United States
                          Environmental Protection
                         Office of Water
                         (4305)    !
          Number 15
          September 1995
                         Sediments  News
 Status of Proposed RCRA Hazardous
        Waste Identification Rule for
      Contaminated Media (Including
          Contaminated Sediments)
An EPA workgroup recently completed
work on the Agency's Hazardous
Waste Identification Rule for contami-
nated media (HWIR-Media). Now the
rule will be reviewed by senior EPA
management, the EPA Administrator,
and the Office of Management and
Budget before proposal in the Federal
Register. This rule will provide an
exemption from regulation under
Subtitle C of the Resource Conserva-
tion and Recovery Act (RCRA) for
contaminated media that are managed
under the oversight of EPA or an
authorized state.  In addition, the rule
excludes dredged material permitted -
for discharge under the Clean Water
Act and the Marine Protection, Re-
search, and Sanctuaries Act from
RCRA Subtitle C requirements (includ-
ing testing requirements).

A summary of the rule reads "as part of
the President's regulatory reform
initiative the United States Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA)  is
proposing new regulations governing
contaminated media, including
contaminated soil, ground water,
surface water, and sediment, that are
managed during government-overseen
remedial actions. Currently these
contaminated media are often subject
to regulation as hazardous waste
under RCRA. Today's proposal
specifies that EPA and authorized
states would have the authority to
exempt certain lower risk contami-
nated media from regulation as
hazardous wastes,  and establishes
modified land disposal restrictions
(LDR) treatment requirements for
higher risk contaminated media which
remain subject to the hazardous waste
regulations (RCRA  Subtitle C). EPA
also proposes to streamline the
permitting process  for remedial
actions involving management of
hazardous wastes (or contaminated
media), and to simplify the state-
authorization procedures associated
with these regulations."

The proposal addresses only the
management of wastes (or contami-
nated media) that are generated during
  Inside this issue...
  Regional Activities	2

  ORD Activities	3

  Focus: NOAA's Sediment
  Toxicity Survey of
  Biscayne Bay, FL	5
Call For
Participants	6

Creature Feature	7

Announcements	7
                                  Contaminated Sediment
                                     Activities Timeline
October 11-13,1995. Managing
Contaminated Sediments. Univer-
sity of Wisconsin, Madison. Contact
Pat Eagen at 1 -800-462-0876.

November 5-9,1995. Second
SETAC World Congress,
Vancouver, B.C., Canada. The
theme of this meeting is Global
Environmental Protection: Science,
Politics, and Common Sense.
Abstracts are due by May 1, 1995.
For more information, call Peter
Chapman, program chair, at (604)
986-4331 or Rod Parrish, executive
director, at (904) 469-1500. For
information regarding exhibits, call
Karsten Liber at (715) 394-8158.

November 29 - December 1,1995.
National Sediment Bioaccumulation
Conference. Crystal City, Virginia.
(see announcement on page 7).
For more information, contact
Leanne Stahl, U.S. EPA Headquar-
ters, at (202)260-7055.

December 7-8,1995. Sampling
and Analyzing for VOC in Environ-
mental Media. University of
Wisconsin, Madison. Contact Pat
Eagen at 1-800-462-0876.
CS News is produced by EPA OST to
exchange information on contaminated
sediments and to increase communication
among interested parties. To obtain copies
of this report or to contribute information,
contact Jane Marshall Farris, EPA OST,
mail code 4305, at (202) 260-8897.

To be added to the mailing list or to make
changes to your address, please fax your
request to Melissa Bowen, Tetra Tech, at
(703) 385-6007.

cleanup actions.  It does not address
issues associated with what wastes or
media should be cleaned up, what the
clean-up levels should be, or how
remedies are selected. Media include
soil, sediment, surface water, and
ground water.

To determine whether media are
higher or lower relative risk, EPA has
established "Bright Line" contaminant
concentration levels for soil and
ground water.  Bright line numbers
have not yet been determined for those
contaminated sediments, which will
continue to be regulated under RCRA.
Media that are contaminated below
bright line levels are eligible for more
flexible site-specific management
standards to be set by the overseeing
Today's proposal specifies
that EPA and authorized
states would have the
authority to exempt certain
lower risk contaminated
media from regulation as "'
hazardous wastes.
agency. One of the primary objectives
of the proposed rule is to remove
lower-risk contaminated media from
Subtitle C jurisdiction so that more
appropriate, site-specific management
requirements can be specified by the
overseeing agency for those media.

