United States
       Environmental Protection
Office of Water
Washington, DC20460
April 2001
       Water Drop Patch Proj ect
      Making A Difference
Girl Scouts,

            his project was jointly developed by the United States Environmental Protection
            Agency (EPA) and the Girl Scout Council of the Nation's Capital  (GSCNC) . The
            purpose of the project is to encourage girls to:

            4  Make a difference in their ccrrmunities by becoming watershed and
               wetlands stewards
            4  Use their skills and their knowledge to educate others in their ccrrmunities
               about the need to protect the nation's valuable water resources

            4  Explore the natural world to gain an interest in science and math
            4  Use the Internet as a source of information

        Girl Scouts,
Additional copies of this booklet can be
obtained by calling the National Service
Center for Environmental Eublications at
1-800-490-9198.  GomrEnts or questions
can be directed to E&tricia Scott, USEPA,
at (202) 566-1292.
             Thanks to the passage of the dean Water Act 25 years ago, America has seen much
              progress in cleaning upthe nation's rivers, lakes, streams, and coastal waters.  In
              1972, the Potomac River was too dirty for human contact, aquatic life in Lake Erie
                   was dying and Ohio's Cuyahcga River was so polluted it caught fire. Many
                     rivers and beaches were little more than cpen sewers.  Cbnditicns in these
                       and thousands of other waterbodies are rruch better today. The nation
                       has made tremendous progress in addressing pollution from sewage
                       treatment plants and industrial facilities.

                  Despite these accomplishments, many challenges remain,  including threats
to human health.  Approximately 40 percent of rronitored waters still fail to meet state water
quality standards, which means that they do not support basic uses like swirrming and fishing.
Although wetlands losses have slowed, the nation continues to lose about 60,000 wetlands acres
per year. A disturbing number of freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered.

Many of the remaining pollution problems come from many different sources-not just from a
pipe.  Polluted runoff from city and suburban streets, construction sites,  and farms is the pri-
mary reason many of our waters are not f ishable or swirrmable. Tackling these problems will
not be easy. But Girl Scouts can help make a difference by becoming watershed stewards in
their corrrunities.

   I.  Background Information
      1.  Watersheds (page 4)
      2. Nonpoint Source Pollution (page 4)
      3. Wetlands and their Basic Characteristics (page4)
      4. Groundwater/Drinking Water  (page 5)

  II.  Patch Requirements
      Brownies (pages 6-7)
      Juniors (pages 6-7)
      Cadettes (pages 6-8)
      Seniors (pages 6-9)

III.  Community  Projects  and Hands-on Activities
      1.  Do's and  Don'ts Around the Home (All Ages — pages 10-12)
      2. Stream Cleanup Guidelines (Cadettes & Seniors — page 13)
      3. Storm Drain  Stenciling Guidelines (Cadettes & Seniors — pages 14-15)
      4. Healthy Stream Critters (Cadettes and Seniors — page 16-17)
      5. Streamwalk (Cadettes & Seniors — pages 18-28)
      6. Build Your Own Aquifer (Cadettes & Seniors—pages 29-30)
      7. Backyard Wildlife  Habitat Project (Seniors - pages 31-36)

IV.   Water  Drop Project  Links to the Girl Scout  Program  (page 37)

V.    Glossary (pages 38-39)

VI.   Resources (pages 40-41)

VII.  Certificate  of Recognition  (page 42)
   To order Water Drop patches (at $1.00 each), please write to:
   Membership, Program, & Diversity, 15th floor, Girl Socuts of the USA, 420 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10018-2798
   Name :
I   GirlScDuntCbuncil: 	
   Number of patches needed:
                                              Total amount enclosed: $

  Backqround  Infornntion
What is a Watershed?
A watershed is a land area from which water drains
into a receiving body of water. Receiving bodies
of water can include streams, lakes, wetlands, es-
tuaries, andgrcundwater. Watersheds core indif-
ferent shapes and sizes, and local watersheds are
subwatersheds (or subbasins) of larger, regional
ones. The Eotomac watershed, for example,  is a
subbasin of the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed.

What is Nonpoint Source Pollution?
Lhlike pollution from factories and sewage treat-
ment plants, nonpoint source pollution comes from
many different areas with no particular place of
origin. It is caused by rainfall or snowmelt mov-
ing over and through the ground. As the runoff
moves,  it picks up and carries away natural and
human-made pollutants, finally depositing them
into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and
even underground sources of  drinking water.
These pollutants include:

A  Excess fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides
   from farms, cities,  and suburban streets
4  Oil, grease, and toxic chemicals from urban
   runoff and energy production

4  Sediment from improperly managed construc-
   tion sites, crop and forest lands,  and eroding
4  Salt from irrigation practices and acid drain-
   age from abandoned mines

*  Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet
   wastes, and faulty septic systems

Acid rain and changes to stream flow, such as dams
and concrete channel s, are also sources of nonpoint
source pollution. Acid rain, much of which comes
from cars and power plants, is rich in nitrogen,
which can overstimulate the growth of aquatic
weeds and algae. This in turn can deplete oxygen
and kill aquatic life. Channelization reduces the
ability of streams to assimilate or absorb waste and
disturbs fishbreeding areas.
What is a Wetland?
Wetlands are areas of land that are wet at least part
of the year. Wetlands are populated by plants well
adapted to grow in standing water or saturated
soils. There are many different types of wetlands,
including marshes, bogs,  fends, swamps, prairie
potholes, and bottomland hardwood forests . Wet-
lands may not  always appear to be wet .  Many
dry out for extended periods of time.  Others may
appear dry on the surface but are saturated un-

What are the Basic
Characteristics of  Wetlands?
Wetlands share three basic  characteristics : 1) hy-
drology (water) , 2) hydric soils (soils that formdje
to presence of water) , and 3) hydrophytic vegeta-
tion (plants adapted to living in  saturated soils) .
Wetland Benefits
These complex ecosystems play an important role
in the health of our environment and the quality
of our water.  Wetlands provide support for:
4  Fish and wildlife habitats
4  Complex food webs
*  Water absorption to reduce storm flooding and
   Sediment traps

   Erosion control

   Water quality
What is
Beneath the land's surface,
water resides in two general
zones, the saturated and the
unsaturated.  The unsatur-
ated zone lies directly be-
neath the land surface, where
air and water fill in the pore
spaces between soil and rock
particles. Water saturates the
zone beneath the unsaturated
The term '\groundwater'' refers bo water in the satu-
rated zone. This water is an inportant natural re-
source and used for many purposes, including
drinking water, irrigation and livestock raising.

Half the water used in the thited States for drink-
ing water comes from groundwater.

Surf ace water replenishes (or recharges)  ground-
water when it percolates through the unsaturated
zone. Therefore, the unsaturated zone plays an
inportant role in groundwater hydrology and may
act as a pathway for groundwater contamination.
Groundwater can move laterally and emerge at
discharge sites, sudias springs oihill sides, acsesap
in from the bottoms of streams, lakes, wetlands,
and oceans. Therefore, groundwater affects sur-
face water quantity and quality because polluted
groundwater can contaminate surface waters.
(Inversely, scrre surface waters, such as wetlands,
hold flood waters and allow than to soak slowly
into the groundwater.  When wetlands are filled
or drained,  groundwater may dry up.
         bid  You Know?
     Half  the  drinking water in
     the United States comes
         from  groundwater.
    The Environmental Protection  Agency is requiring water  suppliers to put
    annual  drinking water reports  in the hands  of their customers.  Between
    April and October 1999,  and  by July  1, thereafter, water suppliers will
    be providing "Consumer Confidence Reports." These reports, to be issued
    with utility bills, will provide fundamental  information,  including,  for ex-
    ample,  the source of your local drinking water  (lake,  river,  aquifer, or
    other  source),  its susceptibility to contamination, and the  level or  range
    of any  contaminants found.

Girl  Scout  Patch Requirements
  Brownies—Do any four of the first nine requirements
  Juniors—Do any five of the first nine requirements
  Cadettes—Do any six of the first thirteen requirements
  Seniors—Do any seven of the twenty requirements
        After answering the questions on the Home and lawn Care checklist  (pages 10-11),  plan how
        you and your family can change three to five "no" answers to "yes •" Share your plan with
        your troop and members of your neighborhood.  See how many "yies"  answers others girls in
        your troop have.  Or, use Give Water a Hand Acticn Guide to identify changes you can make
        on your farm, at your school or in your carrrunity (page 12) .

        Wetlands provide many benefits.  They help reduce flooding, sustain stream flow, filter pol-
        luted waters, provide habitat for wildlife, and support biological diversity. Visit a National
        Wildlife Refuge (NWR)  or a locally-protected wetland. Using the list on page 4, see how many
        wetland characteristics you can identify.  Call EPA's Wetlands Helpline at 1-800- 832-7828 for
        help in finding the nearest NWR or wetland resource.

        Enter the international "River of Words" Poetry and Art contest.  The contest, open to youth
        between the ages of 5  to 19, invites children to explore and interpret their local watershed
        through the arts. Tb obtain an entry form or more information, contact River of Words, P.O.
        Box 4000-J, Berkeley, CA  94704;  Tel: (510)  548-POEM or download an entry form at
        www. riverofwords. ozgr

        Find out what different plants and animals live in your watershed.  The Chesapeake Bay, for
        example, is home to more than 27,000 species of plants and animals. How many kinds of
        wildlife can you identify? (e.g., crabs, oysters, waterfowl and fish) ? Why are underwater bay
        grasses (SAV)  important? Check your answers by visiting EPA's Chesapeake Bay Office on-
        line at wKw.chesapeafcefcay.net.  Or call 1 (800) YOUR-BAY.

        Go on a hike with your troop and follow a local creek or stream. Where does the stream
        ultimately drain? What does it pick up along the way? What happens when it rains? How
        does the stream change? What insects, birds, plant or aquatic life do you observe? Use a United
        States Geological Survey (USGS) map or draw your own to illustrate your local watershed.
        USGS topographic maps can be obtained by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS  (cost is $4) . Share with
        others what you have learned.

        The UBGS has developed a series of full color water education posters to help you learn about
        water. The topics include: oceans, watersheds, hazardous waste, wetlands, water use, waste-
        water treatment,  navigation, ground water, and water quality (watersheds, hazardous waste,
        and oceans posters are also available in Spanish). The oolorposters include activities en the
        back and are available in two versions; one for students in grade school (grades 2-5) and the
        other for students inmiddle school (grades 6-8).  The water use poster is available in blackand

white and can be colored. The full colorpcstea^atta±Ltoget±Ertoa^atealaigeTAallrrL[ral.
Get together with your troop and put up a water mural where others in your cnrmunity can
see it.  Individual posters can be ordered by calling 1-888-ASK-U333.  (Not all the posters are
currently available, and orders are limited to one poster per individual.)

Visit a local aquariuri or a natural M                                           Share your
experiences with your troop and family. Consider visiting one of Cfaastal Anazica 's Coastal
Ecosystems learning Centers if there is one near you. Check cut Cbastal America  on-line at
wwv.ccastalamarica.gov or call (202) 401-9928. Find cut how Cbastal Anerica, a partnership
of eleven federal agencies and the Executive Office of the President, is helping to protect the
manatee, the whooping crane,  salmon and the right whale.

Visit a local sewage treatment plant or water f iltratioi plant to see how wastewater is treated
or drinking water is purified. look at the treated water as it is being discharged into your river,
streamer estuary. Is it dear? Does it stink?

