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  Pollution &
  Using Resources


What is Water-efficient Landscaping?

Why Use Water-efficient Landscaping?

How is Water-efficient Landscaping Applied?

Water-efficient Landscape Irrigation Methods
Examples of Successful Water-efficient Landscaping Projects
For More Information
                                                                      Water-Efficient Landscaping

Water-Efficient Landscaping

What  is
          iter, many agree, is our most pre-
          cious natural resource; without it,
          life ceases. Yet judging by our water
use and consumption practices, many of us in
the United States seem to take it for granted. A
typical household uses approximately 260 gal-
lons of water per day. "Water conscious" indi-
viduals often install high-efficiency shower
heads and toilets and wash only full loads of
clothes and dishes to reduce consumption. But
in the summer, the amount of water used out-
doors by a household can exceed the amount
used  for all other purposes in the entire year.
This  is especially true in hot, dry climates.
   Gardening and lawn care account for the
majority of this seasonal increase, but other out-
door  activities, such as washing cars and filling
swimming pools, also contribute. According to
the U.S. Geological Survey, of the 26 billion
gallons of water consumed daily in the United
States1, approximately 7.8 billion gallons, or 30
percent2,  is devoted to outdoor  uses. The
majority of this is used for landscaping. In fact,
it is estimated that the typical suburban lawn
consumes 10,000 gallons of water above and
beyond rainwater each year (Vickers, p 140).
   Many mistakenly believe that stunning gar-
dens  and  beautiful lawns are only possible
through extensive watering, fertilization, and
pesticide  application. As this booklet will
demonstrate, eye-catching gardens and land-
scapes that save water, prevent pollution, and
protect the environment are, in fact, easily
achieved by employing water-efficient landscap-
ing. Water-efficient landscaping produces
attractive landscapes because it utilizes designs
and plants suited to local conditions.
    This booklet describes the benefits of water-
efficient landscaping. It includes several exam-
ples of successful projects and programs,  as well
as contacts, references, and a short bibliography.
For specific information about how to best apply
water-efficient landscaping principles to your
geographical area, consult  with your county

                                             Xeriscape garden at Denver Water

                                             extension service and local garden and nursery
                                             centers. Local governments and water utilities
                                             also possess a wealth of information and sugges-
                                             tions for using water more efficiently in all
                                             aspects of your life, including landscaping.
 1 W.B. Solley, R.R. Pierce, and H.A. Perlman. 1998. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995 (USGS Circular 1200).
  USGS. Reston, VA. p.27.
 2 Amy Vickers. 2001. Handbook of Water Use and Conservation. WaterPlow Press. Amherst, MA. p. 140.

                                                                     Water-Efficient Landscaping


Xeriscaped front yard in Colorado Springs
    Many terms and schools of thought have
been used to describe approaches to water-effi-
cient landscaping. Some examples include
"water-wise," "water-smart," "low-water," and
"natural landscaping." While each of these
terms varies in philosophy and approach, they
are all based on the same principles and are
commonly used interchangeably. One of the
first conceptual approaches developed to
formalize these principles is known as
"Xeriscape3 landscaping." Xeriscape  landscaping
is defined as "quality landscaping that conserves
water and protects the environment." The word
"Xeriscape" was coined and copyrighted by
Denver Water Department in 1981 to help
make water conserving landscaping an easily
recognized concept. The word is a combination
of the Greek word "xeros," which means "dry,"
and "landscape."
    The seven principles upon which Xeriscape
landscaping is based are:
    •   Proper planning and design
    •   Soil analysis and improvement
    •   Appropriate plant selection
    •   Practical turf areas
    •   Efficient irrigation
    •   Use of mulches
    •   Appropriate maintenance
    The eight fundamentals of water-wise land-
scaping, below, illustrate the similarities in the
underlaying concepts and principles of Xeriscape
landscaping and other water-efficient approaches.
    •   Group plants according  to their water
    •   Use native and low-water-use plants.
    •   Limit turf areas to those needed for
        practical uses.
    •   Use efficient irrigation systems.
    •   Schedule irrigation wisely.
    •   Make sure soil is healthy.
    •   Remember to mulch.
    •   Provide  regular maintenance.
    In short, plan and maintain  your landscape
with these principles of water efficiency in mind
and it will continue to conserve water and be
3 Denver Water welcomes the use of the term Xeriscape in books, articles, and speeches promoting water conserving landscape.
EPA is using this term with permission from Denver Water. For permission to use "Xeriscape" in your publications, call Denver
Water at 303 628-6330.
Water-Efficient Landscaping

