United States
                     Environmental Protection
               Office Of Water
EPA 840-N-95-003
Fall 1995
       Watershed Events
                                                                                                    Fall 1995
            SUCCESS, from page 1
                      With the Govern-
        £* CDA   ment Performance
       WCT/1   and Results Act
      (GPRA) as the key driving force, the
      Environmental Protection Agency
      (EPA) is completing the National
      Goals Project  The project will
      establish a series of national environ-
      mental goals and milestones for
      measuring the success of EPA
      programs over the next ten years.
      For its share, the Office of Water has
      developed two-tier environmental
      indicators for the Clean Water Act
      and the Safe Drinking Water Act
      programs. Tier I indicators include:
      wetland acreage; waters meeting
      designated uses; and point source
      loadings to surface and ground
      waters.  Shellfish bed closures,
      marine debris, and biological integ-
      rity are Tier II indicators.

      In a memorandum dated September
      11,1995 proposing the indicators to
      his Regional colleagues, Bob
      Perciasepe, Assistant Administrator
      for Water, stated "One of my highest
      priorities is to integrate the use of
      environmental indicators into
      everything we do."  Indicators will
      be incorporated into the current
      Regional Management Agreements
      and, when established, the National
      Environmental Performance Partner-
      ship System with the states. EPA is
      working with several pilot states to
      determine the best measures of
      success for state programs. The new
      system will give states accountability
      while simultaneously offering them
      program flexibility.

          Watershed  Events
         • AaU-AlMkUix
From the Regional perspective, with
EPA Region 8 as an example...
Nearly all watershed efforts have
measures of success. These mea-
sures reflect goals to improve or
protect the integrity of the aquatic
ecosystem, including the ground/
surface water interface.  Measures
of success range from chemical
water quality change, such as a
reduction in coliform bacteria or
zinc concentration, to the return of
targeted fish species to the water-
shed, to positive change in the
structure of the macroinvertebrate
community. Where the protection
of a pristine area is of concern,
measures include the development
of conservation easements, the
trend of biological indicators, or
protection of riparian corridors in
city or countywide plans.

Many environmental problems,
however, have developed over a
long period of time and will not be
solved quickly. Therefore, interim
measures of success are needed to
evaluate watershed efforts. These
measures are often related to the
functioning of a stakeholder group,
such as a watershed council.
Examples of such measures in-
clude—coming to agreement on
goals and objectives; supporting
and finding a neutral watershed
coordinator; increasing participa-
tion over time, especially by
recalcitrant or suspicious stakehold-
ers; monitoring activities coordi-
nated among several agencies;
establishing a volunteer monitoring
effort; increasing public awareness
about watershed issues; increasing
trust among stakeholders; identify-
ing a project that everyone can
agree to support (or at least not
object to); and development of a
common database.
            The goal of the Ten-
            nessee Valley Author-
            ity (TVA) is to ensure
that each stream, river, and lake in
the Tennessee Valley is ecologically
healthy, biologically diverse, and
supports its beneficial uses. TVA is
accomplishing this goal through
River Action Teams—self-managed
teams of environmental engineers,
aquatic biologists, and education
specialists charged with protecting
and improving the Valley's twelve

River Action Teams conduct stream
assessments to identify protection
and improvement needs in their
watershed. The teams also work
with government officials, industries,
and citizen groups to pinpoint
pollution sources and fix problems.
Their performance is measured by
the number of hydrologic units with
1) current stream assessments,
2) problem causes identified,
3) correction/protection activities,
4) coalitions under development, and
5) coalitions in place.

TVA also measures improvements in
reservoir ecological health based on
indicators for algal production,
dissolved oxygen, fish community
health, benthos, and sediment
toxicity. An overall reservoir health
rating is calculated from these
measurements and reported to the
public through RiverPulse, an annual
report on the condition of the Ten-
nessee River and its tributaries.
Current performance goals focus on
reducing the total number of reser-
voirs in poor ecological health and
increasing the number of tributary
reservoirs in good ecological health.

