United States
         Environmental Protection
Office of Water
Washington, DC 20460
September 1999
         Water Prop Patch Project
Girl Scouts.

           his project was jointly developed by the United States Environmental Protection
           Agency and the GM Scout Council of the Nation's Capital (GSCNC). The purpose
           of the project is to encourage girls to:

           4  Make a difference in their communities by becoming watershed and
              wetlands stewards

           4  Use their skills and their knowledge to educate others in their communities
              about the need to protect the nation's valuable water resources

           4  Explore the natural world to gain an interest in science and math

           4  Use the Internet as a source of information
Girl Scouts,
            Thanks to the passage of the Clean Water Act 25 years ago, America has seen much
             progress in cleaning up the nation's rivers, lakes, streams, and coastal waters. In
             1972, the Potomac River was too dirty for human contact, aquatic life in Lake Erie
                  was dying and Ohio's Cuyahoga River was so polluted it caught fire. Many
                    rivers and beaches were little more than open sewers. Conditions in these
                      and thousands of other waterbodies are much better today. The nation
                      has made tremendous progress in addressing pollution from sewage
                      treatment plants and industrial facilities.

                 Despite these accomplishments, many challenges remain, including threats
to human health. Approximately 40 percent of monitored waters still fail to meet state water
quality standards, which means that they do not support basic uses like swimming and fishing.
Although wetlands losses have slowed, the nation continues to lose about  100,000 wetlands
acres per year. A disturbing number of freshwater fish species are now threatened or endan-

Many of the remaining pollution problems come from many different sources—not just from a
pipe. Polluted runoff from city and suburban streets, construction sites, and farms is the pri-
mary reason many of our waters are not fishable or swimmable. Tackling these problems will
not be easy. But Girl Scouts can help make a difference by becoming watershed stewards in
their communities.

   I.  Background Information
       1.  Watersheds (page 4)
       2.  Nonpoint Source Pollution  (page 4)
       3.  Wetlands and their  Basic Characteristics (page 4)
       4.  Groundwater/Drinking Water  (page 5)

  II.  Patch Requirements
       Brownies (pages 6-7)
       Juniors (pages 6-7)
       Cadettes (pages 6-8)
       Seniors (pages 6-9)

III.  Community Projects  and Hands-on Activities
       1.  Do's and Don'ts Around the Home (All Ages  - pages 10-12)
       2.  Stream Cleanup Guidelines (Cadettes & Seniors — page 13)
       3. Storm Drain Stenciling Guidelines (Cadettes <& Seniors — pages 14-15)
      4.  Healthy Stream Critters (Cadettes and Seniors - page 16-17)
       5.  Streamwalk (Cadettes & Seniors — pages 18-28)
      6.  Build Your Own Aquifer (Cadettes & Seniors—pages 29-30)
      7.  Backyard Wildlife Habitat Project (Seniors - pages 31-36)

IV.   Water Drop Project Links to the Girl Scout Program  (page 37)

V.    Glossary (pages 38-39)

VI.   Resources (pages 40-41)

VII.  Certificate of Recognition (page 42)
  To order Water Drop patches  (at $1.00 each),  please write to:
  Lauraine Merlini, Membership and Program, Girl Scouts of the USA, 420 Fifth Avenue, New York,
  NY 10018-2798
  Girl Scount Council:
  Number of patches needed:
Total amount enclosed: $

What is a Watershed?
A watershed is a land area from which water drains
into a receiving body of water. Receiving bodies
of water can include streams, lakes, wetlands, es-
tuaries, and groundwater. Watersheds come in dif-
ferent shapes and sizes, and local watersheds are
subwatersheds (or subbasins) of larger, regional
ones. The Potomac watershed, for example, is a
subbasin of the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed.

What is Nonpoint Source  Pollution?
Urdike pollution from factories and sewage treat-
ment plants, nonpoint source pollution comes from
many different areas with no particular place of
origin. It is caused by rainfall or snowmelt mov-
ing over and through the  ground. As the runoff
moves, it picks up and carries away natural and
human-made pollutants, finally depositing them
into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and
even underground sources of drinking water.
These pollutants include:

4  Excess fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides
    from farms, cities, and suburban streets

4  Oil, grease, and toxic  chemicals from urban
    runoff and energy production

4  Sediment from improperly managed construc-
    tion sites, crop and forest lands, and eroding

4  Salt from irrigation practices and acid drain-
    age from abandoned mines

4  Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet
    wastes, and faulty septic systems

Acid rain and changes to stream flow, such as dams
and concrete channels, are also sources of nonpoint
source pollution. Acid rain, much of which comes
from cars and power plants, is rich in nitrogen,
which can overstimulate  the growth of aquatic
weeds and algae. This in turn can deplete oxygen
and kill aquatic Me. Channelization reduces the
ability of streams to assimilate or absorb waste and
disturbs fish breeding areas.
What is a Wetland?
Wetlands are areas of land that are wet at least part
of the year. Wetlands are populated by plants well
adapted to grow in standing water or saturated
soils. There are many different types of wetlands,
including marshes, bogs, fends, swamps, prairie
potholes, and bottomland hardwood forests. Wet-
lands may not always appear to be wet. Many
dry out for extended periods of time.  Others may
appear dry on the surface but are saturated under-

What are  the Basic
Characteristics  of Wetlands?
Wetlands share three basic characteristics: 1)  hy-
drology (water), 2) hydric soils (soils that form due
to presence of water), and 3)  hydrophytic vegeta-
tion (plants adapted to living in saturated soils).
Wetland Benefits
These complex ecosystems play an important role
in the health of our environment and the quality
of our water. Wetlands provide support for:

4   Fish and wildlife habitats

4   Complex food webs

4   Water absorption to reduce storm flooding and

4   Sediment traps

4   Erosion control

4   Water quality

4   Groundwater replenish-
    ment; maintaining flows
    in streams by releasing water
    during dry periods

4   Open space and aesthetic

What is
Beneath the land's surface,
water resides in two general
zones, the saturated and the
unsaturated.  The unsatur-
ated zone lies directly be-
neath the land surface, where
air and water fOl in the pore
spaces between soil and rock
particles. Water saturates the
zone beneath the unsatur-
ated one.
The term "groundwater" refers to water in the satu-
rated zone. This water is an important natural re-
source and used for many purposes, including
drinking water, irrigation and livestock raising.

Half the water used in the United States for drink-
ing water comes from groundwater.

Surface water replenishes (or recharges) ground-
water when it percolates through the unsaturated
zone.  Therefore, the unsaturated zone plays an
important role in groundwater hydrology and may
act as a pathway for groundwater contamination.
Groundwater can move laterally and emerge at
discharge sites, such as springs on hill sides, or seep
in from the bottoms of streams, lakes, wetlands,
and oceans.  Therefore, groundwater affects sur-
face water quantity and quality because polluted
groundwater can contaminate surface waters.
Conversely, some surface waters, such as wetlands,
hold flood waters and allow them to soak slowly
into the groundwater. When wetlands are filled
or drained, groundwater may dry up.
         bid  You Know?
fe_  Half the  drinking water in
|p  the United  States comes
jgjl      from  groundwater.
   lThe Environmental Protection Agency is requiring water suppliers to put
    annual drinking water reports in the hands of their customers.  Between
    April and  October 1999, and  by July 1, thereafter, water suppliers will
    be providing "Consumer Confidence Reports." These reports, to be issued
    with utility bills, will provide fundamental  information, including, for ex-
    ample, the source of your local drinking water (lake, river,  aquifer, or
    other source), its susceptibility to contamination, and the level  or  range of
    any contaminants found.

  Scout Patch Requirements
                              '        6
                 ,       -       ,          ,
        oan  six ...... of fRe first ffiirfeen requirements
             ' *,                    ,            i I  ,
             seven'of ...... the ....... 'iw^iy111i^uirements .........................
After answering the questions on the Home and Lawn Care checklist (pages 10 - 12), plan
how you and your family can change three to five  "no" answers to "yes."  Share your plan
with your troop and members of your neighborhood.  See how many "yes" answers others
girls in your troop have.  Or, use Give Water a Hand Action Guide to identify changes you can
make on your farm, at your school or in your community (page 12).

Wetlands provide many benefits. They help reduce flooding, sustain stream flow, filter pol-
luted waters, provide habitat for wildlife, and support biological diversity.  Visit a National
Wildlife Refuge (NWR) or a locally-protected wetland. Using the list on page 4, see how
many wetland characteristics you can identify.  Call EPA's Wetlands Hotline at (800) 832-7828
for help in finding the nearest NWR or wetland resource.

Enter the international "River of Words" Poetry and Art contest. The contest, open to youth
between the ages of 5 to 19, invites children to explore and interpret their local watershed
through the arts. To obtain an entry form or more information, contact International Rivers
Network,1847 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94703;  Tel: (510) 848-1155 or download an entry
form at www.im.orglrowlrow.html

Find out what different plants and animals live in your watershed. The Chesapeake Bay, for
example, is home to more than 27,000 species of plants and animals. How many kinds of
wildlife can you identify? (e.g., crabs, oysters, waterfowl and fish)? Why are underwater bay
grasses (SAV) important? Check your answers by calling EPA's Chesapeake Bay Office at
1(800)YOUR-BAY or visit www.chesapeakebay.net/bayprogram/index.htm. Click on "bay and

Go on a hike with your troop and follow a local creek or stream. Where does the stream
ultimately drain? What does it pick up along the way? What happens when it rains? How
does the stream change? What insects, birds, plant or aquatic life do you observe? Use a
United States Geological Survey (USGS) map or draw your own to illustrate your local
watershed. USGS maps can be obtained by calling 1(800) 435-7627 (cost is $4). Share with
others what you have learned.

Create an attractive wall mural about how water is used by coloring posters from the United
States Geological Survey (USGS). Call 1-800-435-7627 or send a fax to (303) 202-4693. (Posters
are available in both color and  black & white—the color version includes activities on the
back). Put up your mural where others in the community can see it.

 Visit a local aquarium or a natural history museum to see specimens of aquatic life. Share your
 experiences with your troop and family. Consider visiting one of Coastal America's Coastal
 Ecosystems Learning Centers if there is one near you. Check out Coastal America on-line at
 www.coastalamerica.gov or call (202) 401-9928. Find out how Coastal America, a partnership
 of eleven federal agencies and the Executive Office of the President, is helping to protect the
 manatee, the whooping crane, salmon and the right whale.

• Visit a local sewage treatment plant or water filtration plant to see how wastewater is treated
 or drinking water is purified. Look at the treated water as it is being discharged into your river,
 stream or estuary. Is it dear? Does it stink?

 Participate in a special activity during May to celebrate American Wetlands Month or during
 the third week of October to celebrate National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) week. For wetlands
 ideas, see the list below, visit the Terrene Institute's Web Page at www.terrene.org or call (703)
 548-5473. For NWR week, contact the Fish and Wildlife Service at 800-344-WILD or visit
                         How Can I  Help Protect Wetlands?

                         Before you can protect them, you have to understand them...

                         1.  Be a Wetlands Detective!  Investigate why wetlands are
                         unique. Research what kinds of animals and plants live in the
                         wetlands in your state. Start a journal to record the names
                         of birds, frogs, insects, and plants that you might find in a
                         local wetland.  Try to draw them!  So to the library or use
                         the Internet to uncover the mysteries of wetlands.  Don't
                         forget to investigate how wetlands function to keep a
                         healthy watershed. Call the Wetlands Hotline (800) 832-
                         7828 for a list of websites and educational materials.

                         Now that you have learned about wetlands, go explore one...

                         2. Visit a publically accessible wetland and design a
                         photograph posterboard display.  &\r\ Scouts can form
                         teams of 2-3, each team carrying  their own camera (dispos-
                         able cameras work well). Using a field guide, each team
                         photographs 4-5 items, such as insects, birds, plants, trees,
                         etc. Teams then  label/describe the photos and mount onto
                         posterboard (laminating posters is recommended).  Finally,
                         display the poster in a public location such as a library,
                         church, or school!

                         3. Volunteer at your local wetland!  Call your county's
                        agricultural extension agent or the local/state natural
                        resource management agency and get a list of ongoing
                        VvetlQnd/streqm restoration projects.

