Watershed Patch Project
* 2002

 Office of Water
 Washington, DC 20460
EPA 840-B-02-001
    :  August 2002
                    A Message from the Administrator
                	,1	i  I,      i     '     Christine Todd Whitman
                :•"..	:•             .            J     '        n   '• 'i     •
                I believe water is the biggest environmental issue we face in the 21st Century in
                terms of both quality and quantity. In the 30 years since its passage,  the Clean
                Water Act has dramatically increased the number of waterways that are once
                again safe for fishing and swimming. Despite this great progress  in reducing
                water pollution, many of the nation's waters still do not meet water quality
                goals. I challenge you to join with me to finish the business of restoring and
                protecting our nation's waters for present and future generations.

                Cover: Artwork from the River of Words 2001 Art Contest ©River of Words

         "Down the Drain"
         Jasmine U., Age 17, Georgia
         Art Finalist
         ©River of Words Contest

         River of Words (ROW) is a nonprofit international art/environmental education organization
         designed to nurture respect for and understanding of the natural world and to promote
         literacy in all its forms. ROW is affiliated with the Library of Congress Center for the Book and
         was cofounded in 1995 by U.S. Poet Laureate (1995-1997) Robert Haas and writer Pamela
         Michael. Through its workshops, innovative curriculum, publications, and free annual poetry
         and art contests, ROW fosters responsibility, imagination, and action in young people and
         publicly acknowledges their creativity and concerns. Deadlines are February 15 (North
         America) and March 1 (international) each year. There is no charge to enter. For information
         or to order an Educator's guide or other curriculum materials,

                                       River of Words©
                                       P.O. Box 4000-J
                                     Berkeley, CA 94704
                                  Tel: 510-548-POEM (7636)
I Mention of any commercial products, services, materials, or publications in this booklet does
I not cojTstijhjjbe endorsement or recommendation for use by EPA

  bear Educator:
            hanks to the passage of the Clean Water Act 30 years ago, America has
          seen much progress in cleaning up its rivers, lakes, streams, and coastal wa-
         ters. In 1972 the Potomac River in Washington, DC, was too dirty for human
  contact; aquatic life in Lake Erie, one of the Great Lakes, was dying because of ex-
  cessive nutrients; and Ohio's Cuyahoga River was so polluted with floating debris and
  oil that it caught fire. Many rivers and beaches were little more than open sewers.
  Conditions in these and thousands of other waterbodies are much better today. Over
  the past 30 years, the nation has made tremendous progress in addressing pollution
  from sewage treatment plants and industrial facilities.

  Despite these accomplishments, many challenges remain, including threats to human
  health.  Approximately 40 percent  of monitored waters, including Georgia's
  Chattahoochee River and many other major national waterways, still fail to meet state
  water quality standards, which means that they do not support basic uses like swim-
  ming  and fishing. Although wetland losses have slowed, the nation continues to  lose
  about 60,000 wetland acres per year. A disturbing number of freshwater fish species
  are now threatened or endangered.

                       Many of the remaining pollution problems come from many dif-
                       ferent sources—not just from a pipe. Polluted runoff from city
                       and suburban streets, construction sites, and farms is the pri-
                       mary reason many of our waters are not f ishable or swimmable.
                           Tackling these problems will not be easy. But schools and
                             science clubs can help make a difference by becoming
                                watershed stewards in their communities.

                                Comments may be directed to Patty Scott, US Envi-
                                ronmental Protection Agency, 4501T, 1200 Pennsyl-
                                vania  Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460; e-mail:
                                scott.patricia@epa.gov. Please note that mention of
                                any commercial products, services, materials, or pub-
                                lications in this booklet does not  constitute en-
                                dorsement or recommendation for use by EPA.
                                 Please Read!       !
Any activities on or near the water should, be carefully supervised by adults, and
safety; tips needjto be explained to children, please checkiwith your school and be sure
to follow all  appropriate safety procedures and policies. All the field activities in
this booklet include recommended safety tip;s. Other important safety guidelines are
included on pages 42-44.                              •

      Background Information
      1.  Watersheds (page 5)
      2.  Nonpoint Source Pollution (page 5)
      3.  Water Quality Information (page 6)
      5.  Wetlands and their Basic Characteristics (page 7)
      6.  Groundwater/brinking Water (page 8)
      Patch Requirements (pages 9-12)
      Level 1 River Rookie (Grades 3-4)
      Level 2 Conservation Captain (Grades 4-5)
      Level 3 Aquifer Ace (Grades 6-7)
      Level 4 Watershed Wizard (Grades 7-8)
      Community Projects and Hands-on Activities
      1. Do's and Don'ts Around the Home (Levels 1, 2, 3 <& 4)—pages 13-15
      2. Storm brain Stenciling Guidelines (Levels 2, 3 & 4)—pages 16-17
      3. Streamwalk (Levels 2, 3  <£ 4)—pages 18-30
      4. Stream Insects (Levels 2, 3 <& 4)—pages 31-34
      5. Watershed Festival (Levels 2, 3 & 4)—pages 35-36
      6 Build Your Own Aquifer  (Levels  2, 3 <& 4)—pages 37-38
      7. Backyard Wildlife Habitat Project (Levels 3 <& 4 )—page 39
      8. Stream Cleanup Guidelines (Level 4)—pages 40-41
 IV.  Safety Guidelines (pages 42-44)
  V.  Glossary (pages 45-46)
 VI.  Resources (pages 47-48)
VII.  Certificate of Class/School Recognition (page 49)

 What Is a Watershed?
 A watershed is a land area from which water
 drains into a receiving body of water. Receiv-
 ing bodies of water can include streams, lakes,
 wetlands, estuaries, and groundwater. Water-
 sheds come in different shapes and sizes, and
 local watersheds are  subwatersheds (or
 subbasins) of larger,  regional ones.  The
 Chattahoochee River, for example, is a subbasin
 of the larger Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint
 (ACF) River Basin.

 What Is Nonpoint
 Source  Pollution?
 Unlike pollution from factories |Sp
 and sewage treatment plants, ..J^4-. ..,
          O             JT     ' ygr^iiafraier [aquifer)
 nonpoint source pollution comes
 from many different areas with no particular
 place of origin. It is caused by rainfall or snow-
 melt moving over and through the ground. As
 the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away
 natural and human-made pollutants, finally
 depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands,
 coastal waters, and even underground sources
 of drinking water. These pollutants include:
 A  Excess fertilizers, herbicides, and insecti-
   cides from farms, cities, and suburban
 t  Oil, grease, and toxic chemicals from urban
   runoff and energy production
 *  Sediment from improperly managed con-
   struction sites, crop and forest lands,  and
   eroding streambanks
 t  Salt from irrigation practices and acid drain-
   age from abandoned mines
 A  Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet
   waste, and  faulty septic systems

Acid rain and changes to stream flow, such as
dams and concrete channels, are also sources
                                source pollu-
                             tion (or polluted
                           runoff) occurs when
                        water runs over land or
                    through the ground, picks up
               pollutants, and deposits them in the
                  river, lake, bay, or groundwater.
of nonpoint source pollution. Acid rain, much
of which is caused by cars and power plants, is
rich in nitrogen, which can overstimulate the
growth of aquatic weeds and algae. This in turn
can deplete oxygen and kill aquatic life. Struc-
tures such as dams and concrete channels
change stream flow, reducing the ability of
streams to absorb  waste and disturbing fish
breeding areas.
 ;Acid Rain: A complex chemical and atmo-
 jspheric phenomenon that occurs  when
 Remissions of sulfur  and nitrogen com-
 pounds and!other substances are trans-
 formed by Chemical processes in the at-
 mosphere, often  far from the  original
 sources, and then deposited on earth in ei-
 ther wet or dry form. The wet forms, popu-
 larly called ";acid rain," can fall to earth as
 rain, snow, oh fog. The dry forms are acidic
 gases or pafticulates.

Water Quality Conditions  in  the United States:"The National  Water
Quality  Inventory"
What is the quality of  our  waters?
Surface waters are waters that you can see.
These waters include rivers and streams, lakes,
ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, coastal waters, and
estuaries. For the U.S. waterbodies sampled
most recently, about 40 percent are rated as im-

The National Water Quality Inventory
EPA and the states are directed by the Clean
Water Act (CWA) to help  protect the health of
our nation's waters. The CWA gives states the
authority and responsibility to establish water
quality standards, which set minimum require-
ments for fish habitat, swimming, and drink-
ing water sources. States,  under Section 305(b)
of CWA, are required to  assess the health of
their waters and submit the information to EPA
every 2 years. EPA gathers the information from
every state and prepares a report called the Na-
tional Water Quality Inventory.  To  see the latest
305(b) report or other information on the qual-
ity of our nation's  waters, visit  http://
www.epa.gov/305b on the Internet.
How is the quality of our waters
Every state adopts goals or standards that need
to be met for its waters, based on the intended
uses of the waterbodies. Different goals are set
for  different waterbody uses. For example, if
the  water  is going to be used for cooling ma-
chinery in a factory, it doesn't have to be as
clean as water used for  drinking. Scientists
monitor the waters and give them one of the
following  scores:

•   GOOD: The waterbody fully supports its in-
    tended uses.
•   POLLUTED OR IMPAIRED: The waterbody
    does not support one or more of its in-
    tended uses.
•   GOOD, but THREATENED: The waterbody
    supports its uses, but is considered vulnerable
    because of threats from existing or potential
    sources of pollution.

What  Is  a Wetland?
Wetlands are areas of land that are wet at least
part of the year. They are populated by plants
well adapted to grow in standing water or satu-
rated soils. There are  many different types of
wetlands, including marshes, bogs, fends,
swamps, prairie potholes, and bottomland
hardwood forests. Wetlands may not always
appear to be wet. Many dry out for extended
periods of time. Others may appear dry on the
surface but are saturated underneath.

What  Are the Basic
Characteristics  of  Wetlands?
Wetlands share  three basic characteris-
tics: (1) hydrology (water), (2) hydric soils (soils
that form due to the  presence of water), and
(3) hydrophytic vegetation (plants adapted to
living in saturated soils).

Wetland  Benefits
These complex ecosystems play an important role
in the health of our environment and the quality
of our water. Wetlands provide support for:

                4  Fish and wildlife habitats

                4  Complex food webs

                4  Water absorption to re-
                   duce storm flooding and

                4  Sediment traps

                4  Erosion control

                4  Water quality

                4  Groundwater replenish-
                   ment; maintaining flows
                   in streams by releasing
                   water during dry periods

                4  Open space and recre-
                   ational opportunities
pd You  Know?

 Igogered species live in wetlands, and nearly ;
    use wetlands at some time in their lives.
 _„.	j^:r=£«Wi™HC^™^^;iE5iif^
 Ither names .for wetlands include
    , marjhej, f ens^ and pocosins.
Why Are  Wetlands Important?

Wetlands as Sponges
Have you ever poured water onto a damp
sponge? The sponge will hold a lot of water
before it slowly starts to leak. The same
happens  in a wetland. Because of its low-
lying position on the landscape, a wetland
traps runoff water that flows into it dur-
ing a rainstorm and slowly releases the wa-
ter later. This helps to prevent flooding.

Wetlands as Filters
After being trapped by  the wetland
sponge,  polluted runoff moves  slowly
through  a wetland, finding its way around
plants and through small spaces in the sojl.
While it  moves, the nutrients are absorbed
by the plant roots that poke through the
soil spaces. Some spaces are very small and
pollutants get trapped. Sometimes the pol-
lutants just stick to the soil. By the time
the water leaves the wetland, it is much
cleaner than it was when it entered. This is
why many people think of wetlands as
nature's  filter system.

Wetlands as Habitat
Wetlands are home to  many types of
macroinvertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds,
mammals, and reptiles. These animals rely on
the plentiful  food, water, and shelter that
wetlands offer. Although some animals spend
their whole lives in a wetland, many use it for
only a particular time in their lives, such as
for hatching eggs and raising young.

What Is
Beneath the land's surface,
water resides in two general
zones, the saturated and the
unsaturated. The unsatur-
ated zone lies directly be-
neath the  land  surface,
where air and water fill in
the pore spaces between soil
and  rock particles. Water
saturates the zone beneath
the unsaturated one.
The term, groundwater refers to
water in the saturated zone. This water is an impor-
tant natural resource and is used for many purposes,
including drinking water, irrigation, and livestock

Surface water replenishes (or recharges) ground-
water when it sinks or percolates through the un-
saturated zone. Therefore, the unsaturated zone
can act as a pathway for groundwater contami-
nation. Groundwater can move sideways and
emerge at openings in the surface, such as springs
on hillsides, or seep to streams, lakes, wetlands,
and oceans. In this way, polluted groundwater
can contaminate surface waters. Conversely,
some surface waters, such as wetlands, hold
floodwaters and allow them to soak slowly into
the groundwater. When wetlands are filled or
drained, groundwater may dry up.

                 You Know?            '

                ing water in  the  United
 LStates^pme£from groundwater.
               What  Is  the  Quality of  Your Drinking Water?
.  The Environmental Protection Agency requires water utilities to write annual drinking water
1  rep'orB called "Consumer  Confidence Reports  (CCRs)." These reports, issued with  utility
1  bills, provide fundamental information, including the source of  your local drinking  water
  (lake, river, aquifer, or other source), its susceptibility to contamination,and the level or
:  range of any contaminants found. EPA's Web site, http://www.epa.gov/safewater, includes
~  useful  information on how tP interpret the reports.  For a copy of your CCR, check with
•:  your local water utility.

