United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Water
Number 10
December 1993
v>EPA     Contaminated
                         Sediments  News
                Sediment Oversight Technical
                      Committee Meeting
The last meeting of the Sediment
Oversight Technical Committee
(SOTC) was held December 2,1993,
in the EPA Auditorium of Waterside
Mall in Washington, DC. The SOTC
meets twice a year and is composed of
staff from each Headquarters program
office and representatives from various
Regions and ORD labs with experi-
ence in contaminated sediments

The meeting was open to all EPA
employees and invited guests inter-
ested or working in the area of con-
taminated sediments. The meeting,
jointly sponsored by the Office of
Water and the Office of Research and
Development, was intended to high-
light the activities being conducted
under the ORD Contaminated Sedi-
ment Research Initiative. Personnel
from the laboratories at Duluth,
Inside this issue...
Regional Activities	2
Creature Feature	4
ORD Activities	4
NOAA Activities	5
GLNPO Activities	5
Focus: OSV Anderson
Sediment Activities	6
HSRC Activities	9
ASTM Update	10
Narragansett, and Cincinnati presented
information on sediment quality
criteria development and validation,
sediment bioassay development and
standardization, and innovative
remedial techniques for contaminated

The second day of the meeting was
open only to regular members of the
committee. Updates were given on
the National Contaminated Sediment
Inventory; prioritization of the Region
5 Contaminated Sediment Inventory;
and activities in Regions 1, 2, and 5
and the'Great Lakes National Program

A special session was held on
bioaccumulation, with presentations
on the joint ORD/OW document
Assessment and Control of
Contaminants in
Surface Waters,
the National
Study of Chemical
Residues in Fish,
and the activities
of the Office of
Water's Fish
Program. For
                                 Contaminated Sediment
                                    Activities Timeline
                                                               February 1-3. Great Lakes Sediment
                                                               Summit. Chicago, II. Contact: Howard
                                                               Zar, Region 5, at (312) 886-1491.

                                                               March 1. Remediating Hazardous Waste
                                                               and Groundwater Contamination Sites:
                                                               New Approaches. Miami, PL. Contact
                                                               Libby Strickland, Water Environment
                                                               Federation, 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria,
                                                               VA 22314-1994. (703) 684-2400.

                                                               March 6-9. Innovative Solutions for
                                                               Contaminated Site Management. Miami,
                                                               PL. Contact Nancy Blatt, Water
                                                               Environment Federation, 601 Wythe
                                                               Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1994.
                                                               (703) 684-2400.

                                                               April 10-12.  Fourth ASTM Symposium
                                                               on Environmental Toxicology and Risk
                                                               Assessment. Montreal, Quebec. Contact
                                                               Thomas La Point, Clemson-University,
                                                               P.O. Box 709, Pendleton, SC 29670.
                                                               (803) 646-2237.
                                 more information
                                 on the meeting
                                 contact Bev
                                 Baker at (202)
                                                 These documents issued by the Fish Contamination
                                                 Program are available from the Office of Water
                                                 Resource Center at (202) 260-7786.

                                                 EPA 822-R-92-001 Consumption Surveys for Fish and Shellfish -
                                                 A Review and Analysis of Survey Methods.

                                                 EPA 823-B-93-003 National Fish Tissue Data Repository User
                                                 Manual - Version 1.0.
                 EPA 823-R-93-002 Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant
                 Data for Use in Fish Advisories.  Vol. 1 - Fish Sampling and

                 EPA 823-R-93-003 Proceedings: USEPA's National Technical
                 Workshop (PCBs in Fish Tissue) May 10-11, 1993, Washington, DC.
                                                             Printed with Soy/Canola Ink on paper that
                                                             contains at least 50% recycled fiber

   Regional Activities

 Blackstone River Initiative

 Flowing from Worcester, Massachu-
 setts, to the Seekonk River in
 Pawtucket, Rhode Island, the
 Blackstone River has a length of 48
 miles and a drainage area of 540
 square miles.  The Blackstone is an
 important resource to Massachusetts
 and Rhode Island, and it provides the
 second-largest source of fresh water
 to Narragansett Bay, a productive and
 diverse estuary.  The river has a long
 history of pollution problems dating
 back to the industrial revolution and
 is considered a major source of
 pollutants to Narragansett Bay.
 Industrial and municipal  wastewater
 discharges, combined sewer over-
 flows (CSOs), nonpoint source
 pollution, water withdrawals, dams, •
 and hydropower operations all
 contribute to water quality problems
 on the river.

 In recognition of the Blackstone's
 importance, the Blackstone River
 Initiative was organized.  U.S. EPA
 Region 1 and the Massachusetts
 Department of Environmental Protec-
tion, in cooperation with  the Univer-
sity of Rhode Island and  the Rhode
Island Department of Environmental
Management, conducted  dry-weather
 and wet-weather surveys. The
 surveys included analysis of chemis-
 try and toxicity in the water column,
 sediments, and selected effluents, as
 well as a benthic macroinvertebrate
 community analysis.  Although
 numerous other studies have been
 conducted on the river, this marks the
 first time the entire river has been
 assessed during common temporal
 periods with uniform methods.