          Work with your troop to organize a Storm Drain Stenciling Project in your neighborhood.
          Produce and distribute a flyer or door hanger for local households to make them aware of
          your project and to remind them that storm drains dump directly into your local waterbody.
          Guidelines for the project are on pages 14-15.

          Go on a stream, wetlands, or lake walk and make observations and assessments of waterbody
          conditions. See Page 18 for streamwaJk guidelines. Call EPA's Region 10 Office at (206) 553-
          1200 to request a teacher's guide, other manuals, and data collection sheets.

          Do a display or presentation on groundwater and how pollutants threaten its purity. Show
          where your drinking water comes from. (Girl Scouts can check  their family water utility bill
          or visit EPA's web page  at wzvw.epa.gov/surf2/locate/. Click on "Where does my drinking
          water come from?") Make an Aquifer Model (pages 30-31) part of your presentation. Or, con-
          tact the Blue Thumb project and participate in an activity to celebrate National Drinking Wa-
          ter week (see page 31).

          Design a "mock-up" of your watershed. Share it with younger groups. Use EPA's Locate Your
          Watershed (www.epa.gov/surf) and Index of Watershed Indicators web  sites (www.epa.gov/
          surf/iwf) or resources list to create it.

          Share your knowledge of water pollution with younger children, perhaps Daisy or Brownie
          Girl Scouts or a local elementary school class. Consider doing a presentation about a local
          waterbody near you. Discuss threats to its health, including excess nutrients and habitat loss.
          Highlight things that Girl Scouts and their families can do to protect water quality (see check-
          list on pages 10 -12). Your waterbody may even have its own web page. For example, you can
          visit the Chesapeake  Bay Program's web page at www.chesapeakebay.net/bayprogram/
          indexJttm or call 1(800)YOUR-BAY. The web page has a set of slides and talking points you
          can download.
:|	Did ,r,you" Know?
 p,iii,.i|.«** Chesapeake Bay  is an estuary where salt and fresh water mix.
 	'":::;:	HIIIR	in:	r ,,	 '		'		  		,,	,.,__	n-llw,p , „	»,, -,,	
        l!!!!!M^	sHfcSTfttsSaaBnefed!	:!::
        "  ij "'I'll	 II" HI" • »	'	' • lt	ll:" C '" If   f  . .	 	 f    	 r     i I    4.1  i .
  f!i;~ffie_ Boy "receives 'about half of  its water volume from the Atlantic Ocean
  "j;|!::!'(sqlt'water). The rest (fresh water) drains into the Bay from an enormous
  ^6"4",Qpp-square-mile drainage basin or  watershed.
  f'^Hie"watershed""11nciuaes"'parts	of	six""states"(C>b, MD, NY, PA,  \M, ana
  1 ': •, ''i1.VTJ1'1:^11 •' ;i11'	* ; ''«!!l|lll!!i!	' i"|i"":"'!;£1|"'JL'1 .'".•:	Y	• ' i'1 '."i' >!'•' '  .   , .                                -    -
 ill IIIIIW                                               	IHiiiiiiiSliMiWilihi	liliC.iahiiliiiUiiiiiin-iJ.nilhlniHII.IIiilliiCJiit;,;!::::1	;„;£;„;	::!,::!lii:i:,:,ii:i:s;ii1,iir""ii: "V^rAr i •" Ifiiyc-i.,
 '! ;sTi Singly percent of the fresh water entering the Bay comes from five major
 IT'::;;nty§rs:  the  Rappahannock, the Susquehanna (responsible for 50%), the
 | ;:;;'l:Pgfo^acf "tine" James, i and _ the i York	
 lil! IE	' T*U^ Ds+^t  it* 4-U« l.oM^»«t»4- /*e*4-i\tir*\t  in K.lrtKt+l'i Aw\0Y*\m
                 James, and the York.
         	ji;;' f I,,;1];1,,, lj:':; i • -; i: ,f^ i !" „ •; »^ $ '^;;?r,«»;, i; • ff, ^:, ;f,.' "w '• •: ;i| | ^i, •; | ^ 	 :  ^	  ^	^	^	:	
tr"• If|e |<5y is"the "largest" estuary in	Nortn' America.
         ":l;rai"3"	aiiii,:"-	"s "'f	r;-;	asyTTZT	"	i	'""	?	'	•	'""	S1	T:1	 .  '  	1	 "^^^H«™
          BgY is home to 27,000 species of plants and animals.
 n ,-.'	 «fl.^-1M8»C'<:T9P|(.pliri5T::<>LlBl(FiSMlBBT:tw.	.IWTIT	'K~.mMWK'1&H^&T™r.-i:itrinm==xttnT^L^mB!riz:iK=sisx:ttzzzi:	•	--.-T—T.-T" -	—•;	
 i  Do you know your watershed address? If not  visit the  new  watershed Information
   "Network Web  Site at www.cleanwater.gov/win. Locate your watershed and learn about
 ill If      ,'.igiHlllU • ' BHIllll'l! ,! ' " I,1"' " i,n'	'• ' , "I"!	,», ","l ,' ,! , '" r ''ill"! y,,i' I"."1 ,^/,,, ,„ 	,„ ' 	       . .   ....  .         .  „._. ,
 I'lts. health.

       Work with troops in your service unit and your local gov-
       ernment to organize or join in a stream, wetland or beach
       cleanup. Consider participaing in the annual Interna-
       tional Coastal Cleanup sponsored by the Center for Ma-
       rine Conservation (CMC) held every September. See
       resources list on pages 40-41. Be sure to follow  safety
       guidelines on page 13.

               4 Keep track of the kinds of trash collected. If it pri-
                 marily comes from fast food restaurants, consider
                 working with local restaurant owners to put up signs encouraging people not to
                 litter in their community.

              4  If possible, separate the trash for recycling. Have different colored bags for paper,
                 plastic, glass, and aluminum

              4  Take "before and after" photos of your efforts. Send them to a local paper to pub-
                 licize your efforts.

       Create a wildlife habitat or another conservation project in your backyard or troop meeting
       location. Call the Natural Resources Conservation Service at 1-888-LANDCARE for a free
       booklet that outlines 10 conservation activities (See pages 32-37 for guidelines on creating a
       backyard wildlife habitat). Or consider joining the National Wildlife Federation's Backyard
       Habitat Program and receive a certificate and sign for your-project (see page 37).

       Find a watershed group in your community and volunteer to help with a project (e.g., tree
       planting, habitat restoration project, etc.) Use the Environmental Protection Agency's Adopt
       Your Watershed Internet site (www.epa.gov/surf/adopt) to search for an organization active in
       your watershed.

       Sponsor a Groundwater Festival or Watershed Festival in your community to raise awareness
       about the importance of clean water and watershed protection. (See, list of resources on pages

       Identify several women working in water resource protection and  invite them to come to
       speak to your troop about their careers.

      r Become a volunteer water quality monitor. Help collect quality data and build stewardship
       for your local waterbody. Attend a training workshop to learn proper monitoring techniques
       and safety rules (See page 17).
                        ,             Safety First!!!
Any activities in or near the water can pose serious safety hazards. Carefully read
Safety-Wise before beginning any of the field activities.  Heavy rubber gloves are strongly
recommended for all cleanup activities. Check with your Council to see if permission is
required for any of the field activities listed in this guide.

 Protects  and Activities
Home and Lawn Care  Checklist

"Personal  Pollution"  (All  Ages)

When rain falls or snow melts, the seemingly small
        amounts of chemicals and other pollut-
        ants in your driveway, on your lawn and
        on your street are washed into storm
        drains.  In many older  cities, the
        stormwater runoff is not treated and
        runoff flows directly into rivers, streams,
bays and lakes.  Pollutants in this runoff can poi-
son fish and other aquatic animals and make wa-
ter unsafe for drinking and swknming.

What can you do to help protect surface and
groundwaters from polluted runoff? Start at home.
Take a close look at practices around your house
that might contribute to polluted runoff. The fol-
lowing is a checklist to help you and your family
become part of the solution, instead of part of the

Household Products

 1 . bo you properly dispose  of  household
    hazardous  waste such as left  over paint,
    excess pesticides, nail  polish remover,
    varnish, etc. by taking them to your
    city or county's hazardous waste dis-
    posal  site or by putting them out  on
    hazardous  waste collection days? Labels
    such  as WARNING, CAUTION and
    DANGER indicates the item contains  in-
    gredients that are hazardous if improp-
    erly used or  disposed of.
                Yes          No
    Do you select less toxic alternatives or
    use non-toxic substitutes? Baking soda,
    distilled white vinegar, and ammonia are
    safe alternatives to caustic chemicals.
    And they save you money.
                Yes          No
fet IWiUW «,JM	HSU, HfP 1
ffiL -^

           multi-purpose cleaner (for
         -'- ........ ~~~-— .....      jn^ etc.):
        „..,__,_„___,_,„_	._	.__,_._ ,

           ajlon of_warm water and stir_yntj|
Landscaping  and  Gardening
     Do you select plants with low require-
     ments for water, fertilizers, and pesti-
     cides? (e.g. native plants)
                Yes          No
7 .   Do you preserve existing trees and plant
     trees and shrubs to help prevent ero-
     sion and promote infiltration of water
     into the soil?
                Yes          No
     Do you leave lawn clippings on your lawn
     so that the nutrients in the clippings
     are recycled, less fertilizer is needed,
     and less yard waste goes to landfills?
     If your community does not compost lawn
     trimming, it usually goes to landfills.
                Yes          No
9.   Do you prevent trash, lawn clippings,
     leaves and automobile fluids from en-
     tering storm drains?  Most storm drains
     are directly connect to our streams, lakes,
     and bays.
            flYes      n No
10. If your family uses a professional lawn
    care service,  do you select a company
    that employs trained  technicians and
    minimizes the use of fertilizers and pes-
    ticides?     Yes          No
1 1
    Do you have a compost bin or pile? Do
    you use compost and mulch (such as grass
    clippings or  leaves) to reduce your  need
    for fertilizers and pesticides? Compost
    is a valuable soil conditioner which gradu-
    ally releases nutrients to your lawn and
    garden. In addition, compost retains mois-
    ture in the soil and thus helps  conserve
    water  and prevent erosion and runoff.
                                                        bid You Know?
                                                       One quart of oil can
                                                  contaminate up to two million
                                                    gallons of  drinking  water!
                                                   Information about composting is available
                                                   from your county extension agent.
                                                        Yes       ~  No
Do you test your soil before fertilizing
your lawn or garden? Over-fertilization
is a common problem, and the excess can
leach into groundwater and contaminate
rivers or lakes.
                                                   Do you avoid applying pesticides or fer-
                                                   tilizers before or during rain?  If they
                                                   run off into the water, they will kill fish
                                                   and other aquatic organisms.
                                                       Yes          No
 Water Conservation

Homeowners can significantly reduce the vol-
ume of wastewater discharged to home septic
systems and sewage treatment plants by con-
serving water. If you have a septic system, you
can help prevent your system from overloading
and contaminating ground and surface water by
ensuring that it is functioning properly and de-
creasing your water usage.

