&EPA
         United States
         Environmental Protection
         Agency
            Office of Water
            4304
EPA 822-B-00-011
December 2000
Ambient Water Quality
Criteria Recommendations

Information Supporting the Development
of State and Tribal Nutrient Criteria


Lakes and Reservoirs in
Nutrient Ecoregion IX
                                     "«:

-------

-------
                                                            EPA-822-B-00-011
                AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA RECOMMENDATIONS
          INFORMATION SUPPORTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE AND TRIBAL
                                   NUTRIENT CRITERIA
                                           FOR
                  LAKES AND RESERVOIRS IN NUTRIENT ECOREGIONIX



                         Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills

                              including all or parts of the States of:

       Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
           Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma,
                             Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, New Jersey

                          and the authorized Tribes within the Ecoregion
                        U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                     OFFICE OF WATER
                           OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
                       HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA DIVISION
                                     WASHINGTON, D.C.
                                      DECEMBER 2000
_

-------

-------
                                     FOREWORD

       This document presents EPA's nutrient criteria for Lakes and Reservoirs in Nutrient
Ecoregion IX.  These criteria provide EPA's recommendations to States and authorized Tribes
for use in establishing their water quality standards consistent with section 303(c) of CWA.
Under section 303(c) of the CWA, States and authorized Tribes have the primary responsibility
for adopting water quality standards as State or Tribal law or regulation. The standards must
contain scientifically defensible water quality criteria that are protective of designated uses.
EPA's recommended section 304(a) criteria are not laws or regulations - they are guidance that
States and Tribes may use as a starting point for the criteria for their water quality standards.

       The term "water quality criteria" is used in two sections of the Clean Water Act, Section
304(a)(l) and Section 303(c)(2). The term has a different impact in each section. In Section 304,
the term represents a scientific assessment of ecological and human health effects that EPA
recommends to States and authorized Tribes for establishing water quality standards that
ultimately provide a basis for controlling discharges or releases of pollutants or related
parameters. Ambient water quality criteria associated with specific waterbody uses when
adopted as State or Tribal water quality standards under Section 303 define the level of a
pollutant (or,  in the case of nutrients, a condition) necessary to protect designated uses in ambient
waters.  Quantified water quality criteria contained within State or Tribal water quality standards
are essential to a water quality-based approach to pollution control. Whether expressed as
numeric criteria or quantified translations of narrative criteria within State or Tribal water quality
standards, quantified criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing attainment of designated uses
and measuring progress toward meeting the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act.

       EPA is developing section 304(a) water quality criteria for nutrients because States and
Tribes consistently identify excessive levels of nutrients as a major reason why as much as half
of the surface waters surveyed in this country do not meet water quality objectives, such as full
support of aquatic life.  EPA expects to develop nutrient criteria that cover four major types of
waterbodies - lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuarine and coastal areas, and wetlands
— across fourteen major ecoregions of the United States.  EPA's section 304(a) criteria are
intended to provide for the protection and propagation of aquatic life and recreation. To support
the development of nutrient criteria, EPA is publishing Technical Guidance Manuals that
describe a process for assessing nutrient conditions in the four waterbody types.

       EPA's section 304(a) water quality criteria for nutrients provide numeric water quality
criteria, as well as procedures by which to translate narrative criteria within State or Tribal water
quality standards. In the case of nutrients, EPA section 304(a) criteria establish values for causal
variables (e.g., total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and response variables (e.g., turbidity and
chlorophyll a).  EPA believes that State and Tribal water quality standards need to include
quantified endpoints  for causal and response variables to provide sufficient protection of uses
and to maintain downstream uses. These quantified endpoints will most often be expressed as
                                                                                      11

-------
numeric water quality criteria or as procedures to translate a State or Tribal narrative criterion
into a quantified endpoint.

              EPA will work with States and authorized Tribes as they adopt water quality
criteria for nutrients into their water quality standards.  EPA recognizes that States and
authorized Tribes require flexibility in adopting numeric nutrient criteria into State and Tribal
water quality standards.  States and authorized Tribes have several options available to them.
EPA recommends the following approaches, in order of preference:

       (1) Wherever possible, develop nutrient criteria that fully reflect localized conditions and
       protect specific designated uses using the process described in EPA's Technical Guidance
       Manuals for nutrient criteria development.  Such criteria may be expressed either as
       numeric criteria or as procedures to translate a State or Tribal narrative criterion into a
       quantified endpoint in State or Tribal water quality standards.

       (2) Adopt EPA's section 304(a) water quality criteria for nutrients, either as numeric
       criteria or as procedures to translate a State or Tribal narrative nutrient criterion into a
       quantified endpoint.

       (3) Develop nutrient criteria protective of designated uses using other scientifically
       defensible methods and appropriate water quality data.
                                               Geoffrey tf. Gruf bs, Director
                                               Office of jScience and Technology

-------
                                     DISCLAIMER
       This document provides technical guidance and recommendations to States, authorized
Tribes, and other authorized jurisdictions to develop water quality criteria and water quality
standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect against the adverse effects of nutrient
overenrichment. Under the CWA, States and authorized Tribes are to establish water quality
criteria to protect designated uses. State and Tribal decision-makers retain the discretion to adopt
approaches on a case-by-case basis that differ from this guidance when appropriate and
scientifically defensible.  While this document contains EPA's scientific recommendations
regarding ambient concentrations of nutrients that protect aquatic resource quality, it does not
substitute for the CWA or EPA regulations; nor is it a regulation itself. Thus it cannot impose
legally binding requirements on EPA, States, authorized Tribes, or the regulated community, and
it might not apply to a particular situation or circumstance.  EPA may change this guidance in the
future.
                                                                                        IV

-------

-------
                          EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Nutrient Program Goals
       EPA developed the National Strategy for the Development of Regional Nutrient Criteria
(National Strategy) in June 1998. The strategy presents EPA's intentions to develop technical
guidance manuals for four types of waters (lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and
coastal waters, and wetlands) and produce section 304(a) criteria for specific nutrient ecoregions
by the end of 2000. In addition, the Agency formed Regional Technical Assistance Groups
(RTAGs) which include State and Tribal representatives working to develop more refined and
more localized nutrient criteria based on approaches described in the waterbody guidance
manuals. This document presents EPA's current recommended criteria for total phosphorus, total
nitrogen, chlorophyll a, and turbidity for lakes and reservoirs hi Nutrient Ecoregion IX
(Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills) which were derived using the procedures
described in the Lakes and Reservoirs Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual (U.S. EPA,
2000a).

       EPA's ecoregional nutrient criteria are intended to address cultural eutrophication— the
adverse effects of excess nutrient inputs. The criteria are empirically derived to represent
conditions of surface waters that are minimally impacted by human activities and protective of
aquatic life and recreational uses. The information contained in this document represent starting
points for States and Tribes to develop (with assistance from EPA) more refined nutrient criteria.

             In developing these criteria recommendations, EPA followed a process which
included, to the extent they were readily available, the following elements critical to criterion
derivation:

•      Historical and recent nutrient  data in Nutrient Ecoregion IX.
       Data sets from Legacy Storet, NASQAN, NAWQA Auburn University, and EPA Region
       4 were used to assess nutrient conditions from 1990 to 1998.

•      Reference sites/reference conditions in Nutrient Ecoregion IX.
       Reference conditions presented are based on 25th percentiles of all nutrient data including
       a comparison of reference condition for the aggregate ecoregion versus the
       subecoregions. States and Tribes are urged to determine their own reference sites for
       rivers and streams within the ecoregion at different geographic scales and to compare
       them to EPA's reference conditions.
       Models employed for prediction or validation.
       EPA did not identify any specific models used in the ecoregion to develop nutrient
       criteria. States and Tribes are encouraged to identify and apply appropriate models to
       support nutrient criteria development.

-------
       RTAG expert review and consensus.
       EPA recommends that when States and Tribes prepare their nutrient criteria, they obtain
       the expert review and consent of the RTAG.
 •     Potential Downstream effects.
       EPA encourages the RTAG to assess the potential effects of the proposed criteria on
       downstream water quality and uses.

       In addition, EPA followed specific QA/QC procedures during data collection and
 analysis: All data were reviewed for duplications.  All data are from ambient waters that were
 not located directly outside a permitted discharger. The following States,  Florida, Georgia,
 Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.
 indicated that their data were from samples collected and analyzed using either Standard methods
 or EPA approved methods.

       The following tables contain a summary of Aggregate and level ffl ecoregion values for
 TN, TP, water column chl a, and Secchi depth:
       BASED ON 25th PERCENTILE ONLY
Nutrient Parameters
Total phosphorus (ug/L)
Total nitrogen (mg/L)
Chlorophyll a (fJ-g/L) (Fluorometric
method)
Secchi depth (meters)
Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion
IX Reference Conditions
20
0.36
4.93
1.53
       For sub ecoregions 29, 33, 35, 37,40,45, 64, 65, 71, 72, and 74, the ranges of nutrient
parameter reference conditions are:
                                                                                    VI

-------
BASED ON 25th PERCENTILE ONLY
Nutrient Parameters/
*V x.
Total phosphorus (fig/L)
Total nitrogen (mg/L)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) (Fluorometric
method)
Secchi depth (meters)
Range of Level III Subeeoregions
Reference Conditions .
10 - 62.5
0.30 - 0.96
1.87-12.95
0.46 - 2.04
                                                                Vll

-------

-------
                          NOTICE OF DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY

      This document is available electronically to the public through the INTERNET at:
(http://www.epa.gov/OST/standards/nutrient.html). Requests for hard copies of the document
should be made to EPA's National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP),
11029 Kenwood Road, Cincinnati, OH 45242 or (513) 489-8190, or toll free (800) 490-9198.
Please refer to EPA document number EPA-822-B-00-011.
                                                                               vm

-------

-------
                              ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The authors thankfully acknowledge the contributions of the following State and Federal
reviewers: EPA Regions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7; the States of New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee,
Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas
and; the Tribes within the Ecoregion; EPA Headquarters personnel from the Office of Wetlands,
Oceans and Watersheds, Office of Wastewater Management, Office of General Counsel, Office
of Research and Development, and the Office of Science and Technology. EPA also
acknowledges the external peer review efforts of Eugene Welch (University of Washington),
Robert Carlson (Kent State University), Steve Heiskary (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency),
Greg Denton and Sherry Wang (Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation), and
Gerhard Kuhn (U.S. Geological Survey).
                                                                                   IX

-------

-------
                          LISTS OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Figures

Figure 1

Figure 2

FigureS

Figure 4a

Figure 4b


Tables

Table 1


Table 2

Table 3a-k
Aggregate Ecoregion IX  	8

Aggregate Ecoregion IX with level IH ecoregions shown  	9

Sampling locations within each level HI ecoregion  	13

Illustration of data reduction process for lake data  	25

Illustration of reference condition calculation	26




Lakes and Reservoirs records for Aggregate Ecoregion IX
Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills	14

Reference conditions for Aggregate Ecoregion IX lakes   	17

Reference conditions for level IH ecoregion lakes  	18
                                                                                      x

-------

-------
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword 	  ii

Disclaimer 	iv

Executive Summary	v

Notice of Document Availability  	viii

Acknowledgments	ix

List of Tables and Figures	x

Table of Contents  	xi

1.0 Introduction (program background and nutrient criteria process)  	1

2.0 Best use of this information	4

3.0 Area Covered by this Document (waterbody type and ecoregion)  	6
      3.1  Description of Aggregate Ecoregion IX —Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains
      and Hills	6
      3.2  Geographical Boundaries of Aggregate Ecoregion IX	7
      3.3  Level IE Ecoregions within Aggregate Ecoregion DC  	8

4.0 Data Review for Lakes and Reservoirs in Aggregate Ecoregion DC  	11
      4.1  Data Sources	11
      4.2  Historical Data from Aggregate Ecoregion DC (TP, TN, Chi a, Secchi)  	12
      4.3  QA/QC of Data Sources  	12
      4.4  Data for All Lakes/Reservoirs within Aggregate Ecoregion DC 	12
      4.5  Statistical Analysis of Data	12
      4.6  Classification of Lake/Reservoir Type  	16
      4.7  Summary of Data Reduction Methods	17

5.0 Reference Sites and Conditions in Aggregate Ecoregion DC  	27

6.0 Models Used to Predict or Verify Response Parameters  	27
                                                                                   xi

-------
7.0 Framework for Refining Recommended Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Reservoirs in
Ecoregion IX  	28
       7.1  Example Worksheet for Developing Aggregate Ecoregion and Subecoregion Nutrient
           Criteria 	28
       7.2  Tables of Refined Nutrient Water Quality Criteria for Aggregate Ecoregion IX and
       Level HI Subecoregions  	29
       7.3  Setting Seasonal Criteria	31
       7.4  When Data/Reference Conditions Are Lacking  	31
       7.5  Site-Specific Criteria Development  	31
8.0  Literature Cited	32

9.0 Appendices	32
                                                                                    XII

-------
1.0    INTRODUCTION
Background

       Nutrients are essential to the health and diversity of our surface waters. However, in
excessive amounts, nutrients cause hypereutrophication, which results in overgrowth of plant life
and decline of the biological community.  Excessive nutrients can also result in potential human
health risks, such as the growth of harmful algal blooms - most recently manifested in the
Pfiesteria outbreaks of the Gulf and East Coasts. Chronic nutrient overenrichment of a
waterbody can lead to the following consequences: low dissolved oxygen, fish kills, algal
blooms, overabundance of macrophytes, likely increased sediment accumulation rates, and
species shifts of both flora and fauna.

       Historically, National Water Quality Inventories have repeatedly shown that nutrients are
a major cause of ambient water quality use impairments. EPA's 1996 National Water Quality
Inventory report identifies excessive nutrients as the leading cause of impairment in lakes and the
second leading cause of impairment in rivers (behind siltation). In addition, nutrients were the
second leading cause of impairments reported by the States in their 1998 lists of impaired waters.
Where use impairment is documented, nutrients contribute roughly 25-50% of the impairment
nationally.  The Clean Water Act establishes a national goal to achieve, wherever attainable,
water quality which provides for the protection and propagation offish, shellfish, and wildlife
and recreation in and on the water. In adopting water quality standards, States and Tribes
designate uses for their waters in consideration of the Clean Water Act goals, and establish water
quality criteria that contain sufficient parameters to protect those uses. To date, EPA has not
published information and recommendations under section 304(a) for nutrients to assist States
and Tribes hi establishing numeric nutrient criteria to protect uses when adopting water quality
standards.

       In 1995, EPA gathered a set of national experts and asked the experts how to best deal
with the national nutrient problem. The experts recommended that the Agency not develop
single criteria values for phosphorus or nitrogen applicable to all water bodies and regions of the
country.  Rather, the experts recommended that EPA put a premium on regionalization, develop
guidance (assessment tools and control measures) for specific waterbodies and ecological regions
across the country, and use reference conditions (conditions that reflect pristine or minimally
impacted waters) as a basis for developing nutrient criteria.

       With these suggestions as starting points, EPA developed the National Strategy for the
Development of Regional Nutrient Criteria (National Strategy), published in June 1998.  This
strategy presented EPA's intentions to develop technical guidance manuals for four types of
waters (lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and coastal waters, and wetlands) and,
thereafter, to publish section 304(a) criteria recommendations for specific nutrient ecoregions.
Technical guidance manuals for lakes/reservoirs and rivers/streams were published in April 2000
and July 2000, respectively. The technical guidance manual for estuaries/coastal waters will be
published in spring 2000 and the draft wetlands technical guidance manual will be published by

                                                                                      1

-------
 December 2001. Each manual presents EPA's recommended approach for developing nutrient
 criteria values for a specific waterbody type. In addition, EPA is committed to working with
 States and Tribes to develop more refined and more localized nutrient criteria based on
 approaches described in the waterbody guidance manuals and this document.

 Overview of the Nutrient Criteria Development Process

       For each Nutrient Ecoregion, EPA developed a set of recommendations for two causal
 variables (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and two early indicator response variables
 (chlorophyll a and some measure of turbidity). Other indicators such as dissolved oxygen and
 macrophyte growth or speciation, and other fauna and flora changes are also deemed useful.
 However, the first four are considered to be the best suited for protecting designated uses.

       The technical guidance manuals describe a process for developing nutrient criteria that
 involves consideration of five factors. The first of these is the Regional Technical Assistance
 Group (RTAG), which is a body of qualified regional specialists able to objectively evaluate all
 of the available evidence and select the value(s) appropriate to nutrient control in the water
 bodies of concern.  These specialists may come from such disciplines as limnology, biology,
 natural resources management— especially water resource management, chemistry, and ecology.
 The RTAG evaluates and recommends appropriate classification techniques for criteria
 determination, usually physical within an ecoregional construct.

       The second factor is the historical information available to establish a perspective of the
 resource base.  This is usually data and anecdotal information available within the past ten-
 twenty five years. This information gives evidence about the background and enrichment trend
 of the resource.

       The third factor is the present reference condition. A selection of reference sites chosen
to represent the least culturally impacted waters of the class existing at the present time. The
 data from these sites is combined and a value from the distribution of these observations is
 selected to represent the reference condition, or best attainable, most natural condition of the
resource base at this time.

       A fourth factor often employed is theoretical or empirical models of the historical and
reference condition data to better understand the condition of the resource.
       The RTAG comprehensively evaluates the other three elements to propose a candidate
criterion (initially one each for TP, TN, chl a, and some measure of turbidity).

       The last and final element of the criteria development process is. the assessment by the
RTAG of the likely downstream effects of the criterion. Will there be a negative, positive, or
neutral effect on the downstream waterbody? If the RTAG judges that a negative effect is likely,

-------
       then the proposed State/Tribal water quality criteria should be revised to ameliorate the potential
       for any adverse downstream effects.

              While States and authorized Tribes would not necessarily need to incorporate all five
       elements into their water quality criteria setting process (e.g., modeling may be significant in
       only some instances), the best assurance of a representative and effective criterion for nutrient
       management decision making is the balanced incorporation of all five elements, or at least all
       elements except modeling.

              Because some parts of the country have naturally higher soil and parent material
       enrichment, and different precipitation regimes, the application of the criterion development
       process has to be adjusted by region.  Therefore, an ecoregional approach was chosen to develop
       nutrient criteria appropriate to each of the different geographical and climatological areas of the
       country. Initially, the continental U.S. was divided into 14 separate ecoregions of similar
       geographical characteristics. Ecoregions are defined as regions of relative homogeneity in
       ecological systems; they depict areas within which the mosaic of ecosystem components (biotic
       and abiotic as well as terrestrial and aquatic) is different than adjacent areas in a holistic sense.
       Geographic phenomena such as soils, vegetation, climate, geology, land cover, and physiology
       that are associated with spatial differences in the quantity and quality of ecosystem components
       are relatively similar within each ecoregion.

              The Nutrient ecoregions are aggregates of U.S. EPA's hierarchal level HI ecoregions.  As
       such, they are more generalized and less defined than level HI ecoregions. EPA determined that
       setting ecoregional criteria for the large scale aggregates is not without its drawbacks - variability
       is high due to the lumping of many waterbody classes, seasons, and years worth of multipurpose
       data over a large geographic area. For these reasons, the Agency recommends that States and
       Tribes develop nutrient criteria at the level IE ecoregional scale and at the waterbody class scale
       where those data are readily available. Data analyses and recommendations on both the large
       aggregate ecoregion scale as well as more refined scales (level III ecoregions and waterbody
       classes), where data were available to make such assessments, are presented for comparison
       purposes and completeness of analysis.

       Relationship of Nutrient Criteria to Biological Criteria

              Biological criteria are  quantitative expressions of the desired condition of the aquatic
       community.  Such criteria can be based on an aggregation of data from sites that represent the
       least-impacted and attainable  condition for a particular waterbody type in an ecoregion,
       subecoregion, or watershed. EPA's nutrient criteria recommendations and biological criteria
       recommendations have many  similarities in the basic approach to then" development and data
       requirements. Both are empirically derived from statistical analysis of field collected data and
       expert evaluation of current reference conditions and historical information.  Both utilize direct
       measurements from the environment to integrate the effects of complex processes that vary
       according to type and location of waterbody.  The resulting criteria recommendations, in both
       cases, are efficient and holistic indicators of water quality necessary to protect uses.
_

-------
        States and authorized Tribes can develop and apply nutrient criteria and biological criteria
 in tandem, with each providing important and useful information to interpret both the nutrient
 enrichment levels and the biological condition of sampled waterbodies. For example, using the
 same reference sites for both types of criteria can lead to efficiencies in both sample design and
 data analysis. In one effort, environmental managers can obtain information to support
 assessment of biological and nutrient condition, either through evaluating existing data sets or
 through designing and conducting a common sampling program. The traditional biological
 criteria variables of benthic invertebrate and fish sampling can be readily incorporated to
 supplement a nutrient assessment. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this tandem approach,
 EPA has initiated pilot projects in both freshwater and marine environments to investigate the
 relationship between nutrient overenrichment and apparent declines in diversity indices of
 benthic invertebrates and fish.

 2.0    BEST USE OF THIS INFORMATION

       EPA recommendations published under section 304(a) of the CWA serve several
 purposes, including providing guidance to States and Tribes in adopting water quality standards
 for nutrients that ultimately provide a basis for controlling discharges or releases of pollutants.
 The recommendations also provide guidance to EPA when promulgating Federal water quality
 standards under section 303(c) when such action is necessary.  Other uses include identification
 of overenrichment problems, management planning, project evaluation, and determination of
 status and trends of water resources.

       State water quality inventories and listings of impaired waters consistently rank nutrient
 overenrichment as a top contributor to use impairments. EPA's water quality standards
 regulations at 40 CFR §131.1 l(a) require States and Tribes to adopt criteria that contain
 sufficient parameters and constituents to protect the designated uses of their waters.  In addition,
 States and Tribes need quantifiable targets for nutrients in their standards to assess attainment of
 uses, develop water quality-based permit limits and source control plans, and establish targets for
 total maximum daily loads (TMDLs).

       EPA expects States and Tribes to address nutrient overenrichment hi their water quality
 standards, and to build on existing State and Tribal initiated efforts where possible.  States and
 Tribes can address nutrient overenrichment through establishment of numerical criteria or
 through use of new or existing narrative criteria statements (e.g., free from excess nutrients that
 cause or contribute to undesirable or nuisance aquatic life or produce adverse physiological
 response in humans, animals, or plants). In the case of narrative criteria, EPA expects that States
 and Tribes establish procedures to quantitatively translate these statements for both assessment
 and source control purposes.

       The intent of developing ecoregional nutrient criteria is to represent conditions of surface
waters that are minimally impacted by human activities and thus protect against the adverse
 effects of nutrient overenrichment from cultural eutrophication.  EPA's recommended process
 for developing such criteria includes physical classification of waterbodies, determination of
                                                                                      4

-------
current reference conditions, evaluation of historical data and other information (such as
published literature), use of models to simulate physical and ecological processes or determine
empirical relationships among causal and response variables (if necessary), expert judgement,
and evaluation of downstream effects.  To the extent allowed by the information available, EPA
has used elements of this process to produce the information contained in this document. The
values for both causal (total nitrogen, total phosphorus) and biological and physical response
(chlorophyll a, turbidity) variables represent a set of starting points for States and Tribes to use in
establishing their own criteria in standards to protect uses.