In 1996, TVA plans to conduct
customer surveys to obtain feedback
on public attitudes related to water

  Fall 1995
       Watershed Events
                                                                                                   Pace 3
  quality improvement and to evaluate
  the success of River Action Team
  efforts. This is critical, according to
  Wayne Poppe, Acting Manager of
  TVA's Clean Water Initiative,
  because "the real measure of success
  comes when people's attitudes begin
  to change and they willingly accept
  responsibility for improving water

  As one of 21 agencies initially
  selected to comply with the Govern-
  ment Performance and Results Act,
  TVA is continuing to improve its
  performance indicators to make them
  more results-oriented and
  customer-focused.  As a result of
  these efforts, TVA was recognized
  as one of the top ten "Exemplar"
  Reinventing Government models by
 the former director of OMB, Leon
 Panetta, and designated as a "Rein-
 vention Laboratory" by Vice Presi-
 dent Al Gore. In June 1995, TVA's
 Clean Water Initiative received the
 prestigious Hammer Award for
 excellence in reinventing govern-

             The United States
             Geological Survey
             (USGS) provides both
             short- and long-term,
 broad-scale assessments of the
 quality of the Nation's fresh water
 through its National Water-Quality
 Assessment (NAWQA) program. As
 part of USGS's mission, these
 assessments are designed to  support
 the development and evaluation of
 management, regulatory, and moni-
 toring decisions by Federal,  State,
 and local agencies to protect, use,
 and enhance the Nation's water

 The short-term success of NAWQA
is measured by its response to
priority environmental and public
  health concerns. For example,
  NAWQA has investigated the
  occurrence of nutrients and
  pesticides in rivers and ground-
  water. Next, it will investigate
  volatile organic compounds,
  providing information necessary
  for a number of Federal water
  quality regulations.

  The long-term objectives of the
  NAWQA program are to describe
  current water-quality conditions
  for a large part of Hie Nation's
  freshwater streams, rivers, and
  aquifers; describe how water
  quality is changing over time;
  and improve understanding of the
  primary natural and human
  factors that affect water quality
  conditions. Such data provides
  insight into the success of water
  quality management efforts and a
  direction for future panning.

           To measure the
           success of highway
           runoff control
 strategies, water quality experts
 need to gather a lot of data—on
 everything from land use, to
 traffic volume, to highway
 maintenance practices, to the
 effectiveness of existing
 stormwater drainage systems.
 Then they need to analyze the
 relationship between these sets of

 More and more state transporta-
 tion agencies are working to meet
 this challenge. They are moti-
 vated by concern for protecting
 the habitat of endangered species,
 preventing and controlling soil
 erosion, and demonstrating
 compliance with national
 stormwater regulations.
 Some transportation agencies are
proposing specially-designed
  master plans that can gauge the
  success of future water quality
  efforts by identifying precisely
  where and how the state would treat
  its highway runoff within a
  sub-basin.  These master plans favor
  a watershed approach as opposed fx>
  a "crisis-oriented," project-by-
  project planning strategy.

  The following attributes make
  master plans an effective measuring

  »   Mitigation options will be
     identified, so project develop-
     ment becomes more efficient;

  *   Pre-selecting suitable mitigation
     sites will enable a more efficient
     allocation of resources;

 •   Permitting processes will take
     less time;

 •   Early purchase of right-of-way
     mitigation sites will reduce long
     term project costs;

 •  Regulators prefer proactive
    rather than reactive resource

 •  Once the master plan is carried
    out, there will be fewer delays
    due to water quality issues; and

 •   Maintenance issues will be more
    easily incorporated into design.

                The Nature
  Conservancy* CTNC) dogged
                focus on rare
species serves as a keystone in its
effort to construct a framework for
measuring conservation success.

  	See SUCCESS, page 4

Page 4
    Watershed Events
                                                                                              Fall 1995
      SUCCESS, from page 3	

Clearly, if all those species and
ecological communities which
comprise a natural landscape are
thriving, we can conclude that
conservation efforts are succeeding.
While these ecological measures are
both necessary and sufficient to
assess conservation success in theory,
in practice it is impracticable to
monitor all  species populations,
everywhere. Therefore, a hierarchical
structure incorporating both
programmatic-level indices and direct
measures of conservation impacts is
needed to measure success.