 14.  Do you use low-flow faucets,  shower
      heads, and reduced-flow toilet flush-
      ing equipment?
          Yes          No

15. Do you wash your car  on the lawn to
    help filter pollutants? Do you use a bucket
    instead of  a  hose to save water? If you
    go to a commercial carwash, do you use
    one that uses water efficiently and dis-
    poses of runoff properly?
        I—  Yes            No
16. Do you use dishwashers and clothes wash-
    ers only when fully loaded?
Do you take short showers instead of
baths and avoid letting faucets run un-
necessarily (e.g., when brushing teeth)?
          I Yes
   A   Hand
 What is your city
 or town or school
 doing to prevent polluted  runoff?
 GUIDE  contains checklists for schools,
 communities and farms. This guide can
 help you and your troop identify
rpofential	problems in your
 and help you  take action.
 You can dow/nlogd a f ree copy of Give
''j'Gul'3'eBook "tf
Itiji11!:!",'11!;1,;!}^:',,;*1' I   I Illllll I !i! :ii.llli;il1lllllllll:!!ir.;,!':1l!l!i011!Tlni;,;iilililli|i:;!iiliiliiii ..... •!« ...... i ...... H'l'llj ...... f, 'ifiHilia i,,!,1:,,
  tp  order printed copies call:
  University of Wisconsin-Extension
  (608) 262-3346
  Item #4-H450 & 4-H855
  Leader Guide ($4.92) & Action Guide
  ($6.96) Price includes shipping
                                         18. Do you repair leaking faucets, toilets,
                                            and pumps to conserve water?
                                                        Yes         No
                                         19.  Do you conserve the amount of water
                                             you use on lawn and only water in the
                                             morning and evening to reduce evapora-
                                             tion?  Over-watering may increase leach-
                                             ing of fertilizers to groundwater.
                                                    l~l Yes      IT! No
                                            20. Do you use slow watering techniques such
                                                as trickle irrigation or soaker  hoses?
                                                These devices reduce runoff and are 20
                                                percent more efficient than sprinklers.
                                                            Yes          No
                                        Other Things You Can Do
                                         21.  Do you always pick up after your pet
                                             (e.g., Rover's poop)? If so, be sure to
                                             put it in the trash, flush it  down the
                                             toilet, or  bury it at least  5 inches
                                             deep.Pet waste contains viruses and bac-
                                             teria that  can contaminate surface and
                                                        Yes          No
                                             22.  Have you helped stencil stormdrains to
                                                 alert people that they drain directly to
                                                 your local waterbody? If not, get involved
                                                 with a local conservation group or orga-
                                                 nize your own stenciling project.
                                                            Yes          No
                                             Do you ride or drive only when neces-
                                             sary? Try to walk instead. Cars and trucks
                                             emit tremendous amounts of airborne pol-
                                             lutants, which increase acid rain. They also
                                             deposit toxic metals and petroleum by-
                                             products       Q Yes      Q No
                                         24. Do you participate in local planning and
                                             zoning in your community? If not, get in-
                                             volved! These decisions shape the course of
                                             development and the future quality of your

Stream/Beach  Cleanup  Safety Checklist
(Cadettes and Seniors only—should not  be done by Brownies or Juniors)
Please read Safety Wise  before beginning this activity.
4  Check with your local Department of Health or State
   Environmental Office about potential health con-
   cerns with the waterbody (e.g., pfiesteria, poor water
   quality, currents, mosquitos, rats, etc.)

*  Ask for necessary permission to cleanup at your
   site. Make arrangements with the appropriate lo-
   cal officials to let them know the  location, days,
   and times of your cleanup so they can come haul
   away the trash.  They may be willing to give a
   talk about the history, wildlife, or  environmental

4  Make sure that someone knows where, when, and
   for how long you will be out.

4  Develop a safety plan. Find out the location and
   telephone number of the nearest  phone. Locate
   the nearest medical center and write down direc-

*  Have each member of the cleanup  team complete
   a permission slip and a medical form that includes
   emergency contacts, insurance information, and
   pertinent health information such as allergies, dia-
   betes, epilepsy, etc.

*  Listen to weather reports. Never conduct a
   cleanup if severe weather is predicted or a storm
   occurs while at the site. You could drown.

4  Have a first aid  kit handy. See SAFETY WISE.
   If s best if at least one team member has first aid/
   CPR training.
        At  the  cleanup  site ...
        4 Leave syringes and needles alone! Notify some-
          one in charge and mark the spot with a flag or a
          large rock so someone can find it later.

        4 Don't walk on unstable stream banks. This could
          be dangerous as well as cause erosion. Stay off
          dunes and avoid nesting areas.

        4 If you must walk across the stream, use a walk-
          ing stick because the stream bottom could be slip-
          pery, treacherous, and even contain deep  pools.
          Do not attempt to walk across streams that are
          swift and above the knee in depth. These can kill.

        4 Look out for plants like poison ivy, poison oak,
          sumac. These can cause rashes and skin irritation.

        4 Watch  for wildlife—snakes, ticks, hornets, and
          wasps. Also beware of large animals like dogs,
          alligators, snapping turtles, and farm animals.

        4 Wear rubber gloves (like dishwashing gloves)
          to protect hands and arms. Be careful with bro-
          ken glass and rusty cans.

        4 Always stay with a buddy. Teams of three or four
          are probably best.

        4 If you see anything abnormal (e.g., dead fish, oil
          spills, leaking barrels, bulk trash) contact your dry
          or county environmental department right away
          and report the nature and location of the problem.
  Suggested Items to Bring or Wear
  Shoes or boots that offer coverage &
  support, at least over the ankles
  Heavy Rubber gloves  (like dishwashing
  gloves) to protect hands and arms
  Safety vests (brightly colored); Day-glo
  orange is best!
  Large Plastic Bags
Heavy sacks for sharp objects
Medications (e.g. for  bee allergies,
diabetes, if needed)
Insect repellent
List of emergency contacts,including a
telephone number  nearest to the site
Cell Phone

Storm Drain  Stenciling  Project  Guidelines
(Recommended for  Cadettes and Seniors)
A storm drain stenciling project consists of stencil-
ing a message next to the street drain reminding
people "Dump No Waste-Drains to River" with
the image of a fish. (Stencils are also available for
lake, stream, bay, groundwater, ocean or simply
"protect your water" with the image of a glass and
faucet.) Steps to consider when conducting a sten-
ciling project:

First, call for permission. For public streets, call
the city or County Public Works Department
(stormwater or road maintenance division). In
some cases, the State Highway Administration has
jurisdiction (see adjacent box for help). Public
Works will probably issue a permit or letter of ap-
proval. They may even help by providing storm
drain maps, traffic safety cones, flags and vests.
Check to see if they prefer that you stencil on the
sidewalk, or on the street next to the drain. For
some drains on private property (e.g., business or
apartment parking lots), get the permission of the
property owner.

Consider safety. Especially when stenciling with
children, seriously consider traffic safety issues
when you select your site. Neighborhoods are usu-
ally safer than downtown city streets (many
nonpoint sources go down storm drains in resi-
dential neighborhoods). Place traffic safety cones
and assign at least one person with a traffic flag to
watch traffic at all times.

Prepare materials. Before using stencils for the first
time, "weed" remaining letters from the die cuts.
This prevents small plastic or oilboard pieces wash-
ing into drains while you are stenciling. "Stencil
weeding" is a good activity for a short  training
meeting before going out to paint. For painting,
an aerosol can or traffic-zone latex paint (without
cMorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that harm the ozone)
is a good option. Some stencilers use a small roller
or stencil brush with recycled latex based paints.
Be careful that
younger sten-
cilers do not apply the
paint too thickly, as it will run
under the stencil or smear the letters.

Call the media. Notifying the media of a stencil-
ing event can get your watershed protection mes-
sage out to the whole community. Young people
in the project enhance media photo opportunities.
Remember to take your own pictures, too.
                  iing Projects
       ects. In the metropof ian bC. area,
     " --	™	•—t-ra	—	___—. -K-~ .-,	-	-.-_.
   gc|^p oJ5|gij}^ permission? CairHeather^J™
             "MioTPoints	^llfgpr'—	
                    loan and project guide
fS'£arthwater Stencils produces stencils
       .  Write to:
   	'" Dept.'V, Rochester,	
   9703._ Phonef"(360)-956-3774.  On
  "ffie ""web    at  "  www.earthwater-
  B ""pffl TIHiBfUlil! HF * Tff ipisuSiliEllf  WrfU

Avoid a mess. Remind stencilers to wear old dotities.
Rubber gloves and protective eye gear are helpful, as
are plastic bags worn over expensive shoes. Bring rags
to cleanup unexpected paint on your arms or fingers.
Also include big litter bags to bring back used gloves
and rags as well as any garbage you pick up that oth-
erwise could go down the storm drain. Paint spray
can drift onto nearby parked cars, so bring a large box
opened flat to use as a shield around the stencil as
you spray.

Work in teams of four to six The team should in-
clude a traffic look-out. Another two team members
accompanied by an adult may go together door-to-
door explaining the watershed drainage, your moni-
toring findings, local river fish and wildlife, and  ac-
tions neighbors can take to avoid pollution (see flyer
information below). Rotate jobs for maximum enjoy-
ment and experience.

Tips for applying stencils. Scrub the area briskly
with a wire brush and dust it off with a whisk
broom. Lay the mylar stencil on the sidewalk or
street next to the storm drain. If using spray paint,
shake the can and hold it about six to eight inches
from the stencil. Use a series of short back and forth
motions to spray one line at a time until the letters
are uniformly covered. Do not use too much paint
as it will run underneath and blur the letters. When
finished, carefully lift the stencil up off the street.
It may take a little experience in the beginning to
adjust the amount of paint. After finishing all the
stenciling for the day, lay the stencils out flat to
dry in a warm place. When the paint is completely
dry, gently roll the stencils to chip off the paint.
This works best if the paint does not build up a
thick layer between cleanings.

Prepare a flyer or doorhanger. After stenciling a
message that tells neighborhood people what not
to do (Dump No Waste), Girl Scouts can hand out
and discuss a flyer or door hanger explaining:

* recycle used oil at nearby listed locations
 * use fewer chemicals on lawns & gardens

 4 save household hazardous chemicals for collec-
   tion days (give dates and location)

 4 pick up waste that would otherwise wash down
   storm drains

 4 other stewardship opportunities

 Add local information for a sense of place:

 4 Where do neighborhood drains go—into what
   river, bay, lake or aquifer?

 * If drains  connect to combined sewer overflows
   (CSOs), how do they work? What happens with
   overflows during stormwater events? (They go
   straight to the river.)

 * Who lives near or in the river? (Names of local
   species of fish, birds, and other critters.)

 4 What restoration projects are underway to clean
   up or replant streamsides, build  and install bird
   or bat boxes, maintain local trails?

 * How can  community  members help with

 These guidelines were adapted and reprintedzvith per-
 mission from Rhonda Hunter, the founder of
 Earthwater Stencils, 4425140th Avenue, SW, Dept. V,
 Rochester, WA98579-9703. Phone: (360)-956-3774. On
 the WEB at www.earthwater-stencils.com. These
guidelines  were adapted from a story that appeared
 in The Volunteer Monitor newsletter, Volume 7, No.
 2, Fall 1995.

       Healthy  Stream  Critters    (Cadettes  &  Seniors)
 This activity can be done in conjunction with the Streamwalk (page 18).  Be sure to observe
      the Streamwalk  tips (page  25) and Safety-Wise before conducting this activity.

     There's a whole world of life in rivers and streams. Living alongside fish, amphibians, reptiles, and
     wildlife are macroinvertebrates — creatures that are large (macro) enough to be seen with the naked
  •e, and that lack a backbone (invertebrate).  Aquatic insects, clams, snails, crayfish, worms and leeches
are all macroinvertebrates. Some, like snails, live their whole lives in the water; others, like dragonflies,
leave the water as adults to feed and reproduce.  In streams, most macroinvertebrates live under or at-
tached to submerged rocks, logs, and plants. Like all living things, they need oxygen to breathe, water of
the right temperature to thrive and reproduce in, suitable habitat, and the right kind of food. When these
requirements aren't met, these creatures will sicken and die.

Scientists and trained volunteers study macroinvertebrates to learn more about stream quality. The basic
principle behind the study of macroinvertebrates is that some are more sensitive to pollution than others,
so if you find lots of macroinvertebrates that can't tolerate pollution, you've found a pretty clean stream.
On the other hand, if you find only macroinvertebrates that can live in polluted conditions, your stream
may have a problem. Below are a few examples of macroinvertebrates that live in clean streams.
          Shnpto Mcttmorpho«l<
           e Metifnoreholi
                Description: The stonef ly has six legs with strong claws, and their
                antennae are often long and easily seen.  They have two hair-like
                tails and a smooth abdomen, their eyes are often big and widely
                separated, and many have strong color patterns.

                Size: Stoneflies are .5 to 1.5 inches
                Description: Caddisf ies have three pairs
                of segmented legs and two back hooks.
                Some have fluffy gill tufts on their
                abdomen and no tails. Their antennae
                are not visible, and they have rounded
                bodies and tiny eyes.

                Size: Caddiflies grow up to 1.5 inches.
    To see full color photos  of these stream critters,  check out the Missouri
    Streams Teams Home Page at www.rollanet.org/~streams/macroinv

      Slmpte Mctanxxphosls
Nymph    Adult
                          Description:  Mayflies can be brown, tan or mottled in color, and many have plate-like
                          or feathery gills on their abdomen. They have six jointed legs, two long and delicate
                          antennae, and three hair-like tails.