River Rookie (Grades 3-4)—Do any 4 of the first 10 requirements
Conservation Captain (Grades 4-5)—Do any 5 of the first 15 requirements
Aquifer Ace (Grades 5-6)—Do any 6 of the first 18 requirements
Watershed Wizard  (Grades 6-8)—Do any 7 of the 20 requirements
       After answering the questions on the Home and Lawn Care checklist (pages 13-15),
       plan how you and your family can change three to five "no" answers to "yes" an-
       swers. Share your plan with your school and members of your neighborhood. See how
       many "yes" answers other kids in your group have. Or use Give Water a Hand Action
       Guide to identify changes you can make on your farm, at your school, or in your com-
       munity (page 15).

       Wetlands provide many benefits. They help reduce flooding, sustain stream flow, filter
       polluted waters, provide habitat for wildlife, and support biological diversity. Visit a
       National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) or a locally protected wetland. Using the list on page
       7, see how many wetland characteristics you can identify.  Call 1-800-344-WILD or
       visit http://www.fws.gov for help in finding the nearest NWR. Or call  EPA's Wet-
       lands Helpline at 1-800-832-7828.

       Enter the international "River of Words" Poetry and Art contest. The contest,  open to
       youth between the ages of 5 to  19, invites children to explore and interpret their local
       watershed through the arts. To obtain an entry form or more information, contact
       River of Words, P.O. Box 4000-J, Berkeley, CA 94704; Tel: 510-548-POEM or download
       an entry form at http://www.riverofwords.org

       Find out what different plants and animals  live in your watershed. How many kinds
       of wildlife can you identify (e.g., crabs, oysters, waterfowl, and fish)?

       Go on a hike with your school and follow a local creek or stream. Where does the
       stream ultimately drain? What does it pick up along the way? What happens  when it
       rains? How does the stream change? What insects, birds, plants, or aquatic life do you
       observe? Use a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map or draw your own to
       illustrate your local watershed. USGS topographic maps can be obtained by calling
       1-888-ASK-USGS (cost is $4) or visiting http://topozone.com/. Share with others, what
       you have learned.

       Create an attractive wall mural for your school or community with messages about
       clean water. Some ideas for themes might be "We all live downstream," "What is a
       watershed?" "Where does my drinking water come from?" or "The Wonders of Wet-
       lands." You might take a look  at a poster series developed by the USGS at http://
       water.usgs.gov/outreach/OutReach.html for some ideas!

          Visit a local aquarium or a natural history museum to see specimens of aquatic life.
          Share your experiences with your school and family. Consider visiting one of Coastal
          America's Coastal Ecosystems Learning Centers if there is one near you.  Check out
          Coastal America on-line at http://www.coastalamerica.gov or call 202-401-9928. Find
          out how Coastal America, a partnership of 11 federal  agencies and the Executive Of-
          fice of the President, is helping to protect the manatee, the whooping crane, salmon,
          and the right whale.

          Visit a local sewage treatment plant or water filtration plant to see how wastewater is
          treated or drinking water is purified. Look at the treated water as it is being discharged
          into your river, stream, or estuary. Is it clear? Does it stink?            ;

          Participate in a special activity during May to celebrate American Wetlands Month or
          during the third week of October to celebrate National Wildlife Refuge '(NWR) Week.
          For wetlands ideas, see the list below, visit the Izaak Walton League of America's Web
          site  at http://www.iwla.org/SOS/awm or  call 1-800-BUG-IWLA. For! NWR Week,
          contact the Fish and Wildlife Service at 1-800-344-WILD or visit http://www.fws.gov.

          Identify two people working in water resource protection and invite them to come to
          speak to your school or club.

          Work with your school to organize a Storm Drain Stenciling Project in your neighbor-
          hood. Produce and distribute a flyer or door hanger for local households to make them
          aware of your project and to remind them that storm  drains dump directly into your
          local waterbody. Guidelines for the project are on pages  16-17.
(How Can" I  Help Protect  WetJanets?
Jlli  t     | . ij.      ,.   ,  ,  „ * ,,»i ,  .r\,i-, iftifei-bti-ifr...
; Before you can protect them, you have to understand them...
  v.ti Be[.a tW/etlqnds Petect|ye| Investigate, why wetlands are unique. Research  j
  "'l^lial^iirjds	jj£	animate	gncTpfajitsJ	live jn jfie^w^tlanSjn.yo'ur 'state.' Start a ^
   Ifbu^naf'to11 record1th"e names of birds,"frogs,Insects',"and plantsTRat'ybu might
                        Try to draw them! Go to the library or use the Internet to
                        p"f wetlands.' DoH'f Tprg^F to''jny
               .                    .                                     f unction"
        eep a watershed healthy. Visit htfp:/^ww.epa.gov7pwpw/wetfands for infor-
          '          '"                  ^
                                                                      |*fe#fti>^4Mg@B£$£? •*?;«•
         ;d pBput wetlands, go explore one...
   •ti iimM	|H|||	^	•	n J, n•! jl J|Jj||p|IH||||'	j	jip|||,'	^j, jJLj^	„H|H||	Limii^nlniiilLmnijJii11 i|i4ii|i4|i,iiiiiB.||iLyiiiiliiii|liiiiiHI|ii|iii|!ilgbJiniLilS' JiiiinLlll|4l|«|il«d!l
   't	^Vjsjt	^ publicajjy_ accessible  wetland and design  ___	 _______
   ''Display. Form team"s" Of ]-wo or three, each team with their own camera (disposabfe cameras worR  *
   •lwejl). Using a field guide, photograph four or five items, such as insects, birds, plants, or trees,  l
.|:3	±12abel^cjesgribe fl-ie phofos and mount them"ohfp posterbolarHiraminaf ing posters is recommended).  ]
jj|||>"I.pnajjy, display the poster in a public location such as a library, church, or school!
fe. yip!untfterra,t y°Vf |°cal wetland! Call your county's agricultural extension agent or the local/state  -
j|i_	;;j|||yj^fjgsoyrcejBgnagement agency and get a list of ongoing wetland/stream restoration projects. J

          Go on a stream, wetlands, or lake walk and make observations and assessments of
          waterbody conditions. See pages 18-30 for streamwalk guidelines. As part of your
          streamwalk, you may want to consider collecting stream insects to evaluate stream
          health. See pages 31-34 for guidelines.

          Sponsor a Groundwater Festival or Watershed Festival at your school or in your com-
          munity to raise awareness about the importance of clean water and watershed protec-
          tion. See pages 35-36 for guidelines and a list of resources.

          Do a display or presentation on groundwater and how pollutants threaten its purity.
          Show where your drinking water comes from.  Students can check their family water
          utility bill or visit EPA's Web page at http://www.epa.gov/ow/states.html. Click on
          the map and link to information about  local drinking water. Make an Aquifer Model
          (pages 37-38) part of your presentation.

          Design a "mock-up" of your watershed. Share it with younger groups. Use EPA's
          Locate Your Watershed (http://www.epa.gov/surf) and Index  of Watershed Indica-
          tors (http://www.epa.gov/iwi) Web sites or the resources list (pages 47-48) to create it.

          Share your knowledge of water pollution with younger children, perhaps a kindergar-
          ten or first grade class. Consider doing a presentation about your local watershed.
          Discuss threats to its health (e.g., pollution or habitat loss). Highlight things that stu-
          dents and their families can do to protect water quality (see checklist on pages 13-15).
          Visit the Watershed Information Network at http://www.epa.gov/win to obtain in-
          formation about your watershed.
                           :    The  Mississippi River
  The Mississippi River carries rainfall and snowmelf from 31 states into the Gulf of Mexico.
liScientif i.e. investigations have documented a zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico with low
- oxygen levels.  This hypoxic zone is the result of an overabundance of nutrients such as
  nitrogen and phosphorus that get washed off the land and into the Mississippi River and its
  tributaries.  The river then  carries these nutrients out to the,Gulf  where the nutrients
i£ cause exce,ssjveraigal growth. When the algae die, they use up all the oxygen in the water
|"column, killing  or weakening aquatic organisms such as fish and  crabs.
  A significant portion of the nutrients entering the Gulf from the Mississippi River comes
f from human activities: discharges from sewage treatment and industrial wastewater treat-
jLment plants and stormwater  runoff from city streets and farms. Nutrients from automo-
  bile exhaust and fossil fuel power  plants also enter the waterways and  the Gulf through
  air deposition to the vast land area drained by the Mississippi River and  its tributaries.
  Many organizations within the basin  are working together to improve the  qualify of  the
f "resources related to  the Mississippi River and its major tributaries. Increasingly, citizens
  are learning how to  live in harmony  with the River.  For more  information on work that
 'agencies and organizations Across  the country are involved in to protect the  Mississippi
       and its .resources, vlsFF EPArs JA/eb siteatlrtfp:7/www.epagov7msbasin.

         Create a wildlife habitat or another conservation project
         in your school. Call the Natural Resources Conservation
         Service at 1-888-LANDCARE for a free backyard conser-
         vation booklet that outlines 10 conservation activities. Or
         consider joining the National Wildlife Federation's Schoolyard
         Habitat Program and receive a certificate and sign for your school
         project (see page 39).

         Find a watershed group in your community and volunteer to help with
         a project (e.g., tree planting, habitat restoration project.) Use the Environ-
         mental Protection  Agency's Adopt Your Watershed Internet site (http://
         www.epa.gov/adopt) to search for an  organization active in your watershed.
         Check out EPA's Five Star Wetlands Restoration Program (http://www.epa.gov/
         owow/wetlands/restore/5star/index.html), which offers opportunties for youth
         groups to get involved in wetland restoration projects.                '.

         Work with your school and your local government to organize or join in a stream,
         wetland, or beach cleanup. Consider participating in the annual International Coastal
         Cleanup sponsored by the Ocean  Conservancy held the third Saturday every Septem-
         ber. Be sure to read the  guidelines on pages 40-41 and safety tips on pages 42-44.

         4  Keep track of the kinds of trash collected. If it comes primarily from fast food res-
            taurants, consider working with local restaurant owners to put up signs encourag-
            ing people not to litter in their community.
         *  If possible, separate  the trash  for recycling. Have different colored bags for paper,
            plastic, glass, and aluminum
         4  Take "before and after" photos of your efforts. Send them to a local paper to publi-
            cize your efforts.
         Become a volunteer water quality monitor.  Help collect quality data and build stew-
         ardship for your local waterbody. Attend a training workshop to learn proper moni-
         toring techniques and safety rules (see  page 34).
                                Safety  First!
Any activities on or near the water should be carefully supervised byiadults, and
safety tips need to be explained to children. Please check with your school and be
sure to follow all appropriate safety procedures and policies. All the field activi-
ties in this booklet include recommended safety tips. Other important safety guide-
lines are included on pages 42-44.                       .!       :      j

Home  and  Lawn  Care Checklist:
"Personal  Pollution"
When rain falls or snow melts, the seemingly
small amounts of chemicals and other pollut-
ants in your driveway, on your lawn, and on
your street are washed into storm drains. In
many older cities, the storm water runoff is not
treated and runoff flows directly into rivers,
streams, bays, and lakes. Pollutants in this runoff
can poison fish and other aquatic animals and
make water unsafe  for drinking and swimming.

What can you do to help protect surface wa-
ters and groundwaters? Start at home. Take a
close look at practices around your house that
might contribute to polluted runoff. The follow-
ing is a checklist to help you and your family
become part of the solution instead of part of
the problem!