TNC has identified several program-
matic measures of success, in-
corporating questions such as—"Is
there a strategically identified portfo-
lio of well designed protected ar-
eas?"; "Is there perennial funding
available for the care of these pre-
serves?"; and "Is there support for
conservation management among the
local constituency?" The advantage
of these measures is that they are
relatively easy to quantify. The
disadvantage is that they are not
sufficient to assess the biological
diversity of a landscape; the ultimate
goal of conservation efforts.

In comparison to programmatic
measures of success, measures of
conservation impact reflect changes
that occur in ecological time. These
measures can be direct measures of
population health (population status
and trends) or they can be indications
of ecological processes (e.g., change
in hydrological dynamics). Unlike
programmatic measures, conservation
impacts are often difficult to quantify,
however, they offer the most direct
indication of ecological health and
conservation success.
US Army Corps
of Engineers
                 At the program-
                 matic level, there
                 are several
                 efforts currently
underway within the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (Corps) to
address the issue of performance
measurements, although these are
not necessarily tied specifically to a
"watershed approach" or developed
exclusively for the Corps' environ-
mental program.

Selected as a pilot program under the
auspices of the President's 1993
National Performance Review and
the Government Performance and
Results Act (GPRA), the Corps'
National Operation and Maintenance
(O&M) Plan of Improvement calls
for performance measures in several
"business functions"—hydropower,
navigation, recreation, flood control,
and environmental stewardship. One
"product" of environmental steward-
ship is providing "optimally produc-
tive natural resources."  Their
efficient and effective delivery is
defined through several performance
measures, including:

•   the percent of Corps lands
    included in Fish and Wildlife
    Service Endangered Species
    Recovery Plans that are managed
    in accordance with plan specifi-

•   the percent of wetland acres on
    Corps project lands that are
    protected through such actions as
    designation and management as
    environmentally sensitive areas;
•   of Corps lands identified in the
    North American Waterfowl
    Habitat Management Plan as
    "High Priority Habitat Area of
    Major Concern," the percentage
    that are protected; and
•  the percent of Corps-designated
   mitigation lands meeting man-
   dated outputs in terms of fish
   and wildlife populations.

As part of a broader effort, the Corps
is also currently developing a
comprehensive set of Civil Works
Program performance measures
covering all facets of its Civil Works
mission. Performance measures
applied to Civil Works projects
would address four "products" of the
environmental program: compliance
with applicable environmental
treaties, laws, executive orders, and
regulations; mitigation for environ-
mental resources affected; mainte-
nance of environmental resources;
and restoration of environmental
resources. Development of perfor-
mance measures for these environ-
mental "products" is currently

            Pursuing an effort to
            measure the success of
            the coastal management
            program nationwide,
the National Oceanic Atmospheric
 Administration's (NOAA) Office of
 Ocean and Coastal Resource Man-
 agement recently selected a consor-
tium of Sea Grant Colleges to study
 the effectiveness of the coastal
 program in meeting the core objec-
 tives of the Coastal Zone Manage-
 ment Act

 Led by Marc Hershmen of the
 University of Washington, the team
 will use outcome measures, such as
 changes in the rate of habitat loss
 nationwide, to quantify effective-
 ness. In cases where such data is not
 available, the team will use "process
 measures," such as management
 program policies, for the analysis.
 The team will look at three core

Fall 1995
Watershed Events
                                                                                                  Page 5
coastal issues: 1) protection of
natural resources; 2) public access
to the coast; and 3) assistance to
ports and other water dependent
uses. The study will also look at
how simplified regulatory proce-
dures are and how expedited
decision making is in connection
with coastal programs.  During Fall
1995, the team will conduct a
national literature review.  A survey
of coastal states and territories will
begin in early 1996, with the final
analysis scheduled for release next

As another means of measuring
success, a database illustrating
money generated by the positive
economic impact of coastal re-
sources management will soon be
available from NOAA.