Participate in a special activity during May to celebrate .American Wetlands Month or during
the third week of October to celebrate National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) week. For wetlands
ideas, see the list below, visit the Terrene Institute's Web Rage at waw. berrsis.czgr or call (703)
548-5473.  For NWR week, contact the Fish and Wildlife Service at 1-800-344-WHD or visit
           How Can I  Help Protect Wetlands?

         is^Ja..   Before you can protect them, you have to understand them...
          ^    ^.
                  "^ 1.  Be a Wetlands Detective!  Investigate why wetlands are unique.
         ;•*  ..J         Research what kinds of animals and plants live in the wetlands in your
           :""*  state. Start a journal to record the names of birds, frogs, insects, and plants
              that you might find in a local wetland.  Try to draw them! Go to the library or
             use the Internet to  uncover the mysteries of  wetlands.   Don't forget to investi-
           gate how wetlands function to keep a healthy watershed.  Call the Wetlands
         Helpline 1-(800) 832-7828 for a list of websites and educational materials.
    Now that you have learned about wetlands, go explore one...

  2. Visit a publically accessible wetland and  design a photograph  posterboard display.
  Girl Scouts can form teams of 2-3, each team carrying their own camera (disposable cam-
  eras work well).  Using a field guide, each team photographs 4-5 items, such as insects,
  birds, plants, trees, etc. Teams then  label/describe the photos and mount onto
  posterboard (laminating posters  is recommended).  Finally, display the poster in a public
     location such as a library, church, or school!

     3. Volunteer at your local  wetland!  Call your county's agricultural extension agent or
    the local/state natural resource management agency and get a list of ongoing wetland/
   stream restoration projects.

        Work with your troop to organize a Storm Drain Stenciling Project in your neighborhood.
        Produce and distribute a flyer or door hanger for local households to make them aware of
        your project and to remind them that storm drains dump directly into your local waterbody.
        Guidelines for the project are on pages 14-15.

        Go on a stream, wetlands, or lake walk and make observations and assessments of waterbody
        oonditicns. See Page 18 for streai™alkguidelines.  Call EPA's Region 10 Office at (206) 553-
        1200 to request a teacher's guide, othermanuals, and data collection sheets.

        Do a display or presentation on groundwater and how pollutants threaten its purity. Show
        where your drinking water comes from. (Girl Scouts can check their family water utility bill or
        visit EPA's web page at http://www. epa.gov/aw/states.htmL. dick on the map and link to
        information about local drinking water ) . Make an Aquifer Model (pages 30-31)  part of your
        presentation. Or, contact the Blue Thuifc project and participate in an activity to celebrate
        National Drinking Water week (see page 31) .

        Design a "mock-up" of your watershed. Share  it with younger groups. Use EPA's locate Your
        Watershed (www.epa.gov/surf) and Index of Watershed Indicators web sites (www.epa.gov/
        iwi) or the resources list (pages 40-41) to create it.

        Share your knowledge of water pollution with younger children, perhaps Daisy or Brownie
        Girl Scouts era local elementary school class. Consider doing a presentation about your local
        watershed. Discuss threats to its health, such as excess nutrients or habitat loss. Highlight
        things that Girl Scouts and their families can do to protect water cpality  (see checklist en pages
        10 -12) . Your watershed may even have its own web page. For example, you can visit the
        Chesapeake Bay's web page at www.chesapeakebay.net.  If you live in the Mississippi River
        drainage basin, check cut http://www.epa.gov/msbasin/. Or, visit EPA's Office of Water
        homepage at www.epa.gov/ow for other links and resources.
Did you  Know?
• The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary where salt and fresh water mix.
• The Bay receives about half of its water volume from the Atlantic Ocean
  (salt water). The rest (fresh water) drains into the Bay from an enormous
  64,000-square-mile drainage basin or watershed.
• The watershed includes parts of six states (DE, Mb, NY, PA, VA, and
  WV) and the District of Columbia.
• Ninety percent of the fresh water entering the Bay comes from five majo
  rivers: the  Rappahannock, the  Susquehanna (responsible for 50%), th
  Potomac, the James, and the York.
• The Bay is the largest  estuary in North America.
• The Bay is home to 27,000 species of plants and animals.
 bo you know your watershed address? If not visit the Watershed Information Network
 Web Site at http://www.epa.gov/win.  Locate your watershed and learn about its health.

        Work with troops in your service unit and your local gov-
        ernment to organize or join in a stream, wetland or beach
        cleanup. Consider participaing in the annual Interna-
        tional Coastal Cleanup sponsored by the Center for Ma-
        rine Conservation (CMC) held every September. See
        resources list 01 pages 40-41. Be sure to follow safety
        guidelines on page 13.

                *  Keaptrackcf the kinds of trash collected. If it pri-
                   marily comes from fast food restaurants, consider
                   working with local restaurant owners to put up signs encouraging people not to
                   litter in their ccmrunity.

               *  If possible,  separate the trash for recycling. Have different cnLoredbags forpaper,
                   plastic, glass, and aluminum

               i  Take "before and after" photos of your efforts.  Send than to a local paper to
                   publicize your efforts.

        Create a wildlife habitat or another conservation project in your backyard or troop meeting
        location.  Call the Natural Resources Conservation Service at 1-888-IANDCARE for a free
        backyard conservation booklet that outlines 10 conservation activities  (See pages 32-37 for
        guidelines en creating a backyard wildlife habitat). Or consider joining the National Wildlife
        Federatioi' s Backyard Habitat Program and receive a oertif icate and sign for your project (see
        page 37).

        Find a watershed group in your cnrmunity and volunteer to help with a project (e.g., tree
        planting, habitat restoration project, etc.) Use the Fnvircrrnental Rrotecticn Agency 'sA±pt
        Your Watershed Internet site (www.epa.gav/adcpt) to search for an organization active in
        your watershed.

        Sponsor a Grcundwater Festival or Watershed Festival in your carmunity to raise awareness
        about the importance of  clean water and watershed protecticn.  (See list of resources en pages

        Identify several women working in water resource protection and invite them to come to
        speak to your troop about their careers.
        Become a volunteer water quality monitor. Help collect quality data and build stewardship
        for your local waterbody. Attend a training workshop to learn proper monitoring techniques
        and safety rules (Seepage 17).
                                        Safety  First!
Any activities in or near the water can pose serious safety hazards. Carefully read
Safety-Wise before beginning any of the field activities.  Heavy rubber gloves are strongly
recommended for all cleanup activities.  Check with your Council to see if permission is required
for any of the field activities  listed in this  guide.

Home and Lawn  Care Checklist

"Personal Pollution" (All Ages)

When rain falls or sirwmelts, the seemingly small
        amounts of chemicals and ether pollut-
        ants in your driveway, en your lawn and
        on your street are washed into storm
        drains.  In many older cities, the
        stornwater runof f is not treated and
        runoff flews directly into rivers, streare,
baysandlakes. Eollutants in this runoff can poi-
son fish and other aquatic animals and make wa-
ter unsaf e for drinking and swirrming.

What can you do to help protect surf ace and
groundwaters from polluted runoff? Start at home.
Take a close look at practices around your house
that night co±ribute to polluted runoff. The fol-
lowing is a checklist to help you and your family
become part of the solution, instead of part of the

Household Products
 1.  bo you  properly dispose of household
    hazardous waste such as left over paint,
    excess pesticides,  nail polish  remover,
    varnish,  etc. by taking them to your
    city or county's hazardous waste dis-
    posal  site or by putting them out on
    hazardous waste collection days? Labels
    such as WARNING,  CAUTION  and
    DANGER indicates  the item contains in-
    gredients that are  hazardous if improp-
    erly used or disposed of.
             PI Yes      PI No
 2.  Do you select less toxic alternatives or
    use non-toxic substitutes? Baking soda,
    distilled white vinegar, and ammonia are
    safe alternatives to caustic chemicals.
    And they save you money.
             PI Yes      |~| No

  Home Cleaning Products

  General, multi-purpose cleaner (for
  ceramic tiles, linoleum, porcelain, etc.):
  Measure 1/4 cup baking soda, 1/2 cup white
  vinegar, and 1 cup ammonia into a container.
  Add to a gallon of warm water and stir until
  baking soda dissolves.

  Window  Cleaner: 3 tablespoons of ammo-
  nia, 1 tablespoon of white vinegar and  3/4
  cup of water.  Put into a spray bottle.
   bo you buy chemicals,  fertilizers and
   pesticides only in the amount you ex-
   pect to use, and  apply them  only as
directed on the label;
bo  you  use  low-phosphate  or
phosphate-free detergents? Excess nu-
trients overstimulate the growth of
aquatic weeds and algae, which can de-
plete oxygen in our stream and lakes and
kill aquatic life.
         PI Yes      PI No
   bo you recycle used oil, antifreeze, and
   car batteries by taking them to service
   stations and other recycling centers?

Landscaping and Gardening

6.   bo you select plants with low require-
     ments for water, fertilizers, and pesti-
     cides? (e.g. native plants)
             PI Yes      PI No
7.   Do you preserve existing trees and plant
     trees  and shrubs to help prevent ero-
     sion and  promote  infiltration of  water
     into the soil?
             PI Yes      PI No
8.   bo you leave lawn clippings on your lawn
     so that the nutrients in the clippings
     are recycled, less fertilizer is needed,
     and less yard waste goes to landfills?
     If your community does not compost lawn
     trimming, it usually goes to landfills.
             PI Yes      |~| No
9.   Do you prevent trash, lawn clippings,
     leaves and automobile fluids from en-
     tering storm drains?  Most storm drains
     are directly connect to our streams, lakes,
     and bays.
            PI Yes      PI No
10.  If your family uses a professional lawn
     care service, do you select a company
     that employs trained technicians and
     minimizes the use of fertilizers and pes-
     ticides? |~~| Yes      |~~| No
11.  bo you have a compost bin or pile? bo
     you use compost and mulch (such as grass
     clippings or leaves) to reduce your need
     for fertilizers and pesticides? Compost
     is a valuable soil conditioner which gradu-
     ally releases nutrients to your lawn and
     garden. In addition, compost retains mois-
     ture in the soil and thus helps conserve
     water and prevent erosion and runoff.
          bid  You Know?

         One quart of oil can
    contaminate up to two million
      gallons of drinking water!
     Information about composting is available
     from your county extension agent.
      PI Yes      Fl No
 12.  Do you test your soil before fertilizing
     your lawn or garden? Over-fertilization
     is a common problem, and the excess can
     leach into groundwater and contaminate
     rivers or lakes.
      PI Yes      |~| No
 13.  bo you avoid applying pesticides or fer-
     tilizers before or during rain?  If they
     run off into the water, they will kill fish
     and other aquatic organisms.
      PI Yes      |~| No
 Water Conservation

Homeowners can significantly reduce the vol-
ume of wastewater discharged to home septic
systems and sewage treatment plants by con-
serving water. If you have a septic system, you
can help prevent your system from overloading
and contaminating ground and surface water by
ensuring that it is functioning properly and de-
creasi ng your water usage.

 14. Do you use low-flow faucets, shower
     heads, and reduced-flow  toilet flush-
     ing equipment?
      Q] Yes      [] No

 15. bo you wash your car on  the lawn  to
     help filter pollutants? bo you use a bucket

    instead of a hose to save water? If you
    go to a commercial carwash, do you use
    one that uses water efficiently and dis-
    poses of runoff properly?
        |~| Yes        FlNo
16. bo you use dishwashers and clothes wash-
   ers only when fully loaded?

       Q   Yes       |~|No

17. Do you take short showers instead of
   baths and avoid letting faucets run un-
   necessarily (e.g., when brushing teeth)?
                       PI No
18. Do you repair leaking faucets, toilets,
    and pumps to conserve water?
  A  Hand
 What is your city
 or town or  school
 doing to  prevent  polluted  runoff?
 GUIDE contains checklists for schools,
 communities and farms. This guide can
 help you  and your  troop  identify
 potential problems in your community
 and help you take action.

