United States •
                       Environmental Protection
                 Office Of WatQr
                 {4501 F)
                                 Summer 1994
cvEPA      Watershed  Events
                                  A Bulletin on Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems
 Watershed Events Expands

       With this issue, Watershed
        Events gains a board of con-
 tributing editors who represent
 eight federal agencies. This edito-
 rial expansion demonstrates the
 continuing  commitment by the
 federal sector to work together to
 restore, manage, and  protect
 aquatic resources.
     By broadening  the editorial
 base for Watershed Events, we hope
 to beableto better informourread-
 ers of the watershed activities un-
 derway at the federal level.  We
 intend to tap our collective knowl-
 edge in order to provide you with
 a broad picture of federal efforts.
 At the same time we plan to con-
 tinue to bring you news of activi-
 ties at the regional, state, and local
     The U.S. Environmental Pro-
 tection Agency (EPA) will continue
 to coordinate Watershed Events, and
 the agencies represented by con-
 tributing editors will provide in-
 put on a regular basis. The agen-
 cies joining  EPA are:
   * Federal Highway
   * National Oceanic and
     Atmospheric Administration
   * USDA Soil Conservation
   * Tennessee Valley Authority
   * U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
   * U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
   * U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
   * U.S. Geological Survey
 US Army Corps
 of Engineers
Corps Initiates New Research Program to
  Evaluate Environmental Investments
 by Leigh Skaggs, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
    Throughout the Nation, awareness
    and concern for the protection and
restorationof environmental resources
is increasing.  Within the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (Corps), new Con-
gressional authorities (e.g., Sections 306
and 307 of the Water Resources Devel-
opment Act (WRDA) of 1990, Sections
1103 and 1135 of WRDA 1986) and
policy changes are providing more and
more opportunities to pursue environ-
mental initiatives. This increased em-
phasis on the environment, however,
brings  with it a need for improved
techniques for evaluating and com-
paring environmental projects and pro-
    More than one way to address a
particular problem almost always ex-
ists, and typically more projects and
programs are waiting to be undertaken
than funds are available. Currently,
however, there is a lack of accepted
methods for assessing the effective-
ness (does the project achieve its objec-
tive?) and efficiency (is it the least
costly?) of investments in the protec-
tion or restoration of environmental
    To address these issues, the Corps
has initiated the Evaluation of Envi-
ronmental Investments Research Pro-
gram (EEIRP). The EEIRP is intended
to provide Corps planners with meth-
odologies and  techniques to aid in de-
veloping supportable environmental
restoration and mitigation projects and
plans.  Additionally, the EEIRP will
develop a framework to provide deci-
                       sion makers with information to facili-
                       tate the allocation of limited  funds
                       among a range of proposed projects
                       and programs.

                       Historic Focus
                          Historically, the Corps' Water Re-
                       sources Development Program  has
                       been  charged with improving and
                       maintaining navigable waterways and
                       reducing flood damages. Along with
                       these primary missions have arisen
                       complementary programs for generat-
                       ing hydroelectric power, providing
                            EEIRP continued on page 11
                        In This Issue*,,
                          Reclamation's Plunge mto Watershed
                          Activities (pg. 2)               "

                          Texas Aquifer Study Offers Clues to
                          Controlling Highway Kimoff (pg> $}

                          NOAA Opening Ecosystem
                          Center (pg, 3)

                          Understanding Water Qualify in the
                          Hudson River Basin.~ (pg.4)

                          Integrating the NPDES Program with
                          Watershed Protection (pg. 6)

                          Recent Releases (pg. 7)

                          TVA's Clean Wafer Initiative,,, (pg,S)

                          SCS Reviews PL-566 SmaE Watershed
                          Projects (pg.9)

                          New Watershed Approach in Prince
                         ' William County (pg. 9>

                          Calendar of Events (pg. 10)

Page 2
         Watershed Events
                     Summer 1994
         Watershed Events
 Anne Robertson, Editor
 U.S. Environmental Protection
 Contributing Editors:
     Carrie Carnes, U.S. Bureau of
     Ginny Finch, Federal Highway
     Nancy Garli tz, USDA Soil Con-
     servation Service
     Denise Henne, U.S. Fish and
     Wildlife Service
     Eileen Kane, National Oceanic
     and Atmospheric Administra-
     Kate 'Marx, Tennessee Valley
     Leigh Skaggs, U.S. Army Corps
     of Engineers
     Terry Thompson, U.S. Geologi-
     cal Survey
     Watershed Events is intended to
 update interested parties on the-
 development and use of watershed
 protection approaches.  These
 approaches consider the primary
 threats to  human and ecosystem
 health within the watershed, involve
 those people most concerned or able
 to take actions to  solve  those
 problems, and then take corrective
 actions in an integrated and holistic
    Direct questions and comments
 about Watershed Events to:

         Anne Robertson
         401M Street, SW
      Washington, DC 20460
             Reclamation's Plunge into Watershed Activities
                  by Carrie Carnes, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
   From 1902 through the early 1990s,
    the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
(Reclamation) was a  dam building
agency renowned for its superior civil
works structures. Today, those solid
structures still stand in their stately
significance.  The dams will remain
standing, but few more will be con-
structed. The dam building era has
come to an end.
    During the last 90 years, Reclama-
tion,  originally founded  to reclaim
water for agriculture,  became multi-
purpose in scope, providing water for
fish and wildlife, recreation, energy,
and flood control benefits.
    Today our mission has evolved
even further to meet demanding needs
for the management, development, and
protection of water and  related  re-
sources. Where we once reclaimed the
arid West, now we are reclaiming the
watersheds that  have  been depleted
over the years due to dams, grazing,
fishing, pollution, the  demands of a
growing Western population, and
natural causes.
    To accommodate this change, we
have shifted  our  focus to new priori-
ties, which center on improving water
management, operating and maintain-
ing existingmultipurposefacilities,and
restoring and enhancing the environ-
    Being one of the world's leading
water resource management agencies
means tackling water resource chal-
lenges on a  watershed/river basin
    Reclamation recognizes the need
to better coordinate watershed man-
agement by enacting interagency com-
mitments. Since the Nation's natural
resources don't end where adminis-
trative boundaries begin, interagency
cooperation and partnerships are key
to providing better protection  and
management for the Nation's natural
    Reclamation is heavily involved in
many interagency  watershed initia-
tives. They include the Glen Canyon
Dam (Arizona) Environmental Impact
Statement project, the Lower Colorado
River  (Arizona,  California, New
Mexico, and  Nevada)  Management
Group, and the Lake Mohave (Nevada)
Endangered Fish partnership on the
Colorado River.
    As we work toward our goal of
becoming the world's foremost water
resource management agency, we will
continue to form close ties with others
interested in watershed restoration.
    For more information, contact Car-
rie Carnes, U.S. Bureau.of Reclama-
tion, W1540,1849 C St., NW, Washing-
ton, DC 20240, (202) 208-4662.
                      A Note from the Editor

      It has been brought to my attention that the story entitled "The Blind
  People and the Watershed—A Parable," an adaptation by Jeffrey Keidel,,
  which was published in the Spring 1994 issue of Watershed Events was
  offensive to some readers especially those who are visually impaired. I
  would like to express my sincere apologies for this offense.  The intention
  was certainly not to offend but to provide a tool that illustrates the need for
  all of us to consider all perspectives, not just one's own, when working in a
      If any of you are considering using this parable as a tool in the future,
  I urge you to remove all references to blindness and visual impairment and
  change the title to "Seven People and a Watershed." This revised version of
  the parable will clearly illustrate that all points of view need to be consid-
  ered and will not unintentionally offend members of your audience.
      For information on speaking and writing about people with disabili-
  ties, contact the President's Committee on Employment of People with
  Disabilities, 1331 F Street, NW, Washington, DC 20004.