            The Natural Resources
            Conservation Service
            (NRCS), formerly the
            Soil Conservation
            Service, is working on
ways to better assess the impacts of
its efforts on the long-term
sustainability of natural resources
and the economic, social, and
cultural concerns of local

Every five years, NRCS conducts
the National Resources Inventory
(NRI) on nonfederal, rural land in
the United States.  The NRI reflects
the outcomes of agency activities.
For example, the 1992 NRI report
shows that farmers and ranchers
reduced cropland erosion by about
one-third from 1982 to 1992.

 An NRCS team is developing
ecosystem health indicators, for use
in conservation planning and
assessing the effects of
implementation. In addition, NRCS
                                    is developing indicators for water
                                    quality and quantity and aspects of
                                    human well-being, such as producer
                                    income, recreation value, and
                                    cultural resource value. NRCS's soil
                                    and snow survey and water supply
                                    forecasting programs are also
                                    serving as pilot studies under the
                                    Government Performance and
                                    Results Act (GPRA).  The GPRA
                                    requires agencies to submit five-year
                                    strategic plans by 1997 and annual
                                    performance plans beginning in

                                    NRCS also operates a database that
                                    stores 45 categories of information
                                    on each of its Public Law 83-566
                                    Small Watershed Protection Program
                                    projects, including how many people
                                    benefit from the project; the acreage
                                    of enhanced wetlands; and the
                                    purposes of the project. This infor-
                                    mation can be used to assess where,
                                    and for what purposes, program
                                    funds  are being used and to show the
                                    benefits associated with investments
                                    in water quality.

                                                  The Illinois Environ-
                                                  mental Protection
                                                  Agency (Illinois
                                                  EPA) is focusing on
                                    enabling and empowering local
                                    stakeholders to take charge of the
                                    fate of their watersheds. The
                                    agency will accomplish this mission
                                    through a holistic approach to
                                    watershed planning, focusing on all
                                    of the resource concerns within a
                                    watershed and coordinating Federal,
                                    State,  and local involvement in
                                    watershed management activities.
                                    This is a unique approach to  water
                                    quality protection in that a compre-
                                    hensive watershed plan for the
                                    protection of drinking water (sur-
                                    face and ground water) and control
                                    of water pollution are being inte-
                             One aspect of this approach is to
                             build some consensus statewide on
                             what a watershed is, and why and
                             how to protect it. The Illinois EPA
                             will achieve this by scheduling a
                             series of regional workshops to
                             obtain input from local watershed
                             practitioners for the development of
                             a model watershed planning pro-

                             A second aspect of this approach is
                             to provide technical assistance
                             tailored to each individual water-
                             shed. The Illinois EPA is prepared
                             to answer questions such as—
                             "What is the current condition of
                             our watershed in relation to its
                             uses?"; "What condition should our
                             watershed be in to support such
                             uses?"; and "What actions can we
                             take to achieve this level of qual-

                             The success of the state's watershed
                             program will be judged on the
                             ability of the Illinois EPA to ener-
                             gize local stakeholders to voice
                             opinions and take action for water-
                             shed planning.  Success is also
                             contingent on the agency's capacity
                             to provide technical assistance to
                             communities as requested.

                                             The Bureau of
                                             Reclamation is
                                             currently design-
                                             ing watershed
                             policy that will define and measure
                             success on a case-by-case basis.
                             Many of Reclamation's regional
                             and area offices are already incor-
                             porating this concept in planning
                             their projects.

                             Recognizing careful planning as a
                             key element in the success of water

                                   See SUCCESS, page 6

                                           Watershed Events
                                                        FalM 995
       SUCCESS, from page 5
 quality projects, the Mid-Pacific
 Regional Office and the Pacific
 Northwest Regional Office are busy
 working to develop environmental
 impact statements for reclamation
 projects in local watersheds.  The
 offices are cooperating with agen-
 cies associated with the projects to
 examine a variety of operational
 alternatives on a regional and
 site-specific scale.