                          Size: Bodies of mayflies are .25 to 1 inch long.
      Complete Metamorphosis
                          Description: The Dobson fly is dark brown, has six legs, large pinching jaws and eight
                          pairs of feelers on the lower half of their bodies with gill tufts below them. They have
                          short antennae and two pairs of hooks at the end of the abdomen that anchor them to
                          the stream bottom.

                          Size: Dobsonf lies can reach up to 4 inches long.
    Larva    Adult
       Complete Motatnorphoste
                          Description:  Small oval body covered with tiny hairs. One pair of tiny antennae and
                          6 legs. Walks very slowly on the bottom; does not swim!

                          Size: Riffle beetles are about 1/4 inch.
                          Setting Started  in Volunteer Monitoring
   Monitoring macroinvertebrates requires training in safety considerations, field methods,
   bug identification, and analysis of results. Troops interested in macroinvertebrate or other
   forms of stream monitoring should get in touch with a local program that trains volunteers
   in these activities. There are currently over 770 volunteer monitoring programs around the
   country, plus several that are national in scope. Check out EPA's National Directory of
   Volunteer Environmental Monitoring Programs to find a group near you that may help
   train your troop.  (Call 1-800-490-9198 and  ask for EPA publication 841-B-98-009.)  EPA's
   Adopt Your Watershed web page at www.epa.gov/surfladopt can also link
   you up with volunteer groups in your watershed.  Also check the resource list
   on pages 40-41.

   Two national organizations that can also help you get started are: the Izaak
   Walton League of America's Save Our Streams program (for
   macroinvertebrate monitoring training and kits) at  1-800-BUG-IWLA; and
   EARTH FORCE (for low-cost water quality monitoring kits to test for pH,
   dissolved oxygen, and other substances in the water) at 1-800-23-FORCE.

(Cadettes and Seniors)

Before the Streamwalk
1.  We encourage you to contact local groups in-
   volved in environmental issues in your area.
   This serves two purposes: one, these groups
   may be able to provide you with information
   and background on your Streamwalk site; and
   two, you may be able to piggyback on an exist-
   ing program. Visit EPA's Adopt Your Watershed
   web page at ivrvw.epa.gov/surf/adopt to see if
   there is a group in your watershed you can team
   up with.

2.  Choose the general area for your Streamwalk.
   Troop leaders should carefully read Safety-
   Wise before beginning this activity. Also, it
   is strongly recommended that Troop leaders
   visit the stream walk site in advance. You may
   wish to collect data along a familiar stream, one
   that is dose to your troop meeting location, or
   one that does not cascade down a steep moun-
   tain side. You may decide to do a series of
   streams in a watershed to collect baseline data,
   or concentrate your efforts in areas suspected
   of being polluted. It is recommended that
   streamwalks be done four times a year (once
   each season) at your site.

3.  Find a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topo-
   graphic map of your area. These "topo" maps
   show such things as buildings, elevations, wa-
   terways and roads. Topo maps identify the lati-
   tude and longitude of your site. Help in defin-
   ing longitude and latitude is provided on pages
   23-24. We recommend a 7-1/2 minute quad
   map (1:24,000 scale where 11 inches = 4 miles),
   which are available at local sporting goods
   stores. The cost is approximately $4. You may
   also find one to photocopy at your local library,
   or you can order directly from USGS. For as-
   sistance, call 1-800-USA-MAPS.
4.  Now, find your specific Streamwalk site on the
   topo map. It will be  easier  for future
   streamwalkers to locate your site if it is near
   landmarks (roads, highways, and tributaries),
   especially those on the map. For purposes of
   Streamwalks, you will be characterizing 100
   feet (or about 65 meters) in either direction from
   your site. You may do as many sites on the
   stream as you wish, just be sure that sites are
   at least 200 feet apart.

5.  Finally, pull out a copy of the Streamwalk sur-
   vey data form. It is very important that you
   have gone through the instructions and the
   Streamwalk Tips on page 25 before you be-
   gin your walk. You will use your map and one
   survey data sheet per Streamwalk site.

Note: Several citizen groups and agency representa-
tives worked with EPA's Region 10 office (Seattle, Wash-
ington) to develop Streamwalk. It is intended to be an
easy-to-use screening tool for monitoring stream corri-
dor health.

  Instructions for Filling out  Streamwalk Survey  Data  Sheets

       \elaw are directions on how to fill out the Streamwalk Survey Data sheet. Please read these thoroughly
        before you begin your walk. If, while conducting your Streamwalk, you are not able to determine what
        the response should be, or if the question itself is unclear, just leave that space blank—but don't stop
your walk. Remember this is not a test, there are no right or wrong answers. Walks can be done along the
stream—you do not need to enter the water. Please read Safety Wise before beginning this activity.

Give the stream name, county and state of your site, preferably as it appears on the topo map. Note: there
are some  unnamed streams; in these cases you can indicate the stream, lake or water body into which
your stream flows and the name and number of the topo map. If you want to share your information with
a local or state environmental agency, it is useful to include the longitude and latitude of your site(s).
Computing this may present a challenge. See pages 23-24.

The concern with weather relates to amount of rainfall that potentially can affect flow, clarity and amount of
water in a stream. Weather/rainfall reports are available in the daily newspaper or by calling the local weather
service. Definitions of weather conditions established by the Weather Service are:
Rain - 1/3" in 24 hours - light steady rainfall.
Showers - 1/3" - 1" in 24 hours, intermittent and variable in intensity.
Storm - 1" or more rain in 24 hrs, usually accompanied by high winds.
Stream Description
Depth and Width Measurements
This information will give a description of the stream water at your site. Please indicate if your data is
estimated or measured. Remember, it is best to estimate if taking measurements will disturb habitat,
require that you wade in deep water, or disturb stream banks. Do not attempt to cross in high flows. If it
feels even slightly unsafe, do not try it at all. Please read Safety Wise.

Water Clarity
The clearness of the water is observed to determine if sediment pollution is entering the stream. Cloudy or
different colored water can be a result of natural processes or of land use in the surrounding watershed.
Sediments can adversely affect habitat conditions such as food, health of fish, and breeding environment
for macroinvertebrates. hi some areas, grey or white water  can be a result of natural processes such as
glacial sources for streams.

Water Flow: Pools & Riffles
The variety of flow in relation to depth creates habitat to support fish and invertebrate life. Pools are deeper
than adjacent areas. They provide feeding, resting and spawning areas for fish. Riffles and/or runs are flows
swift in comparison to surrounding areas. Riffles are shallow and fast water, runs are deep and fast water
and pools are slow and deep water.

Stream Channel Cross-section Shape
Please check the box which matches the shape of the stream channel. If you are unable to see the shape of
the bottom and banks, please estimate. You can base your estimate on the flow of water. The slower the
water in the middle of the stream, the flatter the bottom.

Stream Bottom (substrate)
Indicate the most common type of material on the stream bottom.
Silt/clay/mud: This substrate has a sticky, cohesive feeling. The particles are
fine. The spaces between the particles hold a lot of water, making the sedi-
ments behave like  ooze.
Sand (up to 1 inch): Sand is made up of tiny particles  of rock. It feels soft
Gravel (.1- 2 inches): A gravel stream bottom is made up of stones ranging
from tiny quarter inch pebbles to rocks of about 2 inches.
Cobbles (2 -10 inches): The majority of rocks on this type  of stream bottom are
between 2 and 10 inches. The average size is about that of a grapefruit.
Boulders  (greater  than 10"): Most of the rocks on the bottom will be large,
greater than 10 inches.
Bedrock: This kind of stream bottom is solid rock.

Width of Natural Streamside Corridor
Streamside corridor, riparian area and zone of influence are terms that describe the natural vegetated
area on either side of the stream. Along with the stream,  it forms the habitat of the river. It includes
vegetation that shades the water, holds the soil in place,  adds nutrients to the stream in the form of
leaves and during flooding, and provides living quarters for  Streamside wildlife. Estimate as best
you can the width  of the corridor at your site. Indicate with an "x" on the bar graph. Note: Left and
right are based on looking down stream. If the vegetation is pasture or landscaped, this is not a
natural state, so mark "o."

Streamside Vegetation
Vegetation acts as  a  filter  for sediment and pollution coming in from the land nearby. It provides
habitat for the many creatures that are dependent on and influence  the stream. Branches, logs and
leaves enter the stream from this region. Vegetation also provides shade, which keeps the water cool.
On the data sheet mark all the categories that apply.
Conifer: A cone bearing, evergreen tree or shrub (e.g. a pine tree)
Deciduous: A tree which sheds its foliage at the end of the growing season
Small trees or Shrubs: Either conifers or deciduous bushes less than 20 feet high.
Grasses: Any of numerous plants with narrow leaves, jointed stems and spikes or clusters of incon-
spicuous  flowers.

Overhead Canopy (Stream Cover)
This is the amount of vegetation that overhangs the stream. It offers protection and refuge for fish
and other organisms, shades the stream and keeps the water  cool, and provides "launching" areas
for insects that might fall into the river. Estimate as best you can, about how much of the river is
overhung by vegetation and whether it be grasses, shrubs or trees. Please check the category that is
appropriate for the current condition of your site. For example, if in the winter there are no leaves on
the trees in your segment, you might check 0 - 25%. However, in  the summer when the trees have
leaves, you might  check 50 - 75%.

 Artificial Bank Protection
 This category includes such streamside modification as riprap (a retaining wall built of rocks or concrete)
 and bulkheads. It may also include deliberately placed auto bodies, refrigerators, and washing machines.
 People in the past have thought that such modifications helped stabilize stream banks. Unfortunately, not
 only do they drastically degrade habitat for streamside and in-stream  dwellers, they can cause bank
 erosion in flood conditions. Mark the categories that best describe the condition of the stream bank within
 your 500 foot segment.

 Presence of Logs or Woody Debris in Stream
 Logs and woody debris (not twigs and leaves) can slow or divert water to provide important fish habitat
 such as pools and hiding places. So please mark the general amount of logs and woody debris in the

 Organic Debris in Stream
 The presence of other organic matter in the stream can be both good and bad. If there
 are dumped grass clippings, it is not good for stream  health. On the other hand,
 naturally failing leaves  and twigs can  be beneficial.

 Fish in Stream
 Can you see any fish? Mark it down! If you know what kind of fish it is, say so in the space next to the
 question. If you think there are fish but you cannot see them, mark "no."

 Adjacent Land Uses
 Adjacent land use has a great impact on the quality and state of the stream and riparian areas. Enter a "1"
 if the land use is present and a "2" if it is clearly impacting the stream. If you cannot determine the type of
 housing, industry or development, please make your best estimate.

 This section is designed to get information about potential problems at your Streamwalk site. Enter a "1"
 if the condition is present and "2" if it is severe.

 Stream Banks
 Natural plant cover degraded: Indicate if stream side vegetation is trampled, missing, or replaced by
 landscaping or cultivation.
 Banks  collapsed/eroded: Note if banks or parts of banks have been washed away or worn down.
 Banks  artificially modified: Indicate if banks have been artificially modified by construction or place-
 ment of rocks, wood or  cement supports or lining.
 Garbage or junk adjacent to stream: Describe human-made materials present.

 Stream Channel
Mud/silt/sand on bottom/entering stream: Excessive mud or silt entering the stream and clouding the
water can interfere with the  ability of fish to sight potential prey. It can also  dog fish gills and smother
eggs in spawning areas  on the stream bottom. Mud/silt/sand can be an indication of poor construction
practices in the watershed, where runoff coming off the site is not adequately contained. It can also be a
perfectly normal occurrence, especially if, for example,  a muddy bottom is found along a very slow-
moving segment or a wetland. Use your best judgement.

Artificial Stream modifications: Please note if the stream water has been dammed, dredged, filled, or
channelized through culverts or if other large scale activities such as log removal are apparent.
Algae/scum floating/covering rocks: Evidence of algae (very tiny plants that can color the water green or
can resemble seaweed) or scum in the water may point to an upstream source adding too much nutrient
(fertilizer) to the water.
Foam or sheen: This is a bit of a tricky category because this type  of thing can be naturally occurring or a
problem. For example, an iridescent or shiny sheen on the water might be from rotting leaves or it might
be from some upstream pollutant. If you are not sure, mark it on  the checklist.
Garbage or junk in stream: This is your chance to point out very straight forward problems like batteries,
tires, home appliances, car bodies, and garbage.