 The sediment work included analysis
 of total metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb,
 Zn) and toxicity in surficial whole
 sediments and sediment pore water,
 and analysis of PAHs  in surficial
 whole sediment.  Two rounds of
 toxicity testing were conducted on
 samples from  seven impoundments
 on the Blackstone River and three
 reference sites. Collection of round
 1 samples was split between two
 events, one each in July and August
 of 1991. Round 2 samples were
 collected together in late October of
 1991. Fourteen-day tests with
 survival as the observed endpoint
 using the chironomid Chironomus
 teutons and the amphipod Hyallela
 azteca were run on the whole sedi-
 ments. Forty-eight-hour acute tests
 with Ceriodaphnia dubia and the
 fathead minnow, Pimephales
promelas, were used for the pore
 water tests. Financial constraints
limited analysis of metals and PAHs
to the first round.

The whole sediment tests yielded
inconclusive results. While it appears
that sediments from several of the
   CSNewsls produced by EPA-OSTto exchange Information on
   contaminated sediments and to increase communication
   among interested parties. To obtain copies of this report or to
   contribute information, contact Beverly Baker, EPA HQ, at
   (202)260-7037.                                    '  *- •"»"-*&

   To be added to the mailing fist or to make changes to your
   address, please contact Charlie JtfacPherson, Tetra Tech,' at
   (703) 385-6000, or fax your changes to (703) 3SS-6007.
 Blackstone sites were toxic to one or
 both of the test species, poor survival
 in the reference sediments was also
 observed in several cases.

 With the exception of one unsatisfac-
 tory control, the laboratory control
 water and reference sediment pore
 waters yielded 94% to  100% survival
 for both species in both rounds in the
 pore water tests. In the first-round
 testing, pore waters from the
 Blackstone river sites were not toxic
 to Ceriodaphnia, whereas the pore
 water from one site was toxic to
 fathead minnows (0% survival).
 Sediment work
 included analysis of total
 metals and toxicity in
 surficial whole sediments
 and pore water, and
 analysis of PAHs in
 surficial whole sediment.
Toxicity was observed more frequently
in pore waters from the Blackstone
sites during the second-round testing.
Ceriodaphnia survival was 0% to 7%
in samples from three of the sites, and
fathead minnow survival was 0% to
3% in samples from four sites. A fifth
site yielded 43 % survival of fathead
minnows. Pore water from one
Blackstone site was not toxic to either
species in either round. Forty-eight-
hour acute definitive tests were con-
ducted with fathead minnows using
two of the most toxic pore waters from
the second-round samples.  The two
pore waters yielded LC50 values of
36.6% and 10%.

Round 1 whole sediment chemistry
data for metals and PAHs were
compared to NOAA indices of
potential for biological effects and the
EPA Region 5 Great Lakes Sediment
Classification Scheme. For the seven
Blackstone sites, lead and zinc

concentrations exceeded the NOAA
effects range median (ERM) values at
five sites. (The ERM is the concen-
tration that might affect 50% of the
exposed organisms.) ERM values for
copper and zinc were exceeded at
three sites, and the ERM values for
cadmium and nickel were exceeded at
one and two sites, respectively. In a
few instances, metals concentrations
in the reference sediments also
exceeded NOAA ERM values.
Several of the sites are considered
"highly polluted" for numerous
metals when assessed in accordance
with the GreatLakes Classification
Scheme. The ranges of measured
metals concentrations in the
Blackstone whole sediments, in
miicrogramsiper gram (jxg/g), were as
follows: cadmium 4-96, chromium
50-845, copper 115-173, nickel 16-
260, lead 79-723, and zinc 225-2160.
Total PAH concentrations fell
between the NOAA ERL and ERM in
all samples.  ERL refers to the effects
range low, or the concentration that
might affect 10% of the exposed

The ranges of sediment pore water
metals concentrations in round one
Blackstone samples, in micrograms
per liter ((Jg/1), were as follows:
cadmium 3-6, chromium 6-58, copper
20-260, nickel 10-40, lead 7-79, and
zinc 23-278. Reference site pore
water concentrations exceeded the
high end of these ranges for chro-
mium (172 and 178 |ig/l) and lead
(100, 112, and 210 ng/1). Hardness-
adjusted EPA ambient water quality
criteria were exceeded for several
metals in several pore water samples.

Definitive determination of cause-and-
effect relationships between observed
toxicity and the chemical composition
of the whole sediments and pore waters
was not part of the study. However,
comparison of the toxicity results with
the metals and PAH data did not
indicate a strong relationship.  Such a
comparison was impeded by the
absence of chemical analysis of the
second-round samples. For more
information contact Bill Beckwith,
Region 1, at (617) 565-3539.


Rl/FS at Dixie Caverns

Under the Alternative Remedial
Contracting Strategy (ARCS), EPA
performed a Remedial Investigation/
Feasibility Study (RI/FS) at the Dixie
Caverns site in southwestern Virginia.
The Dixie Caverns Landfill was used
to dispose of unknown amounts of
municipal refuse, scrap metal, electric
arc fly ash (K061), and industrial by-
products over a 15-year period. Closed
in 1975, -the landfill was found to
contain approximately 9,000 cubic
yards of stockpiled K061 ash.  In
addition, approximately 1,500 cubic
yards of K061 ash was found to have
moved off-site into small headwater
streams, affecting more than 4,000 feet
of stream channel. The multi-media
RI included evaluating groundwater,
surface and subsurface soil, and surface
water contamination. Among the RI
findings were extremely high stream
sediment metals concentrations: zinc,
lead, and cadmium levels as high as
22%, 4.5%, and 0.2%, respectively.
The headwater streams empty into the
Roanoke River,  a waterway with
significant importance as a potable
water source and a sustaining
waterbody for Federally Protected
Species (Roanoke Logperch).