Household  Products
1.  bo you properly dispose of household
    hazardous waste such as leftover oil-
    based paint, excess pesticides, nail pol-
    ish remover, and varnish by taking them
    to  your  city's or county's hazardous
    waste disposal site or by putting them
    out on hazardous waste collection days?
    Labels such as WARNING,  CAUTION,
    and DANGER  indicate the item contains
    ingredients that are hazardous if improp-
    erly used or disposed of.
           D Yes       D No

2.  Do you use less  toxic alternatives or
    nontoxic  substitutes? Baking soda, dis-
    tilled white vinegar, and ammonia are safe
    alternatives to caustic chemicals. And
    they save you  money.
            Ill Yes       D No
       bo-It-Yourself  Home
      -"r Cleaning Products
 ij&eneral,  multipurpose  cleaner (for ce-
 tramic tiles,  linoleum,  porcelain,  etc.):
 JpAeasure  1/4-cup  baking soda, 1/2 cup
 tjvhite^yjriegar, and i cup ammonia into a
 S^offlqiner, Add to a gallon of warm water
 land stuiMntil Baking soda dissolves.
                    tablespoons of am-
         of_water. Put into a sgray Bottle.
            ://www. epa. gov/grtlakes/
  l^h^me/Fu)uj^gslWsjWrecipes. htm
 JEfor more Ideas on nontoxic alternatives! ,
 ^^:i^^^:^^^~:^-;~:.'^^~--- :^E^/
    Do you limit the amount of  chemicals,
    fertilizers, and pesticides you use and
    apply  them  only as  directed  on
    the label?
4.  Do you  recycle  used oil, antifreeze,
    and car batteries by taking them to
    service  stations  and other  recycling
                         U No

Landscaping  and Gardening
5.  Do you select plants with  low require-
    ments for water, fertilizers, and pes-
    ticides? (e.g., native plants)
            D Yes       D No

6.  Do you preserve existing trees and plant
    trees and shrubs to help prevent ero-
    sion  and promote infiltration of  water
    into  the soil?
            D Yes        D No

7.  bo you leave lawn  clippings on your
    lawn  so that the nutrients in the clip-
    pings are recycled, less fertilizer is
    needed,  and less yard waste goes to
    landfills? If your community does  not
    compost lawn trimmings, they usually go
    to landfills.
Do  you prevent trash, lawn  clippings,
leaves, and automobile fluids  from en-
tering  storm drains? Most storm drains
are directly connected to our streams,
lakes, and bays.
        D Yes        D No

If your family uses a professional lawn
care service,  do you  select a company
that employs trained technicians  and
minimizes the use of fertilizers  and
        D Yes        D No
10. Do you have a compost bin or pile? Do
    you use compost and mulch (such as
    grass clippings or leaves) to reduce your
    need for fertilizers and pesticides? Com-
    post is a valuable soil  conditioner that
    gradually releases nutrients to your lawn
    and garden. In addition, compost retains
    moisture in the  soil  and thus helps con-
    serve water and prevent erosion and run-
    off. Information about composting is
            Did You  Know?
  One quart of oil can contaminate up to 2
  million gallons of drinking water!
                                             available from your county extension agent
                                             (see the blue pages in your phone book).
                                                     D Yes       D No

                                          11. Do you test your soil before fertilizing
                                             your  lawn  or  garden? Overfertilization
                                             is a common problem, and the excess can
                                             leach into groundwater and contaminate
                                             rivers or lakes.
12. Do you avoid applying pesticides or fer-
    tilizers before or during  rain? If they
    run off into the water,  they will kill fish
    and other aquatic organisms.
            D Yes        D No

Water Conservation
Homeowners  can significantly reduce the vol-
ume of wastewater discharged to home septic
systems and sewage treatment plants by con-
serving water. If you have a septic system, you
can help prevent your system from overload-
ing and polluting ground and surface waters
by ensuring that it is functioning properly and
decreasing your water usage. For other  ideas
on what you can do to conserve water, check
out a new Web site, http://www.h2ouse, de-
veloped in partnership with the California Ur-
ban Water Conservation Council.

13. Do you use low-flow faucets and shower
    heads,  and reduced-flow toilet flush-
    ing  equipment?
            D Yes        D No

14. When washing your family's  car, do
    you use a bucket instead  of a  hose to
    save water?
           D Yes        D No

15.Do you use dishwashers and  clothes
    washers only when fully loaded?
           D Yes        D No

  Give  Water  A  Hand
  What is your city,
  town, or school doing
  to  prevent  polluted
  runoff? GIVE WA-
       A RANb AC-
  tains' checklists for
 ^schools, communities,
  and farms. This guide
     help you and your school identify po-
 rtenfigl problems in your community and
 , take action.
  .You can download a free copy of Give
  Water A Hand Action Guide and te
  Guidebook  at http://www.uwex.edu/
 |erc/gwah. Or to.._ord_er_ printed copies
 Stems ^f
  leader Guidebook ($4.92)
  Action Guide ($6.96)
 t Price includes shipping.
 NUMMrmiuiming-hft ^Wi^v^tK^^^^imMimiwI^olua^Knm^K-ABmLam^m-wsu^SM^^Butui^ajim
16. bo you take short showers instead of
    baths  and avoid letting faucets  run un-
    necessarily (e.g., when brushing teeth)?
           Cl Yes        D No

17. Do you promptly repair leaking faucets,
    toilets, and pumps to  conserve water?
           i—i ..          i~~i ..
D No
18. Do you conserve the  amount of water
    you use on your lawn and water only in
    the morning and  evening  to  reduce
    evaporation? Overwatering may increase
    leaching of fertilizers to groundwater.
            D Yes        D No
19. Do you  use slow watering  techniques
    such as trickle irrigation or soaker hoses?
    These devices reduce runoff and are 20
    percent more efficient than sprinklers.
            D Yes        D No

In Your Community
20. Do you always  pick up after your pet
    (e.g.. Rover's poop)? Be  sure to put it
    in the trash, flush it down the toilet,
    or bury it  at least 5 inches deep. Pet
    waste contains viruses and bacteria that
    can contaminate  surface and groundwater.
            D Yes        D No

21. Have you helped stencil stormdrains  to
    alert  people  that they  drain  directly
    to your local  waterbody?  If  not, get
    involved with a  local  conservation group
    or organize your own stenciling project.
            D Yes        D No

22. Do you ride or  drive only when neces-
    sary? Try to walk  instead. Cars and
    trucks emit tremendous amounts of air-
    borne pollutants, which increase acid rain.
    They also deposit toxic metals and petro-
    leum by-products.
            D Yes        D No

23. Do you participate in local  planning and
    zoning decisions in your community?  If
    not, get involved! These decisions shape
    the course of development and the future
    quality of your  watershed.
            D Yes       D No

 Storm  brain Stenciling  Project  Guidelines
 A storm drain, stenciling project consists of sten-
 ciling a message next to the street drain remind-
 ing people to "Dump No Waste—Drains to
 River" with the image of a fish. (Stencils are
 also available for lake, stream, bay, groundwa-
 ter, ocean, or simply "Protect Your Water" with
 the image of a glass  and faucet.) Steps to con-
 sider when conducting a stenciling project:
First, call for permission. For public streets,
call the city or county Public Works Department
(storm water or road maintenance division). In
some cases, the State Highway Administration
has jurisdiction. Public Works will probably is-
sue a permit or letter of approval. They might
even help by providing storm drain maps, traf-
fic safety cones, flags, and vests. Check to see if
they prefer that you stencil on the sidewalk or
on the street next to the drain. For some drains
on private property (e.g., business or apartment
parking lots), obtain the permission of the prop-
erty owner.

Consider safety. Especially when stenciling
with children, seriously consider traffic safety
issues when you select your site. Neighbor-
hoods are usually safer than downtown city
streets (and many nonpoint sources go down
storm drains in residential neighborhoods).
Place traffic safety cones, and assign at least
one adult with a traffic flag to watch traffic
at all times.

Prepare materials.  Before using stencils for the
first time, "weed" remaining letters from the
die cuts. This prevents small plastic or oilboard
pieces from  washing into drains while you are
stenciling. "Stencil  weeding" is a good activity
for a short training meeting before going out to
paint. For painting, an aerosol  can or traffic-
zone latex paint (without chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs) that harm the ozone) is a good option.
Some stencilers use a small roller or stencil
brush with recycled latex-based paints. Be care-
ful that younger stencilers do not apply the
paint too thickly because it will run under the
stencil or smear
the letters.
Call the media.
Notifying the
media of a stenciling event
can get your watershed protection mes-
sage out to the whole community. Young people
in the project enhance media photo opportu-
nities. Remember to take your own pictures, too.
Avoid a mess. Remind stencilers to wear old
clothes. Rubber gloves and protective eye gear
are helpful, as are plastic bags worn over shoes.
Bring rags to clean up unexpected paint on your
arms or fingers. Also include big litter bags to
bring back used gloves and rags as well as any
garbage you pick up that otherwise could go
down the storm drain. Paint spray can drift
onto nearby parked cars, so bring a large box
opened flat to use as a shield around the sten-
cil as you  spray.
      |p for Storm  Drain
    @CX 'oca' watershed 9.C°yPs ^d county'
   overR^nf^Tffer" help with "stencil ing
  projects. yoy[ can'jof feti ta^v
  ing kits from these organizations.
         dm  A flft.juuu.il*
  The Ocean Conservancy sponsors a "Mil-
  | iojl Mn,ts ofjy ight" rational stom drain
 Titencijing campaign. Call Ron Ohrel at
 f'75L7-496-092Q  toftx§quest stencils on
            project guidelines. Ocean
             ._  cf|ja>."essr: 1432 North
                  d, Suite 103V Virginia
  Beach, W\ 23454.
                   , produces stencils and
                   edycqtjpn .......... materials. ........... „

Work in teams of four to six accompanied by
an adult. One team accompanied by an adult
may go together door-to-door passing out fly-
ers or doorhangers (see below). Explain the wa-
tershed drainage, your monitoring findings, lo-
cal river fish and wildlife, and  actions neigh-
bors can take to avoid pollution. Rotate jobs for
maximum enjoyment and experience.

Tips for applying stencils. Scrub the area
briskly with a wire brush and dust it off with a
whisk broom. Lay the mylar stencil on the side-
walk or street next to the storm drain. If using
spray paint, shake the can and hold it about 6
to 8 inches from the stencil. Use a series of short
back and forth motions to spray one line at a
time until the letters are uniformly covered. Do
not use too much paint because it will run un-
derneath and blur the letters. When finished,
carefully lift the stencil up off the street. It may
take a little experience in the beginning to ad-
just the amount of paint. After finishing all the
stenciling for the day, lay the stencils out flat to
dry in a warm place. When the paint is com-
pletely  dry, gently roll the stencils to chip off
the paint. This works best if the paint is not
allowed to build up a thick layer between

Prepare a flyer or doorhanger. After stencil-
ing a message that tells neighborhood people
what not to do (Dump No Waste), students can
hand out and discuss a flyer or doorhanger ex-
4  Recycle used oil at nearby listed locations
4  Use fewer chemicals on lawns and gardens
4  Save household hazardous chemicals for col-
    lection days (give dates and location)
4  Pick up waste that would otherwise wash
    down storm drains
4  Other stewardship opportunities
Add local information for a sense of place:
4  Where do neighborhood drains go—into
 •  what river, bay, lake, or aquifer?
4  If drains connect to combined sewer over-
   flows (CSOs), how do they work? What
   happens with overflows during storm wa-
   ter events? (They go straight to the river.)
4  Who lives near or in the river? (Names of
   local species of fish, birds, and other crit-
4  What restoration projects are under way to
   clean up or replant streamsides, build and
   install bird or bat boxes, or maintain  local
4  How can community members help?
These guidelines were  adapted and  reprinted with
permission from Rhonda Hunter, the founder of
Earthwater Stencils,  4425 140th Avenue, SW,
Dept. V, Rochester, WA 98579-9703.  Phone: 360-
956-3774. On the  Web at http://www.earthwater-
stencils.com. These guidelines were adapted from
a story that appeared in The Volunteer Monitor
newsletter, Volume 7,  No. 2, Fall 1995.

The Streamwalk is an easy-to-use tool designed
to assess the health of a stream, corridor. If you
observe water quality problems at your site (e.g.,
dead fish, oil spills, leaking barrels, bulk trash),
you should report these findings to your city or
county environmental department right away.
Explain the nature and location of the problem.

Before the  Streamwalk
1.  We encourage you to contact local groups
    involved  in environmental issues in your
    area.  This serves two purposes: one, these
    groups may be able to provide you with in-
    formation  and background  on  your
    Streamwalk site; and two, you may be able
    to piggyback on an existing program. Visit
    EPA's Adopt Your Watershed Web page at
    htfp://www.epa.gov/adopt to see if there
    is a group in your watershed you can team
    up with.
2.  Choose   the general  area  for   your
    Streamwalk. Educators should carefully
    read the Streamwalk tips on page 24 and
    safety guidelines  on pages 42-44 before
    beginning this activity. Also, it is strongly
    recommended   that  you  visit  the
    Streamwalk site in advance to take into
    account any potential hazards (e.g., bro-
    ken glass,  traffic, steep slopes, holes,
    rocks, poisonous plants, and insect nests).
    You may wish to collect data along a famil-
    iar stream, one that is close to your  school
    or on school grounds, or one that does not
    cascade down a steep mountain side. You
    may decide to do a series of streams in a
    watershed to collect baseline data or con-
    centrate your efforts in areas suspected of
    being polluted. It  is recommended that
    Streamwalks be done four times a year (once
    each season) at your site.
3.  Find a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topo-
    graphic map of your area.  These "topo"
    maps show  such things as elevations, wa-
    terways, and roads, and they help you see
    the connections between your stream and
    its watershed. Topo maps identify the lati-
    tude and longitude of your site. Help in de-
    fining longitude and latitude is provided on
    pages 28 and 29. We recommend 7%-minute
    quad maps (1:24,000 scale, where 11 inches
    = 4 miles), which are available at outdoor
    supply stores stores or on-line at http://
    topozone.com. You may also find one to
    photocopy at your local library, or you can
    order directly from USGS. For assistance,
    call 1-888-ASK-USGS.

4.  Now, find your specific Streamwalk. site on
    the topo map. For purposes of Streamwalks,
    you will characterize 100 feet (or about 65
    meters) in either direction from your site.
    You may do as many sites on the stream as
    you wish. Just be sure that sites are at least
    200 feet apart.

5.  Finally, make a copy of the Streamwalk sur-
    vey data form (pages 25-27). It is very im-
    portant that you go through the instruc-
    tions, the Streamwalk Tips,,  and safety
    guidelines on pages 42-44 before you be-
    gin your walk. You will use your map and
    one survey data sheet per Streamwalk site.
Note: Several citizen groups and agency represen-
tatives worked with EPA's Region 10 office (Seattle,
Washington) to develop Streamwalk.

Instructions  for  Filling Out  Streamwalk Site Survey Data Sheets
          elow are directions on how to fill out the Streamwalk Site Survey Data Sheet. Please
          *read these thoroughly before you begin your walk. If, while conducting your Streamwalk,
            u are not able to determine what the response should be, or if the question itself is
          unclear, just leave that space blank—but don't stop your walk. Remember this is not a
test, and there  are no right or wrong answers. Walks can be done along the stream—you do not
need to enter  the water. Please be sure to read the tips on page 24 and  safety guidelines on
pages 42-44.