Summer 1994
                                            Watershed Events
                Texas Aquifer Study Offers Clues to Controlling Highway Runoff
                              by Ginny Finch, Federal Highway Administration
                                    predetermined intervals, they used the   humic peat, or zeolites below the sand,
                                    rainfall simulator—fifty4.3 meter-high   they got better results.
                                    tripod stands, each mounted with a       Once the project's  researchers
     How do you study storm water
     runoff during a drought?
    A rainfall simulator was the solu-
tion for water quality researchers from
the Texas Department of Transporta-
tion (TxDOT) and the University of
Texas at Austin. For the past two years
these researchers have been using such
a system to spray both traffic and road
surfaces on the city's  Loop 1 express-
    Why go to  all this trouble?  Be-
cause the research team wants to pro-
tect a threatened aquifer—the Edwards
Aquifer.  The four-year, $1.4 million
project funded by TxDOT is designed
to predict runoff's effects on water
quality and  quantity  in the Edwards
before, during, and after construction
of Loop 1 and, in the process, to create
a storm water runoff prediction model
for the entire watershed.

The Edwards: No Ordinary Aquifer
    The Edwards, the only  under-
ground source  for Austin's drinking
water (and  therefore covered under
the "sole source aquifer" program of
the Safe Drinking Water Act), is a frag-
ile aquifer. It is covered by only thin
layers of topsoil, so runoff flows virtu-
ally unfiltered into the aquifer. What's
more, the Edwards Aquifer is more
like a pipeline than a filter, because it is
made of cracked, cavernous limestone.
"Since limestone is  porous, surface
water disappears quickly like water
flushed through a plumbing system,"
says Carlos Swonke, Water Quality
Coordinator at TxDOT.  "In a more
conventional, less porous aquifer sys-
tem, water moves more slowly—slow
enough to be filtered."
     According to the U.S. Geological
Survey, 85 percent of the water reach-
ing the Edwards originates in creek
beds in the recharge zone, so the Loop
1 researchers have focused mostly on
these areas.  To prevent runoff into the
creeks, they have tested  temporary
barriers like geotextile silt "fences" and
more permanent water pollution con-
trols like sand filters and sediment
     Their work has been thorough. To
capture individual runoff pollutants at
                                    spray head, extending over a 228.6-
                                    meter length of highway. They have
                                    taken water samplings above and be-
                                    low new highway construction, in both
                                    dry and wet periods, and in varying
                                    traffic conditions. They have also con-
                                    ducted an extensive literature search
                                    on highway runoff and published their
                                    review in a 160-page technical report
                                    (A Review and Evaluation of Literature
                                    Pertaining to the Quantity and Control of
                                    Pollution from Highway Runoff and Con-

                                    Kinds and Amounts of Highway
                                    Runoff Determine Solutions
                                        The starting point for the Edwards
                                    research team was to discover thekinds
                                    and amounts of individual pollutants in
                                    the runoff.  "The amount of damage to
                                    the environment caused by runoff de-
                                    pends on where it ends up," says Lyn
                                    Irish, designer of the project's rainfall
                                    simulator.  "Before we build pollution
                                    controls; we've got to find out what's
                                    in the water and in what quantities."
                                        The critical "first flush" of runoff
                                    which the TxDOT and university re-
                                    searchers examined contained nutri-
                                    ents, heavy metals, and suspended
                                    solids. When they tested various run-
                                    off controls, they found that sand-only
                                    filters didn't work well for these com-
                                    pounds—the  filters clogged easily.
                                    When the researchers placed an alter-
                                    native medium such as coal, f ibric peat,
know more about which filters work
best in treating runoff, they'll be able to
develop a prototype runoff control
    By the time the Edwards Aquifer
research is completed, the Loop 1 re-
searchers will also have  clearer an-
swers to questions like these: What is
the relationship between average daily
traffic and the amount of pollutants in
the runoff? How do the number of dry-
days preceding a storm affect runoff
water quality? How significant are the
intensity and the duration of the storm?
What structural controls work best for
treating storm  water  runoff?  How
much runoff do you need to catch to
control pollution?
    AND. ..water quality experts across
the country will have access to a state-
of-the-art watershed computer model
which can predict both the type and
amount of contaminants for a site-spe-
cific location.
    For more information, contact
Carlos Swonke, Water  Quality Coor-
dinator, Environmental Division,
TxDOT, 125 E. llth, Austin, TX78701,
(512) 416-2625.

This report can be ordered from: The
University of Texas at Austin, Center
for Research in Water  Resources,
Balcones Research Center, Austin, TX
78712, (512) 471-3131, FAX: (512) 471-
                                                  NOAA To Open Center for Ecosystem Health
                                            by Eileen Kane, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                                        he National Oceanic and Atmo-
                                        spheric Administration's (NOAA)
                                     Center for Coastal Ecosystem Health is
                                     scheduled to open this summer in
                                     Charleston, South Carolina. The Cen-
                                     ter is expected to become a focal point
                                     for addressing specific problems, such
                                     as nonpoint source pollution, nutrient
                                     over-enrichment, and habitat loss and
                                     degradation. The overall goal of the
                                     Center is to contribute to the develop-
                                     mentand applicationof improved man-
                                     agement strategies for achieving coastal
ecological, cultural, and economic
sustainability. Planning teams hope to
meet the Center's goal by forging part-
nerships between science and man-
agement communities to provide the
technologies, methodologies, and in-
formation necessary to assess, predict,
and improve the health of the Nation's
regional coastal ecosystems.
    The Center is scheduled to open in
phases. The section opening this sum-
mer provides library-type facilities for
    NOAA Center continued on page 12