As of this time, several issues related to
stream remediation have been ad-
dressed including:

• Developing clean-up goals after
  consideration  of the results from
  bioassessment, lexicological
  bioasseys, and ambient water quality

• Establishing consensus between
  various federal and state regulatory
• Physical constraints of the im-
  pacted headwater streams and
  technological limits (problems
  related to removal of sediment
  from small, narrow streams with
  bedrock outerops, sinking streams,
  and-management of relatively
  clean large-diameter sediment/
  rock); and.

• Establishing oversight require-
  ments to ensure PRP remediation

The ongoing emergency removal
remediation effort is focused on
removal of sediment and stockpiling
of contaminated sediment on-site. A
second, later phase will provide for
treatment and eventual disposal of
excavated sediment. K061-enriched
sediment is being removed using
vacuum truck technology to pull
small-diameter sediment (less than 3
inches in diameter) out of the stream
channel and several hundred feet to a
processing area.  In addition, standard
excavation processes are being used
in areas of heavy deposition. Exca-
vated sediment is currently being
stored in bulk containers (6-cubic-
yard dumpsters). Disposal options
for K061-enriched sediment are
currently being considered. One of
the likely candidates is EPA's Best
Demonstrated Available Technology
(BOAT) for low-zinc K061 -
stabilization andlandfilling.

For more information contact
Melissa Whittington, Region 3, at


Region 5 Inventory of
Contaminated Sediment

The USEPA Region 5 Water
Division would like to announce
the public availability of the
Region 5 Inventory of Contami-
nated Sediment Sites (interim

 version). To facilitate public access
 to the Inventory, Region 5 has placed
 it on the Nonpoint Source Electronic
 Bulletin Board System (BBS) main-
 tained by the Office of Wetlands,
 Oceans and Watersheds. The tele-
 phone number of the BBS is
 (301)589-0205.  Copies of the BBS
 User's Manual can be obtained from
 Sylvia Singleton at (202) 260-7074.
 The BBS contains the database files
 in compressed format along with an
 instruction file.

 The Inventory does not contain all
 available data points for a given site,
 but rather presents a summary
 (minimum, maximum, and median)
 of sediment chemistry, fish tissue,
 and sediment bioassay information.
 In addition, other site summary and
 characterization information, such as
 latitude and longitude, receiving
 waters, fish advisories, and use
 impairments, is included.  At this
 point, the Inventory contains sum-
 mary information on 393 sites
 including all of Minnesota and
 Wisconsin, the basins of Lake
 Superior and Lake Michigan,
 and the southeast Michigan area.

 At present,  the Inventory is consid-
 ered to be interim because parts of
 the Region are yet to be added and
 because errors or omissions may
exist. Therefore, .information from
 the Inventory should be used with
 care. In particular, the information as
 it exists in the Inventory should not
 be relied on to make regulatory
 decisions. Rather, the original
 sources of the data should be con-
 sulted to determine data accuracy
 (data sources are included).  As a
 screening tool and basic data re-
 source, however, the Inventory
 should prove very useful.

 For more information contact Howard
 Zar, Regions, at (312) 886-1491, or
 Kenneth Klewin, Region 5, at


 Urban NFS Project

 During FY93 a project designed to
 reduce sediment contamination in
 Town Lake located in Austin, Texas,
 was funded by EPA's Office of
 Science and Technology. A grant
 was awarded to the Texas Natural
 Resource Conservation Commission
 (TNRCC), and funding was provided
 through a contract to the City of
 Austin.  This project includes installa-
 tion of storm drain inlet  filters,
 enlargement of an existing
 stormwater detention pond, and
construction of an oil and grease/grit
treatment system for a large parking
lot.  In November the Region re-
viewed and approved, with com-
ments, the draft Quality  Assurance
                         Creature Feature
 Dont mistake this for the one you chop up and put in your salad. Answer on page 11.
 Project Plan (QAPP), which ad-
 dresses all monitoring to be con-
 ducted during the project. The City is
 presently awaiting approval by the
 TNRCC before proceeding. For more
 information contact Phillip Crocker at
       ORD Activities

 ERL-Narragansett/Newport is currently
 working on the following topics within
 the Sediment Research Issue:

 Exposure Assessment Modeling
 for Aquatic Disposal of Dredged

 • Modeling Sediment Transport and
  Fate in Marine Environments

 The lab is validating the  Corps of
 Engineers DIFID (Disposal From an
 Instantaneous Dump) model for
 transport of dredged material after
 dumping in aquatic systems. Model
 development is being conducted to
improve modeling of processes
particularly relevant to dredged
material disposal in deep and very
shallow ocean environments.

• Testing and Use of Acoustic Tech-
  niques for Characterizing Sediments
  and Sediment Transport

The lab is evaluating techniques in the
Gulf of Mexico including:

  -  Chirp Sonar—used to determine
   dredged material footprint, to
   determine footprint thickness, to
   characterize density and grain size.

  - Side Scan Sonar—can determine
   the location of dredged material

  - Acoustic Profiling of Water
    Column F'articulates—a useful
    qualitative tool for determination
    of relative abundance of particu-
    late material in the water column.