 You can download a free copy of  Give
 Water A Hand Action Guide and leader
 Guidebook at www. uwex. edu/erc.  Or
 to order printed copies call:
 University of  Wisconsin-Extension
 (608) 262-3346, Item #4-H450 &
 4-H855,  Leader Guide ($4.92) &
 Action Guide  ($6.96) Price  includes
 19.  Do you conserve the amount of water
     you use on lawn and only water in the
     morning and evening to reduce evapora-
     tion?  Over-watering may increase leach-
     ing of fertilizers to ground water.
            PI Yes     PI No
 20. Do you use slow watering techniques such
    as  trickle irrigation or soaker hoses?
    These devices reduce runoff and are 20
    percent more efficient than sprinklers.
            PI Yes      |~| No
Other Things You Can Do
 21.  Do you always pick up after your pet
     (e.g..  Rover's poop)? If so, be sure to
     put it  in the trash, flush it down the
     toilet,  or  bury  it at  least 5  inches
     deep. Pet waste contai ns vi ruses and bac-
     teria that can contaminate surface and
     ground water.
            PI Yes      PI No
 22.  Have you helped stencil stormdrains to
     alert people that they drain directly to
     your local waterbody? If not,get involved
     with a local conservation group or orga-
     nize your own stenciling project.
            PI Yes     |~| No
 23.  Do you ride or drive only when neces-
     sary? Try to walk instead. Cars and trucks
     emit tremendous amounts of airborne pol-
     lutants, which increase acid rain. They also
     deposit toxic metals and petroleum by-
     products Q Yes     Q No

 24.  Do you participate  in local planning and
     zoning in your community? If not, get in-
     volved! These decisions shape the course of
     development and the future quality of your
            I"! Yes     PI No

Stream/Beach Cleanup Safety Checklist
(Cadettes and Seniors only—should  not be done by Brownies or Juniors)
Please read Safety Wise before beginning this activity.
Before  the cleanup...
*  Check with your local Department of Health or State
   Ehvircrnental Office about potential health coxems
   with the waterbody (e.g., pfiasteria, poor water qjal-
   ity, currents, nrapitcs, rats, etc.)

4  Ask for necessary permission to cleanup at your
   site. Make arrangements with the appropriate lo-
   cal officials to let them knew the location, days,
   and times of your cleanup so they can come haul
   away the trash. They may be willing to give a talk
   about the history, wildlife, or environmental con-

4  Make sure that someone knows where, when,  and
   for how long you will be out.

*  Develop a safety plan. Find out the location and
   telephone number of the nearest phone.  Locate
   the nearest medical center and write down direc-

*  Have each member of the cleanup team complete
   a permission  slip and a medical form that includes
   emergency contacts, insurance information,  and
   pertinent health information such as allergies, dia-
   betes, epilepsy, etc.

4  Listen to weather reports.  Never conduct a
   cleanup if severe weather is predicted or  a storm
   occurs while at the site. You could drown.

*  Have a first  aid kit handy. See SftFEIY WISE.  It's
   best if at least one team member has first aid/
   CPR training.
     At the cleanup site  ...
     4  Leave syringes and needles alone! Notify some-
        one in charge and mark the spot with a flag or a
        large rock so someone can find it later.

     *  Don't walk on unstable stream banks.  This could
        be dangerous as well as cause erosion. Stay off
        dunes and avoid nesting areas.

     4  If you must walk across the stream, use a walk-
        ing stick because the stream bottom could be slip-
        pery, treacherous,  and even contain deep pools.
        Do not attempt to walk across streams that are
        swift and above the knee in depth. These can kill.

     4  Look out for plants like poison ivy, poison oak,
        sumac. These can cause rashes and skin irritation.

     *  Watch for wildlife-snakes, ticks, hornets, and
        wasps. Also beware of large animals  like dogs,
        alligators, snapping turtles, and farm animals.

     4  Wear rubber gloves (like dishwashing gloves) to
        protect hands and arms. Be careful with broken
        glass and rusty cans.

     *  Always stay with a buddy. Teams of three or four
        are probably best.

     A  Ifyaasasa^tWirjattrmal (e.g., dsadSsh, oil spills,
        leaking barrels, bulktrasli) contact your city or county
        environmental department right away and report
        the nature and location of the problem.
  Suggested Items to Bring or Wear
  Shoes or boots that offer coverage &
  support, at least over the ankles
  Heavy Rubber gloves (like dishwashing
  gloves) to protect hands and arms
  Safety vests (brightly colored); Day-glo
  orange is best!
  Large Plastic Bags
Heavy sacks for sharp objects
Medications (e.g. for bee allergies,
diabetes, if needed)
Insect repellant
List of emergency contacts, including
a telephone number nearest to the si
Cell Phone

Storm Drain Stenciling  Project Guidelines
(Recommended for Cadettes and Seniors)
A stem drain stexiling project consists of stencil-
ing a message next to the street drain reminding
people "Dump No Waste-Drains to River" with
the drags of a fish. (Stencils are also available for
lake, stream, bay, groundwater, ocean or simply
'"protect your water" with the image of a glass and
faucet.) Steps to consider when conducting a sten-
    t, rail farpemrissKii. Fbrpublic streets, call the
city or County Public Works Department
 (stormwater or road maintenance division) . In
seme cases, the State Highway Ajhiinistraticn has
jurisdiction (see adjacent box for help) . Public
Works will probably issue a permit or letter of ap-
proval . They may even help by providing storm
drainmaps,  traffic safety cones, flags and vests.
Check to see if they prefer that you stencil on the
sidewalk, or on the street next to the drain. For
seme drains on private property (e.g., business or
apartment parking lots), get the permission of the
property owner.

Cfcnsider safety.  Especially when stenciling with
children, seriously consider traffic safety issues
when you select your site. Neighborhoods are usu-
ally safer than downtown city streets (many
nonpoint sources go down storm drains in resi-
dential neighborhoods) . Place traffic safety cones
and assign at least one person with a traffic flag to
watch. traffic at all tirres.

PrT^H na TngfoaH al « . Before using stencils for the first
time, "weed" remaining letters from the die cuts .
This prevents small plastic or oilboardpieces wash-
ing into drains while you are stenciling.  "Stencil
weeding" is a good activity for a short training
meeting before going out to paint .  For painting,
an aerosol can or traf f ic-zcne latex paint (without
cMorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that harm the ozone)
is a good option. Seme stencilers use a small roller
or stencil brush with recycled latex based paints .
F3e careful that
younger sten-
cilers do not apply
paint too thickly, as it will run
under the stencil or smaar the letters.

Call the media. Notifying the madia of a stenciling
event can get your watershed protection message
out to the whole corrmunity. Young people in the
project enhance media photo opportunities. Re-
member to take your own pictures, too.
        Help for Storm brain
          Stenciling Projects
   Many local watershed groups and county
   governments offer help with stenciling
   projects. In the metropotian D.C. area,
   the Chesapeake Bay Foundation provides
   stencils on loan, guidelines on how to con-
   duct a project, and tips on who to con-
   tact to obtain permission. Call Heather
   Tuckfield at 410-268-8816.

   The Center for Marine Conserva1ion(CMC)
   sponsors a "Million Points of Blight" na-
   tional  storm drain stenciling campaign.
   Call Ron  Ohrel  at (757) 496-0920 to
   request stencils on loan and project guide-
   lines.  CMC's address:  1432 North Sreat
   Neck Road, Suite 103, Virginia Beach,
   VA 23454.

   Edrthwater Stencils  produces stencils
   and other watershed education mate-
   rials.  Write to: 4425 140th Avenue,
   SW, Dept. V, Rochester, WA 98579-
   9703.  Phone: (360)-956-3774. On the
   web at www. earthwater- stencils, com.

Avoid amess. Kamiirlstencilers to wear oM clothes.
R±berglov«sanipK±ectiveeye^sraiEte]pEul, as
are plastic tags worn over expensive shoes. Bringrags
to cleanup unexpected paint 01 your arms cor firgers.
Also include big litter bags to bring back usedglo\«s
and rags as well as any garbage you pick up that oth-
erwise could go down the storm drain. Paint spray
can drift o±o nearby parked cars, so bring a large
box opened flat to use as a shield arcurl the stencil as
you spray.

Vbck. in teams of four to six. The team should include
a traffic lock-out. Another two team members acccm-
paniedby an adult may go together door-to-door ex-
plaining the watershed drainage, yournrnitoring
findings, local river fish and wildlife, and actions
neighbors can take to avidpolluticn (see flyer infor-
mation below) . Rotate jobs for maximum enjoyment
and experience.

Tips for applying stencils. Scrub the area briskly
with a wire brush and dust it off with a whisk
broom. Lay the mylar stencil on the sidewalk or
street next to the storm drain. If using spray paint,
shake the can and hold it about six to eight inches
from the stencil, tte a series of short back and forth
motions to spray ore line at a time until the letters
are uniformly covered. Do not use too much paint
as it will run underneath and blur the letters. When
finished, rarFfnlly lift- j-Vp.qhfnrri 1 ipnFFt-hp.q|-TFF<-
It may take a little experience in the beginning to
adjust the amount of paint. After finishing all the
stenciling for the day, lay the stencils cut flat to
dry in a warm place. When the paint is completely
dry, gently roll the stencils to chip off the paint.
This works best if the paint does not build up a
thick layer between cleanings.

Prepare a flyer or doorhanger. After stenciling a
message  that tells neighborhood people what not
to do (Dump No Waste),  Girl Scouts can hand out
and discuss a flyer or door hanger explaining:

4  recycle used oil at nearby listed locations
   use fewer chemicals en lawns & gardens

   save household hazardous chemicals for collec-
   tion days  (give dates and location)

   pick up waste that would otherwise wash down
   storm drains

   other stewardship opportunities

    local information for a sense of place:

   Where do  neighborhood drains go— into what
   river, bay, late or aquif er?

   If drains connect to combined sewer overflows
    (CSOs) , how do they work? What happens with
   overflows during stormwater events? (They go
   straight to the river. )

   Who lives near or in the river? (Names of local
   species of f ish, birds, and ether critters.)

   What restoration projects are underway to clean
   up or replant streamsides, build and install bird
   or bat boxes, maintain local trails?

   How  can  community members  help  with
These guiriplinpf! were adapted and reprinted with
permission from .Rhonda Hunter,  the founder of
earthnaber Stencils, 4425 140th Avenue, SN, Dept.
V, Rxtester, W. 98579-9703. Hme: (360) -956-3774.
Ch the t&B at wmr.earthm.ter-stencils.aam. These
guidelines were adapted from a story that appeared
in The Volunteer MuLtornewsletber, IfalurB 7, Jfo.

       Healthy  Stream  Critters   (Cadettes  &  Seniors)

 This activity can be done in conjunction with the Streamwalk (page  18). Be sure to observe
       the Streamwalk tips (page 25) and Safety-Wise before conducting this activity.
     here's a whole world of life in rivers and streams.  living alongside fish, anphibians, reptiles, and
     wildlife are nacoroinvertebrabas-creatures that are large (macro)  enough to be seen with the naked
eye, and that lack a backbone (invertebrate).  Aguatic insects, clams, snails, crayfish, worms and leeches
areallrracroinvertebrates.  Sore, likesnails,  live their whole lives in the water; others, like dragonflies,
leave the water as adults to feed and reproduce. In streams, most macroinvertebrates live under or at-
tached to submerged rocks, logs, andplants. like all living things, they need oxygen to breathe, waterof
the right temperature to thrive and reproduce in, suitable habitat, and the right kind of food. When these
requirarents aren't met, these creatures will sicken and die.
Scientists and trained volunteers study macroinvertebrates to learn more about stream quality.  The basic
principle behind the study of macroinvertebrates is that sore are more sensitive to pollution than others,
so if you find lets of macroinvertebrates that can't tolerate pollution, you' ve found a pretty clean stream.
On the other hand, if you find only macroinvertebrates that can live in polluted conditions, your stream
may have a problem. Below are a few examples of macroinvertebrates that live in clean streams.
Description: The stonef ly has six legs with strong claws, and their
antennae are often long and easily seen.  They have two hair-like
tails and a smooth abdomen, their eyes are often big and widely
separated, and many have strong color patterns.
                                  Size:  Stoneflies are .5 to 1.5 inches
r r 1
Description: Caddisf ies have three pairs
of segmented  legs and two back hooks.
Some have fluffy gill tufts on their
abdomen and no tails.  Their antennae
are not visible, and they have rounded
bodies and tiny eyes.