The proposed HWIR-Media rule does
not propose bright line contaminant
concentrations for determining
whether sediments contain hazardous
or contaminated material at RCRA
sites. The rule preamble will state that
bright line concentrations have not yet
been proposed for sediments. The rule
will request comments on whether
bright line concentrations for sedi-
ments are needed, and if needed,
request comments about appropriate
bright line concentrations.

The rule would also establish that
dredged material disposed in accor-
dance with a permit issued under
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act
or under Section 103 of the Marine
Protection, Research, and Sanctuar-
ies Act would not be subject to
Subtitle C of RCRA. At present,
dredged material could be subject to
both RCRA regulations and dredged
material disposal regulations,
complicating efficient assessment
and management of potential
environmental impacts.

For more information on this pro-
posed rule, contact jane Marshall
Farris, EPA-OST, at (202) 260-8897.

Recent Federal

Recently, a series of meetings and
conferences have been organized
and sponsored by EPA and the Corps
of Engineers to tackle the question of
how to integrate bioaccumulation
assessment results from sediment
testing into regulatory
decision .making. _=_..,
Workshops were held
in Wakefield, Massa-
chusetts, and  Denver,
Colorado, during
August 1994 and
1995, respectively.
Planning for the third
event, the National Sediment
Bioaccumulation Conference, is
currently under way.  It will be held
in Crystal  City, Virginia, November
29 - December 1,1995. Results
from these meetings will contribute
to the ultimate goal of developing
guidance  on interpretation of
bioaccumulation test results to
determine sediment quality and
potential impacts to ecologi-
cal and human health.      ,
Each of the meetings is
briefly summarized
below and future
issues of the news-
letter will focus on
the results of
these meetings.
Wakefield, Massachusetts Workshop

A 2-day workshop entitled Interpreta-
tion of Sediment Bioaccumulation
Test Data for the Ocean Dumping
Program was held in Wakefield,
Massachusetts, in August 1994. It was
sponsored by EPA Region 1; the Corps
of Engineers, New England District;
and the New England Division of
Metcalf & Eddy. The purpose of the
workshop was to provide direction for
developing regulatory interpretive
guidance in evaluating sediment
bioaccumulation test data for the EPA/
Corps dredging program. Experts on
sediment contamination from around
the country participated in the work-

Background EPA and the Corps
nationally have required the use of the
28-day laboratory bioaccumulation
test to determine the bioavailability of
sediment contaminants in the food
chain. The test is used with the
companion sediment toxicity tests to
provide project-specific data for the
evaluation of dredged sediment
proposed'for open water or ocean T-:.?^
disposal.  The bioaccumulation tests
involve  a  comparison of tissue
contaminant concentrations in
deposit-feeding invertebrate species
that are  exposed in the laboratory to
the dredged sediments with (1) FDA
action levels and (2) laboratory-
derived  reference values using
sediments from the general vicinity of
the disposal site, but outside its

Workshop Objectives The objectives
of the Wakefield workshop, were
(1) to identify approaches to interpret
the test  data and (2) to provide
direction to regulators on which of
these approaches are the most useful/
    feasible for establishing interpre-
         tive guidelines.  For more
          information, contact Dave
          Tomey, U.S. EPA Region 1,
         JFK Federal Building, Boston,
       MA  00203 (617) 565-4425.

    Denver, Colorado Workshop

 A second workshop, entitled Inter-
 preting the Consequences of

 Bioaccumulation Related to Dredged
 Material Assessment and Management,
 was held in Denver, Colorado, August
 29-31,1995.  The workshop was
 organized by the Corps of Engineers.
 The purposes of the workshop were to
 continue the dialogue with national
 experts on interpreting
 bioaccumulation test results and to
 recommend specific research and
 development needs.

 Background  Bioaccumulation for
 dredged material disposal is the process
 that describes the movement of con-
 taminants from the sediment or water
 into the biota.  Bioaccumulation
 establishes a compliance standard for
 the Marine Protection, Research, and
 Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean
 Water Act (CWA). Continued mainte-
 nance of navigation  projects depends
 on the scientist's ability to interpret
 bioaccumulation results and relate
 them to decision making.