       In its water quality standards regulations, EPA recommends that States and Tribes
establish numerical criteria based on section 304(a) guidance, section 304(a) guidance modified
to reflect site-specific conditions, or other scientifically defensible methods.  For many
pollutants, such as toxic chemicals, EPA expects that section 304(a) guidance will provide an
appropriate level of protection without further modification in most cases. EPA has also
published methods for modifying 304(a) criteria on a site-specific basis, such as the water effect
ratio, where site-specific conditions warrant modification to achieve the intended level of
protection. For nutrients, however, EPA expects that, in most cases, it will be necessary for
States and authorized Tribes to identify with greater precision the nutrient levels that protect
aquatic life and recreational uses. This can be achieved through development of criteria modified
to reflect conditions at a smaller geographic scale than an ecoregion such  as a subecoregion, the
State or Tribe level, or specific class of waterbodies.  Criteria refinement can occur by grouping
data or performing data analyses at these smaller geographic scales. Refinement can also  occur
through further consideration of other elements of criteria development, such as published
literature or models.
       The values presented in this document generally represent nutrient levels that protect
against the adverse effects of nutrient overenrichment and are based on information available to
the Agency at the time of this publication. However, States and Tribes should critically evaluate
this information in light of the specific designated uses that need to be protected.  For example,
more sensitive uses may require more stringent values as criteria to ensure adequate protection.
On the other hand, overly stringent levels of protection against the adverse effects of cultural
eutrophication may actually fall below levels that represent the natural load of nutrients for
certain waterbodies. In cases such as these, the level of nutrients specified may not be sufficient
to support a productive fishery.  In the criteria derivation process, it is important to distinguish
between the natural load associated with a specific waterbody and current reference conditions,
using historical data and expert judgement. These elements of the nutrient criteria derivation
process are best addressed by States and Tribes with access to information and local expertise.
Therefore, EPA strongly encourages States and Tribes to use the information contained in this
document and to developmore refined criteria according to the methods described in EPA's
technical guidance manuals for specific  waterbody types.

       To assist in the process of further refinement of nutrient criteria, EPA has established ten
Regional Technical Advisory Groups (experts from EPA Regional Offices and States/Tribes). In
the process of refining criteria, States and authorized Tribes need to provide documentation of

-------
 data and analyses, along with a defensible rationale, for any new or revised nutrient criteria they
 submit to EPA for review and approval. As part of EPA's review of State and Tribal standards,
 EPA intends to seek assurance from the RTAG that proposed criteria are sufficient to protect
 uses.

       In the process of using the information and recommendations contained in this document,
 as well as additional information, to develop numerical criteria or procedures to translate
 narrative criteria, EPA encourages States and Tribes to:

 •     ' Address both chemical causal variables and early indicator response variables. Causal
       variables are necessary to provide sufficient protection of uses before impairment occurs
       and to maintain downstream uses. Early response variables are necessary to provide
       warning signs of possible impairment and to integrate the effects of variable and
       potentially unmeasured nutrient loads.
 •      Include variables that can be measured to determine if standards are met, and variables
       that can be related to the ultimate sources of excess nutrients.
 •      Identify appropriate periods of duration (i.e., how long) and frequency (i.e., how often) of
       occurrence in addition to magnitude (i.e., how much). EPA does not recommend
       identifying nutrient concentrations that must be met at all times, rather a seasonal or
       annual averaging period (e.g., based on weekly measurements) is considered appropriate.
       However, these seasonal or annual central tendency measures should apply each season
       or each year, except under the most extraordinary of conditions (e.g., a 100 year flood).

 3.0    AREA COVERED BY THIS DOCUMENT

       The following sections provide a general description of the aggregate ecoregion and its
 geographical boundaries.  Descriptions of the level IE ecoregions contained within the aggregate
 ecoregion are also provided.

3.1    Description of Aggregate Ecoregion IX - Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains
       and Hills
       Region DC is composed of irregular plains and hills. Originally, the Southeastern
Temperate Forested Plains and Hills (DC) was mostly forested hi contrast to the South Central
Cultivated Great Plains (V); areas of savannah and grassland also occurred. Today, Region DC is
a mosaic of forest, cropland, and pasture. The Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills
(DC) is not as arable as the South Central Cultivated Great Plains (V) or the Corn Belt and
Northern Great Plains (VI).  However, there is much more cropland than in the more rugged
Central and Eastern Forested Uplands (XI).  Lateritic soils are common and are a contrast to the
soils of the surrounding regions. Areas of depleted soils are found in Region DC. Major poultry
and aquaculture operations occur locally hi the Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills
(DC).

-------
       Stream quality in the Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills (IX) has been
significantly affected by urban, suburban, and industrial development as well as by poultry,
livestock, silviculture, and aquaculture.operations.  Downstream of sewage treatment plants,
poultry farms, and hog operations, nutrient levels and fecal coliform bacteria concentrations can
be very high. There are a large number of intensive chicken, turkey, and hog operations in
Region IX; effluent from intensive livestock production poses a substantial eutrophication threat
to surface waters. In contrast, streams draining relatively undisturbed and forested watersheds
have low median concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, sulfate, dissolved solids, and
phosphorus. Silviculture, agriculture, and urban development have impacted suspended
sediment levels in streams especially where soils are highly erodible. Coal mining has degraded
water quality and affected aquatic biota in several areas including southern Iowa, northern
Missouri, and eastern Pennsylvania.  Excessive PCB and DDT concentrations have been detected
in the Schuylkill River of Pennsylvania and have led to advisories against local fish
consumption.

3.2    Geographical Boundaries of Aggregate Ecoregion IX

       Ecoregion IX is an expansive region encompassing parts of twenty States (Figure 1). The
region's northeastern border is the southeastern corner of Pennsylvania. The region runs
southward through the States of New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Only the northwestern corner of Florida is included in the region.
West of Georgia, the region includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. The
region runs north up through the middle of the country to include parts  of Oklahoma, Arkansas,
Kansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Iowa, Illinois and Indiana. The northwestern boundary
of the region is approximately described by the southeastern corner of Iowa,  the southern half of
Illinois and the southwestern third of Indiana.
                                                                                       7

-------
                                                      Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 9
Figure 1.     Aggregate Ecoregion IX.
3.3    Level in Ecoregions Within Aggregate Ecoregion IX

       There are eleven Level m ecoregions contained within Aggregate Ecoregion IX (Figure
2).  The following provides brief descriptions of the climate, vegetative cover, topography, and
other ecological information pertaining to these subecoregions.

29. Central Oklahoma/Texas Plains
The Central Oklahoma/Texas Plains ecoregion is a transition area between the once prairie, now
winter wheat growing regions to the west, and the forested low mountains of eastern Oklahoma.
The region does not possess the arability and suitability for crops such as corn and soybeans that
are common in the Central Irregular Plains to the northeast. Transitional "cross-timbers" (little
bluestem grassland with scattered blackjack oak and post oak trees) is the native vegetation, and
presently rangeland and pastureland comprise the predominant land cover.  Oil extraction has
been a major activity in this region for over eighty years.
                                                                                      8

-------
                                                                        Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 9
        Figure 2.     Aggregate Ecoregion IX with level III ecoregions shown

        33. East Central Texas Plains
        Also called the Claypan Area, this region of irregular plains was originally covered by a post oak
        savanna vegetation, in contrast to the more open prairie-type regions to the north, south and west
        and the piney woods to the east. The bulk of this region is now used for pasture and range.

        35. South Central Plains
        Locally termed the "piney woods", this region of mostly irregular plains was once blanketed by
        oak-hickory-pine forests, but is now predominantly in loblolly and shortleaf pine.  Only about
        one sixth of the region is in cropland, whereas about two thirds is in forests and woodland.
        Lumber and pulpwood production are major economic activities

        37. Arkansas Valley
        A region of mostly forested valleys and ridges, the physiography of the Arkansas Valley is much
        less irregular than that of the Boston Mountains to the north and the Ouachita Mountains to the
_

-------
 south, but is more irregular than the ecological regions to the west and east. About one fourth of
 the region is grazed and roughly one tenth is cropland. In the Arkansas Valley, even streams that
 have been relatively unimpacted by human activities have considerably lower dissolved oxygen
 levels, and hence support different biological communities, than those of most of the adjacent
 regions.

 40.  Central Irregular Plains
 The Central Irregular Plains has a mix of land use types and tends to be topographically more
 irregular than the Western Corn Belt Plains to the north, where most of the land is in crops;
 however, the region is less irregular and less forest covered than the ecoregions to the south and
 east. The potential natural vegetation of this ecological region is a grassland/forest mosaic with
 wider forested strips along the streams compared to the region to the north. The mix of land use
 activities in the Central Irregular Plains also includes mining operations of high-sulfur
 bituminous coal.  The disturbance of these coal strata in southern Iowa and northern Missouri has
 degraded water quality and affected aquatic biota.

 45. Piedmont
 Considered the nonmountainous portion of the old Appalachians Highland by physiographers,
 the northeast-southwest trending Piedmont ecoregion comprises a transitional area between the
 mostly mountainous ecoregions of the Appalachians to the northwest and the flat coastal plain to
 the southeast.  Once largely cultivated, much of this region has reverted to pine and hardwood
 woodlands.

 64. Northern Piedmont
 The Northern Piedmont is transitional region of low rounded hills, irregular plains, and  open
 valleys in contrast to the low mountains of ecoregions to the north and west and the flat coastal
 plains of the ecoregion to the east. Potential natural vegetation here was predominantly
 Appalachian oak forest as compared to the mostly oak-hickory-pine forests of the Piedmont
 ecoregion to the southwest.

 65. Southeastern Plains
 These irregular plains have a mosaic of cropland, pasture, woodland, and forest. Natural
vegetation is mostly oak-hickory-pine and Southern mixed forest. The Cretaceous or Tertiary-
 age sands, silts, and clays of the region contrast geologically to  the older igneous  and
metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont, and the older limestone, chert, and shale found in the
Interior Plateau.  Streams in this area are relatively low-gradient and sandy-bottomed.

 71. Interior Plateau
The Interior Plateau is a diverse ecoregion extending from southern Indiana and Ohio to northern
Alabama. Rock types are distinctly different from the coastal plain sands and alluvial deposits to
the west, and elevations are lower than the Appalachian ecoregions to the east.  Mississippian to
 Ordovician-age limestone, chert, sandstone, siltstone and shale compose the landforms of open
                                                                                      10

-------
hills, irregular plains, and tablelands. The natural vegetation is primarily oak-hickory forest,
with some areas of bluestem prairie and cedar glades. The region has a diverse fish fauna.

72. Interior River Lowland
The Interior River Lowland is made up of many wide, flat-bottomed terraced valleys, forested
valley walls, and  dissected glacial till plains.  In contrast to the generally rolling to slightly
irregular plains in adjacent ecological regions to the north, east and west, where most of the land
is cultivated for com and soybeans, a little less than half of this area is in cropland, about 30
percent is in pasture, and the remainder is in pasture.

74. Mississippi Valley Loess Plains
This ecoregion stretches from near the Ohio River in western Kentucky to Louisiana. It consists
primarily of irregular plains, with oak-hickory and oak-hickory-pine natural vegetation. Thick
loess tends to be the distinguishing characteristic. With flatter topography than the Southeastern
Plains ecoregion to the east, streams tend to have less gradient and more silty substrates.
Agriculture is the dominant land use in the Kentucky and Tennessee portion of the region, while
in Mississippi there is a mosaic of forest and cropland.

Suggested ecoregional subdivisions or adjustments.

       EPA recommends that the RTAG evaluate the adequacy of EPA nutrient ecoregional and
subecoregional boundaries and refine them as needed to reflect local conditions.

4.0    DATA REVIEW FOR LAKES AND RESERVOIRS IN AGGREGATE
       ECOREGION IX

       The following section describes the nutrient data EPA has collected and analyzed for this
Ecoregion. This includes an assessment of data quantity and quality. The data tables present the
data for each causal parameter, total phosphorus, total nitrogen (both reported and calculated
from TKN and nitrite/nitrate), and the primary response variables (some measure of turbidity -
either secchi depth for lakes or turbidity units for streams - and chlorophyll a.  These are the
parameters which EPA considers essential to nutrient assessment because the first two are the
main causative agents of enrichment, and the two response variables are the early indicators of
system enrichment for most of the surface waters. (See Chapter 5 of the Lakes and Reservoirs
Nutrient Criteria Guidance Manual [U.S. EPA, 2000a] for a complete discussion on choosing
causal and response variables.)

4.1    Data Sources

       Data sets from Legacy STORET, NASQAN, NAWQA, Auburn University, and EPA
Region 4 were used to assess nutrient conditions from.1990 to!999. EPA recommends that the
RTAGs identify additional data sources that can be used to supplement the data sets listed above.
In addition, the RTAGs may utilize published literature values to support quantitative and
                                                                                     11

-------
qualitative analyses.

4.2    Historical Data from Aggregate Ecoregion IX (TP, TN, Chi a and Secchi Depth}

       EPA recommends that States/Tribes assess long-term trends observed over the past 50
years.  This information may be obtained from scientific literature or documentation of historical
trends. To gain additional perspective on more recent trends, it is recommended that States and
Tribes assess nutrient trends over the last 10 years (e.g., what do seasonal trends indicate?)

4.3    QA/QC of data sources

       An initial quality screen of data was conducted using the rules presented in Appendix C.
Data remaining New Jersey, after screening for duplications and other QA measures (.e.g., poor
or unreported analytical records, sampling errors or omissions, stations associated with outfalls,
storm water sewers, hazardous waste sites) is the data used in statistical analyses

       The following States indicated that their data were sampled and analyzed using either
Standard methods or EPA approved methods: Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana,
Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.  In all cases, States
indicated a Standard method or an approved EPA method was used. Other States in Ecoregion
DC did not provide information prior to the publication of this document.

4.4    Data for All Lakes and Reservoirs Within Aggregate Ecoregion IX

       Figure 3 shows the location of the sampling stations within each sub ecoregion.  Table 1
presents all data records for all parameters for Aggregate Ecoregion K and subecoregions within
the Aggregate Ecoregion.

4.5    Statistical Analysis of Data

       EPA's Technical Guidance Manual for Developing Nutrient Criteria for Lakes Reservoirs
describes two ways of establishing a reference condition.  One method is to choose the upper 25th
percentile (75th percentile) of a reference population of streams.  This is the preferred method to
establish a reference condition. The 75th percentile was chosen by EPA since it is likely
associated with minimally impacted conditions, will be protective of designated uses, and
provides management flexibility. When reference streams are not identified, the second method
is to determine the lower 25th percentile of the population of all streams within a region. The 25th
percentile of the entire population was chosen by EPA to represent a surrogate for an actual
reference population. Data analyses to date indicate that the lower 25th percentile from an entire
                                                                                     12

-------
         Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 9
            Lake and Reservoir Stations
     Level III Eco regions

         ^5*0; f^^-tiili^ jfi^*^
         35 [~~~1 64
       71
       72
       74
         37 I
65
US Stales
Stations
           10°
                                 10° 20°
                                               N
Figure 3.    Sampling locations within level III ecoregions
                                                      13

-------

CO
j-S
W""

-a
a
C3
CO
a
is
•a
•2
8
i§
•§

0)
B<



£*
0)
VI
C5
1
3
O
CO
a
a
"Si

o
o
«
So
I*
OJD
Kfi
f
jf
CA
•o
o
u
C5
1
H
vo
rO *^
£3 pi
CO 
- # of records for Chloroph
a (all methods)

0
vo
t— «



CN




CN
T-H
in


co^
•*"



O
m


OS
**"


r— i
co
CO
*N
os
oo


Total # of records for key
nutrient parameters

-------
Table 1 (continued).
Lake records for Aggregate Ecoregion IX -
Southeastern Temperate Forested Plains and Hills

# of Lakes / Reservoirs
# of Lake Stations
Key Nutrient Parameters (listed
below)
- # of records for Secchi
depth
- # of records for Chlorophyll
a (all methods)
- # of records for Total
Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TEN)
- # of records for Nitrate +
Nitrite (NO2 + NO3)
- # of records for Total
Nitrogen (TN)
- # of records for Total
Phosphorus (TP)
Total # of records for key
nutrient parameters
Sub
ecoR 65
175
584

3,568
3,510
6,230
2,775
1,473
4,608
22,164
Sub
ecoR 71
91
168

1,586
1,571
1,282
2,552
0
2,520
9,511
Sub
ecoR 72
126
501

11,933
3,171
2,654
3,472
0
4,485
25,715
Sub
ecoR 74
12
21

73
35
62
105
0
105
380
                                                                        15

-------
             Definitions used in filling Table 1                       ;
             I. # of records refers to the total count of observations for that-
             parameter over the entire decade (1990-1999) for that particular
             aggregate or subecoregion.  These are counts for^all seasons over  *-
             that decade.                             ~  I

             2. # lake stations refers to the total number of lake.andxeservoir
             stations within the aggregate or subecoregion from which nutrient
             data was collected. Since lakes and reservoirs can cross ecoregional
             boundaries, it is important to note that only those portions of a lake
             or reservoir (and data associated with those stations) that exist
             within the ecoregipn are included within this table.    - ~
population roughly approximates the 75th percentile for a reference population (see case studies
for Minnesota lakes hi the Lakes and Reservoirs Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Document
[U.S. EPA, 2000a], the case study for Tennessee streams in the Rivers and Streams Nutrient
Criteria Technical Guidance Document [U.S. EPA, 2000a], and the letter from Tennessee
Department of Environment and Conservation to Geoffrey Grubbs [TNDEC, 2000]). New York
State has also presented evidence that the 25th percentile and the 75th percentile compare well
based on user perceptions of water resources (NYSDEC, 2000).

       Tables 2 and 3a-k present potential reference conditions for both the aggregate ecoregion
and the subecoregions using both methods.  However, the reference lake column is left blank
because EPA does not have reference data and anticipates that States/Tribes will provide
information on reference lakes.  Appendix A provides a complete presentation of all descriptive
statistics for both the aggregate ecoregion and the level HI subecoregion.

4.6.    Classification of Lake/Reservoir Type

       It is anticipated that assessing the data by lake type will further reduce the variability in
the data analysis. There were no readily available classification data in the National datasets
used to develop these criteria. States and Tribes are strongly encouraged to classify their lakes
before developing a final criterion.

4.7.    Summary of Data Reduction Methods

       All descriptive statistics were calculated using the medians for each lake within ecoregion
IX, for which data existed. For example, if one lake had 300 observations for phosphorus over
the decade or one year's time, one median resulted. Each median from each lake was then used
in calculating the percentiles for phosphorus for the aggregate nutrient ecoregion/subecoregion
(level m ecoregion) by season and year (Figure 4a & b).
                                                                                     16

-------
          Table 2.    Reference conditions for aggregate ecoregion IX lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2 + NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP(Hg/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ag/L)-F
Chlorophyll a (wg/L) - S
Chlorophyll a («g/L)-T
No. of
Lakes
N~
605
591
NA
26
727
651
253
331
149
Reported values
Min
0.023
0
0.023
0.238
0
0.101
0.575
0
0.66
Max
4.85
5.799
10.649
2.025
1,145
230
75.9
108.805
108.15
25 Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons
0.38
0.017
0.397
0.358
20
1.53
4.925
5.18
6.52
Reference Lakes ** 1
P75 all seasons









                            P25:     25ill.percentile ofalftaia             ,  _
                            P75:    75thpercent!le of all'data    ""
                            *       75lh-percentile for Secchi
                            **      as determined {jy-the Regional Technical Assistance Groups (RTAGs) ',
                            +    "   Median for all seasons' 25* percentiles. E.g. this value was calculated from
                                    four seasons'x25* percentiles.  If the seasonal 25* percentile (P25) TP values ,
                                    are-  springIQjKg/L,summer 15/ig/L,*Ml 12^g/L/andwinterS^g/C,the    *
                                    median value t>f all seasons P25,will be llftg/L.       y      ~'s'
                            -F4-     jjNO2+NO3        ,       ^
                                  / 
-------
Table 3a.    Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 29 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2+NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP(ug/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N~
59
51
NA
0
61
38
0
53

Reported values
Min
0.05
0.007
0.057
-
2.5
0.203
-
0.775
-
Max
2.665
2.85
5.515
-
260
1.708
-
34.063
-.
25 Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons *
0.41
0.01
0.42
-
19.063
1.26
-
2.875
-
Reference Lakes **
P75 all seasons









Table 3b.    Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 33 lakes and reservoirs.
1 Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2 + NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP(ug/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N^
8
4
NA
0
10
10
0
9

Reported values
Min
0.538
0.01
0.548
-
10
0.46
-
2.665
-
Max
1.14
0.42
1.56
-
795
1.614
-
21.3
-
25th Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons +
0.778
0.029
0.807
-
55
1
-
5.05
-
Reference Lakes ** II
P75 all seasons









                                                                             18

-------
Table 3c.     Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 35 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN (mg/L)
NO2+NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP (ag/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (wg/L) - F
Chlorophyll a («g/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N~
29
24 W
NA
0
37
29
0
24

Reported values
Min
0.26
0.008
0.268
-
8
0.335
-
0.488
-
Max
1.223
0.41
1.633
-
237.5
3.325
-
19.95
-
25th Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P2S* all seasons
0.459
0.033
0.492
-
32.5
I.I
-
2.834
-
Reference Lakes ** II
P75 all seasons









Table 3d.    Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 37 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN (mg/L)
NO2+NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) -reported
TP(ag/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a («g/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ug/V) - S
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - T
No. Of
Lakes
N"
11 W
ll
NA
0
14
4
0
9 F

Reported values
Min
0.275
0.01
0.285
-
3.75
0.126
-
4.425
-
Max
0.85
0.225
1.075
-
206.25
0.49
-
14.55
-
25 Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons
0.385
0.01
0.395
-
20
0.46
-
4.95
-
Reference Lakes ** II
P75 all seasons









                                                                             19

-------
Table 3e.    Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 40 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2 + NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP(«g/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (i/g/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (z/g/L) - S
Chlorophyll a («g/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N++
73
80
NA
0
95
86
0
82

Reported values
Min
0.148
0.007
0.155
-
8.125
0.126
-
2.3
-
Max
2.91
1.865
4.775
-
477.5
2.05
-
68.675
. -
25th Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons +
0.568
0.093
0.661
-
40
0.988
-
5.S88
-
Reference Lakes
**
P75 all seasons









Table 3f.     Reference conditions for level HI ecoregion 45 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2 + NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP(«g/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a («g/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N~
200
153
NA
0
198
175
132
40

Reported values
Min
0.025
0.002
0.027
-
5
0.263
0.963
2.2
-
Max
1.908
3.799
5.707
-
265
6.225
31.938
45.8
-
25 Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons
0.245
0.059
0.304
-
22.5
1.655
4.513
5.95
-
Reference Lakes
** II
P75 all seasons









                                                                            20

-------
Table 3s.    Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 64 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2 + NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP (ag/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N++
8
2F
NA
4
10
7
0
1

Reported values
Min
0.313
0.605
0.918
0.615
33.75
0.5
-
7.68
-
Max
0.945
1.13
2.075
1.943
187.5
4.013
-
7.68
-
25th Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons
0.35
0.605
0.955
0.818
45
1.544
-
7.68
-
Reference Lakes II
**
P75 all seasons









Table 3h.     Reference conditions for level HI ecoregion 65 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN (mg/L)
NO2 + NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) -reported
TP (ag/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ag/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N++
92
95
NA
20
128
116
55
40

Reported values
Min
. 0.075
0
0.075
0.238
0
0.21
0.875
0
-
Max
4.85
1.324
6.174
1.585
527.5
230
53.25
67.25
-
25 Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons'1"
0.32
0.009
0.329
0.348
10
2.041
5.125
1.873
-
Reference Lakes ** II
P75 all seasons









                                                                             21

-------
Table 3i.      Reference conditions for level KI ecoregion 71 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2+NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN(mg/L)- reported
TP(«g/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N"1"1"
47
67
NA
0
67
64
52
8

Reported values
Min
0.213
0.001
0.214
-
2
0.235
1.8
5.125
-
Max
1.644
1.663
3.307
-
380
3.855
49.063
14
-
25 Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons +
0.365
0.101
0.466
.
16.563
1.841
6.2
6.25
-
Reference Lakes ** II
P75 all seasons









Table 3j.     Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 72 lakes and reservoirs.
1 Parameter
TKN(mg/L)
NO2+NO3(mg/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP(ug/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - F
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - T
No. of
Lakes
N+-
81
97
NA
0
97
115
10
74

Reported values
Min
0.272
0.001
0.273
-
9.5
0.132
2.1
4.253
-
Max
2.08
3.475
5.555
-
845
3.15
60.2
108.805
-
25th Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons
0.609
0.005
0.614
-
30
1.093
9.1
12.945
-
Reference Lakes ** ||
P75 all seasons









                                                                            22

-------
Table 3k.    Reference conditions for level III ecoregion 74 lakes and reservoirs.
Parameter
TKN (mg/L)
NO2 + NO3(ing/L)
TN (mg/L) - calculated
TN (mg/L) - reported
TP(ug/L)
Secchi (meters)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L) - F
Chlorophyll a («g/L) - S
Chlorophyll a (ugfL) - T
No. of
Lakes
N"
6
10
NA
0
10
7
5 F
0

Reported values
Min
0.273
0.033
0.306
-
23.125
0.277
5.625
-
-
Max
0.527
0.37
0.897
-
233.75
0.975
61.675
-
-
25 Percentiles based on all
seasons data for the Decade
P25* all seasons +
0.305
0.048
0.353
-
62.5
0.71
9.8
-
-
Reference Lakes ** II
P75 all seasons









                                                                             23

-------
   Definitions used in filling Tables 2 and 3 - Reference Condition tables

   1. Number of Lakes in Table 2 refers to the largest number of lakes,ahd''reservqjbrs for,
   which data existed for a given season within an aggregate nutrient ecoregion.
                                                                               / ^-t      i
   2. Number of Lakes in Table 3 refers to the number of lakes arid reservoirs for which   '
   data existed for the summer months since summer is generally-when the greatest amount of
   nutrient sampling is conducted. If another season greatly
-------
                         CO
                         
-------
          ai

          01
          o
          o
— S!
M


1
 «

I
•w
•8
 a
 o
 u

 s
                        O



                        §




                       1
       o


    Oui
I
                                      
-------
4. Chlorophyll a: medians based on all methods are reported, however, the acid corrected
medians are preferred to the uncorrected medians.  In developing a reference condition from a
particular method, it is recommended that the method with the most observations be used.
Fluorometric and Spectrophotometric are preferred over all other methods. However, when no
data exists for Fluorometric and Spectrophotometric methods, Trichromatic values may be used.
Data from the variance techniques are not interchangeable.