 Page 4
          Watershed Events
                      Summer 1994
                       Understanding Water Quality in the Hudson River Basin:
                                  Working Together to Solve the Puzzle
                       by Karen R, Murray and Ward O. Freeman, U.S. Geological Survey
 T Tnderstanding water quality is like
 *-J working on a jigsaw puzzle in
 which each pieceof informationcontrib-
 utes to thermal picture.Chemical, physi-
 cal, and biological conditions and their
 interactions need to be described, and
 effects of farming practices, urbaniza-
 tion, water use, and other human activi-
 ties need tobedetermined.TheNational
 Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA)
 Program of the US.  Geological Survey
 provides some of this information for
 the Hudson River Basin by conducting
 field investigations that include stream
 and ground water chemistry, fish and
 insect ecology, and sediment contami-
 nation surveys. Because no single pro-
 gram can provide all the pieces to this
 puzzle, NAWQA personnel share data,
 coordinate sampling, and discuss find-
 ings with scientists and resource manag-
 ers fromuniversities,stateandlocal gov-
 ernments, and private groups to  help
 complete the picture. NAWQA scien-
 tists also participate in high school  edu-
 cation programs to help foster an inter-
 est in water resource investigation so
 that some of these young people  may
 contribute to 'future work on the "water
 quality puzzle."»Some examples of how
 NAWQA .scientists work with others
 are summarized below.

 Local Guidance Through Liaison
    NAWQA project personnel work
 witha liaison committee of government
 researchers and managers, university
 scientists, and others in many stages of
 the project, from design and data collec-
 tion to interpretation of results. Early in
 the design of the Hudson River Basin
 study, the liaison committee identified
 locally critical water  quality issues, in-
 cluding nonpoint source pollution of
 rivers and streams from urban and agri-
 cultural runoff; contamination of  sus-
 pended sedimentby metals; contamina-
 tion of the Hudson River's bottom
 sediments, water, and the food web by
 PCBs; and the lack of information on
 ground water quality in the basin. They
also suggested locations for stream and
aquifer surveys. Periodic liaison com-
 mittee meetings provide a forum for
 informing water resource managers and
 cussing water quality issues. For ex-
 presentationof preliminary results from
 (1) a survey of contaminants in fish tis-
 sue, (2) a survey of water chemistry in 42
 streams, and (3) a study of historical
 trends in stream and ground water qual-
 ity. The meeting also included presenta-
 tion of research being done in the basin
 by two other agencies.

 Teaming Up With New York State
    NAWQA personnel coordinate data
 collection efforts with several State pro-
 grams to enhance acquisition and use of
 water quality information. Oneexample
   Contamination of rivers and
   streams by metals is a major
   water quality concern...
is coordination between the NAWQA
program and the Rotating Intensive Ba-
sin Survey (RIBS) of the New York State
Department of Environmental Conser-
vation. The objectives of the NAWQA
programand RIBS are complementary—
NAWQA's  focus is nonpoint source
pollution such as urban and agricultural
runoff, whereas RIBS'  focus is point
source pollution such as effluent from
sewage treatment plants. Scientists from
NAWQA and RIBS frequently cooper-
ate to collect samples and share data.
'Teaming up" this way allows both pro-
grams to obtain more information on a
greater number of streams than either
program could .afford to obtain on its
own, and may increase our knowledge
and nonpoint source pollution to water
quality conditions in the Hudson River

Training Future Scientists
   NAWQA scientists help support
environmental education in 13 local high
schools  that participate in the River
Watch Network. River Watch Incorpo-
rated and other private and public spon-
sors provide training for teachers, tech-
 nical advice, and equipment to give stu-
 dents hands-on experience in stream
 measurements, chemical sampling, and
 identification of aquatic insects. Sharon
 Behar, Education Coordinator for River
 Watch, said, "The success of this pilot
 project exceeded  our expectations in
 terms of the  numbers of students in-
 volved, sustainability of the program
 after the grant period, and school-com-
 munity connections."

 Modelling Watersheds
    Excessive amounts of carbon, nitro-
 gen, and  phosphorus in  streams can
 cause water quality problems such as
 nuisance algal blooms, oxygen deple-
 tion, and damage to fisheries. Nutrients
 in runoff from urban and agricultural
 lands into lakes and rivers commands
 national attention and is also of concern
 in the Hudson River Basin. Dr. Robert
 Howarth, project director of the Water-
 shed Modelling Program at Cornell
 University (Ithaca, New York), states,
 'To fully understand the effect of land
 use on the export of sediments and chemi-
 cal constituents to theHudsonRiver will
 require data from actual watersheds."
    Dr. Hpwarjth and hjs team use field
 data, provided by NAWQA scientists,
 to develop a  computer model of the
 quantities  of sediments, nutrients, and
 organic material discharged  to the
 Hudson River from watersheds  with
 various landuse and geologic character-
 istics. The  use of NAWQA data in this
 model could vastly expand theNAWQA
 program's spatial-coverage within the
 Hudson River Basin.

Researching Hazardous Metals
Transport                    ,
    Contaminationofriversand streams
by metals is a  major water quality con-
cern, according to the HudsonNAWQA
liaison committee. For example, the
world's highest known levels of  con-
tamination by elemental cadmium and
nickel have been found in sediments of
Foundry Cove,  a U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency Superfund site on the
lower Hudson River (near West Point).
High concentrations of these metals can
be toxic to fish, other wildlife, and hu-

Summer 1994
         Watershed Events
mans. Dr. Ronald Gibb, of the Univer-
sity of Delaware at Lewes, is exploring
the way in which waterborne sediment
particles transport these and other met-
als into the Hudson River. NAWQA
scientists are collecting suspended sedi-
ment samples for Dr. Gibb's study. This
cooperation between researchers at the
University of Delaware and NAWQA
personnel will help explain how metals
and other contaminants such as PCBs
are transported in the river.

National Geographic Society Supports
NAWQA Related University Research
    Two studies on water quality in the
Hudson River Basin are currently (1994)
funded through a  memorandum of
agreement between  NAWQA and the
National Geographic Society. Dr. Rich-
ard Bopp, of Rensselaer Polytechnic In-
stitute (Troy, New York), was awarded
a grant  to conduct a basinwide study
involving age determi nation of contami-
nated bottom sediments in the Hudson
River Basin. Dr. Bopp states, "One of the
best means to characterize major sources
of contaminants and to reveal historical
trends in contaminant levels is through
the use of dated sediment cores."
    The second National Geographic
Society grantwasawarded to Dr.Rebecca
Schneider of Cornell University, to in-
vestigate  the effect  of wetlands on
Hudson River water quality.  "Wetlands
play a major role in trapping sediments,
ing flood waters, and mediating the ef-
                          Laka Tear otlhe ClouOs
fects of other factors on water quality in
a stream system," says Dr. Schneider.