• Application and Further Develop-
  ment of Technique for Measuring
  Sediment Erodibility

The Particle Entrainment Simulator
(PES) is being used to characterize
credibility and factors that affect
erodibility of marine sediments.

For more information, contact
Edward Dettmann (401) 782-3039.

Ecosystems Analysis Team-Use of
"CaT" Scan Technology to
Determine Impacted Ecosystems

Sediment cores along a pollution
gradient in Narragansett Bay were
analyzed for benthic species composi-
tion and the degree of sediment
utilization as measured by the surface
area of benthic organisms' tubes. The
latter was performed by exposing
cores to x-rays and then  analyzing the
transmitted x-rays with "CaT"
(computer-aided tomograph) soft-
ware.  Both species richness and tube
surface area were found  to be corre-
lated with the pollution gradient;
however, tube area was over an order
of magnitude more sensitive than
species richness.  Future studies
include equating tube surface area
signatures to specific pollution point
sources in New Bedford Harbor.

For more information contact Ken-
neth Perez at (401) 782-3052.


Standardized Test Method
Available Soon

ORD Duluth and the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service are nearing comple-
tion of a test method document
consisting of three standardized test
methods to be used in assessing
contaminated sediments.  Two of the
methods focus on freshwater toxicity
tests for Chironomus teutons and
Hyallela azteca, and the third method
consists of a standardized approach
for bioaccumulation tests with
Lumbriculus variegatus. This testing
document is scheduled for completion
by the end of 1993. In addition,
researchers are currently developing
test methods for chronic toxicity that
are scheduled for completion in the
next one and a half to two years.
For more information contact Gary
Ankley, ORD Duluth, at
(218) 720-5603.

Zinc Field Study Nearing

ORD Duluth is completing a field
study of a site contaminated with
zinc to examine the role of acid
volatile sulfide (AVS) in a field
setting relative to bioavailability.
This effort supports the development
of criteria for metals. For more
information contact Gary Ankley,
ORD Duluth, at (218)  720-5603.

PAHs More Toxic in Sunlight
ORD Duluth is initiating research
into the role photoactivation plays in
the toxicity of
(PAHs). It has
been shown
that PAHs can
be more toxic in sunlight than in
laboratory conditions, indicating that
the toxicity of these compounds in the
field may be underestimated in the
laboratory. Researchers are investi-
gating the toxic effect of sediment
exposure on organisms to PAHs
under sunlight conditions.  For more
information contact Gary Ankley,
ORD Duluth, at (218) 720-5603.
  Great Lakes National
      Program Office
Sediment Sampling Using
the R/V Mudpuppy

The Great Lakes National Program
Office (GLNPO) has been working
with states to better assess and charac-
terize sediment problems at selected
Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)
to support the development and
implementation of Remedial Action
Plans. The sampling is being con-
ducted with the R/V Mudpuppy, a
GLNPO vessel specifically designed
and built for sediment sampling during
the ARCS Program. It is a Hat-hulled
boat that is able to access very shallow
areas and has a vibrocoring unit that
allows cores up to 6 meters in length to
be taken. These deep cores allow for
the characterization of sediment both
surficially and at depth, and provide a
3-dimensional representation of the
sediment contamination at a particular
location.  In 1993, sediment surveys
using the Mudpuppy were conducted
on the Raisin River, MI; Ashtabula
River, OH; Duluth/Superior Harbor
and St. Louis River, MN/WI; Fox
River, WI; and Trenton Channel, MI.
A variety of additional sites are
planned for sampling for this coming
field season. For more information
contact Marc Tuchman, GLNPO, at
            NO A A
The incidence of Toxicity
Associated with Toxicants in

Based on an evaluation of existing
data, the incidence of toxicity and
other adverse biological effects was
continued on p. 8

 Focus:   OSV  Anderson  Sediment
 Sampling  Activities
 in  Region 2
Sediment Survey of the
Lower Passaic and
Hackensack Rivers and
Newark Bay

On January 8-12,1993, a survey was
conducted aboard the OSV Anderson,
and subsequent surveys were con-
ducted aboard the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Vessel Hudson in areas that
were too shallow for the Anderson.
The study area consisted of the
Hackensack and Passaic Rivers,
Newark Bay, and ports of the Arthur .
Kill The survey was part of a multi-
agency cooperative effort involving the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, and EPA Region 2.
The primary objective of this study was
to assess the severity and spatial extent
of sediment toxicity along a gradient of
known toxicant contamination in the
New York/New Jersey Harbor Com-
plex. Data from this study are being
used by the EPA Region 2 Sediment
and Oceans Section, which is respon-
       The OSV Anderson

  The OSV Anderson is EPA's 165-ft
  research vessel that is used to collect
  water quality, sediment, and benthic
  data to support EPA programs. The
  ship is equipped with three laborato-
  ries, on-board survey equipment, and
  a computerized survey center from
 sible for Region 2's Contaminated
 Sediments Program, (1) to evaluate
 sediment contaminant levels and areas
 of amphipod toxicity to establish where
 contaminated and toxic sediments are
 bioavailable and (2) to evaluate
 dredging areas and "screen" for
 problem sediments. The results of this
 study will be published in a joint EPA/
 NOAA/FWS report sometime in 1994.
 For more information contact Ed Long,
 NOAA, at (206) 526-6338; Eric Stern,
 EPA Region2, at (212) 264-5283; or
 Douglas Pabst, EPA Region 2, at