Size: Caddiflies grow up to 1.5  inches.
Visit http://water.nr.state.ky.us/ww/vm.htm for a listing of volunteer monitoring homepages, main-
tained by Kentucky Water Watch. Be sure to check out the on-line macroinvertebrate key at the
bottom of the page!

Nymph     Adult
                          Description:  Mayflies can be brown, tan or mottled in color, and many have plate-like
                          or feathery gills on their abdomen. They have six jointed legs, two long and delicate
                          antennae, and three hair-like tails.

                          Size: Bodies of mayflies are .25 to 1 inch long.
      C-HiiJsv: '.ri. v n-'pli-rJp
                          Description: The Dobson fly is dark brown, has six legs, large pinching jaws and eight
                          pairs of feelers on the lower half of their bodies with gill tufts below them. They have
                          short antennae and two pairs of hooks at the end of the abdomen that anchor them to
                          the stream bottom.

                          Size: Dobsonflies can reach up to 4 inches long.
                          Description: Small oval body covered with tiny hairs. One pair of tiny antennae
                          and 6 legs.  Walks very slowly on the bottom; does not swim!

                          Size: Riffle beetles are about 1/4 inch.
                             Getting Started in Volunteer Maaitaring
  MxdtcadiTgrracroirivertelara.tes requires trainirg in safety considerations, field methods, bug
  identif icaticn, and analysis cf results. Trocps interested in rracroinvertebrate cor ether f orms cf
  stream nrnitoring should get in touch with a local program that trains volunteers in these activi-
  ties .  There are currently over 770 volunteer monitoring programs around the country, plus
  several that are national in scope.  Check cut EPA's National Directory of Volunteer Environ-
  mental MDnitoring Programs to find a group near you that may help train your troop. (Call 1-
  800-490-9198  and ask for EPA publication 841-B-98-009.)  EPA's Adopt  Your Watershed web
  page at  www. epa.gov/adcpt can also link you up with volunteer groups  in your
  watershed.   Also check the resource list on pages 40-41.

  Two national organizations that can also help you get started are: the Izaak Walton
  League of America's Save  Our Streams program (for macroinvertebrate moni-
  toring training and kits)  at 1-800-BUG-IWIA; and EARTH KECE  (for low-cost
  water quality monitoring kits to test for pH, dissolved oxygen, and other sub-
  stances in the water) at 1-800-23-FORCE.

(Cadettes and Seniors)

Before the  Streamwalk

1  Vfe encourage you to ocntact local groups in-
   volved in envirorrnental issues in your area.
   This serves two purposes: one, these groups
   may be able to provide you with information
   and background on your Streanwalk site; and
   two, you may be able to piggyback on an exist-
   ing program. Visit EPA's Adopt Your Water-
   shed web page at www.epa.gov/cKkptto
   see if there is a group in your watershed you
   can team up with.

2  Choose the general area for your Streanwalk.
   Troop leaders should carefully read Safety-
   Vfise before beginning this activity. Also, itis
   strongly reconmended that Troop leaders visit
   the Streamwalk site in advance. You may wish
   to collect data along a familiar stream,  ore that
   is close to yojr troop meeting location, crone
   that does not cascade down a steep mountain
   side. You may decide to do a series of streams
   in a watershed to collect baseline data, orcoi-
   centrate your efforts in areas suspected of be-
   ing polluted.  It  is recommended that
   streanwalks be done four times a year  (once
   each season) at your site.

3  Find a U.S.  Geological Survey (USGS) topo-
   graphic map of your area. These "topo" maps
   show such things as buildings,  elevations, wa-
   terways and reads. Tbpomaps identify the lati-
   tude and longitude of your site. Jfelp in defin-
   ing longitude and latitude is provided en pages
   23-24. We recommend a 7-1/2 minute quad
   nap (1:24,000 scale where 11 inches = 4 miles),
   which are available at local sporting goods
   stores. The cost is approximately $4. You may
   also find one to photocopy at your local library,
   or you can order directly fromU3GS.  For as-
   sistance,  call 1-888-ASK-USGS.
                       /'S^  --<
4  New, find your specific Streanwalk site en the
   topo map. It will be easier for future
   streamAalkers to locate your site if it is near
   landrarks (roads, highways, and tributaries),
   especially those on the nap. For purposes of
   Streanwalks, you will be characterizing 100
   feat (orabaut65rreters) in either direeticafrcm
   your site. You may do as many sites on the
   stream as you wish, just be sure that sites are
   at least 200 feat apart.

5  Finally,  pull out a copy of the Streanwalk sur-
   vey data form. It is very inportant that you
   have gone through the instructions and the
   Streamwalk Tips on page 25 before you begin
   your walk. You will use your nap and one sur-
   vey data sheet per Streanwalk site.

Nyte: Several citizen, groups and agency represen-
tatives worked with EPA's Region 10 office (Se-
attle, ifashington) to develop Streanwalk. It is
intended to be an easy-to-use screening tool for
monitoring stream corridor health.

 Instructions for Filling out Streamwalk Survey Data Sheets

        elow are directions on how to fill out the Streamwalk Survey Data sheet. Please read these
        thoroughly be fore you begin your walk. If,  while conducting your Streamwalk, you are not
        able to determine what the response should be, or if the question itself is unclear, just leave
that space blank-but don't stop your walk. Remember this is not a test,  there are no right or wrong
answers. Walks can be done along the stream^you do not need to enter the water. Please read Safety
Wise before beginning this activity.

Give the stream name, county and state of your site, preferably as it appears on the topo map. Note: there
are seme unnamed streams; in these cases you can indicate the stream,  lake or water body into which your
stream flows and the name and number of the topo map. If you want to share your information with a
local or state environmental agency, it is useful to include the longitude and latitude of your site(s). Com-
puting this may present a challenge. See pages 23-24.

The concern with weather relates to amount of rainfall that potentially can affect flow, clarity and amount of
water in a stream. Weather/rainfall reports are available in the daily newspaper or by call ing the local weather
service. Eef initions of weather ccnditicns establishedby the Weather Service are:
Rain -1/3" in24 hours - light steady rainfall.
Showers - 1/3" - 1" in 24 hours, intermittent and variable in intensity.
Stem-  1" ormore rain in 24 hrs, usually accompanied by high winds.
Stream Description
Depth and Width Measurements
This inf crmaticn will give a description of the stream water at your site .  Please indicate if your data is
estimated or measured. Remember, it is best to estimate if taking measurements will disturb habitat,
require that you wade in deep water, or disturb stream banks. Do not attempt to cross in high flows. If it
         slightly unsafe, do not try it at all. Please read Safety Wise.
Water Clarity
The clearness of the water is observed to determine if sediment pollution is entering the stream. Cloudy or
different colored water can be a result of natural processes or of land use in the surrounding watershed.
Sediments can adversely affect habitat ccnditicns such as food, health of fish, and breeding environTent
forrracroinvertebrates. In some areas, grey or white water can be a result of natural processes such as
glacial sources for streams.

Water Flow: Pools & Riffles
The variety of flow in relation to depth creates habitat to support fi^ and invertebrate life. Pools aredeeper
than adjacent areas. They provide feeding, resting and spawning areas for fish. Riff les and/or runs are flows
swift in ccnpariscn to surrounding areas. Riffles are shallow and fast water,  runs are deep and fast water
and pools are slow and deep water.

Stream Channel Cross-section. Shape
Please check the box which matches the shape of the stream channel . If you are unable to see the  shape of
the bottom and banks, please estimate . You can base your estimate on the flow of water. The slower the
water in the middle of the stream, the flatter the bottom.

Stream Bottom (substrate)
Indicate the most common type of material on the stream bottom.
Silt/clay/nud: This substrate has a sticky, cohesive feeling. The particles are
fine. The spaces between the particles hold a lot of water, making the sedi-
ments behave like ooze.
Sand (up to 1 inch) : Sand is made up of tiny particles of rock. It feels soft un-
Gravel  (.1-2 inches) :  A gravel stream bottom is made up of stones ranging
from tiny quarter inch pebbles to rocks of about 2 inches.
Cfctbles (2 - 10 inches) : The majority of rocks on this type of stream bottom are
between 2 and 10 inches. The average size is about that of a grapefruit.
Boulders  (greater than 10") : Most of the rocks on the bottom will be large,
greater than 10 inches.
Bedrock: This kind of stream bottom is solid rock.
Width of Natural Streamside Corridor
Streamside corridor, riparian area and zone of influence are terms that describe the natural vegetated
area on either side of the stream. Along with the stream, it forms the habitat of the river. It includes
vegetation that shades the water, holds the soil in place, adds nutrients to the stream in the form of
leaves and during flooding, and provides living quarters for Streamside wildlife. Estimate as best
you can the width of the corridor at your site. Indicate with an "xT' on the bar graph. Note: Left and
right are based on looking down stream. If the vegetation is pasture or landscaped, this is not a
natural state, so mark "o."

Streamside Vegetation
Vegetation acts as a filter for sediment and pollution coming in from the land nearby. It provides
habitat for the many creatures that are dependent on and influence the stream. Branches, logs and
leaves enter the stream from this region. Vegetation also provides shade, which keeps the water cool.
On the data sheet mark all the categories that apply.
Cfcnifer: A cone bearing, evergreen tree or shrub (e.g. a pine tree)
Deciduous: A tree which sheds its foliage at the end of the growing season
Snail trees or Shrubs: Either conifers or deciduous bushes less than 20 feet high.
Grasses: Any of numerous plants with narrow leaves, jointed stems and spikes or clusters of incon-
spicuous flowers.

Overhead Canopy (Stream Cover)
This is the amount of vegetation that overhangs the stream. It offers protection and refuge for fish
and other organisms, shades the stream and keeps the water cool, and provides "launching" areas
for insects that might fall into the river. Estimate as best you can,  about how much of the river is
overhung by vegetation and whether it be grasses,  shrubs or trees. Please check the category that is
appropriate for the current condition of your site. For example, if in the winter there are no leaves on
the trees in your segment, you might check 0 - 25%. However,  in the summer when the trees have
leaves, you might check 50 - 75%.

.Artificial fenfcBcotecticn
This category includes such streamside modif icatim as riprap (a retaining wall built of rocks or concrete)
and bulkheads. It may also include deliberately placed auto bodies, refrigerators, and washing machines.
People in the past have thought that such modif icaticns helped stabilize stream banks. Lhfortunately, not
only do they drastically degrade habitat for streamside and in-stream dwellers, they can cause bank ero-
sion in flood conditions. Mark the categories that best describe the condition of the stream bank within
your 500 foot segnent.

Presence of lags or Wxxty Debris in Stream
logs and woody debris (not twigs and leaves) can slew or divert water to provide important fish habitat
such as pools and hiding places. So please mark the general amount of logs and woody debris in the
Organic Debris in Stream
The presence of other organic matter in the stream can be both gcodandbad. If there
are dumped grass clippings, it is not good for stream health. On the other hand,
naturally failing leaves and twigs can be beneficial.
Pish in Stream
Can you see any fish? Mark it down! If you know what kind of fish it is, say so in the space next to the
question. If you think there are fishbut you cannot see them, mark "no. "
Adjacent Land Uses
Mjacent land use has a great impact 01 the quality and state of the stream and riparian areas. Eotera "1"
if the land use is present and a "2" if it is clearly impacting the stream. If you cannot determine the type of
housing, industry or development, please make your best estimate .
This section is designed to get information about potential problems at your Stream/\alk site. Eater a "1"
if the condition is present and"2" if it is severe.

Stream Banks
Ifetural plant cover degraded:  Indicate if stream side vegetation is trampled, missing, or replaced by
landscaping or cultivation.
Banks collapsed/eroded: Note if banks or parts of banks have been washed away or worn down.
Banks artificially modif led: Indicate if banks have been artificially modified by construction or placement
of rocks, wood or cement supports or lining.
Garbage or junk adjacent to stream: Describe human-made materials present.