PCB Findings Lead to State Follow-Up
elsinfish, birds, and mammals. They are
known to produce toxic effects in these
organisms and may cause cancer in hu-
mans. PCBs were once widely used in .
electrical transformers andhydraulicflu-
ids and for many other industrial appli-
cations. Although use and productionof
PCBs have been banned for many years,
these contaminantsarehighlypersistent
in the environment.
    PCBs were one of the more common
synthetic organochlorine compounds
detected in fish specimens in  a  1992
NAWQA survey of 13 sites on streams
and rivers in the Hudson River Basin.
PCB concentrations in fish tissue corre-
sponded broadly with the degree of ur-
banization and industrialization in the
found in fishfromtheHudsonRiver and
its largest tributary, the Mohawk River.
NAWQA results for the Hudson River
correspond withlevels previously docu-
mented by the New York State Depart-
ment of Environmental Conservation
and do not indicate any new conditions.
PCB concentrations in whole body com-
posites of carp (Cyprinws carpio) from
the Mohawk River were as high as 33
micrograms per gram (parts per mil-
lion). These concentrations indicate  a
need for additional information on con-
ditions and causes of PCB contamina-
tion. After a briefing on NAWQA find-
ings, State scientists have  taken  steps
toward establishing a health advisory
for the affected  reach of the Mohawk
River. They are also planning a follow-
up survey to (1) assess PCB concentra-
tions in game fish and other species, (2)
delineate  the affected section of  river,
and (3) investigate possible sources.
    Linking of the NAWQA PCB find-
ings with subsequent State follow-up is
a good example of working together to
assemblepiecesofthepuzzleand thereby
improve our understanding of water
quality in the Hudson River basin.
logical Survey, P.O. Box 1669, Albany,
NY 12201, (518) 472-3107.

Page 6
                                              Watershed Events
                               Summer 1994
                   Integrating the NPDES Program with Watershed Protection
                           by Dan Weese, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                    to region. By integrating its program      «   NPDES Permits - Encourage
                                    functions into the broader Watershed         NPDES permit issuance on a
                                    Protection Approach, the NPDES pro-         watershed basis using one of
                                    gram can meet this challenge and cost-
                                    effectively address  remaining ..point
                                    source environmental impacts.      .
      On March 11,1994, Bob Perciasepe,
       Assistant Administrator for Wa-
 ter at the U.S.  Environmental Protec-
 tion Agency (EPA), signed the National
 Pollutant Discharge Elimination Sys-
 tem (NPDES) Watershed Strategy. The
 Strategy was  developed over a six
 month period with detailed input from
 statesand all of EPA's water programs.
 Becauseof its broadrange of functions
 and  activities, the NPDES  program
 occupies a unique position within the
 overall water program; it is both a key
 customer and an essential partner in
 supporting and achieving  many of
 EPA's broader  water quality goals.
     Over the past 20 years, the NPDES
 program has employed technology-
 based and water-quality-based permit
 requirements to achieve significant re-
 ductionsinpollutantdischarges to sur-
 face  waters from  hundreds of  thou-
 sands of NPDES regulated entities. The
 schematic to the right illustrates the
 scope of the NPDES Program. There
 are approximately 48,000 industrial
 sources—commercial and manufactur-
 ing facilities that  discharge process
 wastewater directly into waters of the
 United States.  Municipal sources, or
 thedischarge points of Publicly Owned
 Treatment Works  (POTWs), number"
 about 15,000. The National  Pretreat-
. ment Program regulates 30,000 signifi-
 cantindustrial users (SIUs) and several
 hundred thousand other non-domes-
 tic sources which discharge wastes to
    In recent years, the NPDES pro-
 gram has broadened to include a num-
 ber of additional initiatives aimed at
 addressing remaining sources of pol-
 lutant discharges including 1,100 com-
 munities with combined sewer over-
 flows, over  15,000 treatment works
 treating domestic waste (sewage
 sludge), and storm water discharges
 from over 100,000 industrial  facilities
 and 200 municipal separate storm sewer
    The challenge for the NPDES pro-
 gram is managing baseline program
 requirements and  newer initiatives
 within the context of both limited re-
sources and environmental  impacts
 that vary from state to state and region
                 two methods: (1) development
                 of a basin management plan
                 and synchronization of permit
                                                                                        Municipal Sewage
                                    Domestic Sources
                                                                   Indirect Industrial
                                                                   [30,000 SIUs]
                                                                                                [15,000 Permits]
                                                                                  Overflows   ^
                                                                                  [10,770 Overflows!""^
                                        Storm Water
                                        [100.000 Permits]
[48,000 Permits]
                                                                       —.  I!1*  *"
                                                                       Storm Water
                                                                         47 Counties],
                                                         Scope of the NPDES Program
                                      the NPDES Watershed Strategy •
                                   outlines national objectives and imple-
                                   mentation activities "to (1) integrate
                                   NPDES program functions into the
                                   broader Watershed Protection Ap-
                                   proach and (2) support development
                                   of state-wide Basin Management Ap-
                                   proaches (BMAs). The strategy identi-
                                   fies six areas that are considered essen- •
                                   tial for EPA Headquarters and Regions.
                                   to support these objectives:
                                      •   State-wide Coordination -
                                          Promote development of ba-
                                          sin management frameworks
                                          that identify the roles and re-
                                          sponsibilities of participating
                                          programs, establish long-term
                                          programmatic  and environ-
                                          mental goals, geographically
                                          delineate basins, and establish
                                          a schedule  for periodically
                                          evaluating the environmental
                                          condition of each basin.
               »issuance within basins, or (2)
                ^development of a basin man-
                 permits are issue'd'in accor-
                 dance with it.
                 Monitoring and Assessment-
                 Promote the development of
                 state-wide monitoring strate-
                 gies to assure the most effec-
                 tive targeting of limited re-
                 sources and coordinate collec-
                 tion and analysis of NPDES,
                 nonpoint source, and other
                 watershed data.
                 Programmatic Measures and
                 Environmental Indicators -
                 Revise national accountability
                 measures to facilitate imple-
                 mentation of watershed pro-
                 tection activities and establish
                 new measures of success that
                 reflect assessment of progress

Summer 1994
          Watershed Events
                                                                                                     Page 7
        toward watershed protection
    •   Public Participation - Pro-
        mo te long-term public support
   •»    for basin management activi-
        ties by provide opportunities
        for the public to participate in
        goal development, priority set-
        ting,  strategy development,
        and implementation.
    •   Enforcement - Coordinate
        compliance and enforcement
        programs and activities both
        at the  Federal and State level
        to focus resources on priority
        point  sources within identi-
        fied basins.
        While the essential compo-
nents listed above focus on action items
for the NPDES program, they also
emphasize critical areas in which the
NPDES program must coordinate its
activities with  the efforts of other sur-
 face and ground water programs. The
 Strategy recognizes that,  while  the
 NPDES program will play a central
 environmental protection role in  a
 number of watersheds, in many other
 watersheds, point sources will not rep-
 resent the primary stressors.  The
 NPDES program's main task in  the
 latter watersheds will be to support
 and facilitate effective implementation
 activities for meeting environmental
 objectives (e.g., monitoring, public par-
 ticipation). In either case, the NPDES
 Watershed Strategy is not intended to
 supersede  or impede existing water-
 shed protection efforts; rather, it is in-
 tended to support ongoing State initia-
 tives and  supplement the efforts of
 other environmental programs byiden-
 tifying areas where the NPDES pro-
 gram can contribute.
    Several States and EPA Regions
 have taken significant steps towards
                            Recent Releases
   Biennial Report to Congress On the
   Administration of the Coastal Zone
   Management Act, 1992-1993 - A 2-
   vplumereportfeaturing over 200 pages
   of photographs, feature articles, and
   fast Facts, all describing theprogress of
   coastal programs-under ;the Coastal
   Zone Management Act ContactElaine
   Vaudreuil, NOAA,'l305 East-West,
   Hwy., N/ORM4, Silver Spring, MD
  ,20910, (301)  713-3087.