Give the stream name, county, and state of your site. Refer to the topo map
if you have one. Note: There are some unnamed streams; in these cases
you can indicate the stream, lake, or waterbody into which your stream
flows and the  name and number of the topo map.  (If you want to share
your information with a local or state environmental agency, it is useful to
include the longitude and latitude of your site(s). This step is optional since
computing this may be challenging. (See page 25.)

The concern with weather  relates to amount of rainfall, which potentially can affect flow, clarity,
and amount of water in a stream. Weather/rainfall reports are available in the daily newspaper or
by calling the local Weather Service. Definitions of weather conditions established by the Weather
Service  are:
•   Rain - 1/3  inch in 24 hours - light,  steady rainfall.
•   Showers -  1/3-1 inch in 24 hours, intermittent and variable in intensity.
•   Storm - 1 inch or more rain in 24 hours, usually accompanied by high winds.

Stream Description
Depth and Width Estimates
This information provides  a description of the stream water at  your site. Simply provide an esti-
mate of the stream's width and depth. Do not enter the water—just provide your best guess!

Water Clarity
The clearness  of the water is observed to determine if sediment pollution (dirt)  is entering the
stream.  Cloudy or different colored water can be a result of natural processes or of land use in the
surrounding watershed. Sediments can adversely affect habitat  conditions such as food, health of
fish, and breeding environment for macroinvertebrates. In some areas, grey  or white water can be
a result of natural processes such as glacial sources for streams.

Water Flow: Pools and Riffles
The variety of flow in relation to depth creates habitat to sup-
port fish and invertebrate life. Pools are deeper than adjacent
areas. They provide feeding,  resting, and spawning areas for
fish. Riffles and/or runs are flows swift in comparison to sur-
rounding areas. Riffles are shallow and fast water, runs are deep
and fast water, and pools are slow and deep water.

Stream Channel Cross-Section Shape
Please check the box that matches the shape of the stream chan-
nel. If you are unable to see the shape of the bottom and banks,
please estimate. You can base your estimate on the flow of water.
Tlie slower the water in tine middle of the stream, the flatter the bottom.

Stream Bottom (substrate)
Indicate the most common type of material on the stream bottom.

•   Silt/clay/mud: This substrate has a sticky, cohesive feeling. The particles are fine. The spaces
    between the particles hold  a lot of water, making the sediments behave like ooze.;
•   Sand (up to 0.1 inch): Sand is made up of tiny particles of rock. It feels soft underfoot.
•   Gravel (0.1-2  inches): A gravel stream bottom is made up  of stones ranging from tiny quarter
    inch pebbles to rocks of about 2 inches.
•   Cobbles (2-10 inches): The majority of rocks on this type of  stream bottom are between 2 and 10
    inches. The average size is  about that of a grapefruit.

•   Boulders (greater than 10 inches): Most of the rocks on the bottom will be large, greater than 10
    inches.                                                                     •
•   Bedrock: This  kind of stream bottom is solid rock.                              •

Width of Natural Streamside Corridor
Streamside corridor, riparian area and zone of influence are terms that describe the natural vegetated
area on either side of the stream. Along with the stream, that area forms the habitat of the river. It
includes vegetation that shades the water, holds the soil in place, adds nutrients to the stream in
the form of leaves and during  flooding, and provides living quarters for Streamside wildlife. Esti-
mate as best you can the width of the corridor at your site. Indicate with an "x" on the bar graph.
Note: Left and right  are based  on looking down stream. If the vegetation is pasture or land-
scaped, this is not a natural state, so mark "o."

Streamside Vegetation
Vegetation acts as a filter for sediment and pollution coming in from the land nearby. It provides
habitat  for the many creatures that are dependent on and influence the stream. Branches, logs,
and leaves enter  the stream from this region. Vegetation also provides shade, which keeps the
water cool. On the data sheet mark all the categories that apply.

•  Conifer: A cone-bearing evergreen tree or shrub (e.g., a pine tree)
•  Deciduous tree: A tree that sheds its foliage at the end of the growing season
•  Small trees or shrubs: Either conifers or deciduous bushes less than 20 feet high.
•  Grasses: Any of numerous plants with narrow leaves, jointed stems, and spikes or clusters of
   inconspicuous flowers.

Overhead Canopy (Stream Cover)
This is the amount of vegetation that overhangs the stream. It offers protection and refuge for fish
and other organisms, shades the stream and keeps the water cool, and provides "launching" areas
for insects that might fall into the river. Estimate, as best you can, about how much of the river is
overhung by vegetation and whether the vegetation is  grasses,  shrubs, or trees. Please check the
category that is appropriate for the current condition of your site. For example, if in the winter
there are no leaves on the trees in your segment, you might check 0%-25%. However, in the sum-
mer when the trees have leaves, you might check 50%-75%.

Artificial Bank Protection
This category includes such streamside modification as riprap (a retaining wall built of rocks or
concrete) and bulkheads. It may also include deliberately placed auto bodies, refrigerators, and
washing machines. People in the past have thought that such modifications helped stabilize stream
banks. Unfortunately, not only do they drastically degrade habitat for streamside and in-stream
dwellers, but they also  can  cause bank erosion in flood conditions. Mark the categories that best
describe the condition of the stream bank within your 500-foot segment.

Presence of Logs or Woody Debris in Stream
Logs and woody debris (not twigs and leaves) can slow or divert water to provide important fish
habitat such as pools and hiding places.  So please mark the general amount of logs and woody
debris in the stream. DO NOT REMOVE  THEM.

Organic Debris in Stream
The presence of other organic matter in the stream can be  both good and bad. Dumped grass
clippings are not good for stream health. On the other  hand, naturally falling
leaves and  twigs can be beneficial.

Fish in Stream
Can you see any fish? Mark it down! If you know what kind of fish it is, say so
in the space next to the  question. If you think there are fish but you cannot see
them, mark "no."
Adjacent Land Uses
Adjacent land use has a great impact on the quality and state of the stream and riparian areas.
Enter a "I" if the land use is present and a "2" if it is clearly impacting the stream. If you cannot
determine the type of housing, industry, or development, please make your best estimate.

Conditions                                                                \
This section is designed to get information about potential problems at your Streamw'alk site. Enter
a "1" if the, condition is present and "2" if it is severe.

Stream Banks
•  'Natural plant cover degraded: Indicate if stream side vegetation is trampled, missing, or re-
   placed by landscaping or cultivation.                                       :
•  Banks collapsed/eroded: Note if banks or parts of banks have been washed away or worn down.
•  Banks artificially modified: Indicate if banks have been artificially modified by construction or
   placement of rocks, wood, or cement supports or lining.
•  Garbage or junk adjacent to stream: Describe human-made materials present.  ;

Stream Channel                                                            !
Mnd/silt/sand on bottom/entering stream: Excessive mud or silt entering the stream and clouding
the water can interfere with the ability of fish to sight potential prey. It can also clog fish gills and
smother eggs in spawning areas on the stream bottom. Mud/silt/sand can be an indication of poor
construction practices in the watershed, where runoff coming off the site is not adequately con-
tained. It can also be a perfectly normal occurrence, especially if, for example, a muddy bottom is
found along a very slow-moving segment or a wetland. Use your best judgment.   (

Artificial stream modifications: Please note if the stream water has been dammed, dredged, filled,
or channelized through culverts or if other large-scale activities such as log removal are apparent.

Algae/scum floating/covering rocks: Evidence of algae (very tiny plants that can color the water
green or can resemble seaweed) or scum in the water may point to an upstream source adding too
much nutrient (fertilizer) to the water.                                         :

Foam or sheen: This is a bit of a tricky category because this type of thing can be naturally occur-
ring or a problem. For example, an irridescent or shiny sheen on the water might be  from, rotting
leaves or it might be from some upstream pollutant. If you are not sure, mark it on the checklist.

Garbage or junk in stream: This is your chance to point out very  straightforward problems like
batteries, tires, home appliances, car bodies, and garbage.                       ,

Organic debris or garbage: The purpose is to determine if the stream is being used as a dump  site
for materials that would not be present naturally. Debris can be anything from a soda can to
vegetation brought from outside the stream corridor.

Livestock in or with unrestricted access to stream: Are livestock present  or is there an obvious
path that livestock use to get to the water from adjacent fields? Is  there stream-side degradation
caused by access?

Actively discharging pipes: Are there pipes with visible openings dumping fluids or water into the
stream? Please note, even though you may not be able to tell where they come from or what they
are discharging. Do not touch this effluent!

Other pipes: Are there pipes entering the stream? Please mark even if you cannot find an opening
or see matter being discharged.

Ditches: Are any ditches draining into the stream?
  Stream  Symptoms

  Shiny surface or rainbow colors—If you see rainbow colors on the water's surface or if
  you smell oil (a gas station smell), oil might be polluting your stream. Oil can come from a
  pipeline leak, a storm sewer, or illegal dumping. Oil kills fish and can make kids who play in
  the water sick.
  Green water—Too much algae. Algae are small plants that are found in the water. Fertiliz-
  ers from farms and  lawns can get into streams and cause too  much algae to grow. When
  algae break down or decompose, oxygen is used up and fish don't have enough to breathe.
  Brown or muddy water—Too much dirt or sediment in the. water. Dirt clogs fish gills so
  .fish can't breathe. Dirt kills streamjnsects when it settles to the bottom and buries them.
  Dirt blocks light to underwater plants, and they die too.

  Orange water—Orange water can indicate  the presence of iron in the water. Iron can be
  naturally present where the soils are high in iron. This is not a pollution problem. However,
  orange water can indicate acidic runoff from mining activities. Acidic water kills fish and
  other stream life.
  Foam or suds—Some foam or suds in the stream is natural. If you see foam in the stream
  that is more  than 3 inches tall, looks like bubble  bath, and doesn't break apart easily,
  detergent may have entered the stream.  Soap can come from homes, factories, or car
  washes.  Soap harms stream insects because it breaks the surface tension of the water
  and insects like water striders sink and drown.
  Strange odors—A chemical smell can mean harmful  chemicals are polluting your stream. A
  .rotten egg smell can mean sewage is getting into the stream from cows, sewage treatment
   plants, or people's homes. Sewage or chemicals can make people and animals ill.
                 Reprinted with permission from Izaak Walton League of America

Streamwalk  Tips
Also review  Safety Guidelines on pages  42-44
•  Get the permission of landowners to cross any
   private land, posted or not. Do not enter ar-
   eas without permission. It is recommended
   that you use public access points (such as city/
   county/state parks and campgrounds).
•  Only record what you see, not what you
   have previously seen. For example, if you
   think fish are present but you can't see them,
   mark your sheet "no fish present."
•  Do not put yourself in danger to gather sur-
   vey information.
•  Be careful of ticks, poison oak, nettles, and
   insects. Bring repellent. Wear long pants and
   boots; wind breakers help fend off nettles.
•  Watch out for  dogs, snakes, alligators, and
   large animals.
•  Do not drink the water—it is unsafe.
•  Do not walk on unstable  banks; your foot-
   steps could speed erosion.
Be alert for spawning areas (redds) in the
stream. Do not walk on them. They will look
like a round or elliptical area of clean gravel
about 1-3 feet long. During fall through
spring, when redds are evident, try not to
walk in the stream. In the summer, if you
are careful, the streambed might be the easi-
est route for conducting your Streamwalk.
Be aware that the streambed! can be very
slippery, uneven, and unpredictable.

Do not attempt to walk across streams that
are swift and above the knee in depth. You
can be swept away in an instant!

Be careful of streamside vegetation. Disturb
it as little as possible.

If  for any reason you feel uncomfortable
about the stream conditions or surround-
ings, please stop your Streamwalk imme-
diately. You and your students' safety are
much more valuable than the .Streamwalk!
  Recommended  list of items  to  take along:
     Photocopies of topo map of stream to be walked
     Comfortable rubber boots
     Snag- and thorn-proof clothing that is appropriate for the weather
     Clip board with waterproof cover
     Streamwalk data forms
     Two pencils
     Folding ruler or tape measure
     Camera and film and/or video recorder in waterproof bag
     Leather gloves
     Bottled water
     First aid kit (See page 42 for suggested contents)
     Cell phone
     If you are away from urban or residential areas,
     the following are also recommended for  safely:
     Extra clothes in a waterproof bag
     Toilet paper and hand wipes
     Fire starter (candle, cheap lighter, tinder)
     Flashlight and  extra batteries
     Global positioning device,  compass
     Aluminum-foil  blanket (for winter excursions)

Streamwalk Site Survey  Data Sheet (Complete One sheet per site)
  Stream name:.
  School Name:
  Contact Name:.
  Site (name, description or number):
  Weather (see instructions on page 19)
  G Clear     G  Overcast     G Rain     G Showers      O Storm

  Stream Description (see instructions on pages 19)
  1. Depth  (estimated):           feet
     Width  (estimated):           feet
  2. Clarity: Does water appear    G  Clear     G  Cloudy
  3. Water Flow: (check all that apply):      Q Pools     G Riffles    Q Runs
  4. Stream Channel Cross Section Shape: (at site) (Estimated)

Streamwalk Site Survey Data  Sheet (Complete One sheet per Site)
Stream bottom: (check the most common) (see instructions on page 20)
Q Clay/Mud Q Cobbles (2-10 inches)
Q Sand (up to 0.1 inch) Q Boulders (over 10 inches) ;

Q Gravel (0.1- 2 inches) Q Bedrock (solid)

Width of Natural Streamside Corridor: (average) (see instructions on page 20)
Left looking downstream: meters Risht looking downstream: meters
Streamside Vegetation: (see instructions on page 20)

None/Sparse Occasional Common




Conifers Q U)
Deciduous Q Ul
Small trees and Shrubs (< 20 feet) Q U)
Grasses Q G
Vegetation appears Q natural Q cultivated
Extent of Overhead Canopy: (see instructions on page 21)
Q 0%-25% G 25%-50% G 50%-75% Q
Extent of Artificial Bank Protection: (see instructions on
O 0%-25% Q 25%-50% Q 50%-75% Ul
a '
Ul mixed (w/weeds)

75%-l 00%
page 21) ',
75%-l 00% i
Presence of Logs or Large Woody Debris in Stream: (see instructions on page 21)
Q None U) Occasional U) Common
(^•PfiV /
Presence of Other Organic Debris in Stream: (see instructions on page 21) fliiHl^|IV
Q Occasional Ul Common
Any fish present? (see instructions on page 21)
Q Yes Q No
Other Comments?