Stream Channel
Mjd/silt/sand on bottom/entering stream: Excessive mud or silt entering the stream and clouding the
water can interfere with the ability offish to sight potential prey. It can also clog fish gills and smother eggs
in spawning areas on the stream bottom. Mud/silt/sand can be an indication of poor construction prac-
tices in the watershed, where runoff coming off the site is not adequately contained. It can also be a
perfectly normal occurrence, especially if, for example, a muddy bottom is found along a very slow-
moving segnent or a wetland. Use your best judgement.

Artificial Streaminodifications:  Please note if the stream water has been damned, dredged, filled, or
channelized through culverts cor if other large scale activities such, as log removal are apparent.
Algae/scum floating/covering rods: Evidence of algae (very tiny plants that can color the water green or
can resemble seaweed)  or scum in  the water may point to an upstream source adding too much nutrient
 (fertili2er) tothewater.
Foam or shsenrThis is a bit of a tricky category because this type of thing can be naturally occurring or a
problem. For example, an iridescent or shiny sheen on the water might be from rotting leaves or it might
be from sore upstream pollutant.  If you are not sure, mark it on the checklist.
Gkzfcage or junk in stream: This is your chance to point out very straight forward problems like batteries,
tires, bare appliances,  car bodies, and garbage.

Organic debris or garbage: The purpose is to determine if the stream is being used as a dump site for
materials that wculdnot be present naturally. Debris can be anything from a pop can to vegetation brought
from outside the stream corridor.
Livestock in or with unrestricted access to stream: Ace livestock present or is there an obvious path that
livestock use to get to the water from adjacent fields? Is there stream-side degradation caused by access?
Actively discharging pipes: Ace there pipes with visible openings durping fluids or water into the stream?
Pleasenote, even though you may not be able to tell where they oare frcm cr what they are discharging. ED
not touch this effLuafcl
Other pipes: Are there pipes entering the stream? Please mark even  if you cannot find an opening or see
matter being discharged.
Ditches: Any ditches draining into the stream?
   Sick Stream  Symptoms
    Shiny surface car rainbow colors—If you see rainbow color on the veter' s surface or if you smell oil ( a
    gas station smell), then oil might be polluting your stream. Oil can come from a pipeline leak, a storm
    sewer or illegal dumping. Oil kills fish and can make kids who play in the water sick.
    Green water—Too much algae. Algae are small plants that are found in the water. Fertilizers from farms
    and lawns can get into streams and cause too much algae to grow. When algae break down or decompose,
    oxygen is used up and fish don't have enough to breathe.
    Brown or muddy water—Too much dirt or sediment in the water. Dirt clogs fish gills so fish can't
    breathe. Dirt kills stream critters when it settles to the bottom and buries than. Dirt blocks light to under-
    water plants, and they die too.
    Orange water-Orange water can indicate the presence of iron in the water. Iron can be naturally present
    where the soils are high in iron. This is not a pollution problem. However, orange water can indicate acidic
    runoff from mining activities. Acidic water kills fish and other stream life.

    Ebam or suds-Some foam or suds in the stream is natural. If you see foam in the stream that is more  than
    three inches tall, looks like bubble bath and doesn' t break apart easily, detergent may have entered the
    stream. Soap can come from homes, factories or car washes. Soap harms stream critters because it breaks
    the surface tension of the water and insects like water striders sink and drown.
    Strange odors—A chemical smell can mean harmful chemicals are polluting your stream. A rotten egg
    smell can mean sewage is getting into the stream from cows, sewage treatment plants, or people's homes.
    Sewage or chemicals can make people and animals sick.

       Reprinted with permission from Izaak Walton League Save Our Streams Program

Instructions for Defining Latitude and

Latitude and longitude are defined in degrees, minutes and
seconds. There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes
in a degree. The  symbols are as follows ° = degrees,
'= minutes, and " = seconds. The following example may help
you determine the latitude and longitude for your walk.


look at the right side (upper or lower comer)  under the map
name, or the second of two nunfcers separated by "x", to find
the width, scale  (longitude) of the map:

I  If "7.5 Minute Series, "enter 450.
   Your Work
   If "15 Minute Series," enter 900.
   If "7. 5x15" Minute Series," enter 900.
   If "15x30 Minute Series," enter 900.

3  Using a ruler,  measure the width of your map
   easttowest (excludeborders).

3  Divide #1 by #2 to the nearest whole number

4  Enter the Longitude located in the lower
   right hand comer.

9  Using a ruler, measure (centimeters) frcm
   your site,  straight across, to the right hand side
   of the map.

0  Multiply #5 by #3  (to the nearest whole number) .

1  Convert #6 to minutes and seconds by dividing by 60.
   Your whole number after division is the number of
   minutes, and the remainder is the number of seconds.
    (Do not use a calculator.) Fbrexarrple,  215can.be
   divided by 60 three times. 215-180=35. So 215 converts

9  £dd#4to#7.

The Answer for #8 is the longitude of your site.

— 1~



I ;
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90  sec/cm


3.7 cm
(300 with
33 left
over, or


Lock at the right side  (upper cor lower comer) under the map name, or the second of two numbers sepa-
ratedby"x", to find the height scale (latitude) of themp:
9   If "7.5 Minute Series, "enter 450.
    If "15 Minute Series," enter 900.
    If "7. 5x15" Minute Series," enter 450.

ID)  Using a ruler, measure the length, of your map
    north to south (exclude borders).

11)  Divide #9 by #10 to the nearest whole number

12)  Enter the latitude located in the lower
    right hand comer.

13)  Using a ruler, measure (centimeters) from
    your site, straight down, to the bottom
    of the map.

14)  Multiply #13 by #11 (to the nearest whole number) .

15)  Convert #14 to minutes and seconds by dividing by 60.
    Your whole number after division is the number of
    minutes, and the remainder is the number of seconds.
    (Do not use a calculator.)  Fbrexarrple, 215canbe
    divided by 60 three times.  215-180=35. So 215 converts

16)  Mi #15 to #12.
2he Answer foe #16 is the latitude of your site.
Your Work


            sec/cm 45	sec/cm
                    (180 with
                    36 left
                    over, or
                    3' 36"
           . --i': f /

Streamwalk  Tips
iig precautionary tips:
Please crnpiffar the
•  Get the permission of landowners to cross any
   private land, posted or not . Do Not Biter Areas
   Without Permission . It is reccnmended that you
   use public access points (such as city/county/
   state parks and campgrounds) .

•  Only record what you see, not what you have pre-
   viously seen. For example if you think fish are
   present but you can' t see them, mark your sheet
   "no fish present . "

•  Always work with someone .

•  Do not put yourself in danger to gather survey

•  Be careful of ticks, poison oak,  nettles, insects.
   Bring repellent . Wear long pants and boots : wind
   breakers help fend off nettles .

•  Watch cut for dogs .

•  Do not drink the water— it is unsafe .
•  Do not walk on unstable banks; your footsteps
   could speed erosion.

•  Be alert for spawning areas  (redds) in the stream.
   Do not walk on them. They will look like a round
   or elliptical area of clean gravel about 1-3 feet long.
   During fall through spring, when redds are evi-
   dent, try not to walk; in the stream.  In the sum-
   mer, if you are careful, the stream bed might be
   the easiest route for conducting your stream/elk:.
   Be aware that the stream bed can be very slip-
   pery, uneven, and unpredictable.

•  Do not attenpt to walk across  streams that are
   swift and above the knee in depth. You can be
   swept away in an instant!

•  Be careful of streamside vegetation - disturb it as
   little as possible.

•  If for any reason you feel unconfortable about
   the stream onditions or surroundings, please step
   your Streamwalk. You and your safety are much
   more valuable than the Streamwalk!
   Recommended list of items to take along:

   Photocopies of topo map of stream to be walked
   Comfortable rubber boots
   Snag and thorn-proof clothing that is appropriate for the weather
   dip board with waterproof cover
   Streamwalk data forms
   Two pencils
   Folding ruler or tape measure
   Camera and film in waterproof bag
   Leather gloves
   First Aid Kit (See SAFETY- WISE for contents)
   Cell Phone
   If you are away from urban or residential areas, the following are also recommended for safety:
   Extra clothes in a waterproof bag
   Fire starter (candle, cheap lighter, tinder)
   Flashlight and extra batteries
   Global Positioning Device, compass
   Aluminum-foil blanket (for winter excursions)

Site  Survey Data  Sheet (Complete One Sheet per Site)
  Stream name:
  Troop Name:  -
  Contact Name:
  Site (name, description or nuifcer):
   (See instructions engages 23-24)
  latLtzrfe:                 °
  Lcngitude:    	 °
             (see instructions en page 19)
  Stresm DeSCriptLcn  (see instructions cnpagas 19-21)
  I  Depth:
  2  Clarity:  Does water appear
measured (at site)
measured (at site)
  3  Water FLcw:  (check all that apply) :
  4   Stream Channel Cross-Section Shape: (at site)

Site Survey  Data Sheet (Complete One Sheet per Site)
  4  Stream bottcm: (check the most common)
      Q] Clay/Mud           [] Cobbles (2 - 10")
      Q] Sand (up to .1")       Q] Boulders (over 10")
      |~|Gravel (.1-2")         Q] Bedrock (Solid)

  5  Width of Ifetural Streamside Cbrridor: (average)
     Left looking downstream:	meters    Right looking downstream:

  6  Streamside Vegetation:
                                None/Sparse    Occasional    Common

     Small trees and Shrubs (<20')       I  I            I  I           LJ

        Vegetation appears  Q natural   Q cultivated   Q~

  7  Extent of Overhead Canopy:
     EH 0-25%     Q] 25-50%    Q] 50-75%    Q] 75-1 00%

  8  Extent of Artificial Bank Protection:
     Q] 0-25%     Q] 25-50%    Q] 50-75%    Q] 75-1 00%

  9  Presence of Legs or Large Vfcody Debris in Stream:
     |  | None    ^] Occasional     I  I Common

  10. Presence of Other Organic Debris in Stream:
     |  | Occasional    | | Common

  XL. Any fish present?

  Other Comments? 	
mixed (w/weeds)

Site  Survey Data Sheet (Complete One Sheet per Site)
Land Uses
(see instructions oipsge 21)
Checfc"!" if present, "2" if clearly inpact-
1 2
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a

a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
Rp^ri rtpnH al /Trrii ipt-ri al
Single family housing
Multi -family housing
Corrmercial development
Light industry
Heavy industry
Road/bridge construction
Roads, etc.
E&ved roads or bridges
Uhpaved roads

Construction Underway on:
Single family housing
Multi -family housing
Corrmercial development
Light Industry
Heavy Industry
Grazing land
Fesdlots or animal holding
Mining or gravel pits
(see instructions onpsges 21-22)
Check "1" if present, "2" if inpact seans
1 2 Stream banks
Q Q Natural streamside cover
Q Q Banks collapsed/eroded
Q Q Baifeart±ficnallyrrcdified
Q Q Garbage/ jurik adjacent to
Stream channel
Q Q Mjd, silt, or sand
in or entering stream
Q Q Artificial stream rrodificaticns
(dams, channels, culverts, etc.)
Q Q Algae or scum f Icating or
coating rocks
Q Q Foam or Sheen
Q Q Garbage/ junk in stream

Q Q Organic debris (garbage,
grass clippings, etc.)
Q Q Livestock in or with
\jnrestrictedaccess to stream
Q Q Actively discharging pipe (s)
Q Q Ctherpdpe(s) entering
Q Q Ditches entering

                            Build Your Own Aquifer
BACKGROUND:  Many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called
aquifers. Water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to obtain
groundwater  for drinking water purposes. Home owners who cannot obtain their drinking water
from a public water supply will have private wells drilled on their property. Unfortunately, ground-
water can become contaminated by harmful chemicals, including household and lawn care prod-
ucts, paints, bleach, cleaners, fertilizers, pesticides, and oil. These chemicals can percolate down
through the soil and rock and into the aquif er-and eventually the well.  Such contamination can
pose a significant threat to human health. The measures that must be taken by well owners and
operators to either protect or clean up contaminated aquifers are quite costly.