Organic debris or garbage: The purpose is to determine if the stream is being used as a dump site for
materials that would not be present naturally. Debris can be anything from a pop can to vegetation brought
from outside the stream corridor.
Livestock in or with unrestricted access to stream: Are livestock  present or is there an obvious path that
livestock xise to get to the water from adjacent fields? Is there stream-side degradation caused by access?
Actively discharging pipes: Are there pipes with visible openings dumping  fluids or water into the stream?
Please note, even though you may not be able to tell where they come from or what they are discharging. Do
not touch this effluent!
Other pipes: Are there pipes entering the stream? Please mark even if you cannot find an opening or see
matter being  discharged.
Ditches: Any ditches draining into the stream?
    sir-i -niTirr'i Tfi— iPir
       ick  Stream  Symptoms
             	   ' 	      M	i"-™ jf,	,|nl,	: ,n||	:	m	„	,ni]	|||I||B	^	 : 	r iinil||
                         ipw^Slors^H'you^ee ramBow'cblor oh the water's surface or if you smell oil (a
                 ell), then oil might be polluting your stream. Oil can come from a pipeline leak, a storm
 ;ff ;Il®i!:§E fflig^dumpihg. OH kills fish and can make kids who play in the water sick.
 ||ps||=^ ^^^^^^^^it^^a^^ia^^i^i^^^^^^^^ ^.^^^.g^^g,^ farnis	
 |||::M£( 1|jps"can |et :intostreams'arid cause too much algae to'grow. When algae break down or decompose,
 !;fi!. iA-li^ j^'^d'up an(j fish don't have enough to breathe.
          ;;;,- Jtggj	i1  • .{ijjffij,' i'i'V; v ,';;,;;	it;	', ?* 'Ti;;:,';",;;,;«!	;;•;,;;:: vtt	."i'S'i'JB!!;',•';il!11!	•	"I11 V ..; I1 'j*i	"':„""	,'• ~'iB"'!::,1	rm	jm-n	••	'rr-p-	'	••	»^	»	'—ft	*•• •••'•'- ;•-,'"	l;-
            or muddy water—^Too much dirt or sediment in the water. Dirt clogs nsh gills so nsn can t
            3Si|	s *e"	        "     when it settles to the bottom and buries them. Dirt blocks light to under-

                                                                     •. Iron can be naturally present
                                    is not a pollution problem. However, orange water can indicate acidic
                                         kills fish and other stream life.
j- ;,|Qam"pr su
                              sjgi^T^giY: ...... ...... ii::::111!:1:1::!:;":"!!'^!!^" ji™!!!1"!1;11:!11"! m z • •" j/lf jji < 1 i « ' f » 1! ; :" ^?S ....... l! ...... ~ I , T= -' «3" ''•• IS! ^3!^~TTiic:::^TT:i^n!is:niii!r!i:i::Ti!Bi;:!;i3: ........ n ..... ^ | m „; 's— -7- -?: , :T, .; ,; . ; , ^
                                i^H^the ^am is natural. If you see foam, in the stream that is more than
                                                                   'HetergenFmay have 'entered  the
                        '                          wash'es!''iSoap 'harms'" stream critters because it breaks,,
  K tfie surfaceUension of the water and insects like water striders sink and drown.
  :|{',;'*,;",-!'Ifi;'!	',!	vgtf'^iS^^fW^y^'S'^f'?';'!"i;!*SfS3	3:;"'JtfxiV	• -V(;'"«!:,;•;	!	?aSl^«8i  '' ,      	x	
   F Strange \)dors—A chemical smell can mean harmful chemicals are polluting your stream. A rotten egg
   i;.:«:£smj      .         .   getting into the stream from cows, sewage treatment plants, or people's homes.
   l^^ageoFcnermcals can	n^g^ people and animals sick.
   E'illifiSiS^^^^^^^                                                           	;,;s!K	ZEEi'rsiasrwi'MtfjWii1-"""^;::^":*^;.-
                  '   .  •    .
                 with permission from Tzaak Walton League Save Our Streams Program

 Instructions for Defining Latitude and

 -Latitude and longitude are defined in degrees, minutes and
 seconds. There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes
 in a degree. The symbols are as follows ° = degrees,
 '= minutes, and " = seconds. The following example may help
 you determine the latitude and longitude for your walk.


 Look at the right side (upper or lower corner) under the map
 name, or the second of two numbers separated by "x", to find
 the width scale (longitude) of the map:

 1)  If "7.5 Minute Series," enter 450.
    Your Work
    If "15 Minute Series," enter 900.
    If "7.5x15" Minute Series," enter 900.
    If "15x30 Minute Series," enter 900.

 2)  Using a ruler, measure the width of your map
    east to west (exclude borders).

 3)  Divide #1 by #2 to the nearest whole number

 4)  Enter the Longitude located in the lower
    right hand corner.

 5)  Using a ruler, measure (centimeters) from
   your site, straight across, to the right hand side
    of the map.

 6) Multiply #5 by #3 (to the nearest whole number).

 7) Convert #6 to minutes and seconds by dividing by 60.
   Your whole number after division is the number of
   minutes, and the remainder is the number of seconds.
   (Do not use a calculator.) For example, 215 can be
   divided by 60 three times. 215-180=35. So 215 converts
   to 3'35".

8) Add #4 to #7.

The Answer for #8 is the longitude of your site.
7.5 x 15 Minuie Series

- -

. _




1 —


. 1
— -I —
. 1
' t-

1 .


_ J



























— •!-

— i-
.— .


, ..




_• —


(question #12)
t.':. • •
    • ,  (quesliijn S4)
  10 cm

  90  sec/cm


  3.7 cm

  3 7yQf)=333

  (300 with
  33 left
  over, or


Look at the right side (upper or lower corner) under the map name, or the second of two numbers sepa-
rated by "x", to find the height scale (latitude) of the map:
9) If "7.5 Minute Series/' enter 450.
   If "15 Minute Series," enter 900.
   If "7.5x15" Minute Series," enter 450.

10) Using a ruler, measure the length of your map
   north to south (exclude borders).

11) Divide #9 by #10 to the nearest whole number

12) Enter the Latitude located in the lower
   right hand corner.

13) Using a ruler, measure (centimeters) from
   your site, straight down, to the bottom
   of the map.

14) Multiply #13 by #11 (to the nearest whole number).

15) Convert #14 to minutes and seconds by dividing by 60.
   Your whole number after division is the number of
   minutes, and the remainder is the number of seconds.
   (Do not use a calculator.) For example, 215 can be
   divided by 60  three times. 215-180=35. So 215 converts
   to 3'35".

16) Add #15 to #12.
 Tfie Answer for #16 is the latitude of your site.
Your Work


            sec/cm 45	sec/
                    (180 with
                    36 left
                    over, or
                    3'  36"



Streamwalk  Tips
Please consider the following precautionary tips:

•  Get the permission of landowners to cross any
   private land, posted or not. Do Not Enter Areas
   Without Permission. It is recommended that you
   use public access points (such as city/county/
   state parks and campgrounds).

•  Only record what you see, not what you have pre-
   viously seen. For example if you think fish are
   present but you can't see them, mark your sheet
   "no fish present."

•  Always work with someone.

•  Do not put yourself in danger to gather survey

•  Be careful of ticks, poison oak, nettles, insects.
   Bring repellent. Wear long pants and boots: wind
   breakers help fend off nettles.

•  Watch out for dogs.

•  Do not drink the water—it is unsafe.
Do not walk on unstable banks; your footsteps
could speed erosion.

Be alert for spawning areas (redds) in the stream.
Do not walk on them. They will look like a round
or elliptical area of clean gravel about 1-3 feet long.
During fall through spring, when redds are evi-
dent, try not to walk in the stream. In the sum-
mer, if you are careful, the stream bed might be
the easiest route for conducting your streamwalk.
Be aware that the stream bed can be very slip-
pery, uneven, and unpredictable.

Do not attempt to walk across streams that are
swift and above the knee in depth. You can be
swept away in an instant!

Be careful of streamside vegetation - disturb it as
little as possible.

If for any reason you feel uncomfortable about
the stream conditions  or surroundings, please
stop your Streamwalk. You and your safety are
much more valuable than the Streamwalk!
   Recommended list of items to take along:

   Photocopies of topo map of stream to be walked
   Comfortable rubber boots
   Snag and thorn-proof clothing that is appropriate for the weather
   Clip board with waterproof cover
   Streamwalk data forms
   Two pencils
   Folding ruler or tape measure
   Camera and film in waterproof bag
   Leather gloves
   First Aid Kit (SEE SAFETY WISE for contents)
   Cell Phone
   If you are away from urban or residential areas, the following are also recommended for safety:
   Extra clothes in a waterproof bag
   Fire starter (candle, cheap lighter, tinder)
   Flashlight and extra batteries
   Global Positioning Device, compass
   Aluminum-foil blanket (for winter excursions)

Site  Survey  Data Sheet (Complete One Sheet per Site)
  Stream name:
  Troop Name:
  Contact Name:
  Site (name, description or number):
  (See instructions on pages 23-24)
  Latitude:     	°
  Longitude:    	°
 ."   N
  "   N
             (see instructions on page 19)

  LJ  Clear   LJ Overcast    Q  Rain    LJ  Showers    LJ  Storm
  Stream Description  (see instructions on pages 19-21)

  I. Depth: 	feet  LJ measured (at site)    LJ estimated

     Width: 	feet  LJ measured (at site)    LJ estimated

  2. Clarity: Does water appear    LJ  Clear    LJ Cloudy

  3. Water Flow: (check all that apply):    LJ  Pools    LJ Riffles    LJ  Runs
  4. Sfaream Channel Cross-Section Shape: (at site)

Site Survey  Data Sheet (Complete One Sheet  per Site)
  4.  Stream bottom: (check the most common.)
     LJ  Clay/Mud          Q  Cobbles (2 - 10")
     LJ  Sand (up to .1")      Ul  Boulders (over 10")
     LJ  Gravel (.1-2")       Q  Bedrock (Solid)

  5.  Width of Natural Streamside Corridor: (average)
     Left looking downstream:	meters   Right looking downstream:
  6.  Streamside Vegetation:
                                None/Sparse   Occasional  Common
     Conifers                        Q           Q         Q
     Deciduous                      IJ           (_J         I  I
     Small trees and Shrubs (<20')       LJ           LJ         LJ
     Grasses                         LJ           Q         LJ

        Vegetation appears U natural   LJ  cultivated  Q mixed (w/weeds)
  7.  Extent of Overhead Canopy:
     Ul  0-25%     Q  25-50%    Q 50-75%    Q  75-100%
  8.  Extent of Artificial  Bank Protection:
     Q  0-25%     Q  25-50%    Q 50-75%    Q  75-1 00%
 9.  Presence of Logs or Large Woody Debris in Stream:
     LJ None    Ul  Occasional    O  Common

 10.  Presence of Other Organic Debris in Stream:
     LJ Occasional    CJ  Common
 11.  Any fish present?
     Q Yes    Q  No
 Other Comments?
. meters

Site Survey Data  Sheet (Complete One Sheet per Site)
Land Uses
(see instructions on page 21)
Check "1"
ing stream
1 2
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a

a a
a a

a a
a a
a a
a a
a a

a a
a a
a a

a a
a a
a a
if present, "2" if clearly impact-
Single family housing
Multi-family housing
Commercial development
Light industry
Heavy industry
Road/bridge construction

Roads, etc.
Paved roads or bridges
Unpaved roads

Construction Underway on:
Single family housing
Multi-family housing
Commercial development
Light Industry
Heavy Industry

Grazing land
Feedlots or animal holding
Mining or gravel pits
(see instructions





on pages 21-22)
"I" if present, "2" if impact seems

a •

a •




Stream banks
Natural streamside cover
Banks collapsed/eroded
Banks artificially modified
Garbage/junk adjacent to

Stream channel
Mud, silt, or sand
in. or entering stream
Artificial stream modifications
(dams, channels, culverts, etc.)
Algae or scum floating or
coating rocks
Foam or Sheen
Garbage/junk in stream

Organic debris (garbage,
grass clippings, etc.)
Livestock in or -with
unrestricted access to stream
Actively discharging pipe(s)
Other pipe(s) entering
Ditches entering

                           Build  Your  Own  Aquifer
BACKGROUND: Many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called
aquifers. Water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to obtain
groundwater for drinking water purposes. Home owners who cannot obtain their drinking water
from a public water supply will have private wells drilled on their property. Unfortunately, ground-
water can become contaminated by harmful chemicals, including household and  lawn care prod-
ucts, paints, bleach, cleaners, fertilizers, pesticides, and oil. These chemicals can percolate down
through the soil and rock and into the aquifer—and eventually the well. Such contamination can
pose a significant threat to  human health. The measures that must be taken by well owners and
operators to either protect or clean up contaminated aquifers are quite costly.