   Drinking Wate.r-Glossary: A Dictio-
   nary of Technical and Legal Terms
   Related to Drinking Water (EPA810-
   B-94-006) - An A to Z glossary of
   drinking water terms, ContactNCEPI,
   11029 KenwoodRd.,Bldg. 5, Cincin-
   nati, OH45242.FAX: (513)891-6685.

   National Estuary Program: Bringing
   Our Estuaries New Life (EPA842-F-
   93-002) -Describes theNational Estu-
   ary Program and the 21 estuaries cur-
   rently in the program. Thereverseside
   folds out into a poster with a list of
   contacts.   Contact  NCEPI, 11029
   Kenwood Rd., Bldg. 5, Cincinnati, OH
   45242, FAX:  (513) 891-6685.
Office of GroundWater and Drinking
Water Publications (EPA810-B-94-
001) - Lists publications currently avail-
able from the U.S. Environmental Pro-
•tection Agency's Office of Ground Wa-
ter and Drinking Water.   Contact
NCEPI, 11029 Kenwood Rd,, Bldg. 5,
Cincinnati,OH45242,FAX: (513)891-

SlopeiStabilization and Erosion Con-
trol Using Vegetation; A Manual of
Practice for Coastal Property Owners
(#93-30) - Designed for property own-
ers currently experiencing slope ero-
sion problems. Contact Douglas Can-
ning, Washington State Department of
Ecology, Shorelands Program, P.O.

Vegetation Management: A Guide for
Puget Sound Bluff Property Owners
(#93-31) ' Describes howproperty own-
ers can manage existing slope vegeta-
tion. Contact Douglas Canning, Wash-
ington State Department of Ecology,
Shorelands Program, P.O. Box 47690,
Olympia, WA 98504-7690.
 integrating NPDES program activities
 into the broader Watershed Protection
 Approach, however, the program na-
 tionally is a largely untapped resource.
 To promote implementation of the
 NPDES Watershed Strategy on a na-
 tional level, Assistant Administrator
 Bob Perciasepe has asked each EPA
 Regional office to complete the follow-
 ing action items by September 1,1994:
     •   Regional State by State As-
        sessments and Action Plans -
        Assess current watershed pro-
        tection activities in each state
        and, in the context of that as-
        sessment, develop Regional
        action plans for fiscal year 1995
        that identify how the Region
        will support and facilitate each
        state's movement toward the
        Watershed Protection Ap-
    •   State/EPA Workplan Agree-
        ments - Include  specific ac-
        tivities within state/EPA
        workplans for fiscal year 1995
        which •will promote the cen-
        tral componentsoftheNPDES
        Watershed Strategy.
    •   Internal Coordination - De-
        velop  Regional  strategies
        which describe the Regional
        decision making processes,
        oversight role, and internal
        coordination efforts necessary
        to ensure support for the Wa-
        tershed Protection Approach.
    During-the months of June and
July 1994, staff fronvEPA Headquar-
ters visited each EPA  Regional water
program office to gain an understand-
ing of its process for completing these
action items. The information gath-
ered during the visits will be compiled
into a national report summarizing and
highlighting Regional efforts to imple-
ment the NPDES Watershed Strategy.
A major objective of the national re-
port is to provide information to Re-
gions about other Regional successes
and needs as they implement the Strat-
    For more information, contact Jeff
Lape, NPDES Watershed Matrix Man-
ager, U.S. EPA (4203), 401 M St., SW,
Washington DC 20460, (202) 260-5230.

        Watershed Events
                                                                                            Summer 1994
                           TVA's Clean Water Initiative Starts to Pay Off
                               by John Camarata, Tennessee Valley Authority
  In 1992, the Tennessee Valley Au-
  thority (TV A) announced its goal of
making the  Tennessee  River the
cial river system in the Nation. To get
the job done,  TVA created the Clean
Water Initiative (CWIXSee Spring 1993
Watershed Events, "TVA Launches
Clean Water Initiative"), an organiza-
tion comprised of small, self-directed
teams of technical specialists. Eventu-
ally, each of the TVA region's twelve
watersheds will have a River Action
Team (RAT) assigned to it.
   The mission of each RATis to work
with other agencies, private groups,
and concerned citizens to clean up the
Tennessee River. Four RATs are now
operating, with several more slated for
startup in the next fiscal year. They are
collecting data about water resource
conditionsin their assigned watersheds
and developing cooperative projects
aimed  at solving priority pollution
problems as well as protecting unique
resources. Since its inception in 1992,
the CWI has achieved several successes,
a sample of which are described be-

Monitoring the River's "Vital Signs"
   The first  step toward protecting
and improving our lakes and streams
is an evaluation  of their condition.
Therefore water  quality monitoring
and assessment are vital parts of CWI
   TV A now operates one of the most
comprehensive waterquality monitor-
ing programs in the Nation.  Physical,
chemical, and biological variables are
measured at key locations on most of
TVA's 35 lakes and on major tributary
rivers and streams. TVA also monitors
about 260 swimming areas,  checking
them for fecal coliformbacteria, as well
as cooperating with state agencies to
check fish for toxic contamination.
   The results of all this testing are
used to evaluate the overall condition
of the river system, identify areas that
need corrective action,  and measure
the effectiveness of programs already
in place.
   TVA conveys the monitoring re-
sults to the  public through CWI's an-
nual report on the river's condition,
called RiverPulse. Produced in the form
of a colorful magazine, RiverPulse is
written primarily for people who live
on TVA lakes or use them for recre-
ation. Its simple maps and graphics
give readers the answers to three main
questions: where is it safe to swim? is it
safe to eat the fish? and what is the
overall health of the river? RiverPulse
provides the public with understand-
able information on the health of the
rivers and streams and is one of the
best received publications TVA has
ever released, with a distribution  of
over 60,000.