5. Periphyton: Where periphyton data exists, record separately.

6. Secchi depth: The 75th percentile is reported for secchi depth since this is the only variable
for which the value of the parameter increases with greater clarity.

7. Turbidity units: all turbidity units from all methods are reported. FTUs and NTUs are
preferred over JCUs. If FTUs and NTUs do not exist, use JCUs. These units are not
interchangeable. (For streams only)

8. Lack of data:  A dash (-) represents missing, inadequate or inconclusive data. A zero (0) is
reported if the reported median for a parameter is 0 or if the component value is below detection.

5.0    REFERENCE SITES AND CONDITIONS IN AGGREGATE ECOREGIONIX

       Reference conditions represent the natural, least impacted conditions or what is
considered to be the most attainable conditions. This section compares the different reference
conditions determined from the two methods and establishes which reference condition is most
appropriate.

Apriori determination of reference sites The preferred method for establishing reference
condition is to choose the upper percentile of an a priori population of reference lakes.  States
and Tribes are encouraged to identify reference conditions based on this method.

Statistical determination of reference conditions (25 percentile of entire database.)  See Tables 2
and 3a-k in section 4.0.

RTAG discussion and rationale for selection of reference sites and conditions in Ecoregion IX
The RTAG should compare the results derived from the two methods described above and
present a rationale for the final selection of reference sites.

6.0    MODELS USED TO PREDICT OR VERIFY RESPONSE PARAMETERS

       The RTAG is encouraged to identify and apply relevant models to support nutrient
criteria development. The following are three scenarios under which models may be used to
derive criteria or support criteria development
                                                                                    27

-------
7.0
Models for predicting correlations between causal and response variables

Models used to verify reference conditions based on percentiles

Regression models used to predict reference conditions in impacted areas

FRAMEWORK FOR REFINING RECOMMENDED NUTRIENT CRITERIA
FOR LAKES AND RESERVOIRS IN AGGREGATE ECOREGIONIX
       Information on each of the following six weight of evidence factors is important to refine
the criteria presented in this document. All elements should be addressed  in developing criteria,
as is expressed in our nutrient criteria technical guidance manuals. It is our expectation that EPA
Regions, States, and Tribes (as RTAGs) will consider these elements as States/Tribes develop
their criteria.  This section should be viewed as a work sheet (sections are left blank for this
purpose) to assist in the refinement of nutrient criteria. If many of these elements are ultimately
unaddressed, EPA may rely on the proposed reference conditions presented in Tables 3a-k and
other literature and information readily available to the HQ nutrient team to develop nutrient
water quality recommendations for this ecoregion..

7.1    Example Worksheet for Developing Aggregate Ecoregion and Subecoregion
       Nutrient Criteria

•      Literature sources
      Historical data and trends
      Reference conditions
                                                                                   28

-------
      Models
      RTAG expert review and consensus
      Downstream effects
7.2   Tables of Refined Nutrient Water Quality Criteria for Aggregate Ecoregion IX and
      Level III Subecoregions for TP, TN, Chi a, Secchi Depth (where sufficient data
      exist)
Aggregate Ecoregion IX- Southeastern
Temperate Forested Plains and Hills
Total Phosphorus (ug/L)
Total Nitrogen (mg/L)
Chlorophyll a (ng/L or mg/m2)
Secchi Depth (meters)
Other (Index; other parameter such as DO)
Proposed Criterion





      Literature sources
                                                                                 29

-------
•      Historical data and trends
       Reference conditions
•     Models
      RTAG expert review and consensus
      Downstream effects
Ecoregion #29 Central Oklahoma/Texas
Plains
Total Phosphorus (ug/L)
Total Nitrogen (mg/L)
Chlorophyll a (ug/L or mg/m2)
Secchi Depth (meters)
Other (Index; other parameter such as DO)
Proposed Criterion





                                                                                  30

-------
       7.3    Setting Seasonal Criteria


              The recommendations presented in this document are based, in part, on medians of all the
       25th percentile seasonal data (decadal), and as such are reflective of all seasons and not one
       particular season or year. It is recommended that States and Tribes monitor in all seasons to best
       assess compliance with the resulting criterion.  States/Tribes may choose to develop criteria
       which reflect each particular season or a given year or season when there is significant
       variability between seasons/years or designated uses that are specifically tied to one or more
       seasons of the year (e.g., recreation, fishing). Using the tables in Appendix A and B, one can set
       reference conditions based on a particular season or year and then develop a criterion based on
       each individual season. Obviously, this option is season-specific and would also require
       increased monitoring within each season to assess compliance.


       7.4    When Data/Reference Conditions are Lacking


              When data are unavailable to develop a reference condition for a particular parameters)
       within a subecoregion, EPA recommends one of three options: (1) Use data from a similar
       neighboring subecoregion. E.g., If data are few or nonexistent for the northern cascades,
       consider using the data and reference condition developed for the cascades; or (2) Use the 25th
       perecentiles for the Aggregate ecoregion or (3) Consider using the lowest of the yearly medians
       for that parameter calculated for all the subecoregions within the Aggregate Ecoregion.


       7.5    Site-specific Criteria Development


              Criteria may be refined hi a number of ways. The best way to refine criteria is to follow
       the critical elements of criteria development as well as to refer to the Lakes and Reservoirs
       Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual (U.S. EPA, 2000a).  The Technical Guidance
       Manual presents sections on each of the following factors to consider in setting criteria:


       -  refinements to ecoregions and classification of waterbodies (Chapter 3)
       -  setting seasonal criteria to reflect major seasonal climate differences and accounting for
       significant or cyclical rainfall events - high flow/low flow conditions (Chapter 4).
       NOTE: In setting criteria for reservoirs only (The technical guidance manual recommends that
       data be separated for lakes and reservoirs and treated independently if possible because of
       differing physical conditions that occur in lakes and reservoirs. In this document all data from
       both reservoirs and lakes were considered together since STORET does not allow for the
       differentiation of data except by waterbody name.)
                                                                                            31
_

-------
 8.0    LITERATURE CITED
       NYSDEC (New York State Department of Environment and Conservation). 2000.
       Memorandum from Scott Kishbaugh to Jay Bloomfield, September 26,2000, regarding
       reference lakes for nutrient criteria.
       TNDEC (Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation). 2000.  Letter to
       Geoff Grubbs, October 5,2000, containing comments on draft nutrient criteria
       recommendations.


       U.S. EPA. 2000a. Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual: Lakes and Reservoirs,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA-822-BOO-001.


       U.S. EPA. 2000b. Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual: Rivers and Streams,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA-822-BOO-002.


9.0    APPENDICES


A. Descriptive Statistics Data Tables for Aggregate Ecoregion


B. Descriptive Statistics Data Tables for Level III Subecoregions within Aggregate Ecoregion


C. Quality Control/Quality Assurance Rules
                                                                               32

-------
                   APPENDIX A
Descriptive Statistics Data Tables for Aggregate Ecoregion

-------

-------
  in
  0)
  D-
          •>—  in   N-  T—
          CM  CO  i-  O>
          in  CM  ^  CM
  in

  Q-
  o  co  f^


  CM  i-  T-
                       in
 D
 UJ
  o  o  in  o
   *  CO  ^3"  ^D
  CM
  T-  f-.  O5  -t
  in
  CM
  Q-
  o  in  o  o
  CM  co  in  co
          co
                  in  •»-
1
1
1
1
1
1
1


1
1
1°
1-
H
b
F
U
u
0
o


j
~
0

13
D
£
B
J










C
0
CO
CO
CD
CO

T3
CO

CD
•o
CO
o
CD
0

;>i
J3

CO
O
•H
^-<
CO
•H
•(— '
CO
•H
CO

CD
>
-H
•H
Q.
•M
O
CO
CD
D






C
CO
T3
Q)
^>
1

1
O)
3
]
O
3
.-H
LL
I
CO
rH
/~
0

1.
CD
^
CD
E
CO
£_
CO
Q.






in
Q.





>.
o





cc
cc
UJ
a
t-
co




^>
UJ
Q
O
I—
CO




x
*4
s




o
CVJ
•
CM



^_
05






T—
CO

•^






"^
•
in






o
o
,_!
O5



o
in
•
T—



.^
co






IT-
N.

O






0
CO

co





o
f^-
m
in



o
O)
•
T—



in
o






^j-
o>

o






0

in






o
•r—
CVJ

^_


in
fs»
•
o



CM

^_





O)
CM

^~






CO
CO

en





o
CO
o
CO


         o  o  o  o
         o  in  in  o
           •  r--  CM  -g-
 UJ
 CO  CO  CO  "vt"
           •  o>
 CD  O  •*
 1-  T-  T-  CO
         O3  in  co  co
         co  co  in  m
         i-  t-  CJ
o
co
UJ
CO
    o  cc  cc
    Z.  UJ  UJ
-1  t-l  s  t-
—i  cc  s  -z.
<  a.  r>  1-1
IL.  tn    ^

-------
X
(-1
c
o
•H
O>
CO
£_
O
O
UJ

4™*
C
CD
•H
i.
•M
3
Z

CD
•H

CD
CD
t_
O)
o>
<







(A
C_
•H
O

t_
CD
CO
CD
CC

•o
c
CO

M
CD
V*
co
i











c
o
CO
co
CD
CO
•o
CO
CD
T3
CO
O
CD
Q

>-j
J3

CO
O
•H
•H
to
•H

CO
•H
CO

CD
;»
•H
4*1
O.
•H
£_
O
CO
CD
O
cz
CO
•H
CD
Sg
1
-I
1
CD

=|
0
CD
.e
a.
I
CO
iH
r"
O

L.
CD
•H
CD
^
CO
C-
co
0.






to t>- o ^- ^t
O) CM CO CM CO
Q. •
Tl- CM h- •>-
IO t>- O T- '3-
t^ CM CO CM CO
Q. •
^J" ^^ f^ T^
z:
M CM CO CM CO
Q . . . .
UJ *3- CM N T-
IO 1^- O i- <3-
CM CM CO CM CO
Q_ •
TT CM N- T-
to r^ o i- •^r
Q_ CM CO CM CO
•^r CM 1s- i-
o





cc
cc
UJ
o •
H-
CO




2>
UJ
a
Q . . . .

CO




x r^ o T- •st-
-  t-
            CD  CC  DC
            •z.  UJ  uj
o
CO      _  .    _
<      _J  CC  S
UJ      <  0-  Z>
CO      U.  CO  CO

-------
                 in
                 05
                 D.
                    co  in  CM  o

                    CM  CM  CD  N-
                    co  in  co  co
                 LO
                 t^
                 o.
                     CM  in  CM  *
                      •   •   •  in
                     o  N.  co
                     CM  T-  CM  CD
                 Q
                 LLJ
                             CM  O
                              •  CM
                          .  CM
                     O)  cn  •»—  co
                         CM
                         CO
                 in
                 OJ
                 D-
                     T-  in  i-
                     <*•  a>  i-
                             in  r-
     c
     o
     to  c.
     CO  CO
     CD  -H
     CO  T3
         CD
     -a

     CO
      "I
     CO  D)
Icn -o  3
 CD   i.
 >   CD

4J   CD
 Q.  E
•H   CO
 £_   L.
 O   CO
 03  O-
 03
Q
             LO
             0.
                 o
L.
|H
p
>
\L.
CD
CO

1
p
c
CO

CO
CD
E>
kc
CO
0
CD
Q

>^
J2
CO
o
•H
+j
cn
•H
4-1
CO

CO
1

<\
o
CD
Q.

O
-H
>B,
f"
Q.
1
CO

x:
o



tr
cc
LU
Q
[~*~




^
LU
0
O

                 C/3
CO
O)
•
-------
                      in
                      o>
                             O  CD
                             h-  in
 in
 in
                              CD  -a-  T-  CM
                              o  CD
                              h»  in
                                         in
                                         in
                              O  O
 O
             CO
LU   0)   >,  Q.
     co
•M   O>
            co
c  oc    o
        O  -M
  .T> -H  >,
                     o
                    cr
                    cc
                    LU
                    CO
•z.  co
CD
    CO  CB
             ro
•H  CO  CO  O
ra
D)
0)

5)
S)
        CO  £-
        >  CO
       •H -H
       +j  o

        Q.  E
       •H  CO
        £_  £_

        U  CO
        CO C_
        CO
                    LU
                    CO
                            o  CD  in  in
                            N  in  CD  in
                            CD
                                    O  CM
                            o  CD  r*-  in
                                in
                            CD
                                        in

                                        CM
                            O  CD
                            N  in
                                       in
                                       LO
                            CD  ^r  T-  CM
                   co
                   co
                           -J  l-H
                           — I  DC  S
                           <  O.  3
                           U-  CO  CO
                                   cc cc
                                   LU LU

-------
 in
 o>
 Q-
          co  co  o  o
          co  o>  Is-  T-
          CD  in  O)  co
 LO
 N.
 CL
          co  co  co  co
          CO  TT  T-  CM
          CO  CM  LO  T-
 HH

 Q
 LLJ
                           co  o  in   o
                                     •   LO
                           O>  CM  CO
                           i-  i-  CM   LO
 10
 eg
 D.
                           CO  O  O  O
                           o  o    •  o
                            .    .  o    •
                           en  ^  T—  <3~












CO
£_
IH
p
>
k_
CD
CO
1 "*%


H
a
o
CO
CO
CD
CO

T5
C
CO

CD
•^
CO
o
CD
Q

>>
J3

CO
o
•H





C
CO
•H
T3
CD
*>
1

"*!
O)
ZJ
1

1
0
•H
C-
f-
1

LO
Q.






^>
O





cc
cc
LLJ
Q
1—
co


|CO  CO  i—I
     •r-)  JZ
|CO  -H  O
ICD  co
     4->   i.
     CO   CD


     CD   CD


     •H   CO
     •H   £-
     Q.  CO
     -H  Q_
     L.

     O
     CO
     CD
     Q
 LLJ
 Q
 Q

 CO
 X
          co  in  o  co
          in  CM  o  f
         CM  i-  CO
         CM  ^T  CM  CM
         O>  O  CJ>  CM
         co  co  en  co
         in  co  in  i*-
         CM  i-  CM  CM
         co   o
                      C»
^  co  T~  co
CM  -r-  CO  i-
         e»  T-  o  N-
         cn  co  o  co
         *t  1-  T-  ID
         co  co  in  co
         o  o   in  in
         o  o   CM  CM
         o  o    •    •
LLJ
         CJ3  CO   LO
         CO
         CM
                  co  i-
         •*  «a-  o>  LO
         CD  en  Ti-  CM
o
co
LLJ
CO
                              C3  CC  CC
                              z:  LLJ  LU
                          —I  H  S  I—
                          -I  CC  S  2
                          <  o_  r>  1-4
                          u_  co  co  S

-------
                  If)
                  o>
                  D_
                  O O  O  O
                  O O  O  O
                  in
                  t^
                  a.
                  O O  O  O
                  O O  O  O
           <
           l-l

           UJ
                        O  O O  O
                        O  O O  O
                  IT)
                  CM
                  D-
                  O O  O  O
                  0000
X
 c
 o
•H  CO
 D> C_
 0)  -H
 t-  O
 O  >
 o  t-
UU  CO
    co
+J  
 c  cc
 0)
•H  -O
 c.  c
•M  CO
O
    0)
•(-<  CO
CO _J
D>
.  O)
 co  a.
 o  >-<
•H  a
4-»
 w  t-
•H  (O
•H  -H
 CO  (U
•H  &
U3  CO

 a>  ca
 >  a.
a.
•H

o
co
cu
a
                 10
                 a.
                 o
                 cc
                 cc
                 LU

                 §
                  o  o  o  o
                  o  o  o  o
                        o o  o  o
                        o o  o  o
                        o  o  o  o
                        o  o  o  o
                 LLJ
                        o  o o  o
                        o  o o  o
                           cs DC  or
                           Z UJ  UJ
                 O
                 CO
                 <     _)  EC S
                 UJ     <  Q_ Z3
                 CO     U_  CO CO

-------
             in
             O)
             O-
        O  03   O  CM
        1^.    ...
          •  O   O  CM
             tn
             N-
             Q_
        o  o  in  r-
        tn  to  CM
          .    .   .  o
        co  o>  co  •?-
             Q
             LLJ
                     O  O
                     CD  O
                 O  v
                 CO   •
              •   •  O
            O)  h-  i-
             m
             CM
             O_
        m  o  o  o
        f~-  co  •*  co
                     CD  CO  CD  O5
c
o
05
CO
03
CO
T3
C
CO

O3
CO
o
Q

>,
.Q









C
CO
>r_J

03
SI

1
as

in
a.





^>
o



cc
.



CO
T—




-^
*^-
•
 CO     I
 o  o
•H  Q
•H
 CO   £_
•H   03

 CO   03
4-1   E
CO   CO
     £_
 O3   CO
             CO
UJ
Q
a

co
                     o  o  o   o
CM  h-  f-  O
CD  CO  CO  CO
 Q.
•H
 i-
 o
 03
 03
Q
             X
        O  O  O  O
        co  r-  T-  Is-
        CM  co  co  co
                     o  o  in  o
                     CM  •*  o  a>
                     CM  CM  CO  O
                     in  co  CM   •
                       .    .    .  o
                     r--  co  Is-  •>-
                     N.  r^-  o  o
                     o  T-  co  co
                     CM  CM  ^  i-
            UJ
            co
            o cc  tr
            Z UJ  UJ
        —I  M S  H-
        _!  DC S  S
        <  0- =>  >-i
        u_  co co  S

-------
X
»-)

• •
c
o
•H
CD
O)
C.
o
o
UJ
•!->
C
0)
•H
!_
±J
a
32
a>
4->
CO
O)
0}
t_
cn
O)
^

























CO
C_
•H
O
>
c_
0)
CO
CD
cc

•o
c
ca

w
CO
ca
_i


























0
w
ca
CO
•0
C
ca

Q)
T3
CO
o
a>
a

>%
ja

CO
o
•H
•f-i
CO
•H
4-f
ca
•H
CO

a>
^
•H
•H
a.
•H
{_
o
CO
CD
o















c
CO
•H
•a
CD
•^
I
_j
I

E
co1
o

Zl
CM
O
z

c.
a>
•H
CD
E
ca
£_
ca
a.






















in
o>
a.
in
a.
•z.
o
UJ
E
in
CM
a.
m
Q.

>
o





a:
or
Ul
o
i—
CO




>
UJ
o
o
1-
co




x
^c
^g




•z.
I-H
s
z
<
E

z

•z.
o
CO
^^
Ul
CO
•V O T- N.
in o in co
O T- O O
CM •»- f^- CD
i- CO O CO
o o o o
CO CO i- CO
O T- O t-
O O O C5
T- co T- r^
o o o o
o o o o
0 0 O CM
0 O O O
• • * •
o o o o

in
CM
• co





CM
o
o






CO
*fr
0





o
CO
.
CO



o
o
o

•*-
o
in
in
CO


_J
1
^^
ti-

cn
co






CO
0
o






CM
in
0





o
o
•
in



o
o
o
oo
CM
o
CO
CO
CO
a
22
\—\
a:
D_
CO

a>
h-
co





CM
0
O






^-
**;
o





CO
co
»
CO



o
o
0
CM

O

O)
in
cc
Ul

^g
•"^
CO

O)

v^





w
o
o






CM
CO
O





CO
CM

CM



O
O
O
N-
CM
O
CD
O)
^~
CC
Ul
H-

H-f
3:

-------
 O)
          O  O  GO  CD
          T-  O  00  O5
          CO  CO  CM  CO
 in
 h-
 Q_
 •*  O  O  T-
 m  co  in  in
 Q
 UJ
         "3"   ^f   O5  *3*
         O5   O5   O5  O5
         O  O O O
 LO
 CM
 0.
 T-  in  i-  co
 CD  in  CD  in
         o  o  o  o










CO
L-
•H
O

L_
CD
CO
"^


O
c:
CO

CO
CD
i£
CO
_J








c
o
CO
CO
CD
CO
c
CO

CD
~£3
CO
o
CD
0

>^
o

CO
0
•H
4->
CO
-H
-t-J
CO
4—*
CO

Q>
.>
a.
•H
o
CO
CD
Q







C
CO
•f»
•a
CD
^2
1

[
I-H
3Z
o
o
UJ
CO

£_
CD
4^
CD
g
CO
L.
CO
Q.







in
Q.




^>
O





or
cc
UJ
Q
H-
CO




^»
LU
Q
O

CO


X
<





in
CM
•
0


O
CO
CD





05
CD

O






O)

CM




O
O
CO

CM


co
CM
•
O


T—
CO
co





05
in

o'






CO

^~
^_



o
o
f^
^~
CM


N.
CM
•
O


CD
05






O5
CM

O






CO
CO

I1-



O
O
^
CO



o
CO
•
o


^
in
r-





o
CM

CM






o

CD
CM



0
o
r-
o
co

         O  CM  O  O
         o  o  o  in
UJ
         o
         05
    05  co  in
    I^-  ^J-  rt
         »-  i-  T-  CO
         CM  O5  T-  O)
         in  CD  in  co
         co  co  CD  i-
o

3
UJ
CO
    O  EC  EC
    Z.  UJ  UJ

-I  I-H  S  I-
-I  DC  S  Z.
<  Q-  O  I-H
U.  CO  CO  S

-------
                     in
                     O5
                     o.
         o  co  in  co
         in  co  in  •«-
                     in
                     N-
                     n.
         CM  OJ  O  *-
         eo  h-  eo  t--
                             o  o  o  o
                     o
                     in
                             in  T-  co  in
                             in  in  in  «g-
                             o  o  o  o
                     in
                     CM
                     a.
                     o

                     o  o  o  o
             CD
             co
                                     O  i-
                                     ••3-  co
 e
 o
 C
 o
 w
 CO

CO

•o
 C
 CO   C
     co
 03  -H
    TJ
                     uo
                     Q.
       I


    O)
    w   _   _
O> £-   CO   03
O>  -H   O
t-  o   co
O  >  Q
O  C-
LU  03   >
4-<   03
C  CC
CO
•H  TJ
C-   C
4-1   CO

2   M
     CO
o>  ^:
•H   CO
CO  _J
0
CO
C.
D)
O)
        CO  Z
        O  ^
        •H  (-

        W  £-
        •H  03
        1 jj  II
        CO  O3
        •M  E
        CO  CO

        03  CO
        >  Q.
        •H
        •H
        Q.
        •H
        £_
        O
        w
        03
        Q
                    CC
                    cr
                    LU
LU
a
D

CO
                    X
                    <
         o  o  o  co
         CM  C\l  CM  T-
                             o  o  o  o
                             T-  CVJ  CO  -r-
                             co  r^  h-  o)
        co CM  CM  'a-
        o o  o  o
                             o  o  o  o
                    in  rr  o  co
                    in  «a-  ^r  m
                    o  o  o  o
        o  o  o  o
        05  CO  CD  CM
                                         in
                            o  in  o in
                            CM  CM  CM (M
                            o  o  o o
                    LU
                            O)  CM  N-  O>
                            CD  CD  CD  in
                            o  o  o  o
                            O)  O)  in  CD
                            O  CD  O  O)
                            CO  CO  CD  i-
                    o
                    CO
                    <
                    LU
                    co
                                    CC  CC
                                    LU  LLJ
       -J  CC  S
       <  a.  rs
       Ll-  CO  CO

-------
 in
 o>
 o.
                     h-  co  •*  co
                     CD  O5  CO  CO
         T-  O  T-  1-
 in
 Q.
                          o
                          in
             CO
             CD
         O  O  O  O
 Q
 UJ
         O  CO  ^"  CD
         in  -a-  in  rr
         o  o  o  o
 in
 CM
 Q.
                     o   M-  r>-  in
                     ^f*   co  co  co
         o  o  o  o
o
CO
CO
CD
CO
c
CO

05
•^5
CO
0
CD
o

>^
o

CO
o







f
CO
•H
-a
CD
^>
1

1
O)
E



in
o.