NOTE: This demonstration should follow a troop discussion on potential sources of drinking water

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how water is stored in an aquifer, how groundwater can become contami-
nated, and how this contamination ends up in the drinking water well. Ultimately, students should
get a clear understanding that what happens above the  ground can potentially end up in the drink-
ing water below it.
*  1 6"x8" clear plastic container that is at least
   6-8" deep (shoe box or small aquarium)
A  1 Ib. of modeling clay or floral clay
*  2 Ibs. of white play sand
*  2 Ibs. of aquarium gravel (natural color if
   possible) or small pebbles (As any  small
   rocks may have a powdery residue on them,
   you may wish to rinse them and dry on a
   clean towel prior to use. It is best if they do
   not add cloudiness to water.)
*  1 drinking water straw
*  1 plastic spray bottle (be sure the stem that
   extends into the bottle is clear)
*  1 small piece (3 x 5) of green felt
i  1/4 cup of powered cocoa
*  red food coloring
*  1 bucket of clean water and small cup to  dip
   water from bucket
*  scotch tape

1. To one side of the container place the small
   drinking water straw, allowing approxi-
   mately 1/8 of an inch clearance with the bot-
   tom of the container. Fasten the straw di-
   rectly against to the long side of the container
   with a piece of tape. Explain to the students
   that this will  represent two separate well
   functions later in presentation (if not placed
   at this time, sand will clog the opening).

2. Pour a layer of white sand  completely cov-
   ering the bottom of the  clear plastic con-
   tainer, making it approximately 1  " deep.
   Pour water into the sand,  wetting it com-
   pletely, but there should be  no standing wa-
   ter on top of sand. Let students see how the
   water is absorbed in the sand, but remains
   around the sand particles as it is stored in
   the ground and ultimately in the aquifer.

3. Flatten the modeling clay (like  a pancake)
   and cover half of the sand with the clay (try-
   to press the clay into the three sides of the
   container in the area covered). The clay rep-

resents a "confining layer" that keeps water
from passes through it. Pour a small amount
of water onto the clay. Let the students see
how the water remains on top of the clay,
only flowing into the sand below in areas
not covered by the clay.

Use the  aquarium rocks to form the next
layer of earth. Place the rocks over the sand
and day, covering the entire container. To
one side of your container, slope  the rocks,
forming a high hiU and a valley. Now pour
water into your aquifer until the water in the
valley is even with your hill. Let girl scouts
see the water around the rocks that is stored
within the aquifer.  They will also notice a
"surface" supply of water (a small lake) has
formed. This will give them a view  of both
the ground and surface water supplies that
can be used for drinking water purposes.

Next, place the small piece of green felt on
top of the hill. If possible, use a little clay to
securely fasten it to the sides of the container
it reaches.

Using the cocoa, sprinkle some on top of the
hill, while explaining to students that the co-
coa represents improper use of lawn chemi-
cals or fertilizers, etc.

Put a few drops of food coloring into the
straw, explaining to students that often old
wells are used to dispose of farm chemicals,
trash and used motor oils. They will  see that
it will color the sand in the bottom of the
container. This is one way pollution can
   spread throughout the aquifer over time.

8.  Fill the spray bottle with water. Now make it
   rain on top of the hill and over the cocoa, stu-
   dents will quickly see the cocoa (fertilizer/
   pesticide) seep down through the felt and also
   wash into the surface water supply.

9.  Take another look at the well you contami-
   nated. The pollution has probably spread
   further; Now  remove the top of  the spray
   bottle and insert the stem into the  straw, de-
   press the trigger to pull up the water from
   the well. (Water will be colored  and "pol-
   luted.") Explain that this is the same water a
   drinking water well will draw up for them
   to drink.

|^_._^!-______:^__.,_,,^.;,..-__.__._.^;—^i.,i_^l__,..__._._.;,;:i:_ _-.,.'^	,.'.i_;^_.}:j
t For other ideas and activities	    :
  The Blue  Thumb  Project
  The Blue Thumb Project is an international
  public awareness and education effort to
  encouarge people to take better care of our
 r drinking water.  Each year a set of materials
  on" water—and  its care—is developed and
  disseminated to. organizations  to help them
  plan community wafer education and action
 i "projects. Write to: The Blue Thumb Project,
    "  AWWA;	•"	
                                                  The Groundwater Foundation
                                                   The Groundwater Foundation is a nonprofit
                                                  education foundation dedicated to educating
                                                  the public  about the  conservation and
                                                  management of groundwater. Contact the
                                                  Sroundwater  Foundation, PO box 22558, Lincoln,
                                                  NE 68542-2558, (402) 434-2740  or fax
                                                  (402) 434-2742. www.groundwater.org/kids/
                                                  kids, htm

                                                  EPA's (Sroundwater/Drinking Water Web Page
                                                  at www.epa.gov/ogwdw/kids/index.html has
                                                  dozens of games and activities and science
                                                  and art projects.

 Backyard  Conservation  (Seniors)
 Make a  home for birds, butterflies and  other  of
 nature's creatures at your  home or troop meeting
Habitat is a combination of food, water, shelter,
and space arranged to meet the needs of wildlife.
Even a small yard can be landscaped to attract
birds, butterflies, beneficial insects, and small ani-
mals. Trees, shrubs, and other plants provide shel-
ter and food for wildlife.

The plants you use for food and cover will help
determine the wildlife species attracted to your
backyard. Nesting boxes, feeders, and watering
sites can be added to improve the habitat.

Planning your wildlife habitat
Planning is necessary for attractive and produc-
tive wildlife habitat. You have both a horizontal
area to work with—the size of your lot—as well as a
vertical area that stretches from your soil to the
treetops. The vertical area is composed of the
canopy formed by the tallest tree branches; under-
story vegetation consisting of smaller trees, shrubs,
and vines; the floor, which is often dominated by
groundcovers; and the basement where a variety
of organisms exist hi the soil. Different wildlife
species live in each of these zones, so numerous
habitats can be provided on a small piece of land.

Trees and shrubs are the backbone of any land-
scaping design and important for wildlife shelter.
Many tree and shrub species are excellent sources
of food for wildlife. Proper selection of plant ma-
terial can meet both the aesthetic needs of the ho-
meowner and the food and shelter needs of wild-
life. Remember that you are part of the habitat!
  This activity was taken from the Natural
  Resources Conservation Services' Backyard
  Conservation Program. To obtain a free,
  28-page booklet that outlines 9 other
  conservation projects, call 1-888-LANOCARE.
  Or download "tip sheets" at
  www. nhq. nrcs. usda.go v/CCS/Backyard, h tml.
 Steps to create habitat
 for wildlife:

 1. Identify  all  existing
 plants, if any. Note: Con-
 dition of the plants and their
 locations. How much shade the trees
 and shrubs provide. Are trees evergreen or do they
 drop their leaves in the fall? Do they provide valu-
 able food sources? Do they need more light? Do
 they flower and bear fruit?

 2. Make a  sketch of your yard noting all
 existing plants, buildings, utilities, and  path-
 ways. Some species may be of little wildlife value
 and may not be particularly attractive. Once you
 have identified existing plants you want to save,
 start exploring options for plants that will work
 well with your backyard habitat (see lists of spe-
 cies on pages 33-34). The existing plants around
 your yard may be adequate to attract some wild-
 life, but a few changes can effectively enhance the
 existing habitat. Diversity in the landscape is nec-
 essary. Some plants provide food but very little
 cover; others provide cover but little food.

 3. Refer to the species lists on pages 33-34
 and add trees, shrubs,  flowers, and ground-
 covers to your plan. Not all the planting needs to
be done at once. If money or time is limited, con-
sider it a work in progress.

4. Plant a variety of trees first. Select ever-
green species for year-round cover and shelter. Se-
lect fruit or nut-bearing plants for a food source.
Native species are well suited for providing wild-
life habitat because they are adapted to the local

soil, climate, and wildlife. Additional consider-
ations for choosing and placement include:

    Neighboring Properties

    Eventual size.Whether they are evergreen or de-
    ciduous (trees that drop their leaves). Decidu-
    ous trees planted on the south side of a house
    will provide summer shade, but will not com-
    pletely block winter sun.

    Flowering and fruiting habit. Select plants that
    flower and bear fruit at different times of the year.
    Some shrubs that produce berries can provide
    food throughout the year. Trees with nuts and
    fruit can also provide seasonal foods. (See the
    tip sheet on tree planting for suggested species.)

5. Fill in  with  smaller shade-tolerant under-
story trees and shrubs. Adding these to an ex-
isting landscape will enhance the vertical struc-
ture that is common in natural landscapes. Many
smaller trees and shrubs are colorful in the spring
when they flower, and provide berries for fall and
winter feed.

6. Flowering annuals (plants  that live one
growing season) and  perennials (plants  that
live for more  than a year) add color to the
yard and can be added at any stage to
attract birds  and butterflies. If your yard is
large, consider using part of it for tall native
grasses that provide beauty, as well as a natural
                source of food and shelter. A
                native wildflower garden pro-
                vides the same function.  Even
                on a small lot, native wildflow-
                ers,  as well as some common
                garden species, can provide at-
                tractive habitat for a variety of
                birds and butterflies. Avoid
                straight lines and perfect sym-
                metry. Natural habitat has
curves and clumps of vegetation. Wildlife is not
particularly attracted to a well-manicured lawn.
Wildlife is more likely to come out into the open
for viewing when the boundary of the yard is
designed and maintained as a retreat for ani-

Landscaping for Birds
Food and cover are es-
sential for the survival
of all species. Loss of
suitable nesting sites is a
major factor in the decline
of some birdspecies. In the
wild, many species nest in cavities of dead trees.
With the loss of hedgerows in some parts of the
country and the removal of dead trees in towns,
natural nesting sites are often limited. Also, some
highly competitive, non-native species of birds
have taken over some  of the nesting sites once
occupied by native birds.
 Bird species are extremely variable in their habits.
Some like deeply wooded areas; others prefer open
fields and meadows. Many species are year-round
residents, while others such as the cedar waxwing
appear only for a few days a year during migra-
tion. Other species such as sparrows, blue jays,
cardinals, robins, juncos, and chickadees are highly
adaptable and found in many environments.

Many people are not aware of the value of dead,
dying, and hollow trees,  as well as logs on the
ground, for birds and other wildlife. Dead trees
provide homes to more than 400 species of birds,
mammals, and amphibians. Fish, plants, and fungi
also benefit from dead and dying trees. Consider
leaving standing dead and dying trees in your yard
unless they pose a human safety or property haz-
ard, and use old logs and stumps in gardens and

Plant Species for Birds
Below are some plant species to consider for
wildlife habitat. Check with a local nursery on
plants suitable for your area. Some of these
plants, while suited for wildlife, may have char-
acteristics  such as shallow roots or weak limbs

that make them inappropriate for small urban
properties—or they may not be winter hardy in
all locations. Birds eat any flower seed, depend-
ing on the kind of bird and seed.