 Workshop Focus and Goals  This
 workshop focused on interpreting the
 significance of specific levels of
 bioaccumulation from dredged  material
 disposal. The results of the workshop
 will contribute to developing policy
 and guidance for use by dredging
 project managers and technical  special-
 ists who manage dredged material.
 Discussion at the workshop focused on
 (1) a framework for interpreting  the
 consequences of bioaccumulation, (2)
 numeric and narrative guidance for
 interpreting specific levels of
 bioaccumulation, and (3) recommenda-
tions for specific research and develop-
 ment needs.

 Upcoming National Sediment
 Bioaccumulation Conference

The upcoming  EPA National Sediment
Bioaccumulation Conference (Novem-
ber 29 -  December 1, 1995, Crystal
City, Virginia) will focus on assessment
of bioaccumulative sediment contami-
nants, integration of the assessment
results into regulatory decision making,
and pollution prevention, as well as
dredged material management.  For
more information on the conference,
refer to the conference announcement
on page  7 of this newsletter.
              Regional  Activities
  Region 2

  NY/NJ Harbor Estuary Program
.  Monitoring Workshop Held

  On August 22-
  23,1995, The
  Hudson River
  Foundation, in
  with the NY/NJ
  Harbor Estuary Program (HEP),
  sponsored a workshop to develop a
  monitoring plan for the NY/NJ Harbor
  Estuary and New York Bight.  The
  workshop was held at Rutgers
  University's Institute of Marine and
  Coastal Sciences.  One hundred
  participants, meeting over a 2-day
  period, broke into work groups to
  develop specific indicators for
  monitoring as well as testable hypoth-
  eses, scopes of work, cost estimates,
  and data management needs.  The
  workgroup topics  included Toxics/
  Dredged Material, Nutrients,  Habitat,
  Pathogens/Floatables, and Data and
  Information Management. A  pro-
  ceedings document will be prepared,
  and the results from the workshop
  will form the basis of the monitoring
  plan.  For more information on the
  HEP, contact Dennis Suszkowski,
  Hudson River Foundation, at
  (212) 924-8290.

  Region 10

  Health-Based Sediment Criteria for
  Puget Sound

  Since 1989, the Washington State
  Departments of Ecology and Health
  have been working together to
  develop sediment criteria to protect
  human health.  This summer,  the
  Department of Health's final report,
 which describes its recommended
 approach for the development of
 criteria, was completed. This paves
 the way for Ecology to move ahead in
 the rule development process.
 Ecology's proposed construct for
 human health criteria relies on a
 tiered approach, with "Tier I" repre-
 senting an initial evaluation to
 determine whether sediment chemical
 concentrations pose a significant
 human health risk.  Additional, site-
 specific analysis would then be
 available ("Tier II") to verify the
 results of the Tier I analysis. The
 Department of Health is currently
 completing a report describing the
 technical considerations for Tier II

 The final Tier I Report marks the
 completion of a major step in the
 development of health-based sedi-
 ment criteria for Puget Sound. Ecol-
 ogy will complete additional techni-
 cal development work in the next few
 months and will then be ready to
 move into the rule development .-..
 phase. Once adopted into the
 Sediment Management Standards,
 Chapter 173-204 WAC, human health
 criteria will be used to make cleanup
 and source control decisions in
 conjunction with the existing ecologi-
 cal criteria.

 Initial efforts focused on the use of a
 bioenergetics-based equilibrium-
 partitioning model  (Thomann, et al.,
 1992). Due to a lack of appropriate
 input parameters and the availability
 of empirical data, an empirically
 based approach, relying on informa-
tion from both the published and gray
 literature, was developed and recom-
mended. This approach is described
in the final  DOH report.

An outside contractor has been
conducting additional technical
development work, including verifica-
tion of the biota-sediment accumula-
tion factors recommended by DOH.
Ecology expects this work to be
completed this fall. As the technical
development work moves forward,
Ecology is developing a strategy for

implementing the human health
criteria for cleanup and source control
efforts. This strategy is likely to
include an assessment offish tissue
chemical concentrations to confirm
the potential threat to human health.

Ecology expects to propose health-
based criteria values later this year,
with final adoption slated for mid-
1996.  As always, the rule develop-
ment process will include ample
opportunity for public input. In
addition, Ecology will write a cost/
benefit analysis for the proposed rule
as required by recent legislation.