 Plume Tracking of Dredged
 Material Containing Dioxin

 EPA Region 2 and its contractor,
 Battelle Ocean Sciences (BOS),
 conducted a plume tracking survey
 aboard the OSV Anderson June
 7-11, 1993. Four dredge plumes were
 tracked during the survey period.
 The purpose of the survey was to
 track the plumes resulting from
 dredge scows as they disposed of
 dredged material at the Mud Dump
 Site. The primary instrument used
 was the Battelle Ocean Sampling
 System (BOSS). The BOSS is a
 towed "fish" equipped with two
 transmissometers (different path
lengths), a CTD unit, and a pump.
Seawater is pumped from the "fish"
through Teflon tubing into the ship's
laboratory, where it is collected for
sampling. By calculating the lag time
 (the time it takes for the sample to
 travel from the pump to the labora-
 tory), it is possible to sample at exact
 moments and locations in the water
 column. The BOSS instruments relay
 their information to a computer
 terminal inside the laboratory and to
 the bridge of the Anderson. Real-
 time readings of water column
 characteristics are thus displayed,
 enabling analysts to track the plumes
 effectively and sample at various
 intervals inside and outside the

 Survey measurements carried out

 •  Location of the plume centroid
 •  Velocity of the plume centroid
 •  Radius of the plume
 •  Density difference between the
   plume and ambient water
 •  Dioxin concentration in the
 •  Suspended sediment concentra-
   tion in the plume (including both
   the volume and concentration of
   each sediment fraction identified
   in the initial material character-
   ization done from the barged

The data from this plume tracking
survey will be used for additional
validation and verification of the
Corps of Engineers' Automated
Dredging and Disposal Alternatives
Management System (ADDAMS),

DfFID, and DfFHD (disposal from an
instantaneous and hopper discharge)
water column dispersion models,
which were issued with the 1991
EPA/Corps national "Green Book,"
Evaluation of Dredged Material
Proposed for Ocean Disposal.

All the data from this survey are not
yet available, but preliminary infor-
mation has enabled EPA Region 2 to
successfully determine that the
dioxin-contaminated dredged material
plumes moved out of the disposal site
within the first hour, probably due to
the close proximity of the disposal to
the southern boundary of the Mud
Dump Site.  The dioxin analysis on
the water samples collected is pro-
ceeding, and additional information
will be gathered to assess the fate of
dioxin in dredged material plumes.
For further information contact
Douglas Pabst, EPA Region 2, at
(212) 264-5674.

Sediment Quality of the
NY/NJ  Harbor System and
the Regional Validation  of
EMAP-Like Indicators of
Sediment Quality

The sediment quality survey was
conducted on October 2-5,1993,
aboard the OSV Anderson. This
survey enabled EPA Region 2 to
successfully complete the first-year
Regional Environmental Monitoring
 and Assessment Program (REMAP).
The OSV Anderson provided the
 necessary platform to sample Long
 Island Sound and the New York
 Bight Apex. Four other sub-basins in
 the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary were
 sampled using EPA Region 2's
 Harbor Survey Vessel Clean Waters.
 REMAP is a 2-year study designed to
 provide information that will support
 resource management decisions
 related to pollution control and
 remediation throughout the Region
 and to assist the NY/NJ Harbor
 Estuary Program (HEP) in developing
a contaminated sediment manage-
ment strategy to be included in the
Comprehensive Conservation and
Management Plan for HEP. Specifi-
cally, the objectives are as follows:

1.   Characterize with known confi-
    dence the sediment quality of the
    Region's benthic environment as
    "degraded," "not evidently
    degraded," or "marginal" by
    means of the following indicators
    of sediment quality: benthic
    macroinvertebrate structure,
    sediment toxicity tests, concen-
    tration of sediment contaminants,
    and bottom dissolved oxygen

2.   Objective 1 requires validation of
    a benthic invertebrate indicator of
    sediment quality that is reliable
    on a regional scale.

3.   Based on REMAP data, HEP will
    determine the probable causes of
    benthic degradation.

4.  B ased on REMAP data, HEP will
    recommend management strate-
    gies addressing the causes of
    degraded sediments.

5.  Develop and validate a manageri-
    ally useful index of environmen-
    tal quality for the NY/NJ Harbor
    Estuary, based on the condition
    of benthic macroinvertebrate

For further information contact
Darvene Adams, EPA Region 2, at
 (908) 321-6700; Seth Ausubel, EPA
Region 2, at (212) 264-6779; or
 Douglas Pabst, EPA Region 2, at
 (212) 264-5674.
     Additional Surveys
   Conducted by the OSV
    Anderson to Support
 Sediment Activities in 1993
•   Broward County. FL.
    Examined fate of Broward
    County, FL, wastewater
    outfall using carbon and
    nitrogen stable isotopes to
    determine the effects and
    impact on benthic communi-
    ties from sedimentation from
    the sewage treatment plants.

•   Charleston, SC. Monitored
    the Charleston, SC, Ocean
    Dredged Material Disposal
    Site (ODMDS) to assess the
    area surrounding the site.

•   Long Island Sound. Moni-
    tored an ocean disposal site
    to assess adverse biological
    effects occurring at the
    disposal site.

•   Pensacola, FL.  Conducted
    seafloor mapping, water
    quality assessment, and
    biological assessment of the
    Pensacola ODMDS  as part of
    site management.
•   Key West, FL.  Deployed
    sediment traps and buoys in
    support of section 403(c)
    ocean discharge criteria for
    the Key West outfall.