^
o





cr
cr
UJ
a
H-
CO

^
CO
-
o


co
CD






o

.
o


o
CO
•
o


^*
r^-






in
o

o


co
CM
•
o


00
in






CO
o

o


CO
CM
•
o


CO
T~ '
^—





CO

.
o

 CO  £-
•H  CD

 CO  CD
•H  E
CO  CO
     £_
 CD  CO
 > O_
-H

 a.
•H

 o
 CO
 CD
O
UJ
Q
Q

CO
x:
i-  CM  h- CD
in  CM  co co
o  o  o  o
         in  -*  o  CM
         in  i-  m  co
         CM  i-  i-
         in  o  o  in
         CO  C3>  *3"  O5
         CM  CM  CM  i-
<
UJ
         in  o  TT  co
         r--  in  CD  r*-
         o  o  o  o
         CD  i-  f  CM
         CM  CM  CM  CM
O
CO
<
UJ
CO
                         (SCC.CC.
                         Z  UJ  LLJ
                     —I  i-l  S  H-
                     -icc.-s.-z.
                     <.  Q-  :D  M
                     U-  CO  CO  S

-------
                     in
                     o>
                     Q.
                             o  in  o  in
                             r^-  co  co  co
                             CM  i-  CM  i-
                     in
                     r»
                     Q.
                             o  o  o  o

                             o  in  o  o
                             co  Is-  co  r*-
                    Q
                    UJ
                             o  o  co  o

                             o  o  T-  o
                    in
                    CM
                    Q.
                            o  o o  o
                            o o o  o
                            CM CM CM  CM
X
 c
 o
•H  W
 O)  C-
 0) -H
 C-  O
 o  >
 O  C-
LU  CO
     CO
4->  CO
 c cc
 CO

21
+J  CO

2:  co
     CO
 o
 CO
 CO
 CO
CO

T3
 C
 co

 CO   CO
•O  -H
 CO  T3
 O   CO
 CO  IE
0    I
                    m
                    Q_
 JO  CD


 CO  =,
 O  CL
 •H  1-
 •H
 CO  C_
 •H  CO
CD
•H  CO
CO  _J
CO
CO

O)
CO
 CO  CO
•H  E
CO  CO
     £_
 co  co
 > a.
•H

 Q.
•H
 I_
 O
 to
 co
Q
cc
cc
LU
a

CO
UJ
Q
o

CO
                                 in
                                 w

                             in  CD  in  CM
                     o
                     o
                 o  o
                 o  in
                            CM  o  in  o
                            in  in  in  TT
                            in  in  co  CM
                            CO  N  CO  CO
                            in
                            o  o  r^
                            (M  O  i-
                                        in
                                        CO
                                        CO
                            o  o  o  o
                            o  o  o  o

                            o  o  in  m
                            in  rr  a>  T-
                            o  CM  CD  r*-
                           o  o o o
                           o  o o in
                           o  o o
                                     • CM
                               CD
                                       in
                   LU
                           o>  CD  in  CM
                           (^  CD  S-  CD
                           o
                           CM
                                    t^  r--
                                    CM  CM
                                    t^  CM
                   o
                   CO

                   UJ
                   CO
                               CD  CC  CC
                               z:  ai  LU
                           -J  CC  S
                           <  Q-  13
                           U.  CO  CO

-------
                                  APPENDIX B




Descriptive Statistics Data Tables for Level III Subecoregions Within Aggregate Ecoregion

-------

-------
                     tn
                     o>
                                                                                           o  o  co  O)

                                                                                           O5  i—  O  O
                                                                                           CJ  CM  CO  CM
                                      co    •o
                                                                                                                           oointoo
                                                                                                                           O-^CMI^CO

                                                                                                                           T-i-OOCO
                                 OOCOO-3-
 CO  U-
 O     |
•H   CO
l->  i— I
 CO  .E
•H  O
•H
 CO   C_
•H   CD
CO  +->
 >   CO
•H   f~
•H   CO
 Q. Q.
•H
 ^

 O
 CO
 CD
Q
UJ
                     X
                     <
                                                                                          co  in   •  o>
                                                                                                •  o
                                                                                          COCDf-CO
                                                                                                               03  in  in  o
                                                                                          cu  r^ in  •«-
                                                                                          COCMOOCO
                                                                                          oomo
                                                                                          CO^CMO
                                                                                            .    .  co  ^r
                                                                                                                           comeot^o
                                                                                                                             •  o
                                                                                                                                                ocomoo
                                                                                                                               n  co to  o>
                                                                                                                                                ooooo
                                                                                                                                                Oi-intnco
                                                                                                                                                 •   •  CM  r»    •
                                                                                                                                                i-  i-    .    .  CM
                     111
                                                                                          T-    -CM
                                                                                          T—  CJjT-CO
                                                                                                                                                CO  i-  f-
                                                                                                                                                                CO
                                                                                                                                                        t—  O)t—
                             oooooooooc
                                                                                  o  o  o   o  o
                                                                                                       O  O  CD  CM  CM  CO
                                                                                                               tn  HSI-_lt-lSI--I'-"SI—  —IUSH—I
        —ICCS2_JO:S2—ICCSZ-JDCSZ—ICCSZ—ICCSS-JDCSZ—10CS2—1
        • i-H
            LU   CD M
        O^  O)  O5  O)  CO  CO  CO   CO  LO  LO  Lf)  LO  t"*"  Is*  I*-*  r*"-
        CSJ  CM  CM - CM  COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO

-------




X
M

• •
C
O
•H
O
CD
C_
0
O
UJ

•P
C
CD
•H
•P
2

CD
•P
CO
O)
CD
CD





























to
c_
•H
O
t_
CD
CO
CD
CC

•0
CO
to
CD

CO
l
























C
o
to
ca
CD
CO
•o
cz
CO

CD
T3
CO
O
CD
Q
>^
o

co
U
•H
•P
to
•H
•P
CO
•P
CO

CD
•H
P
Q.
•H
£_
O
to
CD
a














•

in
CD
o_
m
Is-
a.
•z
t-H
O
UJ
in
CM
o
in
Q.
in 1- in CM o CM
• o • in •»-
CD CM • O - T-
CM in in co co
in rr m T- o Is-
• O) • O)
co co -CM -in
T- CM in m Is- -f
o Is- co oo o h*
CO • CO -CO •
.1- -CM -CO
co i- in co co T-
o o o o in o
co Is- N. Is- o T-
•<* co in en co a>
o o o o o o
CM [*"• ^ O) CO !•*
•r- co in

c
ca
•H
•^
CD
"g
|
_J
=1
0
=3
rH
U.

ca
rH
O
c_
CD
•P
CD
E
ca
ca
a.





















o




cc
cc
UJ
o
CO




^^
UJ
Q
a
CO




g
•e







•B
•z
^c
UJ
s
•z.

•z
o
CO
^c
1JJ
CO
O CD M
O > >-<
UJ CD l-l

co m
r^. co





CO O)
T- CM





co co
O)
N 12




CO O
co co
T- CO
co co






o o
m co
• ••"
CM in
• •
O CO
T— T—
in CM
•sr in
o cc
•z uj
t-H "S.
cc s
Q- Z)
CO CO

r-- h-


co





CO
o





CO
»
o




in
O)
in






o
in
co
CO
•
m
CM

cc
UJ
K-
•z
l-l
9

•***.

CM 7- CM

CO
Is-





03
CD





CO
T—
CM




o
CM
O
co






0
0>
CM
CO
•
O)
CM
O
"*
_1
_J
<
U.
N



o •* •
in i-





o> to
O)
O T-





O) Is-
Is-
• CO •
CM CO




O O
in i-
00 CM






0 0
CD T-
i- CM
CO CO
m
• O3 •
in CM
CO O O

o cc cc
Z UJ UJ
M S 1—
cc s z.
n ~^ (_^
CO CO S
^ CM CM
s**« r*"* r***

co Is-
• •* in
Is- in
CD ^^
• CM in
in in
N- CO
• co co
CO CM
Is- O
• O)
•CO •
T- in
m o
CO O)
in in

£





CD
CM





CM
co
CM




O
CO

O)
CO





CD





CM
in
CM




r*. o
co co"
•*- o
• CM
in •
CO CO
CO O
• CM
•
-------
                      o>
                      Q.
                                                                                                                                                   tv O  T-  Tf
                                                                                                                                                   CM -co  (M  en
                                                                                                                                                       CM  r^  f-
                      LO
                      r^-
                      O_
                                                                                                                             t>>  O  T-  TJ-
                                                                                                                             CM  CO  CM  CO
                                                                                                                                                       CM  r^-  T-
                      I-H
                      Q
                      LU
                                                                                                                                                   r-  O  T-  •*
                                                                                                                                                   CM  CO  CM  CO
                                                                                                                                                   «*•  CM  h- -i-
                      in
                      CM
                      0-
                                                                                                                             h-  O  T- -!t
                                                                                                                             CM  CO  CM CO
                                                                                                                                                       CM
  c
  O
  ID
  CO
  03
ico  c

 T3  CO
  C -H
  CO 73
      CD
.  05 S
 •a
  CO _J
  o    i
.  CD  O)
10  =

  >.  o
 JD  CD

  CO Q-
  O    I
 •H  CO

  co jr
I-H O

  CO  £_

 CO 4->
      CO
  CD  E
  >  CO
 •H  £_
 •H  CO
  O. Q.
 •H
  £_
  O
  CO
  CD
 O
                      in
                      a.
o
oc
sr.
LU
a

CO
                      LU
                      O
                      O

                      CO
                      X
                      <
                                                                                                                             f^  O  T-  -q-
                                                                                                                             CM  CO  CM  CO
                                                                                                                                                     I-H
             LU   CD  HH

-------
                    in
                    CD
                    O_
                    r--
                    a.
                    Q
                    UJ
                    in
                    CM
                    o.
                    in
                    a.
 C
 o
 
t_
>
.Q

(A
o
•H

w
•H

co
•H
CO

CO
>
•H
•M
a.
•H
c_
o
w
CO
o
CO
•H
T3
CD
2?
1

J
0
=}
|
0
CO
r"
O.
I
CO

«"•*
o

c_
CO

CD
E
CO

CO
OU






                    cr
                    cc
                    UJ
                    a

                    co
                   LU
                   o
                   o

                   CO
                   X
                   <
                   <
                   UJ
                          ooooooooooo
                  o

                  3
                  UJ
                  CO
                          O
                              or  cc
                              UJ  UJ
cc  s
Q.  ID
CO  CO
    O  CC  CC
    2  UJ  UJ

il  £i£
<  Q-  rs  »->
U_  CO  CO
    o  cc
    Z  UJ
_!  l-i  S
_J  CC  S
<  Q.  ZD
U.  CO  CO
           O   CO  t-1

           O   >  1-1

          UJ   CO  HH

-------
 cr
 o
 w  c
 co  co
 CD t-t
CO T3
     CO
•o s

 CO _1
 CO
•a
 CO
 o
 CO
o
     D)
     =3
     o
     CO
 >.  Q.
J2  CO

 CO  O
 O  -i-J
•H  >,
+-•  £:
   CO
•r"i  t  '
4-1  CO
 Q-  £
•H  CO
 E_  £_
 O  CO
 CO  O_
 co
Q
                      in
                      co
                      a.
                      m
                      r-
                      a.
                      LU
                      in
                      CM
                      o.
                      in
                      D-
                      O
                      CC
                      cc
                      LU
                      O
                     LU
                     Q
                     Q

                     CO
                     X
                     <
                     <
                     LU
                     O

                     3
                     LU
                     CO
f- fl-
tt*
T- in
o m
in co

in co
eo oj
fl- CO
o in
CM in
CO CM
o in
CO CM
T- 0
co co
co o
OJ O
o eo
CO O
o
co o
N fl-
CO i-
T- in
o o
co m

CO CO
T- in
CO Is-
co co
O
Z.
—i or
< 0-
U_ CO
CD N-

^ T—
CO O

o co
oj in
in CM
o in
in CM
eo o
o in
fl- CM
CM O
CM O
fl- CM
CO OJ
i- 0
fl- OJ
i- CO
o o
fl- N.
N fl-
N I"*
o o
co in

m N
T- CO
co N.
in i-
cc cc
LU LU
S 1-
CO S
CO CM CO
tl tT\ ---
v- CM CM
in T- CM

CO C^ 1^
CD CM
fl- CO T-
m o OJ
CM OJ •
O CD T-
m co o
CM O CO
o in oj
CM Is- CO
0 CO t-
CM Is- O
fl- CM CM
T- O fl-
co Is- co
o o o
CO CM CO
Is- OJ fl-
i- CM CM
o co o
in o eo

in co in
CO • •
CD T- T-
fl- co oj
o or
Z. LU
-1 HH S
— 1 CC S
< 0- ID
U. co co
in O

fl- fl-
CD •

0 0
CO CD
fl- in
O CO
CM fl-
CO i-
m in
CM CM
o o
OJ Is-
O CM
CM CO
CM i-
CM CO
oj m
fl- fl-
in o
fl- O
CO CM
o o
in in

CO fl-
fl- OJ
m in
in CM
or
LU
H- _!
Z. _!
5 U.
O) O

CM fl-
OJ CO

CM T-
r*"* ^~
co in
in fl-
in co
co in
Is- CM
o o
O OJ
CO CO
CM CM
OJ ^
O O
OJ OJ
CM in
in o
CM in

CM OJ
CM fl-
i- CM
o or
Z. LU
M S
DC S
Q. ZD
CO CO
T- m co

OJ T- -r-
00 T- CD
in • •

CO O 0
N. CM CO
fl- fl- OJ
CM O O
CM OJ O
CM CM N
o in o
eo co o
1- 1- N.
CD CO CM
co co in
T- co o
O CO CM
CM in co
co m T-
f- O O
CD in co
OJ CO O
o in o
CO CO 0

T— T— N
o r*- o
in co co
co oj co
or o
LU Z
Z. _1 CC
l-l < Q_
S LL. co
CO
_»
CM

O
OJ
CO
o
o
in

CM
CO
OJ
CM
CO
in
o
o
in
^^

CO
O O OJ
CO
cc cc
LU LU
S h- -I
CO S U-
CM fl-

CO CD
OJ CM

O T-
OJ
OJ i-
in in
i- CO
CO CO
o m
CM fl-
CO fl-
N. CM
CM in
T- N
CM CM
T- OJ
o •
OJ CM
O O
CM 00
Is- O
CO CM
0 0
CM 0


i- CM
CO CM
T- CO
o or
Z. LU
CC S
o- rj
CO CO
O LO

CO T-
N O
• CO

OJ i-
co in
co in
eo oj
O CM
in co
o o
CO CM
CM CM
O CO
CM OJ
i- CO
in i-
CO CM
• CD
O CO
o in
CO 1-
o o
CO CM

fl- Is—
• f^
T- CD
CD CO
or
LU
1— —1
Z. _J
S LL.
05 CO

O CM
f*«B •

in oj
CO T-
tn N-
OJ CM
in N-
O fl-
CM eo
CO CM
CM CM
CM CO
fl- CO
fl- in
CO O
T- CO
o o
co o
in in
fl- in
o o
CM O

f- O
T- CO
OJ O 0
o or cc
Z. LU LU
w S t-
CC S Z.
0- ID I-H
CO CO S
CO CO T-

i«- h~ m
CO CO T—
CO CO CM

co co -^
CO CO CM
Is- N. in
co co i-
CO CO CM
Is- N- in
CO CO T-
CD CO CM
h- Is- in


CO CO T-
CD CO CM
Is- N in
CO CO -r-
CO CO CM

co co -i-
CD CO CM
h- h- in
O or cc
Z. LU LU
_l t-f S (-
_l CC S Z.
< 0- Z3 t-H
LL. CO CO S
co cv> a> cu o
- -
CO CM CD LO r-
o o co o in
• in • Is-

co o co co m
in o fl- co h-
CO CO CO CM Is-
CM o co o in
co in fl- o N
T- fl- CM i- in
o o o in in
o o o CM CM
o o o o in
CO CM "3- O CO
T- T- -i- CM
CO CO ^t" Tf CO
co in T- 10 T-
CM CM CO CO T-
^" CO O> N- CO
• • "CO
T- 1- T- T- CO
O O O CO O
in o co CM o
co T- Is- in fl-
Is- CO CO LO -i-
o o o o in
o o o in CM

O> CM CO ^T CD
co • • S- co
CO T- i— CD CO
oj in o m co
CM CM fl- i-
CD or cc
Z. LU LU
-J HH -5. t- -J
-i a: ^ z -i
< Q- Z3 HH <
U_ CO CO S LU
             O  CO  M
             O  >  l-l
             LU  CD  KH

-------
                              in
                              O)
                                      in  o  o  co
                                                          co
                                      o  TJ-   •  co  T-  i-  co
                                      CM  -i-  CD  CO  CD  CO  CO
                                      CD CO  O  CO  h-  CO
                                           .  O
                                      in CM
                                         •»- CD
                                                  CD  T-  i-  CO
                                                      co  m  co
                                     CD  eo  o  eo o  CM
                                     o  o
                                             in
                             UJ      ,-„-,_  pj  ,_
                                                 N-  co  o  CD
 in      o  in  o  i-  co
 CM      O  h-  O
                     in  o  o
                                                             co
                                     ffi  CO  -i-  T-  T-  CM  TJ-
X
         co  c
         CO  CO
         CD -H

        W "§
                             in
                             o
                                     ID  O  O  O5  r-  T-  l+~
                                     N-  O  O  CO  O  O  CO
                                     N-  in  -i-  co
                                                         oo  ••*
                                     Is-  CO  h-
                                     CO  CO  O)
                        CD CM  CO
                        N- N.  CM
•H  CO  TJ
         -8-1,
         CD   O)
 a c-  ca
 CD
        O  <
£-  O  0
o  >  o   o
O  C-
            05
UJ  CD  >, ca.
     CO  JQ CO
•*-•   CD         I
C  CC   CO  O
CD       O -M
•H  -a  -H  >,
C-   C  -H J=
•M   ca   « a.
3      -H    I
2   CO  4->  CO
     CD   CO rH
CD  Js:  +J JZ
•p   ca  co o
ca
O)
CD
£_
ca
CD
 CD   £.
 >   CD
•H  ^
•M   CD
 a.  s
•H   CO
 c-   c_
 o   ca
 co  a.
CC
CC
UJ
                            UJ
                            g
                            CO
                                             o>  in  co  co  o
                                     CD -i-  in  in
                                                         co
(—      •^••^-i-
CO
                                CM
        CD  co  in  co  co  r«-  co
        in  CM
                    CD  co  co  in
            CO  CM  CM  i-  CM
                                    O  O  O  "3-
                                    in  o  o  co
                            m
                                CO
                                    CM  i-
                CO  CO  CO  CM  CO
                    co  Is-  m  CD
                                    in  o  o  CM
                                                        en
                                    N  O  O  CD  T-  CO  CO

                                        in  T-  *?  CM  co  ••s-
                           UJ
                                    CO  O  CO  CO  CM
                                    CM
                                       CO  CO
                                                    co
                                                            co
                                   T- CO  CM  CO  CM  CO  CO
                                               in  in
                           CO
                           <
                           UJ
                           CO
                                   CD  CC  CC
                                   Z  UJ  UJ
                       O  CC  CC
                       2  UJ  UJ
                                   CO  CO
                                               u_  co  co
                                                                        ac  or
                                                                        UJ  UJ
                                                               U_  CO CO

-------
                     in
                     en
                     CL-
                                                                                                                                                     O  CD  I*-  tf>
                                                                                                                                                     Is-  in   -  in
                                                                                                                                                      -   .  o    •
                                                                                                                                                     co  ^  T-  CM
                     IO
                     1^
                     a.
                                                                                                                                                    o   co  N-  in
                                                                                                                                                    N-   m   -in
                                                                                                                                                      .    .  o    •
                                                                                                                                                    CO   TT  i-  CM
                     a
                     LLJ
                                                                                                                                                    o  co  Is-  in
                                                                                                                                                    h-  m   -in
                                                                                                                                                          •  o
                                                                                                                                                    CO  •*  t-  CM
                     in
                     CM
                     a.
                                                                                                                                                    O  CO
                                                                                                                                                    r»-  m
                                                                                                                                                    CO
                                                                                                                                                                 m
                                                                                                                                                                 in
                                                                                                                                                                CM
o
w   c
CO   CO
CD  -H
cr>  -o
     CD
                     in
                     a.
                     o
                                                                                                                                                    o  co
                                                                                                                                                    K  in
                                                                                                                                                                 in
                                                                                                                                                                 in
                                                                                                                                                    CD  ^  i-  CM
 CO  _J(

 CD   ra
-a   3
 co     |
 o  r>
 CD
Q   o
     CD
 >i  Q.
J2  CO

 CO   O
 O  -H
 CO  D_
•H     |
4->   CO
 CO  r-|
+->  JZ
CO  O


 CD   £_
 >   CD
•H  +J

•H   03
 0-  E
•H   CO
 i-   C_
 O   CO
 W  D_
 CD
Q
                     oc
                     cc
                     LLJ
                     a

                     co
                     LLJ
                     Q
                     O
                    X
                    <
                                                                                                                                                   o  co  in  in
                                                                                                                                                   r^  in  co  in
                                                                                                                                                   co
                                                                                                                                                           o  CM
                                                                                                                                                   o  co  t^  in
                                                                                                                                                   Is-  m    -m
                                                                                                                                                    .    .  o    -
                                                                                                                                                   CO  *fr  i-  CM
                    <
                    LU
                                                                                                                                                       CD
                                                                                                                                                       m
                                                                                                                                                                in
                                                                                                                                                                in
                                                                                                                                                   CO  -3-  -r-  CM
                             0000000000000000000000000000-"-
                                                                                                                                                           T-  t-  o
                    o
                    co
                    <
                    LLJ
                    CO
                                     oc  er.
                                                  o  cc  cc
                                                  -z.  LLJ  LU
CC  OC
LLJ  LU
                            U_COCO
                                             Ll-COCO
                                                               _J  QC  S
                                                               <  a.  •=>
                                                               U_  CO  CO
o  cc  or      o  cc  cc       o
2:  LU  LU      'Z.  LU  LU       Z
MSI-_Il-iSI-_ll-<_
ccss-iccss—iccs
O-Z3i-H
            LU  CD

-------
CO
                             IO
                             O)
                             Q.
                            ID
                            IN.
                            o.
                            Q
                            HI
                            ID
                            CJ
                            0_
                            in
                            Q.
       o
       co
       ca
       CO
       co
             c
             CO
             •H
             TJ
             0>
 c
 o
•H  CO
 CO  £_
 0) -H
 £-  O
 O  >
 O  C.
LU  CO
     CO
•H  03
 C CC
 CO
•H TJ
 t_  C

 =>
Z CO
    CO
O v*
•M CO
C8 _I
CD
CO

O
       I  ="
       CO
     o1
     CO
 >.  Q.
JO  CO

 co  o
 O  +J
•H  >,
•M  x:
 co  a.
•H    I
•H  CO
 03  rH

CO  O

QJ  j^
>  CO
•H  4-*
+J  Q}
                            O
                           DC
                           CC
                           LLJ
                           CO
                           UJ
                           Q
                           Q

                           CO
      c.   c.
      O   03
      CO  D.
      CO
      Q
                                  ooooooooooo
                                  cs  cc  a:
                                  Z  UJ  LLJ
                                                     (S  CC  CC
                                                     Z  LU  LLJ
                                                             O CC  CC
                                                             2: LLJ  LLJ
                          ,*?!      CCSZ_JCCS2—ICCSZ
                          LU      0-I3l-)  h-t
                  O  >  1-4
                 LU  0>  hH

-------
1
1








§
CO
CO
CD
CO
T3
C
CO
•S
o
CD
a
•°
CO
o
•H
•H
CO
-H
CO
+J
CO
0)
>
Q.
•H
c_
o
CO
Q









•








c
CO
•H
•a
CD
_,'
O)
= |
•H
L-
t-
CO
i— |
O

£_
a>
CD
E
CO
CO
CL-










IO
CT>
Q.

in
Q.