NOTE: This demonstration should follow a troop discussion on potential sources of drinking water
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how water is stored in an aquifer, how groundwater can become contami-
nated, and how this contamination ends up in the drinking water well. Ultimately, students should
get a clear understanding that what happens above the ground can potentially end up in the drinking
water below it.
*   16"x8" clear plastic cmtainer that is at least
    6-8" deep (shoe box or small aquarium)
4   1 Ib. of modeling clay or floral clay
*   2 Its. of white play sand
4   2 Ibs. of aquarium gravel (natural color if
    possible) or small pebbles (As any small
    rocks may have a powdery residue on them,
    you may wish to rinse them and dry on a
    clean towel prior to use. It is best if they do
    not add cloudiness to water.)
*   1 drinking water straw
*   1 plastic spray bottle (be sure the stem that
    extends into the bottle is clear)
4   1 small piece  (3x5) of green felt
*   1/4 cup of powered cocoa
4   red food coloring
*   1 bucket of clean water and small cup to dip
    water from bucket
*   scotchtape

1  To one side of the container place the small
   drinking water straw,  allowing approxi -
   mately 1/8 of an inch clearance with the bot-
   tom of the container. Fasten the straw di-
   rectly against to the long side of the cmtainer
   with a piece of tape. Explain to the students
   that this will represent two separate well
   functions later in presentation (if not placed
   at this time, sand will clog the opening) .
2  Dour a layer of white sand completely cov-
   ering the bottom of the clear plastic con-
   tainer, making it approximately 1 " deep.
   Dour water into the sand, wetting it com-
   pletely, but there should be no standing wa-
   ter on top of sand. Let students see how the
   water is absorbed in the sand, but remains
   around the sand particles as it is stored in
   the ground and ultimately in the aquifer.
3  Flatten the modeling clay (like a pancake)
   and cover half of the sand with the clay (try
   to press the clay into the three sides of the

container in the area covered). The day rep-
resents a "ccnf ining layer" that keeps water
f ran passes through it.  Dour a small amount
of water onto the clay. let the students see
how the water remains on top of  the clay,
only flowing into the sand below in areas not
covered by the clay.

Use the aquarium rocks to form the next
layer of earth. Place the rocks over the sand
and clay, covering the entire container. To
one side of your container, slope the rocks,
forming a high hill and a valley. Now pour
water into your aquifer until the water in the
valley is even with your hill. let girl scouts
see the water around the rocks that is stored
within the aquifer. They will also notice a
"surface" supply of water  (a small lake) has
formed. This will give  them a view of both
the ground and surface water supplies  that
can be used for drinking water purposes.

Next, place the small piece of green felt on
tcpof thehill. If possible, use a little clay to
securely fasten it to the sides of the container
it readies.

Using the cocoa, sprinkle some on top of the
hill, while explaining to students that the co-
coa represents improper use of lawn chemi-
oalsorfertili2ers, etc.

Put a few drops of food coloring into the
straw, explaining to students that often old
wells are used to dispose of farm chemicals,
trash and used motor oils. They will see that
it will color the sand in the bottom of the con-
  tainer. This is one way pollution can spread
  throughout the aquifer over time.
  Fill the spray battle with water. Now make it
  rain on top of the hill and over the coaoa. stu-
  dents will quickly see the cocoa (fertilizer/
  pesticide) seep cb/\n through the felt and also
  wash into the surface water supply.
  Take another look at the well you contami-
  nated. The pollution has probably spread
  further. Now remove the top of the spray
  bottle and insert the stem into the straw, de-
  press  the trigger to pull up the water from
  the well.  (Water will be colored and "pol-
  luted. ") Explain that this is the same water a
  drinking water well will  draw up for them
  to drink.

For other ideas  and activities	

The  Blue Thumb Project
The Blue  Thumb Project is an international
public awareness and education effort to
encouarge people to take better care of our
drinking water.  Each year a set of materials
on  water—and  its  care—is  developed  and
disseminated to organizations to help them
plan community water education and  action
projects.  Write to:  The  Blue Thumb Project,
c/o AWWA, 6666 W. Quincy Ave., Denver.
CO 80235 (303) 794-7711.
http: //www. awwa. org/bluethumb/

The  Groundwater Foundation
The Groundwater Foundation is  a  nonprofit
education foundation dedicated to educating
the  public  about  the  conservation  and
management of  groundwater.  Contact the
Groundwater Foundation, PO box 22558, Lincoln,
NE 68542-2558, (402) 434-2740 or fax
(402) 434- 2742. www. groundwater. org

EPA's Groundwater/Oinking Water Web Page
at http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/ has dozens
of games and activities and science and art

Backyard Conservation (Seniors)
Make a home for birds, butterflies and other of nature's
creatures at your home or troop meeting location
Habitat is a ocnfcinaticn of food, water, shelter,
and space arranged to meet the needs of wildlife.
Even a small yard can be landscaped to attract
birds, butterflies, beneficial insects, and small ani-
mals. Trees, shrubs, and other plants provide shel-
ter and food far wildlife.

The plants you use for food and cover will help
determine the wildlife species attracted to your
backyard.  Nesting boxes, feeders, and watering
sites be added to improve the habitat.

Planning your wildlife habitat
Planning is necessary for attractive and produc-
tive wildlife habitat. You have both a horizontal
area to work with—the size of your lot—as well as a
vertical area that stretches from your soil to the
treetops. The vertical area is composed of the
canopy formed by the tallest tree branches; under-
story vegetation consisting of smaller trees, shrubs,
and vines; the floor, which is often dominated by
groundcovers; and the basement where a variety
of organisms exist in the soil. Different wildlife
species live in each of these zones, so numerous
habitats can be provided on a small piece of land.

Trees and shrubs are the backbone of any land-
scaping desigi and inportant for wildlife shelter.
IXfeny tree and shrub species are excellent sources
of food for wildlife. Proper selection of plant ma-
terial can rreet both the aesthetic needs of the ho-
meowner and the food and shelter needs of wild-
life. £&7H?fcer that you are part cf the habitat.'
  This activity was taken from the Natural
  Resources  Conservation Services' Backyard
  Conservation Program.  To obtain a free,
  28-page booklet that outlines 9 other
  conservation projects,  call 1-888-
  LANDCARE.  Or download "tip sheets' at
  www. nhg. nrcs. usda.gov/CCS/Backyard. html.
Steps to create habitat
for wildlife:
1.  Identify all existing
plants, if any.  Note the con-
diticaof the plants and their
locations. How much shade
the trees and shrubs provide? Are
trees evergreen or do they drop their leaves in the
fall? Do they provide valuable food sources? Do
they need more light? Do they flower and bear

2. Make  a sketch of  your yard  noting all
existing plants, buildings,  utilities, and path-
ways. Some species may be cf little wildlife value
and may not be particularly attractive.  Once you
have identified existing plants you want to save,
start exploring options for plants that will work
well with your backyard habitat (see lists cf spe-
cies on pages 33-34) . The existing plants around
your yard may be adequate to attract seme wild-
life, but a few changes can effectively enhance the
existing habitat.  Diversity in the landscape is nec-
essary. Seme plants provide food but very little
cover; others provide cover but little food.

3. Refer to the species lists on pages 33-34
and add trees, shrubs,  flowers, and  ground-
covers to your plan Not all the planting needs to
be dene at cnce. If money or time is limited, con-
sider it a work in progress.

4. Plant a variety of trees first.  Select ever-
green species for year-round cover and shelter. Se-
lect fruit or nut-bearing plants fora food source.
Native species are well suited for providing wild-
life habitat because they are adapted to the local
soil, climate, and wildlife. Additional ctnsider-
ations  for choosing and placement include:

    Neighboring Properties

    Eventual size. Whether they are evergreen or
    deciduous (trees that drop their leaves). Decidu-
    ous trees planted on the south side of a house
    will provide summer shade, but will not com-
    pletely block winter sun.

    Flowering and fruiting habit. Select plants that
    flower and bear fruit at different times of the
    year. Some shrubs that produce berries can pro-
    vide food throughout the year. Trees with nuts
    and fruit can also provide seasonal foods.  (See
    the tip sheet on tree planting for suggested spe-

5. Fill in with smaller shade-tolerant under-
story trees and shrubs. Adding these to an ex-
isting landscape will enhance the vertical structure
that is common in natural landscapes. Many
smaller trees and shrubs are colorful in the spring
when they flower, and provide berries for fall and
winter feed.

6. Flowering annuals  (plants that live  one
growing season) and perennials (plants that
live for more than a year) add color to the
yard and  can  be added  at any stage  to
attract birds and butterflies, if your yard is
large, consider using part of it for tall native
grasses that provide beauty, as well as a natural
source of food and shelter. A native wildf lower
garden provides the same function. Even on a
small lot, native wildf lowers, as well as some
                 common garden species, can
                 provide attractive habitat for
                 a variety of birds and butter-
                 flies. Avoid straight lines and
                (perfect symmetry. Natural
                habitat has curves  and clumps
                I of vegetation. Wildlife is not
               I particularly attracted to a
   F^manioured lawn. Wildlife is more likely to
come out into the open for viewing when the
boundary of  the yard is designed and main-
tained as a retreat for animals.
Landscaping for Birds
Etod and oover are essential fear the survival of
all species. Loss of suitable
nesting sites is a major
factor in the decline of
some bird species. In
the wild, many species
nest in cavities of dead
trees. With the loss of
hedgerows in some
parts of the country and
the removal of dead trees
in towns, natural nesting sites are often limited.
Also, some highly ccrrpetitive, non-native spe-
cies of birds have taken over some of the nest-
ing sites once occupied by native birds.

Bird species are extremely variable in their hab-
its . Some  like deeply wooded areas; others pre-
fer open fields and meadows. Many species are
year-round residents, while others such as the
cedar waxwing appear only for a few days a year
during migration. Other species such as spar-
rows, blue jays, cardinals, robins, juncos, and
chickadees are highly adaptable and found in
many  environments.

Many people are not aware of the value of dead,
dying, and hollow trees, as well as logs on the
ground,  for birds and other wildlife. Dead trees
provide homes to more than 400 species of birds,
mammals,  and amphibians.  Fish,  plants,  and
fungi also benefit from dead and dying trees.
Consider leaving standing dead and dying trees
in your yard unless they pose a human safety or
property hazard, and use old logs and stumps
in gardens and landscaping.

Plant Species for  Birds
Below are some plant species to consider for
wildlife habitat. Check with a local nursery on
plants  suitable for your area. Some of these
plants,  while suited for wildlife, may have char-
acteristics such as shallow roots or weak limbs
that make them inappropriate for small urban

properties-or they may not be winter hardy in all
locations. Birds eat any flower seed, depending on
the kind of bird and seed.
                 "ttees for Birds:
           rican beech (Fagus grandifolia)
           'arerican holly (llexopaca)
           Balsam fir (Abies balsairea)
           Black cherry (Primus serotina)
           Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica)
              Crabapple (Aalus spp.)
         Flowering dogwood (Cbmus florida)
             Hawthorns (Crataegus spp.)
               Hickories (Carya spp.)
             Live oak (Quercus v±rg±niana)
                 Caks (Quercusspp.)
           Red mulberry (Morus rubra)

                Shrubs for Buds:
      Common  juniper (Juniperus coirmunis)
       Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)
 Hollies-- evergreen & deciduous species  (Ilex spp.)
           Pyracantha (Pyracantha spp.)
      Red-osier dogwood (Cbmus stolonifera)
        Serviceberry (farelanchier azborea)
           Spicebush (L±ndera benzoin)
               Sumacs (Rhus spp.)
           Viburnums ( Viburnum spp.)
           Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera)

                Vines for Birds:
     American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)
   Trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens
                 & related spp.)
             Strawberry (Fragaria spp.)
     Trumpet creeper or vine (Campis radicans)
   Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)
              Wild grape (Vitis spp.)
Additional food and shelter for birds.  Fewyards
will be able to supply sufficient food cor shelter
for a variety cf birds all year long. H3/\Ever, yxi
can inprove shelter and food supplies by build-
ing or purchasing feeders and houses, and by
setting out certain foods.