 In addition, the Kansas-Nebraska
 Area Office is preparing a Resource
 Management Analysis as part of the
 contract renewal process for water
 service contracts on the Republican
 River. The analysis will define the
 existing goals of Federal, State, and
 local agencies and analyze water-
 shed management alternatives.

 The main goal of Reclamation's
 watershed activities is to maintain a
 healthy watershed system that
 simultaneously supports a viable
 aquatic species population and the
 economic benefits of its projects.
 As the agency continues to strive
 toward its mission of being the
 foremost figure in the realm of
 water resource management,
 measuring success is becoming a
 crucial task.

 In summary, these programs reveal
 that agencies are actively working
 to develop performance measures
 that are compatible with the
 watershed approach. Though the
 measures and efforts are different
for each agency and level of
 government, the common ground
 that they share will allow their
 measures and efforts to become
 more and more consistent and
 cohesive over time.
              .           .
      ::  <="'» ^measurin  success, contact., * -
                           , '" , - : U,S*  rm Corps
 j81^S^7j5!$„ ;;,f}  ":',; v     *fcfpSuttcm  ;    -',/',>* /'s ,  v,- , /
  Fall 1995
                                            Watershed Events
                                                              Page 7
                               Look at What's Been  Dome!
    In Wisconsin, three water
    quality monitoring techniques are
  used to evaluate the success of
  nonpoint source control efforts.

  Under the Signs of Success (SOS)
  program, the Wisconsin Department
  of Natural Resources compares
  rural and urban stream sections
  adjacent to areas with Best Manage-
  ment Practice (BMP) nonpoint
  source controls, to those without
  them.  Observations of riparian and
  in-stream habitat over a one to two
  year time span provide a quick
  gauge of the success of BMPs.

  Critical Sites Monitoring provides a
  more intensive, one to three year
  monitoring effort,  isolating a single
  barnyard and monitoring runoff
  above and below it with the use of
  automatic water sampling devices.

 Master Monitoring Sites monitor
 habitat, aquatic insects, fish, and
 water over a ten year, plus, period
 in an attempt to detect changes on a
 watershed scale. Watersheds of
 various stream types (e.g., low
 gradient, high gradient, warm water,
 cold water) located throughout the
 state are monitored. For more
 information on the  monitoring
 programs, contact Michael A.
 Miller, Water Resources Specialist,
 Wisconsin Department of Natural
 Resources, phone (608) 267-2753,
 fax (608) 267-2800.
       With an average altitude of
       50 feet below sea level, the
protection of drinking water is a key
environmental issue in the Nether-
lands.  In an effort to prevent
  contamination of drinking water
  supplies by agrichemicals and
  manure from dairy operations, the
  Center for Agriculture and the
  Environment, based in Utrecht,
  Netherlands, developed a series of
  new farm management tools.

  Known as "yardsticks," the tools
  allow farmers to calculate a numeri-
  cal score to quantify the environ-
  mental impact of their management
  strategy. The score is based on the
  type of pesticide and fertilizer
  applied, the application rate per
  acre, the timing of each application,
  and the method used.

  This breakdown allows farmers to
  calculate ways to improve their
  scores using the yardstick as a
  model. The yardstick scores also
  offer a measure of the performance
 of Best Management Practices,
 important to demonstrating the
 success of water quality protection

 During the next year, the Institute
 for Agriculture and Trade Policy
 will begin experimenting with the
 pesticide and fertilizer yardsticks in
 the United  States. For more infor-
 mation, contact Mark Ritchie,
 Executive Director, Institute for
 Agriculture and Trade Policy,
 Minneapolis, Minnesota, phone
 (612) 379-5980, fax (612)
   EL partnership with other
   gencies and state and local
governments, the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers is helping to restore
the degraded Anacostia River
  watershed in the Washington, DC
  area. Employing the concepts of
  beneficial uses of dredged material,
  the Corps' Baltimore District
  dredged 3.3 miles of the river in
  1992 in order to maintain its naviga-
  tion channel. Approximately
  150,000 cubic yards of the dredged
  material was then placed in
  Kenilworth Marsh and planted with
  350,000 freshwater marsh species

  For a total cost of $1.9 million, the
  project restored 32 acres of func-
  tional wetlands, degraded into
  barren mudflats at low tide from
  years of sediment deposition,
 providing  high quality fish and
 wildlife habitat. Kenilworth Marsh,
 managed by the National Park
 Service, is the last remaining
 freshwater tidal emergent wetland
 in the District of Columbia.