For further information on this or
other Ecology human health sediment
criteria reports or on the rule develop-
ment process, contact Laura Weiss at
(360) 407-7446 (fax: 407-6904).  You
can also send E-mail to
Iwei461@ecy.wa.gov. For additional
information on Region 10's sediment
program, contact John Malek, Sedi-
ment Management Program at
(206)553-1286, E-mail:


Washington State Department of
 Health. 1995. Tier I Report: Devel-
 opment of Sediment Quality Criteria
 for the Protection of Human Health.

 Thomann, R., J. Connolly,  and T.
 Parkerton. An Equilibrium Model of
 Organic Chemical Accumulation in
 Aquatic Food Webs with Sediment
 Interaction.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
                  ORD Activities

Geochemistry of Polychlorinated
Biphenyls in Marine Sediment

For the past year, researchers at the
U.S. EPA Atlantic Ecology Division
laboratory have been studying the role
of marine sediment colloids in the
geochemistry of polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs).  This work demon-
strates that more than 60 percent of
the highly chlorinated PCBs present in
sediment interstitial waters are
associated with colloids while the
remaining PCBs are truly dissolved.
Other researchers have shown that
anthropogenic contaminants bound to
colloids are often less bioavailabie
than those truly dissolved. Evaluated
together, these  data suggest that
highly chlorinated PCBs present in
interstitial waters might not be readily
bioavailabie to marine organisms.  For
more information, contact Rob
Burgess at (401) 782-3106.


 Effects of Bioturbation on the Oxida-
tion of Metal-Sulfide Complexes

 ORD-Duluth has finished a series of
 experiments using Lumbriculus
 variegatusto determine the effects of
 bioturbation on the oxidation of
 metal-sulfide complexes.  The metals
 used were cadmium and zinc. ORD
 researchers found a density-dependent
                      oxidation of
                      AVS, with
                      increases in
                     bioavailability of
                   metal in surficial
                 sediments where
             bioturbation is most
 marked. These results indicate the
 importance of sampling appropriate
 surficial sediment horizons for deter-
 mination of metal bioavailability.
Toxicity Test to Validate AVS Parti-
tioning on Zinc-Spiked Sediment

ORD-Duluth has developed a fresh-,
water chronic life-cycle test using
Chironomus tentans.  The 56-day test
was used to evaluate the validity of
AVS partitioning to predict the toxicity
of zinc-spiked sediment. When
sufficient AVS was available to bind
with the zinc, no toxicity was ob-
served even at dry-weight metal
concentrations in excess of 100 mg/
kg. When there was more zinc
present than AVS, survival, growth,
and fecundity were affected. This is
the first demonstration of the utility of
the AVS:metal partitioning model
using a chronic freshwater sediment

Solid-Phase Resin Used to Bind
 Nonionic Organics in Sediment

ORD-Duluth is investigating the utility
of a solid-phase  resin, Ambersorb, that
when added to a
sediment, binds
 nonionic organ-
 ics, thereby
 reducing the pore
 water concentra-
 tions and
 This  resin might
 be appropriate for
 use as a
 remediation tool. Experiments consist
 of laboratory exposures, using spiked
 and field-collected sediments, in
 which the toxicity and
 bioaccumulation of compounds in
 samples with and without the resin are
 evaluated. Field studies are also
 being conducted to determine the
 colonization rate of benthic organisms
 in contaminated sediments with and
 without the resin.

 For more information, contact Gary
 Ankley, ORD-Duluth, at
 (21 8) 720-5603.

 Joxiciiy  Survey of
 Giscayne  Gay,  Florida
As a part of its National Status and
Trends Program, NOAA is conducting
a series of regional surveys of sedi-
ment toxicity 'in selected bays and
estuaries.  The objectives of these
surveys are:  (1) to determine the
spatial patterns and extent of toxicity;
(2) to estimate the severity of toxicity;
and (3) to determine the relationships
between toxicity and chemical
contamination. Funding for these
surveys was provided by the National
Status and Trends Program and the
Coastal Ocean Program of NOAA.

