating characteristics of
the case study facilities.  It is unlikely that plant operating characteristics (e.g., seasonal, diurnal, or intermittent changes in
intake water flow rates) were constant throughout any particular year, which therefore introduces the possibility of bias in the
loss rates reported by the facilities. EPA assumed that the facilities' loss estimates were provided in good faith and did not
include any intentional biases, omissions, or other kinds of misrepresentations.
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                 Chapter A6: Fish Population Modeling
                                                          CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                          A6-1
                                                          AW

                                                          ~A6-3>

                                                          A6-4
                                                          "A6-5
 Background  .................. ,'•-,••- ........ A6-1
 A6-1.1   Population Regulation ...... .....' ---- A6-1
 A6-1 .2   Pish Stack-Recruitment Models , ., ..... , A6-2
 Use aFStock-Recruttment Models in Fisheries    - •
 Management''. ---- ?..,,*""...,*.. .<. . * ...... '. ,.
 .Use of St«ck-RecijiftmentxMosdeIsvto Evaluate - *
 CWiS Impacts,  . .-. ...... $.: ............ .;• - , /A&4
 ^Uncertainty in Stock-Recruitment Models,,,;. .". :,. . A6-5
''-Precaulionary Approach /, ..... , /. ...'<•> . i ...... A6-6
 Predicting the long-term consequences of impingement
 and entrainment (I&E) for the populations of affected fish
 species requires some form of population modeling.
 However, because of the many uncertainties associated
 with population modeling, the use of fish population
 models to assess CWIS impacts remains a topic of ongoing
 debate. While this debate has many interesting dimensions,
 this chapter focuses only on fish population modeling as it
 relates to the benefits case studies. Section A6-1
 introduces the general reader to concepts of population
 regulation that are relevant to population modeling and
 summarizes key features of fish stock-recruitment models,
 a class of models advocated by some industry groups for §
 316(b) impact assessments.  Section A6-2 discusses the use
 of stock-recruitment models in fisheries management, and Section A6-3 discusses how such models have been applied to
 evaluate potential CWIS impacts on fish populations. Section A6-4 discusses some of the uncertainties associated with stock-
 recruitment models that may limit their utility in a regulatory context.  Finally, Section A6-5 discusses EPA's decision to
 adopt a "precautionary approach" in  evaluating the biological impacts of cooling water intake structures (CWISs).


 A6-1   BACKGROUND

 A6-1.1  Population Regulation

 The growth of biological populations is limited by natural regulatory factors such as environmental variation, random changes
 in rates of survival or reproduction, predator-prey relationships, disease, and competitive interactions with other individuals
' (Begon and Mortimer,  1986). Factors that result in population changes that are unrelated to population size are known as
 density independent factors.  Examples include, climatic variables such as temperature, floods, droughts, etc. Factors that can
 influence populations in relation to the size of the population, such as  competition, predation or disease, are referred to as
 density dependent factors. The population size to which a population will tend to return in response to density dependent
 regulation is known as the equilibrium population.

 The concept of density dependence is fundamental to the study of biological populations and to the application of population
 modeling in fisheries management. Compensation refers to the theoretical ability of a population to offset (compensate for)
 increased mortality (Goodyear, 1980; Rose et al., 2001). According to the theory of pompensation, populations will grow
 when population density is low and will decline when density is high because competition and other density dependent
 processes will increase or decline in  relation to population size. In this way, populations size remains relatively stable.

 Inverse density dependence, or depensation, can occur when demographic rates (e.g., birth rates, survival rates) decrease at
 low densities (Hermann and Hilborn, 2001). Depensation can occur because of a failure to find mates when a population
 contains few individuals, or when fish harvest rates, impingement and entrainment, or other sources of mortality remain
 constant even though the population is depressed. Depensation tends  to destabilize populations.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A6: pish Population Modeling
 While considered likely to operate in most biological populations, compensation and other density dependent processes are
 difficult to observe and measure.  When modeling population dynamics, this makes it difficult to identify underlying
 mechanisms of density dependent response and to estimate the magnitude and direction of population changes.

 A6-1.2  Fish  Stock-Recruitment Models     \

 Fish stock-recruitment models are based on the assumption that some form of density dependent compensation will help
 maintain a stable population size despite losses of adults due to fishing (Getz and Haight,  1989; Ricker, 1975; Rothschild,
 1986; Hilbom and Walters, 1992; Quinn and Deriso, 1999).  Different functional forms of the stock-recruitment relationship
 represent different hypotheses about the response of recruitment to changes in the density  of the spawning stock. There are
 three basic hypothetical stock-recruitment relationships, a density independent relationship, the Beverton-Holt curve, and the
 Ricker curve, as described below.

 Density Independent Model. In the absence of any density dependent effect, it is assumed that there is a strictly linear
 relationship between stock and recruitment (Figure A6-1).

 Figure A6-1: A Density Independent Relationship between     [  .
 Spawning Stock and Recruitment
 This density independent relationship between stock and recruitnient changes if recruitment is influenced by the number of
 spawners (i.e., if recruitment is density dependent). There are two general types of density dependent compensation modeled
 by stock-recruitment curves, the Beverton-Holt and the Ricker models.

 Beverton-Holt Model. The Beverton-Holt model (Getz and Haight, 1989) depicts density dependent recruitment of a
 resource limited population in which resources are not shared equally. It is considered most appropriate for modeling
 populations characterized by within cohort cannibalism or resource competition (Wootton, 1990; Hilborn and Walters, 1992).
 According to the Beverton-Holt formulation, a population consists of "winners" or "losers" — each individual receives some
 of the available resources, or not. This means that as resources such as spawning sites become fully utilized, further increases
 in population size will not result in additional recruits, and when spawner abundance is reduced, there is reduced recruitment.
 This is expressed in the Beverton-Holt formulation as:          ,
where:                                                     !

R = recruits                              •                  ;
P ™ parent stock
a and P = fitted parameters                                  [

The parameters a and P are fit to field data and define the shape of the stock-recruitment curve. The slope a is considered an
indication of the population's maximum reproductive rate and P represents compensatory mortality as a function of stock
size.  According to the Beverton-Holt model, recruitment increases in relation to stock size up to an asymptote, or maximum,
at high stock abundance (Figure A6-2).
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A; Evaluation Methods
Chapter A6: Fish Population Modeling
 Figure A6-2: The Beverton-Holt Stock-Recruitment
 Relationship
Ricker Model.  In contrast to the Beverton-Holt stock-recruitment model, the Ricker model (Ricker, 1975) predicts declining
recruitment at high stock levels according to the equation:

R=aFpp

where, as for the Beverton-Holt model:  ,                     •

R = recruits
P = parent stock
a and P = fitted parameters .                                                                                        •

According to the Ricker model, the exponential term (-P?) gives the density dependent effect of parent stock on recruitment
and a is the slope of the curve when P is small (Figure A6-3).

 Figure A6-3: The Ricker Stock-Recruitment Relationship

                     ^ Stock
The assumption of the Ricker model is that resources are divided equally among individuals in a population. As a
consequence, as density increases all members of the population receive an increasingly smaller amount of available food or
other resource. The result is that at very high densities, very few individuals will survive to reproduce. Therefore, according
to the Ricker equation, recruitment is controlled by «P when parent stock is small, and R increases with P in a density-
independent fashion. However, when parent stock is large, R is controlled more by the density dependent term -PP, and the
number of recruits declines as stock increases. The Ricker relationship is expected when there is cannibalism of the young by
adults or resource competition between parents and progeny, resulting in poor survival of young at high stock sizes (Wootton,
1990; Hilborn and Walters, 1992).
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A6: Fish Population Modeling
A6-2  USE OF STOCK-RECRUITMENT MODELS IN FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

Stock-recruitment models and their underlying assumptions about compensation are applied in fisheries management to
estimate how much fishing mortality can be sustained on a long term basis by a commercially harvested fish population
(Rothschild, 1986; Hilborn and Walters, 1992; Quinn and Deriso, 1999). This involves estimating the population's potential
surplus production and compensatory reserve, as discussed below.

Surplus Production. Surplus production refers to the number of recruits produced above that needed for replacement at a
given stock level and is considered the production available for harvesting (Getz and Haight, 1989; Ricker, 1975; Gulland,
1974).  Surplus production is estimated by fitting stock-recruitment curves to empirical fisheries data. The 45 degree line
from the origin of the stock-recruitment curve depicts exact replenishment of the population, and the area of the curve above
the replacement line is the production that is available to the fishery (see Figure A6-4). The steeper the initial slope (CC) of the
stock-recruitment curve, the greater the expected compensatory response of the population to density changes and the larger
the harvestable portion of the stock. In Figure A6-4, Population A has the strongest compensatory response. As the slope
decreases, the compensatory response is less, as in Population B.' As the curve approximates a straight line, the density
dependent response is considered to be very weak, resulting in what is known as undercompensation, as seen in Population C.

 Figure A6-4: Hypothetical Stock-Recruitment Curves         ;
                                           PopC
                    JSlocL.
Compensatory Reserve. The slope of the spawner-recruit curve near the origin, where compensation effects are small,
indicates the population's maximum reproductive rate. This gives an indication of the compensatory reserve, or the capacity
of the population to offset any form of increased mortality (Myers et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). This is expressed as:

R = «Sf(S)                                             i

where:                              •                    '

R      —recruits                                        '
(X      ™ the slope at the origin                            ;
S       = spawners                                      i
f (S)    - the relationship between survival and spawner abundance

A difficulty in estimating compensatory reserve is that there are rarely data on abundance at very low population sizes (i.e.,
near the origin of the spawner-recruit curve) (Myers et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001).  As a result, one of the major
uncertainties in fisheries management is the actual magnitude of compensatory reserve in any given population.

A6-3  USE OF STOCK-RECRUITMENT MODELS TO  EVALUATE  CWIS IMPACTS

To evaluate CWIS impacts on fish populations, stock-recruitment models have been modified to consider entrainment
mortality of young instead of harvesting of adults (Goodyear, 1977a; McFadden and Lawler, 1977; Christensen et al., 1977;
Fletcher and Deriso, 1988; Lawler, 1988; Savidge et al., 1988). Most of these models are based on the Ricker formulation
and assume that the survival or reproduction of remaining individuals will increase in response to CWIS losses. It is thought
A6-4

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§ 316(b) iExisting Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A6: Fish Population Modeling
that this will enable the population to offset or compensate for CWIS-related mortality (Jude et al., 1987a; R.G. Otto &
Associates and Science Applications International Corporation, 1987; Saila et al., 1987; Systec Engineering, Inc., 1987).

In a recent paper prepared for the Utility Water Act Group for the § 316(b) rulemaking, Myers (2001) noted that the life stage
at which power plant mortality occurs in relation to the timing of any compensatory response will strongly determine the
degree of impact. If compensation operates in a population and power plant-mortality occurs before compensation, the impact
on equilibrium spawner biomass and fishery yield may be small. However, if power plant mortality occurs after
compensation on juveniles, there can be a more rapid decrease in equilibrium spawner biomass with plant mortality.

While such models can make general predictions, in practice they are limited in their ability to estimate the actual degree to
which potential compensatory processes may  enable any particular population to offset intake-related losses, as discussed in
the following section.

A6-4   UNCERTAINTY IN STOCK-RECRUITMENT  MODELS

A recent extensive review of available spawner-recruit data for commercially harvested marine fish stocks indicated that the
recruitment of many exploited species shows  a compensatory response to spawning stock (Myers et al., 1995; Myers and
Barrowman, 1996; Myers et al., 1999). Data  also indicate that compensation in fish species usually occurs during early life
stages, although the exact timing varies by species and type of waterbody (Myers and Cadigan, 1993).

Although many fish species appear to show the potential for a compensatory response to changes in population size, in other
cases a statistically significant density dependent relationship cannot be detected because of significant variability in the
available population data (Shepherd and Gushing, 1990; Fogarty et al., 1991). For example, although there is a reasonably
good fit of the Beverton-Holt and Ricker curves to data for coho salmon (Figure A6-5a), population data for anchoveta show
considerable variation about the hypothetical  stock-recruitment curves (Figure A6-5b).

 Figure A6-5: The Ricker Curve'(solid line) and Beverton-
 Holt Curve (dotted line) Fitted to Data for (a) Coho
 Salmon  and (b) Anchoveta
     I
                     Spawning Stock
     •§
     *
                      •         •          .„*
                            *  _____«jijiii:—_
  Source: Modified from plots by Kimmerer, 1999, of data
  compiled by Myers et al., 1995.
                                                                                                            A6-5

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A6: Fish Population Modeling
 Two major sources of recruitment variability in fish populations can cause any compensatory relationship between spawning
 stock and recruitment to vary unpredictably in ways that are difficult to observe and measure. These are variation in the
 physical environment due to fluctuations in climate and other natural conditions (Gushing, 1982; Fogarty et at., 1991) and
 interactions with other species (Boreman, 2000).

 Competition and predation can interact in complex ways with other sources of mortality to alter stock-recruitment
 relationships. For example, a model of trophic dynamics among ifish populations in the Patuxent River that are subject to
 harvesting as well as CWIS impacts predicted a significant reduction (over 25%) in striped bass, bluefish, and weakfish
 production as a result of power plant losses of preferred prey species such as bay anchovy and silversides (Summers, 1989).
 Thus, CWIS losses can contribute to reduced overall ecosystem productivity, irrespective of any potential compensation in
 populations directly affected by CWIS mortality (Boreman, 2000).

 Most existing CWIS stock-recruitment models do not consider:

     >•   Losses of more than one species,                     ;
     *   Losses from multiple CWIS,
     »•   Other human-related sources of mortality (in addition to fishing and CWIS),
     »•   Interactions among species, and
     *•   Interactions among density-dependent and density-independent processes.

 In practice the use of stock-recruitment curves to set fishing levels, or to determine how much I&E a population can
 withstand, is complicated by the many physical and biological factors that can cause the stock-recruitment relationship and
 potential compensatory reserve to vary over time (Christensen arid Goodyear, 1988; Gushing, 1982; Fogarty et al., 1991;
 Boreman, 2000). It is now acknowledged that fish recruitment is a multidimensional process, and separating the variance in
 recruitment into its component causes remains a fundamental problem in fisheries science, stock management, and impact
 assessment (Hilbom and Walters, 1992; Quinn and Deriso, 1999).

 Because the relationship between spawners and recruits may itself vary, applying  fixed rules for achieving constant fisheries
 yields or taking of young by cooling Water intakes can have very different effects, depending on whether population size is
 high or low (Clark, 1990; Myers et al., 1996).                  i

 Even if compensation operates, if and how quickly a population can recover from anthropogenic sources of mortality depends
 on the population's growth rate at low densities (Liermann and Hilborn, 1997; Myers et al., 1999; Liermann and Hilbom,
 2001).  As the degree of compensation or age at recruitment declines, there can be a dramatic reduction in the level of fishing
 or other anthropogenic mortality that a population can sustain (Mace, 1994).  When a population at low abundance continues
 to be reduced by a fixed amount, the population may gradually lose resilience and may suddenly collapse in the face of
 disturbances that previously could have been assimilated (Goodyear, 1977a; Rolling, 1996).  If exploitation levels or other
 stressors remain high during the decline, recovery may be protracted, if it occurs at all (Fogarty et al.,  1992). In the case of
 the winter flounder in Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts, substantial population decline has been  associated with both overfishing
 and mortality associated with the operation of the Brayton Point facility (Gibson,  1996). Even though fishing restrictions
 have been imposed, the population has failed to recover in the face of ongoing power plant mortality.

 A6-5  PRECAUTIONARY APPROACH

 Some industry representatives have argued that the environmental impacts of CWIS are adverse only if population-level
 impacts are demonstrated.  These groups argue that compensatory processes help maintain stable fish stocks despite CWIS
 losses in most, if not all, affected .populations.  However, EPA is Concerned that even in fish populations where compensatory
 processes are thought to operate, it has proven extremely difficult to estimate the magnitude of compensation and the form of
 compensatory response (Rose et al., 2001). This is a particular concern for commercially exploited marine species. A recent
 report by the National Marine Fisheries  Service concludes that nearly a third of the 283 fish stocks under U.S. jurisdiction are
 currently below their maximum sustainable yield (NMFS, 1999b)', For another third, the maximum sustainable yield remains
 uncertain. EPA notes that many of these stocks are also subject to impingement and entrainment losses.

 Given that many fish stocks are at risk, EPA has adopted a "precautionary approach"  in evaluating CWIS impacts because of
 the many uncertainties associated with modeling compensation and stock-recruitment relationships.  As practiced by many
 natural resource agencies, the precautionary approach aims to prevent irreversible damage to the environment by
 implementing strict conservation measures even in the absence of unambiguous scientific evidence that environmental
 degradation is being caused by human stressors (NMFS, 1999b).
A6-6

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A6: Fish Population Modeling
In this regard, many agencies now recognize that if protective measures are not initiated until effects at higher levels of
biological organization are apparent, natural resources that are ecologically important or highly valued by society may not be
adequately protected.  In the context of the § 316(b) rulemaking, EPA notes that most CWIS cause substantial losses of
aquatic organisms, and EPA believes that it is not appropriate to assume that these impacts are unimportant unless population-
level consequences can be demonstrated. EPA notes that in other cases where a stressor directly affects individuals but
population or higher-level effects are unclear though potentially important, individual-level endpoints often take precedence
when evaluating environmental impacts (Strange et al., 2002). Indeed, in many Clean Water Act (CWA) programs EPA has
found that effects on individuals can be important predictors of potential effects on populations or communities that can't be
measured directly.

An example of this is provided by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. Under
section 301(b)(l)(c) of the CWA, effluent limits must be placed in NPDES permits as necessary to meet water quality
standards. To implement this requirement, EPA and most states rely on toxicity tests that determine the effects of discharges
on individual organisms (U.S. EPA, 1991). By evaluating the effects of pollutants on growth, reproduction, and mortality of
individuals,  EPA uses individual impacts as surrogates and precursors of population and ecosystem impacts.

For the § 316(b) benefits case studies, EPA has chosen to evaluate multiple endpoints, including the impingement and
entrainment of individuals, the most direct measures of C WIS impact.  In addition, to evaluate the potential population-level
consequences of these losses for economically valued endpoints, EPA has implemented several density independent models to
conservatively estimate potential consequences for fishery harvests and ecosystem production, as described in detail in
Chapter A5.  These density independent models do not assume any compensatory response to CWIS losses. While
relationships between CWIS losses, fish stocks, and fishery yields are unlikely to be strictly linear, as these models assume,
EPA believes that the many uncertainties associated with modeling stock-recruitment relationships and potential
compensation justify this-approach, in keeping with a precautionary approach to environmental decision-making.
                                                                                                              A6-7

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xisting Facilities Benefits Cose Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                    Chapter A7: Entrainment Survival
                                                 CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                 A7-1
                                                 A7-2
                                                 A7-3
                                                 A7-4
.Entrainment Mortality and Entrainment Survival	A7-1.
A7-1.1  Entrainment Mortality of Organisms..... ..A7-1
A7-1.2  Understanding Entrainment Survival	A7-2
ExistingEntrainmenf Survival Studies ..... .-,7... A7-2
Analysis by EPA of 13 Existing Studies	'A7-4
Principles ttf Guide Future Studies of Entrabment
Survival	.*	,.......,.,.A7-12
A7-4.1  .-Protocol for Entrainment Survival
        Study	!*..!	.,. P	A7-12.
        Statistical Considerations: Oiw'ct
       xEsrimates of Ettjramrricnt Survival     f^r  ',
        ' Rates-...::':....-.:.. :r	.^&~  A?-O
        Applicability of Entrafmyient Survival
        Studies, to Other Faciples		^7,-lS;
        Statistical CdnsMeratiofls: Development^
        of Predict! ve Models of Entr&nmcnt
        "Survival Rate  ,,.-....".	."...-.  A7-14
                                                         A7-4.2
                                                         A7-4.4-
INTRODUCTION

This chapter addresses the issue of survival rates of
aquatic organisms entrained by cooling water intake
structures. Assessment of ecological and economic
consequences of entrainment is based on estimates of the
number offish and shellfish killed as a result of
entrainment. Entrainment monitoring programs attempt to
quantify the total number of organisms entrained. If 100  •
percent of entrained organisms are killed by the process,
then the consequences of entrainment derive solely from
the total number of organisms entrained. However, if
some of the organisms survive the process, then the
resulting consequences may be less severe.

Information regarding the magnitude of entrainment
survival is extremely limited. To calculate benefits
associated with entrainment reduction, EPA used the
conservative assumption of 100 percent mortality.  This
same assumption was recommended in EPA's 1977
Guidance for Evaluating the Adverse Environmental
Impact of Cooling Water Intake Structures on the Aquatic
Environment: Section 316(b) P.L. 92-500. This chapter
provides a brief review of the current knowledge regarding
entrainment survival, and describes  the protocols EPA believes are necessary to conduct a sound entrainment survival study
for use in a cost-benefit analysis of entrainment reduction technologies.

A7-1   ENTRAINMENT MORTALITY AND ENTRAINMENT SURVIVAL


A7-1.1   Entrainment  Mortality of Organisms

The most commonly entrained life stages of organisms include eggs, larvae, and juveniles. Adults are seldomly entrained.
Eggs and larvae are the most common victims of entrainment because of their small size and their limited swimming ability.
Eggs are extremely  delicate and therefore are typically produced in high numbers to ensure that a proportion will survive to
become reproducing adults. The generally high vulnerability of eggs in the natural environment ensures high mortality rates
as a result of entrainment. Larvae are also typically delicate and susceptible to the physical stress of entrainment because,
with the possible exception of vision and feeding apparatus, most of their major organ systems are poorly developed.  Their
skeletons, musculature, and integument (skin and scales) are soft and provide limited mechanical and thermal protection to
vital organs.  For these reasons, entrained larvae are believed to experience high mortality rates as a result of entrainment.

The presumption on the part of biologists that entrainment and passage through a cooling water intake structure would kill
most if not all organisms indicates that any assertions that survival rates are appreciably greater than zero should be viewed
with skepticism, and evidence in favor of that assertion must be quite strong to be convincing. Based on the "precautionary
principle" in resource conservation, EPA believes that accounting for entrainment survival of entrained fish is unwarranted
unless there is a strong foundation of supporting evidence that is clearly relevant to the particular features and ecological
situation of the regulated facilities under consideration.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A7: Entrapment Survival
 A7-1.2  Understanding  Entrainment  Survival

 Entrainment survivability is species and life stage specific.  Survivability is also be affected by the stress on an organism
 associated with the passage through the cooling water intake structure. Entrainment mortality is generally the result of
 exposure of the organisms to three types of stress (thermal, mecnanical, and chemical) while passing through the cooling
 water intake structure. These stressors can interact with each other and are jointly affected by the operating characteristics of
 the power facility.  These three stressors can also affect different species and life stages of entrained organisms differently.
 Since the extent and effect of these stressors can vary at each facility, the results of a study at one facility cannot be assumed
 to apply to another facility. Also, the results of a study at a facility can only be applied to time periods when the entrained
 organisms experience the same level of stresses and are not indicative of all times at a facility when stress levels may be
 different.

 Thermal stress

 Dose-response models that relate thermal exposure to mortality rate are critical in understanding the extent  of the effect of
 thermal stress On aquatic organisms. The magnitude of thermal stress resulting from passage through the facility depends on
 several facility-specific parameters such as maximum temperature, intake temperature, discharge temperature, duration of
 exposure to elevated temperatures through the facility and before mixing with ambient temperature water, the maximum
 tolerable temperature of the species, and delta T (AT, i.e., the difference between ambient water temperature and maximum
 water temperature within the cooling system).  The effect of the yalues of each of these parameters varies among the species
 and life stages of entrained organisms.  Larger organisms are typically more tolerant than smaller organisms.

 The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sorted larval entrainment survival data by discharge temperature and
 determined that survivability decreased as the discharge temperature increased (EA Engineering, Science and Technology,
 2000). The lowest probability of larval survival occurred at temperatures greater than 33 °C.

 Mechanical stress                                     !
                         •
 Entrained organisms are also exposed to significant mechanical stress, which can also lead to high mortality. Types of
 mechanical stress include effects from turbulence, buffeting, velocity changes,  pressure changes, and abrasion from contact
 with the interior surfaces of the cooling water intake structure.
                                                                                                          1
 Chemical stress

 Chemical biocides are routinely used within cooling water intake; structures to remove biofouling organisms. These biocides
 often contain chlorine,  which can negatively affect any potential fentrainment survival of entrained species.  The timing of any
 biocide application should be scheduled during times of low egg and larval abundance. The concentration and duration of
 biocide use need to be fully documented to gain a better understanding of the effect on entrainment survival.


 A7-Z  EXISTING  ENTRAINMENT  SURVIVAL STUDIES

 Facility studies have tried to estimate entrainment survival (see Table A7-1). These studies varied in study designs and
 analytical methods. Important aspects of the study designs that differed between studies included sampling gear (e.g., types of
 nets or other collection devices),  sampling locations relative to  intake and outflow, sampling frequency, species collected, and
 observations of latent mortality. Table A7-1 provides a list of entrainment studies reviewed in this chapter by EPA.

 A recent report prepared for EPRI (EA Engineering Science & Technology, 2000) summarized the results of 36 entrainment
 studies prepared for individual power facilities, including the 13 studies listed in Table A7-1. The report concluded that in
 most cases the assumption of zero entrainment survival is overly conservative.  Although these studies indicate that
 entrainment survival may occur for certain species under certain conditions, the studies were conducted with a variety of
 sampling and measurement protocols. The fact that existing studies have been conducted using various methods highlights
 the fact that facilities have some unique features that affect monitoring procedures; it also complicates efforts to synthesize the
 various results in a manner that would provide useful generalizations of the results or application to other particular facilities.
 For these reasons,  EPA believes  that the results presented in the report have limited utility. A more useful analysis would
 include consideration of aggregated variance components, which could be used to determine confidence intervals around the
 mean values that the report determined for individual species. Although a description of confidence intervals is always
 desirable, determining valid confidence  intervals in the context of an analysis can be difficult (or impossible) unless the
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         xisting Faculties Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A7: Entrainment Survival
statistics available from each individual study are complete and sufficiently comparable. In EPRI's report, it seems likely that
differences among the basic studies with respect to measurement protocols were too large, or descriptions of variance
components were too few, to permit a more rigorous statistical summary.
                           Table A7-1:  Entrainment Survival Studies Reviewed by EPA
Facility
Braidwood
Nuclear
Brayton Point
PSI Cayuga
Generating Plant
Indian Point
Generating Station
Indian Point
Generating Station
Indian Point
Generating Station
Indian Point
Generating Station
Indian River
Power Plant
Oyster Creek
Nuclear
. Generating Station
Port Jefferson
PG&E Potrero
Quad Cities
Nuclear Station

Quad Cities
Nuclear Station
Waterbody
Kankakee
River
Mt Hope Bay
Wabash River
Hudson River
Hudson River
Hudson River
Hudson River
Indian River
Estuary
Barnegat Bay
Long Island
Sound
San Francisco
Bay
Mississippi
River

Mississippi
River
State
IL .
MA
IN
NY
NY
NY
NY
DE
NJ
NY
CA
IL

IL
Sampling j s iesStudied
Dates :
June - July \Lepomis
1988 jcyprinids
, .. , iwinter flounder,
Apnl- August ^
_ . iwindowpane flounder,
JurTl^S Nyanchovy,
y lAmerican sand lance
icatastomids percids
May -June : . .,
1979 jcypnmds
ipercichthyids
•Atlantic tomcod
... , istripedbass
A MarclV- [white perch
August 1979 |herri^s
ibay anchovy
April - July jstriped bass
1980 ibay anchovy
May - June jbay anchovy
1985 i
istriped bass
I""6 jwhite perch,
•bayanchovy
July 1975 - jbay anchovy
December j
1976 i
_ , ibay anchovy
February- jwinter flounder
August 1985 ;
iwinter flounder,
i American sand lance,
j P" ifburbeard rockling,
; American eel,
isculpin
January iPacific herring
1979 i
June jfreshwater drum
1978 inon-carp cyprinids
. ., . Ifreshwater drum
Apnl - June ;
^ £Lo
Survivability
Calculations
initial
initial and
96 hour latent
initial and
48 hour latent
initial and
96 hour latent
initial and
96 hour latent
initial
initial and
24 hour latent
initial and
96 hour latent
initial and
96hour latent
initial and
96 hour latent
initial and
96 hour latent
initial and
24 hour latent
'
initial and
24 hour latent
: Citation
|EA Science and Technology,
J1990
JLawler Matusky & Skelly
JEngineers, 1999 ' .
[Ecological Analysts Inc., 1980a
iEcological Analysts Inc., 1981b
iEcological Analysts Inc., 1982
;EA Science and Technology,
il986
JEA Engineering Science and
jTechnology, 1989
iEcological Analysts Inc., 1978a
;EA Engineering Science and
jTechnology, 1986
iEcological Analysts Inc., 1978b
iEcological Analysts Inc., 1980b
lHazleton Environmental Science
ICo., 1978

lEngineers, 1985
                                                                                                               A 7-3

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
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 Other specific aspects of the EPRI report that limit its utility include the following (which are primarily features of the source
 studies rather than the review itself):
     *•   the limited geographic areas in the studies
     *•   the small sample sizes in the studies                  ;
     *   the limited species in the studies
     *   the variation in sampling procedures                  ;
     *•   the absence of information on chemical stresses        !
     *•   the absence of information on mechanical stress
     >   the limited data on latent physiological effects on species
     *•   effects from entrainment on growth rates
     *   increased vulnerability to natural mortality, maturation, and fertility/fecundity.
                                                           i
 For these reasons, EPA concludes that the sampling and data in the studies reviewed in the EPRI report are far too limited to
justify their use as a screening tool at the national level.
                                                           i

 A7-3  ANALYSIS BY EPA OF  13 ExisnNe STUDIES

 EPA reviewed the following 13 studies to  determine if they were 'conducted in a manner to give an adequate representation of
 the current probability of entrainment survival at the facility.
                                                           h
 Braidwood Nuclear Station

 Larval samples for an entrainment survival study were taken fron) the intake and discharge of the facility in 1988. Although
 sampling at the discharge determined that  the peak densities of larvae and eggs occurred during May, the samples for the
 entrainment sampling study were taken in  June and July, which may have resulted in samples that included fewer and larger
 entrained organisms. A no. 0 mesh plankton net with a 1 .0 m opening was used to collect samples. Samples were taken in
 areas where the velocities were approximately 0.5 ft/sec. After the sample was taken, the net was placed in a 5 gallon bucket
 containing water (no water chemistry or temperature data given), untied, and rinsed into the bucket.  The larvae samples were
 sorted within 20 minutes of collection into three classes: live, dead-transparent, and dead-opaque.  The dead-opaque larvae
 were omitted from the calculations of survival proportions as it was suggested that these opaque larvae probably died before
 collection. It was also assumed that the dead-transparent larvae died during passage through the system. After sorting based
 on mortality, the larvae were identified by species and separated into life stages. Survival proportions were determined by
 dividing the number of live larvae by the number of live plus dead-transparent larvae.

The intake survival study samples were collected from the holding pond, into which river water was pumped, during the day
 of June 1 (10 two minute replicates) and during the night of June 7 (2 two minute replicates) and July 5 (12 two minute
 replicates). There were no data given to determine that conditions were similar on the three sampling dates. The three intake
 survival sampling dates yielded a total of 191 individuals. Of these, the primary species sampled were cyprinidae (77
percent) and Lepomis sp. (6.8 percent).  Of the larvae sampled on the three dates, 128 individuals were classified as dead-
opaque and omitted from any calculations of survival proportions, 20 were dead-transparent, and 43  were live.  Samples sizes
were so small that all data of all species from the three sampling dates were combined to conclude that 68 percent of the
larvae survived passage from the river screen house to the holding pond. EPA recalculated this intake survival, including the
dead-opaque larvae, to determine that in fact only 23 percent survived. It is misleading to assume that these individuals died
prior to pumping into the holding pond. To account for those larvae that may be dead in a sample from natural conditions,
EPA suggests a similarly sized  sample be collected away from the intake and before the river water is pumped into the
holding pond as part of the same sampling event to account for any natural and sampling equipment related mortality.

The discharge samples were taken downstream of the outfall in the discharge canal during the day on the June 1(11 two
minute replicates), June 7(13 two minute replicates), and June 21(14  two minute replicates). Water chemistry and facility
temperature information were not given to determine if conditions were similar on the three sampling dates.  These three
discharge sampling dates yielded a total of 103 individuals.  Again, since the number of larvae sampled was low, all data from
all three sampling dates were combined. Of the larvae sampled on the three dates, 22 individuals were classified as dead-
opaque and omitted from any calculations  of survival proportions, 20 were dead-transparent, and 6 1 were live. The study
concluded that overall survival  rate at the discharge was 75 percent. EPA included the dead-opaque  larvae and concludes that
the actual overall  discharge survival should be recorded in this study as 59 percent.  Rather than collecting intake and
discharge samples simultaneously, EPA would prefer that the discharge samples be taken after a sufficient lag time from the
intake samples to  simulate passage through the facility. It is also important to take discharge samples as close to the outfall as
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
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possible, rather than downstream, to ensure that the larvae sampled were in fact those that passed through the facility. If
sampling mortality due to collection cannot be reduced, then EPA suggests that the percent survival of all individuals sampled
from the discharge without correcting for sampling equipment related mortality be used to ensure a fair, accurate, and
conservative estimate of entrainment survival.

EPA disagrees with EPRI's determination that this facility experiences 100 percent survival for Lepomis sp. larvae based on
the 1988 study. EPRI's calculation used the study's survival proportions, which had already corrected for dead-opaque larvae
that were assumed to have died prior to passage through the facility, and further corrected  for dead larvae by dividing the
discharge survival by the intake survival, assuming incorrectly that the intake survival was a control.  EPRI calculated the
initial discharge survival for Lepomis sp. larvae as 80 percent  (60 live larvae of 75 live and dead-transparent larvae with four
dead-opaque larvae omitted).  EPRI then divided this initial survival rate by the intake survival rate for Lepomis sp. larvae
calculated as 78 percent (seven live larvae out of nine live and dead-transparent larvae) to correct for natural and sampling
equipment related mortality to yield an initial entrainment survival of greater than 100 percent (0.80/0.78). Since the dead-
opaque larvae were already omitted from the calculation and the initial survival study was not a true control, this overstates
entrainment survival of Lepomis sp. larvae.  While EPA concludes that the entrainment survival of Lepomis sp. larvae is not
100 percent, EPA notes that the limited samples collected give an indication that there may be some initial larval survival.
Further entrainment survival studies would be needed at this facility using EPA's suggestions above before assuming anything
more than 0 percent entrainment survival. Additional studies  should also be conducted to determine latent mortality of larvae
and egg viability after entrainment.

Brayton Point                                                                              .   •

Samples were collected in 1977 weekly from April 30 to August 27 and in 1998 weekly from February 26 to July 29.
Samples were not collected during times of biocide use. The  numbers of samples taken per week varied. The time of day the
samples were collected also varied, with samples collected primarily  during the day before March 18, 1988  and primarily
during the night after that date. A total of 889 samples in 1997 and 1,424 in 1998 were collected at the intake from mid-depth
directly in front of the Unit 3  intake screens. A total of 1,803 samples in 1997  and 2,713 in 1998 were collected at the
discharge approximately 2 to  4 ft below the surface from either the middle of the discharge canal for Units 1, 2, and 3 or from
the Unit 4 discharge pipe. Samples were collected in larval tables by pumping water into the table for approximately 15
minutes. After each sampling period, samples were transferred into 19 L buckets, covered, and transported to the laboratory
for sorting. A time of 30 minutes per sample was targeted, but it is unclear how often this target time was met.  Dead larvae
were counted, identified, and  preserved. Live or stunned larvae were transferred to holding cups with plastic spoons, turkey
basters, or other unspecified devices, with a maximum of 20 larvae per cup. The holding cups were placed  in the racks in the
aquariums through which ambient temperature water flowed.  Live larvae were held for 96 hours to determine latent survival.
This study calculated entrainment survival assuming stunned organisms did not survive entrainment due to the increased risk
ofpredation.                             .

In the 1997 samples, 239 individuals were collected  at the intake and 18,998 individuals were collected at the discharge. Bay
anchovy was the predominant species, accounting for 7.1 percent of the total collected. Discharge water temperatures were
highly variably and ranged from 13.5 to 35 °C.  In the 1998 samples, 2,017 individuals were collected at the intake and 8,576
individuals were collected at  the discharge. American sand lance was the predominant species, accounting  for 38 percent of
the total collected.  Discharge temperatures were also highly variable and ranged from 10.5 to 45 °C. The differences in
numbers and species collected at the intake and discharge raise concerns regarding the comparability'of the survival estimates
at the two sampling locations.                  .    '

Because of low sample sizes, all data from all sampling conditions from 1997 and 1998 were combined. For American sand
lance, total survival at the intake was 0.13 percent and total survival at the discharge was 0.41 percent; for tautog, intake
survival was 4.2 percent and  discharge survival was  4.4 percent. Since intake survival for these species was lower than
 discharge survival,  it is impossible to distinguish between mortality due to collection and handling, and mortality due to the
 effects of entrainment. If entrainment survival were calculated as discharge survival divided by intake survival, the result
 would be an erroneous 100 percent entrainment survival. Survival was negligible for bay anchovy both at the intake (0
 percent) and at the discharge (0.04 percent). For windowpane flounder, intake survival was 65 percent and discharge survival
 was 44 percent which results in an overall entrainment survival of 68 percent.  For winter flounder, intake survival was 90
 percent and discharge survival was 32 percent, which results  in an overall entrainment survival of 36 percent. Survival was
 also analyzed with regard to discharge temperatures. In general, entrainment survival decreased markedly at discharge
 temperatures above 20 °C. The results of this study seem to indicate that this facility has  a negative effect on survival of
 entrained organisms.  The extent of the effect is unclear because of inadequacies and inconsistencies in the  sample protocols.
 EPA recommends that future studies at this site should pair intake and discharge sample locations, times, and sizes to
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             S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case. Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
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             accurately represent the organisms that are entrained in the units of this facility. Also, EPA recommends that only samples
             collected under similar conditions be combined for statistical purposes.

             Cayuga Generating Plant

             Larvae samples were taken from the intake and discharge of the cooling system to determine entrainment survival at the
             facility in May and June of 1979. Samples were also taken from'a cooling tower located on the discharge canal. Both initial
             and 48 hour latent survival were determined. Transit time through the cooling system was given as 2,180 seconds (36.34
             minutes) and the AT during the sampling events ranged from 8.4 to 11.8 °C, with discharge temperatures ranging from 29.4 to
             33.3 *C.  Chlorination occurs daily at this facility, but treatments ceased at least 2 hours before the start of each sampling
             event. Between 0 and 6 sample pairs were collected at night from May 17 to 31 and June 8 to 22. The highest average
             densities of organisms sampled were from June 8 to  10. It is unclear why sampling was discontinued June 1 to 7 when
             densities of organisms may have also been high.  Samples were taken simultaneously at the intake and  discharge sites rather
             than stratified to give a lag time to  simulate passage through the facility. Samples were collected by pumping water through
             the pump/larval table collection system for 15 minute intervals, after which the tables were drained and rinsed with ambient or
             discharge temperature river water,  as appropriate, to collect the samples into a transportation container for sorting. The
             collected larvae were immediately  classified as live, stunned, or dead. The dead larvae were preserved for subsequent
             identification. The live and stunned larvae were sorted by life stage and transferred to 1 L jars containing filtered river water,
             with a maximum of five individuals per jar. Filtered river water may not accurately simulate the actual conditions under
             which organisms are exposed after discharge from the facility.  The jars were aerated and maintained in an ambient
             temperature bath for 48 hours after collection.  Initial survival at the intake and discharge station was calculated as the
             proportion of the larvae alive to all larvae collected.  Standard error of the; survival proportion was calculated, as well as
             Fisher's exact test for independence to determined if the discharge survival was significantly lower than the intake survival.

             The 80 intake survival samples yielded a total of 1,614 individuals in three life stages of 11 families (1,010 yolk sac larvae
             (YSL), 597 post yolk sac larvae (PYSL), and seven juveniles). Because sample sizes were so low for each sampling event,
             data were combined across samples to give a total estimate of intake survival by species irrespective of the facility conditions
             under which the samples were taken. Because of insufficient data, survival estimates were determined  for only four taxa,
             catostomidae (621 YSL and 363 PYSL), cyprinidae (278 YSL and 188 PYSL), percidae (94 YSL and  14 PYSL),  and
             pcrcichthyidae (25 PYSL). The intake samples showed high mortality resulting from either natural conditions or rough
             handling during sampling. For example, in one sample, 33 larvae (41.25 percent) were classified as dead or stunned out of a
             total of 80 catostomidae larvae collected. These high mortality rates at the intake need to be reduced to the maximum extent
             possible. When divided into the mortality rates at the discharge site, high sampling mortality can mask any additional
             mortality due to passage through the facility.                  '

             The 80 discharge survival samples yielded a total of 942 individuals in three life stages of 11 families (463 YSL, 478 PYSL
             and 2 juveniles).  Again, due to insufficient data,  survival estimates were determined for only four taxa, catostomidae (306
             YSL and 343 PYSL), cyprinidae (95 YSL and 97 PYSL), percidae (53 YSL and 13 PYSL) and percichthyidae (17 PYSL).
             Densities were sometimes much higher in the intake samples than in the discharge samples for the top three families, ranging
             from 1.7 to 16.4 times higher in the intake samples.  This difference in organism densities can cause problems when
             comparing mortality rates at the two locations.  Using Fisher's Exact Test, all but the percidae PYSL showed an initial and 48
             hour latent discharge survival significantly lower than the initial and 48 hour latent intake survival.  However, when divided
             by the intake survival to calculate the survival estimate, this difference is reduced and falsely high survivability estimates
             without standard errors are reported in EPRI's study.           ,

             Entrainment survivability was also analyzed with regard to discharge temperature.  Lower entrainment  survival occurred at
             temperatures above 30 °C. The lowest percentage surviving discharge temperatures greater than 34 °C were observed for the  •
             cyprinidae YSL, with an average of only 4.8 percent ± 4.7 percent surviving in the discharge samples.  The facility's report
             calculates a 17.1 percent ± 16.7 percent entrainment survivability for cyprinidae YSL at temperatures greater than 34 °C by
             dividing the discharge  proportion by the proportion surviving the intake under all conditions of 28.0 percent ±'2.7 percent
             (0.048/0.280). The amount of time the discharge temperatures exceed 30 °C was not provided even though this appears to
             have a profound effect on survivability.  Given that samples were taken at different times with different sampling sizes, it is
             unclear whether the use of the data in this manner results in an accurate depiction of the actual entrainment survivability.
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 § 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A7: Entrainment Survival
 Indian Point Generating Station

 EPA reviewed entrainment survival studies conducted at this facility in 1979,1980, 1985, and 1988.

 Atlantic tomcod larvae samples were collected in late winter, March 12 - 22, 1979, using pump/larval table collection
 systems. Sampling was scheduled to coincide with the time period of greatest abundance of tomcod larvae. Samples were
 collected at night eight times over a 2 week period.  One unit was not operational during three nights of sampling, March 20-
 22. Intake and discharge samples were collected simultaneously rather than with a lag period to simulate passage through the
 facility. Samples were delivered to the larval table by two pumps for 15 minutes per sample.  The pumps were then turned off
 and the larval tables were drained and then rinsed with ambient water to concentrate the organisms into the collection box.
 After collection, the larvae were sorted as live, stunned, or dead based on the extent of activity observed. Live and stunned,
 larvae were transferred with a pipette into 1 L jars containing filtered ambient river water with a maximum of five individuals
 per jar. The jars were aerated and maintained in an ambient temperature bath for 96 hours. Discharge temperatures  during
 the study period ranged from 12.0 to 21.9 °C. These latent mortality experimental conditions may not accurately simulate the
 actual conditions under which the organisms were exposed to subsequent to entrainment.  Initial survival ranged from a low of
• 7 percent with discharge temperatures greater than 20 °C to high of 40 percent with discharge temperatures less than 16 °C.
 After taking into account latent survivability, the overall entrainment survival estimates ranged from a low of 11 percent with
 discharge temperatures above 20 °C and a high of 64 percent with discharge temperatures below 16 °C.

 Striped bass, white perch, herring, and anchovy samples were collected from April 30 through August 14, 1979, using a rear-
 draw plankton sampling flume at the intake and a pumpless plankton sampling flume at the discharge. These methods relied
 on head-induced flow (created by the pressure difference due to the difference in water levels of the river and discharge canal)
 instead of pumps to collect organisms in an attempt to reduce mortality from collection and handling. The floating sampling
 gear was also advantageous to sample from the submerged discharge ports at this facility. Only one unit operated
 continuously throughout, the study period. This may result in discharge temperatures  which were  not representative of the
 elevated temperatures which could be expected when  the facility operates at full capacity. Intake and discharge samples were
 collected simultaneously. Samples were collected for 15 minutes each for two consecutive nights each week for a total of 32
 sampling events. After the 15  minute period, flow through the flume was stopped and ambient water flushed the organisms
 into collection boxes. After collection, larvae were sorted as live, stunned, or dead based on the extent of activity observed
 and eggs were sorted as live or dead based on coloration. Live and stunned larvae were transferred with a pipette into  1 L jars
 containing filtered ambient river water with a maximum of five per jar.  The jars were aerated and maintained in an ambient
 temperature bath for 96 hours.  These experimental conditions may not adequately simulate the actual conditions under which
 the organisms were exposed after entrainment.  Eggs were transferred to cups with fine mesh screened bottoms to allow for
 ambient water flow. Because of insufficient sample size, all data for striped bass eggs were combined so that 124 eggs were
 collected at the intake and 55 eggs were collected at the discharge.  The 96 hour latent intake survival of striped bass eggs was
 44 percent and the discharge survival was 33 percent through a range of discharge temperatures of 24 - 28 °C.  The average
 entrainment survival estimate for striped bass eggs, calculated as discharge survival divided by intake survival, was 74 percent
 (0.33/0.44). For the fish larvae samples, a difference  in stress associated with the different sampling techniques at the intake
 and discharge was given as the reason why discharge  survival was higher than intake survival for each taxa sampled. Thus,
 entrainment survival was not calculated. Initial discharge survival for all taxa ranged from a low of 3 percent for anchovy
 PYSL to a high of 75 percent for striped bass YSL at discharge temperatures ranging from 30.0 to 32.9 °C.

 In 1980, additional samples were collected four consecutive nights per week from April 30 through July 10 for a total of 44
 sampling events.  The sampling gear is this study was modified to reduce the disproportionate stress from the different
 collection techniques used at the intake and discharge sampling sites.  A total of 272 striped bass eggs were collected from the
 intake and  147 eggs were collected  from the discharge over a range of discharge temperatures from 23 to 31 °C during the
 collection.  The 96 hour latent intake survival was 82  percent while the discharge survival was 47 percent, resulting  in an
 entrainment survival for striped bass eggs of 56 percent (0.47/0.82). Entrainment survival estimates ranged from a low of 5
 percent survival for bay anchovy PYSL at discharge temperatures above 33  °C  to a high of 97 percent survival for white
 perch PYSL at discharge temperatures below 29 °C.

 In 1985, samples were collected with a barrel sampler daily from May 12 through June 29. Throughout the study a small
 sample set was collected; only 115 larvae and juveniles were collected from the intake and 342 from the discharge.
 Insufficient numbers were collected at both the intake and discharge for all taxa collected except bay anchovy  PYSL, which
 comprised 83 percent of the total number sampled. For bay anchovy PYSL, 106 were collected at the intake and 274 were
 collected at the discharge. The survival at the intake  was determined to be 23 percent while the survival at the discharge was
 determined to be 6 percent, resulting in an entrainment survival estimate of 24 percent (0.06/0.23).  There was insignificant
 survival for both the intake and discharge samples to  calculate latent survivability.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
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 In 1988, the entrainment survival study was repeated to determine the effect of the installation of dual speed circulating water
 pumps in Unit 2 in 1984 and variable speed pumps in 1985. Preyiously calculated entrainment survivability rates
 demonstrated the effect of entrainment when the older single speed pumps were in use.  Samples were collected for 15 minute
 intervals on 13 days from June 8 through June 30 during afternoon and evening hours using rear-draw sampling flumes.
 Intake samples were collected from in front of the intake structure and discharge samples were collected downstream from the
 point where the discharge flow from Units 2 and 3 join. For all samples combined, a total of 1,132 individuals were collected
 at the intake and 11,201 were collected at the discharge. The reason for the great disparity between intake and discharge
 organism densities was unclear. Bay anchovy (67 percent), striped bass (26 percent), and white perch (3 percent) were
 collected in the greatest proportions. At the intake, initial and 24 hour latent survival varied widely with many taxa having 0
 percent survival for both. Bay anchovy PYSL was collected in the greatest numbers, 441, and had 8 percent initial survival
 and 0 percent 24 hour latent survival. Striped bass PYSL, 273 collected, had an initial survival of 90 percent and a 24 hour
 latent survival of 56 percent. At the discharge, initial and 24 hour latent survival also varied widely, with many taxa having 0
 percent survival for both. Bay anchovy PYSL, 6,969 collected, had an initial survival of 2 percent and a 24 hour latent
 survival of 0 percent.  Striped bass PYSL, 2,398 collected, had 68 percent initial survival and 44 percent 24 hour latent
 survival. The total entrainment survival for bay anchovy PYSL yvas 0 percent and for striped bass PYSL was 76 percent for
 initial survival and 79 percent for 24 hour latent survival (calculated as discharge survival divided by intake survival).

 While these studies were the most comprehensive of all studies reviewed by EPA, they still contain several inadequacies that
 would need to be addressed before giving a full and accurate depiction of the actual entrainment survival offish and shellfish
 at this facility. Further studies would be needed to address the problems of low sample sizes, disparate densities at sampling
 points, and high intake mortality.                            I

 Indian River Power Plant

 Samples were taken once or twice monthly and mostly at night from July 21, 1975, to December 13, 1976, using a 0.5 m
 diameter plankton sled fitted with 505 \lm net. The average discharge temperature ranged from a low of 7.7 °C in January
 1976 to a high of 38.7 *C in August 1975, with an average AT that ranged from a low of 5.2 °C in July 1975 to high of 9.0 °C
 in November 1975. The samples were taken for approximately 5  minutes each until an appropriate number of individuals of
 each selected species were collected; After collection, the cod end of the net was submerged in approximately  10 L of water
 of unspecified type and temperature. Samples were poured into enamel pans and individuals of selected species were then
 removed from the pans with plastic spoons, meat basters, or eyedroppers and placed into holding containers with 10-25
 individuals per container. During this process, individuals were assessed as either live or dead; however, for highly abundant
 species, the number of live versus dead was taken from a random sample of the total sample. To determine latent
 survivability, larger organisms were held in plastic Dandux boxes in tanks through which intake water flowed.  Discharge
 water for the discharge samples flowed through those holding  tanks for the first 4 to 6 hours, after which ambient water was
 introduced to the tanks. Smaller organisms were held in 250 mL plastic cups which floated in styrofoam frames within
 Dandux boxes in the holding tanks. Latent survivability was observed for 96  hours during which time the organisms were fed.
 Both absolute and percent survival data were presented for the seven species of fish and shellfish.

 The 25 intake samples were taken from the foot bridge over the intake canal. This study used the same assumption that intake
 mortality was natural or caused by handling during collection. High approach velocity may also account for high mortality in
 the intake samples. The 21  discharge samples were taken from the discharge canal under a roadway bridge. It is unclear why
 discharge samples were not collected each time intake samples were collected.  Appendix  B, which contained'the entrainment
 study data, was not made available to EPA. Therefore, the survivability calculations could not be verified. As in other
 studies, very low intake survivability masked any additional mortality due to entrainment.  For example, bay anchovy
 experienced an average of only 21 percent intake survivability, which, when combined with low sample sizes, made it
 extremely difficult to determine the extent of any additional mortality due to the effects of entrainment. When samples where
 sorted based on discharge temperatures, all species presented experience reduced survivability at average discharge
 temperatures above 20 *C. Four species experienced 0 percent survival above 35 °C. The facility's study attempted to
 determine the relationship between the times of high facility discharge temperatures with times of greatest species abundance
 to gain a better insight to the facility induced mortality rates. The extent to which this affects the overall survivability for,
 species throughout the year remains unclear. This information Would have been helpful to determine the percentage of time
 most organisms will experience zero survival at this facility. It is  also unclear if the discharge temperatures remain
 comparable at this time (over 25 years later).  Dye studies have also been performed at this facility and recirculation of
 discharge water has been shown to occur.  The extent to which organisms are entrained repeatedly and the effect this has on
 the number of organisms that were shown to have died through either natural causes or from sampling from the intake is  not
 known, and thus some intake mortality may be due to the organism's previous passage through the facility, which may further
 mask entrainment mortality.                                 :  .
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Chapter A7: Entrainment Survival
Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station

An entrainment survival study was performed at this facility from February through August 1985.  Entrainment survival was
estimated for bay anchovy eggs and larvae and winter flounder larvae.  Intake samples were collected at the intake and
discharge samples were collected approximately 2 minutes later to simulate the passage of the same portion of .water through
the facility. Samples were collected for approximately 10 minutes each with a barrel sampler which consists of two nested
cylindrical tanks. The inner cylinder, has 331 mm mesh screened panels that collect organisms as water, is drawn into the inner
cylinder and out through the screens and outer cylinder. This design intended to reduce sampling mortality through abrasion
from the sampling gear and by minimizing the velocity of the water sampled to 1 cm/sec.  Samples were held in flow-through
water systems with either ambient or discharge temperature water as appropriate.  Organisms were sorted as either live,
stunned, or dead. Live and stunned organisms were transferred to flow-through or solid holding containers in water baths to
determine 96 hour latent survivability.  Larvae were fed throughout the observation period. Eggs were classified as live when
clear or transparent in  color, and dead if cloudy, opaque, or showed no development during observation.  Data were grouped
by 3 day long sampling events.  It was unclear if conditions remained similar throughout the 3 days of each sampling event.
Water quality data such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and pH were recorded throughout the 96 hour observation
period. Chlorine concentrations were measured during sample collection to determine any mortality due to biocide use, but
chlorine was not detected.  The raw data were not provided in any appendix to this study,  so the calculation of survival
estimates could not be verified.

A total of 20,227 bay anchovy eggs were collected from the intake and 26,243 were collected from the discharge from 13
sampling events. During sampling, the discharge temperature ranged from 25.9 to 38.1 °C and the AT ranged from -0.2 to
12.1 °C.  It was unclear whether the facility was operating during sampling event  17 when  the AT was T0.2 °C (intake
temperature of 26.1  °C minus discharge temperature of 25.9  °C). Initial survival, calculated as discharge survival divided by
intake survival, ranged from 21 to 83 percent. The  96 hour latent survival, calculated as discharge survival divided by intake
survival, ranged from 0 to 100 percent. The total survival for bay anchovy eggs, calculated as initial survival multiplied by
latent survival, ranged from a low of 0 percent at discharge temperatures above 38 °C to a high of 93 percent at a discharge
temperature of 26.2  °C. Overall, the average survival was below 50 percent at discharge temperatures above 32 °C.

A total of-3,396 bay anchovy larvae were collected from the  intake and 3,474 were collected from the discharge from 10
sampling events. During sampling, the discharge temperature ranged from 25.9 to 39.3 °C and the AT ranged from -0.2 to
11.7 °C.  Initial survival, calculated as discharge survival divided by intake survival, ranged from 0 percent at temperatures
above 35 °C to 99 percent at a discharge temperature  of 26.2 °C. Initial survival was generally below 50 percent when
discharge temperatures were above 30  °C. The 96 hour latent survival could not be calculated due to near zero survival of
organisms from both the intake and discharge samples.

A total of 3,935 winter flounder larvae were collected from the intake and 2,999 were collected from the discharge from five
sampling events. During sampling, the discharge temperature ranged from 13.5 to 20.3 °C and the AT ranged from 3.5 to
11.1 °C.  Initial survival, calculated as discharge survival divided by intake survival, ranged from a low of 36 percent with a
discharge temperature of 20.3 °C to a high of 96 percent with a discharge temperature of 14.8 °C.  The 96 hour latent
survival, calculated as discharge survival divided by intake survival, ranged from a low of 10 percent with a discharge
temperature of 20.3  °C to a high of 97 percent with a  discharge temperature of 14.8  °C.

This facility, like 'all others, would need to conduct additional studies to sample more species, with larger sample sizes, and
with less intake mortality in order to calculate a fair and accurate estimate of entrainment survival. It would also be helpful to
determine the percentage of time the discharge temperatures are high enough to cause low entrainment survival.

Port Jefferson Generating Station

Samples taken for an entrainment survival study were taken for four nights in April  1978.  Sampling was scheduled to
coincide with no biocide use at the  facility. It was unclear whether these sampling dates corresponded with times of high egg
and larvae abundance. Discharge temperatures ranged from 10 to 18 °C, with a AT that ranged from 2 to 11 °C. It was
unclear whether these low discharge temperatures are typical of the facility's year round operation. Samples were analyzed
for both initial and 96 hour latent survival. The intake samples were collected at 2 m below mean low water mark in front of
the trash racks of the intake. The discharge samples were collected at  1 m below mean low water mark in the common seal
well structure for Units 3 and 4 of the facility.  Intake and discharge samples were taken simultaneously rather than with a lag
time to simulate the passage of water through the facility. Samples were collected from the intake and discharge by pumping
water with a Marlow pump into a larval table for 15 minutes after which the pump was turned off and the table drained. The
time for the table to drain was approximately 30 minutes. The study did not mention if water was used to help flush the
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Chapter A7: Entrainment Survival
organisms into the transportation container; however, the study does indicate that the organisms were exposed to elevated
temperatures in the table and transportation container during the time the table drained.  The transportation container was
taken to the laboratory where the organisms were sorted in an ambient temperature flow-through bath. Larvae and juveniles
were sorted as either live, stunned, or dead. Dead larvae and juveniles were preserved for later identification. Live and
stunned larvae and juveniles were transferred with a pipette to 0.9 L glass jars with a maximum of 5 individuals per jar. The
jars were aerated and maintained in an ambient water bath. Throughout the 96 hour observation period for latent
survivability, the organisms were not fed.  The eggs were classified through observation only with the category live assigned
when eggs were clear or transparent and dead assigned when eggs were cloudy and opaque.  No further study on the actual
viability of the live eggs was performed.  Initial survival was calculated by dividing the number of live and stunned by the
total number collected. Latent survival was calculated by dividing the number of organisms alive by the number of organisms
initially classified as live or stunned. The statistical significance of the survivability at the intake and discharge was
calculated in the facility's study. This study, like others, used  the: assumption that the probability of mortality from
entrainmcnt and sampling are independent stresses that do not interact, and the intake survival  was used as the estimate of
surviving sampling.

In the 47 intake samples, 31 winter flounder PYSL, 215 sand lance PYSL, 19 sculpin PYSL, 84 American eel juveniles, and
193 fourbeard rockling eggs were collected. Since sampling sizes were extremely low on each sampling date, all data taken at
different times and under different temperature regimes were compiled to estimate survivability.  Using EPRI's equation,
initial intake survival was calculated as 42 percent for winter flounder PYSL (3 live,  10 stunned, 18 dead), 41 percent for
sand lance PYSL (27 live, 61 stunned, 127 dead), 84 percent for sculpin PYSL (14 live, 2 stunned, 3 dead), 83 percent for
American eel juveniles (64 live, 5 stunned, 14 dead), and 81 percent for fourbeard rockling eggs (157 live, 36 dead). In the
47 discharge samples, 23 winter flounder PYSL, 166 sand lance PYSL, 17 sculpin PYSL, 71 American eel juveniles, and 102
fourbeard rockling eggs were collected. Again, all samples taken at different times and under different conditions were
combined to estimate survivability. Initial discharge survival was calculated as 43 percent for  winter flounder PYSL (0 live,
10 stunned, 13 dead), 13 percent for sand lance PYSL (3 live,  19 Stunned, 144 dead), 88 percent for sculpin PYSL (8 live, 7
Stunned, 2 dead), 94 percent for American eel juveniles (67 live, 4 dead), and 93 percent for fourbeard rockling eggs (95 live,
7 dead).  In each case, the sampling sizes were very low and unequal in the intake and discharge samples. Also in many
cases, the discharge survival proportions were higher than the  intake survival proportions. Because of the nature of the
equation for entrainment survivability, this results in an erroneous reporting of 100 percent initial entrainment survival for
winter flounder PYSL, sculpin PYSL, American eel juveniles, and fourbeard rockling eggs.  Only sand lance PYSL had lower
discharge survival than intake survival, which resulted in a calculated entrainment survival of 32 percent. Also, this study
assumed that stunned larvae would survive entrainment.  More likely, these stunned larvae would be more susceptible to
predation after entrainment and should not be included in the proportion surviving entrainment. .

Extended intake survival calculated for winter flounder PYSL was 77 percent (10 live, 3 dead), 11 percent for sand lance
PYSL (10 live, 78 dead), 44 percent for sculpin PYSL (7 live, 9 dead), 98 percent for American eel juveniles (63 live, 1
dead), and 14 percent for fourbeard rockling eggs (22 live, 135 dead). Extended discharge survival was calculated as 50
percent for winter flounder (5 live,  5 dead), 9 percent for sand lance PYSL (2 live, 20 dead), 33 percent for sculpin  PYSL (5
live, 10 dead), 96 percent for American eel juveniles (64 live,  3 dead), and 22 percent for fourbeard rockling eggs (21 live, 74
dead). This results in a calculated entrainment survival of 65 percent for winter flounder PYSL, 80 percent for sand lance
PYSL, 76 percent for sculpin PYSL, 97 percent for American  eel juveniles, and 100 percent for fourbeard rockling eggs.
Again, since sample sizes were unequal in the intake and discharge samples,  it is difficult to give a fair and accurate depiction
of actual latent mortality from collection and holding stress.     |

To claim anything more than 0 percent entrainment survival, more studies would be needed at this facility to sample greater
numbers of more species with less intake mortality.  EPA recommends that samples be taken at times of high larvae
abundance and only those samples collected at similar temperatures be combined when calculating survival.
                                                           i
Potrero Power  Plant

Survival estimates were determined only for Pacific herring larvae. Sampling for this study was conducted daily for 11 days
in January 1979 to assess both initial and latent 96 hour survivability.  Sampling was scheduled to avoid periods of biocide
use at the facility. It was unclear whether the month of January was the time  of highest egg and larvae abundance at this
location. Fish larval samples were  collected by pumping water with two pumps into a larval table for 15 minutes. Filtered
water at ambient temperature was withdrawn from the intake area and  flowed through the larval table to aid in the
concentration of organisms in the collection box. After 15 minutes, the pumps were turned off and the tables were drained;
however, filtered ambient temperature water continued to flow into the collection boxes. The collection boxes were then .
emptied into screen topped  containers for transportation to the laboratory for immediate sorting. Dead larvae where
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§ 3160i) Existing Facilities Benefits Cose Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A7: Entrapment Survival
preserved for later identification. The live larvae where transferred using a pipette into 1 L jars with a maximum density of
five larvae per jar.  These jars where held for observation in ambient temperature water baths and aerated. The organisms
were not fed during the 96 hour latent survival study.

Intake samples were taken directly in front of the intake skimmer wall at mid-depth. Discharge samples were taken at the
point where the discharge enters San Francisco Bay at mid-depth.  Twenty-five intake and discharge samples were analyzed
for survival; however, information was not provided regarding the timing of these samples, or whether they were taken
simultaneously or after a lag period to simulate passage through the facility.  The range of discharge temperatures during
sampling was 18.0-19.5 °C. In the 25 intake samples, 119 Pacific  herring larvae were classified as initially alive and 427
were  initially dead, resulting in an intake survival of 22 percent. In the 25 discharge samples, 115 Pacific herring larvae were
classified as initially alive and 601 were initially dead, which resulted in a discharge survivability of 16 percent.  According to
EPRI's equation, entrainment survivability would be 75 percent. The 96 hour latent survivability for Pacific herring was 52
percent at the intake (62 survived out of 119 observed) and 49 percent at the discharge (56 survived out of 115 observed).
According to EPRI's equation, this would result in an entrainment survivability for Pacific herring of 93 percent with
discharge temperatures between 18.0 and 19.5 °C. Since samples  were taken during January when discharge temperatures
were  low, higher mortality rates may be observed during other times of the year. Also, since samples were taken at times
when biocides where not in use, high mortality rates may be observed when biocides are in use.  Further, studies would be
needed at this location to give a fair and accurate estimate of survival for all species entrained.

Quad Cities Nuclear Station

Entrainment survival studies were performed at this facility in 1978 and 1984. This facility operates as a completely or
partially close-cycle cooling system, so its entrainment survival may be very different from other facilities that have once-
through cooling systems.                                                                        ,

In 1978, samples were taken in the afternoon, evening, or nighttime hours of June 19-26, 1978, when the facility was
operating in a complete open cycle mode with a generating output ranging between 41  and 99 percent power.  Discharge
temperatures during sampling ranged from 28.0 to 39.0 °C with AT that ranged from 5.5 to 14.8 °C. Samples were not taken
during times of biocide use. Intake samples were collected at mid-depth from the intake forebay.  Discharge samples were
taken near the surface from the discharge canal common to all units.  It was unclear whether surface sampling was sufficient
to capture organisms that may be distributed in other parts of the water column. Samples were collected from a boat for at
least 60 seconds with a 0.75 m conical plankton net with no. 0 mesh and an attached unscreened 5 L bucket. After collection,
samples were transferred to the laboratory for sorting. Discharge samples were held at discharge temperatures for 8.5 minutes
to simulate passage through the discharge canal and then cooled to ambient temperature plus 3.5 °C before sorting. Samples
 were classified within 20 minutes of collection in a sorting tray with a pipette as live, dead-translucent, and dead-opaque.
This study also used the assumption that dead-opaque larvae were dead due to natural conditions prior to collection, whereas
 the dead-translucent larvae died from collection or from effects due to entrainment.  In addition, this facility used the
 assumption that intake samples were a control to determine the rate of mortality from collection and handling and discharge
 samples indicated mortality from natural mortality, sampling mortality and entrainment mortality.

 Survival estimates were determined for freshwater drum and non-carp cyprinidae. Survivability was calculated with and
 without the inclusion of dead-opaque larvae.  EPA believes that the dead-opaque larvae should be included in the calculation
 because the  control will correct for any mortality due to.natural causes and no additional correction should be made to the
 data. The facility's study concluded that the lowest entrainment survival, 3 percent for all species sampled, occurred when the
 facility was operating near full capacity (96-99 percent) and discharge temperatures exceeded 37.9 °C. Entrainment survival
 was  calculated for each life stage separately for each sampling date in order to reduce variability in survival associated with
 different operating levels of the facility and different life stages of each species.  For freshwater drum, entrainment survival
 ranged from a low of 0 percent for juveniles at temperatures ranging from 38.0 to 39.0 'C with the facility operating at 96-99
 percent to a high of 71 percent for juveniles at temperatures ranging from 32.5 to 33.0 °C with the facility operating at 74-78
 percent. When discharge survival was greater than intake survival, the study indicated that entrainment survival could not be
 calculated, rather than assume 100 percent  entrainment survival as other facilities have incorrectly done in their studies.  For
 non-carp cyprinidae, entrainment survival ranged from a low of 4 percent for larvae at temperatures ranging .from 38.0 to 39.0
 °C with the  facility operating at 96-99 percent, to a high of 75 percent for juveniles at temperatures ranging from 30.5 to 31.2
 °C with the  facility operating at 59-68 percent. Variability in entrainment survival under different conditions could also result
 from the low sample sizes.

 In 1984, another entrainment survival study was conducted with the intention of estimating survival for all dominant taxa
 entrained, including walleye and sauger, which were not represented in significant numbers in the samples in the 1978 study.
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  S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluatiotj Methods
Chapter A7: Entrapment Survival
  However, insufficient numbers were collected to calculate entrainment survival for these species in this study as well.
  Sampling was conducted weekly from April 25 through June 27.\ Sampling was not conducted in July when discharge
  temperatures exceeded 37 percent and survivability was reported to be 0-3 percent in the 1978 study. The facility was
  operating at 40.2-50.7 percent capacity during the time of the study.  The discharge temperature ranged from 12 to 37 °C and
  the AT ranged from 9.5 to 14.5 °C. On May 9 both units were offline and the AT was 1 °C. EPA believes that the May 9
  data were not representative of normal operating conditions so this data should not be included in the survival estimates.
  Intake samples were collected from a depth of 1.5 m at the intake forebay and discharge samples were collected from the
  surface in the discharge canal. The sampling method was identical to the 1978 study. Again, biocides were not used during
  the study period. Half of each sample was analyzed in the laboratory in an apparent effort to reduce mortality due to
  collection and handling.  Dead and opaque organisms were omitted from the analysis since it was assumed that these died
  prior to collection. EPA believes this is an erroneous assumption and that the control should correct for any which may have
  died prior to collection. Organisms were also sorted by life stage as yolk sac larvae, post yolk sac larvae, or juveniles.  No
  statistical analysis was performed because  of low sample sizes.  '

  In the intake samples, 481 freshwater drum, 133 carp, and 33 buffalo were collected.  In the discharge samples, 64 freshwater
  drum, 103 carp, and 44 buffalo were collected.  In the facilities study, of a total of 3,967 organisms collected in both the
  intake and discharge, 2,979 opaque individuals were omitted from analysis (75 percent). When so few organisms are
  collected,  the arbitrary elimination of 75 percent seems excessive given that the data are also corrected for natural mortality
  by dividing the discharge survival by the intake survival.  The percentages of dead and opaque individuals ranged from 0 to
  99 percent of the total in each sample.  It is interesting to note that 0 percent were found to be dead and opaque in the
  discharge sample from May 9 when both units were offline and the AT was 1 °C. The specific numbers of dead opaque
  larvae from each sample were not available to calculate the actual entrainment survival in this study. EPA assumes that if
  opaque individuals were included the entrainment survival proportions  would be significantly lower than those reported in the
  facility's study and in EPRI's report. The raw data were not provided in this report to recalculate entrainment survival
  including dead and opaque larvae.

  A7-4   PRINCIPLES TO SUIDE  FUTURE STUDIES OF ENTRAINMENT SURVIVAL

 EPA maintains that demonstrations of entrainment survival for selected species under a limited range of experimental
 conditions are not a sufficient basis for assuming that entrainment survival should be routinely included in biological impact
 assessments. However, EPA recognizes that accurate quantification of biological impacts should include entrainment survival
 in cases where entrainment survival rates have been estimated by valid means, and that the conditions associated with those
 rate estimates are broad enough to reflect the scope of operating conditions at the regulated facilities (e.g., all ambient
 operating temperatures at which the facility operates, all ages at \yhich an organism is entrained). At a minimum, future   •
 studies intended to quantify entrainment survival should address the considerations described below. These considerations
 are intended to indicate the kinds of factors that collectively lead to results that (a) encompass a realistic range of operating
 conditions and (b) allow for a thorough understanding of the statistical features (e.g., bias and precision) of entrainment
 survival rate estimates.                                      '

 A7-4.I   Protocol for Entrainment Survival Study

 To determine entrainment survival rate, a statistically and scientifically  rigorous study of site-specific entrainment survival is
 needed. Such a study would use the best sampling practices (gear selection, sampling location and frequency to capture diel
 and seasonal patterns), maintain careful records, provide description and quality control  of sample processing, and use the
 appropriate statistical analytical procedures.