All bird species have specific nesting require-
ments. Because of these requirements, your yard
may not accommodate certain species. For in-
         Buying a  Bird  House and
       Other  Backyard Binding Tips
       A good reference publication is
      "Homes for Birds" by the U.S.  Fish
     and Wildlife Service. It is available
       along with other useful birding
       pamphlets  at: www.fws.gov/
    r9i±xtno/panphlet/panplets.html or
     birding.miningco. cam/msubl2. htm
stance, Eastern bluebirds prefer nesting sites that
border open fields or lawns with a tree or fence
post nearby to provide feeding perches. Chicka-
dees prefer to nest in brushy wooded areas. Be-
fore setting out nesting houses, find out which spe-
cies are carmen in your area and can be encour-
aged to nest in your yard. Ifeke or buy a bind house
specifically designed for the bind you wish to at-
tract. The size of the entrance hole is critical to pre-
              vent the eggs and young from be-
   *   -      ing destroyed by larger birds-al-
   C          ways check a list of appropriate
   \          hole siass. CthercaisideratiaTS in-
              clude box size, height above the
             ground, direction the entrance hole
             faces, andanount of sunlight. Boxes
             may need baffles or other protective
             devices to limit access by cats and
             other predators.

Many species of birds can be attracted by a vari-
ety of feed in different styles of feeders. There
are many styles of bird feeders available, from
window-mounted feeders to those that hang
from branches and stands. Many birds will
readily eat right off the ground. Bird feed comes
in a variety cf choices; however, sunflower seeds
appeal to many birds,  as well as small mammals.
Woodpeckers, nuthatches, and chickadees are
especially attracted to suet. Citrus fruit, chopped
apples and bananas,  and raisins will be eaten
by numerous species, including robins, titmice,
nuthatches,  woodpeckers, and mockingbirds.

Feeders nay also attract wildlife species you nay
not want to feed such as starlings, crows, andsquir-
rels. Feeder type and placement and the type of
food can help deter unwanted species.
              Nectar pla
                Aster (Aster spp.)
           Azalea (Rhododendron spp.)
             Bee balm (Monarda spp.)
       Butterfly bush (Buddleia altemifolia)
       Butterfly weed and other milkweeds
        Cardinal flower (Lobelia oardinalis)
             Clover and other legumes
            Columbine (Aquilegia spp.)
           Conef lower  (Echinacea spp.)
          Delphinium (Delphinium spp.)
              Fuchsia (Fuchsia spp.)
           Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)
    Jewel weed (Impatiens capensis or I. pallida)
              lobelia (Lobelia spp.)
              Lupine (Lupinus spp.)
           Penstemon ( Penstemon spp.)
                Phlox (Phloxspp.)
                Salvia (Salviaspp.)
     Trumpet creeper or vine (Campis radicans)
              Weigela (Weigela spp.)
                Zinnia  (Zinnia spp)
Unlike many other species of birds, hurrmingbirds
rely en nectar as their source of food. These tiny,
migratory birds are corrmcnly seen in the sum-
mer in northem states gathering nectar from col-
orful flowers.

Hurrrningbirds are typically attracted to red and
yellow tubular flowers, although they frequently
visit others. Hurrrningbird feeders can be pur-
chased and filled with a sugar-water solution, con-
sisting of 1 part sugar to 4 parts water. Every 3 to 4
days,  wash the feeder with soap and water, rinse
thoroughly, and add new sugar water.
Food and shelter for butterflies
Colorful butterflies and moths add beauty and in-
terest to your backyard. There are hundreds of dif-
ferent species of butterflies and moths in North
America. Butterflies and moths are insects. They
hatch into larvae (carrrcnly referred to as cater-
pillars) , eventually become pupae, and develcp
into colorful adults. How long the process takes
depends 01 the species and the climate. Butterflies
and moths are amazingly particular in their food
choices. The larval stage of the butterfly nay re-
quire food quite different from that of the adult.
Some larvae consume tremendous amounts of
plant material, seemingly devouring plants over-
night. A oorrmon exanple in the garden is  the to-
mato homworm, which rapidly strips  tomato
plants of their leaves. An equally voracious, but
beautiful, larvae is the Eastern black swallowtail,
which is found only on plants in the carrot  family,
including celery, carrot, dill,  andparsley. A close
relative is the  Fastem tiger swallowtail that eats
the foliage of wild cherry, birch, poplar, ash, and
tulip trees.

AiOt butterflies
require food in  liquid
form such as
plant -produced
nectar. They get       £
some of it from
flowers and from juices
of extra-ripe fruit. The types of flowering plants
you grow will determine the kinds of butterflies
you attract to your backyard. In addition to the
plants listed for hurmingbirds, the butterfly
bush is especially attractive.

Find cut what  species are corrmon in your area
and use plants they like. Nectar feeders can be
placed in the yard to attract butterflies. Do not
use insecticictes near plants far butterflies. Learn
to recognize larval and egg forms. That large
green and black caterpillar eating your dill may
one day turn into the gorgeous butterfly you
were hoping to  attract!

Butterflies, lite all insects, ate nest active when
tenperatures are warmer. While moths are con-
manly found at night, most butterflies are ac-
tive on sunny, warm days. Butterflies will ben-
efit from a basking site where they can warm
up on cool mornings. Add a light-colored rock
or concrete garden sculpture as a basking site.
Butterflies also need a source of water. A shal-
low dish of water or a depression in a rock that
retains water is all they need.

Attracting Bees
In the United States,  there are nearly 5,000 dif-
ferent species of native bees. Most of them are
solitary, friendly bees that nest in holes in the
ground or burrows in twigs and dead tree limbs.
These bees do not have hives to protect, so they
are not aggressive and rarely sting.

Bumblebees, carpenter bees, sweat bees,
leaf cutter bees, digger bees, and others pollinate
many different kinds of plants. They play a criti-
cal role in healthy wild plant ccnrrunities and
gardens. About 30 percent of our diet is the di-
rect result of a pollinating visit by a bee to a flow-
ering fnjit tree cr vegetable plant. Providing bee
habitat in your yard can increase the quality and
quantity of your fruits and vegetables.

Bees are extremely sensitive to many ccnrnonly
applied insecticides.  If you rrust use chemical in-
secticides in your garden, apply them in the
evening when bees are less likely to be active.

Bees are attracted to most flowering plants, and
are especially ford of blue and yellow flowers. Try
planting your garden to have different species
blccming in the spring, surrrrer, and fall.

Bee houses
 A good use for untreated scrap lumber (at least
3 to 5 inches thick) is to drill holes (from 1/8-inch
to 5/16-inch in diameter) about 90 percent of the
way into the thick wooden block. Space the holes
about 1/2-inchto 3/4-inchapart. The 5/16-inch
holes work best as homes for
orchard bees which are excel-
lent pollinators of fruit trees.
Hang your bee blocks un-
der the eaves of your
house or garden  shed,
protected from direct sun and

Attracting Reptiles and Amphibians
Toads, frogs, lizards, turtles, and snakes all have a
place in the backyard. While many people may not
want some of these animals in their yards, most
species are harmless and often quite beneficial—
feeding on destructive insects or rodents.

Shelter for reptiles and amphibians is easy to
provide. Several rocks piled in a sunny spot will
provide  basking sites. Consider planting
shade-tolerant groundcover under trees and
leaving a thick layer of leaves to provide cool
shelter. Stumps, logs, and rock piles in a shady
spot can be valuable.

Water for Wildlife
Clean,  feeshmterisasinpcrtant tobi±ds,  but-
terflies, and other wildlife as it is for pecple.
Water in a saucer, bird bath, or backyard pond
is adequate for wildlife. Be sure to change the
water every few days to keep it fresh. In hot
weather,  it may be necessary to refill the con-
tainer daily.
  As with all wildlife, bats
  should be watched, but
  not handled or chased.
  Generally, bats are shy of
  humans and will not attack or fly
  after a person. However,  if caught
  or  picked up from the ground, a bat
  may bite and some carry rabies.

Logs, rocks, and water-holding structures pro-
vide drinking and basking habitat for turtles,
butterflies, and songbirds .  Stones with depres-
sions that collect water will help attract butter-
As with all wildlife, cover is essential far the sur-
vival of these species . Shall brush piles intended
for amphibians and reptiles will also provide
shelter for rabbits and. mice .  Chipmunks and.
woodchucks are adept at digging their own bur-
rows . Trees may provide shelter for squirrels,
opossums and. other animals . Food set out for
birds may attract many of these animals . Squir-
rels, chiprrunks, and mice will readily eat bird
seed. Woodchucks and rabbits will eat a variety
of vegetation including garden vegetables and
flowering plants .  Deer are browsers and. will
nibble at trees,  shrubs, hay, and grain. Award
about attracting  mammals .  Squirrels , chip-
munks, rabbits, raccoons, opossums, skunks,
woodchucks,  mice, and deer are commonly
found in many urban environments . These spe-
cies are highly adaptable and,  in many cases, are
becoming unwanted visitors rather than wel-
come guests.
    Precautions to Remember!

A few precautions can be taken to avoid
unwanted encounters with  animals.
Avoid setting out food that may attract
scavengers such as raccoons. Keep gar-
bage cans in a secure shed or garage or
use metal cans that scavengers cannot
chew  through. Check the  exterior of
your house for loose or rotted boards
that could allow access by mice or other
rodents. Remember that these animals
are wild, and if  threatened they can
bite. Raccoons can be particularly ag-
gressive. All of these species can carry
diseases. Do not handle them.

Laws vary from state to state on wild-
life issues. If you have questions or con-
cerns about wildlife, check with your
state's Department of Natural Re-
sources or Conservation Department
before taking any action.
          The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) sponsors a certification program
            designed to help individuals plan and apply a wildlife habitat plan for a
          home site or small acreage. On request, NWF will send you an application
          package and instructions.  If your application and plan meet the criteria,
           you will receive a certificate and, if you wish, a sign to show your com-
                         mitment to wildlife conservation.  Contact:
                            Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program
                       National Wildlife Federation (703) 790-4582
                                    8925 Leesburg Pike
                                 Vienna, MA  22184-0001

                            On the web: www.nwf.org/habitats

           How  the  Water Drop Patch  Project Links
                      to  the  G\r\ Scout Program
                                             I.    Brownie Girl Scout Try-Its
                                             Animals; 'Earth and Sky; 'Earth is Our Home; Eoo-
                                             Explorer; Math Fun; Outdoor Adventurer; Plants;
                                             Senses; Water Everywhere; Watching Wildlife

                                             II.   Junior Girl Scout Badges
                                             Eco-Actian; Ecology; Geology; Math Whiz; Out-
                                             door Creativity; Outdoor Fun in the City; Photog-
                                             raphy; Plants and Animals; Ready for Tomorrow;
                                             Water Fun; Water Wonders; Weather Watch; Wild-

                                             HI.  Ccdette and Senior Girl Scout Interest
                                             Projects All About Birds; Backpacking; Digging
                                             Through the Past;  Eoo-Acticn; From Shore to Sea;
                                             Leadership; Math, Maps and More; Orienteering;
                                             Photography; Wildlife
                               OTHER RESOURCES
Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting
Fun and Easy Nature and Science Investigations*
Fun and Easy Activities: Nature and Science**
Exploring Wildlife Oorrmunities with Children

*Brjiish and Spanish versions of this leader's guide are available.
**Bilingual bock

AZgae: A chlorophyll containing plant rang-
ing fran cne tjorrany ceils in size, that lives
in fresh or salt water.

Anadramaus: Fish that return f ran salt
water to fresh water to spawn (e.g., salmon,

Aquatic Insect: Insect species whose larval
and/or juvenile forms live in the water.