Why  Use  Water-efficient
      Proper landscaping techniques not only
      create beautiful landscapes, but also ben-
      efit the environment and save  water. In
addition, attractive, water-efficient, low-mainte-
nance landscapes can increase home values.
   Water-efficient landscaping offers many eco-
nomic and environmental benefits, including:
   •   Lower water bills from reduced water use.
   •   Conservation of natural resources and
       preservation of habitat for plants and
       wildlife such as fish and waterfowl.
   •   Decreased energy use (and air pollution
       associated with its generation) because
       less pumping and treatment of water is
   •   Reduced home or office heating and
       cooling costs through the careful place -
•  Reduced runoff of stormwater and irriga-
   tion water that carries top soils, fertiliz-
   ers, and pesticides into lakes, rivers, and
•  Fewer yard trimmings to be managed or
•  Reduced landscaping labor and mainte-
   nance costs.
•  Extended life for water resources infra-
   structure (e.g., reservoirs, treatment
   plants, groundwater aquifers), thus
   reduced taxpayer costs.
                                                            Meadow Sage (Salvia pratensis) is the
                                                            background for New Mexico Evening
                                                            Primrose (Oenothera berlandieri 'siskiyou')
                                                                 Water-Efficient Landscaping

How  is  Water-efficient
Landscaping  Applied?
      (andscaping that conserves water and pro-
      tects the environment is not limited to
      arid landscapes with only rocks and cacti.
                      Through careful plan-
                      ning, landscapes can
                      be designed to be both
                      pleasing to the senses
                      and kind to the envi-
                      ronment. One simple
                      approach to achieving
                      this is applying and
                      adopting the basic
                      principles of water-
                      efficient landscaping
                      to suit your climatic
                      region. The seven
                      principles of Xeriscape
                      landscaping are used
                      below to describe
                      these basic concepts in
                      greater detail.
                      planning and
                      Developing a land-
                      scape plan is the first
                      and most important
                      step in creating a
                      water-efficient land-
                      scape. Your plan
should take into account the regional and micro-
climatic conditions of the site, existing vegeta-
tion, topography, intended uses of the property,
and most importantly, the grouping of plants by
their water needs. Also consider the plants' sun
or shade requirements and preferred soil condi-
tions. A well-thought-out landscape plan can
serve as your roadmap in creating beautiful,
Dragon's Blood Sedum
(Sedum spurium) under
Honeylocust Trees (Gleditsia
water-efficient landscapes and allow you to con-
tinually improve your landscape over time.

Soil analysis and
Because soils vary from site to site, test your
soil before beginning your landscape improve-
ments. Your county extension service can ana-
lyze the pH levels; nutrient levels (e.g.,
nitrogen,  phosphorus, potassium); and the
sand, silt, clay, and organic matter content of
your soil.  It can also suggest ways to improve
your soil's ability to support plants and retain
water (e.g., through aeration or the addition of
soil amendments or fertilizers).