 Sampling should be carefully planned to minimize any potential bias. Samples should not be combined if they were collected
 under different environmental factors. Control samples that test the mortality associated with sampling gear should be taken
 as far away from the intake as possible.  This will ensure that the fates of mortality determined will be solely from natural
 causes or sampling damage and not from potential damage due to increased velocity and turbulence near the intake. Sampling
 mortality should  be reduced to the maximum extent possible. When control survival is less than discharge survival, no
 attempts should be made to calculate entrainment survival  which would give an erroneous survival result of greater than 100
 percent.

 Organisms  should be counted and sorted by both species, life stage, and size.  Initial mortality and extended or latent (96
 hour) mortality should both be reported to ensure the best overall survival estimate. Studies need to be conducted throughout
 the year to determine if the entrainment survival is dependent on life stage and size of each species entrained. Entrainment
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S SUj^y) Existing FacWties Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
. Chapter A7- Entrainment Survival
studies also need to be conducted for 24 hour intervals to determine the time of day entrainment survival will most likely
occur. Entrainment survival should be calculated separately for each life stage of each species.

The physical and operating conditions of the facility need to be recorded to determine their associated impact on the three
fundamental stressors that affect entrainment survival. The percentage of the maximum load at which the facility is operating
needs to be recorded  at the time of sampling to give an indication of the extent to which organisms are exposed to stress. To
assess the effect on entrainment survival by thermal stressors, the study needs to determine the temperature regime of the
facility. Specifically, the study needs to record the temperature at intake and at the discharge point for each component of the
facilities system: temperature changes within the system, including the inflow temperature, maximum temperature, delta-T,
and rate of temperature change, and the temperature of the water in which the organisms are discharged. It is also important
to measure the duration of time an organism is entrained and thus exposed  to the thermal conditions within the condenser. To
determine the effect of mechanical stressors on entrainment survival, the study needs to indicate the impacts caused by speed
and pressure changes within the condenser, the number of pumps in operation, the occurrence of abrasive surfaces, and the
turbulence within the condenser.  In addition, it is important to note the number and arrangement of units, parallel or in
sequence, which may expose organisms to entrainment in multiple structures. To properly account for chemical stressors, the
timing,  frequency, methods, concentrations, and duration of biocide use (e.g., chlorine) for the control of biofouling need to
be determined.  The water chemistry conditions also need to be recorded, including dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity in
the through-plant water, at the discharge point, and in the containers or impoundments in which the entrained organism are
kept when determining latent mortality.  These operating conditions can have different effects on different species.  It is
important to fully understand the species-specific effects of the three fundamental stressors.  In particular, different fishes
have different critical thermal maxima. The maximum temperature to which an organism may be exposed to while passing
through the facility may cause mortality in one species yet be sublethal in another species. When possible, the organisms
sampled should be categorized by their cause of death, mechanical, thermal, or chemical.  This will give a better assessment
of the susceptibility of each entrained species and life stages to the effects  of which of the  three fundamental stressors. In the
future this information will be helpful in the design of cooling water intake structures to reduce entrainment mortality.

EPA recommends that entrainment survival studies be conducted under worst case scenarios, such as times of near full
capacity utilization when egg and larvae abundances are high and biocides are in use.

A7-4.2  Statistical Considerations:  Direct Estimates  of Entrainment  Survival' Rates

When reporting estimates of entrainment survival rates, a'study should address the following statistical considerations.
Reliable studies should provide a complete description of sampling protocols as they affect:

     *•  Range of inference (i.e., how are the results of the study relevant  to future applications?).
     >- Identification of independent experimental units.
     *•  Ability to provide quantitative measures of precision (e.g., prediction error and/or confidence intervals).

A7-4.3  Applicability of.Entrainment Survival Studies  to Other Facilities

To apply the results of an entrainment survival study to other facilities, it is necessary to determine to what degree the
physical attributes of facilities are similar.  Specifically, do the facilities have similar numbers of cooling water flow routes,
are the  lengths  of flow routes similar in terms of time and linear distance, are the mechanical features the same in terms of
abrasive surfaces, pressure changes and turbulence, and are the same number and types of pumps used?  Similarities or
differences in these physical aspects can profoundly affect the applicability of the study between facilities.

The operating characteristics of a facility can also affect the applicability of entrainment studies to other time periods at the
same facility and to other facilities. To determine applicability, it is necessary to know if there is similarity and constancy of
the flow rates, .transit times, thermal regimes, and biocide regimes.

The ecological characteristics of the environment around the facility should also be considered when determining the degree
to which a study of entrainment survival is applicable to other facilities. Specifically, its is important to determine the
similarities or differences in the ambient water temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and the species and life stage present.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A7: Entrainment Survival
 A7-4.4   Statistical Considerations: Development of Predictive Models of Entrainment
 Survival  Rate

 With sufficient entrainment survival data from well designed studies, a model of entrainment survival could be developed that
 would allow for improved evaluation of survival rates and would aid in the design of the best cooling water intake structures
 to minimize entrainment mortality.                           !

 Model performance objectives should be defined before developing any studies using standardized survival models. The
 following are examples of statistical considerations that a study should address when reporting models that describe functional
 relationships between facility operating conditions (e.g., thermal regimes) and entrainment survival rate. Reliable studies
 describe the model and the basis of modeling procedure with respect to these questions:
                                                                                                .
     >•   How much precision is required?

     *•   What is the scope of the intended application of the model?

     >•   Which species, life stages, and size ranges are addressed by the model?

     >•   What is the range of physical considerations (e.g.,-ambient water temperature, temperature, AT, maximum
         temperature, duration of temperature) that are addressed by the model?

  •  »•   What is the model structure?
                                                          i                                        .
     »•   What are the relationships among the submodels (thermal stress, mechanical stress, and chemical stress) of the
         general model; e.g., are different sources of mortality assumed to act independently, or not?

     *•   What are adequate or levels of precision for estimates of individual model parameters?

 A7-5  CONCLUSIONS                              \
                                                          \
 Although EPA.agrees with the conclusion of the EPRI report that an assumption of zero entrainment survival rate for all
 facilities may be unwarranted for certain species and certain conditions, EPA believes the available data are insufficient to
 provide the basis for generalizations about entrainment survival rates. EPA concludes that it remains to be determined
 whether nonzero survival rates are common for cooling water intake structures in general.  Furthermore, EPA does not believe
 that the magnitude of a positive entrainment survival rate at other facilities or under different conditions at the same facility
 can be predicted with reliability on the basis of existing studies. ',

 After reviewing the EPRI report and other sources, it is clear that the number of relevant variables that collectively determine
 any entrainment survival rate is so large that the studies conducted to date should be viewed as a provocative set of anecdotes
 that demonstrate the need for further study, but do not provide a sufficient basis for making predictions. Until such time that
 the understanding of the general phenomenon is broadened to encompass more of the differences among facilities, including
 all physical and biological conditions, EPA believes that  the precautionary principle with respect to regulation should be
 maintained: that is, in the absence of sound empirical data quantifying survival, the standard method of impact assessment
 should not include consideration of nonzero  entrainment survival rates.  In addition to providing a precautionary stance for
 conservation of biological resources, assuming a zero entrainment survival rate also implies that the quantification of resource
 impacts at different facilities should be done in a consistent manner and therefore facilitate between facility, waterbody
 specific, and regional comparisons.
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods       Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
The environmental impacts of cooling water intake
structures (CWISs) are closely tied to the biological
productivity of the water body from which cooling water is
withdrawn. This chapter discusses CWIS impacts and
potential benefits of § 316(b) regulation for specific water
body types based on data compiled by EPA from existing
studies. The data presented are numbers of organisms that
are directly impinged or entrained. While EPA recognizes
that impingement and entrainment losses may result in
indirect effects on populations and other higher levels of
biological organization, this chapter focuses on
impingement and entrainment because these are the direct
biological impacts that result from the withdrawal of
cooling water by CWIS. Water body types discussed in
this chapter include rivers and streams, lakes and
reservoirs (excluding the Great Lakes), the Great Lakes,
oceans, and estuaries. Habitats of particular biological
sensitivity are highlighted within each type.
CHAPTER CONTENTS

A8-1    Development of a Database of I&E Rates 	A8-1
        A8-1.1  Data Compilation	 A8-1
        A8-I.2  Data Uncertainties and Potential Biases .. A8-2
A8-2    CWIS Impingement and Entrainment Impacts jn
        Rivers and Streams ,«,..-.	•. A8-2
A8-3    CWIS Impingement and Entrainment Impacts in
       ^fcakesand Reservoirs	C	,^/~.  ... i A84
A8-4  3; CWIS Impingement and Entnamrienr/in the
     -~ ^         *  ,/,?                ^.-$ / *        -  AO/:
       ^<3re|tLakes^..............	t.	•> • < • • ^-^>i*«../.» A8-9
   fl)' ^ Summary and Conclusions if... .^™ ,XIS.^-	L',h&-\ 1
                                                          A8-6
 AS -I  DEVELOPMENT OF A DATABASE OF !<&E RATES


 A8-1.1   Data Compilation               .                 .

 To estimate the relative magnitude of impingement and entrainment (I&E) for different species and water body types, EPA
 compiled I&E data from 107 documents representing a variety of sources, including previous §316(b) studies, critical reviews
 of §316(b) studies, biomonitoring and aquatic ecology studies, technology implementation studies, and data compilations.  In
 total, data were compiled for 98 steam electric facilities (36 river facilities, 9 lake/reservoir facilities, 19 facilities on the Great
 Lakes, 22 estuarine facilities, and 12 ocean facilities). Design intake flows at these facilities ranged from a low of 19.7 to a
 high of 3,3 15.6 MOD.                                                                     '

 EPA notes that most of these studies were completed by the facilities in the mid-1970s using methods that are now outmoded.
 A number of the methods used probably resulted in an underestimate of losses. For example, many studies did not adjust I&E
 sampling data for factors such as collection efficiency. Because of such methodological weaknesses, EPA believes that
 studies such as those discussed here should only be used to gauge the relative magnitude of impingement and entrainment
 losses. Any further analysis of the data should be accompanied by a detailed evaluation of study methods and supplemented
 with additional data as needed.            t                                                    ;

 For the present objective of understanding the potential magnitude of I&E, EPA aggregated the data in the studies that were
 available to EPA in a series of steps to derive average annual impingement and entrainment rates, on a per facility basis, for
 different species and water body types. First, the data for each species were summed across all units of a facility and averaged
 across years (e.g., 1 972 to 1976). Losses were then averaged by species for all facilities in the database on a given water
 body type to derive species-specific and water body-specific mean annual I&E rates.  Finally, mean annual I&E  rates were
 ranked, and rates for the top 15 species were used for subsequent data presentation.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
 A8-1.2   Data Uncertainties  and Potential

 A number of data uncertainties and potential biases are associated with the I&E data that EPA evaluated. As with any
 ecological data, natural environmental variability makes it difficult to detect ecological impacts and identify cause-effect
 relationships even in cases where study methods are as accurate and reliable as possible. For example, I&E rates for any
 given population will vary with changes in environmental conditions that influence annual variation in recruitment. As a
 result, it can be difficult to determine the relative role of I&E mortality in population fluctuations.

 In addition to the influence of natural variability, data uncertainties result from measurement errors, some of which are
 unavoidable. In addition to the inefficiency of sampling gear, much of the data presented here does not account for variations
 in collection and analytical methods or changes in the number of units in operation or technologies in use.

 Potential biases in the data were also difficult to control.  For example, many studies presented data for only a subset of
 "representative" species, which may lead to an underestimation of total I&E.  On the other hand, the entrainment estimates
 obtained from EPA's database  do not take into account the high natural mortality of egg and larval stages and therefore are
 likely to be biased upwards.  However, this bias was unavoidable because most of the source documents from which the
 database was derived did "not estimate losses of early life stages as an equivalent number of adults, or provide information for
 making such calculations.1 In the absence of information for adjusting egg losses on this basis, EPA chose to include eggs
 and larvae in the entrainment estimates to avoid underestimating age 0 losses.

 With these caveats in mind, the following sections present the results of EPA's data compilation. The data are grouped by
 water body type and are presented in summary tables that indicate the range of losses for the 15 species with the highest I&E
 rates  based on the limited subset of data available to EPA. I&E losses are expressed as mean annual numbers on a per facility
 basis. Because the data do not  represent a random sample of I&E losses, it was not appropriate to summarize the data
 statistically. It is also important to stress that because the data are not a statistical sample, the data presented here may not
 reflect the true magnitude of losses. Thus, the data should be viewed only as general indicators of the potential range of l&E.

 A8-2  CWIS IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS IN RIVERS AND  STREAMS

 Freshwater rivers and streams are free-flowing bodies of water that do no receive significant inflows of water from oceans or
 bays (Hynes, 1970; Allan, 1995). Current is typically highest in the center of a river and rapidly drops toward the edges and
 at depth because of increased friction with river banks and the bottom. Close to and at the bottom, the current can become
 minimal. The range of flow conditions in undammed rivers helps explain why fish with very different habitat requirements can
 co-exist within the same stretch of surface  water (Matthews,  1998).

 In general, the shoreline areas along river banks support a high diversity of aquatic life.   ^  -,  „  - -        - -- •-     ^^
 These are areas where light penetrates to the bottom and supports the growth of rooted    "T"                     '  _'   '
 vegetation. Suspended solids tend to settle along shorelines where the current slows,
 creating shallow, weedy areas that attract aquatic life. Riparian vegetation, if present,
 also provides cover and shade.  Such areas represent important feeding, resting,
 spawning, and nursery habitats  for many aquatic species.  In temperate regions, the
 number of impingeable and entrainable organisms in the littoral zone of rivers increases
 during the spring and early summer when most riverine fish species reproduce. This
 concentration of aquatic organisms along river shorelines in turn attracts wading birds
 and other kinds of wildlife.

 The data compiled by EPA indicate that  fish species such as common carp (Cyprlnus
 carpio), yellow perch (Percaflavescens), white bass (Morone chrysops), freshwater
 drum (Aplodinotus grunniens),  gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), and alewife
 (Alosa pseudoharengus) are the main fishes harmed by CWIS located in rivers Table A8-
 1 shows, in order of the greatest to least impact,  the annual entrainment of eggs, larvae, and juvenile fish in rivers.  Table A8-
 2 shows, in order of greatest to  least impact, the annual impingement in rivers for all age classes combined (mostly juveniles
    1  For spccies'for which sufficient life history information is available, the Equivalent Adult Model (EAM) can be used to predict the
number of individuals that would have survived to adulthood each year if entrainment at egg or larval stages had not occurred (Horst,
1975b; Goodyear, C.P., 1978). The resulting estimate is known as the number of "equivalent adults."
A8-2

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
and young adults).  These species occur in nearshore areas and/or have pelagic early life stages, traits that greatly increase
their susceptibility to I&E.
Table A8-1: Annual Entrapment of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniie Fish in Rivers
Common Name • Scientific Name
common carp : Cyprinus carpio
yellow perch ! Perca flavescens
white bass 1 Morone chrysops
freshwater drum 1 Aplodinotus grunniens •
gizzard shad : Dorosoma cepedianum
shiner i Notropis spp.
channel catfish i Ictalurus punctatus
bluntnose minnow : Pimephales notatus
black bass I Micropterus spp.
rainbow smelt i Osmerus mordax
minnow ! Pimephales spp.
sunfish \ Lepomis spp.
emerald shiner i Notropis atherinoides
white sucker : Catostomus commersoni
mimic shiner i Notropis volucellus
Number of
Facilities
j
4
4
5
4
4
5
1
1
1
1
5 '
3
5
2
Mean Annual Entrainment
per Facility (fish/year)
20,500,000
13,100,000
12,800,000
12,800,000
7,680,000
3,540,000
3,110,000
2,050,000
1,900,000
1,330,000
1,040,000
976,000
722,000
704,000
406,000
Range
859,000-79,400,000
434,000 - 50,400,000
69,400 - 49,600,000
38,200 - 40,500,000
45,800 - 24,700,000
191,000-13,000,000 |
19,100-14,900,000
—
—
.
—
4,230-4,660,000
166,000- 1,480,000
, 20,700 - 2,860,000
30, i 00 -78 1,000
Sources: Hicks, 1977; Cole, 1978; Geo-Marine Inc., 1978; Goodyear, C.D., 1978; Potter, 1978; Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company,
1979; Potter etal., 1979a, 1979b, 1979c, 1979d; Cherry and Currie, 1998; Lewis and Seegert, 1998. w»__-~ _— «»— -™-
Table A8-2: Annual Impingement in the Rivers for Ali Age Classes
Common Name ! Scientific Name
threadfin shad : Dorosoma petenense
gizzard shad ': Dorosoma cepedianum •
shiner : Notropis spp.
alewife \Alosapseudoharengus
white perch i Morone americana
yellow perch i Perca flavescens
spottail shiner : Notropis hudsonius ,
freshwater drum i Aplodinotus grunniens
rainbow smelt 1 Osmerus mordax
skipjack herring i Alosa chrysochons
white bass 1 Morone chrysops
trout perch i Percopsis omiscomaycus
emerald shiner 1 Notropis atherinoides
blue catfish I Ictalurus furcatus
channel catfish i Ictalurus punctatus
Number of
Facilities
3
25
4
13
3
18
10
24
11
7
19
13
17
2
23
Mean Annual Impingement per
Facility (fish/year)
1,030,000
248,000
121,000
73,200
66,400
40,600 . ;
28,500
19,900
19,700
17,900
11,500
9,100
7,600
5,370
3,130
Range
199 - 3,050,000
3,080- 1,480,000
28 - 486,000
199 - 237,000
27,100- 112,000
13 - 374,000 [
10-117,000
8 - 176,000
7-119,000
52-89,000
21 - 188,000
38-49,800
109-36,100
42 - 10,700
3 - 25,600
Sources: Benda and Houtcooper, 1977; Freeman and Sharma, 1977; Hicks, 1977; Sharma and Freeman, 1977; Stupka and Sharma, 1977;
Energy Impacts Associates Inc., 1978b; Geo-Marine Inc., 1978; Goodyear, C.D., 1978; Potter, 1978; Cincinnati Gas & Electric
Company, 1979; Potter et al., 1979a, 1979b, 1979c, 1979d; Van Winkle et al., 1980; EA Science and Technology, 1987; Cherry and
Currie, 1998; Lohner, 1998; Michaud, 1998.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
 A8-3   CWIS IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS IN LAKES AND RESERVOIRS

 Lakes are inland bodies of open water located in natural depressions (Goldman and Home, 1983). Lakes are fed by rivers,
 streams, springs, and/or local precipitation. The residence time of water in lakes can be weeks, months, or even years,
 depending on the size and volume of the lake. Water currents in lakes are small or negligible compared to rivers, and are
 most noticeable near lake inlets and outlets.                   ',

 Larger lakes are divided into three general zones - the littoral zone (shoreline areas where light penetrates to the bottom), the
 limnetic zone (the surface layer where most photosynthesis takes place), and the profundal zone (relatively deeper and colder
 offshore area)  (Goldman and Home, 1983).  Each zone differs in its biological productivity and species diversity and hence
 in the potential magnitude of I&E.  The importance of these zones in relation to potential I&E impacts of CWIS are discussed
 below.

 The highly productive littoral zone extends farther and deeper in clear lakes than in turbid lakes. In small, shallow lakes, the
 littoral zone can be quite extensive and even include the entire water body. As along river banks, this zone supports high
 primary productivity and biological diversity. It is used by a host offish species, benthic invertebrates, and zooplankton for
 feeding, resting, and reproduction, and as nursery habitat. Many fish species adapted to living in the colder profundal zone
 also move to shallower in-shore areas to spawn, e.g., lake trout (Salmo namycush) and various deep water sculpin species
 (Cottus spp.).
 Many fish species spend most of their early development
 in and around the littoral zone of lakes. These shallow
 waters warm up rapidly in spring and summer, offer a
 variety of different habitats (submerged plants, boulders,
 logs, etc.) in which to hide or feed, and stay well-
 oxygenated throughout the year. Typically, the littoral
 zone is a major contributor to the total primary
 productivity of lakes (Goldman and Home, 1983).


 The limnetic zone is the surface layer of a lake. The vast
 majority of light that enters the water column is absorbed
 in this layer. In contrast to the high biological activity
 observed in the nearshore littoral zone, the offshore1
 limnetic zone supports fewer species offish and
 invertebrates.  However, during certain times of year,
 some fish and invertebrate species that spend the daylight
 hours hiding on the bottom rise to the surface of the
 limnetic zone at night to feed and reproduce. Adult fish may migrate through the limnetic zone during seasonal spawning
 migrations.  The juvenile stages of numerous aquatic insects — such as caddisflies, stoneflies, mayflies, dragonflies, and
 damselflies  — develop in sediments at the bottom of lakes but move through the limnetic zone to reach the surface and fly
 away.  This activity attracts foraging fish.

 The profundal zone is the deeper, colder area of a lake.  Rooted plants are absent because insufficient light penetrates at these
 depths. For the same reason, primary productivity by phytoplankton is minimal.  A well-oxygenated profundal zone can
 support a variety of benthic invertebrates or cold-water fish, e.g., brown trout (Salmo tnttta), lake trout, ciscoes (Coregonus
 spp.).  With few exceptions (such as ciscos), these species seek out shallower areas to spawn, either in littoral areas or in
 adjacent rivers and streams, where they may become susceptible to I&E at CWIS.  !
   t                                                       L
 Most of the larger rivers in the United States have one or more dams that create artificial  lakes or reservoirs. Reservoirs have
 some characteristics that mimic those of natural lakes, but large reservoirs differ from most lakes in that they obtain most of
 their water from a large river instead of from groundwater recharge or from smaller creeks and streams.

 The fish species composition in reservoirs may or may not reflect the native assemblages  found in the pre-dammed river.
 Dams create two significant changes to the local aquatic ecosystem that can alter the original species composition:
 (1) blockages that prevent anadromous species from migrating upstream, and (2) altered hydrologic regimes that can eliminate
 species that cannot readily adapt to the resulting changes in flow and habitat.
A8-4

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 § 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
• Reservoirs typically support littoral zones, limnetic zones, and profundal zones, and the same concepts outlined above for  •
 lakes apply to these bodies of water.  For example, compared to the proftindal zone, the littoral zone along the edges of
 reservoirs supports greater biological diversity and provides prime habitat for spawning, feeding, resting, and protection for
 numerous fish and zooplankton species. However, there are also several differences.  Reservoirs often-lack extensive shallow
 areas along their edges because their banks have been engineered or raised to contain extra water and prevent flooding. In
 mountainous areas, the banks of reservoirs may  be quite steep and drop off precipitously with little or no littoral zone. As
 with lakes and rivers, however, CWIS located in shallower water have a higher probability of entraining or impinging
 organisms.

 Results of EPA's data compilation indicate that fish species most commonly affected by CWIS located on lakes and
 reservoirs are the same as the riverine species that are most susceptible, including alewife, drum (Aplondinotus spp.), and
 gizzard shad (Dorsoma cepedianum) (Tables A8-3 and A8-4).
Table
Common Name
drum
sunfish
gizzard shad
crappie
alewife
Sources: Michaud,
A8-3: Annual Ervrramment of Eggs, Larvae and Juvenile Fish in Reservoirs and Lakes
(excluding the Sreat Lakes)
! Scientific Name
i Aplondinotus spp.
! Lepomis spp.
1 Dorosoma cepedianum
\ Pomoxis spp.
1 Alosa pseudoharengus
Number of Facilities
1
1
•I
1
1

Mean Annual Entrapment per Facility (fish/year)
15,600,000
10,600,000
9,550,000
	 :""~" 	 ' ' 8,500,000
1,730,000
jL^LLJlJL^lJS^^,.,a^^
•BHB
Table A8-4: Annual Impingement in Reservoirs end Lakes (excluding the Sreat Lakes)
for Ali Age Classes Combined
Common Name i Scientific Name
threadfin shad j Dorosoma petenense
alewife j A losa pseudoharengus
skipjack herring j Alosa chrysochons
aluegill j Lepomis macrochirus
gizzard shad '; Dorosoma cepedianum
warmouth sunfish \Lepomisgulosus
yellow perch i Percaflavescens
freshwater drum i Aplodinotus grunniens
silver 'chub \Hybopsisstoreriana
black bullhead i Ictalurus melas
trout perch i Percopsis omiscomaycus
northern pike i Esox lucius
blue catfish i Ictalurus furcatus
paddlefish j Polyodon spathula
inland (tidewater) j Menidia beryllina
silverside :
Number of
Facilities
4
4
1
6
5
4
• . • 2
4
1
3
2
2
1
2
1
Mean Annual Impingement
per Facility (fish/year)
678,000
201,000
115,000
48,600
41,100
39,400
38,900
37,500
18,200
10,300
8,750
7,180
3,350
3,160
3,100
Range
203,000- 1,370,000
33,100-514,000
' 468 - 277,000
829 - 80,700
31 - 157,000
' 502-114,000
8 - 150,000
""' 	 '" 171-30,300
691 - 16,800
' 154-14,200
1,940-4,380
Sources- Tennessee Division of Forestry, Fisheries, and Wildlife Development, 1976; Benda and Houtcooper, 1977; Freeman and
Sharma, 1977; Sharma and Freeman. 1977; Tennessee Valley Authority, 1977; Michaud^l998; Spicer et al.. 1998. 	 	 | ^ ^ .
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  S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
  A8-4  CWIS IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS IN THE ©REAT LAKES

  The Great Lakes were carved out by glaciers during the last ice age (Bailey and Smith, 1981).  They contain nearly 20% of
  the earth's fresh water, or about 23,000 km3 (5,500 cu. mi.) of water, covering a total area of 244,000 km2 (94,000 sq.  mi.).
  There are five Great Lakes: Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. Although part of a
  single system, each lake has distinct characteristics. Lake Superior is the largest by volume, with a retention time of
  191 years, followed by Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

  Water temperatures in the Great Lakes strongly influence the   l
  physiological processes of aquatic organisms, affecting growth,
  reproduction, survival, and species temporal and spatial
  distribution. During the spring, many fish species inhabit shallow,
  wanner waters where temperatures are closer to their thermal   .
  optimum. As water temperatures increase, these species migrate
  to deep_er water. For species that are near the northern limit of
  their range, the availability of shallow, sheltered habitats that
  warm early in the spring is probably essential for survival (Lane et
  a!., 1996a). For other species, using warmer littoral areas
  increases the growing season and may significantly increase    ;
  production.

  Some 80% of Great Lakes fishes use the littoral zone for at least
 part of the year (Lane et al., 1996a). Of 139 Great Lakes fish
 species reviewed by Lane et al. (1996b), all but the deepwater ciscoes and deep water sculpin (Myxocephalus thompsoni) use
 waters less than 10 m deep as nursery habitat.

 A large number of thermal-electric plants located on the Great Lakes draw their cooling water from the littoral zone, resulting
 in high I&E of several fish species of commercial, recreational, and ecological importance, including alewife, gizzard shad,
 yellow perch, rainbow smelt, and lake  trout (Tables A8-5 to A8-8).
Table A8-5: Annual Entrainment of Eggs, Larvae and Juvenile Fish in the Sreat Lakes
Common Name i Scientific Name
alcwifc s Alosa pseudoharengus
rainbow smelt ! Osmerus mordax
lake trout j Salmo namaycush
Number of
Facilities
5 •
5
1
Mean Annual Entrainment per
Facility (fish/year)
[ 526,000,000
! 90,500,000
! 116,000
Range
3,930,000- 1,360,000,000
424,000-438,000,000
, —
Sources: Texas Instruments Inc. and Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly Engineers, 1978; Michaud, 1998.
Table A8-6: Annual Entrainment of Larva! Fish in
the Sreat Lakes by Lake
Lake
Erie
Michigan
Ontario
Huron
Superior
Number of
Facilities
16
25
11
6
14
Total Annual Entrainment
(fish/year)
! 255,348,164
: 196,307,405
176,285,758
: " 81,462,440
: 4,256,707
Source: Kelso and Milburn, 1979.
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter AS: Characterization of CWI5 Impacts
Tabie A8-7: Annual Impingement in the greet Lakes for AH Age Classes Combined
Common Name 1 Scientific Name
alewife ' \Alosapseudoharengus
gizzard shad 1 Dorosoma cepedianum
rainbow smelt \ Osmerus mordax
threespine stickleback i Gasterosteus aculeatus
yellow perch : Percaflavescens
spottail shiner ! Notropis hudsonius
freshwater drum 1 Aplodinotus gmnniens
emerald shiner i Notropis atherinoides
trout perch ! Percopsis omiscomaycus
bloater '•• Coregonus hoyi
white bass I Morone chrvsops
slimy sculpin i Coitus cognatus
goldfish : Carassius auratus
mottled sculpin \ Cottus bairdi
common carp \ Cyprinus carplo
pumpkinseed i Lepomis gibbosus
Number of
Facilities
15
6
15
. 3
9
8
4
4
C
2
1
4
3
3
4
• 4
Mean Annual Impingement per
Facility (fish/year)
1,470,000
185,000
118,000
60,600
29,900
22,100
18,700
7,250
5,630
4,980
4,820
3,330
2,620
1,970
1,110
1,060
Range
355 - 5,740,000
25 - 946,000
78 - 549,000
23,200 - 86,200
58 - 127,000
5 - 62,000
2 - 74,800
3 - 28,600
30 - 23,900
3,620 - 6,340 j
-
795 - 5,800
4 -7,690
625-3,450
16-4,180
14-3,920
Sources: Benda and Houtcooper, 1977; Sharma and Freeman, 1977; Texas Instruments Inc. and Lawler, Matusky, and
Skelly Engineers, 1978; Thurber and Jude, 1985; Lawler Matusky & Skelly Engineers, 1993; Michaud, 1998.
Tsbie A8-8: Annual Impingement of Fish
in the Sreat Lakes
Lake
Erie
Michigan
Ontario
Huron
Superior •
Number of
Facilities
16
25
11
6
14
Total Annual Impingement
(fish/year)
22,961,915
15,377,339
14,483,271
7,096,053
243,683
Source: Kelso and Milburn, 1979. _„_
 The I&E estimates of Kelso and Milburn (1979) presented in Tables A8-6 and A8-8 were derived using methods that differed
 in a number of ways from EPA's estimation methods, and therefore the data are not strictly comparable. First, the Kelso and
 Milburn (1979) data represent total annual losses per lake, whereas EPA's estimates are on a per facility basis. In addition,
 the estimates of Kelso and Milburn (1979) are based on extrapolation of losses to facilities for which data were unavailable
 using regression equations relating losses to plant size.

 Despite the differences in estimation methods, when converted to an annual average per facility, the impingement estimates of
 Kelso and Milburn (1979) are within the range of EPA's estimates. For example, Kelso and Milburn's (1979) estimated
 average annual impingement of 675,980 fish per facility is comparable to EPA's high estimate of 1,470,000 for alewife.

 On the other hand, EPA's entrainment estimates include eggs and larvae and are therefore substantially larger than those of
 Kelso and Milburn (1979), which are based on converting eggs and larvae to an equivalent number of fish. Because of the
 high natural mortality offish eggs and larvae, entrainment losses expressed as the number that would have survived to become
 fish are much smaller than the original number of eggs and larvae entrained (Horst, 1975b; Goodyear, C.P., 1978).
 Nonetheless, when viewed together, the two types of estimates give an indication of the possible upper and lower bounds of
 annual entrainment per facility (e.g., an annual average of 8,018,657 fish based on Kelso and Milburn's data compared to
 EPA's highest estimate of 526,000,000 organisms based on the average for alewife).
                                                                                                              A8-7

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluatiori Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
 A8-5   CWIS IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS IN ESTUARIES

 Estuaries are semi-enclosed bodies of water that have a an unimpaired natural connection with the open ocean and within
 which sea water is diluted with fresh water derived from land (Day et al., 1989). The dynamic interactions among freshwater
 and marine environments in estuaries result in a rich array of habitats used by both terrestrial and aquatic species. Because of
 the high biological productivity and sensitivity of estuaries, adverse environmental impacts are more likely to occur at CWIS
 located in estuaries than in other water body types.

 Numerous commercially, recreationally, and ecologically important species offish and shellfish spend part or all of their life
 cycle within estuaries.  Marine species that spawn offshore take advantage of prevailing inshore currents to transport their
 eggs, larvae, or juveniles into estuaries where they hatch or mature. Inshore areas along the edges of estuaries support high
 rates of primary productivity and are used by numerous aquatic species for feeding and as nursery habitats. This high level of
 biological activity makes these shallow littoral zone habitats highly susceptible to I&E impacts from CWIS.

 Estuarine species that show the highest rates of I&E in the studies reviewed by EPA include bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli),
 tautog (Tautoga onitis), Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), winter flounder
 (Pleuronectes americanus), and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) (Tables A8-9 and A8-10).

 During spring, summer and fall, various life stages of these and other estuarine fishes show considerable migratory activity.
 Adults move in from the ocean to spawn in the marine, brackish, ;or freshwater portions of estuaries or tributary rivers; the
 eggs and larvae can be planktonic and move about with prevailing currents or by using selective tidal transport; juveniles
 actively move upstream or downstream in search of optimal nursery habitat; and young adult anadromous fish move out of
 freshwater areas and into the ocean to reach sexual maturity. Because of the many complex movements of estuarine-
 dependent species, a CWIS located in an estuary can harm both resident and migratory species as well as related freshwater,
 estuarine, and marine food webs.
Table A8-9: Annual Entrainment of Eggs, Larvae, and Juvenile Fish in Estuaries
Common Name 1 Scientific Name
bay anchovy ! Anchoa mitchilli
tautog : Tautoga onitis
Atlantic menhaden \ Brevoortia tyrannus '
winter flounder ; Pleuronectes americanus
weakfish : Cynoscion regalis
hogchokcr j Trinectes maculatus
Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus
striped bass i Morons saxatilis
white perch - \ Morone americana
spot : Leiostomus xanthurus
blucback herring j Alosa aestivalis
ale wife \Alosapseudoharengus
Atlantic tomcod j Microgadus tomcod
American shad \ Alosa sapidissima
Number of
Facilities
2
1
2
1
2
•f
1
4
4
1
1
1
3
1
Mean Annual Entrainment
: per Facility (fish/year)
! 18,300,000,000
6,100,000,000
1 3,160,000,000
952,000,000
; 339,000,000
241,000,000
48,500,000
19,200,000
16,600,000
[ 11,400,000
; 10,200,000
2,580,000
2,380,000
1,810,000
Range
12,300,000,000 - 24,400,000,000
—
50,400,000 - 6,260,000,000
—
99,100,000 - 579,000,000
—
—
111,000-74,800,000
87,700 - 65,700,000
—
—
—
2,070 - 7,030,000
—
Sources: U.S. EPA, 1 982a; Lawler Matusky & Skelly Engineers, 1 993;' DeHart, 1 994; PSEG, 1 999f.
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods      Chapter AS: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
Table A8-1G: Annual Impingement in Estuaries for AS! Age Classes Combined
Common Name \ Scientific Name
gulf menhaden ! Brevoortia patronus
smooth flounder I Liopsetta putnami
threespine stickleback I Gasterosteus aculeatus
Atlantic menhaden ! Brevoortia tyrannus
rainbow smelt : Osmerus mordax
bay anchovy 1 Anchoa mitchilli
weakfish . ; Cynoscion regalis
Atlantic croaker 1 Micropogonias undulatus
spot i Leiostamus xanthurus
blueback herring : Alosa aestivalis
white perch i Morone americana
threadfih shad '-. Dorosoma petenense
lake trout i Salmo namaycush
gizzard shad i Dorosoma cepedianum
silvery minnow '-. Hybognathus nuchalis
Number of
Facilities
2
1
4
12
4
9
4
•8
10
7
14
1 '
1
6
' 1
Mean Annual Impingement
per Facility (fish/year)
76,000,000
3,320,000
866,000
628,000
510,000
450,000
320,000
311,000
270,000
205,000
200,000
185,000
162,000
125,000
73,400
Range
2,990,000 - 149,000,000
;
.123-3,460,000
114-4,610,000
. 737 - 2,000,000
1,700-2,750,000
357-1,210,000
13 - 1,500,000
176-647,000
1,170-962,000
287 - 1,380,000
... •
—
2,058-715,000
Sources: Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc., 1975; Lawler Matusky & Skelly Engineers, 1975, 1976; Stupka and Sharma,
1977; Lawler et al., 1980; Texas Instruments Inc., 1980; Van Winkle et al., 1980; Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc. and
New York Power Authority, 1983; Normandeau Associates Inc., 1984; EA Science and Technology, 1987; Lawler Matusky & Skelly
Engineers, 1991; Richkus and McLean, 1998; PSEG, 1999f; New York State Department of Environmental ConseJZation,20TO.___
 A8.-6  CWIS IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS IN OCEANS

 Oceans are marine open coastal waters with salinity greater than or equal to 30 parts per thousand (Ross, 1995). CWIS in
 oceans are usually located over the continental shelf, a shallow shelf that slopes gently out from the coastline an average of 74
 km (46 miles) to where the sea floor reaches a maximum depth of 200 m (660 ft) (Ross, 1995).  The deep ocean extends
 beyond this region. The area over the continental shelf is known as the Neritic Province and the area over the deep ocean is
 the Oceanic Province (Meadows and Campbell, 1978).

 Vertically, the upper, sunlit epipelagic zone over the continental shelf averages about
 100 m in depth (Meadows and Campbell, 1978). This zone has pronounced light and
 temperature gradients that vary seasonally and influence the temporal and spatial
 distribution of marine organisms.

 In oceans, the littoral zone encompasses the photic zone of the area over the
 continental shelf. As in other water body types, the littoral zone is where most marine
 organisms concentrate. The littoral zone of oceans is of particular concern in the
 context of § 316(b) because this biologically productive zone is also where most
 coastal utilities withdraw cooling water.

 The morphology of the continental shelf along the U.S. coastline is quite varied
 (NRC, 1993). Along the Pacific coast of the United States the continental shelf is
 relatively narrow, ranging from 5 to 20 km (3 to 12 miles), and is cut by several steep-
 sided submarine canyons.  As a result, the littoral zone along this coast tends to be
 narrow, shallow, and steep. In contrast, along most of the Atlantic coast of the United
 States, there is a wide, thick, and wedge-shaped shelf that extends as much as 250 km
 (155 miles) from shore, with the greatest widths generally opposite large rivers.
 Along the Gulf coast, the shelf ranges from 20 to 50 km (12 to 31 miles).
                                                                                                           A8-9

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  S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
  The potential for I&E at ocean facilities can be quite high' if CWIS are located in the productive areas over the continental
  shelf where many species reproduce, or in nearshore areas that provide nursery habitat.  In addition, the early life stages of
  many species are planktonic, and tides and currents can carry these organisms over large areas.  The abundance of plankton in
  temperate regions is seasonal, with greater numbers in spring and summer and fewer numbers in winter.

  An additional concern for ocean CWIS is the presence of marine mammals and reptiles, including threatened and endangered
  species of sea turtles.  These species are known to enter submerged offshore CWIS and can drown once inside the intake
  tunnel.                                                    !

  In addition to many of the species discussed in the section on estuaries, other fish species found in near coastal waters that are
  of commercial, recreational, or ecological importance, and are particularly vulnerable to I&E, include silver perch (Bairdiella
  chrysura), cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), several anchovy species, scaled sardine (Harengulajaguana), and queenfish
  (Seriphus polittts) (Tables A8-11 and A8-12).
Table A8-11: Annual Entrainment of Eggs, Larvae, and Juvenile Fish in Oceans
i
Common Name \ Scientific Name
:
bay anchovy 1 Anchoa mitchilli
silver perch | Bairdiella chrysura
striped anchovy { Anchoa hepsetus
cunner : Tautogolabrus adspersus
scaled sardine i Harengulajaguana
tautog • Tautoga onitis
clown goby i Mcrogobius gulosus
code goby j Gobiosoma robustum
sliccpshcad : Archosargus probatoccphalus
dngfish i Mcntlcirrhus spp.
?fgfish : Orthopristis chrysoptera
sand sea trout | Cynoscion arenarlus
northern kingfish \Menticirrhussaxatilis ,
Atlantic mackerel 1 Scomber scombrus
Atlantic bumper 1 Chloroscombrus chrysurus
Number of
Facilities
' 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
I
1
1
; Mean Annual Entrainment
per Facility (fish/year)
I 44,300,000,000
26,400,000,000
r 6,650,000,000
| 1,620,000,000
1,210,000,000
; 911,000,000
; 803,000,000
: 680,000,000
602,000,000
i 542,000,000
I 459,000,000
'; 325,000,000
• 322,000,000
312,000,000
; 298,000,000
Range
9,230,000,000 - 79,300,000,000
8,630,000 - 52,800,000,000
	
' 33,900,000 - 3,200,000,000

300,000 - 1,820,000,000
	
—
	
—
755,000-918,000,000
—
	
—
—
Sources: Conservation Consultants Inc., 1977; Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, 1980a; Florida Power Corporation, 1 985;
Normandeau Associates Inc., 1994b; Jacobsen et al, 1998; Northeast Utilities Environmental Laboratory, 1999.
AS-IO

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A8: Characterization of CWIS Impacts
Tabie AB-12: Annual Impingement in Oceans for Ail Age dosses Combined
Common Name j Scientific Name
queenfish \Seriphuspolitus •
polka-dot batfish | Ogcocephalus radiatus
bay anchovy [ Anchoa mitchilli
northern anchovy | Engraulis mordax
deepbody anchovy ; Anchoa compressa
spot | Leiostomus xanthurus
American sand lance j Ammodytes americanus
silver perch \Bairdiella chrysura
California grunion i Caranx hippos
topsmelt i Atherinops affinis
alewife \Alosapseudoharengus •
pinfish • 1 Lagodon rhomboides
slough anchovy | Anchoa delicatissima
walleye surfperch \ Hyperprosopon argenteum
Atlantic menhaden ] Brevoortia tyrannus
Number of
Facilities
2
1
2
f\
2
1
fj
f\
1
' "?
2
1
3
1
3
Mean Annual Impingement
per Facility (fish/year)
201,000
74,500
49,500
36,900
35,300
28,100
20,700
20,500
18,300
18,200
16,900
15,200
10,900
10,200
7,500
Range
19,800-382,000
"
11,000-87,900
i 26,600 r 47,200
34,200-36,400
; 886-40,600
12,000-29,000'
—
: 4,320 - 32,300 |
1,520-32,200 !
—
, 2,220 - 27,000
-
861 - 20,400
Sources: Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, 1 977; Stupka and Sharma, 1 977; Tetra Tech Inc., 1 978; Stone and Webster
Engineering Corporation, 1980a; Florida Power Corporation, 1985; Southern California Edison Company, 1987; SAIC, 1993;
EA Engineering, Science and Technology, 1997; Jacobsen et al., 1998.
A8-7  SUMMARY  AND CONCLUSIONS

The date evaluated by EPA indicate that fish species with free-floating, early life stages are those most susceptible to CWIS
impacts. Such planktonic organisms lack the swimming ability to avoid being drawn into intake flows.  Species that spawn in
nearshore areas, have planktonic eggs and larvae, and are small as adults experience even greater impacts because both new
recruits and the spawning adults are affected (e.g., bay anchovy in estuaries and oceans).

EPA's data review also indicates that fish species in estuaries and oceans experience the highest rates of I&E.  These species
tend to have planktonic eggs and larvae, and tidal currents carry planktonic organisms past intakes multiple times, increasing
the probability of I&E. In addition, fish spawning and nursery areas are located throughout estuaries and near coastal waters,
making it difficult to avoid locating intakes in areas where fish are present.
                                                                                                          A8-11

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                     Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
INTRODUCTION

Valuing the changes in environmental quality that arise
from the § 316(b) regulations for existing facilities is a
principal desired outcome for the Agency's policy
assessment framework.  Changes in Cooling Water Intake
Structure (CWIS) design or operations reduce
impingement and entrainment (I&E) rates. These changes
in I&E can potentially yield significant ecosystem
improvements in .terms of the number offish and other
aquatic organisms that avoid premature mortality. This in
turn is expected to increase the numbers of individuals
present, increase local and regional fishery populations,
and ultimately contribute to the enhanced environmental
functioning of affected waterbodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries,
human populations is expected to increase as a consequence
ecosystem functioning.
    CHAPTER CONTENTS
A9-1

A9-2
Ai>-3
A9-4
A9-5
A9-6
A9-%
   *"
A9-8
            Economic Benefit Categories Applicable to the
            § 316(b)RuIe ............... , ........ - ...... A9-1
            Benefit Category Taxonomies ............. . . . . A9-2
            Direct Use Benefits ..... ..... ..... .-„ ---- ...... A9-3
            Indirect Use Benefits ...... ^*, .. 7 .1 ............ A9-9
           -Nowise Benefits, ..... ;-.»/;.,, . r ....".." ........ A9-JO
            Summary of Benefits Categories ...".'". ---- -, .' . A9-1 1
                   ; Unking the § 3,1 6{b)XRote toj
                 tptat Outcomes ....... ^ ... v;. ;...... >'. A9-12
                                    "
            Conclusions   ........   ..., ............ .'. A9- 1 3
and oceans) and associated ecosystems. The economic welfare of
of the improvements in fisheries and associated aquatic
Below, we identify the types of economic benefits that are likely to be generated from the proposed existing facilities
rulemaking's anticipated reductions in adverse effects of CWIS. We explain the basic economic concepts applicable to the
economic benefits, including benefit categories and taxonomies associated with market and nonmarket goods and services that
are likely to flow from reduced I&E.  Also described are the methods and data sources used to develop empirical estimates of
the benefits of proposed regulatory actions.  These methods are applied to the case studies reported in Parts B through I of
this document.                                                                              •

A9-1  ECONOMIC BENEFIT CATEGORIES APPLICABLE TO THE §  316(B) RULE

To estimate the economic benefits of reducing I&E at existing CWIS, all the beneficial outcomes need to be identified and,
where possible, quantified and assigned appropriate monetary values. Estimating economic benefits can be challenging
because many steps need to be analyzed to link a reduction in I&E to changes in impacted fisheries and other .aspects of
relevant aquatic ecosystems, and to then link these ecosystem changes to the resulting changes in quantities and values for the
associated environmental goods and services that ultimately are linked to human welfare.

Key challenges in benefits assessment include uncertainties and data gaps, as well as the fact that many of the goods and
services beneficially affected by the proposed change in existing facility I&E are not traded in the marketplace. Thus there
are numerous instances —.including this proposed § 316(b) rule for existing facilities — when it is not feasible to confidently
assign monetary values based on observed market transactions (e.g., prices) for some of the important beneficial outcomes.  In
such instances, several types of benefits need to be estimated using nonmarket valuation techniques. Where this cannot be
done in a reliable manner, the benefits need to be described and considered qualitatively.             ,

For the proposed existing facilities rule, the benefits are likely to consist of several categories (as discussed below), some of
which are linked to direct use of market goods and services, and several of which pertain to nonmarket goods and services.
Accordingly, some are quantified and valued using secondary nonmarket valuation data (e.g., benefits transfer), and some
benefits are described only qualitatively. In addition, some nonmarket benefits are estimated using primary research methods.
In specific, recreational values are estimated for some of the case studies (those that are examined on a watershed-scale) using
a Random Utility Model (RUM), which is described in  Chapter A10.  Also, some benefits estimates are developed using
                                                                                                            A9-1

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                             Chapter A9- Benefit Categories and Methods
habitat-based restoration costing (HRC) as an innovative alternative to using replacement costs as a proxy for beneficial
values (see Chapter All).

In addition to the methodological complexities of estimating benefits, many of the factors that contribute to generating
benefits are highly site-specific. For example, the extent of recreational or commercial fishing benefits will depend on
baseline levels of I&E for a facility, which fish species are present, how the I&E impacts for those species are reduced by
regulatory options (relative to baseline), and the size, preferences, and socio-economic characteristics of human populations
in proximity to the affected aquatic systems (i.e., those individuals likely to have a demand for an improved fishery in the
affected waters). Thus, the benefits assessment is based on a series of facility- and site-specific case studies that are intended
to provide representative and plausible estimates of the benefits of the rulemaking.
A9-2   BENEFIT CATEGORY TAXONOMIES

The term "economic benefits" here refers to the dollar value associated with all the expected positive impacts of the § 316(b)
regulation being proposed for existing facilities.  Conceptually, the monetary value of benefits is the sum of the predicted
changes in "consumer and producer surplus." These surplus measures are standard and widely accepted terms of applied
welfare economics, and reflect the degree of well-being derived by economic agents (e.g., people or firms) given different
levels of goods and services, including those associated with environmental quality.1

The economic benefits of activities that improve environmental conditions can be categorized in many different ways. The
various terms and categories offered by different authors can lead to some confusion with semantics. However, the most
critical issue is to try not to omit any relevant benefit, and at the same time avoid potential double counting of benefits.

One common classification for benefits of environmental programs is to divide them into three main categories of
(1) economic welfare (e.g., changes in the well-being of humans who derive use value from market or nonmarket goods and
services such as fisheries); (2) human health (e.g., the value of reducing the risk of premature fatality due to changing
exposure to environmental exposure); and (3) nonuse values (e.g., stewardship values for the desire to preserve T&E species).
For the § 316(b) regulation, however, this classification does not convey all the intricacies of how the rule might generate
benefits. Further, human health benefits are not anticipated. Therefore, another categorization may be more informative.
Figure A9-1: Benefits Categories for § 316(b)
                  Market
                                             Con lumptioa
         BENEFIT   VALUES'
               Noniuarket
               Direct Use
Nonmarket
Indirect Use
Figure A9-1 outlines the most prominent categories of benefit
values for the § 316(b) rule. The four quadrants are divided by
two principles: (1) whether the benefit can be tracked in a
market (i.e., market goods and services) and (2) how the
benefit of a nonmarket good is received by human beneficiaries
(either from direct use of the resource, from indirect use, or
from nonuse).

Market benefits for § 316(b) are best typified by commercial
fisheries, where a change in fishery conditions will manifest
itself in the price, quantity, and/or quality of fish harvests.  The
fishery changes thus result in changes in the marketplace, and
cap be evaluated based on market exchanges.

Direct use benefits also include the value of improved
environmental goods and services used and valued by people
(whether or not these services or goods are traded in markets).
Aitypical nonmarket direct use would be recreational angling,
in which participants enjoy a welfare gain when the fishery
improvement results in a more enjoyable angling experience
(eig., higher catch rates).
     1 Technically, consumer surplus reflects the difference between the "value" an individual places on a good or service (as reflected by
the individual's "willingness to pay" for that unit of the good or service) and the "cost" incurred by that individual to acquire it (as
reflected by the "price" of a commodity or service, if it is provided in the marketplace). Graphically, this is the area bounded from above
by the demand curve and below by the market clearing price. Producer surplus is a similar concept, reflecting the difference between the
market price a producer can obtain for a good or service and the actual cost of producing that unit of the commodity.
A9-2

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 § 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                  Chapter A9- Benefit Categories and Methods
• Indirect use benefits refer to changes that contribute, through an indirect pathway, to an increase in welfare for users (or
 nonusers) of the resource.  An example of an indirect benefit would be when the increase in the number of forage fish enables
 the population of valued predator species to improve (e.g., when the size and numbers of prize'd recreational or commercial
 fish increase because their food source has been improved).  In such a context, reducing I&E of forage species will indirectly
 result in welfare gains for recreational or commercial anglers.

 Nonuse benefits — also known as passive use values — reflect the values individuals assign to improved ecological
 conditions apart from any current, anticipated, or optional use by them.  The most commonly cited motives for nonuse values
 include bequest and existence values. Bequest values reflect the willingness to pay to ensure that applicable environment-
 related goods and services are available to  future generations at a given level of quality and quantity.  It reflects concerns over
 intergenerational equity with respect to leaving a given level of environmental quality as an endowment for those who follow
 after us in time. Existence value (sometimes referred to as stewardship value) reflects the willingness to pay that humans
 place on preserving or enhancing ecosystem integrity or a given aspect of environmental quality.  This motive applies not only
 to protecting endangered and threatened species (i.e., avoiding an irreversible impact), but also applies (though perhaps at
 lesser values) for impacts that potentially are reversible or that affect relatively abundant species and/or habitats.2

 As noted above, the key to any benefits taxonomy is to try to clearly capture all the types of beneficial outcomes that are
 expected to arise from a policy action, while at the same time avoiding any possible double counting. Hence,  it makes little
 difference where some of the specific types of benefits are categorized within Figure A9-1. An additional complication with
 using any single taxonomy for benefits categories is that some valuation approaches may capture more than one benefit
 category or reflect multiple types of benefits that exist in more than one  category or quadrant in the diagram.   For example,
 habitat restoration may enhance populations of recreational, commercial, and forage species alike. Hence if habitat
 restoration  costs are used as a proxy for the value of reduced I&E impacts, the benefits estimates derived embody values for a
 mix of direct and indirect uses, including both market and nonmarket goods and services.  Accordingly, care is used in the
 case studies to preclude double counting when monetized benefits estimates are compiled, since in some instances monetary
 estimates from one approach may overlap with values captured by another methodology. All monetized values included in all
 categories if not given in year 2000 dollars are inflated to
 year 2000 dollars using an index from Friedman (2002).
 A9-3  DIRECT USE BENEFITS

 Direct use benefits are the simplest to envision.  The
 welfare of commercial, recreational, and subsistence
 fishermen is improved when fish stocks increase and their
 catch rates rise.  This increase in stocks may be  induced
 by reduced I&E of species sought by fishermen, or
 through reduced I&E of forage and bait fish, which leads
 to increases in populations of commercial and. recreational
 species that prey on the forage species. For subsistence
 fishermen, the increase in fish stocks may reduce the
 amount of time spent fishing for their meals or increase
 the number of meals they are able to catch. For
 recreational anglers, more fish and higher catch rates may
 increase the enjoyment of a fishing trip and may also
 increase the number of fishing trips taken.  For
 commercial fishermen, larger fish stocks may lead to
Allocating Fish to Commercial and Recreational Harvests

Many of the I&E-impacted fish species at CWIS sites are harvested
both recreationally and commercially. To avoid double-counting
the economic impacts of I&E of these species, we determine the
proportion of total species landings attributable to recreational and
commercial fishing, and apply this proportion to the number of
impacted fishery catch.  For example, if 30 percent of the landed
numbers of one species are harvested commercially at a site, then
30 percent of the estimated catch of I&E-impacted fish are
assigned to the increase in commercial landings. The remaining 70
percent of the estimated total landed number of I&E-spared adult
equivalents are assigned to the recreational landings.

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) provides both.
commercial and recreational fishery landings data by state. To
determine what proportion of total landings per state occur in the
commercial or recreational fishery, we sum the landings data for
the commercial and recreational fishery together, and then divide
by each category to get the corresponding percentage. This is done
on a case study by case study basis.
     2 Some economists consider option values to be a part of nonuse values because the option value is not derived from actual current
 use. Alternatively, some other writers place option value in a use category, because the option value is associated with preserving
 opportunity for a future use of the resource. Both interpretations are supportable, but for this presentation we place option value in the
 nonuse category in Figure A9-1.
                                                                                                                 A9-3

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
 increased revenues through increases in total landings and/or increases in the catch per unit of effort (i.e., lower costs per fish
 caught).  Increases in catch may also lead to growth in related commercial enterprises, such as commercial fish
 cleaning/filleting, commercial fish markets, recreational charter fishing, and fishing equipment sales.3

 Evidence that these use benefits are highly valued by society can be seen in the market and other observable data.  For
 example, in 1996, over 35 million recreational anglers spent nearly $38 billion on equipment and fishing trip related
 expenditures (US DOI, 1997), and the  1996 GDP from fishing, forestry, and agricultural services (not including farms) was
 about S39 billion (BEA, 1998).  Americans spent an estimated 626 million days engaged in recreational fishing in 1996, an
 increase of 22 percent over the 1991 levels (U.S. DOI, 1997). If the average consumer surplus per angling day were only $20
 — a conservative figure relative to the values derived by econornic researchers over the years (e.g., Walsh et al., 1990),
 review 20 years of research and derive an average value of over $30 per day for warm water angling, and higher values for
 cold water and salt water angling) — then the national level of consumer surplus enjoyed because of 1996 levels of
 recreational angling would be approximately $ 12.6 billion per year (and probably is appreciably higher).

 Clearly, these data indicate that the fishery resource is very important.  These baseline values do not give us a sense of how
 benefits change with improvements in environmental quality, such as due to reduced I&E and increased fish stocks.
 However, even a change of 1.0 percent would translate into potential benefits of approximately $100 million per year or
 more, based on the limited metrics noted above that relates only to recreational angling consumer surplus.

 Commercial fisheries.  The social benefits derived from increased landings  by commercial fishermen can be valued by
 examining the markets through which the landed fish are sold. This entails a series of steps that are detailed below. The first
 step of the analysis involves a fishery-based assessment of I&E-related changes in commercial landings (pounds of
 commercial species as sold dockside by commercial harvesters) in each case study. The changes in landings are then valued
 according to market data from relevant fish markets (dollars per pound) to derive an estimate of the change in gross revenues
 to commercial fishermen. The final steps entail converting the I&E-related changes in gross revenues into estimates of social
 benefits.  These social benefits consist  of the sum of the producers' and consumers' surpluses that are derived as the changes
 in commercial landings work their way through the multi-market commercial fishery sector. Each step is described below.

 To estimate the impact that § 316(b) regulations may have on commercial landings, the biological assessment described in
 Chapter AS provided estimates of the change in commercial catch of adult equivalent fish in a given CWIS-impacted
 waterbody. Yields to the commercial fishery were derived by estimating the number offish (and species-associated pounds)
 of commercial species reaching harvest age, and then increasing landings in accordance with species- and location-specific
 fishery mortality rates (i.e., the percent of the given stock that fishery experts believe is harvested).  For species that are
 harvested by both recreational and commercial anglers, the historical allocation of landings was used to split the yield into
 each sector. The change in catch was used to infer a like-sized change in landings, on a species- and site-specific basis.

 This approach embodies an assumption that there is a linear relationship between changes in the fishery stock and changes in
 landings, with the slope based on fishery (harvest) mortality rates.  The actual stock-to-harvest relationship may be not be
 linear for some species and/or locations (i.e., it is uncertain whether harvest is an increasing, decreasing, or constant function
 of stock size). However, the linear approach is likely to provide a reasonable approximation for the marginal changes in the
 fisheries that are being evaluated in this analysis. In addition, it is likely that the fisheries-related approach develops
 underestimates of the changes in stocks attributable to I&E. This is because I&E monitoring often depicts impacts to already
 depleted fisheries, and fishery mortality rates used to assign a small portion of the stock to  landings (yields) also reflect
 conditions of fisheries that often are in  decline.  Therefore, the linear estimates are based on projections of changes in stocks
 that are probably underestimated. Since stock change estimates are probably understated, the linear extrapolations are likely
 to provide results that are comparable to a declining stock-to-harvest function.
                                                            \
 The next step is the assign a market value to the estimated change in commercial landings.  In the case studies, presented in
 Parts B through I of this document, all market values were obtained for each state from the  National Marine and Fisheries
 Service (NMFS), based on data located at the NMFS website (www.st.nmfs.gov).  NMFS obtained market values for each
 state from a census of the volume and value of finfish and shellfish landed and  sold at the dock.  Principal landing statistics
 that are collected consist of the pounds and dockside (ex-vessel) dollar value of landings identified by species, year, month,
    5 Increased revenues are often realized by commercial ventures whose businesses are stimulated by environmental improvements.
These revenue increases do not necessarily reflect gains in national level "economic welfare" and, therefore, are not usually included in a
benefit-cost analysis. However, these positive economic impacts may be sizable and of significance to local or regional economies — and
also of national importance — in times when the economy is not operating at full capacity (i.e., when the economic impacts reflect real
gains and not transfers of activity across regions or sectors).
A9-4

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
state, county, port, water and fishing gear. Most states get their landings data from seafood dealers who submit monthly
reports of the weight and value of landings by vessel (NMFS, 2001a), A ten year average (1990-1999) of the market values
were used to even out inter-annual fluctuations, and where a facility's surrounding watershed boundaries were included in
multiple states, an average of the states' market values were used.  All values are stated in year 2000 dollars.

The final set of steps entails converting the dockside market value of changes in commercial landings into the measures of
economic surplus that constitute social benefits. These surplus measures include producer surplus to the watermen who
harvest the fish, as well as the rents and consumer surplus that accrue to buyers and sellers in the sequence of market
transactions that apply in the commercial fishery context. To do this with primary analysis would be an extremely complex
process for each fish market. However, several primary research efforts exist that can be used in a benefits transfer that
enables EPA to estimate the total economic surplus (social benefits) that arise from changes in commercial landings.

An important portion of commercial fishing benefits is the producer surplus generated by the estimated marginal increase in
landings, but typically the data required to compute the producer surplus are unavailable. Various researchers, however, have
developed empirical estimates that can be used to infer producer surplus for watermen based on gross revenues (landings
times wholesale price). The economic literature (Huppert, 1990; Rettig and McCarl, 1985) suggests that producer surplus
values for commercial fishing ranges from 50 to 90 percent of the market value.  That is, the wholesale landings values are a
close proxy for producer surplus because the commercial fishing sector has very high fixed costs relative to its variable costs.
Therefore, the marginal benefit from an increase in commercial landings can be estimated to be approximately 50 to 90
percent of the anticipated change in commercial fishing revenues.  In assessments of Great Lakes fisheries, an estimate of
approximately 40% has been derived as the relationship between gross revenues and the surplus of commercial fishermen
(Cleland and Bishop, 1984; Bishop, personal communication, 2002; and Holt and Bishop, 2002).4

The 90 percent estimate of producer surplus relative to gross landings revenue implies a situation in which supply is relatively
inelastic and demand is relatively unaffected by changes in supply. This may be suitable in the short run for many fisheries
(and perhaps long term for some fisheries) in which watermen experience an increase in landings while: (1) there is no change
in harvesting behavior or effort (e.g., due to high fixed costs relative to marginal costs), and (2) there is no appreciable change
in price (e.g., where changes local landings have no appreciable impact on broader market prices).5 For
the purposes of this study, however, EPA believes producer surplus estimates in  the range of 40% to 70% of landings values
(rather than up to 90%) probably are a more suitable  reflection of longer-term market conditions.     :

Producer surplus is  one portion of the total economic surplus impacted by increased commercial stocks — the total benefits
are comprised of the economic surplus to  producers, wholesalers, processors, retailers, and consumers (Norton et al., 1983;
Holt and Bishop, 2002).  Primary empirical research deriving "multi-market" welfare measures for commercial fisheries have
estimated that surplus accruing to commercial  anglers amount to 22.2% of the total surplus accruing to watermen, retailers
and consumers combined in the striped bass markets in New York and Baltimore (Norton et al., 1983); and 22.3% in the
Great Lakes (Bishop, personal communication, 2002, and Holt and Bishop, 2002). This relationship is applied in the case
studies to estimate total surplus from the projected changes in commercial landings. Figure A9-2 displays the composition of
the total economic surplus.
    *  Cleland and Bishop indicate nearly 30% (1981 fishery), but a more recent empirical investigation by Bishop (personal
communication, January 2002, pertaining to a confidential litigation support report developed by Bishop in 2000) provides updated fishery
estimates that indicate producer surplus was approximately 42% of the 1999 dockside landings value for the relevant fisheries).

    5  Alternative assumptions and scenarios are plausible, but the net impact on total economic surplus would probably not be
appreciable (for example, if market prices decreased with increased catch, then commercial fishermen may enjoy less producer surplus, but
this would be offset — at least in part — by gains in consumer surplus).
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
                     Figure A9-2: Components of Total Surplus
                                     Total economic surplus of
                                   increased commercial landings
                           Producer
                            surplus
                              22%
Economic surplus to wholesalers,
    retailers, and consumers
              78%
The methods described above are summarized in Table A9-1, in an example on how EPA estimated the baseline economic
impact from I&E losses of striped bass at Salem Nuclear Generating Station (Salem) in New Jersey. First, per pound
dockside values were obtained for striped bass in Delaware and New Jersey, and then a weighted average of the two values
was obtained, weighted by the total landings'in each state.  Then ithis per pound value is multiplied by the annual I&E rates to
obtain an annual market value of the losses from I&E. Then, 40 percent to 70 percent of the market value is estimated as the
producer surplus. Finally, the total  economic social benefit from the striped bass commercial fishery is obtained by dividing
the producer surplus by 22 percent.

                  Table A9-1: Annual I
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A; Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
Recreational users.  The benefits of recreational use cannot be tracked in the market, since much of the recreational activity
associated with fisheries occurs as nonmarket events.  However, there is an extensive literature on valuing recreational fishing
trips and valuing increased catch rates on fishing trips. Participants in recreational activities other than fishing may also
benefit from a reduction in I&E. For example, bird watchers may find more  abundance and diversity of piscivorus species if
the fishery populations are enhanced.  Likewise, boaters may receive added recreational value to the degree that enjoyment of
their surroundings is an important part of their recreational pleasure or that fishing is a secondary reason for boating.

Primary studies of sites throughout the United States have shown that anglers value their fishing trips and that catch rates are
one of the most important attributes contributing the quality of their trips.  Higher catch rates may translate into two
components of recreational angling benefits: (1) an increase in the value of existing recreational fishing trips, and (2) an
increase in recreational angling participation. The most promising and practical approaches for quantifying and monetizing
these two benefits components are random utility modeling or RUM (as a primary research method) and benefits transfer (as a
secondary method applied when data and other  constraints limit the feasibility of doing site-specific primary research).  The
RUM approach has been applied in the watersheds-level case studies, and is described in greater detail in Chapter A10.

For each case study (including the watershed-level sites for which a RUM  approach was also deployed), a benefits transfer
approach was used as a basis for estimating recreational benefits.  There is a  large literature that provides willingness-to-pay
values for increases in recreational catch rates.  These increases in value are benefits to the anglers and reflect their "consumer
surplus" which in some instances are reported on the basis of value per additional fish caught.6 For each case study, monetary
values for increased angler consumer surplus were drawn from those credible research efforts that estimated consumer surplus
for locations closest in geographic area and relevant species to the I&E-impacted sites.  To estimate a unit value for
recreational landings, lower and upper values were established for the recreational species, based on values revealed in the
suitable literature. Table A9-2 shows some of the studies that were used in the case study analyses, the case studies and
aquatic species these studies were applied to, the range of dollar values used, and the economic method(s) used in  the study
(e.g., contingent valuation, travel cost, or random utility modeling).7

The incremental increase in recreational landings is estimated based on the biological modeling of how reduced I&E will
change the catch of adult equivalent fish (as described in Chapter A5).  Willingness-to-pay estimates for increases in catch are
then applied to these changes in catch to obtain monetary estimates of total recreational value offish lost through I&E.

In some cases it may be reasonable to assume that  increases in fish abundance (attributable to reducing I&E) will lead to an
increase in recreational fishing participation.  The expected value of an increase in participation is directly related  to the
amount of degradation occurring at baseline.  For example, the greatest changes are  likely to occur in a location that has
experienced such a severe impact to the fishery that the site is no longer an attractive location for recreational activity.
Estimates of potential recreational activity post-regulation can be made based on similar sites with healthy fishery
populations, on conservative estimates of the potential increase in participation (e.g., a 5 percent increase), or on recreational
planning standards (densities or level of use per acre or stream mile). A participation model (as in a RUM application)
provides a more robust alternative to predict changes in the net addition to user levels from the improvement at an impacted
site. The economic benefit of the increase in angling days then can be estimated using values derived from the RUM analysis
itself (as is done in the case studies presented in Parts B, C, and D of this document), or by drawing from the economic
literature for a similar type of fishery and angling experience. Where primary research is not feasible, estimates of potential
recreational activity post-regulation can sometimes be made based on similar sites with healthy fishery populations, on
conservative estimates of the potential increase in participation, or on recreational planning standards (densities or level of use
per acre or stream mile).8
     6 In some studies, estimated consumer surplus is based on other metrics, such as dollar per user day. However, such measures can be
translated into consumer surplus values per fish caught if sufficient catch data are available.                    •

     7 Note that the recreational angling valuation studies used in this benefits analysis for § 316(b) differ from the studies recently applied
by EPA in several other water quality regulations. For example, the metal products and machinery effluent guidelines rulemaking was
evaluated using eight studies that were used to infer a percent change in recreational consumer surplus (relative to baseline levels) for a
change in water quality and/or fish toxicity levels. For § 316(b), however, the benefits analysis is driven by estimated changes in fish
abundance rather than a change in chemical concentrations. Accordingly, different literature is used in the benefits transfer.

     8 EPA has not yet attempted to factor in increased participation as part of its benefits transfer analysis of recreational
fishing benefits, but such impacts are embedded in the RUM applications provided in this document.
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              S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9- Benefit Categories and Methods
                         Table A9-2: Economic Literature Applied in Case Studies for Recreation Angling Valuation.
Study
Agncllo, 1989
Boyle etal., 1998
Charbonncau and
Hay, 1978
Hicks ctal., 1999
Huppert, 1989
Loomis, 1988
McDonnell and
Strand, 1994
Milliman et al.,
1992
Norton ct al.,
1983
Samples and
Bishop, 1985
Sorgetal., 1985
:
Some Case Studies
Applied to:
Delaware, Brayton
Ohio
Ohio
Delaware, Pilgrim,
Seabrook, Brayton
California
Ohio
Delaware, Pilgrim,
Seabrook, Brayton,
Ohio
Ohio
Delaware, Ohio
Ohio
Ohio
j Some Species Applied to:
i :
jWeakfish
jBass (largemouth, white, red; rock, smallmouth,
i spotted, yellow), rainbow trout
jCatfish (channel, blue, flathead, white), crappie
1 (black, white), perch (white, yellow), sauger,
jwalleye, bluegill, pumpkinseed, green sunfish,
jlongear sunfish, redear sunfish, warmouth, grass
[pickerel, northern pike, muskellunge, paddlefish
; American shad, Atlantic cod,1 Atlantic croaker,
i Atlantic mackerel, black sea bass, bluefish, cunner,
[pollock, red hake.'searobin, spot, striped bass,
[summer flounder, tautog, weakfish, white perch,
[winter flounder
[Striped bass
jCoho salmon
1 American shad, Atlantic cod, Atlantic croaker,
[Atlantic mackerel, black sea bass, bluefish, cunner,
[pollock, red hake, searobin, spot, striped bass,
i summer flounder, tautog, white perch, winter
[flounder
[Perch (white, yellow), bluegill, pumpkinseed, green
[sunfish, longear sunfish, redear sunfish, warmouth
I Striped bass
• ' i
JCoho salmon
1 Catfish (channel, blue, flathead, white), crappie
[(black, white), walleye, sauger, grass pickerel,
[northern pike, muskellunge, paddlefish
Range of Values!
Used per Fish i
($2000) ! . Study Type
Low High i
$2.72
$1.58
$1.00
$2.01
$9.11
$12.39
$0.62
$0.31
$11.08

$16.01
$5.02
$2.72 [Travel cost method:
i multi-site; regional /
Ihedonic
$3.95 [Contingent valuation:
idichotomous choice
$7.92 [Travel cost method:
[single site; Contingent
[valuation: open ended
$5.29 [Simple travel cost
[method and contingent
! valuation
$14.14 [Travel cost and
i contingent valuation '
$12.39 ITravel cost: multi-site
$8.59 i Contingent valuation
[and Random Utility
[Modeling
$0.31 i Contingent valuation:
idichotomous choice
$15.55 i Travel cost method:
[multi-site; regional /
ihedonic
$ 1 6.0 1 i Travel cost method:
[multi-site; regional /
ihedonic
$5.02 [Travel cost method:
[multi-site; regional /
ihedonic; Contingent
[valuation: iterative
: bidding
            Subsistence anglers.  Subsistence use of fishery resources can be1 an important issue in areas where socioeconomic conditions
            (e.g., the number of low income households) or the mix of ethnic backgrounds make such angling economically or culturally
            important to a component of the community. In cases of Native American use of impacted fisheries, the value of an
            improvement can sometimes be inferred from settlements in legal cases (e.g., compensation agreements between impacted
            tribes and various government or other institutions in cases of resburce acquisitions or resource use restrictions). For more
            general populations, the value of improved subsistence fisheries may be estimated from the costs saved in acquiring
            alternative food sources (assuming the meals are replaced rather than foregone). This may underestimate the value of a
            subsistence-fishery meal to the extent that the store-bought foods may be less preferred by some individuals (for reasons of
            cultural background or simply as a matter of taste) than consuming a fresh-caught fish. Subsistence fishery benefits are not
            included in the case studies to date, due to a lack of data available within the time constraints of the general analysis.
            However, impacts on subsistence anglers may constitute an important  environmental justice consideration.
            A9-S
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9- Benefit Categories and Methods
 A9-4  INDIRECT USE BENEFITS

 Indirect use benefits refer to welfare improvements that arise for those individuals whose activities are enhanced as an indirect
 consequence of fishery or habitat improvements generated by the proposed existing facility standards for CWIS. For
 example, the rule's positive impacts on local fisheries may generate an improvement in the population levels and/or diversity
•offish-eating bird species.  In turn, avid bird watchers might obtain greater enjoyment from their outings, as they are more
 likely to see a wider mix or greater numbers of birds. The increased welfare of the bird watchers is thus a legitimate but
 indirect consequence of the proposed rule's initial impact on fish.