 The Corps plans to dredge another
 2.1 miles of the navigation channel
 in 1997. This time it will use the
 dredged material to restore 45 acres
 of tidal emergent wetlands in
 Kingman Lake (near Robert F.
 Kennedy Stadium) and 30 acres of
 river fringe wetlands. For more
 information, contact Steve
 Garbarino, Corps of Engineers
 Baltimore District, phone (410)
"The significant problems we face
cannot be solved at the same level
of thinking we were at when we
created them."

Albert Einstein

       Watershed Events
                                                                                              Fall 1995
     Don Brady, EPA Watershed
     Branch Chief, presented papers
in August 1995 at the Second
International Association of Water
Quality Specialized Conference on
Diffuse Pollution in Brno and Prague
in the Czech Republic. Eastern
European countries showed particu-
lar interest in applying the watershed
approach for designing and imple-
menting water quality programs in
response to Brady's presentations
entitled "Basic Comparison—
Legislative, Governmental, and
Non-Governmental Bodies for Water
Quality Management: An American
View" and "The Watershed Ap-
       Ohio River Valley Water
  JL Sanitation Commission has
 initiated a two-year study of the
 impacts of combined sewer over-
 flows on the course of the Ohio
 River that runs through the Cincin-
 nati/Northern Ohio area. The
 Commission is developing a water
 quality model for evaluating wet
 weather impacts. The model will be
 adaptable for evaluating other large
 river systems in communities across
 the country. Call ORSANCO, phone
 (513) 231-7719, for information.
       NEWS BITS

dumps, installed settling ponds and
bulkheads, and used limestone to
combat acid runoff. Funding and
technical assistance for the restora-
tion efforts has been provided by
EPA, private sources, and mining
A     Clean Water Act rule issued
     on August 7,1995 by EPA
(Federal Register, August?, 1995,
p.40230) sets new stormwater
compliance standards for Phase n
stormwater dischargers, including
commercial and retail establish-
ments, light industries, institutions,
and municipal storm sewers serving
less than 100,000 people (Phase I
stormwater requirements are not
affected by the rule).  Phase II
facilities defined as "a significant
contributor of pollutants to waters of
the U.S.," (a.k.a. Phase n, Tier II)
must apply for discharge permits by
August 7,2001, if still required by
then-existing regulation. In the
interim, EPA will work on develop-
ing a non-permit control strategy that
will target environmental problems
associated with these facilities. For a
copy of the Register notice (6pp.),
 call 1-800-274-6737 and indicate
 your request for Doc. #03-883.
noted that in regions of
poorly-drained, clay soils, surface
water contamination should be
targeted and in regions of
well-drained, sandy soils, ground
water should be the focus. Helsel
stressed that agencies should mea-
sure their performance as a means of
tracking the direction and speed of
water quality improvements.
   In a March 1995 survey conducted
   by the Council of State Govern-
ments, state environmental and
natural resource agencies indicated
that lack of funding, lack of public
and scientific understanding, and
opposition from special interests are
likely to impede ecosystem projects.
States also requested that EPA
develop quantitative measures of
progress, or environmental indica-
tors, that relate to ecosystem protec-
tion goals and can be used to allocate
funding according to environmental
outcomes, as opposed to administra-
tive measures.  For more information
about "Ecosystem Connections:
Results of CSG Ecosystem Protec-
tion Questionnaire," contact the
Council of State Governments,
phone 1-800-800-1910, fax (606)
   In Colorado, members of the
   Animas River Stakeholders group,
 formed in 1994, are working to
 restore the Upper Animas Basin.
 Over 100 years of mining in the
 basin contaminated the river with
 heavy metals to the point that
 stretches of it are lifeless. So far, the
 stakeholders have moved mine
      At the May 12, "More Bang for
      our Bucks: Can Sustainable
 Agriculture Preserve Natural Re-
 sources and Farm Profits?" briefing
 sponsored by the Environmental and
 Energy Study Institute, Dennis
 Helsel of the U.S. Geological Survey
 discussed the benefits of wetlands in
 purifying agricultural runoff. He
     The Buffalo River Stewardship
     Foundation's preliminary
 socio-economic study on the Buffalo
 River (Arkansas) watershed com-
 pared the economic costs of
 agribusiness versus the recreational
 use of the river and concluded that
 recreation (including the river's
 intrinsic value) was worth more;

