United States
                    Environmental Protection
                    Agency
                            Office of Water
                            (4305)
              EPA-823-N-97-006
              Number 19
              Summer 1997
&EPA   Contaminated
                    Sediments  News
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                    EPA Great Lakes National  Program Office
                    Publishes a Series of Articles on the
                    Assessment and Remediation of
                    Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Program
     Rurteen papers published in the Jour-
     al of Great Lakes Research, volume
     2(3), report the results of the re-
cently completed Assessment and
Remediation of Contaminated Sediments
(ARCS) program (Fox and Tuchman,
1996).

The ARCS program was established to
help address the contaminated sediment
problem at 42 Great Lakes Areas of Con-
cern (AOCs). The program was enacted
under Section 118(c)(3) in the 1987 re-au-
thorization of the Clean Water Act and ad-
ministered through the U.S. EPA Great
Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO).

The objectives of the ARCS program were
to: (1) assess the nature and extent of sedi-
ment contamination at AOCs; (2) demon-
strate and evaluate remediation options;
and (3) provide guidance on contaminated
sediment problems and remediation alter-
natives at AOCs and other locations in the
Great Lakes (U.S. EPA, 1994a,b).

Volume 22(3) of the Journal of Great
Lakes Research contains papers developed
from activities of the Toxicity Chemistry
Workgroup and the Risk Assessment and
Modeling Workgroup in the ARCS pro-
gram. An introductory chapter by Fox and
Tuchman describes the ARCS program. A
paper by Burton et al. provides a compre-
hensive evaluation of a number of different
toxicity tests and compares factors such as
similarity, redundancy, and selectivity
among these tests.

The next paper, by Smith et al., discusses
long core sampling using a vibro-corer.
Rathburn et al. then address indicator and
screening analyses for inexpensive and
quick estimates of sediment toxicity.
Ankley et al. report on toxicity identifica-
tion evaluations (TIEs) of pore-water
samples.

Hall et al. then evaluate the utility of algal
toxicity tests. Papoulias et al. and Papoulias
and Buckler discuss optimization of Ames
mutagenicity assays for assessing sedi-
ments. Four other papers describe ap-
proaches for integrating sediment toxicity,
chemistry, and benthic community data.
Canfield et al. reported results of benthic
community assessments and the sediment
quality triad while Swift et al. compared
those results to benthic communities
sampled with artificial substrates.

Ingersoll et al. and Smith et al. calculated
and evaluated sediment effect concentra-
tions including ERLs  (Effect Range Low),
ERMs (Effect Range Median), TELs
(Threshold Effect Levels), and PELs (Prob-
able Effect Levels). Three final papers
evaluate modelling and risk assessment pro-
cedures including the  use of ranking proce-
dures by Wildhaber et al., transport of con-
taminated sediments in the Saginaw River
                 Continued on page 11

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No. 19
Summer 1997
Environment Canada
                   Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines
                  Environment Canada (Guidelines Divi-
                  sion, Science Policy & Environmen-
                  tal Quality Branch) develops Ca-
                  nadian sediment quality
                  guidelines for the protection of
                  aquatic life as part of its obliga-
                  tions under the Canadian Envi-
                  ronmental Protection Act (CEPA).

                  The Act dictates the Canadian govern-
                  ment's responsibilities regarding monitor-
                  ing activities, substance assessments, pol-
                  lution prevention and control strategies,
                  and regulatory activities (e.g., ocean dis-
                  posal of dredged sediments). These na-
                  tional sediment quality guidelines are de-
                  veloped cooperatively with the provincial
                  and territorial governments through the
                  Water Quality Guidelines Task Group of'
                  the Canadian Council of Ministers of the
                  Environment (CCME).  CCME is a joint
                  federal, provincial, and territorial council
                  committed to intergovernmental  coopera-
                  tion on environmental matters in Canada.

                  National sediment quality guidelines for
                  chemical substances, which are devel-
                  oped using toxicological information,
                  represent concentrations of individual
                  chemicals below which adverse biologi-
                  cal effects are not expected. They are de-
                  veloped with the intention to be conserva-
                  tive, national benchmarks (i.e., reference
                         points) to protect and sustain
                         aquatic life. These resource-use
                         based guidelines provide
                             scientificallydefined mea-
                              sures to evaluate the status
                              of, and progress toward, so-
                                     cietal  goals for the
                                     maintenance, pro-
                                     tection, and
                                      remediation of en-
                                      vironmental quality
                                      (Gaudet et al.
                                  1995).