 Another example of potential indirect benefits concerns forage speeies. A rule-induced improvement in the population of a
 forage fish species may not be of any direct consequence to recreational or commercial anglers.  However, the increased
 presence of forage fish will have an indirect affect on commercial and recreational fishing values if it increases food supplies
 for commercial and recreational species. Thus, direct improvements in forage species populations can result in a greater
 number (and/or greater individual size) of those fish  that are targeted by recreational or commercial anglers. In  such an
 instance, the increment in recreational and commercial fishery benefits would be an indirect consequence of the proposed
 rule's initial impacts on lower trophic levels of the aquatic food web.

 For the case studies, two general approaches were used to estimate the indirect value of forage fish. The first approach used
 two distinct estimates of trophic transfer efficiency to relate foregone forage production to foregone fisheries yield that would
 result from two kinds of food web pathways. The two estimates, referred to as secondary and tertiary forgone yield in this
 document, reflect (a) that portion of total forage production that has a high trophic transfer efficiency because it is directly
 consumed by harvested species and (b) the remaining portion of total forage production that has a low trophic transfer
 efficiency because it is not consumed directly by harvested species, but instead reaches harvested species indirectly after
 passage through other parts of the food web. The dollar value of foregone commercial and recreational production was
 estimated using the same monetary values as for the direct use benefits estimates.9 The indirectly consumed production
 enhancement from forage species that is not embodied in the landed recreational and commercial fish was examined in a
 similar manner, but values were adjusted downwards to reflect a much lower trophic efficiency transfer rate. This approach is
 described in greater detail in Chapter A5. A serious  limitation with this approach is that I&E data collected for CWISs often
 overlook impacts on forage species (focusing instead on recreational and commercial species).  Therefore, the results
 developed using this approach generally reflect considerable underestimates of forage species values, because forage species
 impacts data generally are lacking in CWIS biological assessments.                                 :

 The second approach considers the costs associated with direct replacement of individual fish with hatchery-reared
 individuals.  Replacement costs typically can be used as a lower bound estimate of value because costs generally are a lower-
 bound proxy for values, and because in this application the approach does not consider how reduction in forage  stocks may
 affect other species.10 Estimates of replacement costs used in the case studies are based on the cost to produce the site-
 specific set of relevant forage species of North American fish for stocking, as presented by the American Fisheries Society
 (AFS, 1993). These costs reflect the expense of rearing a fish in a hatchery to the sizeof release, but do not include other
 costs associated with the transport or release of the fish to I&E-impacted waters. The AFS (1993) estimates these costs at
 approximately $1.13 per mile, but does not indicate how many fish (or how many pounds of fish) are transported for this
 price. Lacking relevant data, EPA does not include the transportation costs in this valuation approach.' For this reason,
 coupled with the fact that forage species I&E impacts tend to be under-reported or omitted in CWIS field data, the
 replacement cost approach is likely to produce an under-estimate of the value of the forage species. In addition, it is not
 known at this time if there is increased mortality of stocked fish, or whether some I&E impacted species can be successfully
 raised in hatcheries, or if there are long term problems due to decreasing genetic variety by using hatchery-reared fish. Each .
 of these factors would compound the degree to which hatchery costs might underestimate values.
     9 Note that while this approach is based on the value contributed by forage fish to landings of commercial and recreational species,
 the estimates pertain to the forage species that are impacted by I&E and are shown as an indirect use benefit (in other words, these benefit
 estimates are separate from and are not included in the direct use benefit estimates described above for commercial and recreational
 fisheries).

     10 Using replacement costs as a proxy for the value of the forage fish impacts might also overstate benefits if society's
 willingness to pay is less than the cost of replacement.  However,  there is no empirical evidence that supports this possibility,
 and limited evidence using the Habitat Restoration Costing (HRC) approach (Chapter Al 1) suggests that WTP exceeds such
 costs.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
 A9-5  NONUSE BENEFITS

 Nonuse (passive use) benefits arise when individuals value improved environmental quality apart from any past, present, or
 anticipated future use of the resource in question. Such passive use values have been categorized in several ways in the
 economic literature, typically embracing the concepts of existence (stewardship) and bequest (intergenerational equity)
 motives. Passive use values also may include the concept that some ecological services are valuable apart from any human
 uses or motives. Examples of these ecological services may include improved reproductive success for aquatic and terrestrial
 wildlife, increased diversity of aquatic and terrestrial species, ami improved conditions for recovery of T&E species.

 Passive use values can only be estimated in primary research through the use of stated preference techniques such as the
 contingent valuation method (CVM) surveys and related stated preference techniques (e.g., conjoint analysis using surveys).
 In the case of the § 316(b) proposed existing facilities rule, no primary research was feasible within the budgeting, scheduling,
 and the other constraints faced by the Agency. Accordingly, estimates were developed by EPA based on benefits transfer,
 with appropriate care and caveats clearly recognized.           :

 One long-standing benefits transfer approach for estimating nonuse values is to apply a ratio between certain use-related
 benefits estimates and the passive use values anticipated for the same site and resource change. Freeman (1977) applied a
 rule of thumb in which he inferred that national-level passive use benefits of water quality improvements were 50 percent of
 the estimated recreational fishing benefits. This was based on his review of the literature in those instances where nonuse and
 use values had been estimated for the same resource and policy change. Fisher and Raucher (1984) undertook a more
 in-depth and expansive review of the literature (included those studies reviewed by Freeman) and found a comparable
 relationship between recreational angling benefits and nonuse values. They concluded that since nonuse values were likely to
 be positive, applying the 50 percent "rule of thumb" was preferred over omitting nonuse values from a benefits analysis
 entirely.

 The 50 percent rule has since been applied frequently in EPA water quality benefits analyses (e.g., effluent guidelines RIAs
 for the benefits analysis of rulemakings for the pulp and paper sectors and metal products and machinery,  and the RIA for the
 Great Lakes Water Quality Guidance).  At times the rule has been applied to all recreational benefits (not just angling),"  and
 there are studies in the literature that imply nonuse values may not only be half of recreational fishing benefits, but might be
 as large as or greater than recreational values (e.g., Sutherland and Wash, 1985; Sanders et al., 1990). Thus, using the 50%
 rule might very well lead to an understatement of nonuse values.

 The overall reliability and credibility of applying the 50 percent rule approach is, as for any benefits transfer approach,
 dependent on the credibility of the underlying study and the comparability in resources and changes in conditions between the
 research survey and the § 316(b) rule's impacts at selected sites. The credibility of the nonuse value estimate also is
 contingent on the reliability of the recreational angling estimates to which the 50 percent rule is applied.  '

 Using the 50 percent rule poses  several concerns and includes several limitations.  On the one hand, there is long-standing
 precedence in using this easy to apply rule of thumb and, as noted in earlier  literature reviews, using this approach is probably
 better than omitting nonuse values' entirely. Still, EPA recognizes that legitimate concerns arise because of (1) the dated
 nature of the literature reviews upon which the approach is founded (several more recent studies are now available and need
 to be reviewed and incorporated in how the body of literature is interpreted); (2) the key differences in the studies underlying
 the initial reviews (as noted in Fisher and Raucher, 1984, the studies vary considerably in what they are attempting to
 measure, even though they consistently derive ratios in their  value estimates approximating 50 percent); and (3) the problems
 inherent in how the results of individual studies (or the collective body of research) should be applied in order to be as
 consistent as possible with the underlying literature (for example, applying the study by Mitchell  and Carson, 1986, implies
 that the 50 percent rule may reflect the nonuse component of the total value  held by users, but would overlook the nonuse
 values held by the large number of individuals or households that are NOT users of the impacted water resources - resulting
 in a significant omission from the total nonuse value estimates).

 Therefore, despite the longstanding and widespread application of the 50 percent rule, EPA intends to revisit the body of
 research on this topic and re-evaluate how to apply benefits transfer in developing estimates of nonuse value benefits in the
 future. In the interim, the Agency will continue to apply the  50  percent rule for this proposed rule, acknowledging the
 limitations of the approach.
       E.g., the EEBA for the Metal Products and Machinery rulemaking, Chapter 15.
A9-10

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
A second potential approach to deriving estimates for § 316(b) passive use values is to use benefits transfer to apply an annual
willingness-to-pay estimate per nonuser household (e.g., Mitchell and Carson, 1986; Carson and Mitchell, 1993) to all the
households with passive use motives for the impacted waterbody.12 The challenges in this approach include defining the
appropriate "market" for the impacted site (e.g., what are the boundaries for defining how many households apply), as well as
matching the primary research scenario (e.g., "beatable to fishable") to the predicted improvements at the § 316(b)-impacted
site.              .                              •

As a third potential approach, for some specific impacted fish species, nonuse (or total) valuation may be deduced using
restoration-based costs as a proxy for the value of the change in stocks. For example, for T&E species, the costs of
restoration programs and various resource use restrictions indicate the revealed preference value of preserving the species.
Where a measure of the approximate cost per preserved or restored individual fish can be deduced, and ,the number of
individuals spared via BTA can be estimated, this is a viable approach. This approach is examined in the § 316(b) case study
of the San Francisco Bay/Delta Estuary (Part E of this document). Improvements have been made to fish habitats by
increasing stream  flows, installing screening devices and fish passages, removing dams, and controlling temperatures.  These
changes in operations and technologies all entail significant costs, which society has shown to be willing to pay for the
protection and restoration of healthy fish populations, particularly the T&E species of the Sacramento and San Joaquin
Rivers. These investments provide a means to evaluate the loss imposed on society when a portion of these same fisheries are
adversely impacted by I&E. Because the species involved in this restoration costing approach have no use value (due to their
status as threatened or endangered), the approach yields an estimate of nonuse values.

A9-6 SUMMARY OF  BENEFITS CATEGORIES

Table A:9-3 displays the types of benefits categories expected to be affected by the § 316(b) rule. The table also reveals the
various data needs, data sources, and estimation approaches associated with each category. Economic benefits can be broadly
defined according to direct use and indirect use, and are further categorized according to whether or not they are traded in the
market. As indicated in Table A9-3, "direct use" benefits include both "marketed" and "nonmarketed" goods, whereas
"nonuse" and "indirect use" benefits include only "nonmarketed" goods.
     12 Note that Mitchell and Carson estimate "total value," including use and nonuse components. However, one can interpret the total
value estimates for nonusers as their nonuse value (i.e., there is no difference between their total and nonuse value). One could also apply
the Mitchell and Carson total use values to resource users to obtain both use and nonuse values (combined) for those households.
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
      Table A9-3: Summary of Benefit Categories,  Data Needs, Potential Data Sources,  and Approaches.
Benefits Category
.
Increased commercial
landings

Improved value of a
recreational fishing
experience
Increase in recreational
fishing participation
Increase in value of near-
water recreational experience
Increase in near-water
recreational participation

Increase in indirect values
Increase in nonuse use values
Basic Data Needs
Direct Use, Marketed Goods
»• Estimated change in landings of specific species
> Estimated change in total economic impact
Direct Use, Nonmarket Goods
> Estimated number of affected anglers
>• Value of an improvement in catch rate
> Estimated number of affected anglers or
estimate of potential anglers
> Value of an angling day
>• Estimated number of affected near-water
recreation! sts :
*• Value of a near-water recreation experience
*• Estimated number of affected near-water
recreationists ;
>• Value of a near-water recreation experience
Nonuse and Indirect Use, Nonmark
*• Estimated I&E impacts on forage species (as
data permit)
> Primary research using stated preference
approach (not feasible within EPA constraints)
> Applicable studies upon which to conduct
benefits transfer
Potential Data Sources/ Approaches

+ Based on facility specific I&E data and
ecological modeling
*• Based on available literature

»• Site-specific studies, national or statewide
surveys
> Based on available literature
>• Use of RUM analysis, where feasible
>• Use of RUM analysis, where feasible
•; Use of RUM analysis, where feasible
eted
> Based on facility specific I&E data (to degree
available) and ecological modeling
*• Site-specific studies, national or statewide
surveys
>• Application of hatchery replacement costs or
biomass converted to recreational or
commercial species
>• Site-specific studies or national stated
preference surveys
>• Benefits transfer (e.g., application of 50
percent rule of thumb)
»• Restoration-based costs as proxy for valuation
of common and/or endangered species
A9-7  CAUSALITY: LINKING THE § 316(e) RULE TO BENEFICIAL OUTCOMES

Understanding the anticipated economic benefits arising from changes in I&E requires understanding a series of physical and
socioeconomic relationships linking the installation of Best Technology Available (BTA) to changes in human behavior and
values. As shown in Figure A9-3, these relationships span a broad spectrum, including institutional relationships to define
BTA (from policy making to field implementation), the technical performance of BTA, the population dynamics of the
aquatic ecosystems affected, and the human responses and values associated with these changes.
A9-12

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                        Chapter A9: Benefit Categories and Methods
Figure A9-3: Causal Linkages in the Benefits Analysis
                                      Causa! Linkages
                                                                           Benefits Analyses
                             1. EPA Publication of Rule
                             2.Implementation through
                             NPDES Permit Process
3. Changes in Cooling Water Intake
Practices and/or Technologies
(implementation ofBTA)


	
	
4. Reductions in Impingement
and Entrainment


                                                                         Determine BTA Options
                                                                        and Environmental Impact
                                                                              t Environmental
                                                                             Impact of the
                                                                           Implemented BTA
                                            K-
                             5. Change in Aquatic Ecosystem
                             (e.g., increased fish abundance and
                             diversity)
	;	/^Assessment of EnvironmentaiV
        . ~  •  X^Impacts of Reduced l&S.^^/
                                           it:
                             6. Change in Level of Demand for Aquatic
                             Ecosystem Services (e.g., recreational,
                             commercial, and other benefits categories)
C

                                                                          _
                      Quantification
                     (e.g., participation
                     _   modeling)
                             7. Change in Economic Values (monetized
                             changes in welfare)
The first two steps in Figure A9-3 reflect the institutional aspects of implementing the § 316(b) rule.  In step 3, the anticipated
applications of BTA (or a range of BTA options) must be determined for the regulated entities. This technology forms the •
basis for estimating the cost of compliance, and provides the basis for the initial physical impact of the rule (step 4).  Hence,
the analysis must predict how implementation of BTAs (as predicted in step 3) translates into changes in I&E at the regulated
CWIS (step 4). These changes in I&E then serve as input for the ecosystem modeling (step 5).

In moving from step 4 to step 5, the selected ecosystem model (or models) are used to assess the change in the aquatic
ecosystem from the pre-regulatory baseline (e.g., losses of aquatic organisms before BTA) to the post-regulatory conditions
(e.g., losses after BTA implementation). The potential output from these steps includes estimates of reductions in I&E rates,
and changes in the abundance and diversity of aquatic organisms of commercial, recreational, ecological, or cultural value,
including T&E species.                                                                                 '

In step 6, the analysis involves estimating how the changes in the aquatic ecosystem (estimated in step 5) translate into
changes in level of demand for goods and services.  For example, the analysis needs to establish links between improved
fishery abundance, potential increases in catch rates, and enhanced participation.  Then, in step 7, as an example, the value of
the increased enjoyment realized by recreational anglers is estimated. These last two steps are the focal points of the
economic benefits portion of the analysis.

A9-8   CONCLUSIONS

The general methods described here are applied to the  case studies which are provided in Parts B  and C of this document.
Variations may occur to these general methodologies to better reflect site-specific circumstances or data availability.
                                                                                                                A9-13

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
            Chapter A10: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
INTRODUCTION
                                                         CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                         AlO-l
                                                         A10-2
                                                         AIO-3
                                                         AlO-4
   Site Choice Model .,.,,	A10-1
   Trip Frequency Model  	AlO-4
   Weltare Estimation »	L	..-	A10-6
   Data Sources ..,."..,,,.,,..,	^ ./t	A10-8
'- 'A 10-4,! Marine Recreational Fisheries
. -   .  ,   Statistics.Survey..:;.....'.'AJO;9V
 ,' A10-4.2 NDS'for'Vater-bascd Recreation     A1MO-
                                     '
This chapter describes the random utility model (RUM)
and trip frequency model for recreational fishing used in
the cast; study analyses of recreational fishing benefits
from the proposed §3 1 6b rule. The model's main
assumption is that anglers will get greater satisfaction, and
thus greater economic value, from sites where the catch
rate is higher, all else being equal. This benefit may occur
in two ways: first, an angler may get greater enjoyment
from a given fishing trip when catch rates are higher, and
thus get a greater value per trip; second, anglers may take
more fishing trips when catch rates are higher, resulting in greater overall value for fishing in the region.

EPA relied on two primary data sources in the case study analyses:

    >•   the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Marine Recreational Fishing Statistics Survey (MRFSS) combined
        with the Add-On MRFSS Economic Survey (AMES) (NMFS, 1994 and 1997); and

    >   the National Demand Survey for Water-Based Recreation (NDS), conducted by U.S. EPA and the National Forest
        Service (U.S. EPA, 1994a).

The Delaware Estuary and Tampa Bay case studies rely on the 1994 and 1997 MRFSS data, respectively. The' Ohio River
case study uses the NDS data. The two datasets provide information on where anglers fish, what fish they catch, and their
personal characteristics. When anglers choose among fishing sites they reveal information about their preferences. The case
studies use information on recreational anglers' behavior to infer anglers' economic value for the quality of fishing in the case
study areas.

EPA used a random utility model to investigate the impact of site characteristics on angler's site choice for single-day trips.
Key determinants of site choice include site-specific travel cost, fishing quality of the site, and additional site attributes such
as presence of boat ramps and aesthetic quality of the site. EPA used two measures of fishing quality in the case studies. The
first measure, the 5-year historic catch rates per hour of fishing, is used in the Delaware Estuary and Tampa Bay case studies.
The second measure, fish stock density, is used in the Ohio River case study.                        ;

The random utility models generate welfare measures resulting from changes in catch rates on a per trip basis. To capture the
effect of changes in catch rates on the number of fishing trips taken per recreational season, EPA combined a RUM model and
a trip participation model. The trip participation model estimates the number of trips that an angler will take annually. The
combined model is used to estimate the economic value of changes in catch rates or in fish abundance of important fish
species in the case study areas.

AlO-i  SITE  CHOICE MODEL

The site choice model estimates how anglers value access to  specific sites, and estimate per trip economic values for changes
in catch rates or fish abundance for different species. The study uses a  RUM for its site choice model.  The RUM assumes  .
that the cost of travel to a recreational site may be used as a proxy for the "price" of visiting that site. The RUM is therefore a
form of travel cost model, using travel costs to estimate economic values for unpriced recreational activities.
                                                                                                           A10-1

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              S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter AID: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
              The RUM assumes that anglers maximize their utility by choosing the fishing site, mode of fishing (i.e., from shore, private or
              rental boat, and charter boat), and species that give the greatest level of satisfaction, compared with all other available
              substitutes. Angler k chooses sitey if the utility from that site is greater than utility from all other substitute sites:
                                            Uj(k) >  uh(K) for h  # j and h  = 1 ,...J
                              Eq. A10-1
              where:
                  u,(k)    "   utility of visiting sitey for angler k,
                  uh (k)   =»   utility of visiting a substitute site h for angler It, and
                  J    **   the total number of feasible sites in the angler's choice set.

              The RUM travel cost model includes the effects of substitute sites on site values.  For any particular site, assuming that it is
              not totally unique in nature, the availability of substitutes makes the value for that one site lower than it would be without
              available substitutes.

              An angler choosing to fish on a particular day chooses a site .based on site attributes. The angler weighs the attributes for
              various "choice set" sites against the travel costs to each site. These travel costs include both the cost of operating a vehicle
              and the opportunity costs of time spent traveling. The angler then weighs the value given to the site's attributes against the
              cost of getting to the site when making a site selection.

              The RUM therefore assumes that the probability of selecting a particular site is a function of the site attributes, including
              catch rates, and travel costs to the site:
                              Prob (site.)  = f(catch  rates, other site  attributes, travel cost)
                              Eq.A10-2
             The RUM assumes that there is a non-random component (Vj) and a random component (6j) to each angler's utility. The
             random component is not observable by the researcher (Maddala,  1983; and McFadden, 1981).  The model therefore assumes
             that the utility function has a fixed component and a random component, so that:

                                                       Uj(k) =  V.(k) +  6.                                           Eq.A10-3
             where:
                 u,(k)    =   utility of visiting sitey for angler k;
                 Vj(k)    =   the observable component of utility; and
                 6^       =   the random, or unobservable component.

             The conditional logit model, most often used to estimate the RUM, is based on the assumption that the random error terms ejf
             have independently and identically distributed extreme value distributions, and are additive with the observable part of utility
             (McFadden, 1981; Ben-Akiva and Lerman,  1985).

             The logit model therefore becomes:                          ;

                                                     exp[v.(&)]
                                 Prob(siteh)  =  —	r  ,ts, for h  * j and h  = 1,...,J                     Eq.Alo-4
             where:
                 Prob(sitCy)       =   the probability that angler k will select sitey;
                 exp[Vj(k)]        «=   the anglers utility from visiting sitey";
                 S,, exp [vh(k)]     =   the sum of angler's utility at each site for all sites (for h* j) in the opportunity set for a given
                                      region.

             The conditional logit model imposes the assumption that adding br deleting a site does not affect the probability ratio for
             choosing any two sites. This so-called independence of irrelevant alternatives (HA) property follows from the assumption that

             A10-2
.

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter AID: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
the error terms are independent (Ben-Akiva and Lerman, 1985).  Sites sharing characteristics not included in the model (e.g.,
salt water vs freshwater sites) will have correlated error terms, thus violating the IIA property.  In these ;cases a nested logit
model, which groups sites with similar characteristics, is more appropriate.                          ;

The nested logit model assumes that anglers first choose the group and then a site within that group. Recreational fishing
models generally assume that anglers first choose a mode and species, and then a site. The case study datasets, however, do
not clearly  distinguish similarities between sites in terms of species and/or fishing mode. Anglers fish various mode/species
combinations at the same sites. The nested model therefore does not appear to be appropriate in this case, and the study used
a single conditional logit model for site choice estimation.
In the conditional logit model estimated here, the measurable component of utility is estimated as:

                     •Vj(k)  =  VltCj(K)  +  P2  «,(*)  +  p3 X(k)  +  £,Y,fy(*)
                              Eq. A10-5
where:
    Vj(lc)     =   the utility realized from a conventional budget constrained utility maximization model conditional on choice
                j by angler k;
    toj(k)    =   the travel cost to site/ for angler k\
    ttj(k)     =   the travel time to sitey for angler k;
    Xj(k)    =   a vector of site characteristics for site alternative j as perceived by angler &. These characteristics may
                 include various site amenities (e.g., presence of boat ramps) and aesthetic quality of the site;
    qjs(k)    =   the fishing quality of sitey for species s, measured in terms of catch rate or fish abundance; and
    P and y  =   the marginal utilities for each variable.

The probability of choosing sitey is therefore modeled as:
                                —"-p Lf 1 "~.-vv    t~2  t*-  '     rf iv'     LJ i sijs'vj*
                Prob(J)  =  —	————	 -       	                	——                Eq.A10-6
forh *j andh= 1,...J, where J is the total number of feasible sites in the angler's choice set.

The study assumes that anglers in the estimated model consider site quality based on the catch rate for their targeted species
and additional site attributes, such as presence of boat ramps. Theoretically, an angler may catch any of the available species
at a given site (Morey, 1999). If, however, an angler truly has a species preference, then including the catch variable for all
species available at the site would inappropriately attribute utility to the angler for species not pursued (Haab et al., 2000;
Hicks, et al., 1999; McConnell and Strand, 1994). To avoid this problem, EPA multiplied a dummy variable for each species
targeted by the catch rate,-so that each angler's observation in the data set includes only the targeted species' catch rate.  All
other catch rates are set to zero.  The NDS data do not provide sufficient information to estimate species specific1 catch rates at
'all sites in angler's choice set. Thus, for the Ohio case study, EPA specified quality of fishing sites in terms offish abundance
reflecting all species commonly caught at the site (see Chapter C5 for detail).
                                                                                                               AJ 0-3

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                          Chapter A10: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
A10-2  TRIP FREQUENCY MODEL

The trip frequency model estimates changes in days fished, when site or individual characteristics change. The model
assumes that the number of days fished in a year is a function of the travel costs, site characteristics, and characteristics of the
individual anglers:
                                             T = f(p,x,z)

where:
    T  -   the number of days fished in a year,         ,     ':
    p   =   a vector of travel costs,                         •
    x   -   a vector of site characteristics, and
    z   —   a vector of angler characteristics.                        •   .

To connect this model to the RUM, the trip frequently model is often specified as:
                                                                                                        Eq. A10-7
where:
    I
    P
    x
    z
                                            T =
            the inclusive value for each angler, calculated from the RUM.
            a vector of travel costs,
            a vector of site characteristics, and               ;
            a vector of angler characteristics.
                                                                                                        Eq. A10-8
The inclusive value can be interpreted as a measure of the expected utility of a set of choice alternatives (Ben-Akiva and
Lerman, 1985). The participation model uses the inclusive value from the conditional logit model as a measure of the
expected utility of the sites" available to anglers in the study region. This is measured by:
                                      4 =  log I, exp(Fy
                                                                                                        Eq. A10-9
where:
    IK
                =  the inclusive value for fishing sites in the study area for angler k;
                ~  angler's utility from visiting site/; and
    qj,          —  catch rate for species s at site/.          •

This study therefore estimates the trip frequency model by first estimating the site choice model (RUM), then using the model
results to estimate the inclusive value Ik for each angler. Finally, the study estimates the participation model using the
inclusive value and other variables to explain trip frequency. The number of days fished becomes a function of the value per
trip, indicated by the inclusive value.and individual angler characteristics. This model assumes that changes in site quality
and travel costs do not directly influence the number of trips, but that changes in site quality will change trip values, thereby
indirectly affecting the number of trips.

The study uses a Poisson regression model to estimate trip frequency. This model is one of those most commonly used for
count data: discrete data where the dependent variable is a count or frequency. The Poisson regression model explicitly
recognizes the non-negative integer character of the dependent variable. (Winkelmann, 2000).

The Poisson regression model assumes the Poisson distribution:
                                                          y =  o, i, 2,...
A10-4
                                                                                                       Eq.A10-10

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                           Chapter AID: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
where:
    yk  =   the actual number of trips taken by an individual angler in the sample;
    X   = .  both the mean and variance of the distribution (this parameter must be positive); and
    k   =   1, 2,...K, the number of individuals in the sample.

If the expected value of the demand for trips in a given time period is E(Y), and:

                                          ZT/'V*  _ -TfT «• fa\
                                          E*{l)  = j(l,Z,lp)

where:
    I  , =   the inclusive value,
    z   =   a vector of angler characteristics, and
    P   =   the vector of estimated coefficients,

then the Poisson probability distribution of demand for trips is:

                                                 -X,,^
                                               e  *A,t
                                                            y  =
                                                                     i, 2,...
                                                                                                      Eq. A10-11
                                                                                                       Eq. A10-12
where:
    Yk         =  the estimated number of trips taken by an individual in the sample;
    yk          =  the actual number of trips taken by an individual in the sample;
    k           =  1, 2,...K the number of individuals in the sample; and
    A = f(I, z, P) =  the expected number of trips for an individual in the sample, where /, z, /?are variables affecting the
                    demand for recreational trips (i.e., inclusive value and socioeconomic characteristics, and P is the
                    vector of estimated coefficients.

Generally, K is specified as a log-linear function of the explanatory variables Xj, so that:        •         ,
                                                                                                        Eq.A10-13


                                                          t)       •                                     Eq. A10-14

This function ensures that Ak will be positive. The parameters of the Poisson regression are estimated by maximum
likelihood.                                                                                   :           .

This model's primary limitation is the requirement that the mean equals the variance. The variance often exceeds the mean,
resulting in overdispersion. Overdispersion may be viewed as a form of heteroskedasticity (Winkelmann, 2000). If
overdispersion exists but the model is otherwise correctly specified, the Poisson estimator will still be consistent. The
standard errors will be biased downwards, however, leading to inflated t-statistics. When this occurs, researchers often use
the negative binomial which allows for the variance to be greater than the mean.  The negative binomial distribution is derived
as a compound Poisson distribution, where the Poisson distribution is the limiting form of the negative binomial distribution.

The Poisson model may be modified to derive the negative binomial model by respecifying A,( so that:
                                           lnA.t=
                                                                                                        Eq. A10-15
where exp(e) has a gamma distribution with mean 1 and variance a (Greene 1995), yielding the conditional probability
distribution:1
 1 The study chose this particular parameterization because it is used by the LIMDEP™ software package.
                                                                                                            A10-5

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                          Chapter A10: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
                            Prob\Y  = yk\e]  =
                                                              exp(e)
                                                                                                      Eq. A10-16
 where:                                                  ;
     Proft[Y=yk]  -   the probability that the estimated number of trips equals the actual number of trips, if e has a gamma
                     distribution with mean 1 and variance a; '
     yk  -   0,1,2... number of trips taken by individual kin the sample;
     k   =   1,2,..., K number of individuals in the sample; and
     A^  =   expected number of trips for an individual in the sample.

 Integrating out e from equation 2-16 gives the unconditional distribution for yk, which is used in model's optimization:

                                             _   '      rice   +  yj.
 where:
    Yt
    HO
    0
                           Prob (7 =
                ~  the probability that the estimated number bf trips equals the actual number of trips;
                —  0,1,2... number of trips taken by individual A: in the sample;
                =  gamma function;2
                -  I/a, where a is an overdispersion parameter; and
                =  6/(0+A).
                                                                                                      Eq. A10-17
The negative binomial model has an additional parameter, a, which is an overdispersion parameter, such that:

                                Veer \yk]  =  E  \yk]  (1  +  a  E  \yk])

The overdispersion rate is then given by the following equation:
                                                                                                     Eq.Alo-18
                                    Var
                                                 =  I  +  a  E \y J
                                                                                                      Eq. A10-19
(Greene, 1995).
EPA used the negative binomial model to predict the seasonal number of recreation trips for each recreation activity based on
the inclusive value, individual socioeconomic characteristics, and the overdispersion parameter, a. If the inclusive value (i.e.,
the measure of the expected utility of site alternatives) has the anticipated positive sign, then increases in the inclusive value
Stemming from improved fishing quality at the sites in the study area will lead to an increase in the number of trips. The'
combined multinomial logit (MNL) model site choice and count data trip participation models allowed the Agency to account
for changes in per-trip welfare values, and for increased trip participation in response to improved ambient water quality at
recreation sites.

A10-3  WELFARE ESTIMATION                 \

The case studies estimate changes in economic values when catch rates for different species change.  Changes in catch rates
will affect economic values in two ways. First, the value per trip will change; and second, the number of trips taken may
change. The study measures the total economic value for a change in the quantity or quality of particular sites by the number
of days fished per angler times the economic value per trip per angler. This value varies with the quality and number of
available sites. The total value of a change in catch rate is measured as:
1974.
      Gamma function is a notation fora definite integral that appears in the equation. For detail on gamma function see Mood et al.,
A10-6

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                           Chapter AID: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
where:
    TEV
  •  N
    X
    WTP
                                       TEV= N x X x  WTP
                                                                                       Eq. A10-20
the total economic value for a specified period of time, such as a season or year;
the number of participants;                                                      '
the number of trips per participant; and
the value per angler per trip, measured by the amount of money that the angler would be willing to pay for a
fishing trip.3
The study first estimates the value per trip using the RUM, and then estimates the number of trips per angler using the trip
frequency model. The results of these models must be combined to measure the total economic value for a given change.

The value of an improvement in site quality, in this case the catch rate or fish abundance, can be measured by the
compensating variation (CV) that equates the expected value of realized utility under the baseline and post-compliance
conditions.  If the catch rate increases from q° to q1, then the CV will be measured by:            -    .             ,
'vj(p
                                f
                               + ey  =
                                                                qf, y)
                                                                                        Eq. A10-21
 where:
         =   the fishing price, or travel cost, for site j;
     q.1  =   the quality, measured by catch rate, for sitey under the post policy conditions
     q.°  =   the quality, measured by catch rate, for site./ under the baseline conditions; and
     y   =   the angler's, income.

 To calculate CV, the angler's utility (Vj (k)) must be estimated as a function of price, quality, and income.  Income cannot be
 estimated in the logit model because it does not change across alternatives. Price (travel cost), however, enter the indirect
 utility function V(j), so that the model can assume the estimated coefficient on travel cost to be the negative of the coefficient
 on income (Bockstael etal., 1991).                                       ,

 The RUM predicts only the probability of choosing a specific site.  The measure of CV must therefore account for the
 researcher' s uncertainty in predicting site choice. Measuring CV in terms of expected value yields:
                                                       =  E[v(p, q°, y)]
                                                                                        Eq. A10-22
 where:      .
     v(p, q, y )= expected maximum utility of being able to choose among J sites on a given fishing trip;.   .
     p   =-  the fishing price, or travel cost;
     q'  =  sites' quality, measured by catch rate, under the post policy conditions;
     q°  =  sites' quality, measured by catch rate, under the baseline conditions; and
     y  ' =  the angler's income.                                                               ,

 If the marginal utility of income is constant, CV for the logit model is (Bockstael et al., 1991; Parsons et al., 1999):

                      CV,  =  (- 1/p t) [[ln£ exp [Vj(ql)]  -  ln£ exp [v,
                                                                                                        Eq. A10-23
 3 The estimated model and resulting welfare estimates rely on the assumptions that the number of participants is fixed in the short run, and
 that the value per trip is independent of the number of trips.
                                                                                                              A10-7

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             S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluatiorj Methods
                                                              Chapter A10: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
             where:
                 CVk-
                 j   z
                 Pa'  *
                 1°  •
                 I1  -
the compensating variation for individual k at site j on a given day;
1....J represents a set of alternative sites in the study region;
the marginal utility of income, measured by the coefficient on travel cost;
the baseline inclusive value; and
the post-policy inclusive value.
             This result gives the expected compensating variation for a choice occasion. To obtain the value per season, EPA multiplied
             the result by the number of trips estimated with the participation :model. The two models are linked through the inclusive
             value, which weights the indirect utilities associated with different sites and their prices and qualities by the probabilities of
             choosing each site (Bockstael et al., 1991).

             Parsons et al. (1999) compare several models that link site choice and trip frequency models, and find that they produce
             similar welfare  estimates. Two methods for estimating seasonal welfare estimates are relevant to the models estimated in this
             case study. The first, proposed by Bockstael et al. (1987), calculates the per trip welfare measure from the RUM, using the
             measure of CV  presented above (Eq. A10-24).  The authors then use the trip frequency model to predict the change in the
             number of trips taken under the proposed policy change.  Finally, they calculate a seasonal welfare measure in one of two
             ways:
                                                                   Pred(T°)
                                                                                           Eq. A10-24
                                                                                                                    Eq. A10-25
                                             w = cv
                                                                                           Eq. A10-26
             where:
                 CV
                 Pred(T°)
                 Pred(T')
        low bound estimate of the seasonal welfare gain;
        upper bound estimate of the seasonal welfare gain;
        the compensating variation for an individual on a given day;
        the predicted numbers of trips before the policy change., and
        the predicted numbers of trips after the policy change.
             The second method, based on Hausman et al. (1995), calculates seasonal welfare based on the trip frequency model.

             EPA used the first method to estimate lower and upper bound values for the seasonal welfare gain per individual. The
             Agency extrapolated the estimates of seasonal value per individual to the regional level based on estimates of the total
             participation level in the region. Procedures for estimating total regional participation are case study specific and discussed in
             the relevant chapters.
                                                                                              .

             A10-4 DATA SOURCES

             The data used for the three case studies of recreational benefits are from the NMFS MRFSS in the Southeastern and
             Northeastern regions in the U.S. and the EPA's NDS database. The following sections provide a general description of each
             data source, sampling methods, and key variables. More detailed information on the sub-sample used in each case study can
             be found in the relevant case study sections.
             AIO-8
_

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter AID: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
Ai0-4.1   Marine  Recreational  Fisheries Statistics Survey (MRFSS)


MRFSS is a long-term monitoring program that provides estimates of effort, participation, and finfish catch by recreational
anglers. The MRFSS survey consists of two independent, but complementary, surveys: a random digit-dial telephone survey
of households and an intercept survey of anglers at fishing access sites. Sampling is stratified by state, fishing mode (shore,
private/rental boat, party/charter boat), and wave, and allocated according to fishing pressure. Fishing sites 'are randomly
selected from an updated list of access sites.                                                     !

The intercept survey distinguishes between the modes of fishing (i.e., shore, private/rental boat, party/charter boat), and is
designed to elicit information about fishing trips just completed by anglers. The basic intercept survey collects information
about anglers' home zip code, the length of their fishing trip, the species they were targeting on that trip, and the number of
times anglers have been fishing in the past two and twelve months. Trained interviewers record the species and number of
fish caught that are available for inspection and weigh and measure the fish. Anglers report the number and species of each
fish they caught on the trip that are not available for inspection (e.g., fish that were released alive or used for bait). The
intercept survey provides the species composition used to estimate the historic catch rates at the case study sites for the
individual species.                                                      •

The random telephone survey is used to estimate the number of recreational fishing trips during a two-month basis (as
opposed to annual participation) for coastal households. Households with individuals who have fished within two months of
the phone call are asked about the mode of fishing, the gear used, and the type of water body where the trip took place for
every trip taken within that period. NMFS estimates total catch and participation by state using the MRFSS telephone and
intercept surveys, combined with  Census and historical data (NMFS, 1999a). The effort estimates (i.e., number of trips) are
used in the economic valuation work to expand mean trip-level recreational fishing values to aggregate; population values for
recreational fishing.  More details about the intercept and the random phone surveys can be found in the MRFSS Procedures
Manual (NMFS, 1999a).                       ,

NMFS supplemented the routine MRFSS  with socio-economic data from anglers in Southeastern and Northeastern regions.
The economic survey was designed as an add-on to the MRFSS to take advantage of sampling, survey design, and quality
control procedures already in place. Economic questions were added to the intercept survey and a follow-up survey
conducted over the telephone was designed to elicit additional socio-economic information from anglers who completed the
add-on economic intercept survey. The AMES was implemented from Maine to Virginia in  1994 and from North Carolina to
Louisiana  in 1997.                                                                    •

The economic field intercept survey of anglers solicited data about trip duration, travel costs,  distance traveled, and on-site
expenditures associated with the intercepted trip. The survey was conducted by a private survey firm and administered to all
marine recreational anglers aged 16 and older intercepted in the field. Data were collected according to the field sampling
procedures specified in the MRFSS Procedures Manual. The economic questionnaire was administered either at the
completion of the routine MRFSS questions (before inspection offish) or after all available fish were identified and biological
measurements had been obtained. As in the MRFSS, all survey participants, with the exception of beach-bank shore anglers,
must have completed their fishing for the  day.                                             .

Anglers were screened for willingness to participate in the telephone follow-up survey at the time of field intercept. Only
those anglers agreeing to the add-on economics field survey or a telephone follow-up survey were interviewed. The telephone
follow-up  survey solicited additional  data and information about anglers' recreational fishing avidity, attitudes, and
experience.

A total of  14,868 follow-up surveys were  attempted in the Northeast Region in 1994, of which 8,226 (55 percent) were
completed. Refusals, wrong numbers, and households that could not be reached in four calls accounted'for the 45 percent
non-response rate. The 1994 questionnaire targeted two distinct groups of anglers: (1) anglers who targeted — not merely
caught ~ bluefish, striped bass, black sea bass, summer flounder, Atlantic cod, tautog, scup or weakfish, and (2) anglers that
targeted other species and happened to catch any of these eight species. These species were chosen because they were either
under management in 1994 or were expected to come under management in the near future. Approximately 10,000 AMES
telephone interviews were completed in the Southeast Region in 1997. The interview consisted of anglers intercepted from
March 1997 through December 1997 and  who agreed to be interviewed. More  extensive details regarding the final results of
the telephone follow-up survey are provided in Hicks etal. (1999).                  .              :
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             S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A10: Estimating Benefits with a RUM
             The Agency used data from the 1994 and 1997 AMES to model recreational fishing behavior in the Delaware Estuary and
             Tampa Bay case studies, respectively.

             A10-4.2   NDS for  Water-Based Recreation

             The Ohio River study used data from the 1994 NDS for Water-Based Recreation (U.S. EPA, 1994a). The NDS survey
             collected data on demographic characteristics and water-based recreation behavior using a nationwide stratified random
             sample of 13,059 individuals aged 16 and over. Respondents reported on water-based recreation trips taken within the past 12
             months, including the primary purpose of their trips (e.g., fishing, boating, swimming, and viewing), total number of trips, trip
             length, distance to the recreation site(s), and number of participates. Where fishing was the primary purpose of a trip,
             respondents were also asked to state the number offish caught and the type offish targeted (i.e., warm water, coldwater, or
             anadromous). For the Ohio River case study analysis, EPA used observations for fishing participants who took single-day
             trips within the study area zone. Part C, Chapter C5 of the Case Studies Document provides descriptive statistics for the Ohio
             sample.                                                  '

             A10-5  LIMITATIONS  AND UNCERTAINTIES

             The RUM analyses rely on the unweighted MRFSS data, not correcting for stratification. The MRFSS data is prone to
             avidity bias where the probability of being interviewed increases with the number of fishing trips (Haab et al., 2000). EPA
             did not correct for avidity bias, which may result in overestimation of the predicted number of trips per season. This bias is
             unlikely to have a significant effect on benefit estimates, because the predicted number of trips was used only for estimating
             changes in fishing participation due to improved fishing opportunities. The estimated change in the number of trips was very
             small (see Chapters B5, C5, and D5 of the Watershed Case Studies report for detail).  The baseline level of participation used
             in the analysis was taken from NMFS.  This estimate was corrected for avidity bias by NMFS.

             The NDS survey results can suffer from the same bias as other studies of this type—recall bias, non-response bias, and bias
             due to sampling effects:

                 »•   Recall bias can occur when respondents are asked the number of days in which they recreate over the previous
                     season, such as in the NDS survey. Some researchers believe that recall bias tends to lead to an overstatement of the
                     number of recreation days, particularly for more avid participants. Avid participants tend to overstate the number of
                     recreation days, since they count days in a "typical" week and then multiply them by the number of weeks in the
                     recreation season. They often neglect to consider days missed due to bad weather, illness, travel, or when fulfilling
                     "atypical" obligations. Some studies also found that the more salient the activity, the more "optimistic" the
                     respondent tends  to be in estimating number of recreation days.  Individuals also have a tendency to overstate the
                     number of days they participate in activities that they enjoy and value. Taken together, these sources of recall bias
                     may result in an overstatement of the actual number of recreation days.

                 >•   Non-response bias.  A problem with sampling bias may arise when extrapolating sample means to population  means.
                     This could happen, for example, when avid recreation participants are more likely to respond to a survey than those
                     who are not interested in the forms of recreation, are unable to participate, assume that the survey is not meant for
                     them, or consider the survey not worth their time.

                 ••   Sampling effects. Recreational demand studies frequently face two types of observations  that do not fit general
                     recreation patterns: non-participants and avid, participants. Non-participants are those individuals who would not
                     participate in the recreation activity under any conditions. Assuming that an individual is a non-participant in a
                     particular activity if he or she did not participate in that activity at any site tends to understate benefits, since some
                     individuals may not have participated during the sampling period simply by chance, or because price/quality
                     conditions were unfavorable during the sampling period. Avid participants can  also be problematic because they
                     claim to participate in an activity an inordinate number of times.  This reported level of activity is sometimes correct,
                     but often overstated, perhaps due to recall bias.  These observations tend to be overly influential in the model and
                     may lead to overestimation of the total number of trips.
            AIQ-IO
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                           Chapter All: HRC Method
INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides an overview of the habitat-based
replacement cost (HRC) method for valuing losses of
aquatic resources that result from I&E of organisms by a
CWIS. The HRC method can be used to value a broad
range of ecological and human service losses associated
with I&E of aquatic species at facilities regulated under
Section 316(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
(Clean Water Act) [33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.}. It can be   ,
used as an alternative to conventional valuation
approaches that are based  on recreational and commercial
fishing impacts. In addition, HRC can supplement
conventional valuation results by providing a full valuation
of species with I&E losses that are not fished (e.g., forage
species).

Ail-1  OVERVIEW OF HRC VALUATION

OF !<&E  RESOURCE LOSSES

All-l.l   The  Need for  an Alternative
to  Conventional  ME  Valuation
Techniques
                                                         CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                         Al 1 -1
                                                         All-2
                                                                 Overview of HRC Valuation of I&E Resource
                                                                 Losses ......... ..... ..... .. .'.'.; . . .;. .'.".':. .;. . Al .1-1
                                                                 All-l.l  The Need for an Alternative to
                                                                         Conventional I&E Valuation        ; .....
                                                                         Techniques  ....................... Al 1-1
                                                                 Al 1-1.2  HRC Coverage of a Broader Range of
                                                                         Services and Values  ................ Al 1-2
                                                                 AU-1.3  How the HRC Method Works ......... All-3
                                                                 StepsintheHRC . ____ , ..................... AU-4
                                                                 Al 1-2.1" Quantify I&E Losses by Species . : ..... All-4
                                                                 Al 1-2.2  Identify Habitat Requirements
                                                                         of J&EiSpecies ......... , ..... *.' ..... AtP-5
                                                                 Al 1-2.3  Identify Potentially Beneficial Habitat   ,
                                                                         Restoration Alternatives .... ......... AtJ-5
                                                                 Al 1-2.4  CgmolidatCt Categorize, and Prioritize     ~™,
                                                                         Identified Habitat Restoration   s '
                                                                         Alternatives , *J\ ./..'{<, ............ AlI-5 *
                                                                 Al 1-2.5  Quantify'the Expected Increases in "•         ^
                                                                         Species Production forjthe Prioritized^ '    ' *
                                                                         Habitat Restoration Alternatives, , „". „. . . Al 1-6
                                                                 All -2.6  Scale the Habitat Restoration         '
                                                                 „ ' '     Alternatives to Offitet !&E Losses  , , ,. . . A I i -6
                                                                4 A"W72.7  Develop Unit Cost Estimates^. .,.;:>,' f A Jl -7
                                                                 All -2.8  Develop Tola!  Value Estimates,     /^ ^
                                                                 , $*'   /, for4&B Looses ........... '„*•, ..... >*^1 1-7
                                                                -Evaluations . 7r ,„..??	:'.-,.'-	'J, Al I -8
                                                                 Strengths and Weakness of th&t&QMcthod	' Al 1-8
Conventional techniques to value the benefits of             r /AIM
technologies that reduce I&E losses at § 316(b) facilities
can omit important ecological and public services. For
example, valuations based on expected recreational and                                        '   <      •
commercial fishing impacts rely on indirectly derived nonmarket value estimates (e.g., consumer surplus per angling outing as
estimated by travel cost models) and direct market values, respectively.  In both instances, all benefits are based solely on
direct use values of the impacted fish, and the physical impacts are characterized by the adult life stage of the species targeted
by the recreational and commercial anglers. However, many I&E losses at many § 316(b) facilities are eggs and larvae,
which are vital to a well-functioning ecological system but have no obvious direct use values in and of themselves. These
facilities may have relatively small numbers of species and individuals that are targeted by anglers, so commercial and
recreational losses may constitute only a small subset of the species lost to I&E. Even when losses of early life stages are
included by conversion to adult equivalents, the ecological services and associated public values provided by early life stages
that don't make it to adulthood in the environment are omitted.

Another conventional valuation technique bases the value of I&E impacts on the costs of restoring aquatic organisms using
hatchery and stocking programs. However, the cost of restoring fish through stocking does not address several ecological
services, and addresses others inefficiently.  Moreover, biologists question whether stocked fish are equivalent to wild
species, and have expressed concerned about ecological problems that have resulted from existing stocking programs (Meffe,
1992; White et al., 1997). Shortcomings associated with the use of hatchery and stocking costs to estimate the value of I&E
losses include the  following:

    *•   Reliable stocking costs are available only for the few species targeted by existing hatcheries, and these tend to be the
        same species addressed by  recreational and commercial fishing valuations.
    +   The reported costs often do not include transportation costs (see Chapter A9).
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter All: HRC Method
    *•   The costs associated with hatchery and stocking programs do not include the value of many ecological services
        affected by I&E losses, because hatchery fish are released at different life stages, in different numbers, and in
        different places than they would be produced in the natural environment.
    >   Hatcheries usually produce naive fish, which do not function as well as wild fish in the environment.
    >•   Hatchery fish lack genetic diversity and disease resistance compared to fish produced in the natural environment.
    >   Hatchery and stocking programs must continue as long aS I&E losses occur, whereas natural habitat produces fish
        indefinitely once properly restored and protected.
    >   At a number of locations where fish stocking programs are in place, significant questions remain about whether the
        programs actually supplement the native fish populations, and if they do, the extent to which this occurs
    >•   Hatchery fish can introduce diseased organisms and parasites to native populations.

All-1.2   HRC  Coverage of a Broader Range; of  Services  and  Values

The HRC method can be used in benefit-cost analyses to value a broad range of ecological and human services associated
with I&E losses that are either undervalued or ignored by conventional valuation approaches. Economists and policy makers
widely acknowledge that the public values environmental benefits well beyond beneficial impacts on direct uses (Boyd et al.,
2001; Fischman, 2001; Fisher and Raucher, 1984; Heal et al., 2001; Herman et al., 2001; Ruhl and Gregg, 2001;  Salzman et
al., 2001; Wainger et al., 2001). While much of the professional literature, especially empirical investigations, focuses on
recreational and other direct use values, most Americans value water resource protection and enhancement, including
reduction of I&E losses, for reasons that go well beyond their desire for recreational anglers to enjoy a larger consumer
surplus (or commercial anglers to enjoy greater producer surplus). Furthermore, many studies have documented public values
(including passive values) from ecological services provided by a variety of natural resources sustaining (potential)
environmental impacts, including: fish and wildlife (Stevens et al., 1991; Loomis et al., 2000); wetlands (Woodward and Wui,
2001); wilderness (Walsh et al., 1984); critical habitat for threatened & endangered species (Hagen et al., 1992; Loomis and
Ekstrand, 1997; Whitehead and Blomquist, 1991); overuse of groundwater (Feinerman and Knapp, 1983); hurricane impacts
on wetlands (Farber, 1987); global climate change on forests (Layton and Brown, 1998); bacterial impacts on coastal ponds
(Kaoru, 1993); oil impacts on surface water (Cohen, 1986); and toxic substance impacts on wetlands (Hanemann et al., 1991),
shoreline quality (Grigalunas et al., 1988), and beaches, shorebirds, and marine mammals (Rowe et al., 1992). In fact, a recent
study (Costanza et al., 1997) estimated that Worldwide ecosysten) services have a value  of $16-54 trillion, a range that
exceeded the Global Product of $18 trillion.

For direct use benefits such as recreational angling, the predicted change in the stock of a recreational fishery affects
recreational participation levels and the value of an angling day (see also Chapter A3). However, I&E losses affect the
aquatic ecosystem and public use and enjoyment in many ways not addressed by typical  recreational valuation methods,
creating a gap  between known disruption of ecological services and what economists usually translate into monetary values or
anthropocentric motives.  Examples of ecological and public services (Peterson and Lubchenco, 1997; Postel and Carpenter,
1997; Holmlund and Hammer, 1999; Strange et al., 1999) disrupted by I&E, but not addressed by conventional valuation
methods, include:
        decreased numbers of ecological keystone, rare, or sensitive species;
        decreased numbers of popular species that are not fished, perhaps because the fishery is closed;
        decreased numbers of special status (e.g., threatened or endangered) species;
        increased numbers of exotic or disruptive species that compete well in the absence of species lost to I&E;
        disruption of ecological niches and ecological strategies used by aquatic species;
        disruption of organic carbon and nutrient transfer through the food web;
        disruption of energy transfer through the food web;
        decreased local biodiversity;
        disruption of predator-prey relationships (e.g., Summers, 1989);
        disruption of age class structures of species;
        disruption of natural succession processes;
        disruption of public uses other than fishing, such as diving, boating, and birding; and
        disruption of public satisfaction with a healthy ecosystem.
The HRC method differs fundamentally from the commercial and recreational impact valuation method because the latter
accounts for only those species and life stages that can be valued directly, such as those species targeted by recreational or
commercial anglers.  In contrast, the HRC method defines the value of all I&E losses in terms of the expenditures that would
be required to replace all organisms lost to I&E at a CWIS through enhanced natural production in the environment. In short,
the HRC method values lost resources by the costs of the programs required to naturally replace those same resources. The
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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter All: HRC Method
replaced organisms would then be available not only for commercial and recreational human use but also as prey for a wide
range of aquatic and terrestrial organisms, as well as the full range of complex ecological functions provided by those
organisms. As a result, the HRC method, by focusing on replacement of natural habitats, values fish and other organisms that
are truly equivalent to those lost by allowing species to reproduce in their natural habitats using their native strategies. In
addition, the HRC results are based on the natural replacement of all relevant species, life stages,  behaviors, and ecological
interactions, for as long as the habitats remain viable, and so the resulting valuations of I&E losses effectively incorporate the
complete range of ecological and human services, even when those services are difficult to measure or poorly understood.

All-1.3   How the  HRC Method  Works

The HRC method values natural resource losses based on the costs of ecological habitat-based restoration activities, as
opposed to approaches not based on habitat such as fish stocking, that are scaled to increase natural production as an offset to
the I&E losses. Thus, HRC uses resource replacement costs as a proxy for the value of resources lost to I&E. Where
restoration costs are very high, or where public values might be much  lower than costs, economic studies can be conducted to
determine the value of habitat replacements'.  Few  comparisons of restoration costs and restoration value have been made.
However, the Green Bay Natural Resource Damage Assessment (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Stratus Consulting,
2000) estimated both the cost and the value of habitat (and other) restorations. Public values were determined using stated
preference surveys and  conjoint analyses (Breffle and Rowe, 2002). Restoration costs (to offset PCB-caused injuries to the
environment) totaled $111-268 million,  whereas willingness-to-pay for elimination of the same PCB injuries was $254-610
million. Thus, restoration costs  were considerably  less than public values.

In addition to addressing a wider range of I&E losses in terms of life stages and species, the HRC method also provides
regulators with information needed to evaluate proposals from the regulated party''to voluntarily provide relief for expected
future I&E losses associated with various permitted technologies. This information consists of a prioritized set of restoration
alternatives for each species affected by I&E, estimates of the potential benefits of implementing  those alternatives, and
estimates of the effective unit costs for those alternatives. Figure Al 1-1 presents the steps required to implement an HRC
valuation of I&E losses (see Parts H  and I of the Case Study Document for examples of a streamlined HRC valuation).

The HRC method is a new approach for valuing losses of aquatic organisms from a CWIS, and is consistent with and related
to lost resource valuation techniques such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) that federal courts have recognized as
appropriate for use in valuing lost resources (for examples, see U.S. District Court, 1997, and U.S. District Court, 1999).
Further, the principle of offsetting resource and ecosystem losses through restoration actions is incorporated in other
components of the Clean Water  Act, such as those  addressing the losses of wetland areas (i.e., Section 404). The  following
subsections discuss the  steps for conducting an HRC valuation of I&E losses.
    1  Although controversial, the contingent valuation method and other related techniques, such as conjoint analyses, include ecological
services and passive values and have been upheld in federal court [State of Ohio v. U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Circuit Court,
1989)] and supported by a NOAA panel co-chaired by 2 Nobel Laureate economists (Arrow et al., 1993).
                                                                                                             A11-3

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              S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter All: HRC Method
               Figure Al 1-1; Steps for conducting an HRC valuation of I&E losses.
                                                     Step 1: Quantify I&E losses by species
                                                     Step 2: Identify habitat requirements
                                                     of I&E species        '•
                                                     Step 3: Identify potential habitat restoration
                                                     actions that could benefit I&E species
                                                     Step 4: Consolidate, categorize, and prioritize
                                                     identified habitat restoration alternatives
                                                     Step 5: Quantify the expected increases in
                                                     species production for the prioritized habitat
                                                     restoration alternatives
                                                     Step 6: Scale the habitat restoration
                                                     alternatives to offset I&E losses
                                                     Step 7: Estimate "unit costs" for the
                                                     habitat restoration alternatives
                                                     Step 8: Develop total cost estimates
                                                     for I&E losses
              All-2  STEPS IN THE HRC

              All-2.1   Quantify I&E Losses  by Species  I

              The first step in an HRC valuation quantifies the I&E losses from a § 316(b) facility by species. This defines a CWIS's
              absolute and relative impacts on various species, including temporal variations when multiple years of data are available. The
              quantified I&E losses by species define the gains of aquatic organisms that restoration actions should achieve. However,
              EPA's analyses are generally based on data provided by the facility and therefore do not include losses of species not targeted
              by monitoring programs.  In these cases, estimates of potential benefits of regulation will be underestimates. The HRC
              method partially alleviates this problem because restoring habitats for monitored species is likely to benefit other species lost
              but not monitored.

              Because measured I&E losses often include multiple life stages (e.g., eggs, larvae, juveniles, adults) of any given species,
              total losses for each species are generally expressed as equivalent losses in a single, common life stage (see Chapter A5).
              This conversion is accomplished through the use of survival and production rates between life stages (younger life stages are
              always more abundant than older life stages because of mortality rates).  A common  life stage is generally chosen to facilitate
              the scaling of the restoration alternatives.  For instance, early life stages are highly relevant for determining how much
              spawning habitat is required in cases where the productivity of spawning habitats is estimated.  Adjusting the raw I&E loss
              data to a common life stage does not bias HRC results because many eggs are equivalent to fewer adults on both the I&E loss
              and the restoration gain side of the HRC equation. In other words, losing an adult to I&E is equivalent to losing many eggs
              because the adult represents survival through many life stages, arid restoring an adult is equivalent to restoring many eggs for
              the same reason. Therefore, the life stage selected for reporting the losses should be chosen to be highly relevant to the life
              stages affected by (and measurable in) restoration activities. Typically, early life stages such as  eggs, larvae, or juveniles are
              chosen because they tend to be less mobile than adults, and abundance will be better related habitat productivity estimates for
              replaced habitats.
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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter All: HRC Method
 Al 1-2.2  Identify Habitat                    of I&E Species

 The second HRC step identifies the habitat requirements of the aquatic organisms lost to I&E.  A species' habitat
 requirements are usually identified through literature searches and discussions with local resource managers, biologists,
 conservationists, and restoration experts with specific knowledge of the species.2  HRC valuation uses local species
 characteristics and local habitat requirements and opportunities because of variation of local habitat conditions and
 constraints.

 Because many aquatic organisms experience I&E in their earlier life stages (e.g., eggs, larvae, and juveniles), this step
 emphasizes habitat requirements for these stages, including spawning habitats. This emphasis is important because reducing
 constraints on adequate spawning is critical to increasing species production, is practical to achieve, and addresses directly the
 life stages most at risk from impingement and entrainment.                                                    '

 Habitat requirements for a species are typically described in very general terms (e.g., near-shore areas, wetlands, open water
 areas), but additional characteristics required or preferred by the species (e.g., specific ranges of water depth and temperature,
 substrate composition) further define the required habitats and improve the match between the habitat requirement and a
 restoration alternative. For example, a number of species benefit from a general wetland restoration program, but very
 different species and populations would benefit from a program of prairie pothole restoration compared to the restoration of
 cattail marshes hydraulically connected to the Great Lakes.

 All-2.3   Identify Potentially Beneficial Habitat Restoration  Alternatives

 The third step in an HRC valuation identifies actual habitat restoration alternatives that potentially increase the local
 production of the I&E species. As with identifying habitat requirements, thorough literature searches arid discussions with
 local resource managers will provide optimal information. Special attention should be paid to any remedial action plans for
 local water bodies or local species management plans that present a series of projects or actions needed to address both
 specific and general constraints on the populations of aquatic organisms experiencing I&E losses.

 Fully addressing I&E costs requires that this step not limit consideration, to restoration actions already completed or already
 planned. Information about projects planned or under way is valuable, but more comprehensive information about what
 restoration activities improve the production of the affected species sufficient to fully offset I&E losses is essential to
 understand the full cost to society of I&E losses to the environment and the public. In other words, costs should be
 constrained only by biological understanding and engineering capability rather than existing funding and administrative
 opportunities.

 The difference between what is being done or planned and what could be done may in some cases be small; in other cases it
 may be quite significant. For  example, there may be little administrative opportunity for local wetland restoration in a
 location zoned  for urbanized development. However, if available information and expert  opinion suggest that increasing
• wetland acreage would be highly effective for increasing local production for a subset of affected species, a wetland
 restoration program should not be eliminated from consideration even if it could not be implemented locally.

 All-2.4   Consolidate,  Categorize,  and Prioritize Identified  Habitat Restoration

 Alternatives                                          *                                    >

 The fourth step in an HRC valuation consolidates and categorizes the identified restoration alternatives and provides a
 prioritized list of alternatives  for each species, including designation of a preferred restoration alternative for the species.
 This step addresses both overlapping restoration alternatives and alternatives that vary widely in specificity. Consolidation
 and categorization eliminates  redundancy in the proposals while producing a clearly defined set of restoration alternatives
 without prescribing specific actions to be taken.
      2 Very little may be known about life stage characteristics and needs of some species, and information about taxonomically related
  species or functionally related life stages may be used. Where relevant information is extremely limited, best professional judgment must be
  applied, including the possibility of omitting the species from the analysis due to lack of information (and further underestimating
  benefits).                                          .

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter All: HRC Method
 For example, "restore cattail marshes that are hydraulically connected to Lake Erie" could emerge as a restoration alternative
 from this process, and "restore thelO-acre tract of former wetlands adjacent to marina X" would not be considered because of
 its specificity. At the other extreme, overly simplified proposals such as "improve water quality" are too general to determine
 restoration actions with definable costs.

 The second part of this step, prioritizing the restoration alternatives, requires identifying a preferred alternative for each I&E
 species. This identification and prioritization of a preferred alternative is critical for developing a clear restoration program
 with a hierarchy of actions required to address the losses for a species. Otherwise, because a species may realize varying
 degrees of increased production from a number of restoration alternatives, an unmanageably large number of combinations of
 restoration alternatives with varying scales of implementation could be developed.

 Prioritizing the categorized restoration alternatives benefits from close coordination with local resource managers. One
 effective strategy for completing this task convenes relevant resource managers and stakeholders for an open review and
 discussion of the categorized restoration alternatives with a goal of consensus on the preferred restoration alternative for each
 species with I&E losses.                                     •

 All-2.5  Quantify the  Expected Increases in  Species Production for  the Prioritized
 Habitat  Restoration Alternatives

 Quantifying the benefits of the preferred restoration alternatives to I&E species, the fifth HRC step, is critical for scaling the
 amount of restoration needed to offset calculated I&E losses.  Rigorous, peer-reviewed studies that quantify production
 increases of I&E species-which result from particular restoration activities are the best sources of data.  These studies measure
 pre- and post-restoration production in the habitat. Identifying suitable control habitats to substitute for the pre-irestoration
 state is reasonable but less preferred than using pre- and post-measurement from the same site.

 Estimates of the potential increases in species production following habitat restoration are more typically based on sampling
 data from studies that measure the population density of species in various habitats. This estimates increases in species
 production per unit of restored habitat by assuming that restoration provides similar habitat with similar productivity to that
 sampled. Estimates of the increased species production following restoration activities should account for lower initial (and
 perhaps permanent) productivity in restored versus pristine or unimpaired habitats. Estimates of increases in species
 production should include adjustments for factors that distinguish measured habitats from sites which could be restored (for a
 discussion of some of the factors that can affect productivity estimates in restored habitats, see Strange et al., 2002). Again,
 local  resource managers are essential to making realistic adjustments. In practice, these adjustments are usually integrated as
 a percentage of estimated baseline benefits in the HRC equation:

 Neither restoration productivity data nor habitat density data are available for some I&E species. For these species, estimates
 of the increase in species production can come  from models of habitat-species relationships such as Habitat Suitability Indices
 (HSI), data or studies on other habitats or other species with similar functional characteristics, or the best professional
judgment of local resource managers.

 All-2.6   Scale the Habitat Restoration Alternatives  to  Offset I&E Losses

 The sixth step scales the selected habitat restoration actions so that the magnitude of their expected increases in species
 production offsets I&E losses.  This step combines the estimated increases in species production associated with the
 restoration actions (step 5) with the quantified I&E losses (step  1). In the simplest case, one fish species experiences I&E
 losses in one life stage and wide agreement exists on how implementing the preferred restoration alternative would increase
 the production of the species for the affected life stage. Dividing the I&E loss by the expected increase in species production
 associated with a unit area of restoration determines the number of units (and thus the scale) of restoration required (this
 assumes the I&E losses and the expected increases in species production are expressed in the same time units, e.g., annual
 average). For example, if a facility's CWIS impinges and entrains 1 million year-one gizzard shad per year and local wetland
 restorations produce 500 year-one gizzard shad per acre per year (and wetland restorations are recognized as the most
 effective and cost-effective restoration alternative for gizzard shad), then offsetting these I&E losses requires successful,
 sustained restoration of 2,000 acres of wetlands.

The typical case involves multiple species with I&E losses across several life stages, variation between species in the
 expected increases in species production per unit of restoration area, and multiple restoration alternatives to benefit all
affected species. In these cases, dividing I&E losses for each species by its expected increases in species production per unit
All-6

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of restoration area still results in the required scale of restoration for each species. However, where a single restoration
activity is the primary means to benefit multiple species, enough habitat must be restored to produce all of the species' losses.
This means that the species with the lowest per unit production benefit value determines the amount of that restoration
required.  For example, if 1 million year-one gizzard shad and 1 million year-one emerald shiners are lost to I&E every year,
if wetland restoration is the most effective and cost-effective restoration alternative for both species, and if local wetland
restorations have been documented to produce 500 gizzard shad per acre per year but only 100 emerald shiners per acre per
year, then offsetting the I&E losses of both species requires 10,000 acres (not 2,000 acres) of successful, sustained wetland
restoration.

Whether multiple restoration activities will benefit species with disparate habitat needs or whether restoration requirements
vary widely among species benefitting from the same restoration activity, production of one species will not offset losses of
another species because each species provides unique ecological services through its interactions with other species and has
an associated public existence value as a unique species.  Therefore, all I&E losses are treated as significant in the HRC
method.  However, particular species may benefit from activities other than the preferred alternative where multiple
restoration activities must address all species, reducing the amount of the preferred alternative required for the particular
species.  Further, great uncertainty about the amount of a restoration alternative required for many species will require the use
of a median, 90th percentile, or other reasonable upper bound likely to offset the I&E losses for most of the species.  Here, the
risk of underestimating total I&E costs by inadequately restoring some species must be compared to the risk of artificially
inflating  I&E costs because of uncertainty alone.  Using the highest restoration cost to ensure that all species' I&E losses are
offset may not be justified, particularly if very few of the species drive the cost orders of magnitude higher.  For example,
wetland restoration may be the only alternative with cost estimation data and species density data at a site, but the productivity
estimates for many species are highly variable and based  on limited data or extrapolations.

Both I&E losses and the expected increase in species production associated with a unit area of restoration are expressed as
average annual losses  for a species at a specific life stage. However, the expected annual average increase in production from
a restoration action may be obscured by variability in the flow of benefits,  especially in the early years when changes to
existing habitats and ecosystem responses are expected to occur. Therefore, a benefits path must describe when and to what
extent expected benefits will accrue, and an annual discount rate must be applied (as in the HEA applications described in
Peacock, 1999).  Benefits of restoration can be expressed in perpetuity, as  an annual value, or for a discrete time period.3

Ail-2.7  Develop Unit Cost Estimates            .                          . •    '           •

In the seventh step, an HRC valuation monetizes the unit costs (e.g., costs per acre) for restoration alternatives. Unit cost
estimates include all expenses associated  with the design, implementation, administration, maintenance, and monitoring of
each restoration alternative. These costs include agency oversight costs and all required materials and labor purchased on the
open market.  "

Similar completed projects provide an excellent source of cost information since they reflect real-world experiences. An
alternative source of information is the cost estimates from proposed projects not yet implemented or partially completed
projects.  In either case, factors that can affect per unit restoration costs, such as fixed costs (e.g., administration, permitting)
or donated services and materials, should be accounted for by carefully examining the available cost information. The cost
analysis of each restoration alternative should also include the costs for an effective program to monitor the increases in
species production. Monitoring costs for a restoration  alternative should be listed separately, should include all relevant.
species, and should be of a sufficient length and duration to show the effectiveness of the chosen alternative in different years
that capture natural variability.  Where costs are not developed on a per unit restored basis, total costs can be divided by the
scale of the project to  develop the required unit costs.  Finally, unit costs are converted to their present value equivalents to
simplify addressing costs that may be incurred over a number of years.

All-2.8  Develop Total  Value Estimates for Is&E Losses

After the required scale for restoration and the associated unit costs have been determined, the eighth step estimates the total
value of all I&E losses. Multiplying the maximum required scale of implementation to offset I&E losses for a species by the
unit cost  for the restoration alternative produces the costs of a single restoration alternative. The total cost of offsetting the
    3 However, accurate and complete measurement of annual variation of I&E losses is often unavailable, limiting the utility of
annualizing HRC.
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter All: HRC Method
I&E losses is then equal to the sum of the costs of each restoration alternative implemented, following their prioritization for
each species.