Site Survey Data Sheet (Complete One sheet per site)
Adjacent Land Uses
(see instructions on page 21)
Check "1" if present, "2" if clearly
impacting stream:
1 2 Residential/industrial
G G Single-family housing
G G Multi-family housing
G Q Commercial development
G G Light industry
G G Heavy industry
G G Road/bridge construction
Roads, etc.
G G Paved roads or bridges
G G Unpaved roads

Construction under way on:
G G Single-family housing
G G Multi-family housing
Q G Commercial development
G G Light industry
G G Heavy industry

G G Grazing land
Q G Feedlots or animal holding
Q G Cropland

G G Mining or gravel pits
Q Q Logging
G G Recreation

Check "1" if present, "2" if impact seems
1 2 Stream banks
G G Natural streamside cover
Q G Banks collapsed/eroded
G G Banks artificially modified
G G Garbage/junk adjacent to
Stream channel
G G Mud, silt, or sand
in or entering stream
G G Artificial stream
modifications(dams, chan-
nels, culverts, etc.)
Q G Algae or scum floating or
coating rocks
G G Foam or sheen
G G Garbage/junk in stream
G G Organic debris (garbage,
grass clippings, etc.)
G G Livestock in or with
unrestricted access to stream
G G Actively discharging pipe(s)
G G Other pipe(s) entering
G G Ditches entering

Othpr Comments?


 Follow-Up Questions for the  Streamwalk
 1.  What animals or plants did you observe? Write the names or make sketches.    '.

 2.  What three pieces of evidence did you find for ways that people use this water?

 3.  What evidence did you find for ways that other animals and plants use this water?

 4.  What color was the water? Was it clear? Did it smell?
5.  From what you learned and observed while visiting the stream, what can you say about the
    quality of the water? You may want to study the "stream symptoms" on page 22 for some help.

6.  Do you think water quality is a problem at this site? What evidence do you have for your answer?

7.  We just spent time surveying the land uses adjacent to the site. Do you think this has an effect
    on the quality of the water? Do you think that there is strong connection between impacts on
    the land and water  quality?                                              !
8. Do we have enough evidence to say whether -the water is polluted or what it is polluted with?
   What else might we need to learn? Where can we get some additional information about the
   quality of our watershed? (Hint: Your state is required to submit information regularly to the
   Environmental Protection Agency about the quality of your state's watersheds. You can visit the
   Watershed Information Network (http://www.epa.gov/win) to find your watershed and learn
   about its health.)
  Did You  Know?
;  Water is theonly substance necessary to all life. Many organisms can live without oxygen,
;  But none can live without water!
  Water makes up about 65 percent of our bodies. Humans and all other animals, as well as
  plants, require water to live. Without it, we would not be able to survive more than one week!

Instructions  for  Defining  Latitude and  Longitude
Latitude and longitude are defined in degrees,
minutes, and seconds. There are 60 seconds in
a minute and 60 minutes in a degree. The sym-
bols are as follows ° = degrees,' = minutes, and
" = seconds. The following example may help
you determine the latitude and longitude for
your walk.

Look at the right side (upper or lower corner)
under the map name, or the second of two num-
bers separated by "x", to  find the width scale
(longitude) of the map:
                                                                    7.5 x 1S Minute Series
1.  If "7.5 MinuteSeries/'enter 450.
   If "15 Minute Series/'enter 900.
   If "7.5x15 Minute Series/'enter 900.
   If "15x30 Minute Series," enter 900.

2.  Using a ruler, measure the width of your
   map east to west (exclude borders).

3.  Divide #1 by #2 to the nearest whole number.
4.  Enter the longitude located in the lower
   right corner.
5.  Using a ruler, measure (centimeters) from
   your site, straight across, to 'the right side
   of the map.
6.  Multiply #5 by  #3 (to the nearest whole
7.  Convert #6 to minutes and seconds by di-
   viding by 60. Your whole number after di-
   vision is the number of minutes, and the re-
   mainder is the number of seconds. (Do not
   use a calculator.) For example, 215 can be
   divided by 60 three times. 215 - 180 = 35. So
   215 converts to 3'35".
8.  Add #4 to #7.

The answer for #8 is the longitude of
your site.
                                                Your Work
                                                                      10 cm
90 sec/cm
                                                                      (300 with
                                                                      33 left over, or

Latitude                                                                   ;
Look at the right side (upper or lower corner) under the map name, or the second of two
numbers separated by "x", to find the height scale (latitude) of the map:          ;
9. If "7.5 Minute Series," enter 450.
   If "15 Minute Series," enter 900.
   If "7.5x15 Minute Series," enter 450.
10. Using a ruler, measure the length of your
   map north to south (exclude borders).
11. Divide #9 by #10 to the nearest whole number
12. Enter  the latitude located in the lower
   right corner.
13. Using a ruler, measure (centimeters) from
   your site, straight down, to the bottom
   of the map.
14. Multiply #13 by #11 (to the nearest whole
15. Convert #14 to minutes and seconds by di-
   viding by 60. Your whole number after di-
   vision is the number of minutes, and the re-
   mainder is the number of seconds. (Do not
   use a calculator.) For example, 215 can be
   divided by 60 three times. 215 - 180 = 35. So
   215 converts to 3'35".
16. Add #15 to #12.
The answer for #16 is the latitude of your site.
Your Work

450  '
10 cm
45 sec/cm
                      4.8 cm
                      (180 with
                      36 left over,
                      or 3'36"

                      47°    !

Stream  Insects
This activity can be done in conjunction with the Streamwalk
(page 18). Please  be sure  to  read the Streamwalk tips on
page  24 and  safety guidelines on pages 42-44.

         Shere is a whole world of life in rivers and streams.
          Living alongside fish, amphibians, reptiles, and wild-
         life are macroinvertebrates—creatures that  are large
       (macro) enough to be seen with the naked eye and that
lack a backbone (invertebrate). Aquatic insects, clams, snails,
crayfish,  worms, and leeches are all macroinvertebrates. Some,
like snails,  live their whole lives in the water; others, like drag-
onflies, leave  the water as adults to  feed and reproduce. In
streams most macroinvertebrates live under or attached to sub-
merged rocks, logs, and plants. Like all living things, they need
oxygen to breathe, water of the right temperature to thrive and
reproduce in, suitable habitat, and the right kind of food. When
these requirements are not met,  these creatures will not survive.

Scientists and trained volunteers study macroinvertebrates to  learn about stream water quality.
Macroinvertebrates and crustaceans are an "indicator" species—in other words, their presence is
used as a way to assess the health of a waterbody. Any physical, chemical, or biological change in
water quality that adversely affects living organisms is considered to be pollution. Some organisms
are very sensitive to pollution, while others are more resilient and less vulnerable. Water quality
monitors sample aquatic insect populations a few limes a year to observe changes in stream condi-
tions .and to assess the cumulative impacts of environmental stressors. Scientists and volunteers
monitor  streams across the country using lots of different methods. This is not a protocol for assess-
ing stream health; it is simply  an investigative technique developed by EPA's Monitoring Branch.

Many aquatic species rely on macroinvertebrates for food/including most species of fish (e.g.,
trout, bass, salmon). In turn, aquatic birds, including great blue herons and kingfishers, rely on the
fish that feed  on the macroinvertebrates! Macroinvertebrates and crustaceans are, therefore, a very
important  component in the "web of life."

Some macroinvertebrates are more sensitive to pollution than others, so if you find a large diversity
of macroinvertebrates that cannot tolerate pollution, you have found a healthy stream. On the
other hand, if you find only macroinvertebrates that can live in polluted conditions, your stream
may have a problem. While these aquatic insects are the first indicator of stream health, fish, frogs,
turtles, birds,  small mammals  are all part of that picture as well!
         !                                     i             I         -
   Visit http://wtiter.nr.state.ky.us/ww/vm.htm for a listing of volunteer monitoring
   homebages, maintained by Kentucky WaterWatch. Be slire to check out the on-line
   macroinvertebrate  key at  the bottom  of the  page! :

      EsLJfefflM macr°inyjrte-
                you will need:
                      -__to  10-gatlon)
            shallow white  pan.  (Alterna-
                   e plastic plate or the
         * I™"*** «iip'mwF Hiipwwn' w» ™ »*» **+  ^ at >   * m ^  v> *s* t i

         Cce pube, trays filled with stream
               ^     sorting  insects)
                      »    •*
      '* Magnifying  glass lens
         _   "*!.{	:r?-SS>!e>r~^?!'.' f.". :*:: ".?.:" ,Vi ', •
               guides (optional)
 Before you plan a trip to your local stream, check
 with local monitoring organizations or local wa-
 ter quality officials. They may be willing to dem-
 onstrate correct monitoring techniques. Also, keep
 in mind that too much activity may have a nega-
 tive impact on the stream's aquatic  life. Disturb
 the site as little as possible and promptly replace
 all organisms. Carefully read all safety guide-
 lines on pages 42-44 before beginning this ac-
 tivity. To locate macroinvertebrates in the stream,
 use one or more of the following methods:

 A. Rock-rubbing method. (Use this method in
    streams with riffle areas and rocky bottoms.)
    Remove several rocks from within a riffle area
    of your stream site (e.g., randomly pick one
    rock from each side  of the stream, one rock
    from the middle, and one rock  from in be-                                !
    tween). Try to choose rocks that are submerged during normal flow conditions. Each rock should
    be about 4 to 6 inches in diameter and should be easily moved (not embedded). '

    Either inspect the rock's surface for any living organisms or place the rock in a light-colored
    bucket or shallow pan, add some stream water, and brush the rock with your hands. Try to
    dislodge the foreign particles from the rock's  surface. Also look for clumps of gravel or leaves
    stuck to the rock. These clumps may be caddisfly houses and should be dislodged as well.
 B. Stick-picking method. (Use this method in streams without riffles or without a rock bottom.)
    Collect several sticks  (approximately 1 inch in diameter and relatively short) from inside the
    stream site, and place then in a bucket filled with stream water. Select partially decomposed
    objects that have soft, pulpy wood and a lot of crevices and are found in the flowing water, but
   not buried in the bottom. Pick the loose bark from the sticks to find the organisms.

   Fill the shallow pan with water from the stream, and remove  one of the sticks from the bucket.
   Examine the stick, making  sure you hold it over the pan so no organisms are lost. Remember
   that the organisms will have sought shelter, and they could be hiding in loose bark or crevices.
   After examining the sticks, it might be helpful to break up the woody material. Examine each
   stick carefully. Using tweezers, carefully remove anything that resembles a living organism and
   place it in the pan. Also examine the bucket contents for anything that has fallen off the sticks.
C. Leaf pack-sorting method. (This  method can be used in streams  with or without a riffle or
   rock bottom.) Remove several handfuls  of submerged leaves from the stream and place them
   into a bucket. Remove the leaves one at a time and look closely for the presence of insects. Using
   tweezers, carefully remove anything that resembles a living organism and place it in a pan
   containing stream water. Also, examine the water in the bucket contents to see if anything has
   fallen off the leaves.

Note: A riffle is a shallow, gravelly area of streambed with swift current used for spawning by
salmonids and other fish species.

     Beginner's Protocol PICTURE KEY
After collecting macro-invertebrates,
examine the types of organisms by
gross morphological features (e.g.,
snails or worm-like). Use a magnify-
ing glass lens to observe the organisms
in water so you can clearly see the legs,
gills, and tails.

Note the relative abundance of each
type on the data sheet. Students can
use the ice trays filled with stream wa-
ter to sort and group the insects (e.g.,
all the caddisflys in one, all the midges
in another). Do this activity in the
shade so that the insects do not die
from the direct sunlight. Also, it's a
good idea to keep a spray bottle on
hand if the insects have been out of
the water for an extended period of
time. When finished, return all the or-
ganisms to the stream.