Appropriate plant  selection
Your landscape design should take into account
your local climate as well as soil conditions.
Focus on preserving as many existing trees and
shrubs as possible because established plants usu-
ally require less  water and maintenance. Choose
plants native to your region. Native plants, once
established, require very little to no additional
water  beyond normal rainfall. Also, because
they are adapted to local soils and climatic con-
ditions, native plants commonly do not require
the addition of fertilizers and are more resistant
to pests and disease.
    When selecting plants, avoid those labeled
"hard  to establish," "susceptible to disease," or
"needs frequent attention," as these types of
plants frequently require large amounts of sup-
plemental water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Be
careful when selecting non-indigenous species as
some of them may become invasive. An inva-
sive plant might be a water guzzler and will
surely choke out native species. Your state or
county extension service or local nursery can
help you select appropriate plants for your area.
Water-Efficient Landscaping

    The key to successful planting and trans-
planting is getting the roots to grow into the
surrounding soil as quickly as possible. Knowing
when and where to plant is crucial to speeding
the establishment of new plants. The best time
to plant will vary from species to species. Some
plants will thrive when planted in a dormant or
inactive state. Others succeed when planted
during the season when root generation is high-
est and sufficient moisture  is available to support
new growth (generally, spring is the best season,
but check plant tags or consult with your local
nursery for specific species).

Practical  turf areas
How and where turf is placed in the landscape
can significantly reduce the amount of irrigation
water needed to support the landscape. Lawns
require a large amount of supplemental water
and generally greater maintenance than other
vegetation. Use turf where it aesthetically high-
lights the house or buildings and where it has
practical function, such as  in play or recreation
areas. Grouping turf areas can increase watering
efficiency and significantly reduce evaporative
and runoff losses. Select a type of grass that can
withstand drought periods  and become dormant
during hot, dry seasons. Reducing or eliminating
turf areas altogether further reduces water use.

Efficient  irrigation
Efficient irrigation is a very important part of
using water efficiently outdoors, and applies in
any landscape—whether Xeriscape or
conventional. For this reason, an entire section
of this booklet addresses efficient irrigation; it
can be found on page 6.

Use of  mulches
Mulches aid in greater retention of water by
minimizing evaporation, reducing weed growth,
moderating soil temperatures, and preventing
erosion. Organic mulches also improve the con-
dition of your soil as they decompose.  Mulches
are typically composed of wood bark chips,
wood grindings, pine straws, nut shells, small
Wine Cup (Callirhoe involucrata) and Sunset Hyssop
(Agastache rupestris) in the Denver Water Xeriscape Garden
gravel, or shredded landscape clippings. Avoid
using rock mulches in sunny areas or around
non-arid climate plants, as they radiate large
amounts of heat and promote water loss that
can lead to scorching. Too much mulch can
restrict water flow to plant roots and should be

Appropriate  maintenance
Water and fertilize plants only as needed. Too
much water promotes weak growth and increases
pruning and mowing requirements. Like  any
landscape, a water-efficient yard will require reg-
ular pruning, weeding, fertilization, pest control,
and irrigation. As your water-efficient landscape
matures, however, it will require less mainte-
nance and less water. Cutting turf grass only
when it reaches two to three inches promotes
deeper root growth and a more drought-resistant
lawn. As a rule of thumb, mow your turf grass
before it requires more than one inch to  be
removed. The proper cutting height varies, how-
ever, with the type of grass, so you should con-
tact your county extension service or local
nursery to find out the ideal cutting height for
your lawn. Avoid shearing plants or giving them
high nitrogen fertilizers during dry periods
because these practices encourage water-demand-
ing new growth.
                                                                       Water-Efficient Landscaping

 Water-efficient  Landscape
 Irrigation  Methods
         •ith common watering practices, a
         large portion of the water applied to
         lawns and gardens is not absorbed by
the plants. It is lost through evaporation, runoff,
or being pushed beyond the root zone because  it
is applied too quickly or in excess of the plants'
needs. The goal of efficient irrigation is to
reduce these losses by applying only as much
water as is needed to keep your plants healthy.
This goal is applicable whether you have a
Xeriscape or a conventional landscape.
   To promote the strong root growth that sup-
ports a plant during drought, water deeply and
only when the plant needs water. For clay soils,
watering less deeply and more often is recom-
mended. Irrigating with consideration to soil