  Fall 1995
                                             Watershed Events
  $47,452,400 compared to
  agribusiness's $36,294,000.  Susan
  Baker of the Harvard Institute of
  International Development and
  Foundation economist Jesse Gordon
  made six recommendations for
  policy to conserve the watershed.
  Among the recommendations are the
  use of conservation easement
  purchases and leases and a "tourism
  tax" (exempting local residents)
  earmarked for pollution reduction
  projects. For more information,
  write Jesse Gordon, BRSF, P.O. Box
  5003-161, Harrison, AR 72602, or
  email to steward@wildfirel.com.
 ~D epresentatives of the North
 -TVPlatte Valley and Lingle-Fort
 Laramie conservation districts, the
 Town of Torrington, the Goshen
 County Commissioners, and the
 United States Department of
 Agriculture's Natural Resources
 Conservation Service (NRCS) signed
 an official watershed plan during a
 ceremony at the Torrington, Wyo-
 ming Town Hall on September 15.
 Several urban and rural wells in the
 area have nitrate levels that exceed
 EPA's Maximum Contaminant Limit
 of 10 parts per million. Once
 funded, the plan will address sources
 of nitrate, focusing on improving
 irrigation systems, fertilizer applica-
 tion, and management of animal
 waste runoff. Contact NRCS for
 more information, phone (307)
 532-4880 or (307) 533-4290.
A     Federal Advisory Committee
     has been formed to provide
recommendations to the EPA on how
to address cross-cutting issues
associated with urban wet weather
  discharges. One of the three
  workgroups will address urban
  watershed related issues.  For more
  information, contact Will Hall,
  phone (202) 260-1458.

      The U.S. EPA/Region 5 office
      has awarded a grant to Wayne
  County, Michigan for the Rouge
  River National Wet Weather Demon-
  stration Project  The urbanized
  Rogue River watershed includes 48
  communities with a combined
  population of over 1.5 million. The
  project will  focus on two wet
  weather sources of pollution flowing
  to streams:  1) surf ace runoff from
  overland flow; and 2) runoff carried
  through storm drains and combined
  sewer overflows (CSOs).  CSOs
  carry raw sewage and stormwater to
  wastewater treatment plants in the
  same pipe. Often the pipes become
  full during rain events or snowmelt
  and the effluent-laden stormwater is
  released directly to waterways to
  prevent it from backing up into

 Streambank Stabilization Work-
 shop and Restoration Project—
 TVA's Chickamauga-Nickajack
 River Action Team has contracted
 with Bestmann Green Systems, Inc.,
 to lead a streambank stabilization
 training workshop and ecological
 restoration project Erosion along a
 400 foot section of the eastern edge
 of North Chickamauga Creek
 threatens to undermine the parking
 lot of Chattanooga's North
 Chickamauga Creek Greenway. A
 two-day course will provide partici-
pants with specialized training and
hands-on experience in innovative
  streambank stabilization and
  bioengineering methods (Contact
  Linda B. Harris, TVA:

  Workshops on Cost Effectiveness
  and Incremental Cost Analyses;
  (CE/ICA) for Environmental
  The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
  Institute for Water Resources,
  provides workshops describing CE/
  ICA analytical software tools for
  comparing the environmental
  outputs and economic costs of
  alternative plans for watershed and
  ecosystem planning (costs to be
  reimbursed by the workshop host).
  The format, including software
  demonstration, is offered as a
  half-day executive session or a
  full-day, hands-on session designed
  for those who are charged with
  completing the analyses (Contact
  Ken Orth: 703-355-0054).