The total estimated cost of replacing all of the organisms lost is a discrete, present value representing the current cost for
providing a stream of increased production benefits for the affected species in perpetuity.  In other words, the HRC valuation
estimate reflects the cost now for increasing the production of I&E species at an average annual level that would offset the
losses in the current year and all future years, all else being equal.

All-3   USE OF  THE HRC METHOD  FOR § 316(B) EVALUATIONS

EPA Region 1 is currently applying the HRC method at the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Generating Station in Plymouth,
Massachusetts, and the Brayton Point Station in Somerset, Massachusetts. In addition, EPA applied a streamlined HRC
valuation for the benefits case studies of the J.R. Whiting facility 6n Lake Erie and the Monroe facility on the River Raisin, a
tributary to Lake Erie, to test the applicability of the method under time and budget constraints often faced by NPDES permit
writers (see Parts H and I of this document).

All-4   STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS OF THE HRC METHOD

The primary strength of the HRC method is the explicit recognitiqn that I&E losses have impacts on the aquatic ecosystem
and the public's use and enjoyment of that ecosystem beyond that estimated by reduced commercial and recreational catches.
The HRC method provides a supplemental or alternative option for determining the value of I&E losses of all species,
including forage species overlooked by conventional methods, so that the public (i.e., those directly and indirectly affected by
I&E) and the regulators who represent them can have greater confidence in the true range of values associated with I&E
losses. The need for detailed restoration alternatives for the HRC method provides permitting agencies with a way to scale
the mitigation level to offset residual I&E losses associated with a permitted technology.  Finally, the HRC method has a
strong intuitive appeal as a-valuation tool because it uses the costs associated with enhancing natural habitats so that they will
produce the equivalent number and type of resources necessary to offset the I&E losses produced by the CWIS.

Public confidence in HRC valuations will be determined by the quality of input data for identifying preferred restoration
alternatives, estimating  increased production following restorations, estimating complete unit costs for restorations,  and
monitoring the relative success of restoration efforts. In this sense the HRC method does not have a methodological
weakness.  However, failure to identify all species lost to I&E, lack of information about life histories and habitat needs for
some species lost, and abundance data poorly linked to restored habitat productivity are likely to continue to force cost-saving
assumptions that undervalue the total benefits of minimizing I&E.

EPA's studies are limited by the quality and extent of the I&E data collected by the facility.  This weakness can be addressed
in future analyses by using appropriate guidelines for monitoring I&E, and by planning a more active program of defining
expected production increases for species following implementation of different restoration activities. In practice,
implementing appropriate monitoring programs for both the harm done by a CWIS and the benefits gained from restoration
projects will produce a  more  comprehensive database.  This comprehensive database will then facilitate scaling restoration
projects to replace I&E losses. By ensuring that the costs associated with such monitoring programs are incorporated in the
unit costs used to value I&E losses, the HRC method will help deVelop the information needed to address this limitation.
 AI1-S

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                  Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
INTRODUCTION
                                                           CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                           A12-1
                                                           A12-2
Threatened and endangered (T&E) and other special status
species can be adversely affected in several ways by
cooling water intake structures (CWISs).  T&E species can
suffer direct harm from impingement and entrainment
(I&E), they can suffer indirect impacts if I&E at CWISs
adversely affects another species upon which the T&E
species relies within the aquatic ecosystem (e.g., as a food
source), or they can suffer impacts if the CWIS disrupts
their critical habitat.1 The loss of individuals of listed
species from CWISs is particularly important because, by
definition, these species are already rare and at risk of
irreversible decline because of other stressors.

This, chapter provides information relevant to an analysis
of listed species in the context of the §316(b) regulation;
defines species considered as threatened, endangered, or
of special concern; gives a brief overview of the potential
for I&E-related adverse impacts on T&E species; and
describes methods available for considering the economic
value of such impacts.

A12--1   LISTED SPECIES BACKSROUND

The federal government and individual states develop and
maintain lists of species that are considered endangered,
threatened, or of special concern.  The federal trustees for
endangered or threatened species are the Department of
the Interior's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S. FWS)
and the Department of Commerce's National Marine
Fisheries Service (NMFS). Both departments are also are
referred to herein as the Services. The U.S. FWS is
responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species
(including plants) and migratory birds, whereas the NMFS
deals with marine species  and anadromous fish (U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, 1996a).  At the state level, the                                         -      •
departments, agencies, or commissions with jurisdiction over T&E species include Fish and Game; Natural Resources; Fish
and Wildlife Conservation; Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Game and Parks; Environmental Conservation; Conservation and
Natural Resources; Parks and Wildlife; the states' Natural Heritage Programs, and several others.      •.
                                                           'A12-S
                                                           A12-4
                                                           A12-5
                                                           A12-6
 Listed Species Background	A12-1
 A12-1.1  Listed Species Definitions	 ...A12-2
 A12-1.2  Main Factors in Listing of Aquatic
          Species,,.		....... A12-2
 Framework for Identifying Listed Species   ;
 Potentially at Risk of I&E  	.		AI2-3
 A12-2.1  Step 1: Compile a Comprehensive Table
          of Potentially-Affected Listed Species ,. AI2-5
 A12-2.2  Step 2: Determine the Geograpliic
          Distribution of Listed Species,,	AI2-5
 A12-2.3  Step 3: Compare Habitat Preferences of
          Listed Specie's to the CWIS ...:	A12-6
 A12-2.4  Step 4: Use Life History Characteristics
          to Refine Esttaate'of l&E Potential or       f
          Monitor for Actual I&E of thc-Listed
          Species	"'	_».. .X.	AI2-7
 Identification of Species of Concern at,Case -       \
 Study Sites .......;.t	,...,,.../(. .. *.'../Af2-8
 AI2-3.1  The Delaware Estuary Transition   ^   ;f-
 Zone ..;..„.. .,£,/'>.'	-...%i/:."'A12-8
 Benefit Categories Applicable fojjmpacts on ^ / "^  .
 T&E Species/,-, /••?>.	7...'	.,;. ."^ AO-t i -
 Methods Available for Estimating the Economic
 Value Associated with F&E of T&E Species, „.. rAl2-l2x,
 A>2-5.!  Es'tifflatmg I&E Impacts on/T&EV   f*
 -'--'    Sp«x:ies^	;/.	;	AJ2-12,
 Al2-5,2  Econ'omic ValuatinjjMethods	 TAJ2»13
 Iswies-in the Appl ication of the T&& Valuation
, Approaches A.J7. .„'..,.,. t.','.,  ~~.,..?',,,.-. AI2-18*
, AI2-6J  Issues,in Estimating Enviionmenta).        ^
          Impacts from !&E ori'SpeciaJ Status
     1 To simplify the discussion, in this chapter EPA uses the terms "T&E species" and "special status species" interchangeably to mean
all species that are specifically listed as threatened or endangered, plus any other species that has been given a special status designation at
the state or federal level.
                                                                                                              A12-1

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                                                          I
 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
 A12-1.1  Listed Species Definitions

 a. Threatened and endangered and species
 A species is listed as "endangered" when it is likely to become extinct within the foreseeable future throughout all or part of its
 range if no immediate action is taken to protect it.  A species is listed as "threatened" if it is likely to become endangered
 within the foreseeable future throughout all or most of its range if no action is taken to protect it.  Species are selected for
 listing based on petitions, surveys by the Services or other agencies, and other substantiated reports or field studies. The 1973
 Endangered Species Act (ESA) outlines detailed procedures used by the Services to list a species, including listing criteria,
 public comment periods, hearings, notifications, time limits for final action, and other related issues (U.S. Fish and Wildlife
 Service, 1996a).

 A species is considered to be endangered or threatened if one or more of the following listing criteria apply (U.S. FWS,
 1996):

     *•    the species' habitat or range is currently undergoing or is jeopardized by destruction, modification, or curtailment;
     *•    the species is overused for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes;
     *•    the species' existence is vulnerable because of predation or disease;
     >    current regulatory mechanisms do not provide adequate protection; or
     >    the continued existence of a species is affected by other natural or man-made factors.

 b.  Species of concern
 States and the federal government have also included species of "special concern" to their lists. These species have been
 selected because they are (1) rare or endemic, (2) in the process of being listed, (3) considered for listing in the future, (4)
 found in isolated and fragmented habitats, or (5)  considered a unique or irreplaceable state resource.

 A12-1.2  Main Factors in  Listing of  Aquatic Species

 Numerous physical and biological stressors have resulted in the listing of aquatic species.  The major factors include habitat
 destruction or modification, displacement of populations by exotic species, dam building and impoundments, increased
 siltation and turbidity in the water column, sedimentation, various point and non-point sources of pollution, poaching, and
 accidental catching. Some stresses, such as increased contaminant loads or turbidity, can be alleviated by water quality
 programs such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) or the current EPA efforts to develop Total
 Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). Other factors, such as dam building or habitat modifications for flood control purposes,
 are relatively permanent and therefore more difficult to mitigate.  In addition to these major factors, negative effects of
 CWISs on some listed species have been documented.

 Congress amended the ESA in 1982 and established a legal mechanism authorizing the Services to issue permits to non-
 federal entities — including individuals, private businesses, corporations, local governments, state governments, and tribal
 governments — who engage in the "incidental take" of federally-protected wildlife species (plants are not explicitly covered
 by this program).  Incidental take is defined as take that is "incidental to, and not the purpose of, the carrying out of an
 otherwise lawful activity under local, state or federal law." Examples of lawfiil activities that may result in the incidental take
 of T&E species include developing private or state-owned land containing habitats used by federally-protected species, or the
 withdrawal of cooling water that may impinge or entrain federally-protected aquatic'species present in surface waters.

 An integral part of the incidental take permit process is development of a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP). An HCP
 provides a counterbalance to an incidental take by proposing  measures to minimize or mitigate the impact and ensuring the
 long-term commitment of the non-federal entity to species conservation. HCPs often include conservation measures that
 benefit not only the target T&E species, but also proposed and candidate species, and other rare and sensitive species that are
 present within the plan area (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, 2000).  The ESA
 stipulates the major points that must be addressed in an HCP, including the following (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
 National Marine Fisheries Service, 2000):
AJ2-2

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
    >•   defining the potential impacts associated with the proposed taking of a federally-listed species;

    *•   describing the measures that the applicant will take to monitor, minimize, and mitigate these impacts, including
        funding sources;2

    *•   analyzing alternative actions that could be taken by the applicant and reasons why those actions cannot be adopted;
        and

    *•   describing additional measures that the Services may require as necessary or appropriate.,     !

HCP permits can be issued by the Services' regional directors if:                                    :

    *•   the taking will be incidental to an otherwise lawful activity,
    +   any impacts will be minimized or fully mitigated,
    *•   the permittee provides adequate funding to fully implement the permit,
    *•   the incidental taking will not reduce the chances of survival or recovery of the T&E species, and
    *•   any other required measures are met.

The Services have published a detailed description of the incidental take permit process and the habitat conservation planning
process (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, 2000). The federal incidental take permit
program has only limited application within the context of the §316(b) regulation because many T&E species (fish in
particular) are listed mainly by states, not by the Services, and hence fall outside of the jurisdiction of this program.

A12-2  FRAMEWORK FOR IDENTIFYING LISTED SPECIES POTENTIALLY AT  RISK OF !<&E

Evaluating benefits to listed species from the proposed §316(b) regulation requires data on the number of listed organisms
impinged and entrained and an estimate of how much the impingement and entrainment of listed species will be reduced as a
result of the regulation. Estimating I&E  for candidate and listed species presents significant challenges due to the following:

    >   Most facilities operating CWISs do not monitor for I&E on a regular basis,                  ;

    *•   T&E populations are generally restricted and fragmented so that their I&E may be sporadic and not easy to detect by
        conventional monitoring activities, and

    *•   Entrained eggs and larvae are often impossible to identify to the species level, making it difficult to know the true
        number of losses of a species of concern.

Some facilities have knowledge about the extent of their impact on T&E species.  These facilities require incidental take
permits and must develop HCPs (e.g., the Pittsburg and Contra Costa facilities in California, see Part E of this document).
Where specific knowledge of I&E rates does not exist, risks to T&E species must be estimated from other information.  The
remainder of this  section discusses EPA's methodology of estimating the numbers of listed species potentially at risk of I&E.
The framework involves four main steps (see Figure Al 2-1).

    *•   Step 1 identifies all state- or federally-listed species for the states that border the CWIS source water body.

    *•   Step 2 determines if a listed species from Step 1  is present in the vicinity of the CWIS. If a species distribution
        overlaps with the'CWIS, the analysis proceeds to Step 3.     '     •              .          .

    »•   Step 3 uses information on habitat preferences and site-specific intake structure characteristics to better define the
        degree of vulnerability of the listed species to the CWIS.

    >•   Step 4, if necessary, further refines the potential for I&E based on the life history characteristics of the listed species.
     2 Mitigation can include preserving critical habitats, restoring degraded former habitat, creating new habitats, modifying land use
practices to protect habitats, and establishing buffer areas around existing habitats.                          '
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 § 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                   Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
    Figure A12-1: Flowchart for Identifying T&E Aquatic Species with a Reasonable  Potential for I&E by CWISs
                                        •Select one or more CWIS of concern
                                        •Determine the location of the CWIS
                                                     STEP1
                               Identify all listed aquatic species in all states bordering the
                                     source water body of the CWIS(s) of concern
                                                   Decision 1:
                                             Are listed aquatic species
                                           present in the states bordering
                                              the CWIS's water body?
                                                     STEP 2
                               Determine the water bodies in which any life stages of the
                                  listed aquatic species identified in Step 1 are present
                                                   Decision 2:
                                             Are listed aquatic species
                                            present in the CWIS's water
                                                     bodies?
                                                     STEPS
                           Use data on habitat preferences to determine the likelihood for listed
                              aquatic species identified in Step 2 to overlap with the CWI
                                                   Decision 3:
                                               Is there a reasonable
                                                 likelihood of co-
                                                   occurrence?
Low level of concern
                                                     STEP 4
                           Use data on life history characteristics to determine the potential for
                                 I&E by the listed aquatic species identified in Step 3
                                                   Decision 4:
                                                  Is I&E a likely
                                                     event?
Low level of concern
                            Develop a final table of listed aquatic species identified in Step 4
                                             requiring the assessment
The result of this four-step analysis is a table of listed species that are likely to experience I&E by a CWIS of concern based
on their geographic distribution, habitat preferences, and life history characteristics.
A12-4

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                  Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
A12-2.1
Species
Step  1: Compile a Comprehensive  Table of Potenttally-Affected  Listed
The first step in determining the potential for I&E by a CWIS is to identify all state and federally-listed aquatic species in the
area of interest. Aquatic species may include fish; gastropods (such as snails, clams, or mussels); crustaceans (such as shrimp,
crayfish, isopods, or amphipods); amphibians (such as salamanders, toads, or frogs); reptiles (such as turtles, alligators, or
water snakes); and mammals (such as seals or sea lions).  The U.S. FWS maintains a web site
(hjtrt:''/endanseredTws.jgoy/endsj^JitiTil) on all federally-listed species organized by state or taxonomic group. Because the
federal list represents only a small subset of the species listed by individual states, however, the analyst also needs to obtain
state lists to develop a comprehensive table of aquatic species potentially affected by the CWISs of concern.3 Individual state
agencies, universities, or local organizations maintain web sites with data on state-listed species.  A preliminary search in
support of this  chapter showed that various agencies have responsibilities for maintaining species lists in different states. The
departments, agencies, or commissions with jurisdiction of T&E species include Fish and Game; Natural Resources; Fish and
Wildlife Conservation; Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Game and Parks; Environmental Conservation; Conservation and Natural
Resources; Parks and Wildlife; and several others. The states' Natural Heritage Programs can also be contacted to request
listing information, species-specific data on geographic distributions, and other valuable data. Appendix Al provides a recent
compilation of aquatic T&E species by The Nature Conservancy (TNC). Information on Natural Heritage Programs in the
U.S. can be obtained from The Natural Heritage Network at http://w\vw.heritage,t!ic;grg.  A thorough search of these and
other relevant sources should be performed to get the data required to identify target species.

If a CWIS of concern is located on a water body confined to one state, then only federally-listed aquatic species found in that
state and the aquatic species listed by the state itself need to be considered in the analysis.  An example would be the Tampa
Bay Estuary, which is entirely contained within the state of Florida.  The search should expand if the CWIS is located on a
water body that covers more than one state, which may be the case for large lakes, rivers, and estuaries. For example, the
watersheds abutting the U.S. side of Lake Erie  cover parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan.  The
Delaware River Basin covers parts of Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. At a minimum, a table of
potentially affected T&E species should include species listed by the state in which the CWIS is located, together with any
federally-listed aquatic species in all  the states  covered by the watershed. A more rigorous approach at this initial stage might
be to include all state-listed aquatic species from every state covered by the water body of concern, even if the likelihood is
small that a listed species moves beyond the boundaries of the CWIS's state.

The product of this initial step is a table of all the aquatic species listed by the U.S. FWS and the state(s) of interest. The
information should be organized by species category — such as fish, amphibians, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic reptiles,
and/or aquatic mammals.  The information should also include:

    *•   the common and scientific name of each listed species;
    *•   the agency listing the species (state or U.S. FWS, or both); and                            ;  •
    *•   the legal status of the species (threatened, endangered, or of special concern).

The analyst can assume that the CWIS does not have a direct impact on listed species  only if no aquatic species are listed as
threatened, endangered, or of special concern in the target state(s).  The analyst must also determine if there is an indirect
impact through the food chain. If not, then no further analysis is required for that CWIS.

A12-2.2   Step 2:  Determine  the  Geographic Distribution, of  Listed Species

In the second step, the'analyst determines if the listed species identified in Step 1 are present in the same water body as the
CWIS of concern. This step represents a simple pass-fail decision: a species is retained if the distribution of one or more of
its life stages coincides with the water body of interest; it is removed if it does not (see also Figure A12-1).

The analyst can obtain the information required for this step from several sources.  Local agencies may have developed
"species accounts" for certain federally'-listed species.  Recovery plans may also be available for some of the federally-listed
species. These and other sources may provide  information on species ranges, population levels, reproductive strategies,
developmental characteristics, habitat requirements, reasons for current status, and/or  management and protection needs.
When compiling this information, the analyst should look not only at the distribution of adults but also of juveniles,
    3 As discussed earlier, both T&E species and species of special concern should be included.
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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
particularly if the species is known to migrate between different locations over its life. This step is particularly important for
anadromous fish species, but may also apply to other species that have seasonal or life cycle-dependent migrations (for
example, adult frogs may live on land but spawn in rivers).

Most listed aquatic species are listed by individual states rather than on a federal  level. Data on the federally-listed species
arc therefore unlikely to suffice for the analysis.  States typically post their species list on the Internet. A few states have also
developed short species accounts with information on distribution, life history characteristics, habitat requirements, and other
useful details. Distribution or range data may consist of specific locations of sightings or catches (for example, particular
river miles), general distributions within individual watersheds, or more generic and qualitative descriptions. Some states
have also published hardcopy reports with species-specific information that may not be available on the Internet. Finally, the
Natural Heritage Programs in numerous states have also developed species-specific data (see Appendix Al). All these
materials should be obtained and reviewed during the data gathering process.

Distributional information for some of the T&E species may not be available. The analyst may need to consult secondary
sources, such as species atlases (for example, see fish species distributions in the  U.S.; or Smith, 1985, for fish distributions in
New York State), field guides, published papers, or textbooks.  Distributional data may be missing altogether for some of the
more obscure species.  The lack of such data should not by itself result in the removal an T&E species at this point in the
selection process. The analyst should instead look at habitat requirements (Step 3) or life  history characteristics (Step 4)
before the species is no longer considered of concern to the CWIS under consideration.

The majority of species will be eliminated at this stage because most of the listed aquatic species, with some notable
exceptions, tend  to have rather fragmented and limited distributions due to extensive habitat loss or narrow habitat
requirements. Step 2 produces a table of listed species whose geographic distributions generally overlap with the location of
the CWIS.                                                 ;

A12-2.3  Step  3: Compare  Habitat "Preferences of  Listed Species  to  the CWIS

Step 3 identifies  listed species that could be affected by the CWIS of concern through a comparison of their habitat
preferences and the location of the CWIS. The potential for I&E exists, and hence the listed species  is retained, if the habitat
preferences of one or more life stages match the location of the CWIS of concern. If the habitat preferences of no life stages
of the listed species match the location of the CWIS, then the species can be removed from further consideration.
The analyst needs to obtain a general description of the location of the CWIS of concern in terms of (1) where the CWIS is
found within the water body (e.g., inshore versus off-shore; deep! versus shallow;  etc.) and (2) the kinds of habitats associated
with this general location.  Such information may be available from site-specific field observations, permit applications by the
facilities, natural resources maps, or other related sources.      ,

a.   Location
The presence of a listed species in the water body from which a CWIS withdraws water does not necessarily mean that the
species will be impinged or entrained by the intake structure. Two additional variables need to be considered: the habitat
preferences of the listed species and the characteristics of the CWIS (location, design, and capacity). The following example
highlights the relationship between these two variables:

An endangered darter species is present in a river with a CWIS of concern.  All life stages of this species are confined to
swift-running, shallow (i.e., less than one foot deep) riffle zones, whereas the CWIS of concern is located many miles
downstream in deep areas of the river that are unsuitable darter hkbitat. The likelihood of impact on  the darter by the CWIS is
minimal even though both are present within the same water body.

b.   Other habitat information
Detailed information on the habitat requirements of the target species is also needed.  This information should focus on all the
life stages, including eggs, larvae, juveniles, and adults, because habitat requirements often vary by life stage. For example,
adults of a listed fish species may inhabit deeper waters of large lakes and produce pelagic eggs, but juveniles may be found
only in nearshore nursery areas. It would be insufficient to  consider only the habitat requirements of adults of this species,
particularly if a CWIS of concern was located nearshore.

The U.S. FWS T&E species web page, the web pages of individual states or other organizations, or general reference
materials can provide data on the habitat preferences of the listed species.  Such information may be qualitative, anecdotal, or
missing altogether for obscure T&E species. Not all states have developed accounts for their listed species. T&E species
A12-6

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
web sites of neighboring states may offer additional information if the target species has a regional distribution and is listed
throughout its range. The information base can also be augmented by looking at a closely-related species. The substitute
species must share the same general habitat preferences as the target species for the comparison to be valid. The analyst
should consult appropriate reference materials to ensure a proper match.

c.  Assess whether the overlap between habitat  requirements and CWIS  location exists
The information on habitat preferences for the listed species is compared to location-specific data on the:CWIS of concern.
The decision step is a simple pass-fail test: a species is retained if the habitat requirements of one or more of its life stages is
likely to coincide with the CWIS of concern; otherwise it is removed.  The logic supporting this decision is that I&E is
unlikely if all the habitat requirements of the target T&E species do not overlap with the habitat in which the CWIS of
concern is located.                                                                             :

The exact habitat cutoff point for eliminating a species outright cannot be defined up front; it will depend not only on the
target T&E species but also on site-specific factors tied to the CWIS of concern.  Several aquatic habitats, however, can be
dismissed out of hand because they are not suitable to support CWISs. These habitats include springs, caves, temporary
pools, very small ponds and lakes, and shallow headwater streams and creeks.  Target T&E species that spend their entire life
cycle  in these habitats are unlikely to encounter CWISs and can be removed from further consideration. Habitats that have
enough volume to support CWISs, namely large rivers and lakes, large estuaries, and inshore marine areas, are likely to
require, more analysis.         '                '

A12-2.4   Step  4:  Use Life History  Characteristics t©  Refine  Estimate of I&E

Potential  or Monitor  for  Actual I&E of the Listed Species

From this point on, the assessment can go in two different directions (see Figure A12-1): (1) the target species is added to the
final table because  the data indicate potential for I&E, or because more data are needed to refine the assessment; or (2) the
species is excluded from the list because there is a low level of concern.

The date may not be as clear-cut for smaller or less mobile species. The overlap between habitat requirements and the
location of a CWIS of concern may not suffice to justify adding a target species to the final table without first considering life
history information. The decision to proceed beyond Step 3  will vary on a case-by-case.basis: it will depend on  the target
species, access to additional biological information, and the CWIS of concern. The analyst should focus on finding
information that will support the decision to add or eliminate a target .species.  Additional data may not exist for  some of the
more  obscure listed species. Given the protected status of T&E species, however, EPA recommends using a conservative
approach to ensure that species are not accidentally omitted when in fact they should be added to the final table. The species
should be retained  if doubts persist after Step 3: it can still be removed during  more site-specific assessments.

Listed clams in big Midwestern rivers are an example of species which may require further assessment in Step 4. Certain
clam  species would likely pass Step 2 because their distribution overlaps with  the locations of CWISs of concern on major
rivers. These clam species may also pass Step 3 if their presence coincided with the general location of one or more CWIS of
concern.  Yet, it is unclear if they should be added to the final table: a closer look at the clams' life history is required to
determine the potential for I&E.                                                                :

The risk of I&E of adult clams is low because they are sedentary, benthic filter feeders or are firmly attached to the substrate.
The risk may increase, however, during the reproductive season.  During the reproductive season, males' release  their sperm
into the water column.  The sperm are carried downstream by the water current and are captured by feeding female clams.
The sperm fertilize the female's eggs, which develop inside her body until they hatch.  The larvae are released into the water
column and must quickly find and attach themselves to a specific fish host to complete their development* Larval clams die
if they fail to find a host. After a period of days to weeks, the larval clams detach themselves from their hosts, drop to the
bottom, and bury into the sediment or attach to a solid substrate where they remain for the rest of their Hves.  The only
reasonable chance for clam I&E occurs when a fish host with larval life stages attached to it becomes impinged or entrained
by a CV/IS of concern. Adding a clam species to the final table would depend on whether or not the following occurs;
     4 Larvae of freshwater clams typically require a very specific fish species to complete their development. Scientists do not always
 know which fish hosts are required by the T&E river clams.                                            ;
                                                                                                            A12-7

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
     *•   the host fish is known to science,
     »•   the host fish is present in the stretch of river containing the C WIS, and
     *   the habitat characteristics of the host fish match the general location of the CWIS of concern.  These decisions can be
        made only on a case-by-case and species-by-species basis.

 The information on life history characteristics for the target T&E species should be carefully reviewed to determine the
 potential for I&E.  Several variables may raise concerns, including migratory behavior, pelagic eggs or larvae, foraging
 activity, and so on. This information is evaluated in comparison to the location of the CWIS of concern. The decision point
 in this step is a simple pass-fail test: a species is retained if one or more of its life history characteristics enhances the potential
 for contact with the CWIS of concern; it is removed if all of its life characteristics are unlikely to result in vulnerability to the
 CWIS of concern.

 A12-3  IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIES OF  CONCERN  AT CASE STUDY  SITES

 The following sections illustrate the use of this procedure for identifying vulnerable special status species. The example is for
 fish species of the Delaware Estuary, the  site of one of EPA's benefits case studies (see Part B of this document).

 A12-3.1  The Delaware  Estuary Transition Zone

 a.   Step 1: Identify all  state- or federally-listed species for  the states that border the
 water body on which  the CWIS is located.
 Table A12-1 summarizes information compiled by EPA for fish Species in the Delaware Estuary.

              Table A12-1: Fish Species Listed as Threatened, Endangered, or of Special Concern
                                     (Federal  plus PA, NJ,  DE,  and NY)
Common Name (Latin Name)
Burbot (Lota lota)
Chub, Gravel (Erimystax x-punctata)
Chub, Silver (Macrhybopsis storeiana)
Chub, Streamline (Erymysiax dissimilis)
Chubsuckcr, Lake (Erimyzon sucetta)
Darter, Bluebreast (Etheostoma Camurum)
Darter, Channel (Percina copelandi)
Darter, Eastern Sand (Ammocrypta pellucida)
Darter, Gilt (Percina evides)
Darter, Longhead (Percina macrocephala)
Darter, Spotted (Etheostoma maculatum)
Darter, Swamp (Etheostoma fusiforme)
Darter, Tippecanoe (Etheostoma tippecanoe)
Lamprey, Mountain Brook (Ichthyomyzon
greeleyf)
Lamprey, Northern Brook (Ichthyomyzon
fossor)
Lamprey, Ohio (Ichthyomyzon bdellium)
Madtom, Mountain (Noturus eleutherus)
Madtoin, Northern (notutus stigmotus)
Mooneye (Hiodon tergisus)
Rcdhorse, Black (Moxostoma duquesnei)
Federally-
Listed
Species
E




















T




















O"




















State-Listed Species
Pennsylvania
E

X






1
X
X

k
\
A.

>



T
X




X
X
X
X




X

X
X
X


0"




















New Jersey
E





















T





















0"





















Delaware
E





















T




















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New York
E


X


X


•V










	
T

X


X


X

X
:X
X






X

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X
	 " 	 -"" 	




	


: ' '. ' I.''"'
x ,

" - :" "

• ',

X
AI2-8

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S 316(b)"Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
              Table A12-1:  Fish Species Listed as Threatened,  Endangered, or of Special Concern
                                    (Federal plus PA, NJ,. DE, and NY) (cent.)
Common Name (Latin Name)
Sculpin, Deepwater (Myoxocephalus
thompsoni)
Sculpin, Spoonhead (Cottus ricei)
Shiner, Ironcolor (Notropis chalybaeus)
Shiner, Pugnose (Notropis anogenus)
Shiner, Redfin (Lythrurus umbratllis)
Sturgeon, Atlantic (Acipenser oxyrhynchus)
Sturgeon, Lake (Acipenser fulvescens)
Sturgeon, Shortnose (Acipenser brevirostrum)
Sucker, Longnose (Catostotnus catostomus)
Sunfish, Banded (Enneacanthus obesus)
Sunfish, Longear (lepomis megalotis)
Sunfish, Mud (Acantharchus pomotis)
Whitefish, Round (Prosopium cylindraceum)
TOTAL
Federally-
Listed
Species
E







X





1
T














0
0°

State-Listed Species
Pennsylvania
E

	 ! 	
!
.1
	 !.......
1.
\ 	 i 	
	 [, 	








0

X
X
X




8
T







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0"















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New Jersey
E









X





1
T















0
0"















0
Delaware
V






,


X





1
T















0
d"







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'


0
New York
E
X
X






X




X
8
T







X


X
X
X

11
0"


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X








5
     a Other federally-listed species may include species of special interest or concern, monitored species, candidate species, etc.
     b Other state-listed species may include rare species, species of special interest, species of concern, candidate species, etc.

     Sources: New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife (2002); Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
     (2002); State of New York, Department of Environmental Conservation (2001); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2000).
b.   Step 2:  Determine if a species listed  in Step 1 is  present in the area of the CWIS
After identifying species of concern in the source water body, the next step is to determine if any of these species are present
in the vicinity of the CWIS.  This step involves consulting local biologists as well as literature sources such as species atlases,
field guides, and. scientific publications. Table A12-2 summarizes the results of EPA's analysis of the distribution of species
of concern in the Delaware River Basin. Results indicate two there are two fish species potentially vulnerable to CWIS in the
Delaware Estuary transition zone, Atlantic sturgeon and shprtnose sturgeon (highlighted in bold in the table).

Species Name
Burbot
Chub, gravel
Chub, silver
Chub, Streamline
Chubsucker, Lake
Darter, bluebreast
Darter, channel .
Darter, eastern sand

Table A12-2: Distribution of Listed Species Identified in Step 1
! Current Distribution
: • !
j PA: Lake Erie and headwaters of Allegheny River ;
i NY: medium and large-sized streams in the Allegheny basin
i PA: Allegheny River and .French Creek
;NY: Lake Erie
i NY: Allegheny River drainage
j NY: the Lake Erie drainage basin and embayments along the southern shore of Lake
: Ontario
! NY: upper reaches of the Allegheny River drainage basin
i PA: upper Allegheny River and two of its tributaries, namely Little Brokenstraw
j Creek and French Creek
1 PA: Lake Erie and large tributaries, and the upper part of the Allegheny River ;
! NY: Lake Erie, the Metawee and Poultney Rrvers near Lake Champlain, the Saint
I Regis and Salmon Rivers near Quebec, and the Grasse River
I PA: Lake Erie and Allegheny basin


Found in Delaware
River Basin?
NO
NY: NO
PA: NO
NO
NO
NO
NY: NO
PA: NO
NO
NY: NO
PA: NO

                                                                                                               A12-9

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
                     Table A12-2: Distribution of Listed Species Identified in Step i (cent.)
       Species Name
                                                    Current Distribution
                Found in Delaware
                   River Basra?
 Darter, gilt                i NY: found only in the Allegheny River :                                           NY: NO
                         I PA: Upper Allegheny River         __!_               ;        	PA.:..N.9.	
 Darter, longhead           i NY: Allegheny River and a few of its large tributaries; French Creek                    NY: NO
                         j PA: Scattered sites in the Allegheny Rivk and French Creek headwaters                 .?.A:..N.9.	
 Darter, spotted            j NY: French Creek                 . ;                                           NY: NO
                         1 PA: upper Allegheny River and French Creek                                       .?.A.:..N.9.	
 Dartcr.swamp            i NY: eastern two-thirds of Long Island                     	^XiJ^?.	
 Darter, tippecanoe         I PA: upper Allegheny River and French Creek                                       .?A:..?5.9.	
 Lamprey, mountain brook   I NY: French Creek and Allegheny River tributaries                                   NY: NO
                         1 PA: moderate to large streams of the upper Allegheny River system                     PA: NO
 Lamprey, northern brook    I PA: Conneaut Creek in Crawford County in north west PA   	NO	_
 Lamprey, Ohio            j PA: moderate to large streams of the upper Allegheny River system                       NO	
 Madtom, mountain         I PA: French Creek in Mercer and Erie Counties in north west PA             ^            NO	
 Madtom, northern         1 PA:French Creek              '                  	NO	
 Mooneye                 I NY: Lake Champlain, Black Lake, Oswegatchie River, Lake Erie, Saint Lawrence           NO
                         (River, and the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek
 Rcdhorse, black           j NY: Lake Ontario (likely extirpated) and Lake Erie drainage basins, and the              .  NO
                         I Allegheny River
 Sculpin, deepwater         [NY: Lakes Erie and Ontario          •             	NO	
 Sculpin, spoonhead        j NY: historically found in Lakes Erie and Ontario but believed to be extirpated	NO	
 Shiner, ironcolor          j NY: Basher Kill and Hackensack River                                              NO	
 Shiner, pugnose           I NY: Sodus Bay and Saint Lawrence River                	NO	
 Shiner, redfin             ! NY: drainages of Lakes Erie and Ontario in western NY	NO	
 Sturgeon, Atlantic        I PA: Delaware Estuary                                            _	..Y.E.S	„
 Sturgeon, Lake       •     j NY: Saint Lawrence River, Niagara River, Oswegatchie River, Grasse River, Lakes       NY: NO
                         I Ontario & Erie, Lake Champlain, Cayuga Lake, Seneca & Cayuga canals
                         :PA: Lake Erie                      	.?A.:.N.°.	
 Sturgeon, shortnose       j DE: Tidal Delaware River                                                  BE, NJ, PA: YES
                         I NJ: Tidal Delaware River                                                       NY: NO
                         ! NY: Lower portion of the Hudson River
                         i PA: Tidal Delaware River
 Sucker, longnose          | PA: Youghiogheny River headwater streams in south west PA                           NO	
 Sunfish, landed            I NY: Passaic River drainage and in eastern Long Island in the Peconic River               NO
                         : drainage
 Sunfish, longear           ! NY: Tonawanda Creek              '                                     r	NO	
 Sunfish, mud             I NY: Hackensack River              ;                           _	_NO	
 Whitefish, round	j NY: scattered lakes throughout the state	NO	
  Sources: New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife (2002); Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (2002);
  Smith (1985); State of New York, Department of Environmental Conservation (2001).
 c.  Step 3:  Use information on  habitat preferences and intake  location to  better define the
 degree of overlap between listed species  and the CWIS
 Step 3 involves determining the habitat preferences and life history requirements of species identified in step 2.  In Step 2
 EPA determined that two fish species of concern are potentially vulnerable to CWIS in the Delaware Estuary transition zone,
 Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon. The habitat preferences and life histories of these species are summarized in Table
 A12-3.
A12-10

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
          Table AI2-3: Habitat Preferences'and Life Histories of Listed Species Identified in Step 2
Species
Name
sturgeon,
atlantic
sturgeon,
shortnose
Current
Distribution
Delaware
estuary
tidal Delaware
River (mostly
in the upper
and
transitional
estuary)
! Habitat
j Preferences
i estuarine and
! riverine bottom
I habitats of large
i river systems
! estuarine and
i riverine bottom
I habitats of large
j river systems
Potential of;
overlap w/ ' Life History
CWIS? i
YES i adults stay in the ocean but move into
1 estuaries and large rivers to spawn in
i deep water (> 10m deep); eggs sink and
] stick to the bottom; juveniles make
• seasonal migrations between shallower
; areas (summer) and deeper areas (winter)
! of their birth rivers; juveniles move to
1 the ocean at age 4-5 to mature
YES i adults stay in nearshore marine habitats
• but move in estuaries and large rivers to
i spawn; eggs sink and stick to the bottom;
| juveniles make seasonal migrations
i between shallower areas (summer) and
j deeper-areas (winter) of their birth rivers;
I juveniles move out to the ocean at age 4-5
i to mature
Potential
for I&E?
YES
YES
Life Stages
Susceptible
to I&E?
larvae and
juveniles
larvae and
juveniles
 d.  Step  4: Use  of monitoring or life history characteristics to refine  estimate of  I&E
 In some cases I&E or waterbody monitoring data may be available to estimate CWIS impacts on T&E species. However, in
 many cases, it will be necessary to estimate relative risk based on waterbody monitoring of the species distribution relative to
 CWIS and life history and facility characteristics that influence a species vulnerability to I&E.

 For the Delaware Estuary example discussed here, there are only limited data available for shortnose sturgeon (Masnik and
 Wilson.: 1980) and Atlantic sturgeon (Shirey et al., 1997) from monitoring in the vicinity of transition zone CWIS. In the case
 of shortnose sturgeon, 1980 monitoring results indicate that the species is not vulnerable to transition zone CWIS. However,
 because the data are over 20 years old, further information is needed to confirm that the potential for I&E of shortnose
 sturgeon remains low. An analysis of life history information indicates that spawning takes many miles upstream of transition
 zone CWIS, .and therefore the risk of entrainment of eggs and larvae is minimal (Masnik and Wilson, 1980). Impingement is
 also unlikely because salinity and feeding, conditions in the transition zone are unfavorable for impingeable-sized juveniles
 and adults (Masnik and Wilson, 1980).                                                         :

 In the case of Atlantic sturgeon, monitoring in the transition zone indicates that young Atlantic sturgeon occur in the vicinity
 of the Hope Creek and Salem facilities in the summer months. Data also suggest that Atlantic sturgeon move back
 downstream in fall, although use  of the lower estuary (Delaware Bay) remains unknown (Shirey et al., 1997). This
 information suggests that Atlantic sturgeon are potentially at risk to transition zone CWIS and indicates the need for I&E
 monitoring  to confirm the degree of harm.                                                      ;       .

 A12-4  BENEFIT CATEGORIES APPLICABLE FOR IMPACTS  ON T&E SPECIES

 Once a T&E species has been identified as vulnerable to a CWIS, special considerations are necessary to fully capture the
 benefits of reducing I&E of the species. The benefits case study presented in Part E of this document illustrates some of the
 challenges in assigning economic value to T&E species and presents a valuation approach that may prove useful in other
 cases.

 Estimating  the economic benefits of helping to preserve T&E and other special status species, such as by reducing I&E
 impacts, is  difficult due to a lack of knowledge of the ecological role of different T&E species and a relative paucity of
 economic studies focusing on the benefits of T&E preservation.  Most of the wildlife economic literature focuses on
 recreational use benefits that may be irrelevant for valuation of T&E species because T&E species (e.g., the delta smelt in
 California)  are not often targeted by recreational or commercial fishermen. The numbers  of special status species that are
 recreationally or commercially fished (e.g., shortnose sturgeon in the Delaware Estuary) have been so depleted that any use
 estimates associated with angling participation or landings data for recent years (or decades)  would not be indicative of the
 species' potential value for direct use if and when the population recovers. Nevertheless, there are some T&E species for
                                                                                                          A12-11

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 S 316{b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
 which consumptive use-related benefits could be significant once the numbers of individuals are restored to levels that enable
 resumption of relevant uses.

 Based on their potential uses, T&E species can be divided into three broad categories:

     *•   T&E species with high potential for consumptive uses.  The components of total value of such species are likely to
         include consumptive, non-consumptive, and indirect use values, as well as existence and option values. Pacific
         salmon, a highly prized game species, is a good examplb of such species. In addition to having a high consumptive
         use value, this species is likely to have a high non-consumptive use value. People who never go fishing may still
         watch salmon runs. The user value may actually dominate the total economic value of enhancing a T&E fish
         population for species like salmon. For example, Olseri et al. (1991) found that users contribute 65 percent to the
         total regional WTP value ($171 million in 1989$) for dbubling the Columbia River salmon and steelhead runs.
         Nonusers with zero probability of participation in the sport fishery contribute 25 percent. Nonusers with some
         probability of future participation contribute the remaining ten percent.

     >•   T&E species that do not have consumptive uses,  but are likely to have relatively large non-consumptive and indirect
         use values. The total value of such species would include non-consumptive use and indirect values, and existence
         and option values. Loggerhead sea turtles can represent such species. The non-consumptive use of loggerhead sea
         turtles may include photography or observation of nesting or swimming reptiles. For example, a study by Whitehead
         and Blomquist (1992) reports that the average subjective probability that North Carolina residents will visit the
         North Carolina coast for non-consumptive use recreation is 0.498. Policies that protect loggerhead sea turtles may
         therefore enhance individual welfare for a large group of participants in turtle viewing and photography.
 -
     *•   T&E species whose total value is a pure non-use value. Some prominent T&E species with minimal or no use
         values may have high non-use values. The bald eagle and the gray whale are examples of such species. Conversely,
         many T&E species with little or no use value are not well known or of significant public  interest and therefore their
         non-use values may be difficult to elicit.. Most obscure T&E species, which may have ecological, biological
         diversity and other non-use values, are likely to fall into this category.

 Non-use motives are often the principal source of benefits estimates for T&E species because many T&E species fall into the
 "obscure species" group.  As described in greater detail in Chapter A9, motives often associated with non-use values held for
 T&E species include bequest (i.e., inter-generational equity) and existence (i.e., preservation and stewardship) values. These
 non-use values are not necessarily limited to T&E species, but I&E-related adverse impacts to these unique species would be
 locally or globally irreversible, leading to extinction being a relevant concern. Irreversible adverse impacts on unique
 resources are not a necessary condition for the presence of significant non-use values, but these attributes (e.g., uniqueness;
 irreversibility; and regional, national, or international significance) would generally be expected to generate relatively high
 non-use values (Carson et al., 1999; Harpman et al., 1993).      ;



 A12-5  METHODS AVAILABLE FOR ESTIMATF-MS THE ECONOMIC  VALUE  ASSOCIATED
 WITH  I
-------
 § 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
• development of a Habitat Conservation Plan as part of an incidental take permit application (Southern Energy Delta LLC,  •
 2000).

 A 12-5.2   Economic Valuation Methods                                          '_

 Valuing impacts on special status species requires using nonmarket valuation methods to assign likely values to losses of
 these individuals. The fact that many of these species typically are not commercially or recreationally harvested (once they
 are listed) means no market value can be placed .on their consumption. Benefits estimates are therefore often confined to non-
 use values for special status species. The total economic value of preserving species with potentially high use values (i.e.,
 T&E salmon runs) should include both use and non-use values.  Economic tools allowing estimates of both use and non-use
 values (e.g., stated preferences methods) may be suitable for calculating the benefits of preserving T&E species. The relevant
 methods are briefly summarized'below.

 It is necessary to note that the benefits of preserving T&E species estimated to date reflect a human-centered view; benefit
 cost analysis may not be appropriate when T&E species are involved because extinction is irreversible.

 a.   Stated  preferences method
 As described in Chapter A9, the only available way to directly estimate non-use values for special status species is through
 applying stated preference methods, such as the contingent valuation method (CVM).  This method relies on statements of
 intended or hypothetical behavior elicited though surveys to value species. CVM has sometimes been criticized, especially in
 applications dating back a decade or more, because the analyst cannot verify whether the stated values are realistic and absent
 of various potential biases.  CVM and  other stated preference techniques (including conjoint analysis) have evolved and
 improved in recent years, however, and empirical evidence shows that the method can yield reliable (and perhaps even
 conservative) results where stated preference results are compared to those from revealed preference estimates (e.g., angling
 participation as observable  behavior) (Carson  et al., 1996).

 Regardless of the debates over whether or not  stated preference methods such as the CVM can  generate reliable estimates of
 non-use values, EPA cannot apply this approach to the 316(b) rulemaking because the time and cost associated with
 conducting the necessary primary research  is well beyond the budget and schedule available to  the Agency.  Such research
 also requires that the survey questionnaire and sampling design be reviewed  and approved by OMB to comply with the
 Paperwork Reduction Act.  The cost, time requirements, and administrative burdens associated with implementing a valuation
 survey in accordance with Paperwork Reduction Act create significant additional barriers to the potential for EPA
 implementing such relevant and useful research.

 b.   Benefits transfer  approach
 Using a benefit transfer approach may be a viable option in some cases. By definition, benefits transfer involves extrapolating
 the benefits findings estimated from one analytic situation to another situation(s). The initial analytic situation is defined in
 terms of an environmental resource (e.g., T&E species), the policy variable(s) (e.g.,changes in species status or population),
 and the benefitting populations being investigated.  Only in ideal circumstances do the environmental resource and policy
 variables of the original study very closely  match those of the analytic situation to which a policy or regulatory analyst may
 wish to extrapolate study results. Despite discrepancies, this approach may provide useful insights into benefits to society
 from reducing stress on T&E species.

 The current approach to benefit transfers most often focuses on the meta analysis of point estimates of the Hicksian or
 Marshalian surplus reported from original studies.  If, for example, the number of candidate studies is small and the variation
 of characteristics among the studies is  substantial, then meta analysis is not feasible.  This is likely to be the case when T&E
 species are involved, requiring a more careful  consideration of analytic situations in the original and policy studies. If only
 one or a few studies are available, an analyst evaluates their transferability based on technical criteria developed by
 Desvouges(1992).

 The analyst first identifies T&E species affected by I&E and the type  of environmental change  resulting from reducing I&E
 impacts on T&E species, and then selects from a pool of available studies the appropriate WTP values for protecting those
 species. EPA illustrated the value to society of protecting T&E species by conducting a review of the contingent valuation
 (CV) literature that estimates WTP to protect those species. This review focused on those studies valuing those aquatic
 species that may be at risk of I&E by CWISs.  EPA also identified studies that provide WTP estimates for fish-eating species,
 i.e., the bald eagle and the whooping crane. These species may also be at risk because they rely to some degree on aquatic
                                                                                                            A12-13

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
organisms as a food source. Table A12-4  lists the 13 relevant CV studies that EPA identified and provides corresponding
WTP estimates and selected study characteristics.

The identified valuation studies vary in terms of the species valued and the specific environmental change valued. Twelve of
these studies represent a total of 15 different species.  In addition one study (Walsh et al., 1985) estimates WTP for a group of
26 species. Most of these studies value prominent species well known by the public, such as salmon. The studies valued one
of the following general types of environmental changes:        •    .

    *•   avoidance of species loss/extinction,
    *•   species recovery/gain,
    *•   acceleration of the recovery process,
    *•   improvement of an area of a species'  habitat, and
    »•   increases  in species population.

The value of preserving or improving populations of T&E species reported in T&E valuation studies has a wide range. Mean
household WTP  estimates of obscure aquatic species range from $7.20 for the striped shiner (Boyle & Bishop, 1987) to
S10.03 for the squawfish (Cummings et al., 1994).

WTP values are low compared with estimates of other prominent fish species, which range from the relatively low estimate of
S8.69 (Stevens et al., 1991), to $33.24 (Stevens et al., 1991); both values are mean non-user WTP for Atlantic salmon. WTP
estimates for the two fish-eating species, the whooping crane and the bald eagle, both of which have high non-use values (i.e.,
existence value), range from $18.35 to $303.44 (Loomis and White, 1996). It may be possible to develop individual WTP
ranges for a given species or species group based on the estimated changes in T&E status (e.g., species gain or recovery) from
reducing I&E impacts and the applicable WTP values from existing studies.

Once individual's WTP for protecting T&E species or increasing their population is developed the next step is the estimation
of total benefits from reducing I&E of the special status species. The analyst should apply the estimated WTP value to the
relevant population groups to estimate the total value of improving protection of T&E species. The affected population may
include both potential users and  non-users, depending on species type.  The relevant population may also include area
residents, regional population, or, in exceptional cases (e.g., bald eagle), the U.S. population. The total value of improved
protection of T&E species (e.g., preventing extinction or doubling the population size) should be then adjusted to reflect the  •
percentage of cumulative environmental stress attributable to I&E.
A12-1'4

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods








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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
 c.  Revealed preference — Cost of T<&E species restoration
 For the case study analyses, EPA pursued an innovative alternative to infer societal WTP to preserve T&E species.  This
 alternative approach relies on actual sums of money dedicated to restoring special status species as an indication of societal
 revealed preference to preserve and protect these species. Program costs devoted to habitat restoration in-aquatic ecosystems
 with a comprehensive program to restore special status species fish populations can be used as an indicator of societal WTP
 for restoring those species. Restoration programs and/or use restrictions designed to help reduce losses of T&E species (or in
 other ways help to restore and preserve the species) indicate a societal revealed preference to incur costs in order to  achieve
 this goal.

 Each individual of a T&E species is important; the restoration costs can therefore be divided by the number of individuals the
 program is intended to protect or add to the baseline (depleted) population. This action yields a revealed preference value per
 individual fish. The analyst can then apply these values to the numbers of T&E individuals adversely impacted by I&E.  The
 extent to which this method is a true indicator of societal WTP for species restoration depends on the extent to which the
 allocation of resources through the political process reflects the true needs for habitat restoration and the extent to which the
 political process allows for public input. To the extent that the program costs reflect true needs and allows for public input,
 this method may thus reflect non-use (and any applicable use) values for special status species. Costs incurred to protect
 and/or restore aquatic special status species reflect a revealed preference by society; the value of the effort is deemed to
 exceed the costs incurred.

 A12-6  ISSUES IN THE  APPLICATION OF  THE T&E  VALUATION APPROACHES

 Several technical and conceptual issues are associated with valuing I&E impacts on T&E species:

    *•  issues associated with estimating I&E  contribution to the cumulative impact from several stressors; and
    »•  issues associated with implementing an economic valuation approach.

 A12-6.1   Issues in Estimating  Environmental Impacts  from I«SE on  Special  Status
 Fish

 Difficulties in estimating the number of individuals or size of the population of special status fish present in a given  location
 are often very difficult for numerous reasons including the following.

    »•  the act of monitoring a T&E species is problematic in and of itself because monitoring generally results in some harm
       to the species so researchers and federal agencies are reluctant to do it;

    >•  monitoring programs typically focus only on commercially harvested species;

    *•  the number of individuals may be so low that they rarely/never show up in monitoring programs for other species;

    *•  there is often a lack of complete knowledge of the life cycles of special status fish species contributes to an inability to
       accurately estimate population sizes for some species.

 Deriving population estimates from existing monitoring programs often means extrapolating sampling catches to the
 population as a whole. The variance in estimates is likely to be very high. Several assumptions must be  assessed when
 extrapolating sample catches to population estimates:

    *•  fish are completely recruited and vulnerable to the gear (i.e., are large  enough to be retained by the mesh and do not
       preferentially occupy habitats not sampled) or selectivity bf the gear by size is known;

    *•   sampling fixed locations for species approximates random sampling that approximates a stratified random sampling
       scheme;

    >•   species are uniformly distributed through the water column;

    *•  volume filtered by trawls can be accurately estimated; and

    *•   volumes of water can be estimated for each embayment in the habitat range for the species.
A12-18

-------
§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benef its Case. Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
a.   Issues in using a benefits transfer approach                                    |
The following issues may arise in developing a benefit transfer approach:

   *•  Some studies estimated WTP for multiple species. In this review of T&E species studies, values established by Carson
      et al. (1994), Olsen  et al. (1991) and Walsh et al. (1985) value groups of T&E species and therefore transferring values
      from this studies may not be feasible unless the group of species affected by I&E is the same as the group of species
      valued in the original studies,.

   *•  The type of environmental change valued in the study may not provide a good match to the changes resulting from
      reducing I&E impacts. As noted above, T&E valuation studies addressed one of the following qualitative changes in
      T&E status:                                                                             :

      >     avoidance of species loss/extinction                                                ;
      »     species recovery/gain
      >     acceleration  of the recovery process
      *     improvement of an area of a species'habitat
      »     increases in  species population

      The environmental  change resulting from reduced I&E effects on T&E species may not match the scenarios
      considered in the original studies.

   *  The size of the environmental change that the hypothetical scenario defines is also vital for developing WTP estimates.
      Several studies describe programs that avoid the loss of a species. This outcome may be considered a 100 percent
      improvement with respect to the alternative, extinction, but the restoration of a species or the increase in population
      may be specified at any level (e.g. 50 percent, 300 percent, etc.).  Swanson estimated a 300 percent increase in bald
      1 eagle populations and Boyle and Bishop estimated WTP to avoid the possibility of bald eagle extinction in Wisconsin
      (cited in Loomis and White, 1996). Although avoiding extinction may be considered a 100 percent improvement, this
      environmental change is not comparable with the 300 percent increase in existing populations; preventing regional
      extinction is quite different than realizing a nominal increase in species population (in which the alternative is not
      necessarily species  loss).                                                    ,                .

   •• Although a considerable amount of CV literature has valued T&E species, such research is largely limited to species
      with high consumptive use or non-use values. They either have high recreational or industrial value, or are popularly
      valued as significant species for various reasons (e.g., national symbol, aesthetics). Many T&E species that are likely
      to be affected by I&E (either federal-or state-listed) are obscure and WTP for their preservation has not been
      estimated.

b.   Cost of restoration approach
The issues associated with using-habitat restoration costing as an indication of societal revealed preference to preserve T&E
species  are illustrated in the San Francisco Bay case study (Part E of this document), in which EPA applied this innovative
approach. These issues are also discussed in Chapter Al 1 in Part A of this document, which details the habitat-based
restoration cost (HRC) method, applied in the case studies of Brayton Point (Part F), Pilgrim (Part G), J.R. Whiting(Part H),
and Monroe (Part I). Issues in the restoration costing approach can generally be divided into three groups:

   *• "Restoration" programs need not be relied upon exclusively to infer societal revealed WTP to preserve special status
      species. In many instances, other programs or restrictions are used in lieu of (or in conjunction with) restoration
      programs,  and the costs associated with the non-restoration components also reveal a WTP. For example, efforts to
      preserve fish species in the San Francisco Estuary area also include water use restrictions that reduce the amount of
       fresh water diverted from the upstream portion of the Sacramento River to highly valued water uses in the central and
       southern parts of California. The foregone use values of these waters in agricultural and municipal applications are an
       important component of the cost society bears to protect and preserve special status species, such as the delta smelt.

   *•  Costs directed at a  special species must be isolated from program elements intended to address other species or
      problems.  For example, in a multifaceted restoration or use restriction program, the percentage of costs used mainly to
      target restoration of special status species fish as opposed to othe"r ecosystem benefits needs to be estimated.
                                                                                                            A12-19

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 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Chapter A12: Species Analysis Methods
    *•  Estimates must be developed of the change in fish numbers associated with the program. A habitat restoration
       program may set population targets for restoration of special status fish species, but might not target a specific
       population size.  Often targets are set to abundance levels that existed before a significant decline in populations. If
       the program has set a population target for restoration of the fish species involved, then the number offish needed to
       reach the restoration target can be divided into the relevant portion of program costs to calculate a dollar per fish
       indicator of the value society places on restoring special status species fish. This per fish value can be used to assess
       damages for fish species that are not valued commercially or recreationally.

 A12-7  CONCLUSIONS

 T&E species may be adversely impacted by I&E.  To the extent that the proposed rule reduces these adverse impacts, there
 may be appreciable benefits of reducing stresses on these species of special concern.

 Estimating the benefits of reducing the adverse impacts of I&E on special status species often requires a focus on non-use
 benefits.  Use-related benefits for these species may not be relevant (e.g., for fish not targeted by recreational or commercial
 anglers) or may be misconstrued as minimal based on recent data (e.g., because the reduced numbers of these species have led
 to long-standing fishing restrictions or such reduced catches that recent period use data are not informative).

 Estimating non-use values for T&E species (or other species) is difficult for many reasons.  WTP estimates can be derived
 only from stated preference methods; this line of primary research is not feasible for the Agency to pursue given the cost,
 time, and administrative requirements of a survey effort. Use of the benefits transfer approach is limited to only those species
 for which economic valuation studies exist. In  some cases, existing restoration programs may serve as a basis for inferring
 benefits from reducing stresses on special status species if such a program exists. EPA pursued an approach for its case study
 analysis of T&E species that relies largely on restoration programs to infer revealed preferences by society to incur costs to
 preserve special status species (see Part E for a detailed example).
A12-20

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§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                                        Appendix Al
This appendix contains information compiled by The Nature Conservancy on threatened, endangered, and special status
species in 30 states (NatureServe, 2002).  States included are AZ, CA, NM, ID, WY, ND, SD, NE, KS, MI, IN, KY, VA, NC,
AR, LA, MS, AL, FL, WV, MD, DE, NJ, CT, RI, NH, IA, OK, IL, and PA. Table Al-1 lists the status of species and their
location by hydrologic unit code (HUC).  Table  Al-2 provides definitions of abbreviations used for global status listings in
Table Al-1. Table A1 -3 provides definitions of the abbreviations used for federal status.

     Table Al-1: Listing Status and  Hydrologie Unit Code  (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered  Species in
                                  30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy	,
 ABI Identifier j Informal Taxon (       Scientific Name        |     Common Name
                                                                                         Global  {Federal ;  HUC
                                                                                         Status   I  Status  i  Code
 AFCAA01010  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
 AFCAA01040  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserOxyrinchus
 AFCAA01040  JFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserOxyrinchus
IShortnose Sturgeon        IG3       |LE      ]9.J.9.?.°.2.9.5..
lAtlantic Sturgeon          -G3
lAtlantic Sturgeon          |G3
                                                                                                 (LT,c)iioooos
 AFCAA.01040  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserOxyrinchus
 AFCAAO 1040  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserOxyrinchus
                                                             'Atlantic Sturgeon
                                                             lAtlantic Sturgeon
                         |Q3     :  ;(LT,C)   101100004
                        "tos	""la/fie)	ioTiooboT
 AFCAAO 1010  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
 	-i	•<	•-••
 AFCAAO 1010  IFreshwater Fishes  \Acipenser Brevirostrum
                                                             IShortnose Sturgeon        |G3     ;   JLE      i0J1.9999Z.
                                                             iShortnose Sturgeon        JG3        |LE      102040105
 AFCAA01010  iFreshwater Fishes  \Acipenser Brevirostrum
 AFCQC02680  IFreshwater Fishes  \Etheostoma Sellare
                                                             IShortnose Sturgeon        |G3
                                                             IMaryland Darter          |GH
                                    ILE       102040201
                                   'ILE	'162650306
 AFCAA01010  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
 AFCAA01040  IFreshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus
                                                             IShortnose Sturgeon        |G3
                                                             lAtlantic Sturgeon         IG3
                                                                                                  ILE
 AFCA/L01010  IFreshwater Fishes  \Acipenser Brevirostmm
 AFCAA01040  iFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserOxyrinchus
                                                              IShortnose Sturgeon         IG3
                                                              lAtlantic Sturgeon          ;G3
                                                                                                  ILE
                                             \0206om
                                             loioeoobT
 AFCAA01010  ^Freshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
 	4	-:	•'	
 AFCQC02680  IFreshwater Fishes  \Etheostoma Sellare
                                                              jShortnose Sturgeon         |G3
                                                              IMaryland Darter           |GH
                                    ILE
                                   'ILE	loibeobbs"
 AFCQC04240  [Freshwater Fishes   \Percina Rex
 AFCQC04240  IFreshwater Fishes   \Percina Rex
                                                              IRoanoke Logperch         IG1G2     |LE
                                                              |R'oanoke"Lo'gperch" ........... ""loTaf"    ILE
                                                                                                            001
 AFCAAO1010  IFreshwater Fishes   \Acipenser Brevirostrum
 AFCQC04240  IFreshwater Fishes   \PercinaRex
                                                              IShortnose Sturgeon         |G3     ;   |LE
                                                              iRoanoke'Logperch ................ "|G1G2 "'' " |LE
                                                                                                            0310107
 AFCAAO1010  iFreshwater Fishes  \Acipenser Brevirostrum
 AFCQC04240  IFreshwater Fishes  \PercinaRex
IShortnose Sturgeon
IRoanoke'Logpercii
                         |G3
                                    iLE
                                    |LE
                                                                                                          K>30 10203
                                                                                                          ^3010204
 AFCAA01010  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
 AFCAAO lOl'O  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
                                                              IShortnose Sturgeon        IG3   .     |LE      103010205
                                                              Tsho'rtnose Sturgeon	:'|G3        |LE      163020105
 AFCAA01010  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
 AFCA.'VOIOIO  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
                                                              IShortnose Sturgeon        IG3     ;   ]LE      [03020204
                                                              Ishortn'o'se'sturgeon	|G3     ;   JLE      JOSOSOOOI
AFCJB28660  IFreshwater Fishes  \NotropisMekistocholas          ICape Fear Shiner          JG1
"AFCJB28660 """iFreshwater ^Fishes  ^NotropisMekistocholas          ICape Fear Shiner          IG1
                                                                                                  L

 AFCJB28660  IFreshwater Fishes  \NotropisMekistocholas          jCaoe Fear Shiner
 AFCPB09016  ^Freshwater Fishes  \MicrophisBrachyurus           lOpossum Pipefish
                                                                                        G1
                                                                                                 ILE      103030004
                                                                                                 i(psVc)
 AFCA/^01010  IFreshwater Fishes  \Acipenser Brevirostrum
 AFCA/^01010  IFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserBrevirostrum
iShortnose Sturgeon        IG3
IShortnose Sturgeon        |G3
                                             !9.3.03.9.9.9.5..
                                             163040201
                                                                                                  LE
 AFCND02020  IFreshwater Fishes  \MenidiaExtensa
 AFCPB090IO  IFreshwater Fishes  \MicrophisBrachyurus
                                                              iWaccamaw Silverside      |G1    !   |LT       103040206
                                                             liDp'o's'sum pipefish	]G4G5""r""|(PS:C)    ]6"3680io3
AFCAAOIOIO  IFreshwater Fishes  \Acipenser Brevirostrum          jShortnose Sturgeon        H3.....:....'.....!^!?.	
AFCAA01042  iFreshwater Fishes  \AcipenserOxyrinchusOxyrinchus lAtlantic Sturgeon          p^T3  ^   ]C
AFCPB09010  ^Freshwater Fishes  \MicrophisBrachyurus	jOpossum Pipefish	JG4G5     j(PS:C)
                                                                                                           |0308oo3
                                                                                                             App A-l

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S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                Appendix Al
     Table Al-1: Listing Status and Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
	30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy" (cont.)	
 ABI Identifier ! Informal Ta'xon  j        Scientific Name       ;  [     Common Name
Global  ; Federal [   HUC
Status  [  Status  [   Code
AFCNG01020  [Marine Fishes      [Rivulus Marmoratus           ! JMangrove Rivulus         |G3       K?S^)_]03080202
AFCAA01042  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Oxyrinchus [Atlantic Sturgeon          [G3T3     [C        ]9.39.?92.9.2..
AFCTBOMlT'l^                                          ' ]Op°ssum Pipefish;1?5:?5     KJ!^9L...H?"?9^?1.
'^CNGOVo2o"lMbri^F^hes	Wvuius Marmoratus	^ JMangiwe RiyuiusJG3KPML..,i9l^929"3.
'^CPBJWpljTlF^^	' lopossum Pipefish   "^    ]G4G5_    ]ff^C)^__j03090202_
'AFaS<5Hp2(TlMS	WvuiusMannoraius	""iMan^ove Rivuius         JG3$*$:$.   1??.?'???02_
^Sp02p3o"lMarineFiishes	"[Menidia Conchoivm	L£^SiiyCTsideH?.§.     H	.....H?.??"?9.?'.
AFCNG6l"020  [Marine Fishes	WwteMarmomiiis	'"jMarigrove Rivuius]G3       ](P^L...1939?9"293.
AFSiGOloiJO  iMarine"Fishes	Wvuius Marmoratus            iMangrove Rivuius         ]G3     ... KP^C)   {03090204_
AFCAAOloil  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus. Desotoi   jGulf Sturgeon            ]9H?     £!      191!.9.9.?.9.!..
AFCPiJOTOio "'!F'iShwatw"Rshw""|M/CTO£toSr^Ji)wras          iOpossum Pipefish         [G4G5     [(PS^C)   {0.3)0_0206_
AFCAAOIMI  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi   [Gulf Sturgeon            [G3.I2.     ]L.I.      19.3..1.?.0.™?..
AFCAA01041  "-Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi   [Gulf Sturgeon            [G3T2     [LT     ..i9.3.!.?.9.?.9.l..
AFCAAbli)41  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi   [Gulf Sturgeon            ^G.3T?.     1^1.      193.!.?.9.?.9.?..
AFCAA01041  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi   [Gulf Sturgeon            [G3T2     [LT    ...J9.?.!.?.9.9.9.?..
AFCAA01041  IFreshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi   [Gulf Sturgeon            [G3T2     jLT      |9.?.!?.9?.f.!..
AFCAA01041  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi   [Gulf Sturgeon            [G3T?.     IL.J.      i9.3.?.4.9.!.9.L
'AFCAAOI04I^  [Freshwater Fishes "[Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi  "^ JGulf Sturgeon          .....JG3H     £l      193"!.f.9.!.9.?l
AFCQC6'2520  [FreshwaterFishes \EtheostomaOkaloosae          jOkaloosa Darter          [Gl       [LE      |93.!.19.f.9.?..
AFCAAblb41  [Freshwater Fishes  \AcipenserbxyrinchusDesotoi   [Gulf Sturgeon            :Q3I?.     .I^.T.      193.!.4.9.!.9.3.
AFCAA01041  [Freshwater Fishes  \Acipenser6xyrinchusbesotoi   [Gulf; Sturgeon            I03!?.     |^T.      H3!4?!.04.
^afrab^9b""|Ma^ne"Fishes	Wuniulm'jmkinsi             Isaitmarsh Topminnow     [^2       H....'.........|9.3!49.!.9.?..
AFCNB04090  [Marine Fishes      \FundulusJenkinsi              [Saltmarsh Topminnow     [G2        ^C       [03140107
AFCNB04090  [Marine Fishes      [Fundulus Jenkinsi            1. [Saitmarsh Topminnow     [G2    _   |C       .']9.3.!.4.9.39.?..
^^'•iil?4'1  iFreshwaVerFishes '^Acipenser'^rinchurDesotoi  '•  [<3uifSturgeon            l^l.u... .I^L.II.  a93!£^9"?
'AFCAAOiib'sO  [Freshwater Fishes  [ScaphirhynchusSuttkusi       ]  [AJabama Sturgeon         pi        |LE      $2.}$®.}®2..
AFCQCMSeb  'tFTOhTOtwRsn"es""]?crc/iifl/i»rora               Ipeari barter              .'Gi    *    |C     ....]93J.Z999L
^99£913^i  IFreshwater Fishes '"\Percin'a Aurora	"	""jPeari Darter       _'      [Gi _      JC    .......{^j.7999"4.
AFCAAOlbi'l  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi    [Gulf Sturgeon            [G3T2     |LT      ]93.!.Z9.9.94.
AFCAA01041  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi    [Gulf Sturgeon            [G3T2      [LT      ]93?.7.9.9.9.^..
AFCAAOlbi'l  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi    [Gulf Sturgeon  .         |G3J2.    ]L.T.      19.3.l?.9.9.9.?..
AFCAA01041  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi    [Gulf Sturgeon            |G3J2.    j^T.      19.3.1.7.9.9.9.?..
AFCAAOloi'l  [Freshwater Fishes  [Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi  ]  [Guif Sturgeon            ]G3T.2.    I'bT.      19.3.?.7.9.9.9.?..
AFa^Bb4090  iManne Fishes	\FunduJi
-------
.8 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                           Appendix Al
      Table Ai-1: Listing Status and  Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
                              30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy4 (cont.)
 ABI, Identifier j Informal Taxon
                          Scientific Name
                                                      Common Name
                            Global  : Federal |   HUC
                            Status  I  Status  i   Code
 AFCJB310O
 IFreshwater Fishes
•-f	••
 iFreshwater Fishes
                  \Phoxinus Cumberlandensis
                 • •:	
                  •Phoxinus Cumberlandensis
                  \Phoxinus Cumberlandensis
                              iBlackside Dace
                              iBlackside Dace
                              iBlackside Dace
                          IG2
                         'Hi"
           ILT
          -.J	
           ILT
                                                                                                          105130101
                                                                                                          105130102
 AFCJB31010
 AFCJB28A90
 iFreshwater Fishes
•V	
 iFreshwater Fishes
                          |G2
                         'Hi'
           iLT
          "iLE
                                                                                                          19.5130103
                                                                                                         'losTsoioT
\NotropisAlbizonatus
\Etheostoma Percnurum
\Alosa Alabamae
                                                iPalezone Shiner
 AFCQC02X30
 AFCFAbibio
 iFreshwater Fishes
••i—	
 iFreshwater Fishes
                                                              iDuskytail Darter
                                                              'Alabama Shad
 IGl
 |O3
                                    JLE
                                    iC
                                                                                            j°.5.!.30104
                                                                                            " 105 140101
 AFCKA02060
 AFCJftJOoio
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                  [Noturus Flavipinnis
                  •Erimystax Cahni
                  \Hybopsis Monacha
 jYellowfin Madtom         iGl      <  I(LT,XN) 106010101
IsienderChub " '	Hi      '  ILT      i06oioioi
 AFCJB 15080
 AFCJB 15080
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                              ISpotfin Chub
                              iSpotfin Chub
                              "iSpotfin Chub
                          |G2
                         '|G2
           iLT
          -*	
           ILT
                                                                                                          106010101
                                                                                                          loeoioioi
                  \Hybopsis Monacha
                  \Hybopsis Monacha
 AFCJB 15080
 AFCJBisOSO
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                          IG2
           iLT
          .,}„....
           iLT
                                                                                                          106010105
                                                                                                          ioeoioioi
                  \Hybopsis Monacha
                  \Hybopsis Monacha
                              iSpotfin Chub
                              iSpotfin Chub
                              iSlender Chub
                          !G2
AFCJB 15080
AFCJB;566i'o"
AFCQCoixsb
               iFreshwater Fishes
              ••{•••	—
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                                                         ;G2
                                                                         Hi
                                    iLT
                                   ..>......
                                    iLT
                    [0.6010203
                    'loeoToios
                  \Erimystax Cahni
                  \Etheostoma Percnurum
               iFreshwater Fishes
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                                iDuskyteil Darter           iGl     :   |LE       i9.6.°!°.?9.5
                                                iYeTiowfin'Maatom	Hi     " "i(LT^XN)''i06010205
                  \Noturus Flavipinnis
                  \Erimystax Cahni
 AFCJB50010
 'AFCFAdibib
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iSlender Chub
 iAlabama Shad
           iLT
          --J	
           iC
                                                                                                          106010206
                                                                                                          "166040006"
                  \Alosa Alabamae
                  \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                  \Macrhybopsis Gelida
                                                       |G3
                                                      "Hici"
 AFCAA02010
 "AFCJB53020""
 iFreshwater Fishes
 •i	-	
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iPallid Sturgeon
 iSturgeon Chub
           jLE
          "tc""
                                                                                                          10.8010100
                                                                                                          'lo'sbioioo"
                                                       |G2
                                                      lolaf
 AFCAA02010
 "AFCFAOib'ib"
 iFreshwater Fishes
"j~	
 iFreshwater Fishes
                  \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                  \Alosa Alabamae
 iPallid Sturgeon
 iAlabama Shad
 'iRelict Darter
           ;LE
          "H
                                                                                                          iosoioioo
                                                                                                          losoioiob"
 AFCQC02BOO
 AFCAAbi'blo'
 iFreshwater Fishes
••*	
 iFreshwater Fishes
                  \Etheostoma Chienense
                  \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                  \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                                                                                        Gl
                                                                 ILE
                                                                 JLE
                                                                 ->	
                                                                 ILE
                    108010201
                    "ios'bioio'b"
 jPallid Sturgeon
 iPallid Sturgeon
 iPallid Sturgeon
 AFCAA02010
 AFCAAOiblb'
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
 IG1G2
"Hioi"
                                                                                                          10.8020203
                                                                                                          'ibsbsoioo"
                  \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                  ••t		--	-••
                  \Scaphirhynchus. Albus
 AFCAA02010
 AFCAA'bi'bl'b"
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iPallid Sturgeon
 iPallid Sturgeon
 Isicklefin Chub
 iGlG2
"Hioi"
                                                                                                 iLE
                                                                                                • Jf	
                                                                                                 iLE
                                                                           10.8030207
                                                                          "ibsoebibo"
                  \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                  \Macrhybopsis Meeti
 AFCJB53030
 "AFCQC02630"
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iG3
•-J	
 IGl
                                                                                                 1C
                                                                                                •••f	-
                                                                                                 iLT
                                                                           108060100
                                                                          '168060203"
                  '••Etheostoma Rubrum
                  ••*	
                  \Etheostoma Rubrum
                  \Scaphirhynchus Albus
 IBayou Darter
 IBayou Darter
 iPallid Sturgeon
AFCQC02630
AFCA^ibi'bib"
"AFCAAOlbi'T"
               IFreshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                                                                    ILT
                                                                                   • *	
                                                                                    ILE
                    108060302
                    "Ibs'byoibb"
                                                       JG1G2
                                                       1G3T2
               IFreshwater Fishes
               •i	--—-	—
               iFreshwater Fishes
                   •Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi
                   \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                   \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                                                |Gulf Sturgeon
                                                IPallid Sturgeon
                                    JLT
                                   ILE
                    .108070205
                    "IbsbsbibT'
 AFCA/L02010
 AFCAAblbil
 IFreshwater Fishes
 ^Freshwater Fishes
 iPallid Sturgeon
 ]<3uif Sturgeon
 IGulf Sturgeon
 iGlG2
lorn"
                                                                                                 ILE
                                                                                                .->	•
                                                                                                 :LT
                                                                           108090100
                                                                           168696261
                   \Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi
                   •Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi
                   \Scaphirhynchus Albus
 AFC AAO1041
 "AFCAAbi'bl'b"
 IFreshwater Fishes
•4	*	•	
 ^Freshwater Fishes
 IG3T2
 Hioi"
                                                                                                 ILT
                                                                                                 ILE"
                                                                           108090202
                                                                          "losbsJoios"
 IPallid Sturgeon
 IGulf Sturgeon
 AFC AAO 1041
 "AFCHAOTOH"
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                  \Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi
                  \Thymallus Arcticus Pop 2
 ]G3T2
 JG5T2Q'
                                                                                                 ILT
                                                                                                 A.......
                                                                                                 1C
                                                                          J08090203
                                                                          "liooioooT
 lArctic Grayling - Upper
 IMissouri River Fluvial
 AFCJB53030   IFreshwater Fishes
 AFCHA07011  iFreshwater Fishes
                   \Macrhybopsis Meeki
                   •Thymallus Arcticus Pop 2
                                                ISicklefin Chub
 |G3     i  ]C
 ]G5T2Qr  Ic
                                              110060005
                                              110676661
                                                iArctic Grayling - Upper
                                                iMissouri River Fluvial
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53020
AFCJB3705B
"4 	 - 	
iFreshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Rhinichthys Osculus Thermalis
iSturgeon Chub
ISturgeon Chub
ISturgeon Chub
IKendall Warm Spring!
IG2
IG2
IG2
! Dace |G5T1
. 1C
i ic
, 1C
ILE
110080007
110080010
110090202
110090202
                                                                                                            App A-3