Aquifer: Any underground geological for-
mation containing water.

Bedrock: Unbroken solid, rock, overlain in
most places by soil or rock fragments.

Benthic: Bottom-dwelling. The plant and
animal life whose habitat is the bottom of a
sea, lake, or river.

Channelized: The straightening and deepen-
ing of streams. Channelization reduces the
ability of the stream to assimilate waste and
disturbs fish breeding areas.

Clarity: The clearness of the water in the

Conifers: A cone-bearing evergreen tree or
shrub (a pine tree, for example).

Cover: Overhanging or instream structures
(such as tree roots, undercut streartbanks, or
boulders) that offer protection from preda-
tors, shelter from strong currents,  and/or

Current: The velocity (speed) of the flow of

Deciduous: A tree that sheds its foliage at the
end of the growing season.

Ecosystem: The interacting system of a
biological canrunity (plants, animals) and
its non-living envirornent.

Effluent: The wastewater from a municipal
or industrial source that is discharged into
the water.
Erosion: The wearing away of the land
surface by wind or water.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.

Filling: The process of depositing dirt and rtud
in marshy areas (wetlands) or in the water to
create more land. Filling disturbs naUii^ eco-
logical cycles.

Gradient: The slope or steepness of the stream.

Groundwater: The supply of freshwater un-
der the earth's surface in an aquifer or soil.

Habitat: The specific environmsnt in which an
organism lives and depends on for food and

Headwaters:  Small creeks at the uppermost
end of a stream system, often found in the
rtDuntains, t±at contribute to larger creeks and

Mass Wasting:  Downward movement of dry
soil and rock caused by gravity (often called
slides or avalanches).

Monitor: To measure a characteristic, such as
streambank condition, dissolved oxygen, or
fish population, using uniform methods to
evaluate change over a period of time.

Nbnpoint Source Pollution: "Diffuse" pollu-
tion, generated from large areas with no par-
ticular point of pollutant origin, but rather
from many individual places. Urban and ag-
ricultural areas generate nonpoint source

Nutrient: Any substance,  such as fertilizer,
phosphorous, and nitrogen compounds,
which enhances the growth of plants and ani-

Point Source Pollution: A discharge of water
pollution to a stream or other body of water,
via an identifiable pipe, vent, or culvert.

Pool: An area of relatively deep slow water in
a stream that offers shelter to fish.

Quality Oontrol (QC): A system of checks used
to ensure excellence, or quality, in a program
(a monitoring program for example. QC asks
if we are doing things right).

Quality Assurance (QA) : Quality Assurance is
a way to see that QC is maintained and if we
are monitoring the right things to detect
changes in water quality.

Reach:  A stream section with fairly homoge-
nscus dnaracteristics.

Redd: Shallow depression in the streambed
gravel in which a female salircnid deposits her
Riffle: A shallow, gravely area of streartbed
with swift current. Used for spawning by
salircnids and other fish species.

Riprap: A sustaining wall built of rocks.

Riparian Area: An area, adjacent to and along
a watercourse, of ten vegetated and constitut-
ing a buffer zone between the nearby lands and
the watercourse.

Run: A stretch of fast smooth current, deeper
thana riffle.

Runoff: The portion of rainfall, melted snow,
or irrigation water that flows across ground
surface and eventually returned to streams.
Runoff can pick up pollutants from the air or
the land and carry them to streams,  lakes, and

Salmonid: Fish that are members of the
familySalnnnicfee (includes salmon,  trout,
char, andwhitefish).

Sediment: Fine soil or mineral particles that
settle to the bottom of the water or are sus-
pended in it.
Stormwater Runoff: Water that washes off the
land after a rainstorm. In developed water-
sheds it flews off roofs and pavements into
storm drains that may feed directly into the
stream; often carries concentrated pollutants.

SUbetrate: The material that makes up the bot-
tom layer of a stream, suchasgravel, sand, or

Stream Corridor:  The lower and upperbanks
of a perennial or intermittent stream.

Stream Mouth: The place where a stream emp-
ties into a lake, ocean, or another stream.

Suspended Sediments: Fine material or soil
particles that remain suspended by the cur-
rent until deposited in areas of weaker cur-
rent . They create turbidity and, when depos-
ited, can smother fish eggs or alevins. Can
be measured in a laboratory as Total Sus-
pected Solids (TSS).

Topography: The configuration of a surface
area including its relief, or relative elevations,
and the position of its natural and man-made

U.S.G.S.: U.S. Geological Survey.

Pfetlands: Wetlands are lands where satura-
tion with water is the dominant factor deter-
mining the nature of soil development. They
also can be identified by unique plants which
have adapted to oxygen-deficient
(anaerobic) soils. Wetlands.
stream flows and water quality.

Zoning: To designate, by or-
dinance, areas of land re-
served and regulated for
specific uses, suchas resi-
dential, industrial,  or
open space.

ftoHuted Punoff
Give Water a Hand Activity Guide includes ac-
tivities fear youth to  learn about their watershed
and ways to protect it . Download a free copy of
the Action Guide and Leader Guidebook at
vwnr.unex.edu/eru. To order printed copies call:
University of Wisccnsin-Extensiai;  (608) 262-3346;
Item #4-H450 & 4-H855

Splash  (CD Ram) interactive multi -media educa-
tional tool on nonpoint source pollution. Allows
users to see what happens when it rains .  Con-
tact the Conservation Technology Information
Center,  1220 letter Drive, #170, West laf ayette,
IN 47906.  Phone: (765)  494-9555; e-mail:
cticSctic.purdue.edu; $12.

Using EPA' s Watershed Information Network
(www.epa.gov/win) , you can locate your water-
shed, discover its condition and learn about part-
nerships that are working to protect it.  If you do
rot have Internet access, call 1-888^78-2051.

National Water Quality Inventory f 1998 Report to
Congress. Published by EPA, this report includes
detailed information about the condition of the
nation's waters. Available by calling the National
Service Center for Environmental Publications
(NCSEP) at 1-800-490-9198. Internet:
www. epa . gov/305b .
     Your Oon Watershed kit .  Available from the
Terrene Institute. Phone:  703-548-5473. Internet
www.terrene.org; $29. 95 plus $5.50 s£h.

Watershed Festival
The  Water Environment Federation has a
step-by-step guide to hosting a Watershed Fes-
tival.  Call  1-800-858-4844. Order No.
ZS1603WW ($8 . 00 each) .

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) pro-
motes stewardship of water resources through the
development of classrccm-ready teaching aids and
the establishment of state and irtematicnally spon-
sored programs . Montana Water Resources Re-
search Institute  (406) 994-5392. Internet: : http://
www . montana .  edu/wwwwet/ .
Water Rasters
Tb order, specify poster titles
and grade level. RecaTmended
full colorpcsters with activities
on the back include Wastewa-
ter and Watersheds. The
Water Use poster, which is
available in black & white, is
used for coloring. Call 1-888-
ASK-TJ333. Posters are limited to one per person.,
and seme posters are currently unavailable.

Wetlands Information
Call the Wetlands Helpline at 1-800-832-7828 to
obtain free fact sheets, coloring books, and other
useful materials on wetlands. Or, visit EPA's Wet-
lands Kids' Web page for fun projects and links
to other sites and activities, vmw.ejpa.gov/

The Izzak Walton League,  707 Conservation
Lane,Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (1-800-BUG-

Bill Nye "the Science Guy" video on Wetlands.
Available from the Disney Corporation.

River of Words Poetry and Art Contest
Visit the River of Words Web Page or call below
to get contest details, entry forms & tips:
ROW Contest
PO Box 4000-J
Berkeley, CA 94704 USA
Phone:  510-548-POEM
Internet: www. riverof words. org

Qearnps/IhtematiQnal Coastal, Cleanups
Call the  Center for Marine Conservation's
toll-free hotline 1-800-CMC-Beach or visit  the
CMC Web Page (www.one-ocean.org)  for infor-
mation about sponsoring a beach cleanup or par-
ticipating in the annual  International Coastal
Cleanup every September.  CMC also provides
storm drain stencils on loan and guidelines on
how to conduct a project.

Turning the Tide an Trash: A Learning Guide on
Marine Debris. Leam about marine debris and
sponsor a local cleanup of marine and other water
debris (free). Call NSCEP at 1-800-490-9198,
1-513-489-8190,  Ref.   EPA842-B-92-003. On the
web at www. epa. gov/OWOW/OCPD/Marine/

Volunteer Monitoring
Earth Force can offer youth groups lew cost water
quality nrnitoring kits and guidance in starting
new watershed programs.  For more information,
call or write: Earth Force
1098 Mount Vemon Avenue, Second floor
Alexandria, VA 22301
Phone:  1-800-23-PCRCE (www.earthfocce.org)

Izaak Walton League of America (IWLA) sponsors
monitoring  workshops  and  training.
1-800-BUG-IWLA ( www.iwla.org/SOS)
The following publications by IWLA may also be
useful. Call 1-800-BUG-IWLA to order:

1) Save Our Streams Monitor's Guide to Aquatic
    Macroinvertebrates,  by Loren Larkin Kellcgg
    (IWLA, 1992)

3   Save Our Streams Volunteer Trainer's Hand-
   book, by Karen Firehock  (IWLA, 1994)

3  Hands on Save Our Streams,  the Save Our
    Streams Teacher's Manual for Grades One
    Through Twelve, by Karen Firehock  (IWLA,

EPA's Volunteer Monitoring HomePage at
www. epa. gov/owow/iooni toring/vol. html
Getting Started in Volunteer Monitoring. EEA 841-
B-98-002.  Call (202) 260-7040 if you do not have
Internet access. The Volunteer Monitor newslet-
ter. www. epa. gov/owow/monitoring/volun-
teer/vm_±ndex. html

Wetlands, Lake and Stream Walk Manuals
Call IB EPA's Region 10 Off ice at (206) 553-1200.
Also ask for the 'Teacher's Guide to
Streamwalk."   Wetland and Lake Walk Manuals
and survey sheets are available on the Web at
www .epa. gov/OWOW/we t -
lands/wqual .htmljfVblunteer.
Click on "Wetlands Walk
Manual and Supplement
Worksheets" under Volunteer
Groundwater Protection
EPA's groundwater/drinking
water web page at
www. epa. gov/ogwdw/kids/index. html has
great science projects that can be downloaded

The Blue Thumb Project
The Blue Thunb Project is an international public
awareness and education effort to encourage
pecple to take better care of our water resources-
and especially our drinking water supplies. Each
year a set of material on water-and its care-is
developed and disseminated to organizations to
help them plan community water education
projects. For inforrraticn, contact The Blue Thunb
Project, c/o AWWA, 6666 W.  QuincyAve., Den-
ver, CO 80235, (303) 794-7711.
Internet: www. awwa. org/bluethumb/

Groundwater Festival
The Groundwater Foundation has a "how-to"
book called "Making Waves: How to Put on a
Water Festival." To order "Making Waves" or to
receive additional inf orrraticn 01 their Children's
Graundwater Festival, contact the Groundwater
Foundation at info@groundwater. org or call
Internet: www.graundwater.org/

EPA's Safe Drinking Water Act Hotline

This is net a corplete list of available zascurces arJ
nsiticn of thssepKxicts does net cmoLLtutB aiifase-
znent by EPA. Visit the Adopt Your Watershed
 (www.epa.gov/adcpt) orOfficeofWcLterwebpage
 (www.epa.gov/ow)  for a mare complete Hst or caU
trill-foe l-888^78-20GL.

               Application for Troop Recognition
Watershed or Waterbody Name:
Troop Name:
Contact Person/phone:
Number of Girl Scouts: 	
Brief  Description of Troop  Activities:  (100 words or less).  Should  demonstrate an
ongoing commitment to the protection or restoration of a watershed.
Project Highlights/Successes:
             Please return to: Patty Scott, Adopt Your Watershed Project
         US EPA, Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, S.W. (4501F),
                  Washington, D.C. 20460, phone (202) 566-1292.