 For more information on the OSV
 Anderson, contact Ed McLean, at
                  Articles for the Next Issue of CS Newsl

   The next issue of Contaminated Sediments News is scheduled for March 1994. If
   you have any information related to contaminated sediment activities, relevant
   publications, or notices of upcoming meetings, please call Charlie MacPherson,
   TetraTech, at (703) 385-6000, or fax the information to (703) 385-6007.

estimated for ranges in chemical
concentrations in sediments. Match-
ing biological and chemical data from
several hundred individual studies of
sediment quality in saltwater were
reviewed. The data from these
studies that passed quality assurance
screens were entered into a large
database.  The data for each chemical
toxicant were arranged in ascending
order according to concentration.
Following methods reported by Long
and Morgan (1990, NOAA Tech.
Memo NOS OMA 52), the lower
10th pcrcentile and the 50lh percen-
Ulc (median) of the data points that
reflected an adverse biological effect
associated with that particular chemi-
cal were determined as the effects
range low (ERL) and the effects range
median (ERM).

The data from freshwater studies
included in Long and Morgan (1990)
were excluded and a considerable
number of new data from saltwater
studies were added. About 30% to
50% of the data used in the present
analysis came from the previous
database.  Despite these major
changes to the database, the previous
and new ERL and ERM values
differed very  little. The average ratio
between the previous and new ERL
                    Available ARCS Documents

   These reports have either been previously published by USEPA or the US Army
   Corps of Engineers for the ARCS Program or are currently in press. Copies of all
   documents are available from GLNPO, while supplies last. Contact Susan Dykes
   (LAI contractor) at (312) 886-6049.

   An Evaluation of Solidification/Stabilization Teclmology for Buffalo River

   ARCS Risk Assessment and Modeling Overview Document. EPA-905-R93-007.

   Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment: Ashtabula River, Ohio, Area of
   Concern. EPA-905-R92-007.

   Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment: Buffalo River, New York, Area of
   Concent.  EPA 905-R93-xxx.

   Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment: Saginaw River, Michigan, Area of
   Concern. EPA 905-R92-008.

   Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment: Shebovgan River, Wisconsin, Area of
   Concern.  EPA 905-R92-001.

   Biological and Chemical Assessment of Contaminated Great Lakes Sediment

   Information Summon', Area of Concern: Ashtabula River, Ohio.

   Information Summary, Area of Concern: Buffalo River, New York.

   Information Summary, Area of Concern: Grand Calumet River, Indiana.

   Information Summary, Area of Concern: Sheboygan River, Wisconsin,

   Pilot-Scale Demonstration of Thermal Desorptionfor the Treatment of Buffalo
   River Sediments. EPA-905-R93-005.
 values was 1.88 (n=25).  The average
 ratio between the previous and new
 ERM values was 1.63 (n=25).

 The ERL and ERM values were used
 to define ranges in chemical concen-
 trations (ERM).
 The total number of data entries
 within each range in which an
 adverse effect was associated with
 that particular chemical was divided
 by the total number of entries to
 determine the incidence of studies
 indicating adverse biological effects.
 The data for 9 trace metals, total
 PCBs, 2 pesticides, 13 polynuclear
 aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and
 3 classes of PAHs were sufficient to
 warrant analysis. In most cases the
 incidence of effects increased
 steadily and markedly with increas-
 ing chemical concentrations. For
 example, at concentrations of lead
 below the ERL value  8.0% (7 of 87)
 of the studies indicated adverse
 effects, whereas at concentrations
 above the ERM value 90.2% (37 of
 41) of the studies indicated an
 adverse effect associated with this
 chemical. For all trace metals the
 incidence of effects was 2% and 9%
 at concentrations below the ERL
 value. Except for mercury and
 nickel, the incidence of effects
 ranged from 63% to 95%  at concen-
 trations above the ERM value. For all
 PAHs and classes of PAHs, the
 incidence of effects ranged from
 10.3% to 27.3% at concentrations
 below the ERL values and 66.7% to
 100% at concentrations above the
 ERM values.

 These data are summarized in a
 manuscript prepared by E.R. Long,
 D.D. MacDonald, S.L. Smith, and
 F.D. Calder that has been  accepted
 for publication in Environmental
Managemen t j ournal.  The data
should be useful in estimating the
likelihood of toxicity in ambient
sediments. For more information,
contact Ed Long, NOAA,  at
(206) 526-6338.

  Hazardous Substance
     Research Center
Particle Broadcasting

The Hazardous Substance Research
Center/South and Southwest (HSRC
S/SW) is exploring particle "broad-
casting" as a new approach to the
remediation of contaminated sedi-
ments. Capping contaminated bed
sediment in situ with a layer of clean
particles is an operational technology
undergoing continued theoretical and
laboratory development at the Center
(Environmental Science Technology,
Vol. 27, No. 12, 1993). Based on
2,4,6-trichlorophenol as the hydro-
phobic organic chemical, isolation by
this process can be extremely effec-
tive. These new results support
earlier theoretical predictions of the
effectiveness of capping in isolating
toxic constituents from the aquatic
environment for centuries. However,
capping with 30- to 50-cm layers has
some drawbacks, both in an opera-
tional sense and, in some cases, for
the ecosystem.