                              Although Canadian sediment
                              quality guidelines provide a
                   nationally consistent, scientific  basis for
                   management decisions, such as  the de-
                   velopment of substance-, site-, or issue-
                   specific objectives or standards, they do
                                         not directly incorporate management con-
                                            siderations (e.g., cost and technologi-
                                              cal limitations) nor are they in-
                                               tended to serve directly as
                                                management objectives without
                                                due consideration of such factors.
                                                Therefore, effective implementa-
                                               tion of national sediment quality
                                               guidelines requires that the distinc-
                                                tion between generic guidelines
                                                 and site-specific objectives be
                                                   recognized within a broader
                                                   decision-making framework.

                                         In Canada, sediment quality guidelines
                                         are developed using a nationally ap-
                                         proved protocol (CCME 1995) to ensure
                                         consistency, transparency, and scientific
                                         defensibility in the process. Sediment
                                         quality guideline technical documents for
                                         a number of individual chemicals and
                                         groups of substances are being developed
                                         by the Environment Canada Guidelines
                                         Division. The document Canadian Sedi-
                                         ment Quality Guidelines for Cadmium
                                         should be available in early 1997. The
                                         draft Environment Canada document,
                                         Proposed Interim Canadian Sediment
                                         Quality Guidelines for the Protection of
                                         Aquatic Life, will be available once an  in-
                                         ternal Departmental review is complete.

                                         For more information, contact Sherri
                                         Smith (819-953-3082; sherri.smith@ec.
                                         gc.ca) or Karen Keenleyside (819-997-
                                         4070; karen.keenleyside@ec.gc.ca) at En-
                                         vironment Canada.

                                         References Cited
                                         CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of
                                         the Environment).  1995. Protocol for the
                                         Derivation of Canadian Sediment Quality
                                         Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic
                                         Life.  Report CCME EPC-98E. Prepared
                                         by the Technical Secretariat of the Water
                                         Quality Guidelines Task Group,
                                         Winnipeg, Manitoba. 38 p.

                                         Gaudet, C.L.,  K.A. Keenleyside, R.A.
                                         Kent, S.L. Smith, and M.P. Wong, 1995.
                                         How should numerical criteria be used?
                                         The Canadian approach. Human and Eco-
                                         logical Risk Assessment 1(1): 19-28.


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                                                                                                                       No. 19
                                                                                                                Summer 1997
                                  Status  of  EPA-OST  Sediment  DocuFn
 Editor's Note: EPA's Office of Science and Technology within the Office of Water and EPA Labs within the Office of Research and
 Development continue to develop documents about sediment criteria, management, implementation guidance, assessment, and
 models. Some documents are in planning stages, while others are very near completion. The status and description of these
 documents is provided in this table.
Document Title
                                                              Description
Status
                                                                                                    Draft scheduled for fall 1997.
Users Guide for Multi-Program            Guidance on use of SQC in water quality standards programs,
Implementation of Sediment Quality Criteria NPDES permitting, and TMDLs. Also includes discussion of how
                                       SQC might be used in other agency programs (e.g., CERCLA,
                                       RCRA).  Contacts: Jane Farris 202-260-8897, or Ross Elliott
                                       202-260-1311

Sediment Quality Criteria (SQC) for dieldrin Criteria document explains derivation of criteria for dieldrin and      Final scheduled for fall 1997.
and endrin                              endrin. Reflects comments received in  response to proposed criteria.
                                       Contacts:  Mary Reiley 202-260-8897, Heidi Bell  202-260-5464