Many types of macroinvertebrates
can be found in a healthy stream. Be-
cause different species can tolerate dif-
ferent levels of pollution, observing
the   variety  and abundance  of
macroinvertebrates can give you a
sense of the stream's health. For ex-
ample, if pollution-tolerant organisms
are plentiful and pollution intolerant
ones are found only occasionally, this might indicate a problem in the stream. Types of organisms
you may find include:

 •  Worm-like organisms (like worms and leeches) either adhere to rocks or sticks or move slowly.
    They are generally  tolerant of pollution.
 •  Crustaceans include crayfish that look like lobsters or shrimp. They are generally somewhat
    tolerant of pollution.
 •  Snail-like organisms include snails and clam-like organisms. They range from somewhat toler-
    ant of pollution to  somewhat intolerant.
Insects include a wide variety of organisms that generally have distinct legs, head, bodies, and tails
 and often move quickly over rocks  or sticks. They come in many sizes and shapes as well as a wide
 range of pollution-tolerance levels.
                                  AQUATIC WORMS

Macroinvertebrate  Survey  Data  Sheet

Which type of  method did the  class use?
Q Rock-rubbing method: From cobbles and large stones selected from riffles.      ;

Q Stick-picking method: From woody objects in streams with sandy, silty bottoms ;

Q Leaf-pack sorting method: From submerged leaves in streams with either a rocky or sandy,
   silty bottom.

Were  macroinvertebrates  present?                                        ;
Q No        Q Yes, but rare     Q  Yes, abundant                          '

If present, describe the types  of macroinvertebrates  found.  Mark  all that apply:
Wormlike              Q  Occasional         Q Plentiful                  !
SnaUs/clamlike         Q  Occasional         Q Plentiful
Insects                 Q  Occasional         Q Plentiful                  •
Crayfish               Q  Occasional         Q Plentiful

Note: This is not a protocol for assessing stream health; it  is simply an investigative technique
developed by EPA's Monitoring Branch.                                       i
  .Setting  Started in  Volunteer Monitoring

   Monitoring macroinvertebrates requires training in safety consider-
   ations, field methods, insect identification, and analysis of results.
   Organizations interested in macroinvertebrate or other forms of
   Stream monitoring should get in touch with a local program that trains
   volunteers in these activities. There are currently more than 770 vol-
   unteer monitoring programs around  the country, plus several  that
   are national in scope. Check out EPA's National Directory of Volun-
   teer Environmental Monitoring Programs to find a group  near you
   that may help train your school. (Call 1-800-490-9198 and ask for
   EPA publication  841-B-98-009.) EPA's Adopt Your Watershed  Web
   page at http://www.epa.gov/adopt can also link you up with volun-
   teer groups in your watershed.

   Two national organizations that also can help you get started are the Izaak Walton League
   of America's Save  Our Streams program (for macroinvertebrate/biological monitoring
   training and kits, publications and equipment) at 1-800-BU6-IWLA or http://www.iwla.org/
   sos, and Earth Force (for low-cost chemical water quality monitoring kits to test for pH,
   dissolved oxygen, and other substances in the water) at 1-800-23-FORCE or http://'
   www.earthforce.org. Earth Force/Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (<5R;EEN)
   recently launched a new Web site that allows student users to enter, analyze, and share data!

Watershed  or  Groundwater Festival
By sponsoring a watershed or groundwater festi-
val at your school or in your community, you can
help raise awareness about the importance of
clean water and the need for watershed protec-
tion. A watershed or groundwater festival cel-
ebrates the unique aspects of a given watershed
through educational activities, exhibits, and en-
tertainment. The water festival concept is an enor-
mously successful way to educate both children
                                                ~      Enviroscape Models
                                                EnviroScape interactive units dramati-
                                              gcally demonstrate water pollution—and
                                              "its prevention. Models cover Nonpoint
                                               ^Sources, Wetlands, Coastal, Hazardous
                                               LMateriaJs and Landfills,  Riparian  Areas,
                                                arid Groundwater. Setup  videos and cur-
and adults. Make your event something that will  J 'ricljlum Qre also available.
inspire and motivate people to protect their wa-  ^
tershed!                                       1
       Schools may want to partner with their
           local or state water quality agency or
              a local watershed organization
               for help in planning the festival.
                                                 Schools may want to check first with the
                                              ^education office  in their state water
                                              |±quality agency or with a Cooperative Ex-
                                                 tension Service— they often have mod-
                                                 els to loan out (look in the blue pages of
                                                      phone book). Or, schools can con-

                Activities should be as hands-on  £ ™T Enviroscape directly and ask f or as-
                 as possible. Some ideas might  f4'Sta"Ce;n l°C+aIl"9 a™***°r ^9
                    f                    o    f,„ Cr,,n ppSfer af 703-631-8810, ext. 12.
                                                 For  more  information,  visit  the
                                                 Enviroscape  Web  site  at http://

                                                      E-mail: info<§?enviroscapes.com
                  include the Enviroscape Model,
                  a 3-dimensional representa-
                  tion of a watershed (see box).
                  You may want to check with
                  the education office in your
                  state water quality agency or
                   with the local Cooperative
                   Extension Service office—
                   they might have a model to
                    loan out. Aquifer in a Cup is a simple hands-on demonstration of how pollu-
                     tion moves through an aquifer (See EPA's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/
                     safewater/kids). A Household Hazardous Ring Toss where rings listing house-
                     hold products are tossed onto stands representating disposal options is an-
                     other idea. Be creative!

Steps for Organizing a Festival
The first steps are to define the watershed and then set up a committee to begin organizing the
event. You should begin this process well in advance of your planned festival. The committee
 1.  Decide the size of the event
 2.  Select the location and date
 3.  Identify and recruit activity presenters
 4.  Organize volunteers
                                               5.  Contact  potential  financial  and in-
                                                  kind donators
                                               6.  Provide information to the media about
                                                  the event
                                               7.  Evaluate event afterwards

Festival Resources
•   Walk Your Watershed Festival Organizing Kit, free (while
    supplies last) from the Water Environment Federation,
    provides instructions on how to plan, implement, and
    advertise a watershed festival. Send your request to WEF,
    601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-1994; 1-
    800-666-0206 or e-mail public-education ©wef.org.
•   Making Ripples: How to Organize a School Water Festival
    offers a step-by-step process for organizing a water festi-
    val at your school. ($14.95)

•   Making Waves: How to Put on a Water Festival is a guide to
    organizing a groundwater festival from getting started to
    writing fundraising letters and news releases.  ($12.75)
•   Making More Waves: Ideas From Across the U.S.  and Canada for
    Organizing Your Water Festival highlights the best and the bright-
    est ideas from festivals around the U.S. and Canada. ($12.75)
•   Making a Bigger Splash features groundwater festival activities from all over. All activities are
    hands-on and fun, and  they teach important water concepts. The activity book will help
    add new elements to already established events or provide activities for new festivals or for
    teachers in the classroom. Activities include the popular "Fish Olympics," "Danger in Our
    Town," and "Top Secret Water Rockets." ($12.75)
Making Ripples, Making Waves, Making More Waves, and Making a Bigger Splash can all be obtained by calling or
writing to The Sroundwater Foundation, P.O. Box 22558, Lincoln, NE 68542-2558; http://www qroundwater orq-

                              Build  Your  Own Aquifer
BACKGROUND: Many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called
aquifers. Water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to obtain
groundwater for drinking water purposes. Homeowners who cannot obtain their drinking water
from a public water supply have private wells drilled on their property. Unfortunately, groundwa-
ter can become contaminated by harmful chemicals, including household and lawn care products,
paints, bleach, cleaners, fertilizers, pesticides, and oil. These chemicals can percolate down through
the soil and rock and into the aquifer—and eventually the well. Such contamination can pose a
significant threat to human health. The measures that must be taken by well owners and operators
to either protect or clean up contaminated aquifers are quite costly.

NOTE: This demonstration should follow a discussion on potential sources of drinking water pollution,

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how water is stored in an aquifer, how groundwater can become con-
taminated, and how this contamination ends up in the drinking water well. Ultimately, students
should get a clear understanding that what happens above the ground can potentially end up in
the drinking water below it.
4   1 6-inch x 8-inch clear plastic container that
    is at least 6-8 inches deep (shoe box or small
4   1 Ib of modeling clay or floral clay

4   2 Ib of white play sand
4   2 Ib of aquarium gravel (natural color if pos-
    sible) or small pebbles (Because any small
    rocks may have a powdery residue on them,
    you may wish to rinse them and dry them
    on a  clean towel prior to use. It is best if
    they do not add cloudiness to the water.)

4   1 drinking straw
4   1 plastic spray bottle (be sure the stem that
    extends into the bottle is clear)
4   1 small piece (3-inches x 5-inches) of green
4   1/4 cup of powdered cocoa
4   red food coloring
4   1 bucket of clean water and small cup to
    dip water from bucket
4   Scotch  tape
1.  To one side of the container place the small
   drinking straw, allowing approximately
   1/8  inch clearance with the bottom of the
   container. Fasten the straw directly against
   to the long  side of the container with a piece
   of tape. Explain to the students that this will
   represent two separate well functions later
   in the presentation  (if not placed at this
   time, sand  will clog the opening).
2.  Pour a layer of white sand completely cov-
   ering the bottom of the clear plastic con-
   tainer, making it approximately 1 inch deep.
   Pour water into the  sand, wetting it com-
   pletely but  leaving no standing water on top
   of sand.  Let students see how the water is
   absorbed in the  sand but remains around
   the sand particles as it is stored in the ground
   and  ultimately in the aquifer.
3.  Flatten the modeling clay (like a pancake)
   and  cover half of the sand with the clay (try
   to press the clay into the three sides of the
   container in the area covered). The clay rep-
   resents a "confining layer" that keeps wa-
   ter from passing through it. Pour a small

    amount of water onto the clay. Let the stu-
    dents see how the water remains on top of
    the clay, only flowing into the sand below
    in areas not covered by the clay.
4.  Use the  aquarium rocks to form the next
    layer of earth. Place the rocks over the sand
    and clay, covering the entire container. To
    one side of your container, slope the rocks,
    forming a high hill and a valley. Now pour
    water into your aquifer until the water in
    the valley is even with your hill. Let students
    see the water around the rocks that is stored
    within the aquifer. They will also notice that
    a "surface" supply of water (a small lake)
    has formed. This will give them a view of
    both the ground and surface water sup-
    plies that can be used for drinking water
5.  Next, place the small piece of green felt on
    top of the hill. If possible, use a little clay to
    securely fasten it to the sides of the container
    it reaches.

6.  Using the cocoa, sprinkle some on top of the
    hill, while explaining to students that the
    cocoa represents improper use of lawn
    chemicals, fertilizers, etc.
7.  Put a few drops of food coloring into the
    straw, explaining to students that often old
    wells are used to dispose of farm chemicals,
    trash, and used motor oil. They will see that
    it will color the sand in the bottom  of the
    container. This is one way pollution can
    spread throughout the aquifer over time.
                EPA's (Sroundwater/Drinking
                Water Web Page at http://
                www.epa.gov/ogwdw has dozens
                of games and activities and sci-
                ence and art projects.
  Fill the spray bottle with water. Now make
  it rain on top of the hill and over the cocoa.
  Students will quickly see the cocoa (fertil-
  izer/pesticide) seep down through the felt
  and also wash into the surface water supply.
  Take another look at the well you contami-
  nated. The pollution has probably spread
  farther. Now remove the top of the spray
  bottle and insert the stem into the straw, de-
  pressing the trigger to pull up the water from
  the well. (Water will be colored and "pol-
  luted.") Explain that this is the same water
  a drinking water well will draw up for them
  to  drink.
 sponsored by The Groundwqfer Foun-
  	"  '	_	'	_	"^	un-	
               ^hoj^groujidwater .iJe.tK
  ,	^Jiffi^ikaMalicla^om^ies^
I sons arid  hj,!3,ds-oni experiments. Al-
."t^ough  icfea) for 4th  and 5th grade
^students,  ACC participation is open to
"groups'* of oTages. Likewise, the pro-
 ?rqm is effective in Bettings outside
     classroom sucR as enyironfnental
 :Lu_bs, _sc^uf^i.rpi5ps,' ancl  church
         In addition to  teaching about
            -, A AC provides students
   th,,jlfes,,,6pportunity to become in-
        in groundwater protection ac-
 tivities in their hometown. ,For more
Information about AAC and other edu-
-cational  programs,  contact  The
 Groundwater Foundation qt 1-800-
                                .,, ^^
'_iiifo@groundwater.org. On the \Veb at
^http:/7www. groundwater.org.

Schoolyard Habitats  and Wildlife Conservation
You can make your school or backyard a home for birds, butterflies, and other wildlife by including
trees, shrubs, and plants that attract wildlife. Below are two programs that can help you get started.
                  |gacj"  \ '   ft»* V, i;t ' ,     ,  , „    .«  ,  T ,,,,
  ,.,, 1995 the National Wildlife Federation (NWF) formally created the Schoolyard Habi-
  tat Program to focus specifically on assisting schools, teachers, students and community
 I*members in the use of school grounds as learning sites for wildlife conservation and cross-
 S curricular  learning. On request^ NWF will send you  an application package and instruc-
  tions. If your application and plan meet the criteria, you will receive a certificate and, if
  .you wish, a sign to show your commitment to wildlife conservation. To date, NWF has cer-
 l^tified more than 800 schools nationwide! For more information, contact:

                              Schoolyard Habitat Program
                       National Wildlife Federation 703-790-4582
    .  .„ 1_. -.	^»^i;^-»^»,_«.8925 Leesburg Pike
        --   --   •  -----" —Vienna,V/T 221*84-0001
                           ' On the Web: http://www.nwf.org
                            Precautions  to  Remember!