Particle broadcasting is an in situ
capping process that more closely
mimics ongoing processes in nature
by distributing sand or silt particles
very slowly onto the bed surface
(slowly in the sense of bed accretion
rates of millimeters per year) rather
than placing a thick cap instanta-
neously onto the bed.  The fresh
material falls through the water
column after being "broadcast" dry
from a vessel, pipeline-wet from a
vessel, and through existing sewer
outfalls and tributary streams.  Obvi-
ously, better control and cap unifor-
mity can be obtained by distributing
the particles from a floating vessel.

As the natural and/or "engineered"
particles arrive on the bed surface,
they reside there for a while; how-
ever, primarily because of
bioturbation and other bed-side
processes, these clean particles move
through the sediment-water interface
and into the bed.  In addition to
diluting the concentration of contami-
nants in the original bed, surfaces of
the clean particles provide sorptive
sites for both organics and metals,
further reducing contaminant levels in
the bed. This down-mixing and
adsorptive chemical process is
capable of reducing contaminant
release rates to the water column.
Obviously, the higher the particle
delivery rate (i.e., 0.1 to 10 mm/y),
the more effective the contaminant
retention.  Also, as time proceeds
after the initial application, beneficial
effects of retarding contaminant
mobility decrease. This occurs
because the bioturbation process also
delivers contaminated particles from
deep within the bed to the Sediment-
              broadcast device
                                      capping material on board
                          contaminated bed
water interface. In this regard, a
design variable is the frequency of
particle broadcasting.

The particle broadcasting idea is at the
conceptual stage and much work, both
theoretical and laboratory, needs to be
performed.  This work must explore the
applicability of the process for deliver-
ing nutrients to the bed to enhance
ongoing natural bioremediation pro-
cesses. In the case of metal contami-
nants, the particles deliver reactants.
An example is to broadcast sulfur-
coated particles for the "fixation" of
mercury in bed sediment.

The HSRC S/SW is a consortium
consisting of Georgia Institute of
Technology in Atlanta, Rice Univer-
sity in Houston, and Louisiana State
University (LSU) in Baton Rouge.
The particle broadcasting work is in
its initial stages, and the investigators
are Louis Thibodeaux, Danny Reible,
andK.T. Valsaraj of LSU. Informa-
tion on capping can be obtained by
contacting Rosalind Segesta at
(504) 388-6770).
        Example of particle broadcasting from a vessel using dry material.
         MARAD To Study
         Dredging Process

  The   Maritime   Administration
  (MARAD) has formed an interagency
  working group on the dredging process
  composed of EPA, the Department of
  the Army, the National  Oceanic and
  Atmospheric Administration, the De-
  partment of the Interior, and other fed-
  eral agencies.  The working group was
  established to review the  dredging and
  disposal process and identify ways of
  improving interagency coordination, in-
  formation  gathering, criteria reviews,
  and development of long-term manage-
  ment strategies for dredged material at
  national and local levels. MARAD is
  planning a series of listening meetings
  in January and February to solicit public
  input. These meetings are in the process
  of being scheduled in ten port cities
  throughout the U.S. For more informa-
  tion on these meetings, call Francis
  Mardula, MARAD, at (202) 366-5181.

      European Sediment
     Workshop Held in the
 The Workshop on Sediment Toxicity
 Assessment (WOSTA) was held
 November 8-10,1993, in Renesse, the
 Netherlands. The workshop of 40
 participants was sponsored by SETAC
 Europe. The objectives of the meeting
 were to:

 • Gather European and selected North
   American experts from the regula-
   tory, academic, and industrial sectors
   with practical experience in sediment
   toxicity tests and bioassays;

 • Discuss the ways in which whole
   sediment toxicity tests and bioassays
   with marine and freshwater systems
   may be standardized and used to
   provide useful regulatory informa-

 •  Produce a guidance document for
   scientists, notifiers of chemicals, and
   regulators in this field; and

 1  Indicate any future necessary
   scientific research.

The workshop consisted of six working
groups: (1) materials, (2) organisms,
(3) chemistry, (4) design, (5) interpreta-
tion of toxicity assays, and (6) interpre-
tation of bioassays. The workshop
focused on whole sediment testing
issues in the laboratory and did not
address liquid phase testing to any
significant degree. The North Ameri-
 ;an participants included Donna
Bedard (Ontario Ministry of the
Environment and Energy), Allen
Burton (Wright State University), and
John Gicsy (Michigan State Univer-
sity). Consensus on the key guidance
ssues was achieved by the conclusion
of the workshop. The guidance
document is scheduled to be published
nMay 1994. For more information
lontact Allen Burton, at (513) 873-2201,
                       ASTM  UPDATE
 The ASTM Subcommittee E47.03 met in Houston, Texas, November 13, 1993,
 before the 14th Annual SETAC meeting. Results were discussed during the
 Subcommittee meeting for a:

 •   Subcommittee ballot: (1) revision to E1383-93 (freshwater invertebrate
     toxicity): Annex A7 on Diporeia (negatives persuasive, will be revised) and
     (2) revision to El525-93 (sediment design): Annex 2 on sediment
     resuspension testing (negatives persuasive, will be revised).