SQC Technical Basis Document (TBD) for  This document will be the fundamental source describing how SQC  Final scheduled for fall 1997.
Deriving SQC for Nonionic Organic        (overall) are derived, and will reflect public comment received in
Contaminants for the Protection of Benthic response to draft TBD. Contacts: Mary Reiley 202-260-9456, Heidi
Organisms by Using EqP                 Bell 202-260-5464
SQC Site-Specific Document for Nonionic
Organic Contaminants
                                       Document will provide the tools and algorithms for States and tribesFinal scheduled for fall 1997.
                                       to modify the sediment quality criteria that they adopt into their
                                       State/Tribal standards, and will reflect public comment received in
                                       response to draft Site-Specific Document. Contacts: Mary Reiley
                                       202-260-9456, Heidi Bell 202-260-5464
Technical Document: Models for Sediment Describes the technical aspects of applying existing
Quality-Based NPDES Permitting
                                       hydrodynamic/water quality models for the development of sediment
                                       quality-based NPDES permits.  The document discusses underlying
                                       theory, model classification, and applications to different
                                       environmental settings. Contact: Bill Tate 202-260-7052
                                                                                                   Draft scheduled for winter 1998.
Volume 1: Draft National Sediment Quality
Survey; Volume 2: Data Summary for
Areas of Probable Concern (APCs);
Volume 3: Sediment Contaminant Point
Source Inventory; and Volume 4: Sediment
Contaminant Nonpoint Source Inventory
Draft EPA Protocol for Collecting, Spiking,
Handling, & Manipulating Sediment
Samples
                                       Report to Congress required under the Water Resources           Final Volumes 1-3 scheduled for
                                       Development Act of 1992.  Act required that EPA, in consultation fall 1997; Volume 4 is under
                                       w/ NOAA and COE, conduct a comprehensive national survey of   development.
                                       data regarding sediment quality; identify location of sediments that
                                       are contaminated and probable sources of pollutants; report to
                                       Congress the findings, conclusions, and recommendations every 2
                                       years; and develop a system to manage, store, disseminate
                                       sediment quality data. Contact: Jim Keating 202-260-3845
                                       Describes Agency standard field protocols for sediment sampling,
                                       handling, spiking and manipulation.  Contact Bill Tate
                                       202-260-7052
Draft scheduled for winter 1998.
EPA's Contaminated Sediment
Management Strategy
                                       Describes EPA's understanding of the extent and severity of
                                       sediment contamination, including uncertainties about the problem;
                                       describes the cross-program policy framework in which EPA intends
                                       to promote consideration and  reduction of ecological and human
                                       health risks posed by sediment contaminants; and describes actions
                                       EPA believes are needed to bring about considerations and reduction
                                       of risks posed by contaminated sediments. Contact: Jane Farris
                                       202-260-8897
Final scheduled for fall 1997.
Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed
for Discharge to Inland Waters of the
United States  Testing Manual
Joint EPA-OST and U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Document
                                       Provides a national testing framework which comprises one element Draft released for Public
                                       of an overall decision-making process for determining whether     Comment in June of 1994. Final
                                       dredged material can be discharged into CWA Section 404 waters, publication  date to be announced.
                                       The lanual provides consistency between dredged material
                                       evaluations under CWA and MPRSA. Regional flexibility is allowed
                                       within this national framework. Contact: Mike Kravitz
                                       202-260-8085
Public Outreach Materials: Contaminated
Sediment Information for a Pamphlet and
Display
                                       The pamphlet and display will educate the public including citizens  Final scheduled for fall 1997.
                                       groups and high school students on the definition and extent of
                                       contaminated sediment, sources of contamination, remediation and
                                       pollution prevention solutions, and what the citizen can do to
                                       protect sediment. Contact: Jane Farris at 202-260-8897.

Bioaccumulation Testing and Interpretation Provides background information and reports on the status of      Final scheduled for fall 1997.
of Sediment Quality Assessment: Status   bioaccumulation testing and interpretation in various EPA and other
and Needs                              Federal Agency Programs for the purpose of sediment quality
                                       assessment.  Contact:  Mike Kravitz at 202-260-8085.
Standard Methods for assessing chronic
sediment toxicity to benthic organisms
                                       Standard methods under development for chronic sediment toxicity Final scheduled for winter 1998.
                                       tests using Hyalella, Chironomus, and Leptocheirus.  Contact:
                                       Leanne Stahl at 202-260-7055

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No. 19
Summer 1997
                 Region 1
                  EPA Proposes Cleanup Plan for Upper
                  and Lower New Bedford,  Mass. Harbor
     New Bedford
After extensively studying the 18,000-
acre New Bedford Harbor Superfund
Site, EPA recently proposed a remedy
that includes dredging 170 acres of PCB -
contaminated sediments in upper and
lower New Bedford Harbor and isolating
the sediments in confined disposal facili-
ties (CDFs).

From the 1940's through the late 1970's,
   factories near New Bedford Harbor, a
          tidal estuary on Buzzards Bay
             in southeastern Massachu-
              setts, discharged PCB-
               containing industrial
               process wastes into the
               harbor and New
                   Bedford's sewer-
                       age system.
                       EPA discov-
                       ered wide-
                        spread PCB
                        and heavy
                        metal con-
                        tamination in
                        the sediments
and marine life throughout Buzzards Bay,
and in 1977 the Massachusetts Depart-
ment of Public Health issued a warning
and closed areas of the harbor and bay to
fishing. In 1982 EPA added the New
Bedford Harbor Site to the National Pri-
ority List of sites eligible for Superfund
cleanup funds. Massachusetts has desig-
nated the New Bedford Harbor site as its
top priority federal Superfund site.

The Proposed Cleanup Plan
EPA proposes to design and build four
shoreline CDFs and associated water
treatment facilities. The CDFs would be
built in contaminated areas to avoid
dredging approximately 126,000 cubic
yards of underlying contaminated sedi-
ment. Dredged contaminated sediments
would be piped into the  CDFs and pas-
sively dewatered. Groundwater monitor-
ing wells would be installed around each
CDF to verify that it is operating safely.