In April and May of 1995, 105
surficial sediment samples were
collected throughout portions of
Biscayne Bay and selected adjoining
canals. Samples were collected in the
extreme northern  reaches of the
system (zone 2), in the central Port of
Miami area (zone 6), in the lower
Miami River, in the southern end of
the bay (zone 8), and in several canals
that intersect with the southern bay.
Sampling stations were chosen
randomly within specified sampling
strata. Toxicity was determined with
tests of amphipod survival, microbial
bioluminescence, sea urchin fertiliza-
tion and embryo development, and a
battery of chronic assays of reproduc-
tive success among
meiobenthic copepods.
Chemical analyses are
under way.

Most of the samples
were collected with a
modified van Veen
benthic grab.  However,
in the southern bay the
grab would not pen-
etrate the compacted
sandy/shell hash/sea
grass substrate  and
samples were collected
by hand with small
corers. We had to get
wet and snorkel for the

Sampling in the lower
Miami River canal was
an adventure as many of
the samples had a
distinct creosote/
petroleum odor and
produced a visible
sheen in the sampler.
We missed by a few
minutes being involved
in a large fire aboard a
freighter that exploded
in the narrow canal.

Local residents and their inevitable
dogs expressed a curiosity about our
activities in
their back-
yards (which
include the
canal). The
steering on
our vessel
failed  during a
at a critical location in the Port of
Miami in heavy traffic. We lost the
grab sampler among what likely is the
only pile of rocks in the Port of Miami
basin and had to retrieve it with

With the effort in 1995, we have
collected approximately one-half of
the samples. In 1996 approximately
100 additional samples will be
collected to complete the survey. The
same  battery of tests and chemical
analyses will be performed on those
samples.  The data, then, will be
merged from the two years and
reported in a NOAA technical report
(expected in late 1997).

For more information contact Ed Long,
NOAA, at (206) 526-6338.

Editor's note: If anyone can top Ed on a
seagoing misadventure, please submit
your entry for the next issue.
      Gall for  Study Participants
     A Round-Robin Evaluation of the U.S. EPA
            Sediment Toxicity Test Methods
Qualified laboratories are invited to participate in a round-robin
evaluation of interlaboratory variation of the new U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency methods for determining published
freshwater acute and draft chronic toxicity of sediments. The
study will be conducted during 1996, beginning in January or
February and concluding by September. Two to four test sedi-
ments will be evaluated using Hyalella azteca and Chironomus
tentans.  Acute toxicity assays are conducted for 10 days and
chronic toxicity assays are conducted for up to 42 days. Partici-
pation is on a voluntary basis without monetary compensation.
Laboratories are not required to participate in all evaluations of
the acute and chronic methods. Results of the study will be
published in the peer-reviewed literature and participants can be
listed as co-authors.

In order to participate in the study, the laboratory must demon-
strate that they have the following qualifications:

 1.  Have an aquatic toxicity testing program with a quality
    assurance/quality control program;

 2.  Have conducted some type of toxicity testing with the study
    species; and

 3.  Have an on-going laboratory culture of the test species.

 Potential participants should send a letter of interest to G. Allen
 Burton, Institute for Environmental Quality, Wright State Uni-
 versity, Dayton, OH 45435; fax (513) 873-4997.  Further study
 information will be supplied this Fall.
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Reminder for the Upcoming National
Sediment Bioaccumulation Conference
The response has been overwhelming to the upcoming National
Sediment Bioaccumulation Conference to be held in Crystal
City, Virginia on November 29 - December 1, 1995.  If you have
not yet sent in your registration form or have  not made your  -;
hotel reservations, please do so promptly.

Dr. Robert Huggett, Assistant Administrator for EPA's Office of
Research and Development, will lead off the  conference with a
presentation on the status of the science and future research
directions for contaminated sediments.  The conference will
feature nationally recognized experts for presentations and panel
discussions on topics related to bioaccumulative sediment con-
taminants. Specific topics include:

  field and laboratory methods for measuring bioaccumulation,
  interpretation and applications of bioaccumulation assess-
   ment results,
  modeling bioavailability of sediment contaminants,
  bioaccumulation modeling applications,
  applying bioaccumulation assessment results to human
   health and ecologically-based risk assessments, and
  integrating bioaccumulation assessment results into EPA's .
   decision-making process.

To receive a detailed agenda and registration form, please call
Charlie MacPherson or Melissa Bowen, Tetra Tech, at
(703) 385-6000.

                                                                  Berry, Nary, quite contrary, how do
                                                                  your parapodia grow?

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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency  (4305)
Washington, DC 20460

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