 Purple Fountain Grass (Pennisetum setaceum "Rubrum") and
 Marigolds (Calendula officinalis) in planter bed
type, the condition of your plants, the season,
and weather conditions—rather than on a fixed
schedule—significantly increases your watering
efficiency. Grouping plants according to similar
water needs also makes watering easier and more
    Irrigating lawns, gardens, and landscapes
can be accomplished either manually or with an
automatic irrigation system. Manual watering
with a hand-held hose tends to be the most
water-efficient method. According to the
AWWA Research Foundation's outdoor end use
study, households that manually water with a
hose typically use 33 percent less water outdoors
than the average household. The study also
showed that households with in-ground sprin-
kler systems used 35 percent more water, those
with automatic timers used 47 percent more
water, and those with drip irrigation systems
used 16 percent more water than households
without these types of systems. These results
show that in-ground sprinkler and drip irrigation
systems must be operated properly to be water-
    You can use a hand-held hose or a sprinkler
for manual irrigation. To reduce water losses
from evaporation and wind, avoid sprinklers
that produce a fine mist or spray high into the
air. Soaker hoses can also be very efficient and
effective when used properly. Use a hand-held
soil moisture probe to determine when irrigation
is needed.
    To make automatic irrigation systems more
efficient, install system controllers such as rain
sensors that prevent sprinkler systems from turn-
ing on during and immediately after rainfall, or
soil moisture sensors that activate sprinklers
only when soil moisture levels drop below pre-
programmed levels. You can also use a weather-
Water-Efficient Landscaping

driven programming system. Drip-type irrigation
systems are considered the most efficient of the
automated irrigation methods because they
deliver water directly to the plants' roots. It is
also important to revise your watering schedule
as the seasons change. Over-watering is most
common during the fall when summer irrigation
schedules have not been adjusted to the cooler
    To further reduce your water consumption,
consider using alternative sources of irrigation
water, such as gray water, reclaimed water, and
collected rainwater. According  to the AWWA
Research Foundation, homes with access to
alternative sources of irrigation reduce their
water bills by  as much as 25 percent.4 Graywater
is untreated household waste water from bath-
room sinks, showers, bathtubs, and clothes
washing machines. Graywater systems pipe this
used water to  a storage tank for later outdoor
watering use. State and local graywater laws and
policies vary, so you should investigate what
qualifies as gray water and if any limitations or
restrictions apply. Reclaimed water is waste
water that has been treated to levels suitable  for
nonpotable uses. Check with local water offi-
cials to determine if it is available  in your area.
Collected rainwater is rainwater collected in  cis-
terns, barrels,  or storage tanks. Commercial
rooftop collection systems are available, but sim-
ply diverting your downspout into  a covered
 Red Valerian (Centranthus ruber)
barrel is an easy, low-cost approach. When col-
lecting rainwater, cover all collection vessels to
prevent animals and children from entering and
to prevent mosquito breeding. Some states
might have laws which do not allow collection
of rainwater, so be sure to check with your
state's water resource agency before implement-
ing a rainwater collection system.
4 AWWA Research Foundation. 1999. Residential End Uses of Water. 
                                                                             Water-Efficient Landscaping  7

       Large lawn:
       requires supplemental watering
                                                  Concrete walkway

                        Non-native plants:
                        do not include drought-tolerant species
          Water-Efficient Landscaping

                            Perennials and
                          ornamental grasses
                              , Vegetable garden:'
                              •'uses drip irrigation
                                                          Mulctied, /,'/,'
                                                          walkway;..*- f.
                                                    Water-Efficient Landscaping