I-H
LLJ
in
CM

m
a.



>
o


cc
cc
LLJ
Q
CO


>
LLJ
O
Q
CO



g




z.
t~~i
^


z
II 1

O
CD
T—
O
CO
T—
o
CD

0
CO
T-
o
CO


















o
o
CO



o
CO


o
CD

o
o
00
0
o
CO
0
o
CO
o
o
00
o
o
CO

















o
o
co



0
o
ff\

o
o
co
o
r--
T-
o
T~
o
*~
o
T-
o
N.
•^>

















o
1-



o
**•


o
f*-
T"
O O CO
CM to n-
CM t- i-
0 O CO
CM CD Tf
CM T- T-
O O 00
CM CO 'a-
CM i- i-
O O CO
CM CO Tf
CM -r- t-
O O CO
CM CO *3-
CM T- i-

















o o co
CM CO 'S'
CM t- i-



O O CO
CM CO TT

CM ^" ^™
O O CO
CM CO "31
CM T- i-
CVJ
rtv
\jj
CM

in
K«>
^^
T—
O
O)
0
h-
0)


ff\
w



in
^3-



CM
co



0
CM
05



O
Is*

OJ
in
•
*3"
in
CM
m
CM
OJ
• T^>
• P*


*
•^



• CO
CM



co
in
co



o>
OJ
<3-



in
CM



^.
—^
~


O3
F^_
• r1*"
O in t- m co o oj
- ca CD CD ••—
• fn fs« ^*\
1- T- T- T- CO CD
o co in m co o Is-
• CO O CM CO CO
• f\i • • r*"\
^~ O5 CO T— CO CO CO
in r~ o in ••a- o oj
co ^f o CM r^ r^* •
O5 CO CO i- <3" CM •ST
co in co in co o oj
f- CM 'S' CM in <3-
CO T- CO i- CM CM T-
m in m in co o o
CM CM CM CM in 'a- in
T- i- i- i- CM CM CM



CD o in ••a- CD co



o o CM o in co
o co o CM co in
CM CM i- T- T- CD



o co in co ^t* oj
co co o o co
in CD co CM CM co



o in o in co o o
O T T- CM CO CO CM
CO N- O T- CD CD •»—
1- T- 1- CO
1


in in in in co o co
CM CM CM CM in •<}• CO

• T-i— i— T-CMCMCM
in co in in in o o
in o T- CM co o
00 CO CO t- *3- CO •*»•
co
10
in
CO
in
in
CO
in
in
CO
in
in
CO
in
m

















co
in
in



CO
in
•
• in
CO
in
in
co o f- o
. 0
*3- CO CM
O O CO CO
CM T- CM T-
o o in o
. • in • o
1- to -i- co
o in o o
in f- o o
CD CM CD rt
m o o in
CM o in Is-
i- O CM CM



CO O CO CO
T"* 't~


Is- ^ CM m
r>- o co oo
CM CM CD i-



co oj •* co
• co -co
T- oj co co



o in o o
o r- o o
O CM <3- i-
m co co co
^~


o o o o
o o o in
o o
• CM CM
o in oj T-
. o • •
• CD • ^ O
T- OJ CM T-
                 •^Oi-OOOOOi—  -T--T-1—  CMOCMOtv-CDOJi-COCOCMOOOi-OCOCO'3--i-O
                                                                                                              CO                        CM  CM  CM  CM
O
CO
         CO
O  CC  CC
Z  LLJ  LLJ
                                      ooror
                                      Z  LLJ  LLJ
                                      occoc
                                      ZLULU
occcr
SLUUJ
OCEO:
ZLUUJ
oococ
2LLJUJ
O  cr  cc
Z.  LLJ  LLJ
a  or  cc
•Z  LLJ  LU
—I  EC  S  Z  _J  DC  S
<  O_  3  l-l    hH

-------
X
         O
         CO
         CO
         CD
        CO  C
             CO
        •O -H
         c -a
         CO  CD

 O       CD    I
•H   W  T3 _J
 O)  L*   CO    |
 CD  -H   O  C3)
 t-   O   CD  3
 o   >  a    i
 O   t-      ^}
LU   CD   >>    I
     co  .a  o
 C  CC
 CD
         W
            •H
             C_
 i-   C  *->  CO
4-<   CO  W iH
 rj      -H x:
Z   CO  -H O
     CD  CO
 CO  £1  4->  £_
     CO  CO  CD
CO
CO
0>

ca
        CD  CD

        •H  CO
        4-J  £-
        a. co
        •H  Q.

        O
        CO
        CD
        O
in
OJ
Q.

in
0.

•z.
<
H
a
LU
s
in
CM
n

m
a.

>
o
cc
cc
LU
H-
CO
>
LU
a
O
CO
X
- T-
in co
• m
in T-

O CO
o •
• o
^t* *"*

o o
o o

co in
o o
o o
CM CM
CM 1^
in co

T co
i- "*
i- CO


O) CM
CM CO
CM CO

0 O
in o
N- CO

o o
o o
CM CM
CO •*
co •
CM •<*• TT Tf

• co Tf o in • • •
O) CO O) CO
CO CM CD •*
•coo^-in
• CM N- •*
• CO CO CM Tt-
r^- co N- CM

CO T- CO CD
in co CM •
CO CM CO CO


i- r*- »^- CM

•t^ococo • • • •
CM i- CM •*

CO i— O !•»•
O) CO O CO
•^r i- T- m
co co in co
V- T-
co •* o in
i- a m CM
• m' - co* * • • • •
CO N- 'S' CO

                                        T-     CO  CM  CO  CO
                                                in  in
                            -z.      occcc      cscccc      occcc
                            O      ZLULU      ZLULU      ZLULU
                            CO      MSI-_Jt-ISI-_J»-iS!-

                            ijj      ^^Srf'1521"101^3
                            CO      COCOSLL.COCOSU-COCOS
                    O   CD HH
                    O   > HH
                   LU   CD I-)

-------
                in
                <35
                Q.
                                                                                                                                              o o  o  o
                                                                                                                                              o o  o o
                in
                r^
                Q.
                                                                                                                                              O  O  O  O
                                                                                                                                              O  O  O  O
                h-l
                0
                01
                                                                                                                                              o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                              o  o  o  o
                in
                CM
                Q.
                                                                                                                                              o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                              o  o  o  o
 c
 o
 CO
 CO
 CD
 CO

 T3
 c
 CO  C
     CO
 CD  -H
 T3  T3
 CO  CD
 O  S
D)
                in
                o.
                o
                cc
                cc
                UJ
                Q

                CO
                                                                                                                                              o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                              o  o  o  o
 CO D-
 O HH
•H Q

 CO  £_
-H  CD
•H -M
 CO  CD
•H  E
CO  CO

 CD  CO
 > O-
•H
4-1
 Q.
•H
 £_
 O
 W
 CD
Q
               UJ
               o
               Q
               X
                                                                                                                                        o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                        o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                        o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                        o  o  o  o
               <
               UJ
                                                                                                                                            o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                            o  o  o  o
                       OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOT- T— T-T—  O
               o
               CO
               UJ
               CO
                                OCCCC      CDCCCC      CDCCCC
                                2ILUUJ      SUJLU      ZUJUJ

                            —  CCSZ_ICCS2ljCC^-='
                              n
       LU  CD  l-H

-------
                              in
                              CD
                              a.
                             m
                             N.
                             a.
                             a
                             LU
                             in
                             
 O  {_
UJ  CD
     W
+J  0)
 c o=
 co
•M  CO

2  (/)
    CD
0)  ^
•H  CO
(0  _J
O)
0)
c_
o
D)
         CO  C
             ca
•a TJ
 ca  a>
 >,  TO
 (O  Q.
 O  n
•H  Q
•H
 CO  (_
•H  Q)
•H  +-•
 CO  03
•H  E
CO  CO

 a>  co
 >  a.
cc
cc
UJ
a

co
Q
a
co
        o
        w
        0)
        Q
                            <
                            UJ
                                   ooooooooooo
                           o
                           CO
                           <
                           UJ
                           CO
O  DC  CC
S  LU  LU
>-(  S  }—  —
DC  S  2  _I  CC
Q.  3  l-H  <  Q_
CO  CO  S  U.  CO
                                               cc cc
                                               LU LU
                                       O  DC CC
                                       Z  UJ UJ
                                                   2 -I DC  S
                                                   l-l < O.  ID
                                                   S U. CO  CO
                   O  CD  1-4
                   O  >  1-1
                   UJ  CO  l-«

-------
                     y?      COOIONOOOCOOOOCO      oocvit-
                     en      en  r-  co    •  1s-  in  03  c»  <*  in   co   •      too
                     O,        •    •    •  CM	O   -••••—  CM
                             co  oj  05  ^—  h*  05  ^o  03  03  03   co  **~"      03  i*^  ^™~  '—
                                                                                                     T?    .../».

                                                                                                     O3  i—  i— t—  O3  T—
                            -  O3    -  CO

                          i-  CO  T-  CO
                     in       incnini-oincoooinoo
                     ^^,       CO  CO  O)    "  ^**  O3  ^j"  CO  ^^  tp   T^*   •
                     0_        ...T-	o
                                                                        oocMcooocMcoinooooinr-ocococMco
                                                                        COO    •  ^  O  CO   -CON-CO    •  N-   •    •    •  CO  CM  N-    *CM
                                                                         .    .,-    .    .   -CM    •    •    •  T-   •  T-  O  CM    •   •   •  O    •
                     Q
                     IU
                                                                                    oincMcooinocooocMooi-i^-cocoocoin

                                                                                          •  -r-	O   •  •<-  O  CM	
                     in
                     CM
                              eotooocnoooooo
                                                                        oocMcooincoLnoininooor-oinininin
                                                                        or*-    •  inineMOTj-r-inojN-   •  r-~    •  co  co  co  03  co
                                                                              •T-	-I-   •  CM	
                     in
                     o.
                             inominoooocoooo
                                                                        oincjooincooinininoooh-cocoooo
                                                                        ^5  O5    •  ^™  CO  ^^  C3  ^f  IO  ^^  1X5  ^^   "  ^^    *  O5  CO   CO  ^D  ^^
                                                                         •   -T-	...T-.CM	
 c
 o
 CO
 CO
 03
CO

•a
 c
 CO
     e
 03  CO
•O -H
 CO T3
 O  03
 03 S
12   O>
     —
 O  O
•H  Q
•H
 CO   £_
•H   03
•H  4->
 CO   03

CO   CO
     £_
CD   CO
>  O_
£_
O
CO
03
Q
         ^>      IO  O4  CO  Cvj  CvJ  tO  f**« (O  tO  C3  IO  "^t*    •  CM  CO   •  Is*"  CO  00  CO  CO  O)  CO  O)    •    •  O    •  Csi  CO   O)  T"  CD
         O      CXl^"T—<^T-^CO      T—  CM  CM  T""       CMCO      COCMCOCO^      ^               ^      CM^r-CM'^CvJ




         tr
         cc      o  10  T~  ^*  o)  c\i  o r***  o  10  co  CD       o  co      C3  T***  co  co  co  o  ^~  CM           10      r**  o)   ^r*  co  co
         LU      Is*  CM  CM  CO  ^f  ^f  t**- CM  CO  CO  CM  CM       CO  IO      CO  I****  ^"  CO  ^™"  ^™  t™1  T~           IO      CM  T™   CM  CM  CM
         a        	
         1—      OOOOOOOOOOOO       i-O      OOOi-OOOO           O      OOOOO
         CO




         I^J      T™*  CM  f^  ^^  IO  CO  ^M CO  ^**  IO  CO  CM       ^f  CO      Is*  ^t"  O5  ^1  ^f  Is*  CM  O5           tO      IO  CO   ^**  CO  CO
         Q      fs^  ^5  £*j  ^^  QQ  ^—  ^^ ^Q  ^^  ^j*  |_^  ^Q       QQ  (D      ^*«  CO  CM  CM  CO  CO  CO  CO           O5      IO  CO   CO  CO  O5

         I—      T-T-T-'«-OI-CVIOT-I-I--I-.     T-  T-      CMCMCMCOi-O-r-O           O      i-  •«-   i-  T-  r-
         CO



         x      cooooooocoooom       oocoooooooooomoomocooo

         s        	*^    .  ^	'"!....







         z      inocomoooocoooo       omcMOOocamooooooh-ooinoo
         HH      03  T~  O  in  O  CM  CO  ^  05  ^f  CO  O3       O  O5   •  *"~  CO  ^^  O  CM  CD  ^f  CO  r*-    •   Is*-   •  CM  CD  O  O3  CVJ
         S        	        ..T-	T--CM	




         I1ff'      co  O5  T™*  LO  CO  CO  f**»  CO  CO  ^f  OJ  IO       CO  CO  CM  ^™*  ^*  ^*  CD  ^^  CO  CM  IO  CO  *—*   ^* ^**  O5  00  ^^  CO  CO
         <      coi--^   -cocnocoi-cjcoT-       co  •»-   -<3-cocoinocMO   •  r*.    -i^   •os'srinmco
         LU        ...Q	i-	O-1--OJ	
                                                                       CO  CM
                                                                                                                cor^min
                                                                                                                                                  cocot^eMin
                     O
                     CO
                    LU
                    CO
                     Occtr       oorcr      oaccc      ooro:       oozcc
                     2:  LU  LU       ZLULU      ZLULU      S  LU  LU       ZLULU
                 _JI-)SI-_I1-HSI—  _JHHSl-_ll-iSt-_Jl-iS(-
a  cr  or
Z  LU  LU
*H  S  I-
cr  s  z
                                                                                                                                     o  o:  cr
                                                                                                                                     2:  LU  LU
o  cr  or
s  LU  LU
                                                                                                                                     crsz:_iccs
                             U-COCO
                                             LUCOCO
                                                              U-COCO
O   O  l-l
o   >  n
LU   CD  I—I
                             OJCMCMCVJCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO

-------
                              in
                              cn
                              Q.
                              CM  O  CO  O  O  O
                                        •  T  CO  O>

                              1-  T-  T-  O)  O)  O)
                                     TT  T-  O  00
                                          .  CO
                                     -i-  O   •  O
                                     T-  T-  CO  f-
m      co  o  co  o  o
Is-        •  en    •  co  '*•
O_      O    •  T-    .    .    .
        i-  co  T-  oo  m  oo
                                                  in
                                                  co
                                                                  o
                                                                  co
                                                                    •  o
                                                                  N-  i-
                                                              i-  O  CO
                     <      in co  co  o  in  co
                     *H      co o   •  o  co  in
                     Q           .  o
                     uj      o) co  i—  co  cn  h»
                                    o  in  o  co
                                    eo  co  co
                                      .    .    .  o
                                    N-  in  in  T-
                             m     o in <* m
                             CM     o o   • eo
                             o_           . o
                                     cn r»- T- to o>  co
                                             o
                                             o
                            m
                            in
                                                         o  o  m  co
                                                         t  eo  cn    •
                                                           .    .    .  o
                     in
                     a.
 X
 c
 o
 •H  W

 CD -H
 C.  O
 O  >
 O  C.
 UJ  CD
     CO
 +J  CD
 C CC
 CD
•H T3
 CT
 O
 CO
 CO
 CD
CO

•o
 C
 CO
     cz
 CD  CO
•a -H
 co -a
 o  CD
 CD -£
o    I
     a>
 o  o
•H  Q
•M  CO   W   C_
 3     -H   CD
Z  W  -H  4-1
     CD   CO   CD
    e
•H  CO  CO   CO
 CO _1       i.
 O)      CD   CO
 co      >  a.
 t-     -H
 O)     4->
 o)      a.
<     -rt
        £_
        o
        co
        CD
        o
cc
cc
UJ
o

CO
                    UJ
                    Q
                    Q

                    £
                    X
                   u5
       in in o o o  o
       CO i- CD O CO  CM
                             CO
                                         CO  CO  CO
                                                                 O  O  O  CO
                                                                 CO  00  O)
                                                                           .  o
                                                                          CO  T-
                             •*  CO  •*  TJ-

                             T-  CM  T-  1-
                                                 CO
                             O)  N-  O)  i—  CM  in
                             •^  CM  in  co  T-  co
                             o  o  o  o  o  o
                            co
                            CO
           o  in  en  co  i—
           O  rf  O  CO  CM
                            i-  CM  T-  1-  0  1-
                            o  in  o  o  o  o
                            r^  i—  co  ^  co  o>
                            CO  i—  i—
                                            O>
                                                         CO
                                   CO   CO  CM
                                   CO   TJ-  CO
                                   CO  f"-  CO
                                   CM  CO  CO
                                                         i-  T-  O
                                                                 •*  O)  CM
                                                                 !>«-  CO  O)
                                                        CM  CM  T-
                                   m  in  o  in
                                   co  o  co  r^-
                                                        »-  O  CO  O
o
en
in
in
in
•
O)
o
CM
•""
CO
f^
h-
o
CO
r>-
^.
CT)

O
O
CO
in
CO
i^
0
co
CO

CM
cn
o
CM
CO
o
CO
>.
o
CO
• CO
in
in
r^
o
co
•*
CO

co
o
cn
CO

0
CO
oo
o
co

o
                           T-i^cocMcocMOincoinT-
                           m  in      T—      T—
                   •z.      o  cc  cc      o  or  or
                   O      "Z.  UJ  UJ      2:  UJ  UJ
                   CO      MSH-_lhHSI—
                   <      CCSZ-JCCS^
                   uj      CL  D  M  <  a.  Z3
                   CO      CO  CO  S  U_  CO  CO
                                      a  a:  cc
                                      2  UJ  UJ
                                 -J CC  S
                                 < a.  r>
                                 U. CO  CO
           O  CD  1-4
           O  >  HH
          UJ  CD  1-1
     j-  T-  i-  CM  CM  CM  CM
     r—  Is-  h~  N.  r-i  r»-  r~

-------
 C
 o
 CO
 CO
 CD
 CO

 -a  c
 C  03
 CO  -H
     •a
 co  co
 •o  s
 «    !
 o  _j
 cu    I
 Q  O3
 co
     co
     o
     2
•H   CM
•H   O
tn   -z.
•H
•H   C_
CO   CD
•H   4->
CO   CD
     s
a>   co
>   £_
•H   CO
•f->   O_
Q.
•H
L.
O
CO
CD
a
                      tn
                      r>-
                      o_
                      a
                      LU
                      in
                      CM
                      a.
                      in
                      o_
o
or
oc
LU
a
co
LU
o
o

CO
X
                     <
                     LU
                     o
                     CO
                     LU
                     CO
CO 0)
t- CM
O O
O) O
O T-
0 0
0 0
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
CO CO
T- CM
CM O
O i-
o o
r^ co
o h-
o o
0 O
CO O
O LO
o o
0 0
CD CD
0 T-
o o
CM in
FALL
SPRING
T-
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o


o
in
N.
o
o
in
CO
o
o
CM
o
LO
SUMMER
co
in
o
CO
o
o
o
o
o
CO
o
o
en •
0
CM
o
o
5
o
o
h-
o
CO
o
0
CO
o
I^* ^D
cr
LU
Z. _J
HH <
S u.
CM
O
CM
O
CO
CO
O
CM
O
CM
O
0)
CO
O>
O
O
CO
o
CM
O
CO
CO
CM
CO
CO
o
CM
SPRING
CO
o
o
CM
O
O
CM
O
O
0
O
O
O
CO
o
o
o
o
o
CO
o
o
o
o
CM
0
o
-
SUMMER
CO
o
CO
CM
0
CO
0
o
CO
0
o
o
o
CD
CM
O
O
e»
o
CO
o
o
o
in
o
TJ-
WINTER
T--
in
o
-
0
T—
O
0
0
o
o
co
O)
o
o
CO
o
m

o
o
j
o
5
U-
*^*" ^* ^D ^3 10 ^J* ^3 oj ^Q ^^ co r^ ^r ^^ co r^ ^3 T**
CO CO CD C^ CM C^ CO C^ CO r^» C^ tf5 CO OO CD CO ^^ iO
OOOOOOOi-T-OCMOOOOCMT-O
i-Ot-OOOCMCOCOCM'^-i-CMOCOCO^-Ln
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCMT-O
•^•1-N.T-cOCOOCOOCDOCDOCMCOOroT-
ooooooT-T-TrocoocMocMincnin
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO-r-OO
OOOOOOOOi-Oi-OT-OT-CDLOin
oooooooooooooooooo
ooooooooooooooocoinm
oooooooooooooooooo
SgSS^gSSS^cf S^SS •
coi-incMCMOcoinincoooscMiocor~-T-
OOOOOOOO^OCMOOOOCO'*-
o o o o o o o oooooooooo
^^ CO CO tO ^^ ^^ ^~ CO ^3 CO ^f CO O5 CO ^^ CO CO
^™ ^^ CM c3 co co ^™ co co c^ co r*"* **~ LO ^^ c\j LO
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi-o
i-'tcooLO'i-ooroocooocoinr^OT-

ocoinooinincoocomcooooinino
T-OOi-f-OCMOi-OCMOOOCOCON-f-
ooooooooooooooocomin-
i-OT-oooi-CMCDT-TrcMCM-^cMtncnin
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOT-OO
•^CMCMT^-^T-T-COCMCOi-^-COLOin'"'"
Occcr oorcc cscrcr occcc ooc
ZLULU ZLULU ZUJLU ZLULU ZLU
t-iSI— _l H-I S t- -Ji-iSi-_JMSI--ll-«S
CC S ^ 	 ICCS2JCCSS 	 I rr ^ ^y i rr ^
CL ^ HH«^Q_^H-(  HH
            LU   CD  1-1

-------
                             in
                             o
                             D-
         OJOCMN.'3-OCOO3C\JO)in
         OCOCDCNi-'a-^i-inCMTt

         -i-OOO-r-i-T-O-r-OO
                             in
                             i^.
                             O.
                                     ooooooooooo
                             <      T-
                             H      CO
                             o
                             Ol
                                     ooooooooooo
                             in
                             CJ
                             a.
         O)i-'»O!-OT-'<3-CDCMin
         T-OinOOO-i-OOOrf

         ooooooooooo
                             in
                             a.
X
        o
        (O
        ca
        
            co
            o
 c
 o
•H  W
 ra  i-  co
 fl» i-l  O
 t_  O  CD
 o  > a
 o  c.
     CO
•(->  0)
 C CC   CO
 co      o
•H T3  -H  CVJ