-------
 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Appendix Al

Table Al-1: Listing Status and Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy0 (cont.)
!
ABI Identifier : Informal Taxon
AFCJB53020
AFaB53020
AFCJBS3030
AFCJB53020
AFCAA02010
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53030
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53020
AFCJBS3020
AFCJB53020
AFCJBS3020
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53030
AFCAA02010
AFCAA02010
AFCJB53020
AFCAA02010
AFCJB53030
AFCAA02010
AFCJB53020
AFaB53020
AFaB53020
AFCIB53020
AFCAA02010
AFCJB28960
AFCJB28960
AFCAA02010
AFCJB28960
AFaB53020
AFCJB28960
AFCAA02010
AFaB53030
AFCIB28960
AFCJB28960
AFCJB28960
AFCJB28960
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53020
AFCAA020IO
AFCJB53020
AFCJB28960
AFCJB28960
AFCJB53020
'Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
jFreshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
••Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
•Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
•Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
j Scientific Name
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
"•Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Meeki
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
'•Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
'•Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Meeki
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
'•Macrhybopsis Meeki
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
'•Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
'•Macrhybopsis Meeki
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
'•Notropis Topeka
\Notropis Topeka
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
\Notropis Topeka
••Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Notropis Topeka
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
\Macrhybopsis Meeki
'•Notropis Topeka
'•Notropis Topeka
\Notropis Topeka
'•Notropis Topeka
'•Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
'•Macrhybopsis Gelida
'•Notropis Topeka
'•Notropis Topeka
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
[ Common Name
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
1 iSicklefin Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
jPallid Sturgeon
; [Sturgeon Chub
: [Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
iSicklefin Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
•Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sicklefin Chub
•Pallid Sturgeon
jPallid Sturgeon
[Sturgeon Chub
[Pallid Sturgeon
iSicklefin Chub
iPallid Sturgeon
1 iSturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
• [Pallid Sturgeon
[Topeka Shiner
; [Topeka Shiner
[Pallid Sturgeon
[Topeka Shiner
[Sturgeon Chub
iTopeka Shiner
[Pallid Sturgeon
[Sicklefin Chub
[Topeka Shiner
1 [Topeka Shiner
[Topeka Shiner
[Topeka Shiner
[Sturgeon Chub
[Sturgeon Chub
! [Pallid Sturgeon
[Sturgeon Chub
[Topeka Shiner
[Topeka Shiner
iSturgeon Chub
I Global
[ Status
[G2
|G2
iG3
|G2
iG!G2
[G2
[G2
iG2
iG2
iG3
[02
iG2
[G2
!G2
[G2
|G2
;G3
[G1G2
[G1G2
[G2
[G1G2
iG3
[G1G2
[G2
[G2
[G2
iG2
iG!G2
[G2
|G2
[G1G2
iG2
iG2
iG2
[G1G2
[G3
[G2
[G2
[G2
;G2
;G2
[G2
[G1G2
[G2
[G2
|G2
|G2
[ Federal
i Status
ic
ic
ic
iC
iLE
ic
ic
ic
ic
ic
ic
ic
1C
ic
ic
ic
ic
[LE
;LE
ic
;LE
ic
[LE
1C
ic
ic
[C
[LE
iLE
[LE
iLE
iLE
[C
[LE
[LE
ic
[LE
[LE
iLE
iLE
ic
;C
iLE
ic
[LE
iLE
iC
1 HUC
; Code
i 10090207
i 10100004
110100004
ilOHOlOl
iionoioi
[10110201
110110202
ilOl 10203
[10110204
110110205
[10110205
i!0120109
i!0120110
[10120111
i!0120112
i!0130102
[10130102
[10130102
[10130105
[10136202
[10140101
ilOHOlOl
i!0140103
i!0140201
i 10140202
i 10140203
i 10140204
[10150007
[10160004
[10160006
[10160011
[10160011
i!0170101
iionoioi
i!0l70101
iI0170101
[10170102
110170103
i 101 70202
110170203
[10180002
U0200101
[10200202
i 10200202
110200203 .
[10210006
110210009
.
App A-4

-------
§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                             Appendix Al
     Table Ai-i: Listing Status and Hydroiogic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
                              30 States Compiled  by The Nature Conservancy" (cont.)	
 ABI Identifier : Informal Taxon
                                        Scientific Name
                                                                    Common Name
                                                                            Global
                                                                            Status
                                                                   Federal
                                                                    Status
                                                                              HUC
                                                                              Code
AFCJB28960
'AFCJB53020"
 jFreshwater Fishes
 jFreshwater Fishes
\Notropis Topeka
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Scaphirhynchns Albus
                              iTopeka Shiner
                              iSturgeon Chub
                                                                                       |G2
                                                                                       IG2
                                                                                                  |LE
                                                                                                            110220002
                                                                                                           '110226663
AFCAA.02010
AFCJB53030
 iFreshwater Fishes
•-t	-	
 iFreshwater Fishes
                              IPallid Sturgeon
                              'iSickiefin Chub
                                                                                       IG1G2
                                                                                       |G3	
                                                                                                  |LE
                                                                                                  '•>	
                                                                                                  1C
                                                                                                            j10230001
                                                                                                           'li'oBoooT
\Macrhybopsis Meeki
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
AFCJBS3020
'^CJB53020
"AFeJB28960
               iFreshwater Fishes
              ••i	-	-•••
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                                 iSturgeon Chub
                                                 iSturgeon Chub
                                                                                        |G2
                                                                                       W
                                                                                        iO2"
                                                                  1C
                                                                 ..;,...
                                                                  \C
                                                                                                           } 10230001
                                                                                                           7l0230bo6"
'•Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Notropis Topeka
               iFreshwater Fishes
              ••j	-	
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                                 iTopeka Shiner
                                                 iPallid Sturgeon
                                                                  :'LE
                                                                 ---,	
                                                                  iLE
                                                                                                           ]10230006
                                                                                                           "110230006
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
\Macrhybopsis Meeki
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
AFCJBS3030
AFCAAb2"b'ib"
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                              iSickiefin Chub
                              iPallid Sturgeon
                                                                                       |G3
                                                                                       loiaf
                                                                                                  iC
                                                                                                  ••>	
                                                                                                  iLE
                                                                                                            =10230006
                                                                                                           "!io24o6oT
AFCJB53020
AFCJB53030
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                                {Macrhybopsis Gelida
                                {Macrhybopsis Meeki
                                {Macrhybopsis Gelida
                              iSturgeon Chub
                              iSickiefin Chub
                                                       102
                                                       "jos"
                                                                                                           j10240001
                                                                                                           7io'24b'66T
                                                                                                  1C
 AFCJB53020
"AFCAAbi'bIb"
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                              iSturgeon Chub
                              iPallid Sturgeon
                                                                                       |O2
                                                                                       toioi
                                                                                       |G3
                                                                            110240005
                                                                           Tl0240005"
{Scaphirhynchus Albus
{Macrhybopsis Meeki
{Macrhybopsis Gelida
                                                                                                  |LE
                                                                                                  -4	
                                                                                                  1C
AFCJB53030
AFCJB53020'
AFCJB53030"
               iFreshwater Fishes
              ••{	
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                                 iSickiefin Chub
                                                 iSturgeon Chub
                                                                            ; 10240005
                                                                           'Iio24bbn'
                                                                                                  |C
                                                                                                  tc
               iFreshwater Fishes
                   '•Macrhybopsis Meeki
                  .^.--..-.-"..-.-----•-••••-••»-----**•
                   \Scaphirhynchus Albus
                               iSickiefin Chub
                               iPallid Sturgeon
                                                                                        IG3
                                                                                       "|GJ
                                                                                       '|G2
                                                                            1102400ill
                                                                           'lrb24obi'i"
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                                                                                   ILE
                                                                                                  "Ic  "
 AFCJB53020
"AFCJB53020"
 iFreshwater Fishes
•4	
 iFreshwater Fishes
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
•Macrhybopsis Gelida
                              iSturgeon Chub
                              ISturgeon Chub
                                                                                                            ; 10250004
                                                                                                           'ti'bisobie"
                                                                                                   1C
                                                                                                  -•>	
                                                                                                   ILE
 AFCJB28960
 AFCJB28960
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                                {Notropis Topeka
                                {Notropis Topeka
                                {Macrhybopsis Gelida
                               iTopeka Shiner
                               iTopeka, Shiner
                                                        |G2
                                                       "lea"
                                                                                                            ! 10250017
                                                                                                           '!i02600o"f
                                                                                                   |LE
                                                                                                  ,.>......
                                                                                                   1C
 AFCJB53020
"AFCJB28960
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                               iSturgeon Chub
                               ITopeka Shiner
                                                                                       |G2
                                                                                       '!§•?"
                                                                                       "162"
                                                                            j10260008
                                                                            110260008
                                 {Notropis Topeka
                                 {Notropis Topeka
                                                                                                  ILE
                                                                                                  "|LE"
 AFCJB28960
 AFCJB53020
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                               ITopeka Shiner
                               iSturgeon Chub
                                                                            110270101
                                                                           '!i'0270UJ2"
                                ••Macrhybopsis Gelida
                                {Notropis Topeka
 AFCJB28960
"AFCJBSSOSO"
 IFreshwater Fishes
-4	
 IFreshwater Fishes
                               iTopeka Shiner
                               iSickiefin Chub
                                                        |G2
                                                           .
                                                                                                  iLE
                                                                                                 -*	
                                                                                                  1C
                                                                                                            110270102
                                                                                                           "|K>276i64"
{Macrhybopsis Meeki
{Macrhybopsis Gelida
 AFCJB53020
 'AFCJB28960"
 IFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                               ISturgeon Chub
                               iTopeka Shiner
                                                                                        |O2
                                                                                                  iC
                                                                                                 E
                                                                                                 'ILE"
                                                                                                            110270104
                                                                                                           "]io27oi'b"4"
                                                                                                           "ti0270202"
{Notropis Topeka
{Notropis Topeka
 AFCJB28960
"AFCJB:28960"
 iFreshwater Fishes
"i	•	
 iFreshwater Fishes
                               iTopeka Shiner
                               ITopeka Shiner
                                                                                        |G2
                                 {Notropis Topeka
                                 {Notropis Topeka
AFCJB28960
'AFCJB28960''
"AFCLAo'io'io"
               iFreshwater Fishes
              --!	•'	
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                                 ITopeka Shiner
                                                 ITopeka Shiner
                                                        |G2
                                                                  ILE
                                                                  "|LE"
                                                                                                            110270206
                                                                                                           "Iio29oio'i"
                                {Notropis Topeka
                                {Amblyopsis Rosae
               iFreshwater Fishes
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                                 lOzark Cavefish
                                                 iArkansas Darter
                                                                                        IO2G3
                                                                   ILT
                                                                  'Ic'"
                                                                            111010001
                                                                           "ii'iosoooi"
                                 {Etheostoma Cragini
                                 {Etheostoma Cragini
 AFCQC02170
"AFCQcbinb"
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
                               IArkansas Darter
                               IArkansas Darter
                                                        IG3
                                                       "laf
                                                       • •; ......
                                                        |G2
                                                                                                            111030009
                                                                                                           Tribso'bio"
                                {Etheostoma Cragini
                                {Notropis Girardi
                                                                                                   1C
                                                                                                  ..>	-.
                                                                                                   ILT
 AFCJB28490
"AFCJB28490"
 IFreshwater Fishes
 IFreshwater Fishes
                               IArkansas River Shiner
                               IArkansas River Shiner
                                                                                                            |11030010
                                                                                                           "ii'iosoo'iT
                                                                                                           "ti'Vo's'b'brs"
                                {Notropis Girardi
                                {Etheostoma Cragini
                                {Etheostoma Cragini
 AFCQC0217q
 AFCQC02176
 IFreshwater Fishes
 ••j	
 IFreshwater Fishes
                               IArkansas Darter
                               iArkansas Darter
                                                                                        IGS
                                                                  |C
                                                                  "ic"
 AFCQC02170
 AFCJB28490"
 IFreshwater Fishes
 IFreshwater Fishes
 \Etheostoma Cragini
 \Notropis Girardi
                               iArkansas Darter
                               iArkansas River Shiner
                                                                                                   |C
                                                                                                  'ILT"
                                                                                                  ILT
                                                                                                            111030015
                                                                                                            li'itoobis
 AFCJB28490
 AFCQCb217b"
 'AFCJB'28960"
 IFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
 iFreshwater Fishes
 \Notropis Girardi
 \Etheostoma Cragini
 \Notropis Topeka
                               IArkansas River Shiner
                               IArkansas Darter
                               jTopeka Shiner	
                                                                                        |G2
                                                                                                           ji10300ite
                                                                                                           liTosbbi'e"
                                                                                                  ILE
                                                                                                              App A-5

-------
S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                                         Appendix Al
      Table Al-1: Listing Status and  Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species fn
                              30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy" (cont.)
 ABI Identifier ;  Informal Taxon  j
                                        Scientific Name
                                                      Common Name
                                                                                        Global
                                                                                        Status
                                                                                                 j Federal
                                                                                                            HUC
                                                                                                            Code
AFCQC02170  [Freshwater Fishes  \EtheostomaCragini             [Arkansas Darter           iG3
              [Freshwater Fishes  \Notropis Girardi             .   [Arkansas River Shiner     [G2
                                                                                 	los"
                                                                                                 [C
                                                                                                 |LT
                                                                                                          [11040006
                                                                                                          i 11040006
 AFCQC02170
 'AFCJB28490"
              IFreshwater Fishes
             ••<••	
              [Freshwater Fishes
                  \Etheostoma Cragini
                  \Notropis Girardi
                  •Etheostoma Cragini
                                                             j Arkansas Darter
                                                             ] Arkansas River Shiner
                                                                                      :G2
                                                                                      IGS"
                                                                                                 |C
                                                                                                 iLT
                                                                                                          111040007
                                                                                                          Ij 1040007
 AFCQC02170
 'AFCjiJ2S49o"
              [Freshwater Fishes
              [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             [Arkansas Darter
                                                           '  lArkansas River Shiner
                                                                                                 |C
                                                                                                 [LT
                                                                                                          1 11040008
                                                                                                          j 11040008
                  \Notropis Girardi
                  '•Etheostoma Cragini
                  \Notropis Girardi
                                                                                      [G2
                                                                                      los"
AFCQC02170
AFCJB28490"'
'^gB28490'"
AF(^a>2i"7p''
'APCQC02i70"
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             i Arkansas Darter
                                                             ^Arkansas River Shiner x
                                                                                                 |C
                                                                                                ItT
                                                                                                          ; 11060002
                                                                                                          t'l 1060002
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                \Notropis Girardi
                                \Etheostoma Cragini
                                \Etheostoma Cragini
                                              \  [Arkansas River Shiner      |G2       jLT       [11060003
                                              [  [Arkansas Darter           iG3       JC        j 11060003
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                                [Arkansas Darter
                                                jTopeka Shiner
                                                                                      !G3
                                                                                     "toT
                                                                                                 :C
                                                                                                ILE"
                                                                                                          j11060005
                                                                                                         Ti'io702oT
                                \Notropis Topeka
                                \Noturus Placidus
 AFCJKA02200
 'AFaB28966""
 [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             jNeosho Madtom
                                                             [Topeka Shiner
                                                                                      |G2
                                                                                      1(32"
                                                                                                 [LT
                                                                                                .,
                                                                                                          i11070201
                                                                                                         711670202"
              [Freshwater Fishes
                  \Notropis Topeka
                  ,<......,,........*..»....*,..,.
                  •Noturus Placidus
AFCKAp22-	
                                                                                      •:G2
                                                                                                 iC
                                                                                                - +	•
                                                                                                 iLT
                                                                                                          |11070207
                                                                                                          "\lloi0207'
AFCLA01010
AFCLApJoi'o'
AFCLAOioio"
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             [Ozark Cavefish
                                                             ••t	
                                                             iOzark Cavefish
                                                                                       JG2G3
                                                                                       JG2G3"
                                                                                       iG2G3"
                                                                                                 .;LT
                                                                                                          i11070208
                                                                                                          111070209
                  \Amblyopsis Rosae
                  .<..........	
                  \Amblyopsis Rosae
                  '•Etheostoma Cragini
                                                                                                 iLT
                                                                                                •+	
                                                                                                 iLT
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             [Ozark Cavefish
                                                             [Arkansas Darter
                                                                                                          [11110103
                                                                                                         Tmioios"
AFCQC02170
'}ffgB28490"
AFCQC0421CJ'
"AFCQCMi'io"
               [Freshwater Fishes
              ^	-	
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                \Notropis Girardi
                               •<	•	•	••
                                \Percina Pantherina
                               ^	
                                \Percina Pantherina
                                                             [Arkansas River Shiner
                                                          "'""liLeopard Darter
                                                                                      ;G2
                                                                                                 ;LT
                                                                                             ill 110202
                                                                                             iiTi40i08"
               [Freshwater Fishes
              ••i	—	*	•	
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             [Leopard barter            [Gl  .
                                                             iRio Grande SH very Minnow |6'iG2
                                                                                                 ;LT
                                                                                             [11140109
                                                                                             ii36202oi
                                \Hybognathus Amarus
                                \Hybognathus Amarus
                                •Gila Nigrescens
AFCJB 16070   [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             iRio Grande Silvery Minnow |G1G2
                                                             IchihuahuaChub' ................... |oi
                                                                                   iLE
                                                                                                           i 13020203
                                                                                                           ji'3030202"
 [Freshwater Fishes
 AFCHA02IOI
 AFCJB28490''
              [Freshwater Fishes
              [Freshwater Fishes
                  \Oncorhynchus Gilae Gilae
                  \Notropis Girardi
                                                              jGila Trout               iG3Tl      iLE      i 13030202
                                                              jArkansas River Shiner     lei        JLT      |l3060003
 AFCJB28891
              [Freshwater Fishes
              [Freshwater Fishes
                                •Notropis Simus Pecosensis
                                \Gambusia Nobilis
                                \Gambusia Nobilis
                                                             iPecos Bluntnose Shiner
                                                             iPecos Gambusia
                                                                                       [G2T2
                                                                                      "iG2"	
                                                                                      .-!••"••	
                                                                                       iG2
                                                                                                 !LT
                                                                                                 iLE
                                                                                             i 13060003
                                                                                             113060003
AFCJNC02p7p

AFClB2'849o"
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                                iPecos Gambusia
                                                [Pecos Gambusia
                                                                                                 iLE
                                                                                                -*	•
                                                                                                 iLE
                                                                                                • 4	<
                                                                                                 iLT
                                                                                                          113060005
                                                                                                         713060007
                                \Gambusia Nobilis
                                '•Notropis Girardi
               :Freshwater Fishes
              M"*	
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                                [Arkansas River Shiner      iG2
                                                Ipecos Biuntnose' Shiner     [G2T2
                                                                                                          513060007
                                                                                                         7l3060007"
                                                                                                          ti'soeooos
                                '•Notropis Simus Pecosensis
 [Freshwater Fishes
 [Freshwater Fishes
                                '•Gambusia Nobilis
                                •Notropis Simus Pecosensis
                                                              iPecos Gambusia          JG2        iLE
                                                              iPecos Bhmtnose Shiner    iG2T2      iLT
AFCJB28891
AFCJB28490"
              [Freshwater Fishes
              [Freshwater Fishes
                                \Notropis Girardi
                                \Gambusia Nobilis
                                \Gila Cypha
                                                [Arkansas River Shiner
                                                iPecos Gambusia
                                                                                      [G2
                                                                                     1(32
                                                                                     'loi"
                                                                                                 [LT
                                                                                                 iLE
                                                                                                          113060011
                                                                                                          "ii'soeo'pi'i"
                                                                                                          '[Mo'io'ioe"
AFCNC02070
AFCJB'isOSo"
              [Freshwater Fishes
              [Freshwater Fishes
                                                [Humpback Chub
                                                i Sturgeon Chub
                                                                                                 ;LE
                                                                                                "tc""
AFaB53020
AFCiB53020"
                                \Macrhybopsis Gelida
                                \Macrhybopsis Gelida
                                IGiia Cypha
                                \Xyrauchen Texanus
 iFreshwater Fishes
.4*-	*	—
 [Freshwater Fishes
«•*••"«	
 [Freshwater Fishes
                                                             [Sturgeon Chub
                                                             [Humpback Chub
                                                             iRazorback Sucker
                                                                                      [G2
                                                                                     •^	
                                                                                      jGl
                                                                                         ...
                                                                                                 ic
                                                                                                ••*	
                                                                                                 iLE
                                                                                                ";LE"
                                                                                                          :14040107
                                                                                                         "|i 4670606"
                                                                                                         "T'l 4070006"
AFcoo
App A-6

-------
S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                                          Appendix Al
     Tiuble Al-i: Listing Status and Hydrobgic Unit Code (HOC) for Threatened and  Endangered Species in
                              30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy0 (cont.)	_	
 ABI Identifier j  Informal Taxon  i
                                        Scientific Name
                                                     Common Name
                           Global
                           Status
                                                                                                 : Federal
                                                                                                 \ Status
                                                                                                             HUC
                                                                                                             Code
AFCJB35020
AFCJB13080
              jFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
                 \Ptychocheilus Lucius
                 \Gila Cypha
                 \Gila Cypha
jColorado Pikeminnow
iHumpback Chub
jHumpback Chub
                         iGi
                         loi
                                                                                                 !(LE,XN)
                                                                                                           114080101
                                                                                                          li'soioooi"
                                                                                                 !LE.
AFCJB 13080
' AFCJB isOSO"
              iFreshwater Fishes
             • 4	-•••		
              iFreshwater Fishes
                         IGl
                        'W\
                        "ioi"
                                                                                                  iLE
                                                                                                           I15010002
                                                                                                          'li'soiooos"
                  \Oila Cypha
                  \Xyrauchen Texanus
jHumpback Chub
iRazorback Sucker
iWoundfin
                                                                                                 |LE
AFCJCnOlO
AFCJB33oio"
              iFreshwater Fishes
             ••{	-	—
              iFreshwater Fishes
                                                                                                           J15010005
                                                                                                          lisoiooio
                  \Plagopterus Argentissimus
                  \Gila Seminuda
                                                                                                 |(LE,XN)
                                                                                                 '1(PS:LE)'
 AFCJB13170
"AFCJB20640"
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
IVirgin River Chub         IGl
ILittle Colorado Spinedace   IGl G2
                                             if 5.0.10010
                                             115020001
                  \Lepidomeda Vittata
                  \Lepidomeda Vittata
                                                                                                 iLT
                                                                                                 -•>	
                                                                                                 iLT
 AFCJB20040
 AFCJB20040'
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
                                                              iLittle Colorado Spinedace   IG1G2
                                                              ILittle Colorado Spinedace   IG1G2
                                             i15020002
                                            115626665
                  \Lepidomeda Vittata
                 • •:	•
                  \Lepidomeda Vittata
                 «•;	-*•-	
                  \Lepidomeda Vittata
                                                                                                 =LT
                                                                                                 •->	
                                                                                                 iLT
AFCJB20040
^CJB20040"
AFCJBi'iogo"
               iFreshwater Fishes
               iFreshwater Fishes
ILittle Colorado Spinedace   jG 1G2
ILittle Colorado Spinedace   IG1G2
                                                                                                           I15020008
                                                                                                          Tisoiooio
                                    iLT
                                   .->..	
                                    iLE
               iFreshwater Fishes
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                \Gila Cypha
                                \Gila Elegans
                               • <	
                                \Xyrauchen Texanus
                                                IHumpback Chub
                                                iBonytail
                         IGl
                        "iGi"
                                                                                                           115020016
                                                                                                          "li'sosoioi
                                                                                                  ILE
                                                                                                 .->...,.„
                                                                                                  ;LE
                                                                                                 ••!•	
                                                                                                  ILE
 AFCJCIIOIO
'AFCJBJl'sioo"
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iRazorback Sucker
iBonytail
                                                                                                           115030101
                                                                                                          IJ'SOSOUM'
                                                                                                           tisosoioT
                                \Gila Elegans
                               •^--••-	-	•
                                \Xyrauchen Texanus
 AFCJCIIOIO
"AFCJB35020"
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iRazorback Sucker
iColorado Pikeminnow
iDesert Pupfish
                                                                                       IGl
                                                                                      "loi	
                                \Ptychocheilus Lucius
                                \Cyprinodon Macularius
                                '•Macularius
                                                                                                 I(LE,XN)  I
AFCNB02061

AFCJciioio
                                                                                                             5030203
               iFreshwater Fishes
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                \Xyrauchen Texanus
                                <	
                                \Gila Elegans
                                "!--••-•••	
                                \Oncorhynchus Gilae Gilae
                                                iRazorback Sucker
                                                iBonytail
                                    iLE
                                   ILE"
                                                                                                           115030204
                                                                                                          "li'sosoioi"
                                                                                                          "|i'50400oT
                         IGl
                         '|G3T'r
 AFCHA02101
"AFCJB37i40"
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iGila Trout
iLoach Minnow
                                                                                                  iLE
                                                                                                 .->.. — .
                                                                                                  iLT
                                \Rhinichthys Cobitis
                                \Meda Fulgida
                         |G2
                         '|G2"
 AFCJB22010
 AFCJB37i46
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iSpikedace
iLoach Minnow
                                                                                                  iLT
                                                                                                 "i	
                                                                                                  iLT
                                                                                                           j15040001
                                                                                                           115646662
                                \Rhinichthys Cobitis
                                \Oncorhynchus Gilae Gilae
                                \Meda Fulgida
                         |G2
                         jca'fi"
 AFCHA02101
'AFCJB220io"
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
IGila Trout
iSpikedace
                                                                                                  ILE
                                                                                                 "ILT"
                                                                                                           115040002
                                                                                                          "]i"5040002'
                                                                                                          liso'ioooi"
                         IG2
                         IGi'
 AFCJB 13160
 AFCJB37i40"
              IFreshwater Fishes
              ••?	
              IFreshwater Fishes
                                \Gila Intermedia
                                ^Rhinichihys Cobitis
                                \Oncorhynchus Gilae Gilae
                                                IGila Chub
                                                ILoach Minnow
                                    1C
                                    ET
                         |G2
                         loVri
 AFCHA02101
 'AFcjciToio'"
              iFreshwater Fishes
              • -j-	:	
              IFreshwater Fishes
                                                IGila Trout
                                                IRazorback Sucker
                                    ILE
                                    TLE
                                                                                                           115040004
                                                                                                          "115646664"
                                \Xyrauchen Texanus
                                \Meda Fulgida
                         JG1
                         ]G2	
                         loifi
 AFCJB22010
"AFCNB0266T
               IFreshwater Fishes
               •Freshwater Fishes
                                                iSpikedace
                                                IDesert Pupfish
                                    ILT
                                    KLEJ"
                                                                                                           ]15040005
                                                                                                          li'soiooOs"
                                •Cyprinodon Macularius
                                \Macularius
AFCJB37140
"AFCJBi'si'eo
IFreshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
                                 \RhinichthysCobitis
iLoach Minnow
IGiia Chub
                                                                                       |G2
                                                                                      .
                                                                                                  ILT
                                                                                                 ..>,'.....
                                                                                                  1C
                                             115040005
                                             '!i5040005".
                                '•Gila Intermedia
                                \Xyrauchen Texanus
AFCJCIIOIO
AFCNBOMei
IFreshwater Fishes
•Freshwater Fishes
IRazorback Sucker
IDesert Pupfish
                                                                                                 jLE
                                                                                                 "](LE)"
                                                                                                           115040005
                                                                                                          115040006"
                                 '.Cyprinodon Macularius
                                 '•Macularius
                                                                                        IGITI
 AFCJB 13160
 AFCNBOioei
               iFreshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                  \Gila Intermedia
 IGila Chub
 •Desert Pupfish
                                                                                       jG2
                                                                                      "lorri"
                                                                                                           ]15040007
                                                                                                          Tiso'soioo"
                  •Cyprinodon Macularius
                  '^Macularius
                                    |(LE)
AFCJB22010  iFreshwater Fishes  {Meda Fulgida
              IFreshwater Fishes
                                                               iSpikedace
                                                               IGila Chub
                                                                                       |G2
                                                                                       ";G2'
                                                                                    ILT
                                                                                   „},..,„.,
                                                                                    1C
                                              115050100
                                             ']l5050202
\Gila Intermedia
:	-		
\Meda Fulgida
 AFCJB.22010
'AFCJB37"l4o"
               iFreshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
              ••i	
               iFreshwater Fishes
iSpikedace
iLoach Minnow
IGila Chub
                                                                                       IG2
                                                                                      lea'
                                                                                      "iG2"
                                                                                                  iLT
                                                                                                 ILT""
                                                                                                 ..J.	
                                                                                                  1C
                                             115050203
                                             ']i"5050203
                                             115656263
                  \Rhinichthys Cobitis
                 • 4	
                  \Gila Intermedia
                                                                                                             App A-7

-------
S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                                          Appendix Al
      Table Al-1:  Listing Status and Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
                              30 States Compiled fay The Nature Conservancy0 (cont.)                 	
 ABI Identifier {  Informal Taxon ;         Scientific Name         i     Common Name
                                                                                          Global  | Federal  i  HUC
                                                                                          Status  •!  Status  I  Code
 AFCNB02061   -Freshwater Fishes
                                \Cyprinodon Macularius
                                \Macularius
                                                jDesert Pupfish
                                                                                       IG1T1
                                                                  i(LE)
                                                                                                            115050301
AFCJB13160   IFreshwater Fishes  \Gila Intermedia
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                                               iGila Chub
                                                               [Gila Chub
                                                       |G2
                                                      "1(32
                                                      ..,
                                                                                                  ic
                                                                                                  .}.....
                                                                                                  1C
                                                                                             115050301
                                                                                            "lisososoT
                                \Gila Intermedia
                                '•Rhinichthys Cobitis
                                4... .......	
                                '•Xyrauchen Texanus
AFCIB37140   IFreshwater Fishes
AFCJCl 161 6   [Freshwater Fishes
                                                               [Loach Minnow
                                                               [Razorback Sucker
                                                                                                  iLT
                                                                                                  *	
                                                                                                  ;LE
                                                                                             115060101
                                                                                             I15060103
AFCJB 13160   [Freshwater Fishes
.......tl........X.........4..	
               [Freshwater Fishes
               :Freshwater Fishes
[Gila Intermedia
\Gila Intermedia
                                                               [Gila Chub
                                                               iGiia Chub
                                                                                        iG2
                                                                                       "|G2
                                                                                                  1C
                                                                                                  ]C
                                                                                                  !(LEJ"
                                                                                             ! 15060105
                                                                                            115060106
                                                                                             I15060106
                                \Cyprinodon Macularius
                                '•Macularius
                                                               [Desert Pupfish
                                                              ••i	
                                                               iGila Chub
                                                                                        |G1T1
                                                                                       -A — .	
                                                                                        IG2
 AFCJB13160
'AFCJB220io"
•Freshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
                                '•Gila Intermedia
                                \Meda Fulgida
                                \Xyrauchen Texanus '
                                                                  1C
                                                                 ILT"
                                                                                                            115060201
                                                                                                            115060262
                                                               [Spikedace
                                                               IRazorback Sucker
 AFCJCl 1010
 AFgBmeo"
'AFCJciToio"
               •Freshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                                                         IG.l
                                                                         (32"
                                                                  ILE
                                                                 "Ic""
                                                                                                            i15060202
                                                                                                           115060262'
                                '•Gila Intermedia
                                ••j	•
                                [Xyrauchen Texanus
                                \Gila Intermedia
                                                              ;Gila Chub
                                                              •4	••".	
                                                              jRazorback Sucker
               [Freshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                                                  ILE
                                                                 Ic
                                                                                                            115060203
                                                                                                           'T'5060203'
                                                              IGila Chub
                                                              ^Desert Pupfish
                                                                          G2
               •Freshwater Fishes
                                •Cyprinodon Macularius
                                '•Macularius
 AFCJB13160
               [Freshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                  IGila Intermedia
                                                              iGila Chub
                                                              iDesert Pupfish
                                                                           ]15070102
                                                                           Tisovoios
                                \Cyprinodon Macularius
                                •Macularius
                                \Gila Elegans
 AFCJB13100
               [Freshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                                iBonytail                 iGl        iLE      115070103
                                               -i	••	-t	•>	*	
                                                iQuitobaquito Desert Pupfish iGlTl      i(LE)     J15080102
                                 '•Cyprinodon Macularius Eremus
                                 \Gila Ditaenia
                                 •Gila Purpurea
AFCIB 13090
'AFCJBis'wo"
AF5B'i'3"i40"
               [Freshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                                iSonora Chub
                                                iYaqui Chub
                                                                                        !G2
                                                                                       ..}..,....
                                                                                        iGl
                                                                  ILT
                                                                 -V	
                                                                  iLE
                                                                                                            115080201
                                                                                                           Ij'spspspi"
                                                                                                            tisososbi
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                \Gila Purpurea
                                \Cyprinella Formosa
                                \Oncorhynchus Clarki Seleniris
                                                iYaqui Chub
                                                iBeautiful Shiner
                                                                                        iGl
                                                                                       ..[.......
                                                                                        |G2
                                                                  ;LE
                                                                 -•}•	
                                                                  iLT
 AF.CHA02p.89.
'^CHA0502(j"
 AFCAAOIOST"
[Freshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
                                                               iPaiute Cutthroat Trout      [G4T1T2
                                                               iBu'ii Trout	""IGS"	
                                                                                                  ;LT
                                                                           116060010
                                [Salvelinus Confluentus
                                \Acipenser Transmontanus Pop 1
                                                               [White Sturgeon - Kootenai
                                                               IRiver
                                                               iBull Trout
                                                                                                            i7ooo4
 AFCHA05020
 AFCHAOSOio"
               IFreshwater Fishes
              "j	•	
               IFreshwater Fishes
                  \Salvelinus Confluentus
                 .<......*	
                  '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                                                                                        ;G3
                                                                                           .
                                                                  (PS)
                                                                                                            [17010104
                                                                                                           "tnoi'oi'os"
                                                               [Bull Trout
                                                               iBuli Trout
AFCHA05020
'AFCHA05p2(j'
AFCHAOSOM'
               [Freshwater Fishes
               [Freshwater Fishes
                                '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                                '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                                                                         IG3
                                                                        '1(33"
                                                                  (PS)
                                                                                                            [17010213

                                                                                                           'Woions
                                                               [Bull Trout
                                                              Ifiuil Trout
               IFreshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                                '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                                ISalvclinus Confluentus
                                                                         ;G3
                                                                        -••,	
                                                                         iG3
                                                                  i(PS)
                                                               iBull Trout
                                                               IBuli Trout
 AFCHA05020
               IFreshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                  '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                  \Salvelinus Confluentus
                                                       iG3
                                                                                                  i(PS)
                                                                                                            117010301
                                                                                                           'Inbiosos
                                                               [Bull Trout
                                                               ]Buil Trout
                                                                                        |G3
AFCHA05020
'AFCHA05020
'AFCHAbsb'Ib'
               [Freshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                  '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                  '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                                                                                        jG3
                                                                                           .
                                                                  i(PS)
                                                                                                            i17010304
                                                                                                            117016364
                                                               ;Bull Trout
                                                               iBuli Trout
               [Freshwater Fishes
               IFreshwater Fishes
                  \Salvelinus Confluentus
                  '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                                                       IG3
                                                       '!??"
                                                       "1(33"
                                                                                                            117010304
                                                                                                           '117010304"
                                                               iBull Trout
                                                               iBuli Trout
                                                                                                  KP.S>
                                                                                                 IPS)'
AFCHA05020
'AFCHAOSbTd'
[Freshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
                                \Salvelinus Confluentus
                                '•Salvelinus Confluentus
                                                                                                            117010304
                                                                                                           ']i"7pi"(J3()4'
                                                                                                           Tno'io'so'i"
                                                               ;Bull Trout
                                                               iBull Trout
AFCHA05020
'AFCHA05020
AFCAAOlbsb"
[Freshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
IFreshwater Fishes
                                \Salvelinus Confluentus
                                \Salvelinus Confluentus
                                "•Acipenser Transmontanus
                                                       |G3
                                                       .|^...

                                                       "|G4"
                                                               iBull Trout
                                                               [White Sturgeon
AppA-8

-------
S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Appendix Al

Table Al-1: Listing Status and-HydroIogie Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy0 (cont.)
ABI Identifier
AFCHA05020
AFCAA01050
AFCHA05020
AFC AAO 1050
AFCHA05020
AFCHA05020
AFCHA05020
AFCHA05020
AFCHA05020
AFCHA05020
AFCHA05020
AFCHA05020
AFCAA01050
AFCHA02050
AFC AAO 1050
AFCHA.0209M
AFCHA.05020
AFCHA0209M
AFCHA02050
AFCHA02042
AFCHA05020
AFC AA.0 1050
AFCHA.05020,
AFCHA.02042
AFCHA.02050
AFC AA.0 1050
AFCHA0209M
AFCHA.05020
AFCHA0209M
AFCHA05020
AFCHA02050
AFCHA.0209M
AFCHA05020
AFCHA02050
AFC AA.0 1050
AFCHA.02042
| Informal Taxon
iFreshwater Fishes
jFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
•Freshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
JFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
; Scientific Name
[Salvelinus Confluentus
\Acipenser Transmontanus
\Salvelinus Confluentus
[Acipenser Transmontanus
\Salvelinus Confluentus
[Salvelinus Confluentus
ISalvelinus Confluentus
ISalvelinus Confluentus
\Salvelimts Confluentus
iSalvelinus Confluentus
•Salvelinus Confluentus
[Salvelinus Confluentus
[Acipenser Transmontanus
\Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
'•Acipenser Transmontanus
[Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
\Salvelinus Confluentus
'.Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
\Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
'•.Oncorhynchus Nerka Pop 1
ISalvelinus Confluentus
[Acipenser Transmontanus
•Salvelinus Confluentus
'•.Oncorhynchus Nerka Pop 1
- '.Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
\Acipenser Transmontanus
•Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
[Salvelinus Confluentus
[Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
[Salvelinus Confluentus
[Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
[Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
'•Salvelinus Confluentus
[Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
[Acipenser Transmontanus
[Oncorhynchus Nerka Pop 1
] Common Name
iBull Trout
•White Sturgeon
iBull Trout
iWhite Sturgeon
iBull Trout
iBull Trout
iBull Trout
iBull Trout
'•Bull Trout
iBull Trout
iBull Trout
iBull Trout
iWhite Sturgeon
iChinook Salmon Or King
iSalmon
iWhite Sturgeon
iSteelhead - Snake River
•Basin
iBull Trout
. iSteelhead - Snake River
iBasin
iChinook Salmon Or King
.•Salmon
iSockeye Salmon - Snake
iRiver
iBull Trout
iWhite Sturgeon
iBull Trout
iSockeye Salmon - Snake
iRiver
iChinook Salmon Or King
iSalmon
iWhite Sturgeon
iSteelhead - Snake River
iBasin
iBull Trout
iSteelhead - Snake River
iBasin
iBull Trout
iChinook Salmon Or King
iSalmon
iSteelhead - Snake River
iBasin
;Bull Trout
iChinook Salmon Or King
iSalmon
iWhite Sturgeon
iSockeye Salmon - Snake
iRiver
: Global
i Status
=G3 •
=G4 !
=G3
;O4
=G3 :
|G3
|G3
iG3
iG3
=G3
i03 :
iG3
iG4
|G5
iG4
JG5T2T3Q
iG3
JG5T2T3Q
iG5 :
JG5T1Q
|G3
iG4
iO3
JG5T1Q
JG5
=G4
JG5T2T3Q
|G3 '•
JG5T2T3Q
iG3
JG5 i
JG5T2T3Q
IG3
|G5
=G4
JG5T1Q
: Federal
I Status
((PS)
.E?> 	
i(PS)
.E?) 	
i(PS)
!(PS)
..E?> 	
i(PS)
i(PS)
.Es> 	
.&?> 	
.E?> 	
i(PS)
i(ps)
i(PS)
jLT
i(PS)
!LT
i(PS)
|LE
i(PS)
i(PS)
i(PS)
ILE
!(PS)
i(PS)
jur
;(PS)
:LT
i(PS)
j(PS)
jLT
i(PS)
|(PS)
i(PS)
jLE
1 HUC
I Code
= 170402 17
117050101
i 17050 102
=17050103
=17050111
=17050112
117050113
=17050120
=17050121
= 17050122
=17050124
= 17050201
=17050201
J170601Q1
=17060101
117060101
= 17060101
i 17060 103
= 17060103
j 17060 103
= 17060103
=17060103
= 17060i08
i 17060201
J17060201
=17060201
i 17060201
= 17060201
j 17060202
= 17060202
j 17060202
[17060203
i 17060203
i 17060203
i
=17060203
i 17060203

                                                                                                                   App A-9

-------
 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                Appendix Al
      Table Al-lt Listing Status and Hydro)ogie Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
                             30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy0 (cont.)
  ABI Identifier |  Informal Taxon  i
Scientific Name
Common Name
|  Global  | Federal j   HUC
I  Status  i Status [   Code
 AFCHA05020  jFreshwater Fishes  \SalvelinusConjluentus          iBulI Trout                [G3        i(PS)     [ 17060204
 AFCHA02050  jFreshwater Fishes  '\6ncorhynchus Tshawytscha    ]  [Chinook Salmon Or King   |G5        j(PS)     117060204
               [                 i                           ;  [Salmon                  [          \         i
 AFCHA0209M JFreshwater Fishes  \dncorhynchus Myiciss Pop 13     iSteelhead - Snake River     lG5f2T3QiLT      il7060204
               \                 I                           ;  iBasin                    [       .   j      '   j
 AFCHA05020  JFreshwater IFishes  Vsalvdinus Confluentus          jBuli Trout                [G3        I(PS)     117060205
 AFCHA02050  [Freshwater Fishes  \dncorhynchusTsnawytscha      [Chinook Salmon Or King   ;G5
               •                 •                             [Salmon                  i
 AFCHA0209M [Freshwater Fishes  \OncorhynchusMykissPopl3     jSteelhead - Snake River     [G5T2T30  JLT
               j                 j                           i  iBasin                    i          j
 AFCHA02050  [Freshwater Fishes  \6ncorhynchusTshawytscha      [Chinook Salmon Or King   |G5
               !                 •                             [Salmon                  i
                                                        j(PS)     117060205

                                                             	117060205"

                                                        i(PS)	]i7060266
 AFCHA0209M jFreshwater Fishes  \OncorhynchusMyldssPopl3    iSteelhead - Snake River     iG5T2T3Q  JLT      i 17060206
               !                 :                             -Basin                    j '         j     "   .' i
 AFCHAOS020  jFreshwater Fishes  Jsalvelinus Confluentus  "     (  iBuil" Trout                IG3        j(PS)    jl7060266
 AFCHA02050  [Freshwater Fishes  \6ncorhynchusfshawytscha      iChinook Salmon Or King   JG5        i(PS)     117060207
               j                 [                             [Salmon                  i          i         |        •
 AFCHA02042  JFreshwater Fishes  \bncorhynchusNerkaPopI      [Sockeye Salmon - Snake    IG5T1Q    JLE      117060207
               :                 [                             [River                    i          I         i      •
 AFCHAOS020  {Freshwater Fishes  \SaivelinusConjiuentus          pull Trout                JOS        1(PS)     [17066207
 AFCHA0209M iFreshwaterFishes  \dncorhynchusMykissPopl3   Isteeihead-SnakeRiver     JG5T2T3Q  ILT      '{1706020"!
               \                 \                           ',  [Basin                    i          [         i
 AFCAAOlbsO  [Freshwater Fishes  "\Acipenser fransmonianus       ]White Sturgeon            ;G4        ;(PS)     i 17060207
 AFCHA02056  JFreshwater Fishes  \Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha      [Chinook Salmon Or King   |G5        j(PS)     [17666268
               {                 !                             [Salmon                  i          [         •
 AFCHA0209Mr [Freshwater Fishes  \Oncorhynchus Myiciss Pop 13    iSteelhead - Snake River     [G5T2f3"Q  ;LT      [17666268
               {                 [                             [Basin                    [          [         i
 AFCHA05020  jFreshwater Fishes  \sdivelinusConjiuentus          [Buil Trout                [G3        [(PS)    ji 7060208
 APCHA0209M" [Freshwater"Fishes  WncornynchusMyidssPop 13    Isteeihead - Snake River    'JG5T2T3Q"JLT"      ji^Oeoiosi
               I                 [    .                         [Basin                    [          •    '     [
 AFCHAOSd20  iFreshwater Fishes  ^sdlvelinus Confluentus          iBuli Trout                iG3        ifPS)     '• 17666269
••••——	—• •<	*	i—*	•	;	+	.....,+	
 AFCAA01050  [Freshwater Fishes  \AcipenserTransmontanus       [White Sturgeon            [G4        [(PS)     [17060209
 AFCHAOibsb  jFreshwater Fishes  \dncorhynchus Tshawytscha      [Chinook Salmon Or King   [G5        j(PS)     il 7666269
               I                 .[                             [Salmon                  [          [         [
 AFCHA02042  [Freshwater Fishes  \dncorhynchusNerkaPopl      iSociceye Salmon - Snake    [GsfiQ    iLE      117060209
               :        •         [                             [River                    j          i         !
 AFCHA0209M JFreshwater Fishes  \pncorhynchus Myiciss Pop 13  [  [Steeihead - Snake River     [G5T2T3Q  [LT      [17666210
               I                 [                             [Basin                    i          [         [
 AFCHA05b20  iFreshwater Fishes  \sdivelinus Confluentus          iBuil Trout                [G3        [(PS)     117066210
 AFCHAOibsb  [Freshwater Fishes  \dncorhynchus Tshawytscha      iChinook Salmon Or King   [G5        |(PSJ     i i 7666216
               I                 [                           ,  [Salmon                  [          ;         [
	•	<	<	—-	[.... *	-s	-	...*	>	
 AFCHA05020  [Freshwater Fishes  \SalvelinusConfluentus          [Bull Trout                ;G3        i(P.S)     [17060301
 AFCHAb2b9M JFreshwater Fishes  \Oncorhynchus Myiciss Pop 13    [Steeihead - Snake River     JG5T2T3Q  JLT      117060301
              j                 i                             [Basin                    i          ;         [
 AFCHAbiJbsb  [Freshwater Fishes  \dncorhynchusfshawytscha      [Chinook Salmon Or King   JG5        j(PSJ     [i 706030 i
               [                 •                             [Salmon                  [          [         i
 AFCHA0209M [Freshwater'pishes  \6ncorhynchus Myiciss Pop 13  '  [Steeihead - Snake River     {G5T2T3Q  [LT
               [                 I                             [Basin                    i          |
 AFCHA02050  [Freshwater Fishes  \Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha      [Chinook Salmon Or King   JG5
               {                 [                           :  [Salmon                  :
                   : 17060302

          i(PS)     117660362"

          ](PS)	W0603Q2
 AFCHA05020  jFreshwater Fishes   \Salvelinus Confluentus
                   ,  [Bull Trout
                   [G3
AppA-IO

-------
S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
                                                                                                        Appendix Al
Table Ai-i: Listing Status and Hydroiogic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species  in
                        30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy" (eont.)	
                                                                                                    [  HUC
                                                                                                    ;" Code
 ABI Identifier :  Informal Taxon  ;
                                       Scientific Name
                                                                   Common Name
                                                                                     :   Global
                                                                                     j   Status
                                                                 ! Federal
                                                                 i  Status
APCHA0209M iFreshwater Fishes
                               •Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13

                               \Salvelinus Confluentus
                              iSteelhead - Snake River
                              iBasin
                              jBuli Trout
                                                                                 :G5T2T3Q iLT
                                                                                                          117060303
AFCHA05020  iFreshwater Fishes
AFCHA02050  IFreshwater Fishes
                                                      ]G3
                                                     "los"
                                                                                                i(PS)
                                                                                               '"j(p"s)
                                                                                                    ]1 7060303
                                                                                                    Tno'eaios"
                               •Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha

                               •Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
                              iChinook Salmon Or King
                              iSalmon
AFCHA0209M iFreshwater Fishes
                              iSteelhead - Snake River
                              jBasin
                                                                                 IG5T2T3Q :LT

                                                                                 *	7"i(p"s)"
                                                                                                          117060304
AFCHA05020  iFreshwater Fishes
AFCHA02050  iFreshwater Fishes
\Salvelinus Confluentus
•Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
                                                             SBull Trout
                                                                                     ]G3
                                                                                     iG5
                                                                         ] 17060304
                                                                         117060304
                                                             iChinook Salmon Or King
                                                             iSalmon
                                                                                           j(PS)

                                                                                          'KPS)"
AFCHA05020  iFreshwater Fishes
AFCHA.02050  iFreshwater Fishes
                               \Salvelinus Confluentus
                               •Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
                              iBull Trout      .         ]G3
                              iChinook Salmon Or King   JG5
                              iSalmon                  i
                                                                                                         117060305
                                                                                                        'Inbeos'bT
AFCHA.0209M iFreshwater Fishes
'•.Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13

'•.Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
                                                             iSteelhead - Snake River
                                                             iBasin
                                                                                 IG5T2T3Q
                                                                                 IGS	""
                                                                                                !LT

                                                                                               '|(PS)"

                                                                                               'KPsrj'
                                                                                                          117060305
 AFCHA.02050  iFreshwater Fishes
                                                             iChinook Salmon Or King
                                                             jSalmon
                                                                                                          117060306
 AFCHA.05020
 AFCHAb2()9M
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
\Salvelinus Confluentus
'•.Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
                             iBull Trout                jG3     .
                             iSteeihead - Snake River    JG5T2T3Q
                             iBasin                    I
                                                                                                     U7060306
                                                                                                     117060306
 AFCHA.05020
 AFCHA05020"
 AFCHAOJbsb''
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
\Salvelinus Confluentus
\Salvelinus Confluentus
•Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha
                                                        iBull Trout
                                                        iBuli Trout
                                                                                      iG3
                                                                                                (PS)
                                                                          : 17060307
                                                                          1 17060308"
                             iChinook Salmon Or King
                             iSalmon
                             iSteelhead - Snake River
                             iBasin
                                                                                  GS
                                                                                                 PS)
                                                                                                     ieoso
 AFCHA0209M iFreshwater Fishes  \Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 13
                                                                                      IG5T2T3Q iLT
                                                                                                          = 17060308
 AFCJB1303M
 AFCQNoToiO
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
\Gila Bicolor Vaccaceps
\EucycIdgobius Newberryi
                                                        iCowhead Lake Tui Chub   p4Tl
                                                        'Ifidewater'Goby .................... |G3
                                                                 iPE
                                                                 IL^IRDL"
                                                                 ILE,PDL
                                                                                                           12
 AFCQM04010
 AFCQNb4blb
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
                                                        iTidewater Goby
                                                        iTidewater Goby
                                                                                      :G3
                                                                                      iG3"
 il8010102
 ii'soi'oios'
Ti'soioi'ii"
 AFCQN04010
"AFCJCosbib"
              iFreshwater Fishes
              iFreshwater Fishes
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Chasmistes Brevirosti-is
                                                        iTidewater Goby
                                                        iShortnose Sucker
                                                      ;G3
                                                      Toi"
                                                      loi"
                                                                                                iLEJPDL
                                                                                                ILE	
AFCJC12010.
AFCJciioio
AFCJClBoio"
               iFreshwater Fishes
              ••*	
               iFreshwater Fishes
                                \Deltistes Luxatus
                                '•Deltistes Luxatus
                              iLost River Sucker
                              iLost River Sucker
                                                                                           JLE
                                                                                            LE"
                                                                                                          i18010204
         iFreshwater Fishes
         -t	
         iFreshwater Fishes
         iFreshwater Fishes
•Chasmistes Brevirostris
\Catostomus Microps
'•.Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha Pop
                                                              iShortnose Sucker
                                                                                      iGl
                                                                                     "oi
                                                                 JLE
                                                                 ]LE
                                                                 Eie"
                                                                                                          = 18010206
                                                             iModoc Sucker
                                                                                                          i18020002
                                                                                                         "ti'soaoioi"
                                                            7 iChinook Salmon -
                                                              iSacramento River Winter
                                                              iRun
 AFCHA0205B  iFreshwater Fishes  \Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha Pop 7 iChinook Salmon -          :G5T1Q    |LE      J18020102
               i                 i                              iSacramento River Winter    !          i         i
               i                 i                              JRun                     i .         |         j
 AFCHAbibsB  iFreshwater Fishes  \Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha Pop 7 IchiinookiSalmon -          iGSTiQ"   jLE      J18020103
               i                 i                              iSacramento River Winter    i          !         !
               I    '      •       i               .               iRun                     i          i.        i
 AFCJB34020   iFreshwater Fishes
 AFCJB34020   iFreshwater Fishes
                                \Pogonichthys Macrolepidotus
                                \Pogonichthys Macrolepidotus
                                \Pogonichthys Macrolepidotus
                                '•.Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha Pop
                              iSplittail
                              Isplittail
                                                                                 iG2
                                                                                 IG2
                                                                                                iLT
                                                                                                   ..
                                                                          i18020104
                                                                         "tisoaoio'e"
 AFCJB34020   iFreshwater Fishes
               iFreshwater Fishes
                              .iSplittail
                            7 iChinook Salmon -
                             • iSacramento River Winter
                              iRun
                                                                                 !G2       JLT
                                                                                 IGSTI-Q   ILE
                                                                                                         118020109
                                                                                                         "118020112"
                                                                                                           AppA-ll

-------
 S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Appendix Al

Table Al-1: Listing Status and Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
30 States Compiled by The Nature Conservancy0 (cent.)
ABI Identifier
AFCHA0209B
AFCHA0209B
AFCQN04010
AFCQN04010
AFCHA0209J
AFCHA0209J
AFCHA0209J
AFCQN04010
AFCQN04010
AFCQN04010
AFCHA0209J
AFCQN04010
AFCQN04010
AFCPA03011
AFCQN04010
AFCQN04010
AFCPA03011
AFCQN04010
AFCQN04010
AFCJC02190
AFCJC02190
AFCQN04010
AFCNB02090
AFCJB1303J
AFCHA02089
AFCNB02090
AFCJB1303J
AFCJB1303H
AFOBISOSH
AFCPA03011
AFCNB02060
AFCJC1I010
AFCAA02010
AFCAA02010
AFCJBS3020
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFaB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
[ Informal Taxon
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
•Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
:
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Fresh water Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
jFreshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[Freshwater Fishes
[ Scientific Name
\Oncorhynchus Mykiss Whitei
\Oncorhynchus Mykiss Whitei
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 10
\Oncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 10
lOncorhynchus Mykiss Pop 10
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
lOncorhynchus Mykiss Pop JO
[ i
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Gasterosteus Aculeatus
'•Williamson!
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Gasterosteus Aculeatus
[ Williamsoni
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Catostomus Santaanae
\CatostomusSantaanae
\Eucyclogobius Newberryi
\Cyprinodon Radiosus
\Gila Bicolor Snyderi
lOncorhynchus Clar/d Seleniris
\Cyprinodon Radiosus
\GilaBicolorSnyderi
\Gila Bicolor Mohavensis
\Gila Bicolor Mohavensis
\Gasterosteus Aculeatus
\Williamsoni [
\Cyprinodon Macularius
\Xyrauchen Texanus
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
\Scaphirhynchus Albus
\Macrhybopsis Gelida
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
i Common Name
iLittle Kern Golden Trout
[Little Kern Golden Trout
[Tidewater Goby
iTidewater Goby
iSteelhead - Southern
iCalifornia
iSteelhead - Southern
iCalifornia
jSteelhead - Southern
iCalifornia
iTidewater Goby
iTidewater Goby
iTidewater Goby
iSteelhead - Southern
iCalifornia
iTidewater Goby
[Tidewater Goby
jUnarmored Threespine
iStickleback
[Tidewater Goby
[Tidewater Goby
iUnarmored Threespine
iStickleback
iTidewater Goby
iTidewater Goby
[Santa Ana Sucker
[Santa Ana Sucker
[Tidewater Goby
iOwens River Pupfish
iOwens Tui Chub
iPaiute Cutthroat Trout
iOwens River Pupfish
iOwens Tui Chub
iMohave Tui Chub
iMohave Tui Chub
iUnarmored Threespine
;Stickleback
[Desert Pupfish
jRazorback Sucker
[Pallid Sturgeon
[Pallid Sturgeon
[Sturgeon Chub
[Arkansas River Shiner
[Arkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
[Arkansas River Shiner
i Global
i Status
JG5T2Q
[G5T2Q
iG3
;G3
JG5T1T2Q
JG5T1T2Q
JG5T1T2Q
[G3
iG3
[G3
JG5T1T2Q
iG3
;G3
JG5T1
JG3
iG3
JG5T1
iG3
iG3
iGl
;Gi
;G3
ioi
iG4Tl
iG4T!T2
[Gl
iG4Tl
iG4Tl
[G4T1
JG5T1
iGl
iGl
iGlG2
iG!G2
[G2
iG2
;G2
iG2
iG2
iG2
JG2
;G2
\ Federal
[ Status
ILT
[LT
iLE.PDL
JLE.PDL
|LE
JLE
P
iLE,PDL
iLE,PDL
iLE,PDL
JLE

jLE,PDL
iLE
iLE,PDL
iLE,PDL
JLE
iLE,PDL
;LE,PDL
iLT
iLT
iLE.PDL
[LE
iLE
iLT
[LE
iLE
iLE
iLE
[LE
[LE
;LE
[LE
iLE
ic
iLT
iLT
[LT
JLT
iLT
iLT
iLT
[ HUC
[ Code
[18030001
i 18030006
i 18050005
[18050006
118050006
i 18060001
j 18060001
i 18060001
i 18060001
i 18060006
j 18060006
i 18060008
i 18060009
i 180600 10
[18060011
[18060013
[18060013
i 18070 ioi
i 18070 102
U8070102
i 18070203
i 18070301
[18090102
118090102
j 18090 102
i 18090 103
i 18090 103
i 18090207
118090208
118100200
i!8 100200
i 18100200
107110000
[10000000
i 10000000
il 1040001
i 11040006
[11040008
i 11050001
111050002
il 1050003
111060004
!
AppA-12

-------
S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Appendix Al
     Table Al-1: Listing Status and Hydroiogic Unit Code (HUC) for Threatened and Endangered Species in
                             30 States Complied by The Nature Conservancy0 (cont.)
ABI Identifier
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCKA02200
AFCLA01010
AFCLA01010
AFCLA01010
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCKA02200
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCJB28490
AFCQC04210
AFCQC04210
AFCAA01010
AFCAA01040
I Informal Taxon
iFreshwater Fishes
'Freshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
iFreshwater Fishes
; Scientific Name
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Noturus Placidus
\Amblyopsis Rosae
\Amblyopsis Rosae
\Amblyopsis Rosae
•Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
[Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
'•Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
'•Notropis Girardi
'•Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
[Notropis Girardi
•Noturus Placidus
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Notropis Girardi
\Percina Pantherina •
\Percina Pantherina
\Acipenser Brevirostrum
\Acipenser Oxyrinchus
•; Common Name ;
'Arkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iNeosho Madtom
iOzark Cavefish
iOzark Cavefish
iOzark Cavefish
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
.iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
INeosho Madtom
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
iArkansas River Shiner
jLeopard Darter
iLeopard Darter
iShortnose Sturgeon
iAtlantic Sturgeon
: Global
;. Status;
IG2
iG2
iG2
iG2G3
IG2G3 !
IG2G3
iG2
|G2 :
=G2
iG2
|G2
IG2
|G2
|G2
=G2
!G2
!G2
|G2
JG2
!G2
;G2
|G2
=02
iG2 . i
|G2
ioi
|G1
IG3
JG3
: Federal
! Status
ILT
JLT
ILT
ILT
iLT
iLT
iLT
iLT
!LT
iLT
ILT
iLT
iLT
iLT
iLT
ILT
!LT
ILT
ILT
ILT
ILT
ILT
ILT
ILT
ILT
-ILT
ILT
ILE
i(LT,C)
: HUC
1 Code
111060006
111070105
111070206
111070206
111070207
111070209
111090201
111090202
111090203
111090204
liiiooioi
111100102
111100103
=11100104
111100201
ill 100203
111100301
111100302
111100303
111110101
111110103
111110104
111130210
111130304
111140107
111140107
111140108
102040202
102040201
Source:  NatureServe. 2002. Natural Heritage Central Databases. Arlington, VA.
                                                                                                         AppA-13

-------
  S 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Appendix Al
                               Table Al-2: Definitions of Abbreviations for SSobal Status.
         Abbreviation
                                                                   Global Status
      GX                 [Presumed Extinct (species)	Believed to be extinct throughout its range. Not located despite intensive
                          {searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be
                          •rediscovered.
      GH   ,              [Possibly Extinct (species)	Known from only historical occurrences, but may nevertheless still be
                         jextant; further searching needed.
      G1                  [Critically Imperiled	Critically imperiled globally because of extreme rarity or because of some
                          [factor(s)making it especially vulnerable to extinction. Typically 5 or fewer occurrences or very few
                         jremaining individuals (<1,000) or acres (<2,000) or linear miles (<10).
      G2                  [Imperiled	Imperiled globally because of rarity or because of some factor(s) making it very vulnerable
                          jto extinction or elimination. Typically 6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals (1,000 to 3,000)
                          lor acres (2,000 to  10,000) or linear miles (10 to 50).
      G3               .   [Vulnerable	Vulnerable globally either because very rare and local throughout its range, found only in
                          [a restricted range (even if abundant at some  locations), or because of other factors making it vulnerable to
                         jextinction or elimination. Typically 21 to 100 occurrences or between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals.
      G4                 [Apparently Secure	Uncommon but not ^are (although it may be rare in parts of its range, particularly
                         [on the periphery),  and usually widespread. Apparently not vulnerable in most of its range, but possibly
                         jcause for long-term concern. Typically more than 100 occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
      GS                 [Secure	Common, widespread, and abundant (although it may be rare in parts of its range, particularly
                         [on the periphery).  Not vulnerable in most of its range. Typically with considerably more than 100
                         [occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
      G#G#              [Range Rank	A numeric range rank (e.g., G2G3) is used to indicate uncertainty about the exact status
                         jof a taxon. Ranges cannot skip more than one rank (e.g., GU should be used rather than Gl G4).
      GU                 [Unrankable	Currently unrankable due to lack of information or due to substantially conflicting
                         [information about status or trends. NOTE: Whenever possible, the most likely rank is assigned and the
                         [question mark qualifier is added (e.g., G2?) to express uncertainty, or a range rank (e.g., G2G3) is used to
                         [delineate the limits (range) of uncertainty.
      G?                 [Unranked——Global rank not yet assessed.
      HYB               [Hybrid	(species elements only) Element not ranked because it represents an interspecific hybrid and
                         [not a species. (Note, however, that hybrid-derived species are ranked as species, not as hybrids.)
      ?                   [Inexact Numeric Rank	Denotes inexact numeric rank
      Q                  [Questionable taxonomy that may reduce conservation priority. Distinctiveness of this entity as a taxon at
                         [the current level is questionable; resolution of this uncertainty may result in change from a species to a
                         [subspecies or hybrid, or inclusion of this ta^on in another taxon, with the resulting taxon having a lower-
                         jprioriry (numerically higher) conservation status rank.
      C                  [Captive or Cultivated Only	Taxon at present is extant only in captivity or cultivation, or as a
                         [reintroduced population not yet established.
      T_                 [Infraspecific Taxon (trinomial)	The status of infraspecific taxa (subspecies or varieties) are indicated
                         [by a "T-rank" following the species' global rank. Rules for assigning T ranks follow the same principles
                         [outlined above. For example, the global rank of a critically imperiled subspecies of an otherwise
                         [widespread and common species would be G5T1. A T subrank cannot imply the subspecies or variety is
                         [more abundant than the species (e.g., a G1T2 subrank should not occur). A vertebrate animal'population
                         [(e.g., listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act or assigned candidate status) may be tracked as an
                         [infraspecific taxon and given a T rank; in such cases.a Q is used  after the T rank to denote the taxon's
     	        [informal taxonomic status.
AppA-14

-------
§ 316(b) Existing Facilities Benefits Case Studies, Part A: Evaluation Methods
Appendix Al
   Abbreviation
                         Table Al-3: Definitions of Abbreviations for Federgi Status Listing
                                                                 Federal Status
LE               jListed endangered                                                                    ^
LT               iListed threatened
PE               'Proposed endangered
PT               'Proposed threatened
C                iCandidate
PDL             IProposed for delisting
E(S/A) or T(S/A)  iListed endangered or threatened because of similarity of appearance
XE               (Essential experimental population
	•*	-•	i	*	~	"	"
XN               'Experimental nonessential population
Combination      JThe taxon has one status currently, but a more recent proposal has been made to change that status with no final action
values            iyet published. For example, LE-PDL indicates that the species is currently listed as endangered, but has been proposed
                  jfor delisting.
Values in         JThe taxon itself is not named in the Federal Register as having federal status; however, it does have federal status as a
parentheses       iresult of its taxonomic relationship to-a named entity. For example, if a species is federally listed with endangered
                 • istatus, then by default, all of its recognized subspecies also have endangered status. The subspecies in this example
                  iwould have the value "(LE)" under U.S. Federal Status. Likewise, if all of a species' infraspecific taxa (worldwide)
                  ihave the same federal status, then that status appears in the record for the "full" species as well. In this case, if the
                  jtaxon at the species level is not mentioned in the Federal Register, the status appears in parentheses in that record.
Combination      JThe taxon itself is not named in the Federal Register as having official federal status; however, all of its infraspecific
values in         itaxa (worldwide) do have official status. The statuses shown in parentheses indicate the statuses that apply to
parentheses       iinfraspecific taxa or populations within this taxon.
(PS)             [indicates "partial status" - status in only a portion of the species'range. Typically indicated in a "full" species record
                  i where an infraspecific taxon or population has federal status, but the entire species does not.
Null value        iUsually indicates that the taxon does not have any federal status. However, because of potential lag time between
	{publication  in the Federal Register and entry in the NHCD, some taxa may have a status that does not yet appear.
                                                                                                                     AppA-15

-------

-------
S 316(b) Existing Facilities EEBA, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                             ^     i  he
                             «     •  i 1<&   ISM^ %.* 1

-------

-------
§ 316(b) Case Studies; Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                               Chapter Bl: Background
                                     er

                                                         CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                         Bi-l
                                                         Bl-2
                                                         Bi-3
    Overview of Transition Zone Case Study
    Facilities	~.	ir	*..... Bl-1
    Environmental Setting	,	,.. Bl-5
    B1-2.I, The Delaware Estuary .,..,. r;........7. Bl-5
  .Tfii-2.2 " Aquatic Habitat and Biota^/..,.,.	J BI-6
  -Bl-2.3  Major Environmental Stressors	„.-. BI-7
 -  Water Withdrawals"and Uses ..........,,,.,, ,^,, ,>r-rr.,*7-Bl-l2
           'Recreational t
This case study presents the results of an analysis
performed by EPA to assess the potential benefits of
reducing the cumulative impacts of impingement and
entrainment (I&E) at cooling water intake structures
(CWIS) within the transition zone of the Delaware Estuary
that are in scope of the proposed § 316(b) Phase II
(existing facilities) regulation.  In-scope facilities include
any steam electric power generating  facility that (1) is a
point source that uses or proposes to use a cooling water
intake structure, -(2) has a design intake flow equal to or
greater than 50 MGD, and (3) withdraws water from
waters of the United States or obtains cooling water by any
sort of contract or arrangement with  an independent
supplier (or suppliers) that withdraws water from waters of
the United States.