 A few precautions can be taken to avoid unwanted encounters with animals. Avoid setting out
 food that may attract scavengers such as raccoons. Keep garbage cans in a secure shed or garage,
 or use metal cans that scavengers cannot chew through. Check the exterior of your house for loose
 or rotted boards that could allow access by mice or other rodents. Remember that these animals are
 wild, and if threatened they can bite. Raccoons can be particularly aggressive. All of these species
 can carry diseases. Do not handle them.

 Laws on wildlife issues vary from state to state. If you have questions or concerns about wildlife,
 check with your state's Department of Natural Resources or Conservation Department before
 taking any action (see the blue pages in your phone book).

 Stream/Beach  Cleanup Guidelines
 Please  read pages 41-44 before beginning this activity

 Stream, river, and beach cleanups can help raise awareness about the problems of trash and ma-
 rine debris. Debris is one of the more widespread pollution problems threatening many of our
 watersheds and aquatic habitats. Debris comes from many sources, including beachgoers, im-
 proper disposal of trash on land, storm water runoff and combined sewer overflows to rivers and
 streams, ships and other vessels, and offshore oil and  gas platforms.

 Once litter gets into the ocean, it can seriously impact wildlife, the environment, and our economy.
 Thousands of marine animals are caught in and strangled by debris each year, while coastal com-
 munities lose considerable income when littered beaches  must be closed or cleaned up. The fishing
 industry spends thousands of dollars annually for the repair of vessels damaged by debris. These
 problems  are compounded by  the increasing number of people living near our coasts, which in-
 creases the amount of trash entering the environment. Man-made materials (such as plastics) are
 of particular concern because they remain in the environment for years           '

 Your school or organization can help by working with your  local government to organize a local
 cleanup or by participating in nationally recognized cleanup efforts. The International Coastal
 Cleanup, which is held the third Saturday of every September, is sponsored by the Ocean Conser-
 vancy (formerly known as the Center for Marine Conservation). Since the Cleanup began in 1986,
 more than 1 million volunteers  from more that 90 countries and 55, U.S. states and territories have
helped to  remove debris from the  shorelines, waterways, underwater  sites, and beaches of the
world's lakes, rivers, and oceans. Information collected during the cleanup each yea? is compared
to previous years' cleanup data and used to report on trends in marine debris. Participants learn
about the sources of marine debris, how prevalent it is, and how they can help prevent'the problem.
  Suggested Items to Bring  or Wear
     Shoes or boots that offer cover-
     age and support, at least over the
     Heavy rubber gloves (like
     dishwashing gloves) to protect
     hands and arms
     Safety vests (brightly colored);
     day-glo orange is best!
     Large plastic bags
     First aid kit (see page 41 for
     recommended contents)
     Antibacterial soap for washing
     hands afterward (the kind that
     does not need water)
•  Heavy sacks for sharp
•  Sunscreen
•  Medications (e.g.,
   for bee allergies,
   diabetes, if needed)
•  Insect repellant
•  Bottled water
   List of emergency contacts
   including a telephone
   number nearest to the
   Cell phone

Before  the cleanup...
4  Check with your local Department of Health or State Environmental Office about potential
   health concerns with the waterbody (e.g., Pfiesteria, poor water quality, currents, mosquitos,
   rats). (Look in your phone book's blue pages.)
4  Ask for necessary permission to cleanup at your site. Make arrangements with the appropriate
   local officials to let them know the location, days, and times of your cleanup so they can come
   and haul away the trash. They may be willing to give a talk about the history, wildlife, or
   environmental conditions.
4  Listen to weather reports. Never conduct a cleanup if severe weather is predicted or a storm
   occurs while at the site. Someone could drown.
4  Have a first aid kit handy. See Safety Guidelines on pages 42-44. It's best if at least one team
   member has first aid/CPR training.

At  the  cleanup site...
4  Group students into teams. Teams of three, four, or five are probably best.
4  Instruct students to leave syringes and needles alone! Notify someone at the health department
   and mark the spot with a flag or a large rock so someone can find it later.
4  Instruct students NOT to walk on unstable stream banks. This could be dangerous as well as
   cause erosion. Stay off dunes and avoid nesting areas.
4  If you must walk across  the stream, use a walking stick because the stream bottom could be
   slippery or treacherous or contain deep pools. No one should walk across streams that are swift
   and above the knee in depth. These can kill.
4  All participants should wear rubber gloves (like dishwashing gloves) to protect hands and
   arms.  Be careful with broken glass and rusty cans.
4  If you see anything abnormal (e.g., dead fish, oil spills, leaking barrels, bulk trash), contact your
   city or county environmental department right away and report the nature and location of
   the problem.

 Safety  Guidelines
 One of the most critical considerations for any student program is the safety of its participants. For
 each of the field activities listed in this guide, children should be trained in safety procedures and
 should carry with them a set of safety instructions and the phone number of their program, coordi-
 nator.  Safety precautions can never be overemphasized. The following are some basic common
 sense safety rules for teachers and program leaders:

 Before your activity
 1.  Always let the parents and the school principal know where you are and when you intend to
    return. Have a procedure in place if you do not come back at the appointed time.
 2.  Develop a safety plan. If you do not have a cell phone, find out the location 'of the nearest
    telephone and write it down. Locate the nearest medical center and write down directions on
    how to get between the  center and your site(s) so that you can direct emergency personnel.
    Have each student complete a permission slip and a medical form that includes emergency
    contacts, insurance information, and pertinent health information such as allergies, diabetes,
    epilepsy, etc.

3.  Have a first aid kit handy (see box below). Know any important medical conditions  of team
    members (e.g., heart conditions, diabetes, or allergies). It is best if at least one team member has
    first aid/CPR training.

4.  Listen to weather reports. Never go near the water if severe weather is predicted or if a storm
    occurs while at the site.                                                     ;

5.  Carry a cell phone (if available) in case of an emergency.                      ;
  First Aid  Kit

  At a minimum, a first aid kit should contain the following items:

  «  Telephone numbers of emergency personnel such as the police and ambulance service
  •  Band-aids for  minor cuts
  •  Antibacterial or alcohol wipes
  9,  First aid  cream or ointment    	
  *  §auze pads 3 or 4 inches square for deep wounds
  *  Acetaminophen for relieving pain and reducing fever
 !•' '" A"',first	aid' mahudl	
  •  A 2-inch  roll of gauze  bandage for large cuts
  •  A triangular bandage for large wounds
  •  A large compress  bandage to  hold dressings in place
  •  A 3-inch-wide elastic bandage for sprains and applying pressure to bleeding wounds
  •  If a participant has a  medical condition, include their doctor-prescribed medications
  Be sure you carry a cell phone (if available) and have emergency telephone numbers and  medical
  information with you at the field site for everyone participating in field work (including you) in case
  there is an emergency.

In the  Field
• Never wade in swift streams or in water higher than your knees! These can kill. Cancel your
   field trip if you had a recent rain event or if the water level is high.
• Never drink the water in a stream. Provide bottled water for the students. After any of the
   field activities, students should immediately wash their hands with antibacterial soap. Bring
   along the type that does not require water.
• Assume that the water is not healthy—students should wear boots and rubber gloves.

• If you drive, park in a safe location. Be sure that you don't block traffic.
• Put  your wallet, keys, and cell phone in a safe place, such as a watertight bag you keep in a
   pouch strapped to your waist. Without proper precautions, wallet, keys, and phone might end
   up downstream.
• Never cross private property without the permission of the landowner. Better yet, conduct sur-
   veys and take samples only at public access points.
• Confirm that you are at the proper site location by checking maps, site descriptions, or direc-
• Watch for poison ivy, poison oak, sumac, and other types of vegetation in your area that can
   cause  rashes and irritation.
• Watch for  irate dogs,  farm animals, wildlife (particularly snakes), and insects such as ticks,
   hornets, and wasps. Know what to  do  if you or a student gets bitten or stung.

Snakes can be a concern when in an aquatic environment, especially slow-moving waters  with
overhead vegetation.  Snakes must get  out of the water to dry their skin and lie on flat surfaces
exposed to sunlight. Snakes may also be found on flood debris hanging in streambank bushes and
trees. If you have to approach your site through high grass, firmly thump the ground in front of
you with  your net pole or a large stick. Snakes will feel the vibrations and move away. Snakes are
deaf, so loud  noises will not scare them away. If you come upon a snake at close range, simply
move away from the snake.  If a snake bite occurs, seek medical assistance immediately.

Ticks and Insect  Bites
Have students wear long pants, boots,  and light-colored, long-sleeved shirts. Find out beforehand
if any of  the students are allergic to bites of insects, bees, or spiders. Bring all doctor-prescribed
antihistamines or antidotes that will help subdue an allergic reaction.

Ticks are prevalent in grassy or wooded areas. It is very important that students check their bodies
for ticks.  Feel along the scalp for any bumps that are loosely attached to the scalp. Deer ticks,
which are known to carry Lyme disease, are of particular concern. Lyme disease can cause serious
illness. Symptoms include chills, malaise, fever, etc. If you  or any of the students exhibit  these
symptoms after being in the field, seek medical treatment. If you do remove a tick, you may  want
to save it so that it can be identified (e.g., deer tick, dog tick, etc.)

 Alligators, Turtles,  and Other Large  Animals
 In some southern states, alligators and snapping turltes may present hazards. If these are sighted,
 it is best to leave the area immediately. Alligators under 18 inches in length are juveniles and may
 be near their mother. Female alligators are very protective of their young and may be dangerous.
 Snapping turtles will usually move out of the way if the water is disturbed by a large animal.
 Nevertheless, turtles should never be picked up. In the event of a bite from a turtle, stay calm and
 proceed to the nearest hospital as soon as possible.

 Safety  Guidelines  for  Water  Quality  Monitors:

 1.  Wear rubber gloves and boots. Do not monitor if the stream is posted as unsafe for body contact
    or if the water appears to be severely polluted.

 2.  Do not walk on unstable stream banks. Disturbing these banks can accelerate erosion and might
    prove dangerous if a bank collapses. Disturb streamside vegetation as little as possible.
 3.  Be very careful when walking in the stream itself. Rocky-bottom streams can be very slippery
    and can contain deep pools; muddy-bottom streams might also prove treacherous in areas where
    mud, silt, or sand have accumulated in sink holes.                           :

 4.  Never attempt to cross streams that are swift and above the knee in depth. These can kill!
 5.  If at any time you feel uncomfortable about the condition of the stream or your surroundings,
    stop monitoring and leave the site at once.
 6.  Wash your hands after you've cleaned up your equipment.

 If using chemicals:
 1.  Know your equipment, sampling instructions, and procedures before going out into the field.
    Prepare labels and clean equipment before you get started.

 2.  Keep all equipment and chemicals away from small children. Many of the chemicals used in
    monitoring are poisonous. Tape the phone number of the local poison control center to your
    sampling kit.

 3. Avoid contact between chemical reagents and skin, eye, nose,  and mouth. Never use your fin-
   gers to  stopper a sample bottle (e.g., when you are shaking a solution). Wear safety goggles
   when performing any chemical test or handling preservatives.
 4. Know chemical cleanup and disposal procedures. Wipe up all spills when they occur. Return all
   unused chemicals to your program coordinator for safe disposal. Close all containers tightly
   after use. Do not switch caps.

5. Know how to use and store chemicals. Do not expose chemicals or equipment to temperature
   extremes or long-term direct sunshine.

Algae: A chlorophyll-containing plant ranging
from one to many cells in size, that lives in fresh
or saltwater.
Anadromous: Fish that return from saltwater to
freshwater to spawn (e.g., salmon, steelhead).
Aquatic Insect: Insect species whose  larval
and/or juvenile forms live in the water.
Aquifer: Any underground geological formation
containing water.
Bedrock: Unbroken solid rock, overlain in most
places by soil or rock fragments.
Benthic: Bottom-dwelling. Benthic organisms
are the animal life whose habitat is the bottom
of a sea, lake, or river.
Channelized: The straightening and deepening
of streams. Channelization reduces the  ability
of the stream to assimilate waste and disturbs
fish breeding areas.
Clarity: The  clearness  of the water  in  the
Conifers: A cone-bearing evergreen tree or
shrub (a pine tree, for example).
Cover: Overhanging or  in-stream structures
(such as tree roots, undercut streambanks, or
boulders) that offer protection from predators,
shelter from strong currents, and/or shading.
Current: The velocity (speed) of the flow of
Deciduous: A tree that sheds its foliage at the
end of the growing season.
Ecosystem:  The interacting system of  a
biological community (plants, animals)  and its
non-living environment.
Effluent: The wastewater from a municipal or
industrial source that is discharged into the
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.
Erosion: The wearing away of the land  surface
by wind or water.
Estuary: A partially enclosed body of water
formed where freshwater from rivers and
streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the
salty sea water.  Estuaries and  the lands
surrounding them are places of transition from
land to sea, and from freshwater to saltwater.
Such areas include bays, mouths of rivers, salt
marshes, and lagoons. These brackish water
ecosystems shelter and feed marine  life, birds,
and wildlife.
Filling: The process of depositing dirt and mud
in marshy areas (wetlands) or in the water to
create more land. Filling disturbs natural
ecological cycles.
Gradient: The slope or steepness of the stream.
Groundwater: The supply of freshwater under
the earth's surface in an aquifer or soil.
Habitat: The specific environment in which an
organism lives and on which it depends for food
and shelter.
Headwaters: Small creeks at the  uppermost end
of a stream system, often found in the  mountains,
that contribute to larger creeks and rivers.
Mass Wasting: Downward movement of dry soil
and rock caused by gravity (often called slides
or avalanches).
Monitor: To measure a characteristic, such as
streambank condition, dissolved oxygen, or fish
population, using uniform methods to evaluate
change over a period of time.
Nonpoint Source Pollution: "Diffuse" pollution,
generated from large areas with no particular
point of pollutant origin, but rather from many
individual places. Urban and agricultural areas
generate nonpoint source pollutants.
Nutrient: Any substance, such as fertilizer,
phosphorous, and nitrogen compounds, which
enhances the growth of plants and animals.
Point Source Pollution: A discharge of water
pollution to a stream or other body of water via
an identifiable pipe, vent, or culvert.