            Examples  of  Successful  Water-
            efficient Landscaping  Projects
         ater-efficient landscaping techniques
         can be used by individuals, compa-
         nies, state, tribal, and local govern-
ments, and businesses to physically enhance their
properties, reduce long-term maintenance costs,
and create environmentally conscious landscapes.
The following examples illustrate how water-effi-
cient landscapes can be used in various situations.
            Oriental Poppies (Paparer orientale)

             • The South Florida Water Management Dis-
              trict, the Florida Nurserymen and Growers
              Association, the Florida Irrigation Society, and
              local businesses worked together to produce a
              television video called "Plant It Smart with
              Xeriscape." The video shows how a typical
              Florida residential yard can be retrofitted with
              Xeriscape landscaping to save energy, time,
  and money. The showcase yard (selected from
  70 applicants) had a history of heavy water
  use—more than 90,000 gallons per month.
  After the retrofit, the yard's aesthetic value
  was enhanced; plus it now uses 75 percent less
  water and relies on yard trimmings for mulch
  and compost.
• The Southwest Florida Water Management
  District (SWFWMD), the City of St. Peters-
  burg, and Pinellas County, Florida, produced a
  video called "Xeriscape It!" It shows a land-
  scape being installed using the seven Xeriscape
  principles. The SWFWMD also funded several
  Xeriscape demonstration sites and maintains a
  Xeriscape demonstration garden at its
  Brooksville, Florida, headquarters. The garden
  features a variety of native and non-native
  plants and is available for public viewing,
  along with a landscape plant identification
• Residents of Glendale, Arizona, can receive a
  $100 cash rebate for installing or converting
  more than half of their landscapable area to
  non-grass vegetation. The Glendale Water
  Conservation Office conducts an inspection
  of the converted lawn to ensure compliance
  with rebate requirements and then issues a
  rebate check to the homeowner. The purpose
  of the Landscape Rebate Program is to perma-
  nently reduce the amount of water used to
  irrigate grass throughout Glendale.

State  government
• Although perceived as a water-rich state,
  Florida became the first to enact a statewide
  Xeriscape law. Florida's legislature recognized
  that its growing population and vulnerable
  environment necessitated legal safeguards for
  its water resources. The Xeriscape law requires
  Florida's Departments of Management Ser-
Water-Efficient Landscaping

  vices and Transportation to use Xeriscape
  landscaping on all new public properties and
  to develop a 5-year program to phase in
  Xeriscape on properties constructed before
  July 1992. All local governments must also
  consider requiring the use of Xeriscape and
  offering incentives to install Xeriscaping.
• Texas also developed legislation requiring
  Xeriscape landscaping on new construction
  projects on state property beginning on or
  after January 1994. Additional legislation,
  enacted in 1995, requires the Department of
  Transportation to use Xeriscape practices in
  the construction and maintenance of roadside
  parks. All municipalities may consider enact-
  ing ordinances requiring Xeriscape to con-
  serve water.

City government
In Las Vegas, Nevada, homeowners can receive
up to $1,000 for converting their lawn to
Xeriscape, while commercial landowners can
receive up to a $50,000 credit on their water
bill. The city and several other surrounding
communities hope these eye-catching figures
will help Las Vegas meet its goal of saving 25
percent of the water it would otherwise have
used by the year 2010; to date, it has saved 17
percent. Local officials plan to reach the target
with the  assistance of incentive programs
encouraging Xeriscape, a city ordinance limiting
turf to no more than 50 percent of new land-
scapes, grassroots information  programs, and a
landscape awards program specifically for
Xeriscaped properties. Preliminary results of a
five-year study show that residents who convert-
ed a portion of their lawns to Xeriscape reduced
total water consumption by an average of 33
percent. The xeric vegetation  required less than
a quarter of the water typically used and one-
third the maintenance (both in labor and
expenditures) compared to traditional turf.
        Lr,  j*.:..-       .:
Yellow Ice Plant (Delosperma nubigenum) close-up
Howard Hughes Properties (HHP), a developer
and manager of more than 25,000 acres of resi-
dential, commercial, and office development
property, has enthusiastically used drought toler-
ant landscaping on all of its properties since
1990. Most of the company's properties are
located in Las Vegas, one of the country's fastest
growing metropolitan areas. To conserve
resources, the city and county have implement-
ed regulations requiring developers to employ
certain Xeriscape principles in new projects.
Specifically, a limited percentage of grass can be
used on projects, and it must be kept away from
streets. As the area's first large-scale developer
to recognize the need and value in incorporating
drought tolerant landscaping in parks,
streetscapes, and open spaces, HHP uses native
and desert-adaptive plants that survive and
thrive in the Las Vegas climate with minimal to
moderate amounts of water.
                                                                        Water-Efficient Landscaping