EPA chose the transition zone of the estuary for a study of
cumulative CWIS impacts because of its ecological, economic, and recreational importance and its susceptibility to harm
from multiple CWIS. The Agency is limiting its analysis of the Delaware Estuary to the transition zone because the facilities
within this zone impinge and entrain the same species. Section B-l-1 of this chapter provides information on both in-scope
and out-of-scope CWIS within the transition zone, Section Bl-2 describes the aquatic environment of the case study area,
Section Bl-3 discusses cooling water use by transition zone CWIS, and Section Bl-4 presents information on the region's
social and economic characteristics.                                                             '.

Bl-1  OVERVIEW OF  TRANSITION ZONE CASE STUDY FACILITIES

Figure Bl-1 indicates the locations of all in-scope and out-of-scope CWIS throughout the Delaware River Basin. Those in.
green are in scope of Phase II of the § 316(b) regulation. This case study focuses only on CWIS within the transition zone of
the Delaware Estuary, including four in scope power plants (Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Hope Creek Nuclear
Generating Station, Edge Moor Power Plant, and Deepwater Generating Station), three out-of-scope power plants (Hay Road,
Logan Generating Company, and Chambers Cogen LP), and six out-of-scope manufacturing facilities (Delaware City
Refinery, E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company Chemicals and Pigments Department, General Chemical Corporation, SPI
Polyols, Citisteel, and Sun Refining). The locations of these facilities are indicated in Figure Bl-2.  The in scope power
plants of the transition zone are described briefly below, and Table Bl-1 summarizes their technical characteristics.
                                                                                                           Bl-1

-------
S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                                                         Chapter Bl: Background
  Figure B1-1: The Delaware River Basin
       O
Out of scope facilities within
the Delaware River Basin

In scope facilities within
the Delaware River Basin
Delaware River;,
Basin Boundary
      I	1   Delaware Estuary

      1    '   Delaware River Basin Boundary
                  PENNSYLVANIA,
                 -MARYLAND
                                                                                      20 Mifes,

                                                                                        40 Kilometers
Bl-2

-------
§ 316(b) Case Studies; Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                               jChapter Bl: Background
 Figure B1 -2: The Delaware Estuary and the Case Study Facilities of the Transition Zone
           Facilities

           Lower Estuary
           Transitional Zone
           Tidal River Zone

           Delaware Estuary

           Delaware River Basin Boundary
      General Chemical
         Corporation  Philadelphia
EJ.duPont     \ . •'••
de Nemours     |  Sun-Refining
                  Marcusj
                   Honk
                       TwSu>'»y	•*"
                               Citisteel
                                - Logan, G
                                 HayRo
                                   Cn.amfeers Works
                       r— Deepwater Generating Station
                  nd G6mpany,
                    ge Moor
                      r Plant
                      ing Company
  PENNSYLVANIA
      "ChambersCohan LP
  % MARYLAND
                                       Hope Creek Nuclear
                                        Generating Station
                   Delaware
                 City Rewiery
  Salem Nuclear /
Generating Station._
                           Artificial
                             Island
                                               Delaware

                                                  Bay
                                                                            'Atkmitb
                          Jt.
                                                                                        Bl-3

-------
S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                       Chapter Bl: Background
Table Bl-1

Plant EIA Code
NERC Region
Total Capacity (MW)
Primary Fuel
Number of Employees
Net Generation (million MWh)
Estimated Revenues (million)
Total Production Expense (million)
Production Expense (fS/kWh)
Estimated Operating Income (million)
Summary of Delaware Estuary Power Plants (1999)
Salem
2410
MAAC
2,382
Uranium
425
15.9
. $1,373
$358
2.256?!
$1,015 .
Hope Creek
: 6118
MAAC
1,170
Uranium
399
7.7
$663
$174
2.26&t
$489
Edge Moor
593
MAAC
710
Oil/Coal
119
2.2
$141
$76
3.4050
$65
Deepwater
2384
MAAC
259
Coal/Gas
48
0.38
$43
$18
4.908(S
$25
 Notes:   NERC   —   North American Electric Reliability Council
         MAAC  =   Mid-Atlantic Area Council
         Dollars arc in S2001.
 Source: Form EIA-860A (NERC Region, Total Capacity, Primary Fuel); FERC Form-1 (Number of Employees, Net Generation, Total
 Production Expense).
The Salem Nuclear Generating Station (Salem) is located on the Delaware Estuary in New Jersey, on an artificial peninsula
known as Artificial Island. Artificial Island is the dividing line between the transitional and lower estuary. This section of the
estuary is approximately 4 km (2.5 miles) wide, and is situated in the transition zone of the estuary. Tidal flow in this area is
approximately 11,327 mVs (400,000 cfs; NJDEP, 2000). Salem operates two large nuclear units of 1,170 MW each.1 Both
units serve baseload demand. Unit 1 began operation in 1977, and is licensed to operate through June 30, 2017. Unit 2 began
operation in 1981, and is licensed to operate through October 13,2021.  Each unit has a once-through cooling system with a
design flow of 1,584 MOD.  Estuary water is drawn in approximately 122 m (400 ft) north of the circulating water system,
where it cools heat exchangers and other equipment before it is discharged back into the estuary (Correia et al., 1993). In
addition to the two nuclear units, Salem operates  one gas-fired generating unit, which does not require cooling water.
In 1999, Salem had 425 employees and generated 15.9
million MWh of electricity.2 Estimated 1999 revenues
for the Salem plant were approximately $ 1.4 billion,
based on the plant's 1999 estimated electricity sales3 of
14.7 million MWh and the 1999 company-level
electricity revenues of $93.14 per MWh.  Salem's 1999
production expenses totaled $358 million, or 2.256(4 per
kWh, for an operating income of $1,015 million.

The Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Hope
Creek) is less than half a mile northwest of the Salem
Nuclear Generating Station, and thus has the same
estuary characteristics as the Salem facility.
Commercial operation at Hope Creek began in 1986.
The facility has one boiling water nuclear reactor
capable of generating 1,170 MW. Like Salem's units,
the Hope Creek reactor is operated as a baseload unit.
Salem and Hope Creek Ownership Information

Salem and Hope Creek both began operation as regulated utility
plants and are both currently owned by PSEG Power. Salem and
Hope Creek were purchased by PSEG Power from Public Service
Electric & Gas Company (PSE&G), a regulated utility company, in
August 2000.

PSEG Power is a wholly owned, nonregulated subsidiary of Public
Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) Incorporated.  PSEG Power was
established in 1999 to purchase and operate the nonregulated
generation assets of PSEG (Standard & Poor's, 2001a). PSEG
Power is a domestic, competitive energy company with 3,100
employees. PSEG Power owns or controls more than 11,200 MW of
electric generating capacity and intends to add an additional
6,100 MW. In 2000, PSEG Power posted revenues of $1.0 billion
(PSEG, 200 la,d,e).
    1 The data on electric generating units in this chapter come from the 1999 Forms E1A-860A (U.S. Department of Energy 2001b)
(Annual Electric Generator Report - Utility) and 860B (U.S. Department of Energy 2001 c) (Annual Electric Generator Report -
Nonutility).

    2 One MWh equals 1,000 kWh.

    J Electricity sales are net generation adjusted for utility-specific energy losses, energy fiirnished without charge, and energy used by
the utility's own electricity department. See Chapter C2: Cost Impact Analysis for details on the estimation of plant-level electricity sales.
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 § 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                      Chapter Bl: Background
 The design flow for the facility is 115.2 MOD.  The Hope Creek facility uses a closed-cycle circulating water system
 consisting of four circulating water pumps. The system holds 9 million gallons of water (PSEG, 1989).   .

 In 1999, Hope Creek had 399 employees and generated 7.7 million MWh of electricity. Estimated 1999 revenues for the
 Hope Creek plant were approximately $663 million, based on the plant's 1999 estimated electricity sales of 7.1 million MWh
 and the 1999 company-level electricity revenues of $93.14 per MWh. Hope Creek's 1999 production expenses totaled $174
 million, or 2.2680 per kWh, for an operating income of $489 million.

 The Edge Moor Power Plant is located at rivermile 72.3 of the Delaware Estuary, just upstream of Wilmington, Delaware.
 The facility began commercial service in 1951. Edge Moor currently has four active generating units: units 3 and 4 are coal-
 steam units of 75 and 177 MW, respectively; unit 5 is an oil-steam unit of 446 MW, and unit 10 is a small gas turbine.  Edge
 Moor's units are located in three separate pumphouses. Pumphouse  1 houses units 1 and 2, and contains two traveling screens
 for each unit; both units retired in 1983. Pumphouse 2 houses units 3 and 4, and contains three traveling screens for unit 3
 and two for unit 4.  Pumphouse 3 houses unit 5, and contains eight traveling screens. Each unit has one circulating pump
 operating full time.  The average intake flow at unit 5 is
• reported as 558 MOD, and units 3 and 4 have an
 average intake flow of 224.5 MOD. The approach
 velocity as water passes through the traveling screens at
 the intake structures is 0.5 to 0.85 fps. Organisms
 impinged on the traveling screens are washed off into a
 trough and returned to the Delaware River when the
 screens are rotated (Versar, 1990).

 In 1999, Edge Moor had 119 employees and generated
 2.24 million MWh of electricity.  Estimated 1999
 revenues were approximately $141 million, based on the
 plant's 1999 estimated electricity sales of 2.16 million
 MWh and the 1999 company-level electricity revenues
 of $65.20 per MWh. Edge Moor's 1999 production
 expenses totaled $76 million, or 3.4050 per kWh, for an
 operating income of $65 million.
Edge Moor and Deepwater Ownership Information
Edge Moor and Deepwater both began operation as regulated utility
plants and are both currently owned by Conectiv. Conectiv
purchased Edge Moor from Delmarva Power & Light Company in
July 2000.  Conectiv merged with Atlantic Energy Inc. (previously
the owner of Atlantic City Electric Company) in March 1998 and
assumed ownership of Deepwater.

Conectiv Corporation is a domestic, competitive energy company
with 3,800 employees (Hoover's Online, 2001dJ. Conectiv owns or
controls more than 4,000 MW of electric generating capacity
(Conectiv, 2001). In 2000, Conectiv posted revenues of $5.0 billion
(Hoover's Online, 2001d). During the first quarter of 2002,
Conectiv is anticipated to merge with Potomac Electric Power
Company (Pepco) in a $2.2 billion transaction that will create a
single holding company which will serve more than 1.8 million
customers in the mid-Atlantic region (PR Newswire, 2001).
  The Deepwater Generating Station is located on the
  east side of the Delaware River in New Jersey, just
  north of the Delaware Memorial Bridge.  The facility began commercial service in 1930.  Deepwater currently has three steam
  electric units: unit 1 is a natural gas unit of 96 MW, unit 4 is an oil unit of 53 MW, and unit 6 is a coal unit of 92 MW. .Each
  unit has a separate cooling water intake.  All three intakes are located approximately 32 m (105 ft) offshore in the Delaware
  River (U.S. Department of Energy, 2001a). In the 2000 EPA questionnaire, the Deepwater Generating Station reported the
  design intake flow for units 1,4, and 6 at 151 MOD; the average intake flow for these same units was 104.6 MOD. In
  addition to the  steam electric unit, Deepwater operates one gas turbine which does not require cooling water.

  In 1999, Deepwater had 48 employees and generated approximately 376,000 MWh of electricity.  Estimated 1999 revenues
  were approximately $43 million, based on the plant's 1999 estimated electricity sales of 351,000 MWh:and the  1999
  company-level electricity revenues of $122.74 per MWh. Deepwater's 1999 production expenses totaled over $18 million, or
  4.9080 per kWh, for an operating income of $25 million.


  Bl-2  ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

  B 1-2.1   The Delaware  Estuary                                                    ;

  The Delaware River Basin (Figure Bl-1) encompasses some 35,066 km2 (13,539 m2), including parts o'f Pennsylvania, New
  Jersey, New York, and Delaware (DRBC, 2001). The main stem of the Delaware River is fed by 216 tributaries along its 531
  km (330-mile)  course from Hancock, New York, to the mouth of the Delaware Bay. Nearly three-quarters of the nontidal
  portion of the river is now included in  the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Program (DRBC, 2001).

  The Delaware Estuary is the tidally influenced portion of the Delaware River Basin, and is one of the largest estuaries of the
  U.S. Atlantic Coast (Santoro, 1998; DRBC, 2001). It extends 214 km (133 miles), from the falls at Trenton, New Jersey, to
                                                                                                              Bl-5

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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter Bl: Background
the mouth of Delaware Bay, and includes some 1,878 km2 (725 nil2) of open water. The C&D Canal at rivermile 59 provides
a sea-level connection between the estuary and the upper Chesapeake Bay. A substantial exchange of water occurs through
the canal, with average net flow from the Chesapeake Bay to the Delaware Estuary.

The annual mean freshwater inflow to the Delaware Estuary is about 574 m3 (20,243 cfs), most of which is provided by the
nontidal Delaware and Schuylkill rivers (PSEG, 1999c). Highest flows are in March and April and lowest flows are in August
and September. Although there is a longitudinal change in salinity from 30 ppt at the mouth of the estuary to freshwater at
Trenton, New Jersey, vigorous mixing results in little variation in salinity with depth (PSEG, 1999c). When freshwater inflow
is low, higher salinity water moves up-estuary, and when freshwater inflow is high, saline waters move down-estuary.

For most of its length, the estuary is a broad, shallow body of water, with an average depth of 5.8 m (19 ft) and maximum
depth of 45.1 m (148 ft). It is divided into three ecological zones based on salinity, turbidity, and biological productivity
(PSEG, 1999c):

    >•   The first section is the tidal river zone and consists of an 86.9 km (54 miles) long, heavily urbanized, tidal freshwater
        area of 64.7 km2 (25 mi2). This zone extends from Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, just north of
        the Pennsylvania-Delaware state line. It is profoundly affected by urban, commercial, and industrial activities along
        its shores.  It carries high nutrient levels from municipal discharges and also receives significant inputs of dissolved
        metals and organic pollutants.                       '.

    *   The second section is the transition zone and runs from Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, to Artificial Island, New Jersey.
        The transition zone is the focus of this case study.  It has a wide salinity range (from 0 to 15 ppt, depending on river
        flow and tidal currents), high levels of turbidity and lower levels of biological productivity and diversity than the
        lower estuary. The transition zone is brackish and influenced by salt water from the bay. It is also an area with a
        significant amount of sedimentation. Because of its brackish nature, it is the least biologically productive of the
        three zones. However, extensive shallow mudflats, sandbars, and tidal marshes in the nearshore areas of the
        transition zone provide important feeding and nursery areas for hundreds offish, invertebrates, and bird species.

    >•   The third section is the lower estuary, which is Delaware Bay itself, extending from the mouth of the bay ito Artificial
        Island. It has the highest salinity levels, ranging from less than 5 ppt to more than 30 ppt depending on flow
        conditions, and is responsible for over 90 percent of the, biological productivity of the entire estuary.

The map of the Delaware Estuary in Figure Bl-2 shows the locations of these three ecological zones of the estuary and the
locations of the CWIS within the transition zone that are evaluated in this case study.

Bl-2.2  Aquatic  Habitat and  Biota

The major habitats of the Delaware Estuary include the open water (pelagic) zone, littoral zone, benthic zone, and tidal marsh
zone (PSEG, 1999c; U.S. EPA/ORD, 1998). These habitats support a wide range of species and include important spawning
and nursery areas for fish species (Weisberg and Burton, 1993) and nursery and staging areas for migratory birds (i.e., places
where birds temporarily stay, feed, and rest during their migrations).  These habitat types are described briefly below.

The open water zone includes all areas with water deeper than 2 hi (6.6 ft) at low tide. Herring (Clupeidae) and anchovies
(Engraulidae) are common in the open waters of the transition zone (PSEG, 1999c).  Use of this extensive  habitat varies
depending on the species considered.  Some species  such as the white perch (Morone americana) are year-round residents
and have adapted to the different conditions  found throughout the  estuary. Others such as striped bass (Morone saxatilis)
enter the estuary to spawn only for relatively short periods of time and then return to the ocean. However, the young of many
resident and transient species spend at least some part of their early life history in the estuary. For example, striped bass hatch
in the transition zone and move downstream in search of nursery ^habitat, whereas the planktonic life stages of weakfish
(Cynoscion regalis) use tidal fluctuations to migrate upstream. This aquatic environment also supports a rich diversity of
waterfowl and shorebirds that use adjacent terrestrial or semiterrestrial habitat for nesting and resting but rely on the
productivity of the estuary for food and sustenance.

The littoral zone includes the intertidal zone as well as nearshore areas less than 2 m (6.6 ft) deep at low tide. The fish
communities of littoral areas vary with salinity and substrate type. Among the most common littoral zone fish species are bay
anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli), Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus),
mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus heteroclitus), weakfish, bluefish (Pomatomus saltator), striped bass, white perch, and
Bl-6

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 § 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
•Chapter Bl: Background
'Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) (PSEG, 1999c; U.S. EPA/ORD, 1998).  Although less common, American shad (Alosa
sapidissima) is also found in littoral areas of the transition zone.                                         '

The littoral zone is also important for geese, ducks, loons, herons, egrets, gulls, terns, and shorebirds such as plovers and
sandpipers; in May and June the estuary's beaches and mudflats host the second largest population of migrating shorebirds in
North America (PSEG, 1999c; Delaware Estuary Program, 1996). These birds are attracted to the eggs of spawning
horseshoe crabs and other food resources, and feast on them on their journey north. The Pea Patch herbnry, located on the
upper bay, is the largest heronry in the northeastern United States (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).

The berithic zone consists of substrate in the deeper parts of the estuary.  Many important commercial and recreational fish
species are found at least seasonally in the benthic zone, including weakfish, bluefish, striped bass, and white perch (PSEG,
1999c).

The tidal marsh zone includes freshwater emergent marshes of the tidal river, tidal scrub/shrub and forested wetlands along
shorelines of tidal tributaries, and the coastal marshes of Delaware Bay (PSEG, 1999c).  The most abundant salt marsh fish
include mummichog, spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), white perch, Atlantic menhaden, bay anchovy, and Atlantic silverside.

Bl-2.3  Major Environmental  Stressors                                -

In the. 1940's, the lower Delaware was essentially an open sewer, with some reaches so polluted that the water was devoid of
the oxygen needed to support aquatic life (DRBC, 1998).  Beginning in the 1960's, comprehensive efforts were undertaken to
address the severe pollution problems, and today the river supports healthy, year-round fish populations of many highly
valued ispecies such as striped bass, herring, and shad.                                            :

The Delaware Estuary still faces significant environmental challenges despite the recent improvements in water quality. The
region still experiences habitat and water quality degradation due to industrial and municipal effluent discharges, untreated
storm sewer overflow, nutrient enrichment, agricultural runoff, habitat degradation, and  land use changes. As a result,
sections of the estuary contain contaminated sediments, toxic contaminants in surface water, and suboptimal levels of
dissolved oxygen resulting from high nutrient levels.  Fish consumption advisories have been issued for several fish species
because of high levels of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in their tissue. Physical habitat alterations in selected parts of the
bay have resulted in losses of hundreds of thousands of adult horseshoe crabs. Even though numerous fish populations
increased over the last two decades, other species, e.g., the Atlantic sturgeon, are experiencing inadequate population growth
or are still declining (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996; DRBC, 1998; Santoro, 1998).            '    ;

While these stressors will not be directly affected by the § 316(b) regulation, they do affect the health of the ecosystem and
influence the abundance and variety of aquatic organisms present. A solid understanding of factors currently limiting the
waterbody's health is important because the ecosystem surrounding a CWIS is one of the primary determinants of a facility's
potential for adverse environmental impact. In addition, some of the facilities that operate CWIS also c'ontribute to these
other stressors, as discussed'below.                                                             '.

a.  Habitat destruction,  degradation, or modification                            [
It has been estimated that between the mid-1950's and early 1980's, Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania lost over
50 percent of their wetlands (Jenkins and Gelvin-Innvaer, 1995). Others have put the loss at closer to 25 percent (Delaware
Estuary Program, 1996).  Irrespective of the precise extent of wetland  losses, nontidal freshwater and forested wetlands have
been more affected than the tidal marshes.  Existing federal and state regulations limit further wetland 16ss from human
encroachment. However, in the past, tidal wetlands have been lost, degraded, or modified by spoil disposal practices,
residential developments, parallel-grid ditching for mosquito control programs, impoundments, diking to support salt-hay
fanning, and agricultural uses. The non-native common reed (Phragmites australis) has overrun large areas of tidal marsh
habitat and outcompeted  the diverse native plant species.  This has reduced the overall biological value,of this type of habitat
by eliminating feeding and nesting areas for waterfowl and wading birds.

Dredging activities to support shipping in the estuary over the last 100 years have had both  positive and negative
consequences for estuarine habitats (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).  In many cases,  dredge spoils were simply deposited
on adjacent marshlands, which were  subsequently lost to industrial development. Other dredged material was deposited on -
dredge-disposal islands within the estuary.  Trees grew on the dredge-disposal islands and provided habitat for a large number
of nesting colonies of wading birds (Jenkins and Gelvin-Innvaer, 1995).                                       •
                                                                                                             Bl-7

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 S 316(b) Case Studies, Port B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter Bl: Background
 The dredged ship channel increased the tidal range in the upper estuary because the dense marine water can now push further
 upstream.  However, other factors involved in this process include general sea level rise and a decrease in the river debit due
 to upstream removal of freshwater for drinking water.  The intensified ship traffic within the estuary has also resulted in
 increased shoreline erosion due to ship wakes. A combination of these two factors has been blamed for a decrease in
 intcrtidal vegetation in the upper and transitional estuary (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).

 Rising sea levels over the next century in response to global warming are also seen as a significant threat to the well-being of
 the tidal wetlands around the estuary (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996). Any further loss can directly affect anadromous and
 indigenous fish species by eliminating nursery habitat or resident and migratory bird species by removing nesting, feeding, or
 staging areas.

 b.  Introduction of non-native species
 Under the right environmental conditions, non-native species can upset entire ecosystems. For example, the introduction of
 the sea lamprey into the Great Lakes in the 20th century was in part responsible for the decline of big game fish.  The more
 recent introduction of zebra mussels has had dramatic negative effects on the Great Lakes food chain.  Such "exotic" species
 can cause tremendous harm by displacing native species or radically changing native habitats.

 A number of non-native species such as largemouth and smallmouth bass, grass carp (Ctenophatyngodon idella), hydrilla
 (Hydrilla verticillata, a prolific aquatic weed), and purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) have become established in and
 around the estuary. The zebra mussel,  though not yet present in the Delaware River system, could be introduced via ship
 ballast water. Nutria, a non-native and destructive rodent introduced elsewhere in the country for its fur, is present along
 Chesapeake Bay and has the potential of reaching the Delaware. Proposals have also been made to introduce non-native
 species such as the Japanese oyster and Pacific salmon for commercial and recreational reasons (Delaware Estuary Program,
 1996).

 The common reed  (Phragmites australis) exemplifies how a non-native species can have far-ranging effects on an ecosystem.
 Phragmites is a. highly competitive plant that has overpowered and replaced native marsh plants in thousands of acres of
 emergent tidal wetlands along the Delaware Estuary.  This has led to a significant drop in available food resources, habitat
 diversity, and open water space and affects a number of species, including ducks, which are excluded from these infested
 areas.  An aggressive eradication program has been proposed to reduce the amount of Phragmites cover in wetlands by
 40 percent over the next decade and allow natural revegetation by pre-Phragmites marsh plants4 (Delaware Estuary Program, •
 1996).  In addition, recommendations have been made for developing and implementing an estuary-wide program to assess
 the potential effects of intentional introductions of non-native species and prevent unintentional future introductions
 (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).

 c.   Overfishing
 The long-term decline of the Delaware fisheries in the 20th century was due primarily to low dissolved oxygen (DO)
 concentrations and high levels of pollution. Since the early  1980's,  when these two problems' were brought under control,
 many of the original fish stocks have experienced a comeback.  The commercial and recreational fisheries resources within
 the Delaware Estuary, however, are all strictly regulated to avoid overfishing and protect the stocks. A number of species-
 specific fishery management plans have also been developed and implemented  throughout the estuary and across
jurisdictional lines to provide coordinated protection. For example:

    >   The recovery of the striped bass population in the estuary in the 1970's and early 1980's may have been impeded by
        overfishing due to lack of regulatory controls at the time. In fact, Delaware completely closed down the fishery
        between 1985 and  1989 to help the stock recover. New Jersey and Pennsylvania ban commercial fishing for this
        species. Delaware allows a small gill net fishery. Recreational fishing is permitted in the three states, but the daily
        bag limit is one legal-size fish. In addition, the spawning grounds are closed to striped bass fishing during April and
        May (Miller, R.W. 1995).

    *•   The Atlantic menhaden is a strictly regulated species arid has become an important recreational fishery within the
        estuary and nontidal river.  For example, purse seining for this species is prohibited in most of the bay. In  1992, a
        new fishery management plan was adopted by the Atlantic Menhaden Board of the Atlantic States Marine Fishery
    4 Phragmites eradication measures often consist of a combination of herbicide and burn treatments, which in themselves may have
negative environmental side effects.
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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter Bl: Background
        Commission. This plan relies on biological "triggers" to tell the fisheries managers when to close the fishery to
        protect the species (Hall, 1995).
                                                                                              i
    >   The American shad fishery in the estuary is being managed under a 1982 fishery management plan. The plan sets
        forth four specific goals: (1) achieving a predetermined annual spawning population size, (2) supporting a
        recreational sport fishery in the nontidal river, (3) maintaining a basic commercial harvesting rate, and (4) restoring
        shad spawning areas that have been closed to migration because of dams (Miller, J.P., 1995).

d.   Pollution
The Delaware Estuary is an ecosystem on the rebound from severe water quality impairment (Delaware Estuary Program,
1996). The upper estuary (i.e., the tidal, freshwater portion of the tidal zone) was once considered one of the most polluted
rivers in the United States. From the early 1990's until the 1970's, high biological oxygen demand (BOD) rendered the
region around Philadelphia/Camden almost anox/c during several months of the year. The lack of DO served as a "pollution
block," preventing the spawning'migration of anadromous fish upstream into the nontidal, freshwater reaches of the Delaware
River. As a result, several species, including striped bass and American shad, showed severe population-related declines. A
combination of industrial effluent controls and improvements in municipal sewage treatment, completed in the late 1980's,
has since reversed this problem and has resulted in one of the most successful estuarine water quality improvements in the
world (Santoro, 1998). Indeed, the numbers of juvenile striped bass and American shad have increased more than a
thousandfold since the early 1980's (Weisberg et al., 1996).

The kind of separation between freshwater- and salt water layers observed in other bays and estuaries, which can lead to
severe DO depletions during the summer months (notably in the Chesapeake Bay), does not typically occur in the Delaware
Estuary.  This is because there is little stratification between' fresh and salt water due to the unique shape of the estuary, its
relatively shallow depth, and the strong tidal currents within it, all of which promote mixing. Consequently, even though the
Delaware River is highly enriched with nutrients, the combination of high turbidity and hydrologic mixing limits the amount
of DO depletion during the summer months. Occasional DO deficits still reflect inputs of high BOD compounds from the
major urban areas surrounding the upper estuary.                                                  i  •

A number of facilities of concern to § 316(b) add to the estuary's pollution load through effluent releases. These include pulp
and paper plants, refineries, chemical facilities, and primary metal facilities.  In addition, electric utilities can release
chemicals to the receiving water in the form of antifouling agents or anticorrosives that are added to cooling water to protect
pipes and other structures.

Ongoing sources of pollution  in the estuary include contaminated sediments, point and nonpoint sources of aquatic toxicants,
and thermal discharges.                                                                         ]

»«*   Contaminated sediments                                                                  i
Sediments act as long-term reservoirs for contaminants, which can be released back into the water column or passed up into
the food chain. Several chemicals present in Delaware Estuary sediments (in particular mercury, DDT and its metabolites,
other pesticides, and PCBs) can bioaccumulate and are difficult to eliminate once they are ingested by aquatic organisms.  As
a result., the concentrations of these compounds increase as they move up the food chain.  This becomes a long-term problem
for predators, in particular piscivores (predators that consume fish), because high levels of these chemicals are present  in their
prey. Fish consumption advisories are posted throughout the estuary and a section of the nontidal river because of
unacceptable levels of PCBs in several recreational fish species (DRBC, 1998; Santoro, 1998). In addition, reproductive
success in fish-eating raptors  is believed to be impaired by the presence of these  chemicals in their food source, because they
lead to egg shell thinning (Clark, 1995; Niles, 1995).                                              •

»S«   Aquatic toxicants from point and nonpoint sources                                       .   ',  -
Although water quality has improved markedly since new water quality regulations were implemented hi the 1970's, the
presence of bioaccumulative compounds (DDE, chlordane, PCB,s) within the aquatic food chain is still a concern (DRBC,
 1998). Fish and shellfish in the Delaware Estuary contain some of the nation's highest levels of chemical contaminants (U.S.
EPA/ORD, 1998).  The presence of these chemicals has resulted in fish consumption advisories for channel catfish and white
perch, to limit the potential effects on human health (DRBC, 1998).  A 1990 study to assess the chronic toxicity of ambient
waters indicated significant growth reductions of fathead minnow larvae in 8 of 12 surface water samples collected throughout
the upper estuary. These results suggested that large stretches of the upper estuary may be chronically toxic to sensitive life .
stages of aquatic organisms under specific hydrological and effluent loading conditions." The most toxic water samples were.
collected in areas impacted by industrial and municipal effluent outfalls:  It is unclear from the available information if more
                                                                                                              Bl-9

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S 316(b) Cose. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter Bl: Background
recent bibassay data exist or if additional studies have been conducted to clarify the effects of tides,'currents, seasons, and
effluent loadings on the observed toxicity (DRBC, 1998; Santoro, 1998).

*I*   Thermal discharges
In the Delaware River Basin, numerous steam-electric and industrial facilities release heated water to the estuary, which can
increase water temperatures above levels that are tolerated by aquatic life. Thermal discharge is a byproduct of the cooling
cycle of power plants and other industrial facilities. Production processes that generate heat generally use cool water to
remove excess heat from the production process and transfer it to the cooling water.  The heated water can either be cooled
and reused within the facility (as in closed-cycle or recirculating systems), or it can be directly released to the environment (as
in once-through systems). The environmental impacts of thermal discharges are site specific and depend on factors such as
the size and/or flow of the receiving water, temperature differences between the discharge and the receiving water, the time of
year, and the biological characteristics of the affected aquatic community.

Bl-3  WATER WITHDRAWALS AND USES

Nearly 10 percent of Americans rely on the waters of the Delaware River Basin for drinking and industrial use (DRBC,  1998).
The waters of the Delaware River and its tributaries provide drinking water, irrigation water, and water for industrial
manufacturing processes, electricity generation, mining, and livestock. Water use can be classified as either "instream"  or
"offstream." As its name implies, instream use does not require Removal of water from its source and therefore does  not
involve intake structures. The primary instream use of water is for hydroelectric power generation. Offstream water use, on
the other hand, does involve water withdrawals through intake structures and is therefore of interest to the § 316(b) regulation.
This subsection discusses water withdrawals and uses in the Delaware River Basin.

Total water withdrawals from the Delaware River Basin averaged 6,801 MOD in 1995. Of this total, 91 percent were surface
water withdrawals from rivers, streams, lakes, and estuaries and 9 percent came from groundwater. The term "water
withdrawal" refers to water removed from the ground or diverted from a surface water source (USGS, 1995).

Large withdrawals of water can lead to a number of water management and ecological problems. Of greatest concern to this
regulation is the I&E of aquatic organisms that inhabit the waterbodies from which facilities withdraw water through intake
structures.  In addition, overwithdrawal and overconsumption of water can increase salt water intrusion into aquifers  that
supply drinking water. An excessive level of salt in drinking water presents a known risk to human health. To date, there is
no evidence that withdrawals from the Delaware River and its tributaries pose salinity or turbidity problems or that
withdrawals are increasing enough to make such problems likely in the future. Because of reduced power generation cooling
and public supply water management programs, water withdrawals for the Delaware Basin have actually decreased since in
the late 1980's (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).

Bl-3.1   Cooling Water  Use

In 1995, steam electric power generation5 accounted for the single largest intake of water from the  Delaware River Basin, at
72 percent of all surface water withdrawals.  While this number has decreased in recent years because more power plants have
moved to closed-cycle cooling systems rather than once-through systems (DRBC, 1996), the total withdrawal of this  group is
still substantial.

Table Bl-2 summarizes cooling water intake flows of all utility-owned power plants, nonutilities, and manufacturing facilities
in the transition zone of the Delaware River Basin, including facilities subject to § 316(b) regulation and those that are not yet
affected. Both design and average annual intake flow rates are presented.
    1 Steam power generation is defined by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as thermoelectric generation, which includes the
generation of electric power with fossil fuel, nuclear; or geothermal energy.
Bl-10

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S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter Bl: Background
       Table  BI-2: Characteristics of §  316(b) Facilities Operating CWIS in the Transitional Zone of the
                                             Delaware Estuary, 1999
EIA Plant
Code

593.
2384
2410
6118
7133
10043
10566
Plant Name

Edge Moor
Deepwater
Salem
Hope Creek
HayRoadb'c
Logan Generating
Co.c'd
Chambers Cogen
Lpb.c.c
CWIS Information
EIA CWIS Code
E
3
4
5
1
4.
6
SA1
SA2
HC1
n/a
n/a
n/a
CWIS Type'
lectric Power Plan
OF&OS
OF&OS
OF&OS
OS
OS
OS
OS
OS
RN
n/a
n/a
n/a
Total Electric Power Plant Intake
Manufacturing Facilit
Delaware City Refiner/ n/a -
DuPonf n/a
General Chemical Corporation' n/a
SPI Polyols'-" n/a n/a
Citisteelc-d • n/a n/a
Sun Refining1-'1 n/a n/a
Design Intake
Flow Rate
(ff/sec)
ts
100
148 ,
581
101
102
97
1,678
1,678
95
n/a
n/a
n/a
4,580
esb



n/a
n/a
n/a
Total Manufacturing Facility Intake
Average Annual
Intake Flow Rate
(ft?/sec).

60.
107
303 i
83 ;
60 ;
76
1,359
1,284
52
1.6
•1.4 !
37 .:
3,424

339
7
24
' 5 ;
0
6
382
HUC Watershed
Code

2040204
2040204
2040204
2040204
2040204
2040204
2040204


2040204
2040204
2040204
2040204
2040204
2040204

 • U.S. Department of Energy, 200 la. Form EIA-767 codes for relevant CWIS types: OF - once through, freshwater; OS - once through,
 saline water; RN - recirculating with natural draft cooling tower.
 b Based on EPA's Section 316(b) Industry Survey, these facilities are not in scope of the proposed section 316(b>Phase II rule: Hay Road
 because it does not hold an NPDES permit; Chambers Cogen LP because it does not directly withdraw cooling water from a surface water
 source.  Manufacturing facilities are subject to Phase III of the section 316(b) regulations.                    ;
 c Intake flow information from the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC,  1996).
 d These facilities are not analyzed for this proposed rule because they were not part of the second phase of EPA's industry survey effort.
 However, all facilities withdraw from the Delaware River and are therefore presented in this table.
 " Listed in DRBC (1996) as an industrial facility ("DuPont Chambers").
 Sources: CWIS information: U.S. Department of Energy, 2001a (except where noted); HUC codes: Reach File 1, U.S. EPA, 1982b.


B1 -A  SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS

The Delaware River Basin is a highly valuable economic resource, providing the physical environment and biological
resources for numerous commercial and recreational activities. It also supplies water for many different purposes, among
others drinking water for 20 million people (Delaware Estuary Program,  1996). The region supports over 6.5 million people
(Delaware Estuary Program, 1996; Santoro, 1998), and includes the city of Philadelphia, the fifth largest metropolitan area in
the country. Between 1970 and 1990,  10 of the 22 counties in the region experienced population growth of more than
20 percent, resulting in rapid suburban development and more than 300,000 new housing units.  The regional population is
expected to grow by an additional 14 percent by 2020.  The projected growth, however, will not be evenly distributed across
the region.  Indeed, the historical urban centers will continue to experience a net population loss, whereas the surrounding
regions will show a net gain. Philadelphia, for example, is projected to lose 76,000 people (5 percent of its current
population) by 2020 (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996; Santoro, 1998).
                                                                                                             Bl-11

-------
 S 3I6(b) Case. Studies. Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter Bl: Background
 Not unexpectedly, the suburban sprawl associated with these demographic changes has profoundly affected land use patterns:
 large tracts of forest and agricultural lands have been converted into roads or housing and commercial developments. This
 activity consumes land, reduces terrestrial habitats, and directly affects the quality of the water in the estuary (Delaware
 Estuary Program, 1996).  As an example, the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC) analyzed the 19.90
 land use patterns in its nine-county region and extrapolated these results to project future land use consumption through 2020.
 In 1990, the DVRPC estimated that 37 percent of the land area Was developed. By 2020, the DVRPC projects that 51 percent
 of the land area will be developed, leaving less than half as agricultural, wooded, or vacant land or water (Delaware Estuary
 Program, 1996).

 This subsection highlights the most important economic uses of the Delaware River Basin. Many of these uses may benefit
 from § 316(b) regulations and are therefore of particular interest to this study.

 Bl-4.1  Major Industrial  Activities

 a.  Shipping
 Commercial and recreational shipping activities take place throughout the Delaware Estuary, providing substantial support to
 the regional economy. The Port of Philadelphia, for example, generated $335 million in business revenue in 1997 (DRBC,
 1998). The Philadelphia Regional Port Authority estimated that'state and local taxes from port activities that year totaled $13
 million and supported 3,622 jobs (DRBC, 1998).

 Dredging operations have been ongoing in the Delaware Estuary for more than 100 years to support shipping and
 accommodate ever larger ships. Currently, the ship channel is 12-14 m (40 to 45 ft) deep and is maintained by annual
 dredging that removes and disposes of over 6 million cubic yards of sediments. In 1996, the cost was $ 15 to $ 18 million
 (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).

 b.  Heavy industry
 The Delaware River Basin has one of the largest concentrations pf industrial facilities, oil refineries, and petrochemical plants
 in the world (DRBC, 1998)". Discharges from 162 industries and municipalities and approximately 300 combined sewer
 overflows go into the estuary alone.

     *•   The combined ports of Philadelphia, Camden, Gloucester City, Salem, and Wilmington receive over 70 percent of
        the oil, over 1 billion barrels, reaching the east coast of the United States every year.  The port complex is the •
        world's largest freshwater port and ranks second in the nation in total waterborne commerce, generating an income
        of over S3 billion and providing 180,000 jobs (Delaware  Estuary Program, 1996).

     *•   The Delaware Estuary supports the second largest refining-petrochemical center in the United States (Delaware
        Estuary Program, 1996).                '                   '

 Bl-4.2  Commercial Fisheries

 The Delaware Estuary is home to over 200 species of resident and  migratory fish.  Many of these species are an invaluable
 resource for both commercial and recreational fishing.

    *•   At least 31  fish species are commercially harvested in the Delaware Estuary.  The value of the estuary's commercial
        fin fishery was about $1.4 million in 1990 (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).

    *•   The first recorded oyster landings in the Delaware Bay, in 1880, totaled an estimated 2.4 million harvested oyster
        bushels.  This number decreased to about 1 to 2 million bushels until the mid-1950's. Over the past 40 years, the
        oyster industry was depressed because of two diseases, MSX and Dermo, which ultimately resulted in the closure of
        the natural oyster beds in the Delaware Bay. When these  beds reopened in 1996,  fishermen harvested an estimated
        75,000 bushels with a dockside value of approximately'$1.6 million (Santoro, 1998).

    >•   Shad has been an important fishery in the Delaware River since colonial times (Delaware Estuary Program, 2001).
        Between 1896 and 1901, the catch of shad in the Delaware River exceeded that of any other river system on the
        Atlantic Coast and accounted for up to 30 percent of the entire coastal catch.  On average, fishermen landed 5,445  to
        6,350 metric tons (12 to 14 million pounds) annually.  Shad landings began to decline rapidly in the early 1900s,
        mainly due to pollution and overfishing.  Although improved water quality and development of a fishery
31-12

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 S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                                                                             Chapter Bl: Background
         management plan led to some recovery after 1975, shad remain well below pre-1900 levels.  High numbers of shad
         returned from the ocean to spawn in freshwater portions of the Delaware River in 1998 and agam in 2000, but 1999
         records show a very low number of returns, raising concerns about the extent to which the shad population has
         actually recovered. A recent study placed the current annual value of the shad fishery at $3.2 million (DRBC, 1998).

 Bl-4.3   Recreational  Activities

 a.  Recreational fishing
 The Delaware River Basin provides ample opportunity for recreational fishing ranging from marine fishing to freshwater and
 flyfishing. To characterize recreational fishing in the Delaware River Estuary, EPA relied mainly on the Marine Recreational
 Fisheries Statistics Survey (MRFSS) (NMFS, 2001b).

 The MRFSS is a comprehensive coast-wide survey of marine recreational anglers operated by the National Marine Fishery
 Service (NMFS). The MRFSS is a long-term monitoring program that provides estimates of effort, participation, and finfish
 catch by recreational anglers.  The MRFSS survey consists of two independent, but complementary, surveys: an intercept
 survey of anglers, at fishing access sites and a random digit-dial telephone survey of households.

 The basic intercept survey collects •information about anglers'home ZIP code, the length of their fishing trip, the species they
 targeted on that trip, and the number of times anglers have fished in the past two and 12 months. Trained interviewers record
 the species and numbers offish caught that are available for inspection and then weigh and measure theifish.

. NMFS used the random telephone survey to estimate recreational fishing effort (i.e., trips) on a two-month basis (as opposed
 to annual participation) for coastal households. NMFS adjusted effort estimates for coastal households by the ratio of
 intercept data of coastal to non-coastal and out-pf-state residents to calculate total effort. The survey asked households with
 individuals who had fished within two months of the phone call about the mode of fishing, the gear used, and the type of
 waterbody where the trip took place for every trip taken within that period. The telephone survey also collected data on the
 socioeconomic characteristics of recreational anglers.                                             ,

 The MRFSS found that, ori average, participants spend approximately 28 days fishing at Delaware Bay and Atlantic coastal
 sites of Delaware and New Jersey each year. The Delaware Bay  fishermen tend to travel relatively short distances, on average
 40 miles for single-day trips and 107 miles for multiple-day trips. Fishermen taking single- and multiple-day trips spend an
 average of $62.43 and $ 100.24, respectively, in pursuit of their target species.6                       ;

 From 1994 to 1998, recreational anglers in Delaware and New Jersey caught an annual average of:

     *•    18.03 metric tons (395,744 pounds) of striped bass;
     >•    1,265.63 metric tons (2,790,234 pounds) of weakfish;            '           .              i
     »•    2,527.29 metric tons (5,571,710 pounds) of flounder;
     >•    443.07 metric tons. (976,795  pounds) of bluefish; and
     ••    1,385.37 metric tons (3,054,216 pounds) of bottom fish (including Atlantic croaker, tautog, spot, and white perch).

 Table Bl-3 shows the results of the MRFSS analysis of fishing participation at the lower Delaware Bay Estuary and adjacent
 coastal sites in Delaware and New Jersey.  The table presents the five-year average of total fishing days by state and by
 fishing mode (1994 through 1998); this total number of fishing days includes both single- and multiple-day trips.

 Table Bl-3 shows that anglers spent an estimated 5.4 million days fishing at  the lower Delaware  Bay Estuary and adjacent
 Atlantic coastal sites.  The NMFS data show that recreational fishing in the estuary and adjacent coastal sites is largely limited
 to residents living close to the case study area, such as residents of Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.

 In addition to species reported by the NMFS, a 1986 creel census found that anglers made 65,690 trips! and spent 299,597
 hours fishing for shad in the Delaware River.  This survey also estimated the economic value of recreational shad fishing in
 the Delaware River in 1986 to be $3.2 million (Miller, J.P., 1995).7
      6 Includes travel and boat expenditures for single-day trips and travel, lodging, and boat expenditures for multiple-day trips.

      7 This number reflects a $50/day replacement value.
                                                                                                             B1-I3

-------
 S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                      Chapter Bl: Background
   Table Bl-3: Recreational Fishing Participation in the Lower Delaware Bay Estuary and Atlantic Coastal Sites in
                                             Delaware and New Jersey
Visited State
DE
DE
DE
NJ
NJ
NJ
Total
Fishing Mode
Private or Rental Boat
Shore
Charter Boat
Private or Rental Boat i
Shore
Charter Boat

Total Number of Fishing Days at the Delaware and
New Jersey NMFS Sites
390,578
367,402
43,339
2,596,380
1,596,531
403,523
5,397,753
 Source: NMFS, 2001b.
 b.   Bfrd  watching
 Hundreds of thousands of migrating birds use the estuary's
 high biological productivity on their way to and from their"
 overwintering and breeding grounds. In fact, the estuary is
 one of the most important feeding sites for shore birds in
 N&rth America, with an estimated 425,000 to 1 million
 shorebirds arriving during their spring migrations. The
 arrival of migratory birds, together with numerous year-
 round avian residents, has promoted a burgeoning bird
 watching industry. In 1988, an estimated $5.5 million was
 spent by more than 90,000 bird watchers in the Cape May  •
 area alone.  Much of this activity occurred in the "off-season"
 (Delaware Estuary Program, 1996).
  Bird Watching in the Delaware Bay

  "The marshy convergence of water and land along the Delaware
  Bay shoreline, long resistant to human encroachment, encompasses
  some of the Atlantic coast's finest birding sites. Waterbirds of one
  sort or another, from loons to terns, are present throughout the year.
  This is one of the country's best places to find Curlew Sandpiper, a
  fare wanderer from breeding grounds in Siberia, and Ruff, another
  sandpiper that nests in Scandinavia and northern Asia."
                                                White, 1999
and provided a significant economic boost to the region
 Figure Bl-3 shows the most important bird watching areas along the Delaware River Basin. The following text highlights
 some of these areas. •

 •>  Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge
 The Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge extends for approximately 6,070 hectares (15,000 acres) along the Atlantic
 Coastal Plain on the western shore of Delaware. The refuge provides a wide diversity of habitat types (including artificial
 bays and marshes, upland woods, swamps, brushy thickets, grassy fields, and croplands) and attracts numerous species of
 birds.  Bombay Hook was originally established in 1937 as a link in the chain of waterfowl refuges that extends from Canada
 to the Gulf of Mexico.  It is mainly a refuge for migrating and wintering ducks and geese but also hosts numerous other
 species of migratory birds (Great Outdoor Recreation Pages,  1999).  The importance of Bombay Hook as a recreational area
 has increased greatly in the past 25 years, mainly because of the loss of extensive surrounding marshland to urban and
 industrial development. Approximately 128,500 visitors explored the refuge in 1998 (Personal Communication, Marion
 Pohlman, Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, September 21, 1999).

 Wildlife can be seen year round at Bombay Hook.  In October and November, waterfowl populations are at their peaks,  when
 over 100,000 ducks and geese use the refuge. March is the second peak for waterfowl that travel through on their return to
 northern breeding grounds.  April brings early shorebird migrants. Shorebirds are at their highest concentrations during May
 and June, mainly because of the arrival of horseshoe crabs laying eggs along the bay shore and mud flats.  These eggs provide
 the shorebirds with needed energy to complete their northward migration.  Wading birds such as herons, egrets, and glossy
 ibis reach their peak numbers during the summer months (Great Outdoor Recreation Pages, 1999).  Bombay Hook also hosts
 the greatest concentration of snow geese in North America and has a long history of nesting eagles. The refuge includes a 12-
 mile auto tour loop and five trails from which visitors can view the wildlife.
Bl-14

-------
§ 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                                                                                Chapter Bl: Background
 Figure Bl-3: Bird Watching Areas of the Delaware River Basin
                                                         ^               /—^ "~\ °?k
                                                         _V  Camden/    '-x.C%,
                                                                                           •   i   \      KS
                                                                                              s A     ,r
                                 Gloucester
                                                                           XB Foraythc National Wildlife Refuge.-!
        f/f  NMtejul1  A
                ildlifc- ••••*• .,..».*
                                                               NEW JERSEY
                                           iewingArea &_  iHeLsfc^lleWlldme -^ Wildlife
                                                           Management Area
                                                        Reed's Beach Viewing

                                                  Cape May National Wildlife R
            DELAWARE
                                           Delaware
                                              Say
                  DE National Estuarhie- ~
            Research Reserve -  3?
s,         -,       St Jones R.  •-
'\         r


\.^	'
                                                                           '—• William D& Jane C Blair Jr.
                                                         Cape May Point State Park  Cape May Migratory Bird Refuge
                                            ,,5  '
                                 ^        - Prime Hook':--1,^ ,
                                 National WUdHfc Refugc,.,,**^^
                                                                       Cape Hcnlopcn    i
                                                                       .State Park
             /~.
              El
                     Viewing Sites



              Viewing Recreational Site


              Rfl Coastal Reach


              National Wildlife Refuge
                          ^
                                                                                             Afteitfic .
                                                                                               Ocean-
                                                                              iclawarc Seashore State Park
 Source: Delorme, 1993, 1999; USGS, 2000.
                                                                                                                         Bl-15

-------
 S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter 61: Background
 <•  Cape May Peninsula
 The Cape May peninsula is world renowned for its importance to migratory birds.  Cape May is situated at the end of a
 peninsula separating Delaware Bay from the Atlantic Ocean. The peninsula acts as a funnel for songbirds, shorebirds,
 waterfowl, butterflies, and hawks migrating along the Atlantic Flyway. Cape May provides critical staging areas that provide
 important resting and feeding opportunities for migrating birds. The Cape May natural and recreational areas include:

     *•   Cape May Point State Park: A large portion of the park is a designated Natural Area and has more than 3 miles of
         trails and boardwalks for nature study and hiking.  The "Hawk Watch" observation platform provides an excellent
         view of one of the nation's most extraordinary autumn hawk migrations. Beginning in September and extending
         through December, tens of thousands of raptors, including bald eagles, peregrine falcons, ospreys, goshawks,
         Cooper's hawks, and various species of owl pass the platform (Pettigrew, 1998).  From July  1, 1998, through June
         30,1999, over 800,000 people visited the park (Personal Communication, Cape May Point State Park, September
         21,1999).

     *•   Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area: Higbee Beach is a 2.4 km (1.5 mile) stretch of beach containing the
         last remnant of coastal dune forest on the bay shore, where visitors can admire hundreds of species of migrating
         songbirds and hawks. Higbee Beach is managed specifically to provide habitat for migratory wildlife. In addition to
         millions of songbirds, nearly 50,000 raptors migrate over the peninsula every year, and many stop here to rest and
         feed (Pettigrew, 1998).

     *•   William D. and Jane C. Blair Cape May Migratory Bird Refuge: This area is recognized as one of the East
         Coast's premier birding spots. Thousands of raptors, shorebirds, songbirds, and waterfowl pass through the refuge
         on their way south. The refuge provides a haven for two state-listed endangered species: the least tern and the piping
         plover. New Jersey's beaches comprise a significant portion of the entire breeding population's nesting habitat.

 •!* Recreational viewing reported in the Survey of National Demand for Water Based Recreation
 The Agency used EPA's  1994 Survey of National Demand for Water-Based Recreation (National Demand Survey, NDS) to
 characterize recreational wildlife viewing at the Delaware River Basin. EPA cooperated with the National Forest Service and
 several other federal agencies and interested groups to collect data on the outdoor recreation activities of Americans. EPA's
 goal was to quantify the number of people who participate in water-based recreation and their total number of recreation trips.
 In addition, the survey was intended to explain how water quality conditions and other characteristics of water resources
 affect these numbers. Table Bl-4 shows the results of the survey for the  Delaware River Basin. The table presents two key
 results (shaded columns): (1) the extrapolated national number of people who visited the Delaware River Basin during 1994,
 and (2) the extrapolated national number of wildlife viewing trips to the Basin.8

 To determine the total number of wildlife viewing participants from each state, EPA used the percentage of survey
 respondents from each state that reported having visited the basin and the total number of state residents 18 and older.9 In
 addition, the survey collected information on the number of times the respondents visited the site of their last viewing trip.
 EPA used this number to derive an average number of trips per visitor to the Delaware River Basin and the total number of
 wildlife viewing trips by state.

 Table Bl-4 uses a 1994 recreation participation survey to estimate wildlife viewing in 2000. Approximately 1.4 million
 people used the Delaware River Basin for wildlife viewing.10  These visitors accounted for about 5.1 million recreational trips
 to the area.  Residents of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware were the most frequent visitors.
    1 Notably, the NDS collected information only on the last site visited. These numbers do not reflect people whose last visit was to a
different area but who may have also visited the Delaware River Basin on a previous trip during the year. For the remainder of the NDS
results discussion, the reported numbers of respondents and their trips refer only to respondents whose last trip was to the Delaware River
Basin.

    * The survey collected information only on respondents 18 or older.

    10 Note that given the small sample size, estimates of the total number of trips to the Delaware River Basing have a larger than
desirable degree of uncertainty.
Bl-16

-------
§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                                                                                   Chapter Bl: Background
Table Bl -4: National Number of Participants in Wildlife Viewing in the Delaware River Basin (DRB) in 2000
Home
State
CT
DC
DE
FL
IN
MD
NC
NJ
NY
OH
PA
VA
WI
Total
2000 State
Population
(18 & over)
2,563,877
457,067
589,013
12,336,038
4,506,089
3,940,314
6,085,266
6,326,792
14,286,350
8,464,801
9,358,833
5,340,253
3,994,919

Number of
Survey
Respondents
159
35
51
662-
300
257
407
346
774
650
742
389
299
5,071
Number of Respondents
with Last Recreational
Viewing Trip to the DRB
Total
1
2
14
2
1
12
1
15
4
1
52
5
1
111
% of Survey
Respondents
0.6%
5.7%
27.5%
0.3%
0.3%
4.7%
0.2%
4.3%
0.5%
0.2%
7.0%
1.3%
0.3%

Extrapolated
Number of
Participants in
. Recreational
Viewing in the
DRB
N/A
N/A
161,690
N/A
N/A
183,984
N/A
274,283
73,831
N/A
655,875
68,641
N/A
1,418,303
Number of
Recreational
Viewing Trips
to the DRB by
Last Trip
Participants
1
3
112
2
2
21
1
75
5
1
151
9
1
384
Average
Number of
Recreational
Viewing
Trips per
Respondent
1.0
1.5
8.0
1.0
2.0
1.8
1.0
.5.6
1.3
1.0
2.9
1.8
1.0
3
Extrapolated
Number of
Recreational
Viewing
Trips in the
DRB
N/A
N/A
1,293,519
N/A
N/A.
321,971
N/A
1,371,414
92,289
N/A
1,904,560
123,553
N/A
5,107,307
 Source: Survey of National Demand for Water-Based Recreation (U.S. EPA 1994b)
 N/A: EPA did not extrapolate sample-based results due to insufficient number of observations.
                                                                                                                    Bl-17

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§ 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
             D.e
                                                                                                            of
This chapter presents additional information related to in     f^^^llil* ».-—-»~~«-
scope facilities within the Delaware Estuary transition          CHAPTER1 CONTENTS   f
zone. Section B2-1 presents detailed EIA data on the                 "   ,,  ,^"  *   s«             ',  *
generating units (Salem, Hope Creek, Edge Moor, and      .    &2-i   -, Operational'ProFifc ..,",, „.-V ,,A .Hi? ....<...,, B2-1
Deepwater) addressed by this case study and within the        JSft- •<' 'CWIS Configuration and Wafer WthcSswal .$i^> B2-9
scope of the Phase II rulemaking (i.e., in-scope facilities).
Section B2-2 describes the configuration of the intake
structure(s) at the in-scope facilities and out-of-scope electric generating and industrial facilities. For the in-scope power
facilities, Section B2-3  presents an evaluation of the specific impacts of the proposed Phase II rule, i.e., defines the baseline
for calculating benefits.

B2-1 OPERATIONAL PROFILE.

a.   Salem
During 1999, the  Salem power plant operated three active units.1 Two of these are large nuclear units that use cooling water
withdrawn from the Delaware River (Units 1  and 2). The third unit is a small gas turbine (GT3). The nuclear units began
operation in June 1977  and October 1981, respectively.                                             '

Salem's total net generation  in 1999 was 16.0 million MWh.  Unit  1 accounted for 8.0 million MWh, or 50.2 percent of the
plant's total, while Unit 2 accounted for 7.9 million MWh or 49.8 percent. The capacity utilization of these two nuclear units
was 78.1 percent and 77.6 percent, respectively.

Table B2-1 presents details for Salem's three units.

                               Tafaie B2-1: Salem Seneratop  Characteristics (1999).
Unit II)
1
2
GTS
Total
Capacity
(MW)
1,170
1,170
42
2,382
Prime Mover"
NP
NP
GT

Energy
Source"
UR
UR
FO2

In-Service
Date
Jun. 1977
Oct. 1981
Jun. 1971

Operating
Status
Operating
Operating
Operating

Net Generation
(MWh)
8,009,172
7,949,387
2,752
15,961,311
Capacity
Utilization'
78.1%
77.6%
0.8%
76.5%
n>of
Associated
CWIS
SA1
SA2
Not applicable

 " Prime mover categories: NP = nuclear power; GT = gas turbine.
 b Energy source categories: UR = Uranium; FO2 = No. 2 Fuel Oil.  •         •
 c Capacity utilization was calculated by dividing the unit's actual net generation by the potential net generation if the unit ran at full
 capacity all the time (i.e., capacity * 24 hours * 365 days).                                              ;
 Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 2001a, 2001b, 2001d.
     1 For the purposes of this analysis, "active" units include generating units that are operating, on standby, on cold standby, on test, on
maintenance/repairs, or out of service (all year). Active units do not include units that are on indefinite shutdown or retired.
                                                                                                               B2-I

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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
Figure B2-1 below presents Salem's electricity generation history between 1977 and 2000 and Figure B2-2 presents Salem's
operational intake flows. Figure B2-1 shows that since 1982, when both of Salem's nuclear units were fully operational,
Salem's generation has ranged between 10 and 18 million MW. During two periods, however, 1983-1984 and 1995-1996,
Salem's generation was considerably lower.  During 1995, Unit 1 was operating at only 26.0 percent while Unit 2 was
operating at 20.8 percent. Both nuclear units were shut down during 1996, and during 1997, Unit 2 resumed generation at
25.5 percent of capacity while Unit 1 remained shut down (U.S. Department of Energy, 2002).


 Figure B2-1: Salem Net Electricity Generation 1977 - 2000 (in MWh)
       (2,000,000)
 Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 200 Id.
                                                          Year
B2-2

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§ 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
 Figure B2-2: Salem Operational Intake Flows 1977 - 1998 (in MOD)
             Salem Generating Station Historical Annual Water Withdrawal
                 (Circulating Water System & Service Water System)
       3,000
            Illlllllllllllllllll
                                         Year
Year
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Total Withdrawal (MGD)
758
858
644
1,254
1,598
1,713
1,462
1,336
2,298
2,040
2,082
2,267
2,056
1,903
2,184
1,778
1,763
2,109
1,529
227
949
2,612
  Source: PSEG, 200If.
 b.  Hope Creek
 Hope Creek operates one active nuclear unit. The unit began operation in November 1986 and uses cooling water withdrawn
 from the Delaware River. Hope Creek's total'net generation in 1999 was 7.7 million MWh with a capacity utilization of 75.1
 percent.

 Table B2-2 presents details for Hope Creek's unit.
                            Table  B2-2: Hope greek Benerrtor Characteristics (1999)
UnitHD
!
Total
Capacity
(MW)
1,170
1,170
a Prime mover categories: T
b Energy source categories
• Prime
Mover"
NB ,

Energy
Source"
UR

In-Service
Date
Nov. 1986

Operating Status
Operating

Net
Generation
(MWh)
7,701,078
7,701,078
Capacity
Utilization'
75.1% -
75.1%
ID of
Associated
CWIS
HC1

•4B = nuclear.
UR = uranium.
 capacity all the time (i.e., capacity * 24 hours * 365 days).
 Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 2001 a, 2001 b.
                                                                                                              B2-3

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 S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
 Figure B2-3 below presents Hope Creek's electricity generation history between 1986 and 2000. The graph shows that Hope
 Creek's generation has been relatively stable since its first full year of operation in 1987, ranging between 6.5 and 9 million
 MW, with a capacity utilization of between 64 and 86 percent.


  Figure B2-3: Hope Creek Net Electricity Generation 1986 - 2000 (in MWh)
                  1986
                                                1991
                                                                             1996
                                                           Year
  Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 2001d.
B2-4

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S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
c.   Ecige  Moor                   :
During 1999, the Edge Moor power plant operated four active units.  Three of these units employ a steam-electric prime
mover (Units 3 and 4 are coal-fired, Unit 5 is oil-fired) and use cooling water withdrawn from the Delaware River while Unit
10 is a gas turbine. All active units were built between December 1954 and August 1973.  Two additional steam-electric
units, Units  1 and 2, were retired during July 1983.                                             '   ;

Edge Moor's total net electricity generation in 1999 was 2.2 million MWh. The oil-fired steam-electric unit accounted for
1.2 million,  or 54 percent, of this total.  The two coal-fired steam-electric units accounted for a combined 1.0 million, or
45 percent.  The capacity utilization of Edge Moor's steam-electric units ranged from 30.7 percent to 49.3 percent.

Table B2-3 presents details for Edge Moor's four active and two retired units.

                            Table  B2-3:  Edge Moor generator Characteristics (1999).
Unit ID
1
2
3
4
5
10
Total"
Capacity
(MW)
69
69
75
177
446
13
710
Prime
Mover"
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
GT

Energy
Source1"
FO6
FO6
BIT
BIT
FO6
FO2

In-Service
Date
Jun. 1951
Jul. 1951
Dec. 1954
Apr. 1966
Aug. 1973
Jun. 1963

- •
Operating Status
• .
Retired -Jul. 1983
Retired -Jul. 1983
Operating
Operating
Operating
Operating

Net
Generation
(MWh)


278,410
763,383
1,201,164
662
2,243,619
Capacity
Utilization*


42.4%
49.3%
30.7%
0.6%
36.1%
roof
Associated
CWIS


3
4
5
Not
applicable

 " Prime mover categories: ST = steam turbine, GT = gas turbine.
 b Energy source categories: FO6 = No. 6 Fuel Oil, BIT = Bituminous Coal, FO2 =No. 2 Fuel Oil.
 c Capacity utilization was calculated by dividing the unit's actual net generation by the potential net generation if the unit ran at full
 capacity all the time (i.e., capacity * 24 hours * 365 days).                                              i
 d Total only includes units that are operating.
 Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 200 la, 2001 b, 200 Id.                                            -  !
                                                                                                                B2-5

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 S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
 Figure B2-4 below presents Edge Moor's electricity generation history between 1970 and 2000. Edge Moor's generation has
 varied considerably during this time period, ranging from a high of almost 4 million MWh to a low of less than 1.8 million.
 The closure of Units 1 and 2 in 1983 does not seem to have affected Edge Moor's electricity generation profile between 1970
 and 2000.


  Figure B2-4: Edge Moor Net Electricity Generation 1970 - 2000 (in MWh)
       4,500,000
       4.000.000
        500,000
               1970  '
                             1975
                                                                                                     2000
  Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 2001d.
B2-6

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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
d.   Deepwater
During 1999, the Deepwater power plant operated four active units: Units 1,4, 6, and GTA. Each unit has a steam-electric
prime mover and uses cooling water withdrawn from the Delaware River; while Unit GTA is a gas turbine.  All active units
were built between May 1930 and April 1967. In addition, three steam-electric units were retired between June 1991 and July
1994 (Units 3, 5, and 7).

Deepwater's total net generation in 1999 was approximately 0.36 million MWh.  Unit 6 accounted for 0.32 million MWh, or
87 percent, of this total  Unit 1 was shut down for five months during 1999 but accounted for most of the remaining
10.5 percent of total net generation. The capacity utilization of Deepwater's active operating units ranged from 4.6 percent
(Unit 1) to 39.2 percent (Unit 6). Unit 4 was on cold standby during  1999 and had a capacity utilization rate of 0.1 percent.

Table B2-4 presents details for Deepwater's four active and  three retired units.

                            Table B2-4:  Deepwater generator Characteristics (1999).
Unit ID
3
5
7
4 .
6
1
GTA
Total"
Capacity
(MW)
53
20
27
53
92
96
19
260
" Prime mover categories: S
b Energy source categories
Prime
Mover"
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
GT

Energy
Source*
FO6
BIT
BIT
FO6
BIT
NG
NG

In-Service
Date
Mar. 1930
Mar. 1942
May 1957
May 1930
Dec. 1954
Dec. 1958
Apr. 1967

Operating Status
Retired -Jun. 1991
Retired -Jul. 1994
Retired -Jul. 1994
Cold Standby
Operating
Operating
Operating

Net
Generation
(MWh)



664
315,683
38,262
9,787
364,396
Capacity
Utilization0
i
;

0.1%
39.2%
4.6%
5.9%
16.0%
ID of
Associated
CWIS



4
4
1
Not
applicable

T = steam turbine, GT = gas turbine.
FO6 = No. 6 Fuel Oil, BIT = Bituminous Coal, NG = natural gas.
 0  Capacity utilization was calculated by dividing the unit's actual net generation by the potential net generation if the unit ran at full
 capacity all the time (i.e., capacity * 24 hours * 365 days).
 d  Total only includes units that are operating. •
 Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 200 la, 200 Ib, 200 Id.
                                                                                                                B2-7

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 S 316(b) Case. Studies. Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
 Figure B2-5 below presents Deepwater's electricity generation history between 1970 and 2000. The graph shows that
 Deepwater's electricity generation has steadily declined throughout the 30-year time period. The considerable decline in the
 mid-1970s may partly be explained by the construction of two new large nuclear facilities in the region.  Three Mile Island
 began operation of an 872 MW unit in 1974. A second unit of 961 MW began operation in December of 1978. In addition,
 Calvert Cliffs began operation of a 918 MW unit in 1975 and of a second, 911 MW, unit in 1977. These modern baseload
 plants may have displaced some of the generation of older, less efficient plants like Deepwater.


  Figure B2-5: Deepwater Net Electricity Generation 1970 - 2000 (in MWh)
       2.500,000
       2.000.000  -
       1.500.000
       1.000.000
        500.000 •
               1970
                              1975
                                                                                        1995
                                                                                                       2000
  Source: U.S. Department of Energy, 2001d.
B2-8

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S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
B2-2  CWIS CONFIGURATION AND WATER  WITHDRAWAL

This section describes clean water intake structure technologies at power generating and industrial facilities in the Delaware
River Transition Zone. In addition to the 4 in-scope power generating facilities, PSE&G's Logan Generating Station and
Conectiv's Hay Road Generating Station are located in the Transition Zone. The Logan Generating Station withdraws only 2
million gallons per day (MOD) from the Delaware River and has fine mesh wedgewire screens on the intake structure. The
Hay Road Station withdraws only 1.6 MGD and has a wet, closed cycle cooling system. EPA does not have information on
the design of the intake structure at Hay Road or three industrial facilities, SPI Polyols, Citisteel, and Sun Refining, also in the
Transition Zone. Each of the industrial facilities has intake flows of less than 10 MGD.  The combined intake flows for the
three industrial facilities (about  12 MGD) represented only about 0.4 percent of the total cooling water intake flow.  For
purposes of estimating damages, EPA has assumed that Hay Road and three industrial facilities have conventional traveling
screens.

a.   Salem
PSE&G's Salem Generating Station has twelve separate intake bays in the Delaware River, six bays each for Generating Units
1 and 2.  Prior to 1979, Salem Unit 1  had conventional (linkbelt) traveling screens designed for intermittent operation and
debris handling. In 1979, Ristoph traveling screens with 3/8 inch mesh were installed on the Unit 1 intakes.  The screens were
designed for continuous rotation with fish handling and return systems. When Unit 2 came on-line in 1981, its intakes were
designed with the same Ristoph screen system as Unit 1. Salem's screen and fish handling and return systems were most
recently modified in 1994-95 to enhance fish survival. Both the screens and the fish baskets are now constructed of smooth
materials with curved lips on the 10-foot long fish baskets. A low pressure spray is used to remove organisms followed by a
high pressure spray to remove remaining debris. Fish and debris washed from the screens are returned to the river through bi-
directional troughs on the north or south side'of the intake structure depending upon the direction of tidal flow.