Middle Fork Holston
    "Come on up and sit on the front
porch, and you can tell me about what's
going on in the creek."  Dairy farmer
Sonny Johnson's invitation was a sur-
prise to Frank Sagona of TVA's Clean
Water Initiative. Around Hutton Creek,
a tributary to the Middle Fork Holston,
when a person invited you up on the
porch to talk, it meant that they wanted
to listen to what you had to say. Frank
had been monitoring this part of Hutton
Creek for two years, and he knew that
the invitation was important. Building
bridges and forming partnerships with
people is TVA's style of working for
clean water, and this chance was too
good to miss.
    At the time of the invitation, tak-
ing samples from the creek was the
extent of Frank's involvement in the
watershed. You didn't  have to be a
scientist to tell that the creek was in
trouble. "You just had to go stand on
the bank and look in," said Frank. The
water was full of mud and animal
waste, and there were few fish to be
seen. Frank decided that a fish survey
might give a clearer picture. That pic-
ture was a bleak one. Hutton Creek
rated in the "poor" category.
    WhenSonnyand Frank firstbegan
talking on- the porch, Frank worried
about how to tell Sonny, without of-
fending him, that his dairy was pollut-
ing the creek.  It turned out that the
Johnsons were already working on
their own conservation projects. "When
Frank came, we had cattle on the creek,
and we knew that it was a bad situation
. . . but while there's  a lot of things
you'd like to do, you just can't do them
all at once," remembers Sonny.
    Sonny was retired, and his son
David was running the farm. Soravy
began to talk about his boyhood, how
he fished and swam in the creeks, and
how clean the water was then. He
wished his grandchildren could enjoy
those streams like he once did.
    That talk on Sonny's porch grew
into a partnership for TVA and a last-
ing friendship. Frank Sagona learned
that the Johnson family wanted cleaner
water  in Hutton Creek, and the
Johnsons learned that TVA wasn't there
to tell them what they had to do on their
own land. There was no need to search
for common ground; they were stand-
ing on it.
    The Holston Watershed, covering
partsofnortheastTennesseeand south-
west Virginia, was one of the first four
watersheds to have a river action team
assigned to it. TVA's partnership with
the Middle Fork Holston Water Qual-
ity Committee and concerned citizens
like the Johnsons is paying off with
increased awareness of water quality
issues in the area, and cleaner water in
the Middle Fork Holston. The Holston
RAT has collected extensive data on
the water resources of the watershed; is
helping with a cleanup project for Steele
Creek Lake in Bristol, Tennessee; and
supporting local officials in their ef-
forts to organize a North Fork Holston
Water Quality Committee.
    Meanwhile, David Johnson's sense
of ecological responsibility has helped
turn the family farm into a model op-
eration featuring fenced creek banks,
controlled animal crossings, and state
of the art animal waste handling sys-
tems. If s paying off. The dairy opera-
tion is growing, the stream is cleaner,
and the fish are coming back.
    A third generation joined the part-
nership when David's wife Jo launched
her Girl Scout Troop on a water quality
monitoring   project. The Scouts, in-
cluding two of their three  daughters,
used equipment supplied by TVA to
monitor the creek and then presented
  Clean Water Initiative continued on page 12

 Summer 1994
          Watershed Events
                            Page 9
                           SCS Reviews PL-566 Small Watershed Projects
                           by Christine Williams, USD A Soil Conservation Service
     The   U.S.   Department   of
     Agriculture's (USDA) Soil Con-
 servation Service (SCS) is reviewing all
 Public Law 83-566 (PL-566) Small Wa-
 tershed Projects under construction or
 approved for future construction. The
 purpose of the review is to ensure that
 each project supports local needs and
 meets environmental standards.
     For 40 years, PL-566 projects have
 aided many rural communities, im-
 proved soil conservation, and reduced
 upstream flood damages. Some prac-
 tices that may have been appropriate
 40 years ago, however, may no longer
 be the best choice for today. The focus
 on structural measures, such as dams
 and channels for flood prevention,
 tended to be high in cost and environ-
 mental impact. Over the past 15 years,
 SCS has been redirecting the PL-566
 Small Watershed Program to take a
 more ecosystem-based approach.
     SCS Chief Paul Johnson has called
 for a more comprehensive approach to
 managing natural resources in all pro-
 grams administered by the agency and
 has established a team to evaluate the
 Small Watershed Program. This evalu-
 ation should help SCS better meet
 society'snarural resource conservation
 needs and make the changes needed to
 improve service.  This evaluation will
 be made in  two phases—an initial
 screening for removing infeasible work
 from current plans and an analysis of
 incomplete structures that can be com-
    In the long-run, SCS plans to have
 an improved watershed program—one
 that takes advantage of the unique
 perspective of the watershed approach,
 has ample support, and works for the
 good of the ecosystem and its local
 community. For more information
 contact Tom Wehri,  Assistant Direc-
 tor, Watershed Projects Division, SCS,
 P.O. Box 2890, Washington, DC 20013-
 2890, (202) 720-9574, FAX: (202) 690-
                        New Watershed Approach in Prince William County
                    by Rich Everett and Tamara McCandless, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    (USFWS), working through its
Chesapeake Bay field office in Annapo-
lis, Maryland, joined a consortium of
federal, state, and local partners to de-
velop a new, innovative approach to
watershed management in the Mid-
Atlantic region. The multi-million dol-
lar program to restore  urban water-
sheds was initiated by the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency'(EPA)
and the government of Prince William
County, Virginia to develop a water-
shed management program that inte-
grates environmentally sensitive man- *
agement of urban storm water runoff
with protection and restoration of
streams and wetlands.  Development
of the Prince William County program,,
which will occur over a five-year pe- •
riod, will set the stage for other areas to
adopt a more environmentally feasible
approach to watershed  management.
Additional program partners include
the U.S. Army Corps  of Engineers
(Corps), U.S.  Geological Survey, Vir-
ginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, George Mason University,
and the Northern Virginia Planning
District Commission (NVPDC), Prin-
cipal funding sources for the program
have been Prince William County,
NVPDC, and the participating federal
    Prince William County, located 30
 miles south of Washington, DC, is fac-
 ing rapid development under newer,
 stricter, water quality regulations. The
 county has been pressing EPA and the
 Corps to permit regional storm water
 management ponds as an  alternative
 to many small on-site water detention
^facilities. Regional facilities, although
 perceived as better from an engineer-
 ing standpoint than on-site structures,
 can have serious adverse effects on
 wetland and  stream channel habitats
 through changes in hydrologieal re-
 gimes.-A principal objective of the col-
 laborating partners is to develop alter-
 native, ecologically  sensitive ap-
 proaches to storm water management
 that can be implemented as the area is
 being transformed by residential and
 commercial development.
    As part of this effort to restore
 urban  watersheds, a model project to
 evaluate the effectiveness of riparian
 restoration asabestmanagementprac-
 tice for addressing storm  water im-
 pacts will take place in the county.
 Three contiguous watersheds are serv-
 ing as demonstration sites  for this
 model watershed management project:
 Neabsco Creek, Powells Creek, and
 Quantico Creek. The three watersheds
 provide an excellent opportunity
 within which to develop and imple-
ment a more ecologically compatible
approach to storm water management.
    Neabsco Creek watershed has suf-
fered significant habitat degradation
from loss of natural land cover due to
past development and storm water fa-
cilities designed withoutconsideration
of environmental conditions.  Devel-
opment in the watershed spans the
range of low density residential to high
density commercial.  The focus in
Neabsco  Creek watershed will-be to
develop  innovative approaches' and
techniques that can be retrofit into the
existing developed landscape and re-
store natural stream functions and habi-
tat for fish and wildlife.
    Powells Creek watershed,  pre-
dominantly rural, faces heavy devel-
opment pressure over the next two to
three decades. Stream and wetland
habitat conditions in the upper water-
shed and estuarine habitats in thelower
watershed are better than in Neabsco
Creek, but are already beginning to
exhibit signs of stress from increasing
development. The challenge in Powells
Creek watershed is to develop a sys-
tem of protective methods that can be
implemented prior to or during devel-
   Quantico Creek watershed, serv-
ing as a  reference site, is somewhat
Prince William County continued on page 12