 Pool: An area of relatively deep, slow water in
 a stream that offers shelter to fish.
 Quality Control (QC): A system of checks used
 to ensure excellence, or quality, in a program
 such as a monitoring program. QC asks if we
 are doing things right.
 Quality Assurance (QA): A way to see that QC
 is maintained and that the right things are
 being  monitored to detect changes  in water
 Reach: A stream section with fairly homogeneous
 Redd: A shallow depression in the streambed
 gravel in which a female salmonid deposits her
 Riffle: A shallow, gravelly area of streambed
 with swift current. Used for spawning by
 salmonids and other fish species.
 Riprap: A sustaining wall built of rocks.
 Riparian Area: An area, adjacent to and along
 a watercourse, often vegetated and constituting
 a buffer zone between the nearby lands and
 the watercourse.
 JR««: A stretch of fast, smooth current, deeper
 than a riffle.
 Runoff: The portion of rainfall, melted snow,
 or irrigation water that flows across the ground
 surface and eventually is returned to streams.
 Runoff can pick up pollutants from the air or
 the land and carry them to streams, lakes, and
 Salmonid: Fish that are members of the family
 Salmonidae (includes salmon, trout, char, and
 Sediment: Fine soil or mineral particles that
 settle  to the bottom  of  the water or are
 suspended in it.
 Stormwater Runoff: Water that washes off the
land after a rainstorm. In developed watersheds
it flows off roofs and pavements into storm
drains  that may feed directly into the stream;
often carries concentrated pollutants.
 Substrate: The material that makes up the
 bottom layer of a stream, such as gravel, sand,
 or bedrock.                   >

 Stream Corridor: The lower and upper banks
 of a perennial or intermittent stream.

 Stream Mouth: The place, where a stream
 empties into a lake, an ocean, or another stream.
 Suspended Sediments: Fine material or soil
 particles that remain suspended'by the current
 until deposited in areas of weaker current. They
 create turbidity and, when deposited, can
 smother fish eggs or alevins. Can be measured
 in a laboratory as total suspended solids (TSS).

 Topography: The configuration of a surface area
 including its relief, or relative elevations, and
 the position of its natural and man-made
 features.                      •

 ITSGS: United  States Geological Survey.

 Wetlands: Lands where saturation with water
 is the dominant factor determining the nature
 of soil development. Wetlands also can be
 identified by unique plants  that' have adapted
 to  oxygen-deficient (anaerobic) soils. Wetlands
influence stream flows and  water quality.
Zoning: To designate, by ordinance, areas of
land reserved  and  regulated for specific uses,
such as residential, industrial, or open space.

Thanks to the cyber world, a tremendous amount of
information is only a mouse click away (check out the
list of Web sites on the inside back cover). Also, you
can use the government pages of your telephone book
to locate local agencies in your community or state.
The following list includes some of the organizations
that may be helpful to you:
   Cooperative Extension Service
   Department of Agriculture
   Department of Health
   Department of Natural Resources
   Environmental Quality Department
    Soil and Water Conservation District
   Wastewater Department

Educational Programs
Adopt-A-Watershed uses a local watershed as a living
laboratory in which students engage in hands-on
activities, making science applicable and relevant to
their lives. To get more information on activities you
can do in your state/community go to http://
www.adopt-a-watershed.org/contacts.htm and click
on your state. You can also call 530- 628-5334 for a list
of contacts for your state.

Coastal Cleanups. Visit http://www.cmc-ocean.org/
or call the Ocean Conservancy at 1-800-CMC-Beach
for information about  beach cleanups or how to
participate  in the annual International Coastal

Earth Force (G.R.E.E.N.). Earth Force is youth-driven.
Through Earth Force, kids discover and implement
lasting solutions to environmental issues in their
community. In the process they develop life-long habits
of active citizenship and environmental stewardship.
For more information, call 703-299-9400 or visit the
Web site at http://www.earthforce.org.

Earthwater Stencils. Their mission is to foster public
awareness of, involvement in, and support for storm
water pollution prevention. This is accomplished
through community-based storm drain stenciling and
related programs in local watersheds. For more
information, call 360-956-3774 or visit http://

EPA Safe Drinking Water Act Hotline (1-800-426-4791).
You can call  this number to report problems or to get
information on safe drinking
water practices.

EPA Water Resource Center
(202-260-7786).  You  can
obtain free fact sheets, coloring
books,  and  other  useful
materials on wetlands.

Global   Learning   and
Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is
a worldwide network of students, teachers, and
scientists working together to study and understand
the global  environment. GLOBE students make
environmental observations at or near their schools
and report their data through the Internet. For more
information on getting involved, call 1-800-858-9947
or visit GLOBE's Web site at http://www.globe.gov.

Izaak Walton League of America's Save Our Streams
program provides educational material on stream and
wetland monitoring. Visithttp://www.iwla.org/sos
or call 1-800-BUG-IWLA.

National Wildlife Federation's Schoolyard Habitat
program shows you how to help save a place for
wildlife at  your  own school. Visit http://

Project WET is a nonprofit water education program
for educators and young people, grades K-12,
located  on the Montana State University campus in
Bozeman, Montana. The goal of Project WET is to
facilitate and promote awareness,  appreciation,
knowledge, and stewardship. At project WET's
homepage (http://ww.montana.edu/wwwwet)
you can get more information  from the contact in
your state (see  the State Project WET Program
Coordinator list) or call 406-994-5392.

River of Words Poetry and Art Contest is a national
poetry and art contest for grades K-12 that invites
children to explore their own watershed through
the arts. Visit http://www.  riverofwords.org,
e-mail  info@riverofwords.org, or call 510-548-

River Network maintains a directory of river and
watershed conservation groups. Visit http://

 The Groundwater Foundation is  a nonprofit
 organization dedicated to teaching the public
 about the conservation and management of
 groundwater. Visit http://www.groundwater.org
 or call 1-800-858-4844.

 The Water Environment Federation (WEF) is an
 international technical and educational services
 organization for water quality professionals. Visit
 http://www.wef.org for hands-on water environment
 activities from the Water Sourcebook. To receive a free
 kit on organizing a watershed festival and/or a
 schematic guide of the wastewater treatment process,
 e-mail public_education@wef .org.

 Publications,  CDs & Other Materials

 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do to Save the Earth by
 Earthworks Group provides practical tips to kids on
 how they can conserve energy, recycle waste, and take
 on important environmental projects. Available in

 The Backyard Conservation booklet can show you things
 you can do to the land around your home and school to
 help protect the environment. Tip sheets and 28-page
 booklet are available for free by calling 1-888-
 LANDCAKE (single copies only). On the Web athttp:/ /

 Getting Started in Volunteer Monitoring providesan
 introduction to volunteer monitoring. Visit the EPA Web
 site athttp://www.epa.gov/volunteer.

 Girl Scout Water Drop Patch Project encourages girls to
 make  a difference in their communities. Call the
 National  Service Center   for  Environmental
 Publications (NSCEP) at 1-800-490-9198 or visit http:
 //www.epa.gov/adopt/patch. Ask for EPA document

 Give WateraHandActivHy Guide (http://www.uwex.edu/
 ere) provides information for youth about watersheds and
 ways to protect them.

 Wliat's Up with Our Nation's Waters presents key
findings of EPA's National Water Quality Report in
 an easy-to-read fashion and  includes projects for
school or fun.. Available on the Web at http://
waters.pdf or by calling NSCEP at 1-800-490-9198.
Publication EPA-841-F-00-005.  The National Water
Quality Inventory: Report to Congress is available at
http://www.epa.gov/305b or by calling 1-800-490-
9198.                           i

Splash (CD-ROM). This interactive tool provides
information on nonpoint source pollution. Contact
the Conservation Technology Information Center at
765-494-9555.                   !

Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning' Guide on Marine
Debris. Call NSCEP at 1-800-490-9198 or visit the Web
site at http://www.epa.gov/OWOVy/info/PubList/
publist2.html. EPA document number 842-B-92-003.

Make Your Own  Watershed kit. Available from the
Terrene Institute. Phone: 703-548-5473. Internet http:
//www.terrene.org; $29.95 plus $5.50 shipping and

Waters to the Sea: Rivers of the Upper Mississippi (CD-
ROM). This interactive tool presents fundamental
concepts of ecology, the water cycle, and watershed
hydrology. ($39.95 plus shipping and handling). For
more information, contact the Center for Global
Environmental Education at 651-523-2480.

Mention of any commercial products, materials, or publi-
cations in this booklet does not constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use by EPA. Visit the Adopt Your Wa-
tershed (http://www.epa.gov/adopt) or Office of Water Web
page (http://www.epa.gov/ow) for a more complete list of
other available resources.

                Application for  School  or Class Recognition
Watershed or  Waterbody  Name:.

School  or Club:	
Contact Person/Phone:.

Number of Participants:		_	!	

Brief Description of Class Activities: (100 words or less). Should demonstrate an ongoing
commitment to the protection or restoration of a watershed.
Project Highl ights/Successes:
                        Please return to:  Patty Scott, USEPA
                 Ariel Rios Bulding,  1200 Pennsylvania Avenue (4501T)
                                Washington, DC 20460

                             For More Information...

 Hey Kids, Its Time to Take Action: http://www.afandpa.org/kids_educators/index.html.
 All types of recycling programs and information for kids from the American Forest and
 Paper Association. One feature of the site lists 20 ways to reuse a paper grocery bag.

 National Water Quality Inventory: http://www.epa.gov/305b. At this site, you can find
 reports on the quality of our nation's waters, including summaries for your state. :

 EPA's Explorer's Kids Club: http://www.epa.gov/kids. Provides information and activi-
 ties for kids to become familiar with the environment  and what they can do to make a

 EPA's Volunteer Monitoring Homepage: http://www.epa.gov/volunteer. At this Web site
 you'll find information on volunteer monitoring, including a directory of U.S. programs and
 documents on how to monitor.                                              i

 Surf Your Watershed: http://www.epa.gov/surf. Locate Your Watershed.  Using'the Wa-
 tershed Information Network, you can check out local water conditions, find out about
 watershed training opportunities, identify volunteer monitoring and watershed programs
 to get involved in, or connect with federal and state agencies.                  ;

 Office of Water Kids' Pages: http://www.epa.gov/water/kids.html. This Web site is loaded
 with information for kids of all ages, including projects, experiments, educational materials,
 and games.                                                               [

 Nonpoint Source  Kids Page: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/kids. Check'out the
 Masterbug Theatre for a cool movie about metamorphisis and macroinvertebrates. |

 Watershed Information Network: http://www.epa.gov/win. You can get a wealth of en-
vironmental information on your watershed from this  EPA Web site.             ;

USGS Water Science for Schools: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu.  This Web site offers in-
formation on many aspects of water, along with pictures, data, maps, and an interactive
center where you can give opinions and test your water  knowledge.             •
               .Project  WET
                               for Teachers)
Vpromotes stewardship of water resources
 fthrough the development  of  classroom-ready
I?teaching aids and the establishment of state and
 1^K^fJ^^SSS^i^^9^?:91[^4 Programs. For more in-
  formation, contact Montana Water Resources
p [Research	jQSth;ute	406-994-5392.'On the VJ/eb
I at http:77www.montana.edu/wwwwet.

                                                   "Mil's booklet does not constitute
                                                    endorsement or recommendation for


          iHotipnai %i3tprmg  Bay

tOn October 18, 2002, volunteer monitoring programs,
El^U;itJ:JKaKffSalif<-':<->•.vi-*y na/re ••-•jt»^.^^^.Ti-^^y-~f-~~.•rf.-jU- ~V,	... -	,,
            1  agencies, students, and the public are m-
tvifed to test wafers across the nation in celebration of
^:s4._.'_%1':,i._.ij, -_. „ ^-^-^.^.s^,^ uj^^                                 ".i-i-jft Afii, «
                   ry of the Clean Water Act. Everyone
                   ?"_--'•--  -  - -   ..---     -. • • -.•   , •  , -
       ^fe^o^te^f^temperature, pH, dissolved	
       "f^^dlty^nd'enteT1 fReF results into a national  j
  laTaDase. Bata will be publicly available at http://  ;
  sfaastaff^^eamm^iMitimtMi^^aaat^mirf C--,,,,.		'.		—_»!_____^
           -f cleanwater.org.                            4
                                               testinq  1
rTo regfster testing sites, order low cost water testing
skits (if needed), or find out more about Year of Clean
'"Water  events^visit^ www.yearofclegnwater.org. Year of
sClean Wafer"will also feature   '   "         J     """
|fesjivql§  ^gnj^wldesprgad[press coverage.