              Trees for  Birds:              j
          American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
             American holly (Ilex opaca)
             Balsam fir (Abies bdsamea)
            Black cherry (Prunus serotina)
             Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica)
               Crabapple (Malus spp.)
          Flowering dogwood (Comus florida)
              Hawthorns (Crataegus spp.)
                Hickories (Can/a spp.)
             Live oak (Quercus virginiana)
                 Oaks (Quercus spp.)
             Red mulberry (Morus rubra)
               Shrubs for Birds:
        Common juniper (Juniperus communis)
         Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)
   Hollies— evergreen & deciduous species (Ilex spp.)
            Pyracantha (Pyracantha spp.)
        Red-osier dogwood (Comus stolonifera)
          Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea)
             Spicebush (Lindera benzoin)
               Sumacs (Khus spp.)
            Viburnums (Viburnum spp.)
            Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera)
               Vines for Birds:
       American bittersweet (Celastrus samdens)
      Trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens
                 & related spp.)
             Strawberry (Fmgaria spp.)
       Trumpet creeper or vine (Campis radiams)
      Virginia creeper (Parthenodssus quinquefolia)
               Wild grape (Vitis spp.)
Additional food and shelter for birds.  Few
yards will be able to supply sufficient food or
shelter for a variety of birds all year long. How-
ever, you can improve shelter and food supplies
by building or purchasing feeders and houses,
and by setting out certain foods.

All bird species have specific nesting require-
ments. Because of these requirements, your yard
may not accommodate certain species. For in-
         Buying a Bird  House and
       Other  Backyard Birding Tips

     A good reference publication is "Homes
     for Birds" by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
     Service. It is available along with other
          useful birding pamphlets at:
               pamplets.html or
stance, Eastern bluebirds prefer nesting sites that
border open fields or lawns with a tree or fence
post nearby to provide feeding perches. Chicka-
dees prefer to nest in brushy wooded areas. Be-
fore setting out nesting houses, find out which spe-
cies are common in your area and can be encour-
aged to nest in your yard. Make or buy a bird
house specifically designed for the bird you wish
to attract. The size of the entrance hole is critical to
              prevent the eggs and young from
              being destroyed by larger birds—
              always  check a list of appropriate
              hole sizes. Other considerations in-
              clude box size, height above the
              ground,  direction the entrance hole
             faces, and amount of sunlight. Boxes
             may need baffles or other protective
             devices to limit access by cats and
             other predators.

Many species of birds  can be attracted by a vari-
ety of feed in different styles  of feeders. There
are many styles of bird feeders available, from
window-mounted feeders to those that hang
from branches and stands. Many birds will
readily eat right off the ground. Bird feed comes
in a variety of choices; however, sunflower seeds
appeal to many birds, as well as small mammals.
Woodpeckers, nuthatches, and chickadees are
especially attracted to suet. Citrus fruit, chopped
apples and bananas, and  raisins will be eaten
by numerous species,  including robins, titmice,
nuthatches, woodpeckers, and mockingbirds.

Feeders may also attract wildlife species you may
not want to feed such as starlings, crows, and squir-
rels. Feeder type and placement and the type of
food can help deter unwanted species.
  ^	i"	!	'	Butterflies,and Bees:
  LI          ft>'   .Srtt *   mi,   ..,  .
                        r ••	[i i11||	ii  i|	(	 (
                        liiikillli	iliilill	(ii	it	I	in	II	iillili	Illinium in -
 11 ,      )   III «l|r ^l£)«:;A \./TUJtCU JjLSjLS./

i J^p	iipuJlejrfljf w.geq	and other milkweed
flip:	;^tA]Sar^r>aI,59WB^.^2^acar<^a&y
          iet creeper or vine \Campisradicans)
                 jiela {Weigelaspp?)
              Zinnia (2yif iia sppT
              :"	1!	!	:	:	!"":":	:';'	 -Aw •*-
Unlike many other species of birds, hummingbirds
rely on nectar as their source of food. These tiny,
migratory birds are commonly seen in the sum-
mer in northern states gathering nectar from col-
orful flowers.

Hiunmingbirds are typically attracted to red and
yellow tubular flowers, although they frequently
visit others. Hummingbird feeders can be pur-
chased and filled with a sugar-water solution, con-
sisting of 1 part sugar to 4 parts water. Every 3 to 4
days, wash the feeder with soap and water,  rinse
thoroughly, and add new sugar water.
Food and1 shelter for  butterflies
Colorful butterflies and moths add beauty and in-
terest to your backyard. There are hundreds of dif-
ferent species of butterflies and moths in North
America. Butterflies and moths are insects. They
hatch into larvae (commonly referred to as cater-
pillars), eventually become pupae, and develop
into colorful adults. How long the  process takes
depends on the species and the climate. Butterflies
and moths are amazingly particular in their food
choices. The larval stage of the butterfly  may re-
quire food quite different from that of the adult.
Some larvae consume tremendous amounts of
plant material, seemingly devouring plants over-
night. A common example in the garden is the to-
mato hornworm, which rapidly strips tomato
plants of their leaves. An equally voracious, but
beautiful, larvae is the Eastern black swallowtail,
which is found only on plants in the carrot family,
including  celery, carrot, dill, and parsley. A close
relative is the Eastern tiger swallowtail that eats
the foliage of wild cherry, birch, poplar, ash, and
tulip trees.

Adult butterflies
require food in liquid
form such as
nectar. They get
some of it from
flowers and from juices
of extra-ripe fruit. The types of flowering plants
you grow will determine the kinds  of butterflies
you attract to your backyard, hi addition  to the
plants listed for hummingbirds, the butterfly
bush is especially attractive.

Find out what species are common in your area
and use plants they like. Nectar feeders can be
placed in  the yard to attract butterflies. Do not
use insecticides near plants  for butterflies.
Learn to recognize larval and  egg forms. That
large green and black caterpillar eating your dill
may one day turn into the gorgeous butterfly you
were hoping to attract!

Butterflies, like all insects, are most active when
temperatures are warmer. While moths are com-
monly found at night, most butterflies are active
on sunny, warm days. Butterflies will benefit from
a basking site where they can •warm up on cool
mornings. Add a light-colored rock or concrete gar-
den sculpture as a basking site. Butterflies also need
a source of water. A shallow dish of water or a de-
pression in a rock that retains water is all they need.

Attracting  Bees
In the United States, there are nearly 5,000 differ-
ent species of native bees. Most of them are soli-
tary, friendly bees that nest in holes in the ground
or burrows in twigs  and dead tree limbs. These
bees do not have hives to protect, so they are not
aggressive and rarely sting.

Bumblebees, carpenter bees, sweat bees,  leafcutter
bees, digger bees, and others pollinate many dif-
ferent kinds of plants. They play a critical role in
healthy wild plant communities and  gardens.
About 30 percent of our diet is the direct result of a
pollinating visit by a bee to a flowering fruit tree
or vegetable plant. Providing bee habitat in your
yard can increase the  quality and quantity of your
fruits and vegetables.

Bees are extremely sensitive to many commonly
applied insecticides. If you must use chemical in-
secticides in your garden, apply them in the
evening when bees are less likely to be active.

Bees are attracted to  most flowering plants, and
are especially fond of blue and yellow flowers. Try
planting your garden to have different species
blooming in the spring, summer, and fall.

Bee houses
 A good use for untreated scrap lumber (at least 3
to 5 inches thick) is to drill holes (from 1/8-inch to
5/16-inch in diameter) about 90 percent of the way
into the thick wooden block. Space the holes about
1/2-inch to 3/4-inch apart. The 5/16-inch holes
work best as homes  for orchard bees which are
excellent pollinators of fruit
trees. Hang your bee blocks
under the eaves of your house
or garden shed, protected
from direct sun and rain.

Attracting Bats
Bats are beneficial and interesting
mammals. Bats are the single most im-
portant controller of night-flying insects, includ-
ing mosquitoes, moths, and beetles. For example,
a single little brown bat can catch up to 600 mos-
quitoes in an hour. Watching bats fly around light
posts catching bugs can be an interesting night-
time activity.

A bat house in your yard will help attract bats and
provide them with much-needed roosting habi-
tat. The house should be placed on a pole at least
15 feet high in a spot that receives sun most of the
day. Tree trunks are usually too shady for bat boxes.
Some bat species such as gray bats, red bats, and
hoary bats will use shrubs and trees for roosting
under loose bark or in cavities.

Many species of bats migrate in the fall and hiber-
nate throughout the winter months in caves, mines,
or buildings. If disturbed during hibernation, their
metabolism increases, depleting fat reserves and
reducing their chances of survival.
   As with all wildlife,
   bats should be watched,
   but not handled or chased.
   Generally, bats are shy of humans
   and will not attack or fly after a
   person.  However, if caught or
   picked  up from the ground/a bat
   may bite and some carry rabies.

Attracting Reptiles and  Amphibians
Toads, frogs, lizards, turtles, and snakes all have a
place in the backyard. While many people may
not want some of these animals in their yards, most
species are harmless and often quite beneficial—
feeding on destructive insects or rodents.

Shelter for reptiles and amphibians is easy to
provide. Several rocks piled in a sunny spot will
provide basking sites. Consider  planting
shade-tolerant groundcover under trees and
leaving a  thick layer of leaves to provide cool
shelter. Stumps, logs, and rock piles in a shady
spot can be valuable.

Water for Wildlife
Clean, fresh water is as important to birds, bats,
butterflies, and other wildlife as it is for people.
Water in a saucer, bird bath, or backyard pond
is adequate for wildlife. Be sure to change the
water every few  days to keep it fresh. In hot
weather, it may be necessary to refill the con-
tainer daily.

Logs, rocks, and water-holding structures pro-
vide drinking and basking habitat for turtles,
butterflies, and songbirds. Stones with depres-
sions that collect water will help attract butter-

As with all wildlife, cover is essential for the
survival of these  species. Small brush piles in-
tended for amphibians and reptiles will also pro-
vide shelter for rabbits  and mice. Chipmunks
and woodchucks are adept at digging their own
burrows. Trees may provide shelter for squirrels,
raccoons, and opossums. Food set out for birds
may attract many of these animals. Squirrels,
cliipmunks, and mice will readily eat bird seed.
Raccoons will feed on suet. Woodchucks and
rabbits will eat a variety of vegetation includ-
ing garden vegetables  and flowering plants.
Deer are  browsers and will  nibble  at trees,
shrubs, hay, and grain.
A word about attracting mammals. Squirrels,
chipmunks, rabbits,  raccoons,  opossums,
skunks, woodchucks, mice, and deer are com-
monly found in many urban environments.
These species are highly adaptable and, in many
cases, are becoming unwanted visitors rather
than welcome guests.
  Precautions to  Remember!
  A few precautions can be taken to avoid un-
  wanted encounters with these animals. Avoid
  setting out food that may attract scavengers
  such as raccoons. Keep garbage cans in a se-
  cure shed or garage or use metal cans that
  scavengers cannot chew through.  Check the
  exterior of your house for loose or rotted
  boards that could allow access by mice or
  other rodents. Remember that these animals
  are wild, and if threatened they can bite.
  Raccoons can be  particularly aggressive. All
  of these species  can carry diseases. Do not
  handle them.

  Laws vary from state to state on  wildlife is-
  sues. If you have  questions or concerns about
  wildlife, check with your state's Department
  of Natural Resources or Conservation Depart-
  ment before taking any action.
 NWF Backyard Habitat  Program
 The National Wildlife Federation (NWF)
 sponsors a certification program designed to
 help individuals plan'and apply ja wildlife habitat
 plan for a home site:or small atreage. On
 request, NWF will send you anj application
 package and instructions for ijs Backyard
 Wildlife Habitat Program. If your application
 and plan meet the criteria, you' will receive a
 certificate and, if you wish, a Sign to show your
 commitment to wildlife conservation. Contact:
 Backyard Wildlife Habitat Prjogram
 National Wildlife Federation!(703) 790-4582
 8925 Leesburg Pike         !
 Vienna, VA 221844-0001     \
 On the web:  www.nwf.org/habitats

                                                I.      Brownie Girl Scout Try-Its
                                                Animals; Earth and Sky; Earth is Our Home; Eco-
                                                Explorer; Math Fun; Outdoor Adventurer; Plants;
                                                Senses; Water Everywhere; Watching Wildlife

                                                II.     Junior Girl  Scout Badges
                                                Eco-Action; Ecology; Geology; Math Whiz; Out-
                                                door Creativity; Outdoor Fun in the City; Photog-
                                                raphy; Plants and Animals; Ready for Tomorrow;
                                                Water Fun; Water Wonders; Weather Watch; Wild-

                                                III.   Cadette and Senior Girl Scout Interest
                                                Projects All About Birds; Backpacking; Digging
                                                Through the Past; Eco-Action; From Shore to Sea;
                                                Leadership; Math, Maps and More; Orienteering;
                                                Photography;  Wildlife
                                 OTHER RESOURCES
Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting
Fun and Easy Nature and Science Investigations*
Fun and Easy Activities: Nature and Science**
Exploring Wildlife Communities with Children

*English and Spanish versions of this leader's guide are available.
**Bilingual book

Algae: A chlorophyll containing plant rang-
ing from one to many cells in size, that lives
in fresh or salt water.