        Watershed Events
                                                                                           Summer 1994
    Watersheds '94: Creating the
       Links..JPeople> Politics,
      Science and Stewardship
       September 28 - 30,1994:
       Bellevue, Washington

  This conference will identify ap-
  proaches and strategies for effective
  watershed stewardship. The goal of
  the conference is to share informa-
  tion about watershed tools, technol-
  ogy, and philosophies and to build
  partnerships. For more information,
  contact Andrea Lindsay, U.S. EPA,
  (206) 553-1896 or 1-800-424-4EPA, or
  Bob Naiman, University of Wash-
  ington, (206) 543-6920.
       Calendar of Events

of wetlands in water resource man-
agement, the role of ecoregion man-
agement, and basin-wide management
case studies.  For more information,
contact North American Lake Man-
agement Society, 14th International
Conference, One Progress Blvd., Box
27, Alachua, FL 32615-9536, (904) 462-
    Riparian Forest Buffers in the
       Chesapeake Watershed
         October 5-6,1994
       Ellicott City, Maryland

  This meeting will examine the sci-
  ence of buffers, the policy issues and
  technical challenges related to estab-
  lishing them, and the concerns  of
  landowners and local governments
  related to costs, incentives, and long
  term management. Case Studies il-
  lustratingsuccessful buffer programs
  will be presented. For more informa-
  tion, contact Fran Flanigan, Alliance
  for the Chesapeake Bay, 6600 York
  Rd., Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21212,
  (410) 377-6270.
   14th International Symposium of
         the North American
      Lake Management Society
  Managing Water Resources for the
        21st Century: Finding
         Workable Solutions
    October 31 - November 5,1994
          Orlando, Florida

  This symposium will provide an op-
  portunity for attendees to discuss is-
  sues related to the management of
  lakes and reservoirs. Topics include
  forest watershed management, role
  30th Annual AWRA Conference
      November 6 -10,1994
         Chicago, Illinois

This national symposium will focus
on water quality, the future of the Great
Lakes, and the National Water Quali ty
Assessment Program. For more infor-
mation, contact American Water Re-
sources Association, 950 Herndon
pkwy., Suite 300, Herndon, VA 22070,
(703) 904-1225.
         Watershed WISE:
         A Workshop on
        Watershed Ecology
     Grand Junction, Colorado

This workshop is intended to encour-
age and support practical and effec-
tive  approaches to watershed stew-
ardship, and allowparticipants to share
experiences and exchange ideas, tools,
technology, philosophy, and values
useful to watershed initiatives.  The
workshop focuses on western water-
sheds. For more information, contact
Thorne Ecological Institu te, 5398 Man-
hattan Circle, Suite 120, Boulder> CO
80303, (303):499-3647, FAX: (303) 499-
1994 [






   Women Thinking Globally,
  Acting Locally: On the Road to
   Beijing and the 2lst Century
        November 15,1994
          Oakland, CA

This official U.S. preparatory meet-
ing for the Fourth United Nations
(UN,) Conferenceon Women,, which
will take place in Beijing, China in
September 1995, will provide work-
shops for participants to examine is:
sues  such  as  the  particular
susceptability of women to  certain
health effects (breast cancer, repro-
ductive damage) due to consump-
tion of contaminated fish or Shellfish
and how women can increase their
access to environmental  decision-
makers. For the first time the UN.
Platform for Action on the Status of
Women willaddress therelationships
between women and their environ-
ments (home, work, community, glo-
bal), For more inforrnation,  contact
Betsy Tarn, U.S. EPA (4504F), 401M
260-6466, FAX; (202) 260-9960.
    Protecting Ground Water:
    Promoting Understanding,
  Accepting Responsibility, and
         Taking Action
      December 12 -tt, 1994

This conference is designed to foster
an exchange of practical information
on ground water pollution  and to
educate stakeholders on the tools and
techniques they can use to address
ground water pollution in their com-
munities. "Ground water and water-
shed issues; nonpoint sources, eco-
systems and surface water" is one of
six topics being covered at this con-
ference. For more information, con-
tact Ground Water Protection Con-
ference, c/o Terrene Institute, 1717 K
St., NW, Suite 801, Washington, DC
20006, (202) 833-8317, FAX: (202) 296-

Summer 1994
         Watershed Events
                           Page 11
     EEIRP continued from page 1

water  supplies, protecting coastal
shorelines, managing  natural re-
sources, and providing recreation op-
portunities. Individual projects typi-
cally began with an authorization by
Congress to develop a plan to address
a particular water resources problem.
These studies were most often initi-
ated by local interests. They included
a partnership, with non-Federal inter-
ests, and public participation in the
planning and implementation process.
And they were justified by  an  eco-
nomic analysis, comparing bo th project
benefits (for example a  reduction in
flood damage) and construction and
operation costs in monetary terms. The
traditional  engineering projects  that
resulted (for example dams, levees, and
modifications of river channels) were
built with the expectation of improv-
ing the Nation's material welfare, but
often resulted in substantial alterations
to existing watershed features and pro-

Changing Public Values
    The Corps'  water resources  pro-
gram has changed significantly  over
the past two decades. These  changes
reflect changing national preferences
and desires. Alteration of watersheds
for such purposes as flood control and
navigation  is no longer considered a
sure path to economic development.
There is more, concern today for the
protection and restoration of the natu-
ral services of heavily altered water-
sheds, many of which were related to
previous Corps water resource devel-
opment projects.
    Since the early 1970s, the emphasis
of the Corps' water resources program
has shifted from the construction of
new projects to the improved opera-
tion of existing projects with increased
concern for the environment. Today,
Corps funds budgeted for the opera-
tion and maintenance  of existing
projects exceed thosebudgetedfornew
construction. Environmental restora-
tion is now a "high priority" mission in
the Corps  budgetary process, along
with the more traditional missions of
navigation and flood control.  In addi-
tion, the Corps can participate in the
modification of existing projects for
the purposes of fish and wildlife habi-
tat restoration.