Under the conditions of the facility's 1994 NPDES permit reissuance, the operator has been required to restore a minimum of
10,000 acres of formerly diked wetlands and/or wetlands dominated by Phragmites Australis. Upland buffer can also count
towards the 10,000 acre total at a 3:1  ratio. This has been ongoing since 1995. In addition, the permit requires the facility to
construct a minimum of five fish ladders on the Delaware River tributaries to restore spawning runs of two species of river
herring, namely alewife and blueback herring (steeppass ladder design). The permit also requires the operator to pursue the
study of sound deterrents.

b.   Hope Creek
PSE&G's Hope Creek Nuclear Generating station has a natural draft cooling tower system. Water is withdrawn from the
Delaware River at Artificial Island just north of Salem, 20 feet from the shore.  The cooling water intake structure consists of:
(1) trash racks and trash rake, (2) curtain wall, and (3) four conventional traveling screens. Each screen, is continuously
rotated and baskets have troughs on the lower lips. A 20 pound per square inch (psi) low pressure wash is used to remove
organisms followed by a 90 psi  high pressure wash for debris removal. The average intake flow at the facility is 62 MGD to
replace losses from evaporation and drift and the discharge of cooling tower blowdown.

c.   Edge  Moor
Conectiv's Edge Moor Power Plant withdraws water from the Delaware River. Since 1983, the cooling water intake structure
has consisted of trash racks followed by traveling screens.  Units 3 and 4 have a total of five 9.5 mm, dual flow traveling
screens rotated  intermittently. Unit 5 has 7 conventional traveling screens and one dual flow screen that are rotated
intermittently once every 8 hours. Organisms and debris are washed off the screens with 80-120 psi sprays into a trough and
then returned to the River.  The total  design capacity of the cooling water intake structures is about 782 MOD, which is also
the approximate volume of water withdrawn from the river.                                       ;

d.  Dcepwater                                                                           :
Conectiv's Deepwater Generating Station obtains cooling water make-up from three intake bays in the Delaware River at the
Delaware Memorial Bridge. The average intake flow at the facility is 104.6 MGD from the river. The 3 intake bays supply
water to Generating Units 1, 4, and 6. As noted above, Unit 4 was on cold standby as of 1999 with only minimal generation
and intake requirements. Water is withdrawn through an intake structure (or intake crib) which is located approximately 75
feet offshore. Each intake is equipped with a single bay and trash racks. The intake water passes through submerged pipes
that are located eight feet (bottom elevation) below mean low water on the shoreline bulkhead opposite the intake crib. The
space between the face of the bulkhead and the back of the intake crib forms a discharge canal that is parallel to the river and
open at both ends.  The intake water then passes through on-shore conventional traveling screens where! there are two screens
                                                                                                            B2-9

-------
 § 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B2: Technical and Economic Descriptions
 for each unit.  The screens are not rotated on a continuous basis.  The screens are equipped with a debris removal system and
 return sluice.

 e.  Chambers Works
 Dupont's Chambers Works facility has a dedicated intake structure co-located with the Deepwater Generating Station's
 offshore intakes in Delaware River at the Delaware Memorial Bridge. The intake consists of angled bar screens and two
 modified traveling screens. The screens are stainless steel wire mesh with 6.4 mm openings and lip troughs. Organisms
 removed by the low pressure spray are collected and returned to the river through a fiberglass fish sluice that is not
 submerged. Therefore, any surviving organisms returned to the surface waterbody via the return system would experience a
 drop in gravity prior to reaching the water surface. The operator can provide flow augmentation, as needed, to the fish sluice.
 The screens are rotated and cleaned once every 8 hours. The average intake flow is 37 MOD from the River.

 f.  Delaware  City  Refinery
 Motiva's Delaware City Refinery withdraws water from the Delaware River via Cedar Creek. Cedar Creek is essentially an
 intake canal, used primarily for non-contact cooling. The facility's cooling water intake structure is located at the terminus of
 Cedar Creek approximately one mile from the river. The cooling water intake structure consists of a trash rack followed by 9
 vertical traveling screens located in front of the circulating water pumps.  Six screens have 3/8 inch mesh and the other three
 are 3/16 inch mesh. During summer, each screen is rotated once  every 8 hours for 30 minutes. During winter, screen rotation
 occurs once per day.  Organisms and fish are washed off the screen with a 70 psi  spray into 6 inch deep trough.  The trough
 flows back into Cedar Creek about 1,000 feet downstream from the intake. The facility has a small cooling tower on-site.
 However, the recirculating flow is minimal compared to the overall intake flow. The average intake flow is 364 MGD from
 Cedar Creek.

 g.  Dupont Chemical and Pigment
 The Dupont Chemical and Pigment Department facility has one cooling water intake structure that provides make-up for two
 non-contact, once through cooling systems as well as process water for facility operations. The intake is located  180 feet
 offshore in the Delaware River. The intake has vertical, conventional single  entry/exit traveling screen and fish/debris
 conveyance trough. The design capacity of the intake is 33.8 MGD.  The average intake flow is 7 MGD from the river.

 h.  General Chemical Corporation
 General Chemical Corporation's Delaware Valley facility has an  intake structure  located along the Delaware River shoreline.
 The structure is dedicated to facility cooling operations and consists of trash racks and conventional vertical traveling screens.
 The average intake flow is 33.9 MGD from the river.
B2-JO

-------
S 316(b) Case Studies, Port B: The Delaware Estuary
                          Chapter B3: Evaluation of L&E Data
Although 20 years of I&E data are available for the Salem
facility, I&E data for other CWIS of the transition zone are
limited. Thus, to evaluate the potential cumulative
impacts of all transition zone CWIS, EPA extrapolated
Salem's I&E rates to other transition zone facilities, as
described in this chapter.  Section B3-1 lists fish and
shellfish species that are impinged and entrained by CWIS
of the transition zone, Section B3-2 summarizes the life
histories of the primary species impinged and entrained,
Section B3--3 describes the methods PSEG used to
estimate I&E at Salem, Section B3-4 presents estimates of
annual impingement at Salem, and Section B3-5 presents
estimates of annual entrainment at Salem. Section B3-6
outlines the methods used by EPA to extrapolate Salem's
I&E rates to other transition zone CWIS, Section B3-7
presents impingement extrapolations, Section B3-8
presents entrainment extrapolations, and Section B3-9
summarizes the cumulative I&E impacts of CWIS of the
transition zone.


B3-1  TRANSITION ZONE SPECIES

VULNERABLE  TO I&E
 CHAPTER CONTENTS

 B3-I     Transition Zone Species Vulnerable to I&E	B3-1
 B3-2  .   iife Histories of Primary Species Impinged
         and Entrained ,	T .	-r.-..-.	„. B3-4
 B3-3  *   Salem I&E Monitoring and PSEG's Methods for
         Calculating Annual I&E ,,~.	,,;,,.,, I,;. B3-2I
         B3-3.I   Impmgement Monitoring ...... .-*. n„ B3-21
         B3-3.2  ~Entrainment Monitoring .«'.'.....,.,',, B3-23
  f',',,   B3-3.3   Potential Biases and Uncertainties in "
  "^.,       .„  - PSEG's I&E Estimates . ^.~	B3-25
         B3-3.4'  Overview of EPA's Evaluation of ^rs*-    -'--
 5' -   „   - ^J Salem's I&E Data	'	-.,.,... B3-27
 B3-4   * Salem's Annual Impingement,'/.. ,'S*	B3-27-
-B3-S     Sale's Annual Enttainmcnt ,.-.; ,v	,, ^>,,. B3-33
 B3-6     Bxtrapolation of Salem's f&E Rates to Other -" /     ':'
      ^ ^Transition Zone Facilities!,-, ,-/f.	,	.1..,. B3-40
* ~"   ,  B3-&f  , Impingement Extrapolation'  ,,..,,	B3-40
* *    " _B3-6.2s  Injplngement Extrapolatidii *.,,,',,,. v. .,B32f(J
 B3-7   -' Safcm's Current i&E	•,.">.,
-------
 S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of ME Data
            Table B3-1:  Aquatic Species Vulnerable to J&E fay CWIS in the Transition Zone (cont,)-
                      Names in Bold Are Species Designated as RIS by the Saiem Facility
                 (see F-4 Table 1  of Appendix F of the 1999 Salem Permit Renewal Application),
Common Name
Atlantic croaker
Atlantic herring
Atlantic menhaden
Atlantic silverside
Atlantic sturgeon
Banded killifish
Bay anchovy
Black crappic
Black drum
Black sea bass
Blackchcek tonguefish
Blue crab
Blue runner
Blucback herring
Blucfish
Blucgill
Blucspotted sunfish
Brown bullhead
Buttcrfish
Channel catfish
Common carp
Conger eel
Crevallejack
Cusk-cel
Eastern silvery minnow
Feather blcnny
Florida pompano
Fourspine stickleback
Fringed flounder
Gizzard shad
Goose fish
Hake
Harvcstfish
Herring
Hogchokcr
Inland silverside
Jack
King mackerel
Largemouth bass
Lined seahorse
Minnows
Mud sunfish
[ Scientific Name
\Micropogonias undulatus
\Clupea harengus
\Brevoortia tyrannus
\Menidia menidia
\Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus
\FunduIus diaphanus diaphanus
\Anchoa mitchilli
\Pomoxis nigromaculatus
\Pogonias cromis
\Centropristis striata
\Symphurus plagiusa
i Callinectes sapidus
\Caranxcrysos
\Alosa aestivalis
\Pomatomus saltator
\Lepomis macrochirus
\Enneacanthus gloriosus
\Ameiurus nebulosus
\Peprilus triacanthus
\Ictalurus punctatus
ICyprinus carpio carpio
\Congeroceanicus
\Caranx hippos
\Lepophidium spp.
\Hybognathus regitis
\Hypsoblennius hentzi
: Trachinotus carolinus
\Apeltes quadroons
•\Etropuscrossotus
[Dorosoma cepedianum
\Lophius americanus
1 Urophycis spp.
\Peprilus alepidotus
\Alosa spp.
\Trinectes maculatus
\Menidia beryllina
\Caranxhippos
\Scomberomorus cavalla
\Micropterus salmoides
[Hippocampus erectus
\Fundulus spp.
\Acantharchus pomotis
Commercial
X

X
X




X
X

X


X



X

X








•y
X
X










Recreational
X
X






X
X

X

x°
X


X ,

X"

.A.




X




X

X


X
X




Forage




X
X
X
X


X

X
X

X
X





X
X
X
X

X
X



X

X
X


X
X
X
X
B3-2

-------
S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
Table B3-1: Aquatic Species Vulnerable to ME by CWIS in the Transition Zone (coht,).
Names in Bold Are Species Designated as KLB by the Salem Facility
(see F-4 Table 1 of Appendix F of the 1999 Salem Permit Renewal Application)
Common Name
Mummichog
Naked goby
Northern kingfish
Northern pipefish
Northern puffer
Northern searobin
Orange filefish
Oyster toadfish
Permit
Pigfish
Pipefish
Planehead
Pollock
Pumpkinseed
Rainbow smelt
Red hake
Redfin pickerel
Rough silverside
Sandbar shark
Scup
Sea lamprey
Searobins
Sheepshead minnow
Shrimp
Shrimp
Silver perch
Silversides
Skilletfish
Smallmouth bass
Smooth dogfish
Spanish mackerel
Spot
Spotted hake
Spotted seatrout
Striped anchovy
Striped bass
Striped cusk-eel
Striped killifish
Striped mullet
Striped searobin
Summer flounder
Tautog
: Scientific Name
\Fundulus heteroclitus heteroclitus
\Gobiosoma boscl
\Menticirrhus saxatilis
\Syngnathusfuscus
\Sphoeroides maculatus
\Prionptus carolinus
\Aluterus schoepjli
\Opsanustau
\ Trachinotus falcatus
\Orthopristis chrysoptera
\Syngnathus spp.
\Stephanolepis hispidu
1 Pollachius pollachius
\Leporrtis gibbosus
\Osmerus mordax mordax
I Urophycis chuss
\Esox americanus americanus
\Membras martinica
\Carcharhinusplumbeus
\Stenotomus chrysops
'•Petromyzon marinus
\Triglidae
\Cyprinodon variegatus varieg
\Gammarus spp.
\Neomysis spp.
\Bairdiella chrysoura
:Membras/Menidia spp.
\ Gobiesox strumosus
\Micropterus dolomieui
'•.Mustelns canis
'.Scomberomorus maculatus
.Leiostomus xanthurus
\ Urophycis regia
\Cynoscion nebulosus
\Anchoa hepsetus
'•.Morone saxatilis
\Ophidionmarginatum
\Fundulus majalis
\Mugil cephalus
\Prionotusevolans
\Paralichthys dentatus
\Taiitoga onitis
Commercial







X







X










X




X



X




X
X
Recreational


X

X
X
X
X

X


X


X


xa
X

X .
X


X




X
X
X
X

X


X
X
X
X
Forage
X
X

X






X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X


X
X


X
X
X




X.

X
X




                                                                                                                     53-3

-------
S 316(b) Cose Studies, Port B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
            Table B3-1: Aquatic Species Vulnerable to I&E by CWIS in the Transition Zone (cent,).
                      Names in Bold Are Species Designated as RIS fay the Salem Facility
                (see F-4 Table  1 of Appendix F of the 1999 Salem Permit Renewal Application).
Common Name
Tessellated darter
Thrccspine stickleback
Warmouth
Weakflsh
White catfish
White crappic
White mullet
White perch
White sucker
Windowpanc
Winter flounder
Yellow bullhead
Yellow perch
I Scientific Name
••Etheostoma olmstedi
\Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
\Lcpomis gulosus
\Cynoscionregalis
\Ictalurus catus
\Pomoxis annularis
\Mugil curema
'•Morons americana
\Catostomus commersoni
\Scophthalmus aquosus
\Pleuronectes americanus
\Ictalurus natalis
\PercaJlavescens
Commercial


1
X



X

X



Recreational



X
X"


X

•ya
X
X

Forage
X
X
X


X
X .

X



X
 * Designated as being in the recreational fishery at family level only.
 Sources: PSEG, 1999c, Attachment 4, Table 1, NMFS, 2001a, NMFS, 2001b.'


 B3-2  LIFE  HISTORIES  OF PRIMARY SPECIES IMPINGED AND ENTRAINED

 Life history characteristics of the primary species impinged or entrained at the Salem facility are summarized in the following
 sections. The species described are those with the highest I&E rates at Salem (presented below in Sections 3.4 and 3.5).

 Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengusj

 Alewife is a member of the herring family, Clupeidae, and ranges along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North
 Carolina (Scott and Grossman, 1998). Alewife tend to be more abundant in the mid-Atlantic and along the northeastern coast.
 They are anadromous, migrating inland from coastal waters in the spring to spawn. Adult alewife overwinter along the
 northern continental shelf, settling at the bottom in depths of 56 to 110 m (184 ft to 361 ft) (Able and Fahay, 1998). Adults
 feed on a wide variety of food items, while juveniles feed mainly on plankton (Waterfield, 1995).

 Alewife has been introduced to a number of lakes to provide forage for sport fish (Jude et al., 1987b). Ecologically, alewife is
 an important prey item for many fish, and commercial landings of river herring along the Atlantic coast have ranged from a
 high of 33,974 metric tons (74.9 million pounds) in  1958 to a low of less than 2,268 metric tons (5 million pounds) in recent
 years (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000b).

 Spawning is temperature-driven, beginning in the spring as water temperatures reach 13 to 15 °C, and ending when they
 exceed 27 "C (Able and Fahay, 1998).  Spawning takes place in the upper reaches  of coastal rivers, in slow-flowing sections
 of slightly brackish or freshwater.

 Females lay demersal eggs in shallow water less than 2 m (6.6 ft) deep (Wang and Kernehan,  1979).  They may lay from
 60,000 to 300,000 eggs at a time (Kocik, 2000). The demersal eggs are 0.8 to 1.27 mm (0.03 to 0.05 in) in diameter. Larvae
 hatch at a size of approximately 2.5 to 5.0 mm (0.1 to 0.2 in) total length (Able and Fahay, 1998). Larvae remain in the
 upstream spawning area for some time before drifting downstream to natal estuarine waters. Juveniles exhibit a diurnal
 vertical migration in the water column, remaining near the bottom during the day and rising to the surface at night (Fay et ak,
 1983c). In the fall, juveniles move offshore to nursery areas (Able and Fahay, 1998).

 Maturity is reached at an age of 3 to 4 years for males, and 4 to 5 years for females (Able and Fahay, 1998). The average size
 at maturity is 265 to 278 mm (10.4 to 10.9 in) for males and 284 to 308 mm (11.2 to 12.1 in) for females (Able and Fahay,
 1998).  Alewife can live up to 8 years, but the average age of the spawning population tends to be 4 to 5 years (Waterfield,
 1995; PSEG, 1999c).
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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                  Chapter S3: Evaluation of I&E Data
                     ALEWIFE
                (Alosa pseudoharengus)
  Family: Ciupeidae (herrings).

  Common names: River herring, sawbelly, kyak, branch
  lerring, freshwater herring, bigeye herring, gray herring,
  grayback, white herring.

  Similar species: Blueback herring.

  Geographic range: Along the western Atlantic coast from
  Newfoundland to North Carolina."

  Habitat: Wide-ranging, tolerates fresh to saline waters,
  travels in schools.

  Lifespan; May live up to 8 years.bx

  Fecundity: Females may lay from 60,000 to 300,000 eggs
  at a time.11
Food source: Small fish, zooplankton, fish eggs, amphipods, mysids.0

Prey for: Striped bass, weakfish, rainbow trout.

Life stage information:

 Eggs: demersal
*•   Found in waters less than 2 m (6.6 ft) deep.d
>•   Are 0.8 to 1.27 mm (0.03 to 0.05 in) in diameter/ ,
                                              !
 Larvae:    <                                  s
*•   Approximately 2.5 to 5.0 mm (0.1  to 0.2 in) at hatching/
*•   Remain in upstream spawning area for some time before drifting
    downstream to natal estuarine waters.

 Juveniles:
*•   Stay on the bottom during the day and rise to the surface at night.8
*•   Emigrate to ocean in summer and fall/

 Adults: anadromous
>   Reach maturity at 3-4 years for males and 4-5 years for females/
>   Average size at maturity is 265-278 mm (10.4-10.9 in) for males and
    284-308 mm (11.2-12.1 in) for females/
*•   Overwinter along the northern continental shelf/
  Location;:
  *•   Range along the western Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina.
      Some landlocked populations exist in the Great Lakes and smaller lakes.
  " Scott and Grossman, 1998.
  b PSEG, 1999c.
  c Waterfield, 1995.
  " Kocik, 2000.              '
  c Wang and Kernehan, 1979.                •                           =
  f Able and Fahay, 1998.
  8 Fayetal, 1983c.
  Fish graphic courtesy of New York Sportfishing and Aquatic Resources Educational Prograrn,2001.
American  shad {Alosa sapidissima)                                                        '•

American shad is a.member of the herring family, Ciupeidae. American shad ranges from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada,
south to Florida, and are most abundant from Connecticut to North Carolina (Able and Fahay, 1998). An anadromous
species, American shad migrate inland to spawn in natal rivers. Suitable American shad spawning habitat has declined over
the years because of degradation in water quality and the construction of dams blocking natal spawning grounds (Atlantic
States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000b). Though still commercially and recreationally an important species, the
economic importance of American shad has declined in the last century with its decreased abundance (Wang and Kernehan,
1979).                                                                                            ''

Spawning generally takes place from mid-April through early June, when water temperatures reach 12 °C (Able and Fahay,.
1998).  The slightly demersal eggs may hatch in 12 to 15 days at 12 °C (54 °F) and in 6 to 8 days at 17 "C (63 °F) (Wang and
Kernehan, 1979; Able and Fahay, 1998).  Larvae hatch at 5 to 10 mm (0.2 to 0.4 in), and are pelagic for 2 to 3 weeks. At 25
to 28 mm, shad become juveniles (Able and Fahay, 1998), and will remain in riverine habitats through the first summer,
gradually dispersing downstream (Able and Fahay, 1998). Emigration from estuarine habitats to marine waters occurs in the
fall, and is triggered by decreasing water temperatures.  Young-of-year are approximately 75 to  125 mm (3.0 to 4.9 in) at this
point (Able and Fahay,  1998).

At 1 year, juveniles reach approximately 120 mm (4.7 in). Males tend to mature at 3 to 5 years, while females mature at 4 to
6 years (Able and Fahay, 1998). Mortality rates vary according to spawning grounds.  Over half of the American shad that
                                                                                                                B3-5

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 S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                               Chapter B3: Evaluation of ME Data
 spawn in the Hudson River survive spawning migration and return to spawn again the following year (Wang and Kernehan, •
 1979), compared to less than 5 percent in the Delaware River (Wang and Kernehan, 1979).

 American shad have a potential lifespan of up to 11 years (Carlander, 1969), but generally do not live longer than 8 years
 (PSEG, 1999c).
                   AMERICAN SHAD
                    (Alosa sapidissima)
  Family: Clupeidae (herrings).

  Common names: Shad, Atlantic shad, white shad.

  Similar species: Atlantic herring, alewife, blueback herring,
  Atlantic menhaden.

  Geographic range: Atlantic coast from the St. Lawrence River
  to Florida.' May migrate more than 12,000 miles during their
  average lifespan.

  Habitat: Marine waters, returning to inland tributaries and
  streams to spawn.

  Lifespan: Generally up to 8 years.11

  Fecundity: Females can lay over 600,000 eggs, as several
  lovering males fertilize them.c
Food source: Primarily plankton feeders, while at sea they feed on
plankton, small crustaceans, and small fishes.

Prey for: Sea lamprey, striped bass, bluefish.

Life stage information:

 Eggs: slightly demersal
*•   Shad move far enough upstream for the eggs to drift downstream
    and hatch before reaching saltwater.
*•   The eggs mature rapidly and transform into young fish in 3 to 4
    weeks.

 Larvae: pelagic
*•'  Larvae hatch out at 5 to 10 mm (0.2 to 0.4 in) and are pelagic for 2
    to 3 weeks.d

 Juveniles:
>   The young-of-year remain in fresh to brackish water until early fall
    before entering the sea.  Some juveniles do not enter the sea and
    instead overwinter in deep holes near the mouth of the bay.

 Adults: anadromous
*•  • American shad are anadromous and do not feed during their return
    migration.
  Location:
     Inshore and offshore. Atlantic coast from the St. Lawrence River to Florida. Spends most of its life at sea in large schools. It only
     enters the freshwater river in which it was born to spawn.
  >•   American shad may migrate more than 1,000 miles during their average life span of five years at sea. They enter the bay from
     January to June between the ages of 4 and 6 to spawn in the freshwater and low-salinity tributaries.
 ' Able and Fahay, 1998.
 b PSEG, 1999c.
   Walburg. 1960. ,
 4 Able and Fahay, 1998.
  ;ish graphic from State of Maine Department of Marine Resources, 2001 a.
 Atlantic croaker {Micropogonias undulatus)

 The Atlantic croaker is a member of the drum family Sciaenidae. Its distribution ranges from Massachusetts to" the Gulf of
 Mexico along the Atlantic coast, with the greatest abundance from Chesapeake Bay to Florida (Able and Fahay, 1998;
 Desfosse et al., 1999). Populations of Atlantic croaker fluctuated over the last century, showing high levels in the 1940 's, then
 declining sharply in the 1950's and 1960's (Joseph, 1972). Numbers remained low until the rnid-1970's and steadily
 increased since then (Wang and Kernehan, 1979).  Commercial landings in Delaware were reported as low as 0.1 metric tons  '
 (220 Ib) in 1988, increasing to 6.7 metric tons (14,770 Ib) in 1999 (Personal Communication, National Marine  Fisheries
 Service, Fisheries Statistics and Economics Division, Silver Spring, Maryland, March 26, 2001).

 As a bottom-feeding fish, the Atlantic croaker feeds mainly on worms, crustaceans, and fish (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries
 Commission, 2000a).  It can tolerate a wide range of salinities ranging from freshwater to 70 ppt (Able and Fahay, 1998).
 Spawning occurs offshore from September through December along the continental shelf between Delaware Bay and Cape
 Hatteras (Morse, 1980a; Able and Fahay, 1998).
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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                    Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data'
Female fecundity along the mid-Atlantic coast ranges from 100,800 to 1,742,000 eggs in females from 196 to 390 mm (7.7 to
15.4 in) in total length (Morse, 1980a).  Atlantic croaker larvae enter Delaware Bay in fall and spend the winter over the
continental shelf. Young croaker use the estuary as a nursery area in late winter, spring, and summer. Larvae are most
abundant in September-October and juveniles are most abundant in October-January.  Young-of-year leave the offshore shelf
waters for inshore estuaries beginning in October, at lengths of 8 to 20 mm (0.3 to 0.8 in) (Able and Fahay, 1998).  Young-of-
year are. often found over soft mud bottoms at water temperatures between 9.5 and 23.2 °C (49.1 and 73.8 °F), and tend to
overwinter in deeper areas of the same habitats (Cowan and Birdsong, 1995). By age 1, individuals in the Delaware Bay have
reached lengths of 135 to 140 mm (Able and Fahay, 1998). In the fall, age 1 individuals leave their overwintering  estuaries to
migrate offshore and south for their second winter (Able and Fahay, 1998).

Maturity begins at lengths of 140 to 170 mm (5.5 to 6.7 in), as Atlantic croaker approach 2 years (White and Chittenden,
1977). Atlantic croaker is a relatively short-lived species, living to a maximum age of 2 to 4 years in the Mid-Atlantic Bight
(White and Chittenden, 1977). Adults tend to be less than 200 mm (7.9 in) long south of Cape Hatteras (Nprth  Carolina),
although they can reach more than 350 mm (13.8 in).  Individuals north of Cape Hatteras are generally larger (White and
Chittenden, 1977).                                                                                   i
              ATLANTIC CROAKER
              (Micropogonias undulatus)
 Family: Sciaenidae (drums).

 Common names: Corvina, hardhead, king billy,
 roncadina, and grumbler.

 Similar species: Red drum, weakfish, spotted seatrout,
 spot.

 Geographic range: From Massachusetts to the Gulf of
 Mexico along the western Atlantic coast, with the greatest
 abundance from Chesapeake Bay to Florida."-11

 Habitat: Usually found over mud and sandy mud bottoms
 in coastal waters and estuaries.1"

 Lifespan: Croaker generally live for 2-4 years.'

 Fecundity: Females may lay between 100,800 to 1.74
 million eggs.d
Food source: Croaker are opportunistic bottom-feeders that consume a
variety of invertebrates (mysid shrimp, copepods, marine worms) and
occasionally fish.

Prey for: Striped bass, flounder, shark, spotted seatrout, other croaker,
jluefish, and weakfish.                               ;

Life stage information:                             !

 Eggs: weakly demersal
>•   Develop offshore.

 Larvae:                                          '
    Larvae are most abundant in September-October.*

 Juveniles:
 -    Young-of-year migrate to inshore estuaries in the fell, and tend to
     overwinter in relatively deep areas with soft mud bottoms.
 -    Juvenile croaker leave estuaries in the fell to spend their second winter
     offshore.

 Adults:
 -    Maturity begins at approximately 140-170 mm (5.5 to 6.7 in).c
 >•    May reach over 350 mm (13.8 in).c                i
 Location:                                                                                           '
     New Jersey to the Gulf of Mexico and the Western Atlantic Coast. Most abundant between the Chesapeake Bay and Florida.
     Adult croaker generally spend the spring and summer in estuaries and move offshore and south along the Atlantic coast in the fell.
     Prefer muddy bottoms and depths less than 120m.                                             .
     Euryhaline species— able to tolerate a wide range of salinities.
 " Desfosse et al., 1999.
   Froese and Pauly, 2001.
 c White and Chittenden, 1977.
   Morse,  1980a.
 c Able and Fahay, 1998.
 Fish graphic from South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, 2001.
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                                                                                   Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E bata
 S 316(b) Case Studies, Port B: The Delaware Estuary


 Atlantic menhaden {Brevoortia fyrannus)

 The Atlantic menhaden, a member of the Clupeidae (herring) family, is a euryhaline species, occupying coastal and estuarine
 habitats. It is found along the Atlantic coast of North America, from Maine to northern Florida (Hall, 1995).  Adults
 congregate in large schools in coastal areas; these schools are especially abundant in and near major estuaries and bays. They
 consume plankton, primarily diatoms and dinoflagellates, which they filter from the water through elaborate gill rakers. In
 turn, menhaden are consumed by almost all commercially and recreationally important piscivorous fish, as well as by dolphins
 and birds (Hall, 1995).

 The menhaden fishery, one of the most important and productive fisheries on the Atlantic coast, is a multimillion-dollar
 enterprise (Hall, 1995). Menhaden are considered an "industrial fish" and are used to produce products such as paints,
 cosmetics, margarine (in Europe and Canada), and feed, as well as bait for other fisheries.  Landings in New England declined
 to their lowest level of approximately 2.7 metric tons (5,952 Ib) in the 1960s because of overfishing. Since then, landings
 have varied, ranging from approximately 240 metric tons (529,100 Ib) in 1989 to  1,069 metric tons in 1998 (Personal
 Communication, National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics and Economics Division, Silver Spring, Maryland,
 March 19,2001).

 Atlantic menhaden spawn year round at sea and in larger bays (Scott and Scott, 1988). Spawning peaks during the southward
 fall migration and continues throughout the winter off the North Carolina coast. There is limited spawning during the
 northward migration and during summer months (Hall,  1995).  The majority of spawning occurs over the inner continental
 shelf, with less activity in bays and estuaries (Able and Fahay, 1998).

 Females mature just before age 3, and release buoyant, planktonic eggs during spawning (Hall, 1995).  Atlantic menhaden
 annual egg production ranges from approximately  100,000 to 600,000 eggs for fish age 1 to age 5 (Dietrich, 1979).  Eggs are
 spherical and between 1.3 to 1.9 mm (0.05  to 0.07 in) in diameter (Scott and Scott, 1988).

 Larvae hatch after approximately 24 hours  and remain in the plankton.  Larvae hatched in offshore waters enter the Delaware
 Estuary 1 to 2 months later to mature (Hall, 1995). Juveniles then migrate south in the fall, joining adults off North Carolina
 in January (Hall, 1995). Water temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) kill the larvae, and therefore larvae that fail to reach estuaries
 before the fall are more likely to die than those arriving in early spring (Able and Fahay, 1998),  Larvae hatchout at 2.4 to 4.5
 mm (0.09 to 0.18 in). The transition to the juvenile stage occurs between 30 and 38 mm (1.2 and 1.5 in) (Able and Fahay,
 1998). The juvenile growth rate in some areas is estimated to be 1 mm (0.04 in) per day (Able and Fahay, 1998).

 During the fall and early winter, most menhaden migrate south off of the North Carolina coast, where they remain until March
and early April. They avoid waters below 3 °C, but can tolerate a wide range of salinities from less than 1 percent up to 33-37
percent (Hall, 1995). Sexual maturity begins at age 2, and all individuals are mature by age 3 (Scott and Scott, 1988).

Adult fish are commonly between 30 and 35 cm (11.8 and 13.8 in) in length. The maximum age of a menhaden is     .
approximately 7 to 8 years (Hall, 1995), although individuals of 8-10 years have been recorded (Scott and Scott,  1988).
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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                           Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
                 ATLANTIC MENHADEN
                    (Brevoortia tyrannus)
  Family: Clupeidae (herrings).

  Common names: menhaden, bunker, fatback, bugfish.

  Similar species: Gulf menhaden, yellowfin menhaden.

  Geographic range: From Maine to northern Florida along the
  Atlantic coast."

  Habitat: Open-sea, marine waters.  Travels in schools.b

  Lifespan:
      Approximately 7 to 8 years.3

  Fecundity:
      Females may produce between 100,000 to 600,000 eggs.c
Food Source: Phytoplankton, zooplankton, annelid worms, detritus*

Prey for: Sharks, cod, pollock, hakes, bluefish,;tuna, swordfish,   i
seabirds, whales, porpoises.b

Life Stage Information

 Eggs: pelagic
>   Spawning takes place along the inner continental shelf, in open
    marine waters.d                       'i
*   Eggs hatch after approximately 24 hours.
 Larvae: pelagic
*   Larvae hatch out at sea, and enter estuarine waters 1 to 2
    months later."                        '
>   Remain in estuaries through the summer, emigrating to ocean
    waters as juveniles in September or October/

 Adults                                 :
>   Congregate in large schools in coastal area's.
»•   Spawn year round.b
  • Hall, 1995.
  b Scott and Scott, 1988.
  c Dietrich, 1979.
  " Able and Fahay, 1998.
  Fj^hgrapjiic from South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, 2001.
Atlantic silverside  (Menidia menidia)

The Atlantic silverside is a member of the silverside family, Atherinidae. Its geographic range extends from coastal waters of
New Brunswick to northern Florida (Fay et al., 19836), but it is most abundant between Cape Cod and South Carolina (Able
and Fahay, 1998). Atlantic silversides inhabit sandy seashores and the mouths of inlets (Froese and Pauly, 2001).  Silversides
are an important species of forage fish, eaten by valuable fishery species such as striped bass (Morone saxqtilis), bluefish
(Pomatomus salatrix), weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), and Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) (Fay et al., 1983c; McBride,
1995).                                                                                        -

Atlantic silversides spawn in the upper intertidal zone during spring and summer.  Spawning appears to be stimulated by new
and full moons, in association with spring tides. On average, females produce 4,500 to 5,000 demersal eggs per spawning
season, whiqh may include four to five separate spawning bouts (Fay et al., 1983c). The eggs are 0.9 to 1.2 mm (0.04 to 0.05
in) in diameter. Larvae range in size from 5.5 to 15.0 mm (0.2 to 0.6 in) (Fay et al., 1983c). The sex of Atlantic silversides is
determined during the larval stage, at approximately 32 to 46 days after hatching.  Water temperatures between 11 and 19 °C
(52 and 66 ,°F) produce significantly more females, whereas temperatures between 17 and 25 °C (63 and 77 °F) produce
significantly more males (Fay etal., 1983c).                                                          :

Juveniles occur in estuaries during the summer months, occupying intertidal creeks, marshes, and shore zones of bays and
estuaries. Silversides typically migrate offshore in the winter (McBride, 1995). In studies of seasonal distribution in
Massachusetts, all individuals left inshore waters during winter months (Able and Fahay, 1998).          >

The diet of juveniles and adults consists of copepods, mysids, amphipods, cladocerans, fish eggs, squid, worms, molluscs,
insects, algae, and detritus (Fay et al., 1983c).  Atlantic silversides feed in large schools, preferring gravel and sand bars, open
beaches, tidal creeks, river mouths, and marshes (Fay et al., 1983c).

Silversides live for only 1 or 2 years, usually dying after completing their first spawning (Fay et al., 1983c). Adults can reach
sizes of up to  15 cm (5.9 in) in total length (Froese and Pauly, 2001).
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 S 316(b) Case. Studies, Port B: The Delaware Estuary
                              Chapter B3: Evaluation of X&E Data
                 ATLANTIC SILVERSIDE
                    (Menidia menidia)
  Family: Atherinidae (silversides).

  Common names: Spearing, Sperling, green smelt, sand smelt,
  white bait, capclin, shiner."

  Similar species: Inland silverside (Menidia beryllina).'

  Geographic range: New Brunswick to northern Florida'

  Habitat: Sandy seashores and the mouths of inlets.b

  Lifcspan: One or 2 years. Often die after their first spawning."

  Fecundity: Females produce an average of 4,500 to 5,000 eggs
  jer spawning season."
Food Source: Zooplankton, fish eggs, squid, worms, molluscs, insects,
algae, and detritus.3

Prey for: Striped bass, bluefish, weakfish, and Atlantic mackerel."-"

Life Stage Information

 Eggs: demersal
*•   Found in shallow waters of estuarine intertidal zones."
*•   Can be found adhering to submerged vegetation."

Larvae:
.*•   Range from 5.5 to 15.0 mm (0.2 to 0.6 in) in size."
>   Sex is determined during the larval stage by the temperature
    regime.  Colder temperatures tend to produce more females, and
    warmer temperatures produce more males."
 Adults:
*•   Overwinter in offshore marine waters.d
*   Can reach sizes of up to 15 cm (5.9 in) total length.d
  " Fayctal., 1983c.
  * Frocse and Pauly, 2001.
   McBride, 1995.
  d Able and Fahay, 1998.
  •jsh.graph.ic frojn Gwemment of Canada. 2001.
 Bay anchovy (Anchoa mftchilli)

 Bay anchovy is a member of the anchovy family, Engraulidae, and is one of the most abundant species in estuaries along the
 Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States (Vouglitois et al., 1987).  In Delaware Bay, bay anchovy shares the status of
 most abundant species with the Atlantic silverside (de'Sylva et al., 1962).  Because of its widespread distribution and overall
 abundance, bay anchovy are an important component of the food chain for recreational and commercial fish, and as such have
 indirect economic importance (Morton, 1989).

 Bay anchovy is commonly found in shallow tidal areas, feeding mainly on copepods and other zooplankton. It tends to
 appear in higher densities in vegetated areas such as eelgrass beds (Castro and Cowen,  1991).

 The spawning period of bay anchovy is long, with records ranging from April to November (Vouglitois et al., 1987).  In the
 Delaware Estuary, the spawning season usually occurs from early April through mid-June (Wang and  Kernehan, 1979).
 Spawning within the Delaware Estuary primarily occurs in the western part of the C & D Canal, and in the Elk River (Wang
 and Kemehan, 1979) (see Figure Bl-1), and has been correlated with areas of high zooplankton abundance (Dorsey et al.,
 1996).  In Chesapeake Bay, a minimum of 50 spawning events per female was estimated, with spawning events occurring
 every 4 days in June and every 1.3 days in July.  Spawning generally occurs nocturnally, and during peak spawning periods
 females may spawn nightly.  Fecundity estimates for bay anchovy in mid-Chesapeake Bay were reported at 643 eggs in July
 1986 and 731 eggs in July 1987 (Zastrow et al., 1991).  The pelagic eggs are 0.8 to 1.3  mm (0.03 to 0.05 in) in diameter
 (Able and Fahay, 1998). Size of the eggs varies with increased water salinity.

 Eggs hatch in approximately 24 hours at average summer temperatures (Monteleone,  1992). The yolk sac larvae are 1.8 to
 2.0 mm (0.07 to 0.08 in) long, with nonfunctioning eyes and mouth parts (Able and Fahay, 1998).  Mortality during these
 stages is high. In a study conducted in the Chesapeake Bay, 73 percent of the eggs died before hatching, and mortality for
 surviving larvae was 72 percent within the first 24 hours of hatching (Dorsey et al., 1996).

 Growth estimates for larval bay anchovy have been estimated at 0.53 to 0.56 mm (0.021 to 0.022 in) per day in Great South
 Bay, New York (Castro and Cowen, 1991), and young-of-year growth rates averaged 0.47 mm (0.02 in) per day in
 Chesapeake Bay (Zastrow et al., 1991). Sexual maturity occurs at a length of 40 to 45 mm (1.6 to 1.8  in) in Chesapeake Bay
B3-1Q

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§ 316(b) Cose. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                 Chapter B3: Evaluation of L&E Data
(Zastrow et al., 1991).  Individuals hatched early in the season may become sexually mature by their first summer (Morton,
1989).                                                                                             '

Most young-of-year migrate out of the estuaries at the end of the summer in schools, and can be found in large numbers on the
inner continental shelf in the fall (Vouglitois et al., 1987). The average size for adults is 75 mm (2.95 in) (Morton, 1989).
Bay anchovy live for only 1 or 2 years (Zastrow etal., 1991).                                           :

Near the Salem station, bay anchovy eggs are present from May to November and are most abundant from May to August.
Larvae are present from May to October, with greatest abundance from June to August. Juveniles are present throughout the
year but are most abundant from July to October. Adults are also present year-round and are most abundant from April to
November.                                                                                         :
                  BAY ANCHOVY
                  (Anchoa mitchtili)
 Family: Engraulidae (anchovies).

 Common names: Anchovy.

 Similar species: Atlantic silverside.

 Geographic range: From Maine, south to the Gulf of
 Mexico."

 Habitat: Commonly found in shallow tidal areas with
 muddy bottoms and brackish waters; often appears in higher
 densities in vegetated areas such as eelgrass beds.b

 Lifespan: I-2years.c

 Fecundity: Females spawn a minimum of 50 times over the
 spawning season in the Chesapeake Bay. Fecundity per
 spawning event is about 700 eggs.c
Food source: Primarily feed on copepods and other zooplankton, as well as
small fishes and gastrdpods.b

Prey for: Striped bass, weakfish, jellyfish.

Life stage information:

 Eggs: pelagic
    Eggs are 0.8-1.3 mm (0.03 to 0.05 in) in diameter."
 •   Eggs experience an average mortality of 73 percent.11

 Larvae:
*•   Yolk-sac larvae are 1.8 to 2.0 mm (0.7 to 0.8 in) on hatching."
»•   Daily mortality for yolk-sac larvae is as high as 88 percent.11
>•   Daily mortality for 3-15 day old larvae is approximately 28 percent.b

 Juveniles:
>   Young-of-year migrate out of estuaries at the end of summer, and can
    be found in large numbers on the inner continental shelf in fall."

 Adults:

>   Adults reach sexual maturity at 40 to 45 mm (1.6 to 1.8 in) in
    Chesapeake Bay."
>•   The average adult is 75 mm (2.95 in) long/
 Location:
     Ranges from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, south to the Gulf of Mexico. Spawns in the Delaware Estuary in the Elk River and C&D
     Canal.8
     Most commonly found in shallow tidal areas with muddy bottoms and brackish waters, but can be found in a wide range of habitats.
     Tolerates a wide range of salinities.
 " Able and Fahay, 1998.
 b Castro and Cowen, 1991.
 c Zastrow etal., 1991.
   Dorsey etal., 1996.
   Vouglitois et al., 1987.
   Morton, 1989.
 8 Wang and Kernehan,  1979.
 Fish graphic from NOAA, 20Qla.
 Blue crab  (Callinectes sapidus)

 The Atlantic blue crab can be found in Atlantic coastal waters from Long Island to the Gulf of Mexico. Blue crab supports
 the most economically important inshore commercial fishery in the mid-Atlantic (Epifanio; 1995); Chesapeake Bay provides
 over 50 percent of the commercial landings of Atlantic blue crab nationwide (Epifanio, 1995).
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 S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The belaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
 Females typically mate only once within their lifetime. Spawning in the Delaware Bay peaks from late July to early August.
 After an elaborate courtship ritual, females lay two to three broods of eggs, each containing over 1 million eggs.  Mating
 occurs in areas of low salinity. The eggs hatch near high tide and the larvae are carried out to sea by the current (Epifanio,
 1995). This stage of the lifecycle is called the zoeal stage.  The zoea go through seven molts before entering the next stage,
 the megalops stage, and are carried back to estuarine waters (Epifanio, 1995). The zoea stages last approximately 3.5 days,
 and the megalops stage may vary from several days to a few weeks (Epifanio, 1995).

 While in the zoeal stage along the continental shelf, larvae are vulnerable to predators, starvation, and transport to unsuitable
 habitats.  Larvae are especially vulnerable to predators while molting. Dispersal of young Atlantic blue crabs is primarily
 controlled by wind patterns, and they do not necessarily return to their parent estuaries (Epifanio, 1995).  In the Delaware
 Estuary, maturity is reached at approximately 18 months (Epifanio, 1995).

 Atlantic blue crabs inhabit all regions of the Delaware Estuary. Males prefer areas of low salinity, while females prefer the
 mouth of the estuary. In the warmer months, crabs occupy shallower areas in depths of less than 4.0 m (13 ft). They can
 tolerate water temperatures exceeding 35 °C (95 °F), but do not fare as well in cold water (Epifanio, 1995). In winter months,
 adults burrow into the bottom of deep channels and remain inactive (Epifanio, 1995). Extremely cold weather has resulted in
 high mortality of overwintering crabs (Epifanio, 1995).                  .

 Atlantic blue crabs are omnivorous, foraging on molluscs, mysid shrimp, small crabs, worms, and plant material (Epifanio,
 1995). Adults prey heavily on juvenile Atlantic blue crab (Epifanio,  1995).

 Atlantic blue crab can live up to 3 years (Epifanio, 1995).

 Impingeable sizes of blue crab are present throughout the year near Salem, but are most abundant from April to November.
ATLANTIC BLUE CRAB
(Callinectcs sapidus)
Family: Portunidae (swimming crabs).
Common names: Blue crab.
Similar species: Lesser blue crab (Callinectes similis).
Lifespan: Up to 3 years. Maturity is reached at 18 months.3
Geographic range: Atlantic coast from Long Island to the
GulfofMexico.'
Habitat: Inhabit all areas of the Delaware Estuary. In
warmer weather they occupy shallow areas less than 4 m ( 1 3
ft) deep. They burrow into the bottom of deep channels and
remain inactive in Winter."
Fecundity: Typically mate once in their lifetime.
Milting occurs in low salinity areas. Females lay two to
three broods of 1 million eggs each."
• Epifanio, 1995.
Graphic from U.S. FDA. 2001.
Food Source: Atlantic blue crabs are omnivores, foraging on molluscs,
mysids, shrimp, small crabs, worms, and plant material.'
Prey for: Juveniles are preyed upon by a variety offish (eels, striped bass,
weakfish) and are heavily preyed upon by adult blue crabs."
Life Stage Information
Eggs:
> Hatch near high tide.0
Larvae: "
>• Carried out to sea by the current, where they remain for seven molts
before returning to estuaries."
Adults:
> Males prefer lower salinity while females prefer the mouth of the bay."

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S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
Blueback herring (Alosa aestiva/is)
                            .
Blueback herring is a member of the herring family, Clupeidae. It is closely related to the alewife; together'they are
commonly referred to as river herring. The range of blueback herring extends from Nova Scotia south to northern Florida,
though they are more abundant in the southern portion of their range (Scott and Scott, 1988). Within the Delaware Estuary,
blueback herring tend to be more abundant in the upper region of the estuary than do the closely related alewife (Waterfield,
1995). Economically, blueback herring are an important bait species for the blue crab industry of the Delaware and
Chesapeake bays.  They are also a significant prey item for many estuarine fish species.                  ;

Adults spawn from spring to early summer in upstream brackish or freshwater areas of rivers and tributaries. Spawning
occurs at night in fast currents over a hard substrate (Loesch and Lund, 1977).  Spawning groups have been observed diving
to the bottom and releasing the semi-adhesive eggs over the substrate, but many eggs are dislodged by the current and enter
the water column. Loesch and Lund (1977) reported fecundity estimates of 45,800 to 349,700 eggs per female, and noted that
fecundity was positively correlated with total fish length up to approximately 300 mm. After spawning,  adults move,
downstream and return to the ocean.                                                                ,       ,

Eggs float near the bottom for 2 to 4 days until hatching, depending on temperature. At hatching, larvae are 3.1  to 5.0 mm
(0.12 to 0.20 in) (Jones et al., 1978).  Larvae become juveniles at approximately 20 mm (0.79 in), or at 25 to 35 days (Able
and Fahay, 1998). Juveniles  are distributed high in the water column and avoid bottom depths (Able and Fahay, 1998). In
the early juvenile stages, fish are swept downstream by the tide. Some juveniles will move upstream until late summer before
migrating downstream in late summer to early fall.  Juveniles are sensitive to sudden water temperature changes, and emigrate
downstream in response to a decline in temperature (Able and Fahay 1998). By late fall, most young-of-year emigrate to
ocean waters to overwinter (Wang and Kernehan, 1979).

Male blueback herring mature at ages 3 to 4, and females mature at ages 4 to 5. Over half of the adults are: repeat spawners,
returning to natal spawning grounds every year (Scherer, 1972).  Females tend to grow larger than males and dominate the
older age groups.  Blueback herring can live to 8 years (Froese and Pauly, 2001).

Near Salem, blueback herring juveniles are present from winter through late spring and again in fall.
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 S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                           Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
                   BLUEBACK HERRING
                       (Alosa aestivalis)
  Family: Clupcidac (herrings).

  Common names: River herring, glut herring, summer herring, kyak,
  blackbelly.

  Similar species: alewife, American shad, Atlantic menhaden.

  Geographic range: From Nova Scotia south to northern Florida."

  Habitat: Euryhaline, marine. Adults form schools and overwinter
  near the bottom out from the coast.1"

  Lifcspan: May live up to 8 years.b

  Fecundity: Fecundity ranges from 45,800 to 349,700 eggs per
  female.' Over half of adults are repeat spawners and return to natal
  spawning grounds every year.d
Food source: Shrimp, zooplankton, finfish.

Prey for: Striped bass, weakfish, bluefish.

Life stage information:

 Eggs: pelagic
+   Eggs float near the bottom for 2-4 days.' •

 Larvae:
>•   Larvae are-3.1-5.0 mm at hatching."
>   The larval stage duration is 25-35 days/

 Juveniles:
>  ; Blueback herring reach the juvenile stage at 20 mm (0.79 in),
    or at an age of 25-35 days/
>•   Juveniles are distributed high in the water column and avoid
    bottom depths.
*•   Juveniles tend to move upstream until late summer before
    migrating downstream in late summer in response to a decline
    in temperature.

 Adults:
>•   Males mature at ages 3-4, females at ages 4-5.
>   Adults overwinter near the bottom and out from the coast, then
    return to shore in late spring to spawn.
  Location:
     Range from Nova Scotia south to northern Florida.
     More common in upper region of Delaware estuary than the closely related alewife.
   Scott and Scott, 1988.
   Froese and Pauly, 2001.
   Loesch and Lund, 1977.
   Schcrer,  1972.
   Jones etal., 1978.
   Able and Fahay, 1998.
  i'sh graphic courtesy of New York Sportfishing and Aquatic Resources Educational Program, 2001.
 Spot (Leiostomus xanthurus)

 Spot is a member of the drum family, Sciaenidae. Its range extends along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts Bay to
 Campeche Bay, Mexico, and it is most abundant from Chesapeake Bay to South Carolina (Hildebrand and Schroeder, 1928;
 Mercer, 1987). Spot are occasionally harvested for food, but because of their small size, are typically used as bait and in pet
 food and fish meal (Hales and Van Den Avyle, 1989). Spot are often caught by anglers because they take the bait easily and
 are often found near piers and bridges (Hales and Van Den Avyle, 1989).

 Ecologically they are an important species because of their high abundance and their status on the food chain as both predator
 and prey for many species. Because of their short lifespan, annual landings tend to consist of a single year class and fluctuate
 greatly from year to year, yet show no long-term trends (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000c).

 Spawning occurs in deeper waters along the continental shelf from late fall through early spring (Mercer, 1987). Females
 produce 30,000 to 60,000 eggs  (Phillips et al., 1989), and .eggs are 0.72-0.87 mm (0.028 to 0.034 in) in diameter (Able and
 Fahay, 1998). Larvae hatch out at 1.5 to  1.7 mm (0.06 to 0.07 in) in length and begin migrating to inshore estuaries, reaching
 the nursery estuarine waters in early to  late spring.  Young larvae show a preference for low salinity waters (Wang and
 Kernehan,  1979), and continue  to migrate to the upper areas of estuaries to spend the summer. By the fall, young-of-year
 reach 10 to 11 cm (3.9 to 4.3 in) (Able  and Fahay, 1998). First year growth rates for spot in Chesapeake Bay have been
 recorded from 10.5 mm (0.4 in) per month to 19.1 mm (0.8 in) per month (Hildebrand and Schroeder, 1928; McCambridge
 and Alden, 1984).
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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                             Chapter B3: Evaluation of I   Larvae are 1.5-1.7 mm (0.06 to 0.07 in) long at hatching.'
>•   Larvae migrate to inshore estuary waters, arriving in early to late
    spring.    ,                            ;
>   Young larvae prefer low salinity waters and are found in upper
    estuary waters.

 Juveniles:                                .
>   As water temperature decreases in the fall, most young-of-year
    spot migrate out to the ocean.:
>   Larger individuals tend to leave the estuary earlier.

 Adults:
>   Spot mature at 2-3 years.11                ;
>   The largest recorded spot was 35.6 cm (14.0 jn) long, although
    most mature adults are 17.8-20.3 cm (7.0 to 8.0 in).h
 Location:        •
     Range along the western Atlantic coast from Massachusetts Bay to Campeche Bay, Mexico.
     Found over sandy or muddy bottoms in coastal waters to about 60 m depth.
     Found in nursery and feeding grounds in river estuaries in summer and fall.
   Hildebrand and Schroeder, 1928.
   Mercer, 1987.
 c  Hales and Van Den Avyle, 1989.
 "  Froese and Pauly, 2000.
 c  Phillips et al., 1989.
 r Chao and. Musick, 1977.
   Able and. Fahay, 1998.
 h  Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000c.
 Fish graphic from South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, 2001.
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 S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of 1"&E Data
 Striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

 Striped bass is a member of the temperate bass family, Moronidae. Both migratory and nonmigratory populations span the
 Atlantic coast, from the St. Lawrence River, Canada, to the St. John's River in Florida (Scott and Scott, 1988).  Striped bass
 has long been an important commercial and recreational species. The perceived decline in striped bass populations was the
 reason behind the creation of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission in 1942 (Miller, R.W.,  1995). Spawning
 populations of striped bass were nearly eliminated from the Delaware River in the mid-1900's, because of poor water quality.
 Pollution in the lower portions of the Delaware River caused a decline in striped bass reproduction due to a decrease in
 dissolved oxygen for several years, but cleanup efforts in the 1980's and 1990's resulted in improved water quality and
 increased striped bass reproduction (Chittenden, 1971; Weisberg and Burton, 1993; Miller, R.W., 1995). A moratorium was
 declared on striped bass fishing in the state of Delaware from 1985 through 1989 (Miller, R.W., 1995). While populations of
 striped bass have rebounded, the fishery is still managed closely and tight restrictions on size limits and the length of the
 fishing season are kept to maintain the goals established under Amendment 5 of the Striped Bass Fishery Management Plan of
 1995 (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000g).

 Striped bass are a popular catch among recreational anglers; however, consumption advisories are currently in place for
 striped bass from the Delaware River and Bay as a result of bioaccumulation of PCBs (PSEG,  1999c).  These advisories
 recommend limiting the consumption of striped bass to less than five 267 g (8-oz.) meals per year. A 1997 landings report
 estimated the yearly catch by recreational and commercial fisheries to be 4.094 million striped bass (Atlantic States Marine
 Fisheries Commission, 2000d). Angling  efforts are typically centered on the C&D canal, from Port Perm to Augustine Beach,
 Delaware, and in the mouths of tributaries south of the canal (PSEG, 1999c).  In the Delaware Bay, there are currently no
 directed commercial fishing efforts for striped bass, although historically commercial harvesting of striped bass  was an
 important resource (PSEG, 1999c).

 Striped bass are common along mid-Atlantic coastal waters. They are an anadromous fish that spend most of the year in
 saltwater but use the upper fresh and brackish water reaches of estuaries as spawning and nursery areas in spring and summer
 (Setzler et al., 1980). The principal spawning areas for striped bass along the Atlantic coast are the major tributaries of
 Chesapeake Bay, and the Delaware and Hudson rivers (NOAA, 200 Ic). The timing of spawning may be triggered by an
 increase in water temperature, and generally occurs from April to June (Fay et al., 1983c). Spawning behavior consists of a
 female surrounded by up to 50 males at or near the surface (Setzler et al., 1980).  Eggs are broadcast loosely in the water and
 fertilized by the males. Females may release an estimated 14,000 to 40.5 million eggs, depending on the size of the female
 (Jackson and Tiller, 1952).  A 23 kg (50 pound) female may produce approximately 5 million eggs (Mansueti and Hollis,
 1963).

 Striped bass eggs are semibuoyant, and require minimum water velocities to remain buoyant. Eggs that settle to the bottom
 may become smothered by sediment (Hill et al., 1989). The duration of larval development is influenced by water
 temperature; temperatures ranging from 24 to 15 °G (75 to 59 °F) correspond to larval durations of 23 to 68 days, respectively
 (Rogers et al., 1977). Saila and Lorda (1977) reported a 6 percent probability of survival for egg and yolk-sac stages of
 development, and a 4 percent probability of survival for the post yolk-sac stage.

 At 30 mm (1.2 in), most striped bass enter the juvenile stage. Juveniles begin schooling in larger groups after age 2 (Bigelow
 and  Schroeder, 1953). Migratory patterns of juveniles vary with locality (Setzler et al., 1980).  In both the Delaware and the
 Hudson rivers, young-of-year migrate downstream from their spawning grounds to the tidal portions of the rivers to spend
 their first summer (Able and Fahay, 1998).  In the Delaware River, young-of-year may spend 2 or more years within the
 estuary before joining the offshore migratory population (Miller, R.W., 1995).  Similar trends were found in the Hudson
 River, where individuals were found to stay up to 3 years in estuaries before migrating offshore (Able and Fahay, 1998).
 Results of tagging studies reported by the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DDNREC,
 2000) and Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSEG, 1999c) showed that striped bass tagged in the Delaware Estuary
 were recaptured from North Carolina to Maine. However, the majority of tagged fish were recovered between Maryland  and
 Massachusetts.

 Adult striped bass feed in intervals while schooling (Fay et al.,  1983c).  They primarily eat smaller fish species such as
 herring, silversides, and anchovies  (Miller, R.W, 1995). Larvae feed primarily on copepods (Miller, R.W, 1995), and
 stomach contents of juveniles from the Delaware Estuary show mysid shrimp as a favored food item (Bason, 1971).

 Adults may live up to 30 years (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000d), and have been reported at sizes up to
 200 cm (79 in) (Froese and Pauly, 2001).
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S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                    Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
                  STRIPED BASS
                 (Morone saxatilis)
 Family: Moronidae (temperate basses).

 Common names: Striper, rockfish, linesider, and sea
 33SS.8

 Similar species: White perch.

 Geographic range: St. Lawrence River in Canada to the
 St. Johns River in Florida, and from the Suwannee River
 in western Florida to Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana.3

 Habitat: Juveniles prefer shallow rocky to sandy areas.
 Adults in inshore areas use a variety of substrates,
 including rock, boulder, gravel, sand, detritus, grass,
 moss, and mussel beds.3

 Lifespan: Adults may reach 30 years.b

 Fecundity: Females release 14,000 to 40.5 million eggs,
 depending on the size of the female.'
Food sources:
>   Larvae feed primarily on mobile planktonic invertebrates (beetle larvae,
    copepodids Daphnia spp.).a
*•   Juveniles eat larger aquatic invertebrates and small fishes."
>•   Adults are piscivorous.  Clupeid fish are the dominant prey and adults
    prefer soft-rayed fishes.3

Prey for: Any sympatric piscivorous fish.3

Life stage information:

 Eggs: pelagic
>   Eggs and newly hatched larvae require sufficient turbulence to remain
     suspended in the water column; otherwise, they can settle to the bottom
    and be smothered.d

 Larvae: pelagic
     Larvae range from 5 to 30 mm (0.2 to 1.2 in)."

 Juveniles:
>•    Most striped bass enter the juvenile stage at 30 mm (1.2 in) total length.d
••    Juveniles school in larger groups after 2 years of age.4
*    Juveniles in the Delaware River generally remain in estuarine areas for 2
     or more years before joining the offshore migratory population.1
                                                  i
 Adults: Anadromous                               ;

*•    Adults school offshore, but swim upstream to spawn/
>    May grow as large as 200 cm (79 in).e            1
 Location:
     Estuaries are spawning grounds and nurseries and thus critically important to their life cycle.                  ;
     Mature striped bass are found in and around a variety of inshore habitats, including areas off sandy beaches and along rocky
     shorelines, in shallow water or deep trenches, and in rivers and the open bay.                               ;
    , St. Lawrence River in Canada to the St. Johns River in Florida, and from the Suwannee River in western Florida to Lake
     Pontchartrain, Louisiana.                •
     Migratory behavior is more complex than that of most other anadromous fish. Seasonal movements depend on their age, sex, degree
     of maturity, and the river in which they were born.
     Mature striped bass move from the ocean into tidal freshwater to spawn in late winter and spring.  Spawning generally occurs in
     April, May, and early June. Shortly after spawning, mature fish return to the coast. Most spend summer and early fall months in
     middle New England near-shore waters.  In late fall and early winter they migrate south off the North Carolina and Virginia capes.
 • Hilletal., 1989.
  Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000d.
 c Jackson and Tiller, 1952.
  Bigelow and Schroeder, 1953.
 ' Miller, R.W, 1995.
 r Setzler et al., 1980.
 8 Froese and Pauly, 2001.
 Fish graphic from NOAA, 2001 b.
Weakfish  (Cynoscion regali^                                                          ••       \

Weakfish is a member of the family Sciaenidae (drums), which is considered an important recreational and commercial
resource along the Atlantic coast (Seagraves, 1995). Weakfish are found along the eastern seaboard, primarily from
Massachusetts Bay to southern Florida (Seagraves, 1995).  Adults travel in schools, following a seasonal migratory pattern
from offshore wintering grounds in the spring to northern inland estuarine spawning grounds with warming of coastal waters
in the spring (Seagraves, 1995).  Weakfish spawn in the Delaware Estuary in spring and usually move north as far as
Massachusetts for the summer (Shepherd and Grimes, 1984). These same fish over-winter as far south as Cape Hatteras,
North Carolina.  Weakfish favor shallow waters and sandy bottoms.  They typically feed throughout the water column on fish,
shrimp, and other small invertebrates (Seagraves, 1995).                                                ;
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S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of IAE Data
Steady declines in weakfish landings since 1980 caused enough concern to prompt the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries
Commission to develop a management plan for the species in 1985.  In addition, the commission developed three
amendments in an attempt to strengthen the management plan; the third amendment called for a 5-year restoration period to
bring the weakfish population back to its historical age and size structure. Since 1993, annual landings have steadily
increased (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000f). Weakfish are very popular as a recreational fishing target in
Delaware Bay and surrounding coastline.' In a survey of Delaware anglers, weakfish was consistently one of the top three
species targeted by anglers from 1982 to 1996 (PSEG, 1999c).  Recreational catches of weakfish in Delaware and New Jersey
comprised greater than 70 percent the coastal recreational weakfish catch since 1995 (PSEG, 1999c).

Spawning occurs shortly after the inshore migration, peaking from late April to June, with some geographic variation in
timing.  In the fall, an offshore and southerly migration of adults coincides with declining water temperatures (Atlantic States
Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000f). Specific spawning time is correlated with the size of the individual; larger fish tend to
spawn earlier (Shepherd and Grimes, 1984), often resulting in a bimodal distribution of size in larvae (Able and Fahay, 1998).

Fecundity of female weakfish varies with locality.  A 50 cm (20 in) female weakfish from the New York Bight produced
about 306,000 ova, while southern weakfish of the same size produced 2.05 million ova. Southern weakfish reproduce until
approximately age 5, while northern weakfish can reproduce longer, meaning that lifetime fecundity would be similar
(Shepherd and Grimes,  1984). Shepherd and Grimes (1984) found that females may not release all ova during spawning, and
fertility may only be 60-75 percent of the estimated potential fecundity.

Weakfish eggs hatch approximately 50 hours after fertilization. The pelagic larvae hatch at 1.5 to 1.7 mm (0.6 to 0.7 in) in
length, and move further upstream during the summer months. Though young-of-year are most abundant in estuarine waters,
they have been found in coastal ocean waters and as far upstream as freshwater nurseries.  Scales begin to form when larvae
are approximately 14.3 mm (5.6 in) or 26 days old. Growth rates vary considerably depending on locality, salinity, and water
temperature.  Weakfish in the Delaware Bay exhibited growth rates from 0.29 mm (0.1 in) per day at 20 °C (68 °F) to 1.49
mm (0.6 in) per day at 28 °C (82 °F) (Able and Fahay, 1998).

In the fall, weakfish less than 4 years of age tend to stay inshore and move southward to inner shelf waters, while older  •
weakfish move southward to offshore areas until the spring (Seagraves, 1995).

As with most fish, size upon maturity for weakfish varies with locality.  In northern weakfish, females mature at 25.4 cm (10
in), and males at 22.9 cm (9 in); in southern weakfish, both sexes mature at 17.8 cm (7 in). By age 2, all individuals are fully
mature (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 2000f). Weakfish may obtain a maximum size and age of
approximately 80 cm (31.5 in) and 11 years in the northern part of their range (Shepherd and Grimes, 1983).

Weakfish larvae are most abundant near Salem from June to August (PSEG, 1999c).  Juveniles occur in summer and early
fall. Eggs are present in some years, primarily in June and July.
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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                            Chapter B3: Evaluation of IAE Data
                        WEAKFISH
                     (Cynoscion regalis)
 Family: Sciaenidae (drums).

 Common names: Gray/bastard/saltwater trout, silver seatrout,
 grey/bastard/common/silver weakfish, chickwick, gray/silver, silver
 seatrout."

 Similar species: Red drum, spot, spotted seatrout, Atlantic croaker.

 Geographic Range: Along the Atlantic coast from Florida to
 Massachusetts, in shallow coastal and estuarine waters.b Estuaries
 provide feeding areas and spawning grounds for adult weakfish and
 are as important as nursery areas are for juveniles."

 Habitat: Occurs over sand  and sandy mud bottoms in shallow
 coastal waters.'

 Lifespan: Can live up to 11 years.d

 Fecundity: Reach maturity at approximately 1 year.  Fecundity for
 fish in the New York Bight is about 306,000. Females may not
 release all ova during spawning, meaning that fertility may be only
 60-75 percent of total fecundity."
Food source: Juveniles ieed primarily on shrimp and other small
invertebrates. Adults consume species such as butterfish, herrings,
silversides, anchovies, young weakfish, Atlantic croaker, spot, scup,
and killifishes/                             j

Prey for: Bluefish, striped bass, summer flounder, and larger
weakfish/

Life stage information:                     ',

 Eggs:                                    :
*•   Hatch approximately 50 hours after fertilization.'
                                          i
 Larvae: pelagic                           ;
>   Larvae are approximately 1.5-1.7 mm (0.6 to 0.7 in) long at
    hatching."
»•   Larvae utilize tidal stream transport to move through the water
    column."                              :

 Juveniles:
>    Growth rates in the Delaware Bay range from 0.29 mm (0.1 in)
     per day at 20 °C (68 °F) to  1.49 mm (0.6 in) per day at 28 °C
     (82 *F).C                              ;
*••'  Juveniles begin to migrate offshore and southward for
     overwintering in the fell.'

 Adults:
*•    Travel in schools, and migrate seasonally from offshore
     wintering grounds to northern inland estuarine spawning
     grounds in the spring.b
*•    Adults can reach a maximum total length of 80 cm (31.5 in).11
 Location:                                                                                             ;
     The young use the shore margins of the spawning area as nursery grounds.
     From spring through autumn, white perch are present on flats and in channels, retreating to deep channels in the winter.
     They move into waters with low salinity to freshwaters of large rivers in April through June.
     Located in estuaries and freshwater from Nova Scotia to South Carolina.       ,                           ;
     Frequent areas with level bottoms of compact silt, mud, sand, or clay and show little preference for vegetation, structures, or other
     shelter.                                                                                           ,
     Able to live in salinities from zero to full strength seawater; they prefer waters < 18 percent salinity.
 °  Froese and Pauly, 2001.
   Seagraves, 1995.
 "Able and Fahay, 1998.
 , Shepharcl and Grimes, 1983.
 °  Shephard. and Grimes, 1984.
 f  Seagraves, 1995.
 Fish graphic from NOAA, 200 Ib.
White perch (Morone amer/cana)                                                            ••   •            -

White perch is a member pf the temperate bass family, Moronidae. Its geographic range extends from the upper St. Lawrence
to South Carolina (Able and Fahay, 1998; Scott and Scott, 1988).  Adults can be found in a wide range of habitats, but they
prefer shallow water during warmer months (Stanley and Danie, 1983). In the winter months, adults can be found in deeper,
saline waters (Beck, 1995b), At the larval stage, white perch feed mainly on plankton. Adults feed on a variety of prey,
including shrimp, fish, and crab. Their diet composition changes with seasonal and spatial food availability (Beck, 1995b).

Unlike most other species, white perch has not suffered a drastic population decline in the past century.  Because of their
abundance, white perch are valuable for commercial fisheries and the recreational fishing industry.  Their heartiness and
abundance is due to their proliferation, early maturation, ability to utilize a large spawning and nursery ground, and tolerance
of poor water quality (Beck, 1995b).
                                                                                                                   B3-19

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 S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
 White perch are semi-anadromous, overwintering in deeper estuarine waters and migrating seasonally in the spring to spawn.
 Spawning occurs from April through early June in shallow waters of upstream brackish and freshwater tributaries. Fecundity
 estimates are higher for white perch than for other species of similar size, with estimates of 20,000 to 300,000 eggs per female
 (Stanley and Danie, 1983).

 Depending on temperature, larvae hatch out between 2 to 6 days (Able and Fahay, 1998). Larvae are pelagic, remaining
 slightly below the surface of the water. They enter the juvenile stage in 6 weeks, at 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1.2 in) (Able and
 Fahay, 1998). Juveniles become increasingly demersal with size (Wang and Kernehan, 1979), and school in shallow, inshore
 waters through the summer.  During the fall, juveniles tend to move offshore into more brackish, deeper waters to overwinter
 (Able and Fahay, 1998).

 By age 1, white perch range from 72 to 93 mm (2.8 to 3.7 in).  Rates of growth are positively correlated with water
 temperature during the first year (Able and Fahay, 1998). Most males and females reach maturity at age 2 to 3.  Males were
 reported to mature at 72 mm (2.8 in) and females at 98 mm (3.9 in) (Stanley and Danie, 1983).

 Average annual mortality rates for white perch in the Delaware River are 49 to 59 percent for males and 53 to 65 percent for
 females (Stanley and Danie, 1983).  Mortality rates appear to be higher for females because females have higher growth rates
 and therefore reach a desirable harvest size earlier (Stanley and Danie, 1983). White perch up to 9 years of age have been
 caught in Delaware Bay (Wallace, 1971).

 White perch larvae occur near Salem from April to July,  with greatest abundance in April and May (PSEG, 1999c).  Juveniles
 occur from October to May. Adults are present throughout the year.
                    WHITE PERCH
                  (Morone americana)
 Family: Moronidac, temperate bass.

 Common names: White perch.'

 Similar species: Striped bass.

 Geographic range: Estuaries and freshwater from the upper
 St. Lawrence to South Carolina.1"1

 Habitat: Occurs in fresh, brackish, and coastal waters, but
 prefers brackish, quieter waters."

 Lifcspan: To 17 years (to 9 years in Delaware Bay).

 Fecundity: Scmi-anadromous spawners. Spawning occurs
 "rom April to early June in shallow waters of upstream
 brackish and freshwater tributaries.  Females produce 20,000
 o 300,000 eggs.d
Food source: White perch feed on zooplankton as larvae and juveniles.
Adults primarily consume aquatic insects, but also crustaceans and fish,
including their own young.d

Prey for: Striped bass, bluefish, weakfish, walleye.3

Life stage information:

 Eggs: demersal, semipelagic
>   Hatch out between 2 and 6 days.b

 Larvae: pelagic
*•   Larvae float slightly below the surface of the water.b

 Juveniles:
*•   White perch enter the juvenile stage in 6 weeks, at 20 to 30 mm (0.8
    to 1.2  in)."
>•   School in shallow, inshore waters through the summer.b
*•   Move  offshore to brackish, deeper waters to overwinter.11
>•   Growth rates are positively correlated with temperature during the
    first year.b

 Adults:

>   Reach maturity at 2 to 3 years of age, and lengths of 72 mm (2.8 in)
    for most males and 98 mm (3.9 in) for most females."
   Froese and Pauly, 2001.
   Able and Fahay, 1998.
   Scott and Scott, 1988.
   Stanley and Danie, 1983.
  fish graphic courtesy of New York Sportfishing and Aquatic Resources Educational Program, 2001.
B3-20

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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                 Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
B3-3   SALEM !<&E MONITORINS AND PSE&'s METHODS FOR CALCULA-TINS ANNUAL

L&E

Salem is the only facility of the four in-scope facilities of the transition zone (Salem, Hope Creek, Deepwater, Edge Moor)
that is required to collect I&E data on an on-going basis as part of their New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
(NJPDES) permit. Some I&E data are available for Hope Creek and Deepwater, but only for very limited rime periods.
Although Salem's data can be improved upon as discussed later in this chapter, it is one of the most comprehensive I&E data
sets in the nation.                                                                             ;

PSEG has sampled impinged and entrained organisms at Salem since station operation began in 1977. I&E data for the years
1978-1998 are available in PSEG's-1999 Permit Renewal Application for Salem (PSEG, 1999e). The application consists of
36 volumes of application material and 167 volumes of appendices and reference material.  Some aspects of the sampling
protocol have changed in response to changing sampling objectives, and details of these changes are outlined in-Appendix F,
Attachment 1 of the Application (PSEG, 1999c).                                                  ;

The following sections outline methods used by PSEG to estimate I&E losses based on information in Appendix F,
Attachment 1 of the Application (PSEG, 1999c). The figures outlining monitoring steps and methods for calculating I&E are
based on figures from a July 1999 presentation by PSEG to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
(NJDEP).                                                               ,--.-!

B3-3.1  Impingement  Monitoring

PSEG collects impingement samples by diverting screen wash water from an estuary-bound sluice to an impingement
sampling pool (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 1, Section II.D). Fish collected in the sampling pool are sorted by
species and counted, and the condition of each specimen (live, dead,  or damaged) is noted. The length of each specimen of a
sample of each representative important species (RIS) is measured as well as the total weight for all specimens of each
species. Information on station operations, sampling details, and environmental conditions is also recorded.