                  Drip system irrigation controllers are linked
               to weather stations that monitor the evapotran-
               spiration rate. This allows HHP to determine the
               correct amount of water to be applied to plants
               at any given time. HHP tests the irrigation sys-
               tems regularly and adds appropriate soil amend-
               ments to promote healthy plant growth. The
               maintenance program also includes pest manage-
               ment, the use of mulching mowers, and the use
               of rock mulch top dressing on all non-turf plant-
               ing areas. These measures combine to ensure a
               beautiful, healthy, and responsible  landscape.

               Public/private  partnerships
               Even the most water-conscious homeowners in
               Southern California are over-watering by 50 to
                                    70 gallons per day. The
                                    excess water washes away
                                    fertilizers and pesticides,
                                    which pollute natural
                                    waterways. The quantity
                                    of water wasted (and the
                                    dollars that pay for it) are
                                    even more substantial for
                                    large-scale commercial
                                    properties and develop-
                                        An innovative part-
                                    nershin in Oranpe Counrv
                                    links landscape water
                                    management, green mate-
                                               rial management, and non-point source pollution
                                               prevention goals into one program—the Land-
                                               scape Performance Certification Program. This
                                               program emphasizes efficient landscape irrigation
                                               and features a "landscape irrigation budget" based
                                               on a property's landscape area, type, and the daily
                                               weather. The Municipal Water District monitors
                                               actual water use through a system of 12,000 dedi-
                                               cated water meters installed by participating
                                               landscape managers.
                                                  Participants, including landscapers, property
                                               managers,  and homeowner associations, can
                                               compare the actual cost of water used on their
                                               property with the calculated budget. Those stay-
                                               ing within budget are awarded certification, a
                                               proven marketing tool. This new voluntary pro-
                                               gram is implemented by the Municipal Water
                                               District with input from the California Land-
                                               scape Contractors' Association, the Orange
                                               County Integrated Management Department,
                                               the Metropolitan Water District of Southern
                                               California, and local nurseries and has the sup-
                                               port of 32  retailing water suppliers. The program
                                               is already credited with increasing the use of
                                               arid-climate shrubs and landscaping to accom-
                                               modate drip irrigation, and has resulted in cost
                                               savings to  water customers.
            Miscanthus sinensis
            (Miscanthus grass, also called
            Maiden grass) variety with
            leaves turning yellow for fall.
Water-Efficient Landscaping

For  More  Information
       'he following list of organizations can provide more information on water-efficient landscaping.
       This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, rather it is intended to help you locate local infor-
       mation sources and possible technical assistance.

 Water Management Districts or Utilities
 Your local water management district often can provide information on water conservation, including
 water efficient landscaping practices. Your city, town, or county water management district can be
 found in the Blue Pages section of your local phone book or through your city, town, or county's
 Web site if it has one. If you do not know your city, town, or county's Web site, check for a link on
 your state's Web site. URLs for state Web sites typically follow this format: .