         CO
        •H
Z  CO  -H  t_
     0)   03  CD
fl> J£    co
Q>      >  C_
C_     -H
a>
o>
        •M  O
            ca
        •H  a.
        CL
        c.
        o
        CO
        0}
       a
a:
cc
ai
a

co
LLJ
o
a

co
         ooooooooooo




         I^-CDinCMCOOJCOCOCMCO

             CM      ^T  CM  CO          T-  i-
in  •*  -3-inr«-ini-cococo
OOOOOOi-O-r-O

oooooooooo
                                     oooooooooo
        CMCJOCO^COT-OT-OO
                                    oo-t-ooor^cococjin
                                    oo'^rooooooO'9-
                            <
                            UJ
        T-^inoin-t-coroinN.in

        ooooooooooo
                                    co  CD
                                                co  oo  a>  i-
                            o
                            co
                            <
                            UJ
                            CO
        OCCCC      (3  CC  CC      (S  CC  CC
        ZO1OI      ZOIOI      ZOIOI
                                    coco
                         _
                    o.coco
                                                                o.coco
                      I -H
                    O   CD
                    O   >
                   01   
-------
  o
  CO
  CO
  CD
  CO   C

      CO
  CD  -H

| T3  T3

  CO   CD
  >• (-1
  w   o
  U   LU
 •H   CO
  CO  £_
I-H  CD

 •H  4-1
  CO  CD
| -f-1  E
I co  ca


  CD  CO
 £


'£

 O

 CO

 CD

I O
                      &
                      01
                      D.
                      in
                      r*-
                      o_
                      o
                      LU
                      in
                      CM
                      a.
                      in
                      a.
                      >
                      o
                      cc
                      cc
                      LU
                      a

                      co
                      LU
                      o
                      o

                      CO
                      X
                      <
                      o
                      CO
                      LU

                      CO
CO N
N- in

CO ••-
m co

cn co
t^ 

co

cc
LU
s
co
CO
co

o
o

CO
co

o
CO
o
co
in
o
CO
in
CM
o
in
o
co
CO

o
CO

CO
Cn

LO
CC
LU
1-
0
co

CO

in
CO

o
in
o
CO
co
o
CO
CO
Cn
CM
o
CO
O)
o
o
CO

o
CO

CM
o

_J
2
LO
CO

o
CM

CO
CO

CM
in
0
CM
CO
o
co
0
co
o
in
CO

o
CM

co
en

HH
CC
a.
co
O
CO

co

^

o
0
co
CO
o
CO
CO
o
co
CO
0
o
o

o
in

CM

SUMMER 29 1
CO

o
o

T-
CO

CM
in
0
T—
CO
o
CO
o
0
CO
N.

o

CO
co

cc
LU
t-
1— 1
3
0
CO

o
CO

o
CM

o
o
o
o
T—
r-
o
o
0
o
CO

o
o

0
CM

CM
_J
U.
0)
CO

O)
CO

T—
<$•

CO
o
CO
o
en
co
CM
o
en
CO
o
CO

CM

T-
rf

CM
CD
•z.
1-H
cc
a.
co
0
CO
^^
in

CO

CO
o
CO
o
CM
CM
0
CM
o
o
co

in
CM

CO

cc
LU
s
co
CO
CO
£-
CO
CO

CO
CO

CO
co
o
CO
CO
o

CO
CO

o
CO

CO
CO

cc
LU
1-
1— 1
g:
o
co

CO
CO

CO

•t
co
o
co
o
CO
co
co
o
o
o
o
0
co

o
o

CO

_J
_l
LL-
in
co

CO
co



o
co
o
o
CM
o
co
N.
o
o
co
in
o
o
en

CM
in

o

CM
o
1— 1
cc
o_
CO
o
in

o

CO
h-

CO
CO
o
CO
o
en
in
in
0
0
CO
o
o
CM

o
o

r>-

to
co
cc
LU
CO
en
CO

O)
CO

CO

CO
o
o
CO
o
CO
Y—
T—
in
o
in
o>
CO

o
o

in
CM

WINTER tt 1
in
CM

O

in
CO

co
en
o
o
in
o
CO
CO
in
o
0
CM
CO
o
o

CO
co

CM
m
_i
o
CM

O
O

O
CM

m
o
o
in
o
CO
CM
O
O
O)
o
o
T-
.
o
o

N

SPRING 61
in
CM
CO
co

0
CM

0
CO
o
o
in
o
CO
r-
o
o
en
0
in
CM
CD
in
CM

,-

cc
LU
•s.
co
0)
^J
o

CM
en

CO
in
0
in
CM
o
o
rr
CM
o
CO
in
o
CM
.^
0
in
1
CM

CM
CC
LU
1-
I— I
CO
CO

en
CM

o

in
CO
0
o
CO
o
co
co
o
CO
o
CO
o
co
CO

o
o

^^
O)

0
_J 1— 1
_! CC
< 0-
U_ CO
in
CO
o
co

o
CO

o
CO
o
o
o
in
o
ff
o
in
O)
in
CD
o
o

co

SUMMER 7
WINTER 0
o K o co co
CO CJ T O> CO

O O CO CO CO
CO ••- CO CO CO

•^ co co co o
CO CO i- CM i-

o o in -i- CD
O CO f>» Cn h-
-r- O O O O
T- CO O CO O
co co ••a- •<* in
o o o o o
en co T- ^ CD
CM in r^ in in
m in m in
en N- o •» o
CO CO CD CO T-
CO CM T- CD O
co en co i- t^.
CO CM i- -3- O
O O O O CO
O O O O CO
co i^ i^ h- co
•<*• T- co o
CM CM -i- CO
0 O 0 O O
o CM o in o
CM CM CM CM CM

CO CO CM CO CD
Is- *3" O f— CO

CM in CD CD co
co r>- i- ^r m
o cc cc
•Z. LU LU
-I HH S 1- -I
—I CC S Z — 1
< a. 12 >-< <
Lt_ CO CO S Ll_
              o  
              LU  CD

-------
CO
                          in
                          CO
                          Q-
                                   COOCMCOOtni—  lOUOOO


                                   COCO''—  CM  CM  CM  CM  •»—  O''— O
                         It)
                         N.
                         D-
                                 OjT-T-
                                               T-1-OOOOO
                         UJ     i-
                                          ino^T—  CM  T-  o •»-  o


                                          T-OOOOOOOO
                         Q.       	
                                ooooooooooo
 o
 •H  W
 CO  C.
 03 -H
 £-  O
 o  >
 o  t_
 UJ  O
     W
 +•»  0)
 c or
 CD

£!
•fj co

2: 
      c
      o
      CO
      TO
      01
 TJ
 c
 TO  C
     TO
 0> -H
 T3 Tl
 TO  Q)



 !3
 jo 2:
    o
 CO O
 O UJ
•H CO
 +J
 co c_
•H 03

 TO O>

    TO
•H  CO CO
TO  _J     C_
O)     03  TO

£3;^
CO    -H
TO     Q.
<     -H

        O
        CO
       03
       O
                         to
                         a.
                        O
  rr
  tr
  UJ
  Q

  CO
                        UJ
                        a
                        CO
                        X
                                  CMincooj-t-cM^T-cocvjeo

                                  ooooooooooo



                                  comi^ococMcncowco
                                oooooooooo
         ooco-'~>r^^coc\jo3o
         OCOCOCDCOCON-'^-i-CM

         T-OOOOOOOOO
                               OlOCMOOCMT-ujinoO
                               CMOi-T-CM-i-CM'»-COi-CO
                                  CMCOT-T-T-TJ-I—  COCMCO
                       z

                       LU
                                 coiocn'cooocMcor-eooo
                                 lOM'COCDCOCJJCOCO'fl'lOCO

                                 •^T-OOOOOOOOO
                              ,N-  rj-  co  co  T-  m  m  ia  Is-  N-
                              IO  CO     O  O  T-
o
CO

UJ
CO
                              (SCC.CC
                              2UJUJ
                                               (S
                                                   CC.CC
                                                   UJUJ
                                              _
                                         U.COCO
                                                       (S  CC  CC
                                                       2UJUJ
                                                        U-COCO
               O  CD  HH
               O  >  n
               LU  CD  1— 1

-------
                     in
                     en
                     Q_
                                              CMCMcoN-C3>inocoincococois-.'>—  coofrTfrooc^i—  i—  c\j  o

                                              1-  T-OO-I-OT-T-I—  T-CMOO-I-OT-OT-OCMT-I-CO
                                      i-  O  O  T-  CM  T-  i-
                     m       iocooocDcot--co'«—  oocooincof-ooincoinf'-ocooincooofrocMoco
                     o_                                                                        *~                  **  '"  **  '"  "*   ^  ""  '"  *"  '"  "^  *"
                             OOOOOO-r-OOOOOOOOO
                                                                                                        T-CMOOOOOOOOOOOOO
                     Q
                     LLJ
                             OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO'i-OOOOOOOOOOOOO
                     to
                     CM
                     CL-
                             ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
 c
 o
 at
 cc
 CO
CO

"O
 c:
 eo   c
     CO
 .  Ol
J3   e
W
o
 CO   £_
•H   Q>


 CO   CO
•I-1   £
CO   eo
     £_
 CO   CO
 >  o_
-H
•H
 Q.
•H
 £_
 O
 CO
 05
Q
                     IO
                     a.
o
cc
EC
UJ
a

CO
                     LLJ
                     O
                     a

                     CO
                    X
                    <
        oooocDoooooooooinr-moococoocooooocooint^ocMco
        COCOofreOC3>ofrCOofrcOCMCOCOCMCOCOOofrcOOOT-oeMt-ofrcMCOCO-<--^T-CMC\l
                    o
                    CO
                    <
                    LLJ
                    CO
                             o  o  o  o o  o  o
                                                              ooooooooooooooooooooooooo
                             N>  G)  co  co   •  co  co  in  co
                             CO  CO  CD  ofr      COofrcOCO
Ot^ofrcOofrOi-OCDCOCOini-T-OiT-CO
ofrcocoincMCDr»-ofrcocoiocococoincoin
in    in  o» en
CM  T-  o  co m
                             coincoofr      incococot^tnininincorocococococoofrcocoofrcoh-      cot—  COT-CO
                             OOOO      •r-'i-'-OOOOO'i-OOT-OOCOOOOOi-Oi-      •<-  T-  O  CM  O

                             oooo
        N.  CM  in  m
        eo  ofr  ^  CM
                                                 oooooooooooooooooooooo
                                                  O)oa>ofrcot^cocDCDT-oooofrincocococoinh~T-co
                                                  CMinCMCMCMCMCMT-ofrT-«COCOincOCMCOofrCMCOT-ofr
                                                                                                                                                o  o  o  o  o
                                                                         i-  CM  O i-  O
                                                                         CO  f-  CO i-  ofr
        o  o  o  o
                            oooooooooooooooooooooo
                                                                                                                           O  O  O
                                                                                                                                            O
        coooocooincocoh~cncooocooooevjooi^-oinofriocooooinoin
                            ooooooinoooooooooinoinininmcoinooinoooooo
                            Lnincoincooh-oooN-inoini^-inin^-cMCMCMCMOcMOcncMOCMcocMcn-r-
                            OOCOOO3Tj-COnrcOCMCMCMCMCOCOOCOCMOOOOT-O'«-CMCOCOOi-OT-CM
m
in
o
CO
CM



_J
_!
^
LU
CO
O
._,
in

0
"^*
w
CC
a.
CO
CO CO
co m
o o
05 N-
LO ofr

cc. cc
LU LU
^E \~~
s z
r3 i— i
co S
co N.
CD h-
o o
T- Ofr


0
21
_I t— I
— 1 CC
< a_
LU eo
in
••"
CO


cc
LU
^s
^
3
CO
CO
CO
o
m


or
LU
1—

h- 1
3
in ofr
CO CD
o o
LO IO
T— t—

o
z
_l 1— 1
_i or
< o_
LU CO
a>
CD
o
0
CM

CC
LU
^>
^2
32
CO
co
CO
o
CD
CM

CC
UJ
t-
z
1— 1
s
co co
*^ ^^
^D ^D
— S .— k
•^ or-

O
2T
1 |_£
—1 CC
< Q.
LU CO
in
o
CJ


cc
LU
^
^
3
CO
O> CO
ofr O)
0 0
T- N-
i- CM

CC
LU
^«. i
Z —1
i— i -
CD CO
O O
!^ CM


CD
Z
_I t— 1
_l CC
< a.
LU CO
CO
co
o
CO


cc
LU
^>
^
13
CO
o in
CO CO
o o
T- ^
CO

oc
LU
1— _J
Z -1
I-H <;
3 u_
o
CO
o
CM


CD
Z
I— i
CC
CU
CO
in
o
CM
CJ>

CC
LU
^5
|^»
•^
CO
o
CO
o
~r*
CM

or
LU
(—
z
1— 1
s
CO
CD
o
^
^~



[
— J
^
LL-
            O  CO  l—l
            O  >  l-l
            LU  CD  I—1
       roocnencocococoininLOLON-r^i^-h-oooo
       CMCJOJCMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOoj-orofrtfr
                                                                                                              lOLOLotoororofrxs-mLoinin-^
                                                                                                              ofrororrfrcocococDCDCDcocoN»

-------
                             in
                             en
                             a.
                                     cocMcoocNoinr-cococM
                                     Oi-cocMincoincMcoco'3-
                                     o  i-  o  CM  i-  i-
                                                                 o  o  o  o
                             in
                             h~
                             a.
                                     omcoocoinoi--T-h-cN
                                     coi^cocMi-cMrrcMcoin'S-

                                     OOO-i-T-i-i-OOOO
                             o
                             UJ
                                     ooOOOo
                             in
                             CM
                             a_
                                     COCOCOCOCOh-COCMCMCO''*

                                     ooooooooooo
X
 o
•H   CO
 O)  £-
 CD  -H
 L.   O
 O   >
 O   £_
UJ   CD
     CO
•H   CD
 C  CC
 . C3)
 o
•v
 a
 en
 CO
 i_
 cs
 o>
    co
•H   a>
•M  -H
CO   CD
+J   S
CO   CO

CD   CO
>  a.
        c_
        o
        CO
        CD
       a
                            in
                            a.
                            o
                            cc
                            CE
                            UJ
                            a

                            CO
                            UJ
                            o
                            a

                            CO
                             CO*S-COCMCMinON.COO>CM
                             CMCMCOCOCOCOCOOJCMT-T


                             OOOOOOOOOOO
                                    co  in
                                    •-<  ^  \-
                                    a:  s  z.
                                    DL  3  i-t
                                    co  co  S
                                            O  CC  CC
                                            z:  uj  uj
                                            l-l  S  H-
                                            •cc  s  z
                                            o-  r>  M
                                            co  co  s
                                                                    a
                                                                        CC  CC
                                                                        UJ  UJ
CC  S
O.  Z3
CO  CO
                   O  OJ  l-l

                   CJ  >  1-4

                   SJJ  CD  I-H

-------
                      in
                      O5
                      O_
                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                          in
                                                                                                                  CO
                                               *  eo  to  co
                                              CO  O5  CO CO
                                                                                                                                CM      i-
                                                                                                                                                T-  O  1-  1-
                      in
                      r>-
                      CL
                                                                                                          CO
                                                                                                                  O
                                                                                                                  CO
                                                  CD  eo  co
                                                  in  co  co
                                                                                                                                T-      i-      O  O  O  O
                      Q
                      LU
                                                                                                          CO


                                                                                                          o
                                                                                                                                        CO
                                                                                                                                                oa  co  o>  co
                                                                                                                                                to  -I-  •si-  *
                                                                                                                                        i-      O  O  O  O
  c
  o
  CO
  CO
  CD
 Ico
                      in
                      CM
                      a.
                      in
                      a.
o
O>
o
in
CO
N.
o
CO
CO
CO
CO
o
co
CO
o
o
CO
in
CO
o
CO
CM
in
CO
o
co
CM
                                                                                                                               T-    -  CO
                                                                                                                               CD      *
                                                                                                                          o  o  o  o
                                                                                                                                               c»
                                                                                                                                                       co  co
  as
      c
  CD  CO
 T3 -rt
  CO -D
  O  0)
cc
cr
LU
Q

CO
                                     CM
                                     CM
co  in
o  o
         r^  co
         o  T-
                                                                                                                                               o  o  o  o
  co
  O
      03
     -H
 I co   a>
1+-1   E
1 00   CO

      CO
  >  CL.
UJ
Q
O

CO
                             CO

                             o
                                                                                                         in
                                                                                                         in
                                                                                                                                       co
                                                                                                                                               CO  CM  T-  CD
                                                                                                                                               CO  CM  CO  CO
                                             o  o  o  o
                                             r^  *  o  CM
                                             CO  i-  to  CO
                                                                                                                               CM      T-      T-  1-  T-
  £_
  o
  CO
  CD
|o
                                                                                                                              o
                                                                                                                              in
                                                                                                                              CO
                                                                                                                 o
                                                                                                                 CO
                                                                                                                 CO
                                             in  o  o  in
                                             CO  O5  *  O5
                                             CM  CM  CM  i-
                                                                                                                              CO
                                                                                                                                      CM
                                                                                                                                      O
                                                                                                                         in  o  CD  co
                                                                                                                         CD  in  m  t^
                                                                                                                              i-      i-      O O O  O
                             oooooooooooooooooooooooo
                                                                                                                                          O  CM  T-  O  CM O
                                                                                                                                              CM  CM  CM  CJ
                     o

                     3
                     LU
                     CO
            fS  CC  CC      C3CCCC      (S  CC  CC      OOCCC
            •Z.  LU  LU      Z  LU  LU      Z  LU  LU      Z  LU  LU
            l-iSI-_li-tSI-_ll-t-l
                             Ll_  CO  CO
                                             Li.  CO  CO
                                                             U_ OD CO
                                                             -
                                                        U.  CO  CO
OCCCC      OCCCC      C5CCCC
*=?LULU      ZLULU      ^^  III  tit
MSH-J'i-iS!--li-iSH-
CCSZ_JCCSZ_ICCSZ
CLi3»-i  HH
             LU  CO  l-l

-------
                             LO
                             o>
                             a.
                             tn
                             N.
                             Q.
                             Q
                             LU
                            ID
                            evj
                            a.
                            LO
                            a.
X
t-H
        o
        CO
        CO
         t_   CO  T3
      CD  -H   O   CD
      t-  O   CD  3E
      O  >  O    |
      O  £-      _!
      LU  CD   >,   |
          co  .a   o>
      t->  CD       E
      C  CC
      CD
      •H  TJ
      c_  c
      4-1  CO   CO   £-
      3      -H   CD
      Z  CO  4->  +->
          CD   CO
        to
        o  z
        •H  I-
      •H
      CO
      C3
      CD
/     £_
      O)
     CD

CO  CO
     c_
 CD  CO
 > Q.
•H
•H
 Q.
•H
 C_

 CO
 CD
a
                            or
                            cc
                            LU
                            O

                            fe
                            LU
                            O
                            O

                            CO
                            X
                            <
                                   ooooooooooo
                    O
                    CO
                    <
                    LU
                    CO
                            occrr
                            ZLULU
                                                          ooccr
                                                          S  LU  LU
                                         CCSZ— IDCS
                                         Q-Z3l-H  M
                   LU  CD  H

-------
 c.
 o
 CO
 CO
 a>
CO

•o
 cr
 CO
     n
 a>  co
•a -H
 co "O
 O  CO
 a> s
O    I
                     in
                     o
                     o_
                     m
                     h>
                     o.
                     Q
                     UJ
                     in
                     CM
                     a.
                     m
                     a.
o
QC
CC
UJ
O


CO
o
•
en
o
O
in
in
N.
CM
T-
CO
T~
o


^
N.

o
•=t

0
o
in
0
o
CO
o
o
CM
O
m
CM

CO
T—
O
**

0
o
in
o
d
CO
o
o
CM
0
in
CM

LO
^~
O
T-

0
o
in
o
in
CM
o
o
-

0
o
CO
CO
CO
CO
o
0
CM
o
o
in
CO
o

in
CM

o
o
CO
0
o
^
0
0
CO
o


co
CO

o
CM

o
o
CO
0
in
CO
0
o
CM
o
o
m
CM
o
•^"
m
CD

o
o
CO
0
o
Tf
0
in
CM
0
o
in
CM
en

in
CO
C\J

o
in
en
0
o
m
o
o
"*
o
o
d

en

0
•*

o
^

in
N.
o
o
in
in
o
10
UJ
m
CM
CO

in
o

o


o
in
^
o
in
CM
in
•
T—

f—
T—
O
•
in
o
0
in
o
o
in
o
o
m
o

in



o
in
C\t

0
0
CD
O
O
CO
0
o
T~
0
o
0
CM
CO
^-
O
<3-

m
!>„
in
o
o
CO
0
o
T™
in
i*-
co
CO
o
CM
CO


o
in
CO
CO
CO
CO
T_
CO

o
in
•r-
o
CM
i—
ta
o
CO
o
in
in
o
o
CO
o
o
T-
o
o
in
o
in
T—
o
CO

to
CM
co
o
o

o
o
CM
o
in
CM
^
CD

•*  en  co  CM  co  in    -co   •   •  en  o    -en
              •  i-  i-  co T-  in  co   •    -co    •  o  o  en
mcocnin          en      CMf-cncncM«ocoi-f-
in
                                 LO
           CO
 >  Q.
 CL
•H
 £_
 O
 CO
 CD
Q
UJ
a
a

co
                    <
                    UJ
                    o
                    CO
                    UJ
                    CO
CD
CO
CM
O
O
in
0
*"
o


,_
co
CO
_ll
CM


_J

«^
LL.
o
CO
m
o
o
o
in
CO
o
in
CM
CO
o

.^
LO
O

HH
CC
o.
CO
LO
in

o
o
in
•*$•
in
o
in
CM
en
en
•q-

CD
CC
LU
^5
^5
n
CO
en
in
CO
o
o
o
h**
"
o
in
CM
CM
CO
CO
^
^
cc
LU
^v
"y
1— 1
5
•sl-
CO

o
o
o
CM
co
o


o


.