 •   Concurrent Subcommittee and Main Committee ballot: (1) polychaete
     testing (negative withdrawn with editorial revision, ballot at Society level);
     (2) fish bioaccumulation (negatives persuasive, will be revised); (3) earth-
     worm testing (negatives not persuasive, ballot at Society level after test
     acceptability section is revised); (4) revision to £1383-^93:  definition of a
     replicate (negatives persuasive, will be revised); (5) revision to E1383-93:
     Annex A5 on mayflies (ballot at Society level); (6) revision to E1391-90
     (sediment collection, storage and manipulation; negatives not persuasive,
     ballot at Society level after missing pages are balloted); (7) revision to
     E1525-93 (sediment design): Annex Al on statistics (negative persuasive,
     will be revised); (8) revision to E1525-93: general information (negative
     withdrawn with editorial revision, ballot at Society level).

 There were no actions since the last Subcommittee meeting on the following:
 (1) Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Tests with Bioluminescent Bacte-
 ria, (2) Toxicity Testing with Lumbriculus Variegatus, (3) Reference Toxicant
 Testing, (4) Sediment Toxicity Tests with Oysters, (5) Sediment Toxicity Tests
 and Echinoderms, (6) Bioaccumulation of Sediment-Associated Contaminants
 by Benthic Invertebrates.

 Future directions of the Subcommittee were discussed:

 •   Standard Test Methods for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated
    Contaminants with Estuarine and Marine Amphipods.  These test methods
    will be balloted as a revision to El367-92.

 •   Standard Test Methods for Measuring the Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of
    Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates. A
    revised version of the USEPA manual will be balloted concurrently at the
    Subcommittee and Main Committee levels in January 1994. This proposed
    ASTM document may eventually replace ASTM E1383-93.

The next Subcommittee meeting will be held during the annual ASTM meeting
Sunday, April  10, to Thursday, April 14, 1994, at La Centre Sheraton in
Montreal,  Quebec. Please contact Chris Ingersoll at (314) 875-5399, FAX
(314) 876-1896, if you would like more information concerning the Subcom-
mittee meeting or the activities of the Subcommittee.

                 Tentative Schedule for the 15th  E47.03 Sediment Toxicology
              Subcommittee Meeting During the Annual ASTM Meeting Sunday,
      April 10, to Thursday, April 14,1994, at La Centre Sheraton in Montreal, Quebec

1.   Revision to E1383-93 (freshwater invertebrate toxicity): Annex A5 on Hexagenia sp. (Draft #5, dated 07/92; Task Group
    Chair: Donna Bedard, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Rexdale, Ontario, (416) 235-5970).

2.   Revision to E1383-93 (freshwater invertebrate toxicity): Annex A7 on Diporeia sp. (Draft #3, dated 05/93; Task Group
    Chair: Peter Landrum, GLERL, NOAA, Ann Arbor, MI, (313) 741-2235).

3.   Standard Test Methods for Measuring the Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with
    Freshwater Invertebrates (Task Group: Chris Ingersoll, Jim Dwyer, Parley Winger, NBS, Columbia, MO, (314) 875-5399;
    Allen Burton, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, (513) 873-2201).

4.   Revision to E1367-92 (marine and estuarine amphipod toxicity): Test Methods from Guidance (Task Group Chair: Janet
    Lamberson, USEPA, Newport, OR, (503) 867-4043).

5.   Standard Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Tests with Marine and Estuarine Polychaetous Annelids (Draft #7,
    dated 07/15/93; Task Group Chair: Don Reish, California State University-Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, (213) 431-

6.   Standard Guide for Conducting Soil Toxicity Tests with Earthworms (Draft 2.0, dated 07/93; Task Group: Dave Wilborn,
    Mantech, Corvallis, OR, (503) 754-4600; Greg Linder, Mantech, Mike Bollman, Mantech, Clarence Caliahan, USEPA,

7.   Revision to El391-90 Standard Guide for Collection, Storage, Characterization, and Manipulation of Sediment for
    Toxicological Testing (Draft #3, dated 08/05/93; Task Group Chair: Allen Burton, Wright State University, Dayton, OH,

8.   Standard Guide for Determination for the Bioaccumulation of Sediment-Associated Contaminants by Benthic Inverte-
    brates (Draft #5,  dated February 1991; Task Group Chair: Henry Lee, USEPA, Newport, OR, (503) 867-4042).

9.   Standard Guide for Determination of the Bioaccumulation of Sediment-Associated Contaminants by Fish (Draft #4, dated
    07/26/93; Task Group Chair: Donna Bedard, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Rexdale, Ontario, (416) 235-5970).

10. Revision to E1525-93 (sediment design): Annex 1 on Statistical Guidance (Draft #3, dated 08/93; Task Croup Chair: Gail
    Bragin, Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ, (908) 873-6174).

11. Revision to E1525-93 (sediment design): Annex 2 on Sediment Resuspension Testing (Draft #1, dated 06/01/93; Task
    Group Chair: Gail Bragin, Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ, (908)  873-6174).

12. Standard Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Tests with Bioluminescent Bacteria (Draft #5, dated 10/14/93; Task
    Group Chair: Mai Greene, Microbics Corp., Carlsbad, CA, (619) 438-8282).

13. Revision to E1525-93 (sediment design): Annex 3 on Reference Toxicant Testing (Task Group: Janet Lamberson,
    USEPA, and Jim Dwyer, NBS).

14. Standard Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Test with Oysters (Task Group Chair: Paul Dinnel, University of
    Washington, Seattle, WA, (206) 543-7345).

15. Standard Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Test with Echinoderms (Task Group Chair: Paul Dinnel,  University of
                                •jraiAn3 jo S9[nqnj

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