Anadromous: Fish that return from salt water
to fresh water to spawn (e.g., salmon, steel-

Aquatic Insect: Insect species whose larval
and/or juvenile forms five in the water.

Aquifer: Any underground geological forma-
tion containing water.

Bedrock: Unbroken solid rock, overlain in.
most places by soil or rock fragments.

Benthic: Bottom-dwelling. The plant and
animal life whose habitat is the bottom of a
sea, lake, or river.

Channelized: The straightening and deepen-
ing of streams. Channelization reduces the
ability of the stream to assimilate waste and
disturbs fish breeding areas.

Clarity: The clearness of the water in the

Conifers: A cone-bearing evergreen tree or
shrub (a pine tree, for example).

Cover: Overhanging or instream structures
(such as free roots, undercut streambanks, or
boulders) that offer protection from preda-
tors, shelter from strong currents, and/or

Current: The velocity (speed) of the flow of

Deciduous: A free that sheds its foliage at the
end of the growing season.

Ecosystem: The interacting system of a
biological community (plants, animals) and
its non-living environment.

Effluent The wastewater from a municipal
or industrial source that is discharged into
the water.
Erosion: The wearing away of the land
surface by wind or water.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.
                        siting dirt and mud
in marshy areas(wetlands) or in the water to
create more land. Filling disturbs natural eco-
logical cycles.

Gradient: The slope or steepness of the stream.

Groundwater. The supply of freshwater under
the earth's surface in an aquifer or soil.

Habitat: The specific environment in which an
organism lives and depends on for food and

Headwaters: Small creeks at the uppermost
end of a stream system, often found in the
mountains, that contribute to larger creeks and

Mass Wasting: Downward movement of dry
soil and rock caused  by gravity (often called
slides or avalanches).

Monitor: To measure a characteristic, such as
streambank condition, dissolved oxygen, or
fish population, using  uniform methods to
evaluate change over a period of time.

Nonpoint Source Pollution: "Diffuse" pol-
lution, generated from large areas with no
particular point of pollutant origin, but
rather from many individual places. Urban
and  agricultural areas generate nonpoint
source pollutants.

Nutrient:  Any substance, such as fertilizer,
phosphorous, and nitrogen  compounds,
which enhances the growth of plants and ani-

Point Source Pollution: A discharge of water
pollution to a stream or other body of water,
via an identifiable pipe, vent, or culvert.

Pool: An area of relatively deep slow water in
a stream that offers shelter to fish.

Quality Control (QC): Asystem of checks used
to ensure excellence, or quality, in. a program
(a monitoring program for example. QC asks
if we are doing things right).

Quality Assurance  (QA): Quality Assurance
is a way to see that QC is maintained and if we
are monitoring the right  things to detect
changes in water quality.

Reach: A stream section with fairly homoge-
neous characteristics.

Redd: Shallow depression in the streambed
gravel in which a female salmonid deposits her

Riffle: A shallow, gravely area of streambed
with swift current. Used for spawning by
salmonids and other fish species.

Riprap: A sustaining wall built of rocks.

Riparian Area: An area, adjacent to and along
a watercourse, often vegetated and constitut-
ing a buffer zone between the nearby lands and
the watercourse.

Run: A stretch of fast smooth current, deeper
than a riffle.

Runoff: The portion of rainfall, melted snow,
or irrigation water that flows across ground
surface and eventually returned to streams.
Runoff can pick up pollutants from the air or
the land and carry them to streams, lakes, and

Salmonid: Fish that are members  of  the
iamilySalmonidae (includes salmon, trout,
char, and whitefish).

Sediment: Fine soil or mineral particles that
settle to the bottom of the water or are sus-
pended in it.
Stormwater Runoff: Water that washes off the
land after a rainstorm. In developed water-
sheds it flows off roofs and pavements into
storm drains that may feed directly into the
stream; often carries concentrated pollutants.

Substrate: The material that makes up the bot-
tom layer of a stream, such as gravel, sand, or

Stream Corridor: The lower and upperbanks
of a perennial or intermittent stream.

Stream Mouth: The place where a stream emp-
ties into a lake, ocean, or another stream.

Suspended Sediments: Fine material or  soil
particles that remain suspended by the cur-
rent until deposited in areas of weaker cur-
rent. They create turbidity and, when depos-
ited, can smother fish eggs or alevins. Can
be measured in a laboratory as Total Sus-
pected Solids (TSS).

Topography: The configuration of a surface
area including its relief, or relative elevations,
and the position of its natural and man-made

U.S.G.S.: U.S. Geological Survey.

Wetlands: Wetlands are lands where satura-
tion with water is the dominant factor deter-
mining the nature of soil development. They
also can be identified by unique plants which
have adapted to oxygen-deficient
(anaerobic) soils. Wetlands influence
stream flows and water quality.

Zoning: To designate, by ordi-
nance, areas of land reserved
and regulated for specific
uses, such as residential,
industrial, or open space.

Polluted Runoff
Give Water a Hand Activity Guide includes activi-
ties for youth to learn about their watershed and
ways to protect it.  Download a free copy of the
Action  Guide  and  Leader  Guidebook  at
unviVMwex.edu/erc. To order printed copies call:
University of Wisconsin-Extension; (608) 262-3346;
Item #4-H450 & 4-H855
Leader Guide ($4.92) & Action Guide ($6.96)

Splash (CD Rom) interactive multi-media educa-
tional tool on nonpoint source pollution. Allows
users to enter urban, rural and suburban environ-
ments and see the  difference when it rains with
and without best management practices. To or-
der, contact the Conservation Technology Informa-
tion Center, 1220 Potter Drive, #170, West Lafayette,
IN 47906. Phone: (765) 494-9555; fax: (765) 494-5969;
e-mail: ctic@ctic.purdue.edu; $12 first copy, $7 each
additional copy.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Locate
Your Watershed (zvivw.epa.gov/surf), Index of Wa-
tershed Indicators  (wwzv.epa.surf/iwi) & Adopt
Your Watershed (zvzvw.epa.gov/surf/adopt) Web
sites. Through these on-line services, you can lo-
cate your watershed and discover its condition and
the partnerships that are working to protect it. Use
Adopt Your  Watershed  Internet  Database
(zvzvw.epa.gov/stirf/adopt~) to find out about wa-
tershed groups active in your community. If you
do not have Internet access, you can call

National Water Quality Inventory, 1996 Report to Con-
gress. Published by EPA, this report includes de-
tailed  information about the condition of the
nation's waters. Available by calling the  National
Service Center for Environmental Publication and
Information (NCSEP)  at 1-800-490-9198 or by
faxing a request to (513) 891-6685.  EPA841-R-97-
008; Internet: wzvw.epa.gov/305b.

Watershed Festival
The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has
a step-by-step guide to hosting a Watershed Fes-
tival. Available from WEF at 1-800-858-4844. Or-
der No. ZS1603WW  ($8.00 each).
Water Use/Wetlands Posters
To order, specify poster titles
and grade levels. Call or write:
U.S. Geological Survey, Branch
of Distribution; Box 25286
Denver Federal Center
Denver,  CO  80225;  Phone:
Wetlands Information
Call the Wetlands Hotline 1-800-832-7828 (fax
703-525-0201) to obtain free fact sheets, coloring
books, and other useful materials on wetlands.;

Visit EPA's Wetlands KIDS Web PAGE with lots
of fun projects and links to other sites  and ac-
tivities.   www.epa.gov/OWOW/wetlands/

The Izzak Walton League, 707 Conservation
Lane,Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (1-800-BUG-IWLA).

Bill Nye "the Science Guy" video on Wetlands.
Available from the Disney Corporation.

River of Words Poetry and Art Contest
Visit River of Words Web Page or call below to
get contest details, entry forms & tips:
International Rivers Network
Attention: ROW Contest
PO Box 4000-J
Berkeley, CA 94704 USA
Phone: 510-433-7020 (voice mail) Fax: 510-848-1008
email: row@irn.org; Internet: www.irn.

Cleanups/International Coastal Cleanups
Call the Center for Marine  Conservation's
toll-free hotline 1-800-CMC-Beach or visit the
CMC Web Page (www.cmc-ocean.org) for infor-
mation about sponsoring a beach cleanup or par-
ticipating in the  annual International  Coastal
Cleanup every September.  CMC also provides
storm drain stencils on loan and guidelines on
how to conduct a project.

Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning Guide on Ma-
rine Debris. Learn about marine debris and spon-
sor a local cleanup of marine and other water de-
bris (free). Call NSCEP  at  1-800-490-9198,
1-513-489-8190,  1-513-489-8695  (fax).  Ref.
EPA842-B-92-003. On the web at www.epa.gov/

Volunteer  Monitoring
EARTH FORCE can offer youth groups low cost
water quality monitoring kits  and guidance in
starting new watershed programs. For more in-
formation, call or write to:
Earth Force
1098 Mount Vernon Avenue, Second floor
Alexandria, VA 22301
Phone: 1-800-23-FORCE
Internet: www.earthforce.org

Izaak Walton League of America (IWLA) sponsors
monitoring   workshops   and   training.
1-800-BUG-IWLA (www.iwla.org/SOS)

The following publications by IWLA may also be
useful. Call 1-800-BUG-IWLA to order:

1). Save Our Streams Monitor's Guide to Aquatic
   Macroinvertebrales, by Loren Larkin Kellogg
   (IWLA, 1992)

2) Save Our Streams Volunteer Trainer's Handbook,
   by Karen Firehock  (IWLA, 1994)

3) Hands on Save Our Streams, the Save Our Streams
   Teacher's Manual for Grades One Through Twelve,
   by Karen Firehock  (IWLA, 1995)

Environmental Protection Agency's Getting Started
in Volunteer Monitoring. EPA  841-B-98-002.
www.epa.gov/owow. Call (202) 260-7040 if you do
not have Internet access.

The Volunteer Monitor newsletter, urww.epa.gov/

EPA's Volunteer Monitoring HomePage
Wetlands. Lake and Stream Walk Manuals
CaH US EPA's Region 10 Office at (206) 553-1200.
Also ask for the 'Teacher's
Guide to Streamwalk."   Wetland
and Lake Walk Manuals and
survey sheets are available on the
Web at www.epa.gov/OWOW/
Click on "Wetlands Walk
Manual and Supplement
Worksheets" under Volunteer

Groundwater Protection
EPA's groundwater/drinking water web page at
www.epa.gov/ogwdw/kids/index.html has great
science projects that can be downloaded

The Blue Thumb Project
The Blue Thumb Project is an international public
awareness and education effort to encourage
people to take better care of our water resources—
and especially our drinking water supplies. Each
year a set of material on water—and its care—is
developed and disseminated to organizations to
help them plan community water education and
action projects. For information, contact The Blue
Thumb Project, c/o AWWA, 6666 W. Quincy Ave.,
Denver, CO 80235, (303) 794-7711.

Groundwater Festival
The Groundwater Foundation has a "how-to"
book called "Making Waves: How to Put on a
Water Festival." To order "Making Waves" or to
receive additional information on their Children's
Groundwater Festival, contact the Groundwater
Foundation at info@groundwater.org or call

Safe Drinking Water Act Hotline

This is not a complete list of available resources and
mention oftheseproducts does not constitute endorse-
ment by EPA. Visit the Adopt Your Watershed
(www.epa.gov/surf/adopt) or Office of Water web
page (www.epa.gov/ow) for a more complete list or
call toll-free 1-888-478-2051.

               Application  for Troop Recognition
Watershed or Waterbody Name:
Troop Name:
Contact Person/phone:	
Address:  	;	
Number of Girl Scouts:  	
Brief Description of Troop Activities:  (100 words or less). Should demonstrate an
ongoing commitment to the protection or restoration of a watershed.
Project Highlights/Successes:
               Return to: Patty Scott, Adopt Your Watershed Project
           US EPA, 401 M Street, S.W. (4501F), Washington, D.C. 20460