1
_J
^^
LL.
in
^

o
o
o
Tj"
CM
O


CO
CO

^*

CD
2:
l_^
cc
o_
CO
t-
eo

o
0
o
fs»
^
o


CO
CM

^
"
CC
LU
^E
^:
Z3
CO
•«-
co

0
o
in
^-
*^
o


en
CM

cc

cc
LU
H-

i—i
g
T-
CO
en
0
0
m
en
CM
0
in
|s'
in
CM
en
LO



1
1
^£
LL.
•51-
CO
CO
o
0
in
^
CM
O
O
CO
o
CO
N.
co

o

1— 1
cc
o_
co
CO
o
CO
0
o
o
co
CM
o
o
CO
CO
en
f**.
J^
CO
cc
LU
^s
^^
Z3
CO
i-
|S.
"*
o
o
o
CO
T-"
in
N.
co
,_
o
co
^_
CM
CC
LU
I—

HH

•*
O
co
o
o
in
en
CM
o
in
CM
o
CO
CO
CM



i
_J

U.
T-
co
CM
O
O
o
CO

o

o
,_
en
CO

"
o

i— i
cc
a.
CO
•"*•
T™*

O
o
o
co

o
o
in
,_
N.
co
.
"*"
DC
LU

^
3
CO
CO
in
CO
o
in
K
^—
"
o
in
CM
^
CO
co

"*"
DC
LU
|—

^_^
g
en
CO

o
o
in
f^
CO
o
in
CM
^
T—

*-K
LO


t
t
^£
LL.
CM
CM"
CO
o
o
o
T—
CO
o


en
^
co
.«
CO
o
•z.
t— \
cc
o_
CO
CM
o
r-

o
o
in

CO
LO
CM
CO
CD
o

"•*
en
cc
LU
^=>
^5
13
CO
en
o
CO
0
o
o
CM
T—
O

CM
CO
CO
in
***

cc
UJ
t—

1— 1
5
CO
O)

o
o
0

CM
o
o
m
,_
o
in
CD
CO


1
1
^
LL.
• CM
CO
CO
0
0
in
^
"
o
o
in
CM
o
in
in
co
0
2:
H- 1
cc
0.
CO
in
CO
<=»•
0
o
o
o
CO
o
0

co
(S.
"*
co.
en
cc
UJ
^s
^g
13
CO
CO
,_
LO
O
o
o
CO
CM
O
O
in
o
CO
in
CO
m
cc
LU
1—
2:
f-H
5
CO
en
CD
o
o
in
CO
CM
o
o

CM
^j.
^
CJ3



_J
i
^C
LL.
•"-
O
CO
0
o
o
^t"
"
o
10
UJ
in
in
|s^
en
CM

a
2:
i— i
cc
o.
CO
LO
CO
CO
o
o
LO
0
CO
in
•
T~
co
i^
^
^

cc
LU
2=>
^^
Z>
CO

.

o
o
o
m

o

in
o
o
in
_

DC
LU
t—
•z.
1— <
S
*f
T—

O
o
in
CO
in
o
o

co
f*.
in
CO
"


1
1
^c
LL.
O
^

O
o
o
CO
en
0
o

en
CM
in
_^
"
o
•z.
t— t
cc
a.
CO
N.
co
in
o
o
o
en
-3-
O
O

o
en
"*
~.
CM
CC
LU
^s
^s
^3
CO
CO
CD
en
o
o
in
in
^
o
o
in
CM
^j.
CD
rj
LO
cc
LU
1—
2:
1—4
S
T-
^1
art
o
in
CM
0
f-
o
in
CM
CO
,3.
in
_
CD


^
-J
^
U.
            O  (D
            O  >
            UJ  O>
       CMCMCMCMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO^'a-'*1*

-------
 in
 O5
 Q.
                                    T-oinoooomooco
                                    TJ-CDOTOCOCOO5OCDCDO
                             in      ooocoinmomcooco
                             N-        •    •   -cocMcnmomoo
                             Q-      OOOl-1-T-T-l-T-T-CM
                                    in  10  to
                            Q
                            LLI
                                    ooooooinocomco
                                    co  CM
                                                co  co  co
                                                                co
                            m      T-OOOOOOOOCOCO
                            CM       	O
                            n_      cootnoooomococM
        cz
        o
        V)
        co
        0)
        co
 • •      CO
 C          C
 o      co  co
•H  to  T>  -H
        CO  T3
        O  0>
 O) £.
 CO  -H
 «-  O
 O  >  Q

a  &  *ji
    CO  J2  03

 c  cc  co    I
 co      o  a.
4->   CO  CO  L.
3      -H  CO
•yg,   CO  -H  +->
     a>  co  co
CO  Jb£  4J  E
•M   CO  CO  CO
CO  _J      L.
O)      Q>  CO
co      >  a.
C.      -H
en      4->
C3)      a.
<      -H
        c.
        o
        co
        CO
        a
m
Q.
                            >
                            o
tr
cc
LU
Q

co
                           LJLJ
                           o
                           a

                           CO
                           i
                                    inooooooocococo
                                    CM  U3  in   •    •  in    •    •    •    •  O
                                             • o  w    •  in  o  co  i-  CM
                                   COT-T-T-,-CMCMCDCNjT-
                 -co    -
            cvjco-'-eo
            co co      a>
                                   in
                                   oooooooooo
                                   oooooooooo
                                               o
                                               m
                                   ooinoomomooh-
                                   oooooooocococo
                                   m  m in  o    •  o    •    •    •    •  o
                                                •  o    •  in  o  co  i-  CM
                                   i-T-CMO)T-COCMCOT-T-
                                   cocoincncMcnoi-cococo
                                            •  T-    .  -fl-  CM  CO  i-   •  O
                                   CMN-T-T-U3T-T-T-1-COCM
                                   *  'S-  IO      O>   -               N-
                                  CO -CD
                                              CO  CO  O>  -i-
                          2      C30CCC      aoco:      occa:
                          O      2LLJUJ      2UJUJ      ZLUUJ
                          CO      l-ISh-_ll-IS|-—IMSH-
                          <      ocsz_icrs2_jccsz
                          UJ      D-DM<0_Z)M<0-Z)l-H
                          CO      COCOgU-COCOSU-COCOS
                  o  a>  HH
                  O  >  h-l
                  LU  a>  HH

-------
           APPENDIX C



Quality Control/Quality Assurance Rules

-------

-------
         INDUS
         CO RPORATION
 Knowledge-Based Solutions
Support for the Compilation and Analysis of
National Nutrient Data
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary
Chapters	
Prepared for:
       Robert Cantilli
       Environmental Protection Agency
       OW/OST/HECD
Prepared by:
       INDUS Corporation
       1953 Gallows Road
       Vienna, Virginia 22182
Contract Number:
Task Number:
Subtask Number:
68-C-99-226
04
4
August 8, 2000

-------

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waierbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

                                     CONTENTS
August 8, 2000
1.0    BACKGROUND  [[[ 1
       1 . 1    Purpose ...................................... . ................... 1
       1 .2    References  ......... ........... . . - - ................ ............... .1

2.0    QA/QC PROCEDURES ................................................. 2
       2.1    National Data Sets ................................................. 3
       2.2    State Data .............................................. .......... 3
       2.3    Laboratory Methods  .............................................. . . 4
       2.4    Waterbody Name ......................................... •' ........ 4
       2.5    Ecoregion Data [[[ 5

3.0    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS REPORTS  ...............  .................... 5
       3.1    Data Source Reports  ............................................... 6
       3.2    Remark Code Reports  .............................................. 7
       3.3    Median of Each Waterbody .............................. ,  ........... 7
       3.4    Descriptive Statistic Reports ......................................... 7
       3.5    Regression Models ................................................. 8

4.0    TIME PERIOD  [[[ 8

5.0    DATA SOURCES AND PARAMETERS FOR THE AGGREGATE NUTRIENT
       ECOREGIONS  [[[ 9
       5.1    Lakes and Reservoirs ...................... ......................... 9
             5.1.1   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 2 ...................... • .......... 9
             5.1.2   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 6 ...................... - ........ *0
             5.1.3   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 7 ............................... 10
             5.1.4   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 8  . . ............................. 11
             5.1.5   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 9  ............................... 12
             5.1.6   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 11  .............................. 12
             5.1.7   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 12  ................ -• ............. 13
             5.1.8   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 13  .............................. 13
       5.2    Rivers and Streams  ........... . .................................... 14
             5.2.1    Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 2 ............................... 14
             5.2.2   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 3  ............................... 15
             5.2.3   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 6  ............................... 16
             5.2.4    Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 7  .............................. 16

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226. TC# 04

             5.2.8   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 14  	
                                                         August 8,2000

                                                        	20
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C
Process Used to QA/Q A the Legacy STORE! Nutrient Data Set
Process for Adding Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions and Level IE
Ecoregions
Glossary
                                         in

-------
15 Nutrient Ecorezion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract * 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

1.0    BACKGROUND
August 8. 2000
The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a national Nutrient Criteria Database
application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data
will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific nutrient criteria ranges. EPA converted
STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) legacy data, National Stream Quality Accounting Network
(NASQAN) data, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) data, and other relevant
nutrient data from universities and States/Tribes into the database.  The data imported into the
Nutrient Criteria Database will be used to develop national nutrient criteria ranges.

1.1    Purpose

The purpose of this deliverable is to provide EPA with information regarding the data used to
create the statistical reports which will be used to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific
nutrient criteria ranges for Level IE ecoregions. There are fourteen aggregate nutrient
ecoregions.  Each aggregate nutrient ecoregion is divided into smaller ecoregions referred to as
Level in ecoregions.  EPA will determine criteria ranges for the waterbody types and Level HI
ecoregions within the following aggregate nutrient ecoregions:

       Lakes and Reservoirs
       -      Aggregate Nutrient ecoregions: 2,6,7, 8,9,11,12,13

•      Rivers and Streams
              Aggregate Nutrient ecoregions: 2, 3,6, 7, 9, 11,12,14

1.2    References

This section lists documents that contain baselines, standards, guidelines, policies, and references
that apply to the data analysis. Listed editions were valid at the time of publication.  All
documents are subject to revision, but these specific editions govern the concepts described in
this document.

Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual: Lakes and Reservoirs (Draft).- EPA, Office of
Water, EPA 822-D-99-001, April 1999.

Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual: Rivers and Streams (Draft). EPA. Office of
Water. EPA 822-D-99-003, September 1999.

Guidance for Data Quality Assessment: Practical Methods for Data Analysis. EPA, Office of
Research and Development, EPA QA/G-9, January 1998.

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecorcgion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

 2.0    QA/QC PROCEDURES
August 8.2000
In order to develop nutrient criteria, EPA needed to obtain nutrient data from the states. EPA
requested nutrient data from the states and forwarded the data sets to INDUS via e-mail and/or
US mail. In addition, EPA tasked INDUS to convert data from three national data sets. EPA
provided INDUS with a Legacy STORET extraction to convert into the database. The United  '
States Geologic Survey (USGS) sent INDUS a CD-ROM with NASQAN data to convert.
INDUS downloaded NAWQA files from the USGS Web site to convert the data.  In total,
INDUS converted and imported the following national and state data sets into the Nutrient
Criteria Database:

       Legacy STORET
       NAWQA
       NASQAN
•      Region 1
•      Region 2 - Lake Champlain Monitoring Project
•      Region 2 - NYSDEC Finger Lakes Monitoring Program
       Region 2 - NY Citizens Lake Assessment Program
•      Region 2 - Lake Classification and Inventory Survey
       Region 2 - NYCDEP (1990-1998)
       Region 2 - NYCDEP (Storm Event data)
•      Region 2 - New Jersey Nutrient Data (Tidal Waters)
•      Region 5
•      Region 3.
       Region 3 - Nitrite Data
•      Region 3 - Choptank River files
•      Region 4 - Tennessee Valley Authority
•      Region 7 - Central Plains Center for BioAssessment (CPCB)
       Region 7 - REMAP
       Region 2 - Delaware River Basin Commission (1990-1998)
•      Region 3 - PA Lake Data
       Region 3 - University of Delaware
•      Region 10
•      University of Auburn

As part of the conversion process, INDUS performed a number of Quality Assurance/Quality
Control (QA/QC) steps to ensure that the data was properly converted into the Nutrient Criteria
Database. Section 2 explains the steps performed by INDUS to convert the data.

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

2.1    National Data Sets
August 8.2000
INDUS converted three national data sets into the Nutrient Criteria Database: Legacy STORET
data, NASQAN data, and NAWQA data. A previous EPA contractor performed the extraction of
Legacy STORET data and documented the QA/QC procedures used on the data. This
documentation is included in Appendix A. INDUS performed minimal QA/QC on the Legacy •
STORET data set because the previous contractor completed the steps outlined in Appendix A.
INDUS and EPA also agreed to convert the NAWQA and NASQAN data sets with minimal
QA/QC on the assumption that the source agency, the USGS, QA/QC'd the data.

For each of the three national data sets, INDUS ran queries to determine if 1) samples existed
without results and 2) if stations existed without samples.  Per Task Order Project Officer
(TOPO) direction, these records were deleted from the system. For analysis purposes, EPA
determined that there was no need to keep station records with no samples and sample records
with no results.  INDUS also confirmed that each data set contained no duplicate records.

In addition, INDUS deleted all composite results from the Legacy STORET data. Per TOPO
direction, it was decided that composite sample results would not be used in the statistical
analysis.

2.2     State Data

Each state data set was delivered in a unique format. Many of the data sets were delivered to
INDUS without corresponding documentation. INDUS analyzed each state data set in order to
determine which parameters should be converted for analysis. INDUS obtained a master
parameter table from EPA and converted the parameters in the state data sets according to those
that were present in the EPA parameter table. INDUS converted all of the data elements in the
state data sets that mapped directly to the Nutrient Criteria Database; data elements that did not,
map to the Nutrient Criteria Database were not converted. In some cases, state data elements that
did not directly map into the Oracle database were inserted into a comment field within the
database.  Also, INDUS maintained an internal record of which state data elements were inserted
into the comment field.

As part of the data clean-up efforts, INDUS determined whether or not there were any duplicate
records in the state data sets  and deleted the duplicate records. INDUS checked the waterbody,
station, and sample entities for duplicate records. In addition, INDUS deleted station records
with no samples and sample records with no results. INDUS also deleted waterbody records that
were not associated with a station.  In each case, INDUS maintained an internal record of how
many records were deleted.-  .

If INDUS encountered referential integrity errors, such as samples that referred to stations that
did not exist,  or if INDUS was unsure of whether a record was a duplicate, INDUS contacted the

-------
 15 Nutrient EcoregionAVaterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract * 68-C-99-226. TO# 04                     August 8,2000

 agency directly via e-mail or phone to resolve any issues that arose. INDUS saved an electronic
 copy of each e-mail correspondence with the states to ensure that a record of the decision was
 maintained.  INDUS also contacted each agency to determine which laboratory methods were
 used for each parameter.

 Finally, INDUS examined the remark codes of each result record in the state data sets. INDUS
 mapped the remark codes to the STORET remark codes listed in Table 2 of Appendix A.  If any
 of the state result records were associated with remark codes marked as "Delete" in Table 2 of
 Appendix A, the result records were not converted into the database.

 2.3    Laboratory Methods

 Many of the state data sets did not contain laboratory method information. In addition,
 laboratory method information was not available for the three national data sets. In order to
 determine missing laboratory method information, EPA tasked another contractor to contact the
 data owners to obtain the laboratory method. In some cases, the data owners responded and the
 laboratory methods were added to the database.

 2.4    Waterbody Name and Class Information

 A large percentage of the data did not have waterbody-specific information. The only waterbody
 information contained in the three national data sets was the waterbody name, which was
 embedded in the station 'location description' field. Most of the state data sets contained
 waterbody name information; however, much of the data was duplicated throughout the data sets.
 Therefore, the waterbody information was cleaned manually. For the three national data sets, the
 'location description' field was extracted from the station table and moved to a temporary table.
 The 'location description' field was sorted alphabetically. Unique waterbodies were grouped
 together based on name similarity and whether or not the waterbodies fell within the same
 county, state, and waterbody type. Finally, the 'location description' field was edited to include
 only waterbody name information, not descriptive information. For example, 110 MILE CREEK
 AT POMONA DAM OUTFLOW, KS PO-2 was edited to 110 MILE CREEK. Also, if 100
 MILE CREEK was listed ten times in New York, but in four different counties, four 100 MILE
 CREEK waterbody records were created.

 Similar steps were taken to eliminate duplicate waterbody records in the state data sets. If a
number of records had similar waterbody names and fell within the same state, county, and
waterbody type, the records were grouped to create a unique waterbody record.

 Most of the waterbody data-did not contain depth, surface area, and volume measurements.  EPA
needed this information to classify waterbody types. EPA attempted to obtain waterbody class

-------
15 Nutrient Ecorcgiow Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04
August 8.2000
information from the states. EPA sent waterbody files to the regional coordinators and requested
that certain class information be completed by each state. The state response was poor; therefore,
EPA was not able to perform statistical analysis for the waterbody types by class.

2.5    Ecoregion Data

Aggregate nutrient ecoregions and Level DI ecoregions were added to the database using the
station latitude and longitude coordinates. If a station was lacking latitude and longitude
coordinates or county information, the data were not included hi the statistical analysis.
Appendix B lists the steps taken to add the two ecoregion types (aggregate and Level IE) to the
Nutrient Criteria Database.  The ecoregion names were pulled from aggregate nutrient ecoregion
and Level HI ecoregion Geographical Information System (CIS) coverages.  In summary, the
station latitude and longitude coordinates were used to determine the ecoregion under the   •
following circumstances:

       The latitude and longitude coordinates fell within the county/state listed in the station
       table.
•      The county data was missing.

The county centroid was used to determine the ecoregions under the following circumstances:

       The latitude and longitude coordinates were missing, but the state/county information was
       available.
       The latitude and longitude coordinates fell outside the county/state listed in the station
       table. The county information was assumed to be correct; therefore, the county centroid
       was used.

If the latitude and longitude coordinates fell outside the continental US county coverage file
(i.e., the point fell in the ocean or Mexico/Canada), the nearest ecoregion was assigned to the
station.
3.0    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS REPORTS

Aggregate nutrient ecoregion tables were created by extracting all observations for a specific
aggregate nutrient ecoregion from the nutrient criteria database. Then, the data were reduced to
create tables containing only the yearly median values. To create these tables, the median value
for each waterbody was calculated using all observations for each waterbody by Level III
ecoregion, year, and season. Tables of decade median values were created from the yearly
median tables by calculating the median for each waterbody by L^vel ffl ecoregion by decade and
season.

-------
  15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04
                                                                                August 8,2000
  The Data Source and the Remark Code reports were created using all observations (all reported
  values). All the other reports were created from either the yearly median tables or the decade
  median tables.  In other words, the descriptive statistics and regressions were run using the
  median values for each waterfaody and not the individual reported values.

  Statistical analyses were performed under the assumption that this data set is a random sampled
  If this-assumption cannot be verified, the observations may or may not be valid. Values below
  the 1st and 99th percentile were removed from the Legacy STORE! database prior to the creation
  of the national database. Also, data were treated according the Legacy STORET remark codes in
  Appendix A.

  The following contains a list of each report and the purpose for creating each report:

  •      Data Source—Created to provide a count of the amount of data and to identify the
        source(s).
  •      Remark Codes—Created to provide a description of the data.
  •      Median of Each Waterbody by Year—This was an intermediate  step performed to obtain
        a median value for each lake to be used in the yearly descriptive statistics reports and the
        regression models.
 •      Median of Each Waterbody by Decade—This was an intermediate step performed to
        obtain a median value for each lake to be used in the decade descriptive statistics.
 •      Descriptive Statistics—Created to provide EPA with the desired statistics for setting
        criteria levels.
 •      Regression Models—Created to examine the relationships between biological and
        nutrient variables.

 Note: Separate reports were created for each season.
                                                                                      i
 3.1    Data Source Reports

'Data source reports were presented in the following formats:

 •     The number and percentage of data from each data source were summarized in tables for
       each aggregate nutrient ecoregion by season  and waterbody type.

 •      The number and percentage of data from each data source were summarized in tables for
       each Level III ecoregion by season and waterbody type.

 The  'Frequency' represent? the number of data values from a specific data source for each
 parameter by data source. The 'Row Pet' represents the percentage of data from a specific data
 source for each parameter.

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract * 68-C-99-226, TO# 04                      August 8,2000

 3.2    Remark Code Reports

 Remark code reports were presented in the following formats:

 •      The number and percentage of data associated with a particular remark code for each
       parameter were summarized in tables by Level HI ecoregion by decade and season.

 •      The number and percentage of data associated with a particular remark code for each
       parameter were summarized in tables by Level in ecoregion by year and season.

The 'Frequency' represents the number of data values corresponding to the remark code in the
column. The 'Row Pet' represents the percentage of data that was associated with the remark
code in that row.

In the database, remark codes that were entered by the states were mapped to Legacy STORET
remark codes. Prior to the analysis, the data were treated according to these remark codes. For
example, if the remark code was 'K,' then the reported value was divided by two. Appendix A
contains a complete list of Legacy STORET remark codes.

Note: For the reports, a remark code of 'Z' indicates that no remark codes were recorded. It does
not correspond to Legacy STORET code 'Z.'

3.3    Median of Each Waterbody

To reduce the data and to ensure heavily sampled waterbodies or years were not over represented
in the analysis, median value tables (described above) were created. The yearly median tables
and decade median tables were delivered to the EPA in electronic format as csv (comma
separated value or comma delimited) files.                                           '   •

3.4    Descriptive Statistic Reports

The number of waterbodies, median, mean, minimum, maximum, 5th, 25th, 75* , 95th percentiles,
standard deviation,  standard error, and coefficient of variation were calculated- The tables
(described above) containing the decade median values for each waterbody for each parameter
were used to create descriptive statistics reports for:

•      Level HI ecoregions by decade and season
•      Aggregate nutrient ecoregions by decade and season

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04
                                                                               August 8.2000
 In addition, the tables containing the yearly median values for each waterbody for each parameter
 were used to create descriptive statistics reports for:

 •       Level in ecoregions by year and season

 3.5    Regression Models

 Simple linear regressions using the least squares method were performed to examine the
 relationships between biological and nutrient variables in lakes and reservoirs, and rivers and
 streams.  Regressions were performed using the yearly median tables. Chlorophyll(s) in
 micrograms per liter (ug/L), secchi in meters (m), dissolved oxygen in milligrams per liter
 (mg/L), turbidity, and pH were the biological variables in these models. When there was little or
 no data for chlorophyll, then pH or dissolved oxygen was substituted for chlorophyll.  .Secchi-
 data were used in the lake and reservoir models, and turbidity data were used in the river and
 stream models.  The nutrient variables in these models include: total phosphorus in ug/L, total
 nitrogen in mg/L, total kjeldahl nitrogen in mg/L,  and nitrate and nitrite in mg/L.  Regressions
 were also run for total nitrogen and total'phosphorus for ecoregions where both these variables
 were measured.

 Note: At the time of creation of this document only regressions for aggregate nutrient  ecoregion 7
 for lakes and reservoirs were delivered to the EPA. Regressions for the remaining aggregate
 nutrient ecoregions will be delivered in August 2000.
4.0    TIME PERIOD

Data collected from January 1990 to December 1999 were used in the statistical analysis reports.
To capture seasonal differences, the data were classified as follows:

•      Aggregate nutrient ecoregions: 6, 7, and 8

       -     Spring:       April to May
       -     Summer:     June to August
       -     Fall:         September to October
       -     Winter:       November to March

•      Aggregate nutrient ecoregions: 1, 2, 9. 10, 11, 12, and 13

             Spring:     -  March to May
             Summer:     June to August
       -  •   Fall:         September to November
       -     Winter:       December to February

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregtorv Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04                     August 8.2000

 5.0    DATA SOURCES AND PARAMETERS FOR THE AGGREGATE NUTRIENT
 ECOREGIONS

 This section provides information for the nutrient aggregate ecoregions that were analyzed by
 waterbody type. Each section lists the data sources for the aggregate nutrient ecoregion
 including: 1) the data sources, 2) the parameters included in the analysis, and 3) the Level HI
 ecoregions within the aggregate nutrient ecoregions.

 Note: For analysis purposes, the following parameters were combined to form Phosphorous,
 Dissolved Inorganic (DIP):

 Phosphorus, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)
 Phosphorus, Dissolved (DP)
 Phosphorus, Dissolved Reactive (DRP)
 Orthophosphate, dissolved, mg/L as P
 Orthophosphate (OPO4_PO4)

 5.1     Lakes and Reservoirs
                                                                      t

 5.1.1   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 2

 Data Sources:

 Legacy STORE!
 EPA Region 10

 Parameter:
                                                                                   *
 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                  (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid   (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected              ' (ug/L)
Phosphorous. Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                 (ug/L)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                               (mg/L)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                        (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total  (TN)                                 (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                        (mg/L)
Phosphorus. Total (TP)                                (ug/L)
 Phosphorus. Total Reactive                            (ug/L)
 SECCHI                '                            (m)
PH  '

-------
  15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Watcrbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

  Level HI ecoregions:

  1, 2,4,5, 9, 11,15, 16, 17, 19,21,23, 41, 77, 78

  5.1.2  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 6

  Data Sources:

 Legacy STORE!

 Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                 (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid   (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected               (ug/L)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                               (mg/L)
 Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                        (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                  (rng/L)
. Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                        (mg/L)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                (ug/L)
 SECCHI                                            (m)

 Level HI ecoregions:

 46,47,48, 54, 55, 57

 5.1.3   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 7

 DatajSources:

 LCMPD
 Legacy STORET
 NYCDEP
 EPA Region 1

 Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric Corrected                        (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid         (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton. Spectrophotometric. Uncorrected  (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A. Trichromatic, Uncorrected                     (ug/L)
 Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                       (ug/L)
August 8.2000
                                          10

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                     (mg/L)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (N02+N03)                               (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                        (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                               (mg/L)
Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P                        (ug/L)
Phosphorus. Total (TP)                                      (ug/L)
SECCHI                                                   (m)

Level in ecoregions:

51,52,53,56,60,61,83

5.1.4  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 8

Data sources:

LCMPD
Legacy STORET
NYCDEP
NYCDEC  '
EPA Region 1
EPA Region 3

Parameters:

Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                        (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid          (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A. Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Uncorrected   (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected           .           (ug/L)
Chlorophyll B                                        •      (ug/L)
Chlorophyll C                                              (ug/L)
Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                        (ug/L)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                     (mg/L)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                               (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                        (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)    .                           (mg/L)
Phosphorus. Total (TP)                                      (ug/L)
SECCHI                                                   (m)

Level III ecoregions:

49,50,58,62.82
August 8,2000
                                         11

-------
 IS Numem Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

 5.1.5   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 9

 Data sources:

 Auburn University
 Legacy STORE!
 EPA Region 4

 Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                        (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Pheophytin                                    (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid          (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Uncorrected   (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                       (ug/L)
 Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                        (ug/L)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                       (mg/L)
 Nitrite and Nitrate. (NO2+NO3)                               (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                         (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                                (mg/L)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                       (ug/L)
 SECCHI                                                    (m)

 Level PI ecoregions:

 29, 33, 35, 37, 40, 45, 64, 65, 71, 72, 74

.5.1.6  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 11

 Data sources:

 Auburn University
 Legacy STORET
 NYSDEC
 EPA Region 3
 EPA Region 4

 Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A. Fluorometric, Corrected                        (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A. Pheophytin                                    (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid          (ug/L)
August 8.2000
                                          12

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Uncorrected
 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected
 Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
 Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)
 Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)
 SECCHI

 Level HI ecoregions:

 36,38, 39,66,67, 68, 69, 70

 5.1.7  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 12

 Data sources:

 Legacy STORET

 Parameters:
                        August 8.2000
       (ug/L)
       (ug/L)
       (ug/L)
       (mg/L)
       (mg/L)
       (mg/L)
       (mg/L)
       (ug/L)
       (m)
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid
Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)
Nitrogen, Total (TN)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN),
Phosphorus, Total (TP)
SECCHI

Level HI ecoregions:

75

5.1.8  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 13

Data sources:
Legacy STORET
 (ug/L)
(ug/L)
(mg/L)
(mg/L).
(mg/L)
(mg/L)
(ug/L)
 (m)
                                          13

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecorcgion/Water-body Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

 Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                  (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid   (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                (ug/L)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                (mg/L)
 Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                         (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                   (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                         (mg/L)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                 (ug/L)
 SECCHI                                             (m)

 Level in ecoregions:
76
5.2    Rivers and Streams

5.2.1   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 2

Data sources:

Legacy STORET
NASQAN
NAWQA
EPA Region 10

Parameters:

Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                       (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid         (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric    (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                     (ug/L)
Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric    (ug/L)
Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                       (ug/L)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                     (mg/L)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                              (mg/L)
Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P                       (ug/L)
Phosphorus, Total (TP) Reactive                              (ug/L)
Nitrogen, Total (TN)         '                             (mg/L)
Nitrogen/Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                              (mg/L)
Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                      (ug'L)
August 8, 2000
                                         14

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract <* 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

 Turbidity                                                   (FTU)
 Turbidity                                                   (JCU)
 Turbidity                                                   (NTU)

 Level ffl ecoregions:

 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 15, 16,  17, 19,21, 23,41, 77, 78

5.2.2  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 3

Data sources:

Legacy STORET
NASQAN
NAWQA
EPA Region 10

Parameters:

Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                         (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid          (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric     (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                       (ug/L)
Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric     (ug/L)
Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                        (ug/L)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                       (mg/L)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                                (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                •          (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                                (mg/L)
Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                        (ug/L)
Turbidity         '                                          (FTU)
Turbidity                                                   (JCU)
Turbidity                                                   (NTU)

Level III ecoregions:

6, 10, 12,13,  14.18. 20, 22, 24, 79, 80, 81
August 8, 2000
                                          15

-------
15 Nument Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summaiy Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

5.2.3   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 6

Data sources:

Legacy STORET
NASQAN
NAWQA
EPA Region 5
EPA Region 7

Parameters:

Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric
Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected
Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric
Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)
Nitrogen, Total (TN)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)
Organic, Phosphorus
Phosphorus, Total (TP)
Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P
Turbidity
Turbidity
Turbidity

Level HI ecoregions:

46,47,48, 54, 55, 57

5.2.4   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 7

Data sources:

LCMPD
Legacy STORET
NASQAN
NAWQA
NYCDEP
                 August 8, 2000
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(mg/L)
(mg/L)
(mg/L)
(mg/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(FTU) '
(JCU)
(NTU)
                                         16

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

 Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                        (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid         (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Uncorrected  (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric    (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                      (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric    (ug/L)
 Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                       (ug/L)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                      (mg/L)
 Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                               (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                         (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                               (mg/L)
 Organic, Phosphorus                                         (ug/L)
 Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P                        (ug/L)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                      (ug/L)
 Turbidity                                                   (FTU).
 Turbidity                                                   (JCU)
 Turbidity                                                   (NTU)

 Level PI ecoregions:

 51,52,53,56,60,61,83

5.2.5   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 9

 Data sources:

Auburn University
 Legacy STORET
NASQAN
NAWQA
EPA Region 3
EPA Region 5
EPA Region 7

Parameters:

Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric,  Corrected                        (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric    (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid         (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Uncorrected  (ug/L)
August 8. 2000
                                          17

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterfaody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                      (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric     (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric              (ug/L)
 Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                       (ug/L)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                      (mg/L)
 Organic, Phosphorus                                         (ug/L)
 Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P                        (ug/L)
 Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)      .   .                      (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                         (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                               (mg/L)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                       (ug/L)
Turbidity                                                   (FTU)
Turbidity                                                   (JCU)
Turbidity                                                   (NTU)

Level HI ecoregions:

29, 33, 35, 37,40,45, 64,65, 71, 72, 74

 5.2.6  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregiom 11

Data sources:

Auburn University
Legacy STORET
NASQAN
NAWQA
EPA Region 3
EPA Region 5
 EPA Region 7

Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected                        (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric     (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid         (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Uncorrected   (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                      (ug/L)
 Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, chromotographic- fluorometric     (ug/L)
 Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                       (ug/L)
 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                      (mg/L)
 Organic, Phosphorus                                         (ug/L)
August 8,2000
                                          18

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO* 04

 Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P                       (ug/L)
 Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)     '                          (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                        (mg/L)
 Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                               (mg/L)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                      (ug/L)
 Turbidity                     .                             (FTU)
 Turbidity                                                  (JCU)
 Turbidity         .                                         (NTU)

 Level HI ecoregions:

 36, 38, 39, 66,67, 68,69, 70

 5.2.7  Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion  12

 Data sources:

 Legacy STORET
NASQAN
NAWQA

 Parameters:

Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid          (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Uncorrected   (ug/L)
Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected                     . (ug/L)
Chlorophyll B, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric              (ug/L)
Phosphorous. Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)                       (ug/L)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)                                      (mg/L)
Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)                               (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total (TN)                                         (mg/L)
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)                               (mg/L)
Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P                        (ug/L)
Phosphorus, Total (TP)                                       (ug/L)
Turbidity                                               .   (FTU)
Turbidity                                                  (NTU)

 Level III ecoregions:
August S. 2000
75
                                          19

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

 5.2.8   Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregion 14

 Data sources:

 Legacy STORE!
 NASQAN
 NAWQA
 NYCDEP
 EPA Region 1
 EPA Region 3

 Parameters:

 Chlorophyll A, Fluorometric, Corrected
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric Acid
 Chlorophyll A, Phytoplankton, Spectrophotometric, Unconnected
 Chlorophyll A, Trichromatic, Uncorrected
 Phosphorous, Dissolved Inorganic (DIP)
.Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
 Nitrite and Nitrate, (NO2+NO3)
 Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total as P
 Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl (TKN)
 Nitrogen, Total (TN)
 Phosphorus, Total (TP)
 Turbidity
 Turbidity
 Turbidity

 Level HI ecoregions:

 59, 63, 84
                 August 8,2000
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(ug/L)
(mg/L)
(mg/L)
(ug/L)
(mg/L)
(mg/L)
(ug/L)
(FTU)
(JCU)
(NTU)
                                         20

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04
August 8,2000
                                      APPENDIX A




               Process Used to QA/QA the Legacy STORE! Nutrient Data Set

-------

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregiorv'Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

t.
                                                                        August 8,2000
STORET water quality parameters and Station and Sample data items were retrieved
from USEPA's mainframe computer.  Table 1 lists all retrieved parameters and data
items.
TABLE 1 : PARAMETERS AND DATA ITEMS RETRIEVED FROM STORET
Parameters Retrieved
(STORET Parameter Code)

TN-mg/l(600)
TKN-mg/l(625)
Total Ammonia (NH3+NH4) - mg/1 (6 1 0)
Total NO2+NO3 - mg/1 (630)
Total Nitrite - mg/! (615)
Total Nitrate - mg/1 (620)
Organic N - mg/'L (605)
TP - mg/1 (665)
Chlor a - ug/L (spectrophotometric method,
32211)
Chlor a - ug/L (fluorometric method corrected,
32209)
Chlor a - ug/L (trichromatic method corrected.
32210)
Secchi Transp. - inches (77)
Secchi Transp. - meters (78)
+TurbidityJCUs(70)
•^Turbidity FTUs (76)
-i-Turbidity NTUs field (82078)
^Turbidity NTUs lab (82079)
-DO - mg/'L (300)
-i- Water Temperature (degrees C, 10/degrees F;
11)
Station Data Items Included
(STORET Item Name)

Station Type (TYPE)
Agency Code (AGENCY)
Station No. (STATION)
Latitude -std. decimal degrees
(LATSTD)
Longitude - std. decimal degrees
(LONGSTD)
Station Location (LOCNAME)
County Name (CONAME)
State Name (STNAME)
Ecoregion Name - Level III
(ECONAME)
Ecoregion Code -Level III
(ECOREG)
Station Elevation (ELEV)
Hydrologic Unit Code
(CATUNIT)
RF1 Segment and Mile
(RCHMIL)
RF ION/OFF tag (ONOFF)



Sample Data Items
Included
(STORET Item Name)
Sample Date (DATE)
Sample Time (TIME)
Sample Depth (DEPTH)
Composite Sample Code
(SAMPMETH)


















- If data record available at a station included data only for this or other such marked parameters, data record was
deleted from data set.
      The following set of retrieval rules were applied to the retrieval process:

       •   Data were retrieved for waterbodies specified only as 'lake', 'stream', 'reservoir',
           or 'estuary' under "Station Type" parameter.  Any stations specified as 'well,'
           'spring,' or 'outfall' were eliminated from the retrieved data set.

       •   Data were retrieved for station types described as 'ambient' (e.g., no pipe or facility
           discharge data) under the "Station Type" parameter.

       •   Data were retrieved that were designated as 'water' samples only.  This includes
           'bottom' and 'vertically integrated' water samples.
                                           A-l

-------
IS Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO* 04
                                                                              August 8,2000
       •   Data were retrieved that were designated as either 'grab' samples and 'composite'
           samples (mean result only).

       •   No limits were specified for sample depths.

       •   Data were retrieved for all fifty states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.

       •   The time period specified for data retrieval was January 1990 to September 1998.

       •   No data marked as "Retired Data" (i.e., data from a generally unknown source) were
           retrieved.

       •   Data marked as "National Urban Runoff data" (i.e., data associated with sampling
           conducted after storm events to assess nonpoint source pollutants) were included in
           the retrieval. Such data are part of STORET's 'Archived' data.

       •    Intensive survey data (i.e., data collected as part of specific studies) were retrieved.

     Any values falling below the 1st percentile and any values falling above the 99th
     percentile were  transformed into 'missing' values (i.e., values were effectively removed
     from the data set, but were not permanently eliminated).

     Based on the STORET 'Remark Code' associated with each retrieved data point,, the
     following rules were applied (Table 2):
TABLE 2: STORET REMARK CODE RULES
1
STORET Remark Code
blank - Data not remarked.
A-
B-
C-
D-
E-
F-
G-
Value reported is the mean of two or more determinations.
Results based upon colony counts outside the acceptable ranges.
Calculated. Value stored was not measured directly, but was
calculated from other data available.
Field measurement.
Extra sample taken in compositing..process.
In the case of species. F indicates female sex.
Value reported is the maximum of two or more determinations.
Keep or Delete Data Point
Keep
Keep
Delete
Keep
Keep
Delete
Delete
Delete
                                         A-2

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04
August 8.2000
TABLE 2: STORET REMARK CODE RULES
H-
I-
J-
K-
L-
M-
N-
0-
P-
Q-
R-
S-
T-
U-
V-
w-
X-
Y-
z-
Value based on field kit determination; results may not be accurate.
The value reported is less than the practical quantification limit and
greater than or equal to the method detection limit.
Estimated. Value shown is not a result of analytical measurement .
Off-scale low. Actual value not known, but known to be less than
value shown.
Off-scale high. Actual value not known, but known to be greater
than value shown.
Presence of material verified, but not quantified. Indicates a
positive detection, at a level too low to permit accurate
quantification.
Presumptive evidence of presence of material.
Sample for, but analysis lost. Accompanying value is not
meaningful for analysis.
Too numerous to count.
Sample held beyond normal holding time.
Significant rain in the past 48 hours.
Laboratory test.
Value reported is less than the criteria of detection.
Material was analyzed for, but not detected. Value stored is the •
limit of detection for the process in use.
Indicates the analyte was detected in both the sample and associated
method blank.
Value observed is less than the lowest value reportable under
remark "T."
Value is quasi vertically-integrated sample.
Laboratory analysis from unpreserved sample. Data may not be
accurate.
Too many colonies were present to count.
Delete
Keep, but used one-half the
reported value as the new value.
Delete
Keep, but used one-half the reported
value as the new value.
Keep
Keep, but used one half the reported
value as the new value.
Delete
Delete
Delete
Delete
Delete
Keep
Keep, but replaced reported value with
0.
Keep, but replaced reported value with
0.
Delete
Keep, but replaced reported value with
.0.
No data point with this remark code in
data set.
Delete
Delete
                                                       A-3

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterhody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04
                                                                                August 8.2000
                          TABLE 2: STORET REMARK CODE RULES
   If a parameter (excluding water temperature) value was less than or equal to zero and no remark code was present,
   the value was transformed into a missing value.
   Rationale - Parameter concentrations should never be zero without a proper explanation. A method detection limit
   should at least be listed.
4. Station records were eliminated from the data set if any of the following descriptors were
   present within the "Station Type" parameter:

          *    MONITR - Source monitoring site, which monitors a known problem or to detect
              a specific problem.
          *    HAZARD - Site of hazardous or toxic wastes or substances.
          *•    ANPOOL - Anchialine pool, underground pools with subsurface connections to
              watertabie and ocean.
          >    DOWN - Downstream (i.e., within a potentially polluted area) from a facility
              which has a potential to pollute.
          »•    IMPDMT - Impoundment. Includes waste pits, treatment lagoons, and settling
              and evaporation ponds.
          »>    STMS WR - Storm water sewer.
          »•    LNDFL - Landfill.
          ••    CMBMI - Combined municipal and industrial facilities.
          »•    CMBSRC - Combined source (intake and outfall).

      Rationale - these descriptors potentially indicate a station location that at which an
      ambient water sample would not be obtained (i.e., such sampling locations are potentially
      biased) or the sample location is not located within one of the designated water body types
      (i.e, ANPOOL).

5.    Station records were eliminated from data set if the  station location did not fall within any
      established cataloging unit boundaries based on their latitude and longitude.

6.    Using nutrient ecoregion GIS coverage provided by USEPA. all station locations with
      latitude and longitude coordinates were tagged with a nutrient ecoregion identifier
      (nutrient region identifiers are values  1-14) and the associated nutrient ecoregion name.
      Because no nutrient ecoregions exist for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, stations located
      in these states were tagged with "dummy" nutrient ecoregion numbers (20 = Alaska, 21 =
      Hawaii, 22 = Puerto Rico).
                                           A-4

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterfaody Type Summary Chapters, Contract * 68-C-99-226. TO# 04

7.
                                                                               August 8.2000
      Using information provided by TV A, 59 station locations that were marked as 'stream'
      locations under the "Station Type" parameter were changed to 'reservoir' locations.

8.     The nutrient data retrieved from STORET were assessed for the presence of duplicate data
      records. The duplicate data identification process consisted of three steps: 1) identification
      of records that matched exactly in terms of each variable retrieved; 2) identification of
      records that matched exactly in terms of each variable retrieved except for their station
      identification numbers; and 3) identification of records that matched exactly in terms of
      each variable retrieved except for their collecting agency codes.  The data duplication
      assessment procedures were conducted using SAS programs.
      Prior to initiating the data duplication assessment process, the STORET nutrient data set
      contained:

          41,210 station records
          924,420 sample records

      •    Identification of exactly matching records
          All data records were sorted to identify those records that matched exactly. For two
          records to match exactly, all variables retrieved had to be the same. For example,
          they had to have the same water quality parameters, parameter results and associated
          remark codes, and have the same station data item and sample data item information.
          Exactly matching records were considered to be exact duplicates, and one duplicate
          record of each identified matching set were eliminated from the nutrient data set. A
          total of 924 sample records identified as duplicates by this process were eliminated
          from the data set.

      •    Identification of matching records with the exception of station identification number
          All data records were sorted to identify those records that matched exactly except for
          their station identification number (i.e., they had the same water quality parameters,
          parameter results and associated remark codes, and the same station and sample data
          item information with the exception of station identification number). Although the
          station identification numbers were different, the latitude and longitude for the
          stations were the same indicating a duplication of station data due to the existence  of
          two station identification numbers for the same station.  For each set of matching
          records, one of the station identification numbers was randomly selected and its
          associated data were eliminated from the data set. A total of 686 sample records
          were eliminated from the data set through this process.

      •    Identification of matching records with the exception of collecting agencv codes
          All data records were sorted to identify those records that matched exactly except for
          their collecting agency codes (i.e., they had the same water quality parameters,
          parameter results and associated remark codes, and the same station and sample data
          item information with the exception of agency code).  The presence of tvvo matching

                                          A-5

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04
. August 8. 2000
           data records each with a different agency code attached to it suggested that one
           agency had utilized data collected by the other agency and had entered the data
           into STORET without realizing that it already had been placed in STORE! by the
           other agency. No matching records with greater than two different agency codes
           were identified. For determining which record to delete from the data set, the
           following rules were developed:

              *•  If one of the matching records had a USGS agency code, the USGS record
                 was retained and the other record was deleted.
              *•  Higher level agency monitoring program data were retained. For example,
                 federal program data (indicated by a "1" at the beginning of the STORET
                 agency code) were retained against state (indicated by a "2") and local
                 (indicated by values higher than 2) program data.
              »•   If two matching records had the same level agency code, the record from the
                 agency with the greater number of overall observations (potentially indicating
                 the data set as the source data set) was retained.

           A total of 2,915 sample records were eliminated through this process.

     As a result of the duplicate data identification process, a total of 4,525 sample records and
     36 individual station records were removed from the STORET nutrient data set. The
     resulting nutrient data set contains the following:

     41,174 station records
     919,895 sample records
                                          A-6

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04
August 8.2000
                                        APPENDIX B
          Process for Adding Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions and Level HI Ecoregions

-------

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterfaody Type Summary Chapters. Contract * 68-C-99-226. TO* 04                      August 8.2000
 Steps for assigning Level HI ecoregions and aggregate nutrient ecoregion codes and names to the
 Nutrient Criteria Database (performed using ESRI's ARCView v 3.2 and its GeoProcessing
 Wizard). This process is performed twice; once for the Level HI ecoregions and once for the
 aggregate nutrient ecoregions:

       Add the station .dbf data table, with latitude and longitude data, to project by 'Add Event
       Theme'
       Convert to the shapefile format
       Create 'stcojoin' field, populate the "stcojoin1 field with the following formula:
       'County.LCase+State.LCase'
       Add field 'stco_fiag' to the station shapefile
       Spatially join the station data with the county shapefile (cntys_jned.shp)
       Select 'stcojoin1 (station shapefile) field = 'stcojoin2' (county shapefile) field
       Calculate'stco_flag = 0 for selected features
       Step through all blank stco_fiag records, assign the appropriate stco_flags, see list on the
       following page
       Select all stco_flags = 4 or 7, switch selection
       Calculate ctyfips (station) to cntyfips (county)
       Stop editing and save edits, remove all joins
       Add in 2 new fields 'x-coordl' and 'y-coordl' into station table
       Select all stco_flags = 1,2, and 6
       Link county coverage with station coverage
       Populate 'x-coordl' and 'y-coordl' with 'x-coord* and 'y-coord' from county coverage
       Select all stco_flags =1,2, and 6,  export to new .dbf file
       Add new .dbf file as event theme
       Convert to shapefile format
       Add the following fields to both tables (original station and station!26 shapefiles):
       'eco_omer', 'name_omer', 'dis_aggrf, 'code_aggr1, 'name_aggr1
       Spatially join station!26 and eco-omer coverage
       Populate the 'ecojjmer1 field with the 'eco'  value
       Repeat the previous step using the nearest method (line coverage) to determine ecoregion
       assignment for the line coverage, if some .records are blank
              Spatially join the ecoregion line coverage to station coverage, link the
              LPbly# (from the spatially joined table) to Poly#  (of the ecoregion polygon
coverage)
              Populate the Eco fields with the appropriate information.
              Follow the same steps to the Rpolytf
       Remove all table joins
       Link the useco-om table with station!26 table and populate 'name-omer1 field
       Spatially join station aggr coverage and populate the rest of the fields. Follow the same
       procedures as outlined above
       Remove all joins
                                           B-l

-------
 15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO* 04
                                                                                August 8,2000
       Make sure the new Eco field added into the station 126 shapefile are different than the
       ones in the original station shapefile
       Join station 126 and station coverage by station-id
       Populate all the Eco fields in the original station coverage
       Remove all joins
       Save table
       Make sure that all ctyfips records are populated; the county shapefile may have to be
       joined to populate the records, if the stco_flag = 4
       Create 2 new fields, 'NewCounty1 and 'NewState'
       Populate these new fields with a spatial join to the county coverage
       Select by feature (ecoregion shapefile) all of the records in the station shapefile
              Switch selection (to get records outside of the ecoregion shapefile)
              If any of the selected records have stco_flag = 0 (they are outside the ecoregion
              shapefile boundary), calculate them to stco_flag = 3

stco_flags (state/county flags in order of importance)
       0     The state and county values from the data set matched the state and county values
             from the spatial join.
             (Ecoregions were assigned based on the latitude/longitude coordinates.)
       1      The state and county values from the data set did not match the state and county
             values from the spatial join, but the point was inside the county coverage
             boundary.
             (Ecoregions were assigned based on the county centroid.)
       2      The state and county values from the data set did not match the state and county
             values from the spatial join because the point was outside the county coverage
             boundary; therefore, there was nothing to compare to the point (i.e., the point
             falls in the ocean/Canada/Mexico).  This occurred for some coastal samples.
             (Ecoregions were assigned based on the county centroid.)
       3      The state and county values from the data set matched the state and county from
             the spatial join, but the point was outside the ecoregion boundary.
             (Ecoregions were assigned to the closest ecoregion to the point.)
             (No ecoregions were assigned to AK, HI, PR, BC, and GU.)
       4      Latitude/longitude coordinates were provided, but there was no'county
             information.
             (Ecoregions were assigned based on the latitude/longitude coordinates.)
       5      The state and county values from the data set did not match the state and county
             values from the spatial join due to spelling or naming convention errors.
             The matches were performed manually.
             (Ecoregions were assigned based on the latitude/longitude coordinates.)
                                          B-2

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04

       6
                                                                      August 8,2000
No latitude/longitude coordinates were provided, only state and county
information was available.
(Ecoregions were assigned based on the county centroid.)
No latitude/longitude coordinates were provided, only state information was
available; therefore, no matches were possible.
(Ecoregions were not assigned. Data is not included in the analysis.)
                                            B-3

-------

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterfaody Type Summary Chapters. Contract # 68-C-99-226, TO# 04
August 8.2000
                                           APPENDIX C




                                              Glossary

-------

-------
15 Nutrient Ecoregion/Waterbody Type Summary Chapters, Contract # 68-C-99-226. TO# 04                      August 8,2000

Coefficient of Variation—Equal to the standard deviation divided by the mean multiplied by 100.

Maximum—The highest value.

Mean—The arithmetic average.

Median—The 50th percentile or middle value.  Half of the values are above the median, and half
of the values are below the median.

Minimum—The lowest value.

Standard Deviation—Equal to the square root of the variance with the variance defined as the
sum of the squared deviations divided by the sample size minus one.

Standard Error— Standard error of the mean is equal to the standard deviation divided by the
square root of the sample size.
                                           C-l

-------

-------