Evaluating Environmental
    Although there is a change in em-
phasis, there is every reason to believe
the planning approaches of the past
might be adapted for evaluating envi-
ronmental projects. Authorization by
Congress for individual projects or
programs will still be required, as will
partnerships with non-Federal inter-
ests and public involvement. Limited
funds will be available to allocate
among these projects and programs,
and there will  still be the need to an-
swer the analytical question of  how
much should the fish and wildlife habi-
tat or the watershed be altered in rela-
tion to some existing condition. How-
ever, unlike more traditional projects,
many outputs of environmental resto-
ration and mitigation cannot be mea-
sured in monetary terms.  The chal-
lenge, therefore, becomes how to se-
lect the most  efficient and effective
projects when they cannot all be com-
pared in like, monetary terms. Ques-
tions that the EEIRP must address in-
clude how to incorporate "uncertain"
measuresrof output and differing pub-
lic and institutional values into a ra-
tional and supportable evaluation and
selection process.

New Research.Program
   The overall objective of the EEIRP
is to provide an evaluation framework,
techniques, and procedures to assist
planners, managers, and regulators in
addressing both the site and portfolio
issues; i.e., whether the recommended
action is the most effective and effi-,
cient alternative for a particular loca-
tion, and how to allocate limited re-
sources among competing recom-
mended actions. One goal of the pro-
gram is the development of a series of
environmental evaluation procedures
manuals ("how to" manuals) address-
ing various steps in the planning, evalu-
ation, and prioritization processes. To
accomplish these  objectives, the re-
search program has been divided into
ten more specific study areas, called
work units. These study areas include:
    • Determining and Describing
      Environmental Significance
    • Determining Objectives and
      Measuring Outputs
    • ObjectiveEvaluationofCultural
    • Engineering Environmental In-
      vestments - Formulating Inputs
      and 'Monitoring Effectiveness
    • Cost Effectiveness Analysis
    • Monetary and Other Valuation
    • Incorporating Risk and Uncer-
      tainty into Environmental Evalu-
    • Environmental Database and
      Information Management
    • Evaluation Framework
    • Interagency Coordination and
      Program Management
Research on each of these topics will
take place  over the next two years,
culminating in the  publication of the
environmental evaluation procedures
manuals series by the end of 1996.
    For more information  on the
EEIRP, contact Darrell Nolton, U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, Institute for
Water Resources, 7701 Telegraph Rd.,
Alexandria, VA 22315-3868, (703) 355-
         Call For Abstracts
     National Estuary Program,
        Coastal Technology
        Transfer Conference
        February 13-16,1995
      New Orleans, Louisiana

  This conference will focus on four
  major environmental  problems
  which are common to most estuar-
  ies; nutrients, pathogens, toxic sub'
  stances, and habitat loss. The con-
  ference will be designed to share
  new approaches for identifying,
  characterizing, and  correcting or
  preventing these problems, as well
  as assessing progress'in estuanne
  and coastal management Abstracts
  are due September 30,1994  For
  more information, contact  Betsy
  Tarn, U.S. EPA (4504F), 401  M St.,
  SW, Washington, DC 20460, (2Q2)
  260-6466, FAX: (202) 260-9960.

Page 12
         Watershed Events
                     Summer 1994
Prince William County continued, from page 9
insulated fromdevelopmentpressures
because it lies almost entirely within.
and Quantico Marine Base.  Habitat
quality of streams and wetlands are
high throughout the upper watershed.
Quantico Creekhabitats will serve as a
benchmark for habitat quality goals in
Neabsco and Powells Creeks.
    USFWS's two main objectives as a
participant in the program are to re-
store habitat values and water quality
to benefit fish and  wildlife  popula-
tions, and to evaluate restored natural
floodplains and wetlands as an alter-
native to the use of engineered storm
water management facilities. Cur-
rently, USFWS biologists are directing
two demonstrationprojects inNeabsco
Creek watershed, one in a residential
area  and the other  in a commercial
area. The demonstration projects will
restore approximately 1 mile of stream
channel, 6 acres of associated riparian
forest, and 20 acres of emergent wet-
land habitat. Degradation of these ar-
eas has had a direct impact on impor-
tant habitat for anadromous fish and
migratory song birds. The potential
pay-offs are three-fold: (1) improve-
ment of water quality and habitat con-
ditions at the restoration sites, (2) dem-
onstration of the cost-effectiveness of
habitat restoration for achieving water
Ckan Water Initiative continued from page 8      NOAA Center continued from page 3

their findings at a water quality confer-
ence organized by the Water Quality
Committee. They got a standing ova-
tion. Now Jo wants to make the pro-
gram a long term effort.
    The continuity is encouraging,
from the grandfather who remembers
how clean the water used to be, to the
son working to make it clean again, to
the granddaughters who will inherit it
and hopefully preserve it. That's what
this success is all about.
    For more information, contact
Chris Ungate,  TV A, 400 Summit Hill
Dr. (WT-10D), Knoxville, TN 37902,
(615) 632-8502.
people researching coastal and ocean
ecosystem management.
    NOAA has established a manage-
ment committee of senior NOAA arid
state coastal managers to advise the
Center on programs and operations.
Center activities currently being dis-
cussed include providing information
on  environmental, legal, regulatory,
and management practices; offering
restoration services; and providing
near real-time, high-resolution  data
from satellite and ocean color sensors
for coastal areas.
    The Center is being established at
the Charleston Navy Yard site. Con-
quality improvements, and (3) dem-
onstration of the potential for integrat-
ing habitat restoration as a component
of a comprehensive watershed man-
agement program.
   Although federal, state, and local
protection programs over the last sev-
eral decades have produced great im-
provements  in  the  quality  of the
Nation's aquatic resources, much work
remains to rectify generations of ne-
glectful and abusive water policy and
practice. Difficult and controversial
issues, such as urban storm water man-
agement, will require cooperative ac-
tion by all parties concerned.
   For more information, contact Rich
Everett  or Tamara  McCandless,
USFWS, Chesapeake Bay Field Office,
177 Admiral Cochrane Dr., Annapolis,
MD 21401, (410) 224-2732.

gress has mandated the closure of the
Charleston Navy Yard, and the Center
is an example of how closed military
facilities can be put to other uses.  In
addition to utilizing the Navy facili-
ties, the Center may also employ some
of the Navy Yard's technical experts
and support personnel.  The  Center
will open in phases as the Navy Yard
closes in phases.
   For more information, contact Joe
Uravitch, NOAA, Office of Ocean and
Coastal Resource Management, 1305
East-West Hwy., N/ORM,  Silver
Spring, MD 20910, (301) 713-3087.