                                     Turkish Speedwell (Veronica
                                     liwanensis) in background
                                     and tulips in foreground.
 State/County Extension Services
 Your state or county extension service is also an excellent source of information. Many extension services provide free pub-
 lications and advice on home landscaping issues including tips on plant selection and soil improvement. Some also offer a
 soil analysis service for a nominal fee. Your county extension service can be found in the Blue Pages section of your local
 phone book under the county government section or through your county's Web site if it has one. The U.S. Department
 of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (www.reeusda.gov/statepartners/usa.htm)
 provides an online directory of land-grant universities which can help you locate your state extension service. Government
 Guide (www.governmentguide.com) is yet another online resource that might prove helpful in locating state or local

 The following is a partial list of organizations located across the United States that provide helpful information on water-effi-
 cient landscaping.
 American Water Works Association (AWWA)
 6666 West Quincy Avenue
 Denver, CO 80235
 Telephone: 303 794-7711
 1401 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 640
 Washington, DC  20005
 Telephone: 202 628-8303
 Arizona Municipal Water Users Association
 City of Boulder Environmental Affairs
 P.O. Box 791
 Boulder, CO 80306
 E-mail: basin@bcn.boulder.co.  us
 Denver Water
 1600 West 12th Avenue
 Denver, CO 80204
 Phone: 303 628-6000
 Fax: 303 628-6199
 TDDY: 303 534-4116
 Office of Water Conservation hotline:
 303 628-6343
E-mail: jane.earle@denverwater.org
New Mexico Water Conservation Program/Water
Conservation Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 25102
Santa Fe, NM 87504
Phone: 800 WATER-NM
E-mail: watemm@ose.state.nm.us
Fax: 505 827-3813

Project WET - Water Education  for Teachers
Montana State University
Bozeman, MT59717
Phone: 406 994-5392
Rocky Mountain Institute
1739 Snowmass Creek Road
Snowmass, CO 81654-9199
                                                                            Water-Efficient Landscaping

       Southern Nevada Water Authority
       1001 S. Valley View Boulevard, Mailstop #440
       Las Vegas, NV 89153
       Phone: 702 258-3930
       Southwest Florida Water Management District
       23 79 Broad Street
       Brooksville, FL 34604-6899
       Phone: 352 796-7211 or 800 423-1476 (Florida only)
       Sustainable Sources Green Building Program: Sustain-
       able Building Source Book
       E-mail: info@greenbuilder.com
       Water Conservation Garden - San Diego County
       12122 Cuyamaca College  Drive West
       El Cajon, CA  92019
       Phone: 619 660-0614
                                              E-mail: info@thegarden.org
                                              Web:  and  \

                                              WaterWiser: The Water Efficiency Clearing House
                                              (Operated by AWWA in cooperation with the U.S.
                                              Bureau of Reclamation)
                                              6666 West Quincy Avenue
                                              Denver, CO 80235
                                              Phone: 800 559-9855
                                              Fax: 303 794-6303
                                              E-mail: bewiser@waterwiser.org

                                              Xeriscape Colorado!, Inc.
                                              P.O. Box 40202
                                              Denver, CO 80204-0202
                  following is a partial list of publications
               on resource efficient landscaping. For even
               more information, particularly on plants
        suited to your locale, consult your local library,
        county extension service, nursery, garden clubs, or
        water utility.

        Ball, Ken and American Water Works Association
            Water Conservation Committee. Xeriscape Pro-
            grams for Water Utilities. Denver: American Water
            Works Association, 1990.

        Bennett, Jennifer. Dry-Land Gardening: A Xeriscaping
            Guide for Dry-Summer, Cold-Winter Climates. Buf-
            falo: Firefly, 1998.

        Bennett, Richard E. and Michael S. Hazinski. Water-
            Efficient Landscape Guidelines. Denver: American
            Water Works Association, 1993.

        Brenzel, Kathleen N., ed. Western Garden Book, 2001
            Edition. Menlo Park: Sunset Publishing Corpora-
            tion,  2001.

        City of Aurora, Colorado Utilities Department. Land-
            scaping for Water Conservation: Xeriscape! Aurora:
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