Once construction of the first CDF is
complete, dredging would commence.
Approximately 450,000 cubic yards of
PCB-contaminated sediment are to be
dredged: in the upper harbor, sediments
above 10 parts per million (ppm) PCBs
would be dredged; and in the lower har-
bor and salt marsh areas, sediments con-
taining more than 50 ppm PCBs would be
dredged. Sediments above the target
cleanup levels would be removed from
the river bottom by a cutter head dredge,
a type of dredge proven to be environ-
mentally safe. The sediments would then
be pumped by the dredge to one of the
four CDFs. Other dredging methods may
be used for deep water or salt marshes.

The air quality in nearby residential areas
would be monitored throughout the
dredging process, and a minimum of 2
feet of water would be maintained above
the sediment during dredging operations
to control airborne PCB emissions. Simi-
larly, the water column would be sampled
during dredging to ensure that sediment
resuspension is below pre-established
safe levels. During dredging,  seawater
would be drained from the sediments and
treated physically and chemically to re-
duce levels of PCBs and heavy metals be-
fore discharge back into the harbor.

After the CDFs are filled with sediment, a
preliminary cap would be installed to pre-
vent escape of PCB dust and to allow for
precipitation runoff while the underlying
contaminated sediment consolidates. This
consolidation process,  which is expected
to take approximately 3 years, is neces-
sary to establish appropriate foundation
conditions prior to construction of a final
impermeable cap. When the dredged sedi-
ment has sufficiently consolidated, a

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multi-layered cap would be constructed to
prevent water infiltration into, and pro-
mote surface drainage away from, the un-
derlying sediments.

EPA plans to work with local communi-
ties to develop appropriate plans for ben-
eficial reuse of each CDF. For example,
the City of New Bedford has expressed
an interest in reusing one CDF as a com-
mercial marine facility. As a result, the
CDF could be designed with walls on the
seaward side to promote docking and '
with a footprint that would accommodate
future boat-hauling activities. Design ac-
commodations also can be made to the
other CDFs, provided that the ultimate
land use is developed in advance and in
conjunction with the surrounding towns.

Proposed Remedy Enhancement to
Include Navigational Dredging
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has
requested an enhancement of the
Superfund remedy to include dredging
and disposal of an additional 1 million
cubic yards of sediments generated from
the maintenance dredging of navigational
channels. Although these "navigational"
sediments fall below the proposed target
cleanup levels for PCBs, and thus do not
overlap with the sediments slated for
Superfund dredging, they are still con-
taminated with metals and low levels of
PCBs. As a result, disposal options are
limited, and an alternative disposal plan is
required if the harbor shipping channels
are to be maintained at their originally ap-
proved depths.

This enhancement could entail removing
28,000 cubic yards of sediment from two
areas for disposal in a large proposed
"navigational" CDF. The benefits of this
action would be the possibility of using
navigational sediments as preliminary cap
material, the removal of additional PCBs
and heavy metals in the navigational sedi-
ments, and streamlined permitting proce-
dures. The navigational dredging would
also work in concert with the City's plans
for developing the public and economic
uses of the harbor. If the proposed en-
hancement is accepted, its implementa-
tion would be  contingent on appropriate
state funding and would be directed by
the Commonwealth and the Army Corps
of Engineers, rather than the federal
Superfund program. For more informa-
tion on the New Bedford Harbor
Superfund Site, contact David Dickerson
of EPA Region 1 at 617-573-5735.
                                                                                       No. 19
                                                                                   Summer 1997
Region 5
Agency Reviews  Public Response to
Planned Grand Calumet  River Cleanup
EPA Region 5 is considering responses to
comments from the public concerning a
USX Corporation proposal to dredge a
portion of the Grand Calumet River and
dispose of PCB-contaminated sediments
in a disposal facility to be constructed on
USX property in Gary, Indiana.

USX proposes to remove about 687,000
cubic yards of contaminated sediment
from the upper 5 miles of the East Branch
of the river, adjacent to the USX steel
production facility known as  the Gary
Works. Some 125,000 cubic yards of
sediment are contaminated with polychlo-
rinated biphenyls (PCBs). A USX sedi-
ment study completed in  1993 shows that
the river contains the heavy metals iron,
lead, zinc, cadmium, and chromium; oil
and greases; PCBs; poly cyclic aromated
hydrocarbons ; benzene; cyanide; and
other pollutants.

The project was proposed by USX in co-
operation with EPA and the Indiana De-
partment of Environmental Management.
It will be implemented according to all
applicable state and federal environmen-
tal laws. USX has submitted a plan to
EPA, which is reviewing it to ensure that
the plan adheres to those laws. The
Agency has asked the public to comment
on the disposal facility and on the manner
in which some of the sediments will be
managed.
                    Continued on page 6

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  or mail this form to:

     Jane Marshall Farris, U.S. EPA MC4305,401 M St., SW, Washington, DC
     20460
  Name:.
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Washington, DC 20460

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