PSEG processes' the impingement sampling data in a series of steps to arrive at an estimate of the number of organisms
impinged a.nd initially alive, and the number impinged and dead, per  day of sampling (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment
2, Section III.D).  The steps for processing the impingement data to estimate the number impinged in the cooling water system
(CWS) per day of sampling are outlined in Figure B3-1.

  Figure B3-1: Estimation of Numbered Impinged (CWS) per Day of Sampling
                 Average
                 number
                 collected
               (per minute)
Number
impinged
(per day)
                  *Prior to 1996, initially alive fish were further classified as damaged or not damaged.

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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
Since the duration of sampling varies from, collection to collection, PSEG first standardizes impingement counts to fish
counted per minute sampled. The number collected is adjusted by a species-specific collection efficiency factor to estimate
the average number impinged per minute (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2, Section III.D.3). Factors are based on
impingement collection efficiency studies conducted by PSEG from 1979 to 1982 and in 1998 (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F,
Section VI). PSEG's collection efficiency factors are duplicated in Appendix Bl of this report.

For each day of impingement sampling, the daily average number offish sampled per minute is calculated for each species,
length interval, and condition (live, dead, damaged). PSEG uses the estimated number of impinged organisms in the CWS
per day of sampling to calculate the number lost to impingement in the CWS and in the service water system (SWS) each
month (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F,  Attachment 2, Section III.D).

Figure B3-2 outlines the steps involved in calculating the monthly impingement loss estimate for the CWS. To adjust
impingement estimates for mortality that may occur after collection, PSEG multiplies the initial survival rate of live or
damaged fish by a species-specific latent mortality rate determined from historical data (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F,
Attachment 2, Section III.D.5).  Different latent mortality factors are used for impingement samples from old Ristroph screens
(1977-1995) and new Ristroph screens (1996-1998). The latent screen mortality factors used by PSEG are duplicated in
Appendix Bl of this report. For non-RIS commercial and recreational species, PSEG applied the highest impingement screen
mortality observed for the other species, and bay anchovy parameters were applied to non-RIS forage species.

 Figure B3-2: Estimation of Number Lost to Impingement (CWS) in Each Month
Average
number
impinged ant
initially dead
(per day)*

Average
number
impinged ant
initially alive
(per day)
^f^l|feni*™«i^if''BS"'S;
]



s


t



Average |
number that if
mortality i
(per day) | •

i

Average
number lost
(per day)
in month

Number lost
> due to
1 > impingement
1 in month
1

Latent 1
mortality if
rates* II
Number of
days of plant
operation in
month
                     *Latent mortality represents 48 hr holding time, except for original screens (96 hr)
The average number that die from latent mortality per day is added to the average number impinged per day that are initially
dead to derive the average number lost per day in each month. This number is then adjusted by the number of days of plant
operation per month to determine the total number lost to impingement in the CWS per month. This number is adjusted by
the ratio of SWS water withdrawal to CWS water withdrawal for each month to derive an estimate of the number lost to
impingement in the SWS each month (Figure B3-3).

Total impingement loss is then calculated for actual flow conditions by species and life stage for each year (PSEG, 1999c,
Appendix F, Attachment 2, Section III.D.6).
B3-22

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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
 Figure B3-3: Estimation of Number Lost to Impingement (SWS) in Each Month
                                Estimated number
                                    lost due to
                                   impingement
                                  (CWS) in each
                                      month
  Estimated
 number lost
    due to
 impingement
(SWS) in each
    month
B3-3.2   Entrapment Monitoring                                                     ;

PSEG collects entrainment samples by pumping a volume of water ranging from 50 to 75 m3 through an abundance net and
chamber at 1.0-1.5 nrVmin (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 1, Section II.C). The net is a 1 m plankton net with
0.5 mm mesh. After sampling, the net is washed and the contents are rinsed into ajar, preserved, and taken to a laboratory for
identification and counting.  All specimens collected are identified to the lowest practical taxon and life stage. For each
sample, total length is measured to the nearest millimeter for a representative subsample of each target species and life stage.

To estimate the density of entrained organisms in the CWS for each day of sampling, PSEG adjusts the average number
collected per cubic meter of water sampled by factors for collection efficiency (including net extrusion and net avoidance),
time of day of sampling, and potential re-entraihment (Figure B3-4). PSEG's net extrusion and net avoidance factors are
duplicated in Appendix Bl of this report. PSEG's uses the average entrainment density for days with sampling to interpolate
the density of entrained organisms for days without sampling to arrive at a density for each day of the year.

Figure B3-4: Estimation of Density of Entrained Organisms for Each Day of Sampling (CWS)                   1
                                                                                    Average
                                                                                    density of
                                                                                    entrained
                                                                                    organisms
                                                                                   (# per cubic
                                                                                  meter of water
                                                                                    sampled)
PSEG quantifies collection efficiency related to net extrusion for organisms less than 7 mm in total length by determining the
relative probability of capture based on comparison of gear efficiency in the river with gear efficiency in the plant, under the
assumption'that densities of larvae in the river and plant are equal (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2,
Section III.C.2.c.i).  For organisms longer than 0.5 mm, collection bias associated with net avoidance and vertical
stratification is quantified based on paired samples collected at the intake and discharge over a 2 week period in 1980 (PSEG,
1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2, Section III.C.2.c.ii).                                              ;
                                                                                                           B3-23

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 S 316(b) Case Studies, Port B: The bclawarc Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
 To correct for potential bias resulting from a lack of nighttime sampling from 1982 to 1994, PSEG analyzed sampling data to
 test for differences among samples taken at different times of day, and developed correction factors to adjust entrainment
 estimates for species and life stages that showed a statistically significant day/night effect (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F,
 Attachment 2, Section III.C.2.b). Day/night correction factors used to estimate historical losses for bay anchovy juveniles,
 larvae ofMorone spp., striped bass juveniles, weakfish eggs, and weakfish juveniles are presented in Appendix F,
 Attachment 2, Table 9 of PSEG (1999c).

 Adjustment for potential recirculation of previously entrained organisms (re-entrainment) is based on results of a dye survey
 conducted in 1998 that indicated that 10 percent of organisms that survive through-plant transport are re-entrained (PSEG,
 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2, Section III.C.3). PSEG's recirculation factors are duplicated in Appendix Bl of this
 report.

 Once collection numbers are adjusted for collection efficiency, day/night sampling, and potential re-entrainment to derive
 estimates of daily entrainment, the daily densities are adjusted by the station water withdrawal rate for each day to estimate
 the total number entrained for each day of the year (Figure B3-5).

 Figure B3-5: Estimation of Daily Number Entrained for Each Day of the Year (CWS)
Average
density of
entrained
organisms for
days with
sampling





i

Interpolated
density of
entrained
organisms for
days without
sampling
TMmmwMaaMM-aia«3£5T
Density of
, entrained
organisms
(#/m3) for
each day of
the year

t

!

Estimated
number
entrained for
each day of
the year \

Station water
withdrawal
rate (cubic
meters per
day) for
each day
|
To estimate the daily number of organisms that are actually killed by CWS entrainment, PSEG adjusts the number entrained
for eacli day of the year by species- and life stage-specific through-plant survival rates estimated from on-site studies, model
simulations, and published results of studies at other facilities (Figure B3-6) (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2,
Section III.C.4).

PSEG adjusts entrainment estimates for through-plant mortality resulting from thermal mortality, mechanical mortality, and
chemical mortality. Because biocides are not used in the CWS, PSEG assumes that chemical mortality is zero for all species
and life stages at Salem (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2, Section III.CAb). Thermal mortality was modeled as a
function of exposure temperature, acclimation temperature, and exposure duration (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2,
Section II1.C.4.C.). Mechanical mortality was estimated based on studies conducted at the Indian,Point Generating Station on
the Hudson River in the 1980's (EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, 1989) and using data from the 1984 PSE&G
316(b) Demonstration (PSEG,  1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 2, Section III.CAa). PSEG's thermal and mechanical
mortality factors are duplicated in Appendix Bl of this report. For non-RIS commercial/recreational species, PSEG assumed
100 percent through-plant mortality, and  bay anchovy parameters were applied to non-RIS forage species.
B3-24

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§ 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
 Figure B3-6: Estimation of Daily Number Lost to Entrainment (CWS)
                                                                        Number lost
                                                                          due to
                                                                        entrainment
                                                                        for each day
                                                                         of the year
i, '

Mechanical
mortality
rate .
The number of organisms entrained in the CWS for each day of the year is adjusted by the ratio of SWS water withdrawal to
CWS water withdrawal for each day to derive an estimate of the number lost to entrainment in the SWS each day of the year
(Figure B3-7).

 Figure B3-7: Estimation of Daily Number Entrained for Each Day of the Year                               ;
Estimated"
number
entrained
(CWS) for
each day
of the year

|
1 '


Ratio of
SWS water
withdrawal rate to
CWS water
withdrawal rate
for each day
of the year
Estimated
number
entrained
(SWS) for
each day of j
the year ;
To obtain an annual entrainment loss estimate, PSEG sums all of the daily estimates over the year (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F,
Attachment 2, Section III.C.5).

B3-3.3  Potential Biases and Uncertainties  in  PSE&'s I&E Estimates  .

Because of the extensive and complex biological information presented in Salem's 1999 Application, NJDEP contracted with
several scientists from ESSA Technologies Ltd. to review and comment on the application (ESSA Technologies, 2000).
ESS A Technologies commended PSEG for the thoroughness of the application, but expressed several concerns about
potential biases and uncertainties in PSEG's estimates of I&E losses. Bias refers to a potential error in which the direction of
the error is known (i.e., an under- or overestimate), whereas uncertainty refers to a potential error with no known directional
bias.                                                                                         ;

ESSA Technologies (2000) identified several aspects of PSEG's sampling program that increased data uncertainties and
introduced bias in PSEG's I&E estimates, and EPA shares these concerns. For example, ESSA Technologies noted that year-
                                                                                                         B3-25

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S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
to-year variations in the sampling protocol created a need for data interpolation and extrapolation to fill data gaps, increasing
uncertainty about the true numbers of organisms impinged and entrained. They observed that the need for adjustment of the
1980-1994 entrainment data to account for a lack of nighttime sampling during this period is a particular concern because this
is the only period of complete seasonal coverage and was therefore the basis for extrapolation to other years with incomplete
seasonal coverage.

ESSA Technologies (2000) expressed concern that the sampling changes necessitated the use of numerous adjustment factors
that may have biased I&E estimates. Many adjustments appeared to be biased low, which would result in an underestimate of
losses. For example, ESSA Technologies argued that PSEG may have underestimated the latent screen mortality of impinged
organisms because they did not consider the high velocity and turbulence of exit flume waters in their estimate. The high
velocity of water in the fish return sluice and the extremely turbulent conditions in the sampling pool to which impinged fish
are diverted expose fish to significant stress that could increase, or at least obscure, true impingement mortality. Impingement
mortality may also have been underestimated because PSEG did not take into account impairment in the ability of impinged
organisms that are returned to the estuary to locate prey and avoid predators (Boreman,  1993).

ESSA Technologies (2000) expressed concern about the magnitude of correction needed to adjust entrainment estimates for
net extrusion. In addition, they argued that there may be species-specific errors in PSEG's entrainment estimates because
differences in collection efficiency for different species were not taken into account.

ESSA Technologies (2000) also found that PSEG may have substantially underestimated entrainment mortality by assuming
only moderate rates of mortality as organisms pass through the  plant.  PSEG based its estimates of thermal mortality on a
probit model (regression equation) that estimates thermal mortality as a function of acclimation temperature, exposure
duration, and exposure temperature (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 1, Section H.C). Because the model was fit to
laboratory data it may not reflect actual rates  of thermal mortality experienced by organisms in the condenser water and does
not consider deaths due to cold shock that occur when organisms in the heated condenser, water are discharged back into the
cooler receiving waters of the estuary (Boreman, 1993). Mechanical mortality rates were estimated by PSEG from studies in
which larvae were held in jars or aquaria (PSEG, 1999c, Appendix F, Attachment 1, Section II.C). ESSA Technologies
argued that this in vitro environment does not reflect the stresses faced by  larvae on exiting the discharge, and therefore they
concluded that mechanical mortality was probably also underestimated by PSEG.  EPA shares these concerns.

ESSA Technologies (2000) also noted some potential sources of mortality not captured by the sampling program. One of
these is mortality of eggs and larvae that are impinged on material clogging intake screens. This material is cleaned off the
screens with high pressure sprays and then is carried away in the impingement discharge flow system.  No attempt is made by
PSEG to count any eggs and larvae that are impinged within this material.  In addition, certain geographic features near Salem
may have caused a large back eddy, which would cause different flow dynamics depending on tidal cycle, and result in
episodic entrainment patterns that might not have been captured by  the sampling program.

In addition to these concerns about the sampling program and estimates of I&E losses, ESSA Technologies (2000) argued
that the natural mortality rates used by PSEG were too high for many species, which would lead to an underestimate of adult
equivalent and yield-per-recruit losses. They argued that rates  were biased high because the "life cycle balancing" method
used by PSEG assumed that fish populations  in the Delaware Estuary are at equilibrium. Most fish populations in the estuary
are increasing due to significant water quality improvements and fishing restrictions in recent years, and ESSA Technologies
noted that natural mortality rates of an expanding population are typically lower than for an equilibrium population. In a
rebuttal to the ESSA Technologies review, PSEG (2001a,f) argued  that this would influence their calculations only if higher
than average early survival was responsible for the increased population growth.  Instead, PSEG (2001a,f) contended that the
increases are largely due to increases in adult survival rates resulting from reduced harvest, and therefore there is no need to •
adjust their estimates of early mortality.

PSEG (2001a,f) also noted that recent spawner-recruit data from National Marine Fishery Service regional stock assessments-
for weakfish and striped bass indicate that density-dependent compensation is occurring as stock size increases, resulting in a
decrease in the number of recruits produced per spawner. PSEG (2001a,f) argued that this implies that early mortality rates of
these species are increasing, not decreasing, suggesting that if PSEG's estimates are biased, they are biased low. Relative to
published values, PSEG's adjusted rates are higher for 10 species, lower for 11 species, and within the range of measured
values for 7 species (PSEG, 2001b,c).
B3-26

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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of IAE Data
B3-3.4  Overview  of  EPA's Evaluation of Saiem's I&E Data

Based on the potential.biases and uncertainties discussed in the previous section, NJDEP's draft permit requires that "the
uncertainty of the estimated historic annual entrainment loss estimates should be characterized and presented as ranges with
maximum and minimum levels" (NJDEP, 2000). These data requirements were implemented in a June 29, 2001 NJPDES
permit action, but this information is not yet available for review.  Therefore, EPA was unable to conduct a formal evaluation
of potential biases and uncertainties in the Salem I&E data for the case study analyses reported here. However, because of
EPA's concern that the uncertainties associated with PSEG's assumptions about I&E survival may significantly underestimate
Saiem's I&E rates, particularly for extrapolation purposes, EPA adjusted Saiem's estimates to eliminate PSEG's survival
factors for many of its analyses, as discussed in the following sections.                                j

*•   Saiem's Historical Baseline: Developed using Saiem's impingement estimates for 1978-98 and Saiem's impingement
    survival factors (Tables B3-2 through B3-5), and Saiem's entrainment estimates for 1978-98 assuming no through-plant
   .survival (Tables B3-7 through B3-10).                                                        :

»•   Extrapolation Baseline: Developed using Saiem's impingement estimates for 1978-95 and 1997-98 assuming no
    impingement s'urvival (Table B3-11), and Saiem's entrainment estimates for 1978-95 and 1997-98 assuming no
    entrainment survival (Table B3-7). 1996 was eliminated from the analysis because Salem was shut down much of the
    year and therefore I&E during this year is not considered representative. The average impingement and entrainment rates
    estimated on this basis were used to extrapolate Saiem's I&E rates to other transition zone CWIS on the basis of intake
    flow.

*•   Salemi's Benefits Baseline: The baseline used in Chapter B6 to estimate the benefits of the proposed regulation for the
    Salem facility was developed using EPA's estimate of Saiem's current I&E rates.  Current I&E rates were based on
    Saiem's impingement estimates for 1995 and 1997-1998 assuming impingement survival (Tables B3-20 through B3-22),
    and Saiem's entrainment estimates for 1978-95 and 1997-98 assuming no through plant survival (Table B3-7). 1996 was
    eliminated from the analysis because Salem was shut down much of the year and therefore I&E during this year is not
    considered representative.

*•   Benefits Baseline for Other In-scope CWIS of the Transition Zone: EPA's estimate of current I&E at transition zone
    CWIS was developed using Saiem's  impingement estimates for 1978-95 and 1997-98 assuming no impingement survival
    (Table B3-11), since these facilities do not have technologies for reducing impingement mortality, and Saiem's
    entrainment estimates for 1978-95 and 1997-98 assuming no entrainment survival (Table B3-7). 1996 was eliminated
    from the analysis because Salem was shut down much of the year and therefore I&E during this year is not considered .  .
    representative. This baseline was used to estimate benefits of the proposed regulation for Hope Creek, Deep'water, and
    Edge Moor (see Chapter B6).                                                               ;

Because PSEG's impingement survival factors reflect the estimated effectiveness of Saiem's modified Ristroph screens in
reducing impingement mortality, these factors were retained for EPA's analysis of Saiem's historical impingement (Tables
B3-2 through B3-5) and current impingement (Tables B3-20 through B3-22),  However, PSEG's impingement survival
factors were eliminated for extrapolation of Saiem's impingement rates to facilities without Ristroph screens (see Section B3-
7 and Table B3-11). Saiem's entrainment survival factors were eliminated for all analyses (Tables B37 through B3-10)
because EPA found insufficient justification in Saiem's 1999 Application for their use.

The results of EPA's analyses are presented in the following sections.  The data tables associated with these sections present
annual I&E numbers from facility monitoring and EPA's estimates of these losses expressed as age 1 equivalents, lost fishery
yield, and production foregone, as calculated by EPA according to the methods discussed in Chapter A5 of Part A of this
document.

B3-4 SALEM'S ANNUAL IMPINGEMENT

Annual  impingement losses (numbers of organisms) at  Salem as calculated by PSEG are presented in Appendix L, Tab 9 of
Saiem's 1999 Permit Renewal Application (PSEG, 1999e) and duplicated here in Table B3-2. For its estimates, J>SEG
assumed that some proportion of impinged organisms survive. The species-specific initial and latent screen mortality factors
used by PSEG in its calculations of impingement are presented in Appendix Bl. Table B3-3 presents the results of EPA's
calculations to express these losses as numbers of age 1 equivalents, Table B3-4 presents impingement losses as pounds of
yield lost to commercial and recreational fisheries, and Table B3-5 presents the losses as pounds of production foregone.
                                                                                                         B3-27

-------
  S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
  PSEG's impingement estimates indicate that impingement losses at Salem vary substantially by species and by year. Over the
  period 1978-1998, PSEG's estimates of impingement losses ranged from a minimum of 193 individuals of striped bass and
  other Morone species in 1985 to a maximum of 11,264,93 3 bay anchovy in 1981. In most years, bay anchovy and weakfish
  dominate impingement collections, followed by spot and blueback herring. However, according to PSEG's estimates, losses
  of Atlantic croaker, blue crab, and white perch at Salem have also been high (over 1 million) in some years.

  Of interest in recent years is PSEG's estimated high losses of Atlantic croaker in 1998, when the station was operating close
  to its expected fiiture intake flow rate. This occurred despite the addition of modified Ristroph screens in 1995 to increase
  impingement survival. This may be related in part to the increasing trend in Atlantic croaker abundance in the estuary in
  recent years (see Appendix J in PSEG, 1999d).

  Striped bass impingement has also been generally higher during the past decade, apparently related in part to increases in the
  Striped bass population in the estuary.  Some of this increase is attributed to movement into the estuary of Chesapeake Bay
  Striped bass via the C&D canal (see Appendix J in PSEG; 1999d).

  Although both weakfish and white perch populations have shown significant increases in the estuary in recent years (see
  Appendix J in PSEG, 1999d), impingement rates of both species have declined  since the installation in 1995 of modified
  Ristroph screens designed to increase impingement survival. A study by PSEG indicated that weakfish impingement
  mortality declined by 51  percent after installation of the new technology (Ronafalvy et al., 2000).

  By contrast, bay anchovy impingement has generally been lower in the past decade.  However, a corresponding decreasing
  trend in the population of bay anchovy in the estuary has not been detected, and some of the apparent decline in impingement
 numbers appears to be related to an exceptionally high year class and related high impingement in 1980 (see Appendix J in
 PSEG, 1999d).

 Blueback herring and spot impingement has declined in the past decade at the same time populations of these species have
 shown significant declines within the estuary (see Appendix J in PSEG, 1999d). However, in the case of spot the decline is in
 part because of an exceptionally strong year class in 1988, a year that also showed exceptionally high spot impingement.
B3-28

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§ 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
B3-5  SALEM'S ANNUAL  ENTRAINMENT

Annual entrainment losses (numbers of organisms) at Salem as calculated by PSEG are presented in Appendix L, Tab 8 of
Salem's 1999 Permit Renewal Application (PSEG, 1999e) and duplicated below in Table B3-6. For its estimates, PSEG
assumed that some proportion of entrained organisms survive. The through-plant survival factors used by PSEG to calculate
entrainment losses are presented in Tab 10 of Appendix L of the Salem Application and presented in Appendix Bl of Part B.

As discussed in Section B3-3.3, an independent review of Salem's 1999 Application by scientists with ESSA Technologies,
Ltd. (2000) concluded that Salem's entrainment rates were most likely underestimated by PSEG because their entrainment
calculations assumed substantial through-plant survival of entrained organisms. EPA concurs with ESSA that Salem's 1999
Application provides inadequate justification for PSEG's assumptions about through-plant survival, and therefore, EPA
recalculated Salem's entrainment without the thermal and mechanical mortality factors used by PSEG for its calculations (see
Appendix Bl for the species-specific thermal and mechanical mortality factors used by PSEG).  Table B3-7 presents the
results of EPA's calculations of Salem's annual entrainment rates assuming 100 percent through-plant mortality of entrained-
organisms. EPA's entrainment estimates (Table B3-7) are higher than PSEG's (Table B3-6) for all species: except Atlantic
menhaden,, bay anchovy, and silversides. EPA's entrainment estimate of Atlantic croaker is three times higher than PSEG's
and EPA's estimate for spot is five times higher.                                                        .

EPA used Its estimates of entrainment assuming 100 percent through-plant mortality to express entrainment at Salem in terms
of numbers of age 1 equivalents, fishery yield, and production foregone.  Table B3-8 presents numbers of age 1 equivalents
entrained, Table B3-9 presents entrainment as pounds of yield lost to commercial and recreational fisheries, and Table B3-10.
presents entrainment as pounds of production foregone.      .                                       ;

As  with impingement, entrainment at Salem varies substantially by species and by year. For the period 1978-1998, EPA's
estimates of mean annual entrainment at Salem entrainment range from 55,575 for American shad to nearly 12.5 billion for
bay anchovy. Maximum entrainment during this period was over 45 billion bay anchovy in 1986. Bay anchovy typically
dominate entrainment collections, but several hundred million Atlantic croaker, weakfish, striped bass, and white perch have
also been entrained in many years in the period,

In 1998, exceptionally high numbers of alewife were entrained, over 16 million, compared to a mean of about 1.2 million fo
the period. In 1995 and 1998, unusually high entrainment of Atlantic menhaden occurred, reaching about 180 million
compared to a mean of 20.8 million. Similarly, in 1998 blueback herring entrainment was over 66 million compared to a
mean of about 5.2 million,  striped bass entrainment was about 537 million compared to a mean of 39.7 million, and white
perch entrainment was nearly 416 million compared to a mean of 42.6 million. Of note is that Salem's intake flow in 1998
was substantially higher than other years and close to the level of use projected by the facility over the next permit cycle.

In contrast to these recent increases in entrainment rates, spot entrainment was substantially lower than average from 1995 on.
All species showed lower entrainment in 1996, but this was due to a plant shut down during that year (PSEG, 1999e).
                                                                                                          B3-33

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 S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of JC&E Data
                         Table B3-7: Annual Entrapment (number of organisms) at the Salem
                           Station,  by Species,  as Estimated fay EPA Assuming 100 Percent
                                           jrhrough-Plant Mortality  (cont.)
Year
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Mean
Min
Max
SD
Total
Non-RIS
Fishery Species'
NA
NA
NA •
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
153,969,300
153,969,306
153,969,300
153,969,300
153,969,300
i53,969,3"6b
153,969,300
0
615,877,300
Non-RIS
Forage Species'
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
967,814,700
967,814,700
967,814,700
967,814,700
967,814,700
967,814,700
967,814,700
0
3,871,259,000
                       ' Annual entrainment losses of non-RIS fishery and forage species were not reported
                       in Salem's 1999 Permit Renewal Application.  Instead, the facility presented an annual
                       average for the years 1995-1998 data. Averaged for these years, entrainment ofnon-
                       RIS fishery species was 153,969,330 organisms per year and entrainment of non-RIS
                       forage species was 967,814,720 organisms per year (PSEG, 1999e, Appendix L,
                       Tab 8).
                       NA = Not sampled.
                       0 = Sampled, but hone collected.             i
                       Non-RIS species are listed in Table B3-1.
                       TueFeb 12 18:23:34 MST 2002 Raw.losses. ENTRAINMENT; Plant:salem.historic;
                       PATHNAME:P:/Intake/Delaware/Del-Science/scodes/tables.output.historic.damages/r
                       aw.losses.ent.salem.historic.csv
B3-36

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 S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of T&E Data
 B3-6   EXTRAPOLATION  OF SALEM'S I&E RATES TO OTHER TRANSITION  ZONE

 FACILITIES

 EPA used the results from its detailed analysis of I&E at Salem as a basis for estimating I&E at other CWIS in the transition
 zone of the Delaware Estuary.  For extrapolation purposes, EPA used Salem's impingement estimates for the years 1978-95
 and 1997-98, assuming no impingement survival (see Table B3-11), and Salem's entrainment estimates 1978-95,1997-98,
 assuming no entrainment survival (see Table B3-7).  1996 was eliminated from the analysis because Salem was shut down
 much of the year and therefore I&E during this year is not considered representative. The average impingement and
 entrainment rates estimated on this basis were used to extrapolate Salem's I&E rates to other transition zone CWIS on the
 basis of intake flow

 Extrapolation was necessary because empirical data describing actual I&E at these facilities are extremely limited or absent.
 Because intake characteristics, the fish community, and hydrodynarnic conditions associated with transition zone CWIS are
 similar, EPA assumed that I&E at Salem is representative of I&E at other transition zone CWIS and that  I&E is strictly
 proportional to intake flow. The following sections discuss in more detail how EPA used Salem I&E data to develop a model
 for extrapolation.

 B3-6.1   Impingement Extrapolation

 Except for Salem, impingement controls at transition  zone CWIS are non-existent or minimal.' Therefore, to extrapolate Salem's
 impingement rates to CWIS without screens, EPA re-calculated Salem's impingement rates without the screen survival factors
 used by PSEG for its calculations (see Appendix Bl for the species-specific initial and latent mortality factors used by PSEG
 to calculate annual impingement).  EPA averaged Salem's species-specific mortality rates by month of highest impingement
 to obtain annual initial and latent mortality rates  (see shaded areas in Appendix Bl) and then calculated impingement without
 these factors. Table B3-11 presents the results of EPA's calculations of Sale.m's annual impingement assuming 100 percent
 mortality of impinged organisms. EPA used these  estimates to estimate impingement at other transition zone CWIS expressed
 as age 1 equivalents, fishery yield, and production  foregone.  These results are presented in Tables B3-12, B3-13, and B3-14,
 respectively. Chapter A5 of Part A of this document discusses the methods used to calculate these metrics. Note that in these
 tables, the data for Salem are for Salem as an extrapolation model.

 B3-6.2   Entrainment Extrapolation

 As outlined in  Section B3-3.2, PSEG adjusted their entrainment estimates using the thermal and mechanical survival factors
 presented in Appendix Bl.  As discussed previously, EPA believes that PSEG provided insufficient justification for the use of
 these through-plant survival factors. Thus, for extrapolation purposes, EPA used the entrainment rates it  calculated assuming
 no through-plant survival (presented in Table B3-7). Extrapolation results are expressed as age 1 equivalents in Table B3-15,
 as foregone fishery yield in Table B3-16, and as  production foregone in Table B3-17. Chapter A5 of Part A of this document
 discusses'the methods used to calculate these metrics. Note that in these tables, the data for Salem are for Salem as an
 extrapolation model.

 B3-7  SALEM'S CURRENT !<&E
     *

 EPA estimated Salem's current entrainment rates using the data discussed in Section B3-5 and presented  in Tables B3-7
 through B3-10. Current impingement at Salem was estimated by considering only the years since 1995; when Salem's
 Ristroph screens were modified with improved fish handling systems that increase the survival of impinged organisms.  The
 results of these impingement calculations are presented in Tables B3-18, B3-19, and B3-20 as age 1  equivalents, foregone
 fishery yield and production foregone, respectively. ,
    1  EPA understands that Logan has some impingement control but technical details are lacking. Therefore, for the purposes of the
analysis presented here, EPA assumed none of the transition zone CWIS have impingement-controls:
B3-40

-------
§ 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
B3-8  CUMULATIVE IMPACTS: SUMMARY OF ESTIMATED TOTAL I&E AT ALL

TRANSITION ZONE CWIS
                                                                                        i
Tables B3-21 and B3-22 summarize the cumulative I&E impacts of all transition zone CWIS (both in-scope and out of scope)
in terms of numbers of age 1 equivalents, yield lost to fisheries (in pounds), and production foregone (in pounds). The rates
for Salem in these tables are EPA's estimates of Salem's current annual I&E rates, as described above in Section B3-7. EPA
estimates that total fish impingement in the transition zone is 9,648,808 age 1 equivalents, 332,767 pounds of fishery yield,
and 794,381 pounds of production foregone.  Total entrainment is substantially greater, estimated as 615,900,092 age 1
equivalents, 16,867,112 pounds of fishery yield, and 72,000,391 pounds of production foregone.  Economic valuation of
these losses is discussed in Chapters B4 and B5 of this report. EPA evaluated the data for in-scope facilities only (Salem
Hope Creek, Deepwater, Edge Moor) to estimate the potential economic benefits of various regulatory options, as discussed
in Chapter B6.
                                                                                                    B3-41

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-------
§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B3: Evaluation of I&E Data
 Table B3-21: Summary of Cumulative Impingement Impacts of Delaware Estuary Transition Zone CWIS (sum of
                                    annual means of all species evaluated),     '           .   :
Facility
Salem"
Hope Creek
DuPont
Edge Moor
Delaware City Refinery
Deepwater
Chambers Cogen
General Chemical Corp.
SPI Polyols
Sun Refining
Logan Generating Co.
Hay Road
TOTALS
Raw Losses
6,633,845
—
— • .
— -
—
—
— -
—
—
—
	
	
—
# of Age I
Equivalents
3,185,559'
285,191
32,199
3,597,083
1,674,345
481,144
170,194
155,935
22,999
27,599
9,200
7,360
9,648,808
Lb of Fishery Yield
135,945
8,685
981
109,540
50,988
14,652
5,183
4,749
700
840
• 280
224
332,767
Lb of Production Foregone
• 477,249 ' !
31,516 '
3,558
397.506
185,028 . !
513,170
18,808
17,232
2,542
3,050
1,017 :
813
794,381
  Based on EPA's estimate of Salem's current impingement (see Section B3-7).
 Table B3-22: Summary of Cumulative Entrapment Impacts of Delaware Estuary Transition Zone CWIS (sum of
                                   • annual means of all species evaluated).
Facility
Salem"
Hope Creek
DuPont
Edge Moor
Delaware City Refinery
Deepwater
Chambers Cogen
General Chemical Corp.
SPI Polyols
Sun Refining
Logan Generating Co.
Hay Road
TOTALS
Raw Losses
14,660,055,610
—
• —
—
— -' • -
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— •
#ofAgel
Equivalents
338,955,960
12,220,152
1,379,695
154,131,600
71,744,121
20,616,580
7,292,672
6,681,664,
985,496
1,182,595
394,198
315,359
615,900,092
Lb of Fishery Yield
9,569,550
322,005
36,355
4,061,415
1,890,479
543,253
192,164
176,064
25,968
31,162
10,387
8,310
16,867,112
Lb of Production Foregone
45,208,635
1,182,185
133,473
14,910,791
6,9|40,573
1,994,461
705,498
646,389
95,338
114,405 .
38,135
30,508
72,000,391
 " Based on EPA's estimate of Salem's current entrainment (see Section B3-7).
                                                                                                        B3-51

-------

-------
§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                             Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
                                                of
B4-3
B4-4
B4-5
This chapter presents an analysis using benefits transfer
techniques of economic losses associated with I&E in the
Delaware Estuary transition zone. Most of the chapter.
discusses I&E impacts at the Salem facility because this is
the only facility in the transition zone that reported
comprehensive I&E data.  I&E results from the Salem
facility were extrapolated to other in-scope and out-of-
scope transition zone facilities (see Section B3-6 of
Chapter B3) and summed to obtain total I&E at all
transition zone CWIS (see summary of results in Section
B3-9 of Chapter B3). Sections B4-1 to B4-6 of this
chapter discuss the economic value of I&E at the Salem
facility.  Section B4-7 discusses the economic value of
I&E at all in-scope facilities (Salem, Hope Creek, Edge
Moor, and Deepwater), and Section B4-8 discusses
economic values for all in-scope and out of scope
transition 5:one CWIS.

B4-1   OVERVIEW OF VALUATION

APPROACH

I&E at transition zone CWIS affect recreational and
commercial fisheries as well as forage species that
contribute to the biomass of recreational and commercial
species.  EPA evaluated all these species groups to capture
the total  economic impact of I&E at transition zone CWIS.

Recreational fishery impacts are based on benefits transfer methods, applying the results from nonmarket valuation studies.
Commercial fishery impacts are based on commodity prices for the individual species. The economic value of forage species
losses is determined by estimating the replacement cost of these fish if they were to be restocked with hatchery fish, and by
considering the foregone biomass production of forage fish resulting from I&E losses and the consequential foregone
production of commercial and recreational species that use the forage species as a prey base.  All of these methods are
explained in further detail in the Chapters A5  and A9 of Part A of this document.               .       ;

Many of the I&E-impacted fish species at CWIS sites are harvested both recreationally and commercially. To avoid
double-counting the economic impacts of I&E on these species, EPA determined the proportion of total species landings
attributable to recreational and commercial fishing, and applied this proportion to the impacted fishery catch.  For example, if
30 percent of the landed numbers of one species are harvested commercially at a site, then 30 percent of the estimated catch
of I&E-impacted fish are assigned to the increase in commercial landings. The remaining 70 percent of the estimated total
landed number of I&E-impacted adult equivalents are assigned to the recreational landings.             :

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) provides both recreational and commercial fishery landings data by state. To
determine what proportions, of total landings per state occur in the recreational or commercial fishery, EPA summed the
 CHAPTER CONTENTS

 B4-1    Overview of Valuation Approach ..... , , , ..... , » B4-1
 B4*2    Economic' Value of Average Annual Recreational
         fishery Losses at the Salem Facility ..... *......". B4-3
         B4-2, I   Economic Values for Recreational Losses
                 From Consumer Surplus Literature ...... B4-3
         B4-2.2   Average Annual I&B Losses of
             - -"Recreajional Yield at Salem and Economic
                 ValueofLosses  ....... ...: ........ ; B4-5
         Economic Value of Average Annuaf Commercial - "  „
        -..Fishery Losses at the Salem Facility ,~ ...... .** . '/; --B4-7
         84-3.1   Average Annual l&E Lctsses of ""
        "; "*''     Commercial Yield at Saiem and Economic  *
          -'     t Value o/ Losses. .,.--,.,.,..„ ...... ...B4-?
         B4-3.2 , EconomiclmjMcts oC, Commercial
                 Landings Losses-, .*.,..,. ---- ,,.,.,. B(4-8c
         Ecoribmic Vaiwe of ForageFish Losses ---- -i , . . . . 84-9^
         Nowise Values' ..... §T ..", ......... ", . . ,*,> . ,  B4-U '
        v Summary at Mean Annual Value of Economic '   _!
,         Losses at Salem ....: ---- ,{_. .,,s.v. . ,.\ . .;. ,^-04-11*
'1P4-7   , Totaj Economic Damages for Generating Facilities*.:  ""•
         •RsguteedjUnder Phaw; 2\ .~,^_, , ,.,"., rTV." T-,-.^  84^12
v B4-8''   Total pobnomfo Damage^' fptAirTransiiwn"  ~  '- •{•—
                              *   "        '        -  B4-13
                                                                                                             B4-1

-------
S 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
landings data for the recreational and commercial fishery, and then divided by each category to get the corresponding
percentage. The percentages applied in this analysis are presented in Table B4-1.

As discussed in Chapter A5 of Part A of this document, the yield estimates in Chapter B3 represent the total pounds of
foregone yield for both the commercial and recreational catch combined. For the economic valuation discussed in this
chapter, total yield was partitioned between commercial and recreational fisheries based on the landings in each fishery, as
shown in Table B4-1.  Because the economic evaluation of recreational yield is based on numbers offish rather than pounds,
foregone recreational yield was converted to numbers offish. This conversion was based on the average weight of
harvestable fish of each species. Table B4-2 shows these conversions for the Salem impingement data presented in Section
B3-7 of Chapter B3 and Table B4-3 displays these data for the entrainment estimates given in Section B3-5. Note that the
numbers of foregone recreational fish harvested are typically lower than the numbers of age 1  equivalent losses, since the age
of harvest of most fish is greater than age 1.

             Table B4-1: Percentages of Total  Impacts in the Recreational  and Commercial Fisheries
                                          of Species  at Salem Facility.
Fish Species
Alewife'
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Atlantic menhaden
Blue crab
Silversicic3
Spot
Striped bass
Weakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery species'"
Percent Impacts to
Recreational Fishery
0
56
10
0
4
0
18
97
31
42
26
Percent Impacts to
Commercial Fishery
100
44
90
100
96
100
82
3
69
58
74
            ' Obtained from NMFS, 2001 a and b.              ^
            6 Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 lists non-RIS fishery species. The commercial/recreational split used is an
            average of the splits for the other species listed above.
            Source: PSEG,  1999c, Appendix F.
                 Table B4-2  Summary of Salem's Mean Annual Impingement of Fishery Species.
Species
Alcwifc
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Blue crab
Spot
Striped bass
Weakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery
species'
Total
Impingement
Count (#)
9,560
3,658
1,082,318
589,511
20,111
11,417
1,348,531
224,902
934,370
4,224,378
Agel
Equivalents (#)
2,136
384
231,830
468,661
18,956
5,972
55,856
167,741
215,821
1,167,358
Total Catch
(#)
44
23
28,064
53,269
5,120
743
8,020
318
17,895
113,496
Total
Yield Ob)
19
94
47,198
14,955
2,123
8,28,9
43,913
74
19,280
135,945
Commercial
Catch (#)
44
10
25,258
51,138
4,199
22
5,534
184
13,242
99,632
Commercial
Yield (Ib)
19
41
42,478
14,357
1,741
249
30,300
43
14,267
103,495
Recreational
Catch {#)
0
13
2,806
2,131
922
721
2,486
133
4,653
13,865
Recreational
Yield (Ib)
0
8 '
674
85
55
1,149
1,945
5
716
4,638
* Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 lists non-RIS species.
B4-2

-------
§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
            Table B4-3: Summary of Saiem's Mean Annual Entrainment ftesuits for Fishery Species.
Species;
Alewife
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Atlantic menhaden
Silversides
Spot
Striped bass
Weakfish '
White perch
Non-RIS fishery
species"
Total
Entrainment
Count (#)
1,338,721
57,131
115,035,206
21,786,584
26,001,930
49,187,259
41,434,832
104,383,899
44,044,530
153,969,330
557,239,422
Agel
Equivalents (#)
1,567
70.
16,454,185
2,346,168
107,867
23,848,126
419,505
1,215,517
1,211,578
13,879,726
59,484,307
Total
Catch (#)
32
4
1,991,879
723,773
3,959
6,441,601
52,189
174,528
2,295
1,150,863
10,541,123
Total Yield
Ob)
14
17
3,349,863
1,177,437
43
2,670,978
582,257
955,624
533
1,239,935
9,976,701
Commercial
Catch (#)
32
. 2
1,792,691
723,773
3,959
5,282,113
1,566
120,424
1,331
851,639
8,777,529
Commercial
Yield (Ib)
14
8
3,014,877
1,177,437
43
2,190,202
17,468
659,381
309
917,552
7,977,290
Recreational
Catch (#)
0
2 ,
199,188
o ...
0 '
1,159,488
50,624
54,104 .
964
299,224
1,763,594
Recreational
Yield (Ib)
0
8
287,131
0
0
412,094
484,105
253,923
192
46,055
U483.508
 0 Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 lists non-RIS species.                                                     ,


 B4-2   ECONOMIC VALUE OF AVERAGE ANNUAL RECREATIONAL FISHERY LOSSES AT THE

 SALEM FACILITY                                                                        ;

 B4-2.1  Economic Values for Recreational  Losses from' Consumer Surplus, Literature

 There is a large literature that provides willingness-to-pay values for increases in recreational catch rates. These increases in
 value are benefits to the anglers, and are often referred to by economists as "consumer surplus." For the application of this
 literature to value I&E impacts, EPA focused on changes in consumer surplus per additional fish caught.
                                                                                             i
 When using values from the existing literature as proxies for the value of a trip or fish at a site not studied, it is important to
 select values for similar areas and species. Table B4-4 gives a summary of several studies that are closest tp Delaware
 Estuary fisheries in geographic area and relevant species.

 McConnell and Strand (1994) estimated fishery values for the mid- and south Atlantic states using data from the National
 Marine Fisheries Statistical Survey. They created a random utility model of fishing behavior for nine states, the northernmost
 being New York. In this model they specified four categories offish: small gamefish (e.g., striped bass), flatfish
 (e.g., flounder), bottomfish (e.g., weakfish, spot, Atlantic croaker, perch), and big gamefish (e.g., shark).  For each fish
 category, they estimated per angler values for access to marine waters and for an increase in catch rates.

 Hicks et al. (1999) used the same method as McConnell and Strand (1994) but estimated values for a day of fishing and an
 increase in catch rates for the Atlantic states from Virginia north to Maine. Their estimates were generally jlower than those of
 McConnell and Strand (1994) and can serve as a lower bound for the values of fish.

 Agnello (1989) estimated one value for increased weakfish catch rates in all the Atlantic states. This study is useful because it
 values weakfish specifically, but the area considered ranges from Florida to Maine.  This large study area may differ from the
 Delaware Estuary, where weakfish is a very important recreational species.                           :

 Norton et al. (1983) estimated the value of the striped bass  fishery for the mid-Atlantic coast, including Delaware and New
 Jersey.                                                                  •

 Tudor et al. (2002; see Chapter B5 of this document) estimated willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for increases in recreational
 catch rates for selected species in Delaware Bay Estuary (values also were derived for the Ohio River and Tampa Bay). The
 analysis used random utility modeling (RUM) to estimate WTP for an additional fish per trip.  These values estimated were
 not applied in the Salem benefits transfer analysis done here in this chapter, but are discussed and used in Chapter B5, and
 applied to baseline losses in Chapter B6.                                                         ,
                                                                                                          B4-3

-------
S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses

Table B4-4: Selected Valuation Studies for Estimating Changes in Catch Rates,
Authors
McConncll and Strand
(1994)
Hicks ctal. (1999)
Agncllo(1989)
Norton ctal. (1983)
Tudor ctal.(2002)c
Study Location and Year
Mid- and south Atlantic coast,
anglers targeting specific
species, 1988
Mid-Atlantic coast, 1994
Atlantic coast, 1981 .
Mid-Atlantic coast, 1980
Delaware Estuary, 1994-1998
1 Item Valued
| Catch rate increase of 1 fish per
jtripforDEandNJ"
i Catch rate increase of 1 fish per
itrip, from catch rates at all sites,
|fbrDEandNJ
jMean value per fish caught,
j for the Atlantic coastb
! Catch rate increase of 1 striped
jbass per trip, for mid-Atlantic
i Catch rate increase of 1 fish per
itrip, forDE
[ Value Estimate ($2000)
IDE small game fish
IDE bottom fish
;NJ small game fish
;NJ bottom fish
IDE small game fish
IDE bottom fish
iNJ small game fish
:NJ bottom fish
jWeakfish
j Striped bass
JWeakfish
I Striped bass
JBluefish
: Flounder

$15.45
$0.13
$9.19
$1.75
$3.13
$2.39
$3.49
$2.01
$2.72
$15.55
$11.50
$18.14
$3.94
$3.92
 * Value was reported as "two month value per angler for a half fish catch increase per trip." From 1996 National Survey of Fishing,
 Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation (U.S. DOI, 1997); the average saltwater angler takes 1.5 trips in a 2 month period.
 Therefore, to convert to a " 1 fish per trip" value, EPA divided the 2 month value by 1.5 trips and then multiplied it by 2, assuming the
 value of a fish was linear.
 * These values were reported as "consumer surplus for an 20 percent increase in catch rate for all fish." The average catch rate was 4.95
 fish per trip, therefore a 20 percent increase in catch is equivalent to 1 more fish.
 ' Sec Chapter B5 of this document.


EPA used results from these studies (all except Tudor et al., 2002; see Chapter B5 of this document) to create a range of
possible consumer surplus values for the recreational fish landings foregone because of impingement and entrainment at
Salem.

To estimate a unit value  for recreational landings, EPA established a lower and upper value for the recreational species, based
on values reported in the studies in  Table B4-4.  Because.the studies in Table B4-4 are geographically specific, EPA  created a
lower and upper value for Delaware and New Jersey, and then calculated a weighted average value based on the proportion of
landings from each state. These values are presented in Table B4-5.
B4-4

-------
§ 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
        Table B4-5: Average Recreational Vaiue by Species for beiaware and New Jersey, 199(3-1998.
Species
Atlantic croaker
American shad
Spot
Striped bass
Weakfish
White perch
Blue crabc
Non-RIS fishery
species'1
State
DE
NJ
DE
NJ
DE
NJ
DE
NJ
DE
NJ
DE
NJ
DE
NJ
DE
• . NJ
Percentage Catch
67.4%
32.6%
50.0%
50.0%
66.5%
33.5%
9.2%
90.8%
36.5%
63.5%
69.6%
30.4%
.
.
-
-
Value/Fish ($2000)
Low
$0.13
$1.75
$0.13
$1.75
$0.13
$1.75
$3.13
$3.49
$0.13
$1.75
$0.13
$1.75
-
•
-
-
High
$2,01
$2.39
$2.01
$2.39
$2.01
$2.39
$15.55"
$2.72"
$2.01
$2.39
' -
-
-
' -
Weighted Average ($2000)
Low !
$0.66 :
$0.94 ',
$0.67 ;
$3.46
i
$1.16

$0.62 ;
$1.25C
$1.25C '
High
$2.27
$2.20
$2.26
$15.55
$2.72
$2.27 .
$4.55C
$4'.55C
      ° Striped bass high value taken from Norton etal. (1983) and is the same for both states.                    .
      b Weakfish high value taken from Agnello( 1989) and is the same for both states.                        ;
      c Recreational catch and value information has not been located, thus EPA used an equally weighted average value of the
      other species listed in the table.
      d Recreational values used are averaged from all other species' values.  See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for list of non-RIS
      fishery species.
      Source: NMFS, 2001b.                                                      .                  .


 B4-2.2  Average  Annual I&E Losses  of  Recreational Yield at  Salem and Economic   ,  .

 Value  of  Losses     •                                                         .           :

 EPA estimated the economic value of I&E impacts to recreational fisheries using the I&E estimates presented in Tables B4-2
 and B4-3 and the economic values  in Table B4-5. Results are displayed in Tables B4-6 and B4-7, for impingement and
 entrainment, respectively. The estimated total loss to recreational fisheries ranges from $16,400 to $57,600 per year for
 impingement, and from $ 1,523,400 to $5,373,000 per year for entrainment..
                                                                                                           B4-5

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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter 84: Baseline I&E Losses
         Table B4-6: Mean Annual Impingement of Recreational Fishery Species at Salem and Associated
       Economic Values Based on the Impingement Data Summarized in Tabie B4-2 and Discussed in Section
                                                 B3-7 of Chapter B3.
Species
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Atlantic menhaden
Blue crab11
Silvcrsides
Spot
Striped bass
Wcakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery speciesc
Total
Loss to Recreational
Catch from Impingement
(number of fish)
13
2,806
NA
2,131
NA
922
721
2,486
133
4,653
13,865
Recreational Value/Fish0
Low
$0.94
$0.66

SI. 25

$0.67
$3.46
$1.16
$0.62
$1.25

High
$2.20
$2.27

$4.55

$2.26
$15.55
$2.72
$2.27
$4.55

Annual Loss in Recreational
Value from Impingement
($2000)
Low
$12
$1,847
NA
$2,667
NA
$620
$2,491
$2,881
$83
$5,816
$16,417
High
$28
$6,360
NA
$9,686
NA
$2,085 ,
$11,206
$6,762
$304
$21,170
$57,601
      NA « data not available.
      * Recreational values stated are weighted averages, as calculated in Table B4-5, and values listed here are rounded to two
      digits, but arc not rounded in the calculations.
      b Recreational catch and value information has not been located, thus EPA used an equally weighted average value of the
      other species listed in the table.
      c Recreational values used are averaged from all other species' values. See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for list of non-RIS
      fishery species,
      Fri FebOl  16:59:11 MST2002; Table B: recreational losses and value for selected species; Plant: salemlOO.benefits, type: I
      Pathname: P^Intake/Delaware/Del-Science/scodes/tables.output.benefits.baseline/TableB.rec.Josses.salemlOO.benefits.I.csv


    Table B4-7: Mean Annual Entrapment of Recreational Fishery Species  at Salem and Associated Economic
     Values Based on the Entrainment Presented in Table B4-3 and Discussed in Section B3-5 of Chapter B3,
Species
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Spot
Striped boss
Wcakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery species'1
Total
Loss to Recreational Catch
from Entrainment
(number offish)
2
. 199,188
1,159,488
50,624
54,104
964
299,224
1,763,594
Recreational Value/Fish*
Low
$0.94
$0.66
$0.67
$3.46
$1.16
$0.62
$1.25

High
$2.20
$2.27
$2.26
$15.55
$2.72
$2.27
$4.55

Annual Loss in Recreational Value
from Entrainment ($2000)
Low
$2
$131,090
$779,988
$175,000
$62,690
$600
$374,031
$1,523,400
High
$5
$451,384
$2,623,574
$787,199
$147,162
$2,193
$1,361,471
$5,372,987
 * Recreational values stated are weighted averages, as calculated in Table B4-5, and values listed here are rounded to two digits, but are
 not rounded in the calculations. Thus, annual losses that are reported here may differ from calculations made with the rounded values.
 b Recreational values used are averaged from all other species' values. See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for list of non-RIS fishery
 species.
 Fri Fob 01 16:59:27 MST 2002; Table B: recreational losses and value for selected species; Plant: salemlOO.benefits; type: E Pathname:
 P^Intake/Delaware/Del-Scienee/scodes/tables.output.benefits.baseline/TableB.rec.losses.salemlOO.benefits.E.csv
B4-6

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§ 316(b) Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I4E Losses
B4-3   ECONOMIC VALUE  OF  AVERAGE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL FISHERY LOSSES AT THE

SALEM FACILITY                                                                      ;

B4-3.1  Average Annual  L&E Losses of Commercial Yield  at Salem  and Economic
Value  of Losses

I&E losses to commercial catch (pounds) are presented in Tables B4-2 (for impingement) and B4-3 (for entrainment) based
on the commercial and recreational splits listed in Table B4-1. EPA estimates of the economic value of these losses are
displayed in Tables B4-8 and B4-9 for impingement and entrainment, respectively.  Market values per pound are listed as
well as the total market losses experienced by the commercial fishery.  Values for commercial fishing are relatively
straightforward because commercially caught fish are a commodity with a market price. The estimates of market loss to the
commercial fisheries are $98,000 per year for impingement, and $5,814,700 per year for entrainment.     ,

 Table B4--8: Mean Annual Impingement  of Commercial Fishery Species at Saiem  and Associated Economic Values
    Based on the Impingement Data Presented in Tabje B4-2 and Discussed in Section B3-7 of Chapter 133._
Species
Alewife
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Atlantic menhaden
Blue crab
Spot
Striped bass
Weakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery species"
Total
Loss to Commercial Catch from Impingement
(Ib offish)
19
41
42,478
NA
14,357
1,741
249
30,300
43
14,267
103,495
Commercial Value
(Ib offish)"
$0.11
$0.72
$0.70
$0.07
$1.02
$0.85
$3.18
$1.24
$1.20
$0.96

Annual Loss in Commercial Value
from Impingement ($2000)
$2
$30
$29,735
SA
$14,644
$1,480
$791
. $37,572
$51 -
$i 3,697
$98,001
 NA = data not available.
 " Commercial value used is the average commercial value for the other species. See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for list of non-RIS fishery
 species.                                                                         '          '
 b Values are rounded to two decimal places here for listing but not in the calculations.   •               -      ,
 Fri Feb 01 16:59:27 MST 2002 ; TableC: commercial losses and value for selected species; Plant: salemlOO.benefits; type: I Pathname:
 P:Antake/Delaware/Del-Science/scodes/tables.output.benefits.baseline/TableC.comm.losses.salemlOO.benefits.I.csv i
                                                                                                      B4-7

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 S 316(b) Cose Studies,'Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
          Table B4-9: Mean Annual Entrainment- of Commercial Fishery Species at Salem and Associated
             Economic Values Based on the Entrainment Data Presented in Table B4-3 and Discussed in
                                           Section B3-5 of Chapter 83.
Species
Alcwife
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Atlantic menhaden
Silversides
Spot
Striped bass
Wcakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery species"
Total
Loss to Commercial Catch
from Entrainment
(Ib of fish)
14
7
3,014,877
1,177,437
43
2,190,202
17,468
659,381
309
917,552
7,977,290
Commercial
Value
(Ib offish)"
$0.11
$0.72
$0.70
$0.07
$0.46
$0.85
$3.18
$1.24
$1.20
$0.96

Annual Loss in Commercial
Value from Entrainment
($2000)
$2
$5
$2,110,414
$88,184
$20
$1,861,672
$55,547
$817,632
$371
$880,850
$5,814,696
         " Commercial value used is the average commercial value for the other species. See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for
         list of non-RIS fishery species.
         b Values are rounded to two decimal places here for listing but not in the calculations.
         Fri Fob 01  16:59:30 MST 2002 ; TableC: commercial losses and value for selected species; Plant: saleml OO.benefits;
         type: E Pathname: P:/Intake/Delaware/Del-
         Science/scodes/tables.output.benefits.baseIine/TableC.comm.losses.salemlOO.benefits.E.csv
 B4-3.2  Economic Impacts of Commercial Landings Losses

 The previous section expresses changes.to commercial activity as changes in dockside market prices.  However, to determine
 the total economic impact from changes to the commercial fishery, EPA also determined the losses experienced by producers
 wholesalers, retailers, and consumers.

 The total social benefits (economic surplus) are greater than the increase in dockside landings, because the increased landings
 by commercial fishermen contribute to economic surplus in each of a multi-tiered set of markets for commercial fish. The
 total economic surplus impact thus is valued by examining the multi-tiered markets through which the landed fish are sold,
 according to the methods and data detailed in Chapter A9.

 The first step of the analysis involves a fishery-based assessment of I&E-related changes in commercial landings (pounds of
 commercial species as sold dockside by commercial harvesters). The results of this dockside landings value step are described
 above. The next steps then entail tracking the  anticipated additional economic surplus generated as the landed fish pass from
 dockside transactions to other wholesalers, retailers and, ultimately, consumers. The resulting total economic surplus
 measures include producer surplus to the  watermen who harvest the fish, as well as the rents and consumer surplus that accrue
 to buyers and sellers in the sequence of market transactions that apply in the commercial fishery context.

 To estimate producer surplus from the landings values, EPA relied on empirical results from various researchers that can be
 used to infer producer surplus for watermen based on gross revenues (landings times wholesale price). The economic
 literature (Huppert, 1990; Rettig and McCarl, 1985) suggests that producer surplus values for commercial fishing ranges from
 50 to 90 percent of the market value. In assessments of Great Lakes fisheries, an estimate of approximately 40% has been
 derived as the relationship between gross revenues and the surplus of commercial fishermen (Cleland and Bishop, 1984,
 Bishop, personal communication, 2002). For the purposes of this study, EPA believes producer surplus to watermen is
 probably in the range of 40% to 70% of dockside landings values.

 Producer surplus is-one portion of the total economic surplus impacted by  increased_commercial stocks — the total benefits
 are comprised of the economic surplus to  producers, wholesalers, processors, retailers, and consumers.  Primary empirical
 research deriving "multi-market" welfare  measures for commercial fisheries have estimated that surplus accruing to
 commercial anglers amount to approximately 22% of the total surplus accruing to watermen, retailers and consumers
B4-8

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S 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
combined (Norton et al., 1983; Holt and Bishop, 2002). Thus, total economic surplus across the relevant commercial fisheries
multi-tiered markets can be estimated as approximately 4.5 times greater than producer surplus alone (given that producer
surplus is roughly 22% of the total surplus generated). This relationship is applied in the case studies to estimate total surplus
from the projected changes in commercial landings.

Applying this method, estimates of the baseline economic loss to the commercial fisheries ranges from $178,200 to $311,800
per year for impingement, and from $10,572,200 to $18,501,300 per year for entrainment for the Salem facility.

B4-4  ECONOMIC  VALUE OF  FORAGE FISH  LOSSES

Many fish species affected by I&E are not commercially or recreationally fished.  For the purposes in this study, EPA referred
to these species as forage fish.  Forage fish are species that are prey for other species and are  important components of aquatic
food webs. Table B4-10 summarizes impingement losses of forage species at Salem and Table B4-11  summarizes
entrainment losses. The following sections discuss the economic valuation of these losses using two alternative valuation
methods.                                                                    -                   ,

                 Table B4-10: Summary of Salem's Mean Annual Impingement of Forage Species.
Species
Bay anchovy
Blueback herring
Non-RIS Forage'
Total
Impingement Count (#)
592,248
83,997
1,733,222
2,409,467
Age 1 Equivalents (#)
525,130
12,802
1,480,270
2,018,201
Production Foregone (Ib)
500
4,269 ,
1,288
6,057 ;
             Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 lists non-RIS species.'
                 Table B4-11; Summary of Salem's Mean Annual Entrainment of Forage Species;
Species
Bay anchovy
Blueback herring
Non-RIS forage0
Forage sum
Entrainment Count (#)
13,129,437,661 .
5,563,808
967,814,719
14,102,816,188
Age 1 Equivalents (#)
290,409,647
6,745
6,423,701
296,840,093
Production Foregone (Ib)
7,043,992
15,361 ,
1,255,798',
8,315,151 *
             Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 lists non-RIS species.
 Replacement cost of  fish

 The replacement value offish can be used in several instances. First, if a fish kill of a fishery species is mitigated by stocking
 of hatchery fish, then losses to commercial and recreational fisheries would be reduced, but fish replacement costs would still
 be incurred and should be accounted for.  Second, if the fish are not caught in the commercial or recreational fishery, but are
 important as forage or bait, the replacement value can be used as a lower bound estimate of their value (it is a lower bound
 because it would not consider how reduction in their stock may affect other species' stocks). Third, where>there are not
 enough data to allow calculation of the value of losses to the recreational and commercial fisheries, replacement cost can be
 used as a proxy for lost fishery values.                                                        -     :      '

 The cost of replacing forage fish lost to I&E has two main components. The first component is the cost of raising the
 replacement fish. Table B4-12 displays the replacement costs of two of the forage fish species known to be impinged or
 entrained at Salem. The costs are average costs to fish hatcheries across North America to produce the fish for stocking. The
 second component of replacement cost is the transportation cost, which includes costs associated with vehicles, personnel,
 fuel, water, chemicals, containers, and nets. The AFS (1993) estimates these costs at approximately $1.13:per mile, but does
 not indicate how many fish (or how many pounds offish) are transported for this price. Lacking relevant data, EPA does not
 include the transportation costs in this valuation approach.           .   .                            :
                                                                                                            B4-9

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S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
Table B4-12 also presents the annual average replacement cost for impinged and entrained forage species at Salem. The
value of these losses using the replacement cost method is $2,246 per year for impingement and $130,224 per year for
cntrainment.

            Table B4-12: Replacement Costs for Losses of  Forage Fish Species at the Salem Facility.0
Species
Bay anchovy
(all U.S. regions)
Blucback herring
(all U.S. regions)
Non-RIS forage species'
Total
Hatchery Costs
(S/Ib)
$0.11
$0.52
$0.34

. Annual Cost of Replacing Forage Losses ($2000)
Impingement
$220
$106
$1,920
; $2,246
Entrainment
$121,838
$56
. $8,330
$130,224
        • Values are from AFS (1993). These values were inflated to $2000 from $1989, but this could be imprecise for current
        fish rearing and stocking costs.
        b This is an average value for all species listed in AFS (1993).  See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for list of non-RIS forage
        species.
Production foregone value of forage fish

This approach considers the foregone production of commercial and recreational fishery species resulting from I&E of forage
species based on estimates of trophic transfer efficiency, as discussed in Chapter A5 of Part A of this document. The
economic valuation of forage losses is based on the dollar value of the foregone fishery yield resulting from these losses.
Table B4-13  displays the results for impingement of forage species at Salem and B4-14 displays results for entrainment.  The
values listed are obtained by converting, the forage species into species that may be commercially or recreationally valued.
The values range from $30 to $80 per year for impingement and from $48,500 to $ 129,900 per year for entrainment.
                       Table B4-13: Mean Annual Value of Production Foregone of Selected
                     Fishery Species Resulting from Impingement of Forage Species at Salem
                     Based on the Impingement Data Presented in Table B4-10 and Discussed
                                         in Section 83-7 of Chapter B3.
                                 Species
                    • See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for list of non-RIS fishery species.
                    Fri Feb 01 16:59:21 MST 2002; Table D
                                                        Annual Loss in Production Foregone Value
                                                       from Impingement of Forage Species (S2000)

Atlantic croaker
Blue crab
Spot
Striped bass
Weakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery species"
Total
Low
$5
$4
$4
, $3
$8
$0
$5
$30
High
$9
$9
$8
$11
$14
$1
$11
$63
loss in selected forage species; Plant:
                    salemlOO.benefits; type: I Pathname:
                    P:/Intake/Delaware/Del-Science/scodes/tables.output.benefits.baseline/TableD.forage.eco.te
                    r.repl.saleml OO.benefits.I.csv
B4-10

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§ 316(b) Case. Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
                     Table B4-14: Mean Annual Value of Production Foregone of Selected
                    Fishery Species Resulting from Entrapment of Forage Species  at Salem
                  Based on the Entrapment Data Presented in Table B4-11 and Discussed in
                                        Section B3~5 of Chapter B3,
Species
Alewife
American shad
Atlantic croaker
Atlantic menhaden
Silversides
Spot
Striped bass
Weakfish
White perch
Non-RIS fishery species0
Total
• See Table B3-1 of Chapter B3 for list o
Fri Feb 01 16:59:33 MST 2002; Table D
Annual Loss in Production Foregone Value
from Entrapment of Forage Species ($2000)
tow
$18
$161
$4,122
$6,944
$25,247
$10,908
$909
$6,705
$451
$398
$55,862
High
' $31
$299
$7,444
$12,152
$44,182
$22,385
$3,174
$11,896
$1,193
$839
$103,595
'non-RIS fishery species.
loss in selected forage species; Plant:
                  salemlOO.benefits; type: E Pathname:
                  P:/Intake/Delaware/Del-Science/scodes/tables.output.benefits.baseline/Table.D.forage.eco.te
                  r.repl.salemlOO.benefits.E.csv
B4-5  NONUSE VALUES

Recreational consumer surplus and commercial impacts are only part of the total losses that the public realizes from I&E
impacts on fisheries. Nonuse or passive use impacts arise when individuals value environmental changes apart from any past,
present, or anticipated future use of the resource in question.  Such passive use values have been categorized in several ways
in the economic literature, typically embracing the concepts of existence (stewardship) and bequest (intergenerational equity)
motives.  Using a "rule of thumb" that nonuse impacts are at least equivalent to 50 percent of the recreational use impact (see
Chapter A9 for further discussion), EPA estimated nonuse values for baseline losses at Salem to range from $8,200 to
$28,800 per year for impingement and from $761,700 to $2,686,500 per year for entrainment.           |

B4-6  SUMMARY OF MEAN ANNUAL VALUE. OF ECONOMIC LOSSES AT SALEM

Table B4-15 summarizes the estimated current annual I&E at the Salem facility and the economic valuation of these losses.
Estimated total impacts range from $0.2 million to $0.4 million per year for impingement and  from $12.9 million to $26.7
million per year for entrainment.
                                                                                                      B4-11

-------
 S 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                                                 Chapter B4: Baseline I&E Losses
           Table B4-15: Summary of Economic Valuation of Mean Annual I&E at Salem Facility ($2000).

Commercial: Total Surplus (Direct Use, Market)

Recreational (Direct Use, Nonmarket)

Nonuse (Passive Use, Nonmarket)

Forage (Indirect Use, Nonmarket)
Production Foregone
.
Replacement
Total (Com •*• Rec + Nonuse + Forage)b


Low
High
Low
High
Low
High

Low
High

Low
High
Impingement
$178,184
$311,822
$16,417
$57,601
$8,208
$28,800

$30
$63
$2,246
$202,839
$400,469
Entrainnient
$10,572,175
$18,501,306
$1,523,400
$5,372,987
$761,700
$2,686,493

$55,862
$103,595
$130,224
$12,913,137
$26,691,011
Total
$10,750,359
$18,813,128
$1,539,816
$5,430,588
$769,908
$2,715,294

$55,893
$103,659
$132,470
$13,115,976
$27,091,480
Percent of
Impingement
Impacts?
81.2%

12.3%

6.1%

0.4%



100%

Percent of
Entrainnient
impacts'
'73.4%

17.4%

8.7%

0.5%



100%

 " Midpoints of the ranges are used to calculate percentages.
 b In calculating the total low values, the lower of the two forage valuation methods (production foregone and replacement) was used and
 to calculate the total high values, the higher of the two forage valuation methods was used.
 Fri Fcb 01 16:59:39 MST2002; TableE.summary; Plant: salemlOO.benefits ; Pathname: P:/Intake/Delaware/DeI-
 Scicnce/scodes/tables.output.benefits.baselinen'ableE.summary.salemlOO.benefits.cav
 B4-7  TOTAL ECONOMIC DAMAGES FOR GENERA-TINS FACILITIES RESULATED UNDER
 PHASE 2

 I&E results for the Salem facility were extrapolated to other in-scope transition zone facilities (see Section B3-6 of Chapter
 B3) and summed to obtain total losses from I&E at all in-scope transition zone CWIS. Table B4-16 displays estimates of the
 economic value of these losses. Results range from $0.4 million to $0.8 million per year for impingement and from $20.0
 million to S41.4 million per year for entrainment.
      Table B4-16
EPA's Estimates of Average Annual Economic Losses at In-scope CWIS of the Transition
                 Zone of the Delaware Estuary ($2000).
Facility
Salem1
Hope Creek
Edge Moor
Dccpwater (w/o
Chambers Cogen)
Total
Impingement Losses
Low
$202,839
513,963
$176,114
$23,557
$416,473
High
$400,469
$28,920
$364,771
$48,792
$842,952
Entrainment Losses
Low
$12,913,137
$464,933
$5,864,154
$784,387
$20,026,611
High
$26,691,011
$961,000
$12,121,005
$1,621,301
$41,394,317
Total
Low
$13,115,976
$478,896
$6,040,268
$807,944
$20,443,084
High
$27,091,480 •
$989,921
$12,485,776
$1,670,092
$42,237,269
   1 Based on EPA's estimate of Salem's current I&E assuming no impingement or entrainment survival, as discussed in Section B3-7
   of Chapter B3. Salem's data for 1996 was not included because the facility was shut down much of the year.
   Wed Fob 06 13:15:50 MST 2002 extrapolation.summary; salemlOO.extrapolation
   P:/INTAKE/DeIaware/Del-Science/scodes/extrapolation.benefits.facilities/extrapolation.summarynew.csv
B4-12

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§ 316(b) Cose Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                                                                                 Chapter B4: Baseline !<&E Losses
B4-8  TOTAL ECONOMIC  DAMAGES FOR ALL TRANSITION ZONE CWIS
                                                                                            i
Table B4-17 displays EPA's estimates of the mean annual economic losses for all transition zone CWIS (both in scope and
out of scope of the proposed rule). Results for these facilities together range from $0.5 million to $1.1 million per year for
impingement and from $23.4 million to $48.5  million per year for entrainment.                         j
    Table B4-17:  EPA's Estimates of Average Annual Economic Losses at All CWIS of the Transition Zone of
                                       the Delaware Estuary ($2000).
Facility
Salem0
Hope Creek
Dupont
Edge Moor
Delaware City
Refinery
Deepwater (w/o
Chambers Cogen)
Chambers Cogen
Gen Chem
Corporation
SPI Polyols
Sun Refining
Logan Generating
Co
Hay Road
Total
Impingement Losses
Low
$202,839
$13,963
$1,576
$176,114
$81,976
$23,557
$8,333
$7,635
$1,126
$1,351
$450
$360
$519,282
High
$400,469
$28,920
$3,265
$364,771
	 $169,791
$48,792
	 $17,259"
$15,813
$2,332
$2,799
$933
$746
$1,055,891
Entrainment Losses
Low
$12,913,137
$464,933
$52,492
$5,864,154
$2,729,606
$784,387
$277,460
$254,213
$37,495
$44,994
$14,998
$11,998
$23,449,867
High
$26,691,011
$961,000
$108,500
$12,121,005
	 $5^642,002
$1,621,301
	 $573,500
$525,450
$77,500
$93,000
$31,000
$24,800
$48,470,070
Total
Low
$13,115,976
$478,896
$54,069
$6,040,268
$2311^583 •
$807,944
$285,793
$261,848
$38,621
$46,345
$15,448
$12,359
$23,969,149
High
$27,091,480
'$989,921
$111,765
$12,485,776
$5,811,793
$1,670,092
$590,759
$541,263
$79,832
$95,799
$31,933
$25,546
$49,525,961
     Based on EPA's estimate of Salem's current I&E assuming no impingement or entrainment survival, as discussed in Section B3-7
   of Chapter B3. Salem's data for 1996 was not included because the facility was shut down much of the year.     ,
   Wed Feb 06 13:09:58 MST 2002 extrapolation.summary; salemlOO.extrapolation                         ;
   P:/INTAKJE/Delaware/Del-Science/scodes/extrapolation.baseline.facilities/extrapolation.summarynew.csv
                                                                                                        B4-13

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§ 316(b) Watershed Case Studies, Part B: The Delaware Estuary
                      Chapter B5: RUM Analysis
                                                          CHAPTER CONTENTS
                                                          B