  Statewide Watershed
  Management Course—
  In September, EPA's Office of
  Water sponsored a course in
  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that
 focused on developing and apply-
 ing a framework for statewide
 watershed management Several
 EPA Region 3 states provided
 presentations on watershed man-
 agement in their jurisdictions. In
 response to requests for a repeat
 presentation of the course and for a
 condensed version geared toward
 managers from water and other
 state agency programs, the Office
 of Water will sponsor similar
 workshops in other EPA Regional
 cities throughout 1996 (Contact
 Greg Currey: 202-260-1718).

 Watershed Events welcomes the
submission of training opportunities.

Page 10
       Watershed Events
                                                                                        Fall 1995
                                                          NEW IN  PRINT
  FHWA Seeks Staff Water
  Quality Specialist for
  One-Yaar Assignment
  Administration's Natural and
  Cultural Resources Team Is  ,
  looking for a water ctuaJity  ,
  specialist to join ite .'staff.  Tne
  candidate can appiy for a
  federal agency detail, or he or
  sh0 can apply under the
  Intergovernmental Personnel
  Act 0PA) covering exchanges
  among the federal govern-
  ment and state and local
  governments, universities,
  and tribaf otgarttealions,
  Assignment: one year. U»ca»
  Item  Washington, D.C.
  Safaiy: up to GS 13 ecjutva- _
  tent  Job duties: dev$ioplftg
  policy, developing and man-
  aging research projects,
  writing reports, worktrsg on
  Interagency task forces, and
  providing technical assistance
  to field offices and state
  DOTs. For details, caaFr0d
  Bank at (202) 366-5004.
 "Never doubt that a small
 group of thoughtful, com-
 mitted citizens can change
 the world, indeed, it's the
 only thing that ever has."
 Margaret Mead
ecos, the environmental communi-
que of the states, May/June 1995—
This issue of ecos, published by the
Council of State Governments
(COG), provides a summary of
ecosystem-based environmental
initiatives on a state-by-state basis.
Contact the Council of State Govern-
ments, phone 1-800-800-1910, fax
(606) 244-8001.  Or look up ecos on
COG's home page on the World
Wide Web, URL=http://

Info Access, Issue Number 54, June
1995, EPA 220-N-95-009—
This issue of Info Access provides a
listing of environmental World Wide
Web sites and offers information on
developing a library collection,
knowledge management, and docu-
ment delivery in the electronic era.
Info Access is available on EPA's
Gopher and on EPA's website under
"NEWS" at http://www.epa.gov.
For a copy of the June issue of Info
Access, contact Mary Hoffman at
 (919) 968-3849. For more informa-
tion about the EPA Library Network,
 contact Jonda Byrd, National Library
 Network Program Manager, phone
 (513) 569-7183, or via email to

 Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to
 an Ecosystem—
 The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
 Chesapeake Bay Field Office
 developed this 30 page educational
 primer for the Chesapeake Bay
 Program. The primer discusses the
 interrelationship of soil, air, water,
 plants, and animals (including
 humans) that form the Chesapeake
 Bay ecosystem; the geologic history
 of the Bay; current problems facing
 the Bay and what individuals can do
 to help restore it; and includes
descriptive "Bay Facts." For a free
copy of the primer, contact the
Chesapeake Bay Program at

Watershed Protection: A
Statewide Approach (EPA
This EPA publication describes how
to implement a five-year, rotational
watershed management plan for major
state river basins. For a copy, contact
NCEPI at (513) 489-8190.

Watershed Protection: A Project
Focus (EPA 841-R-95-003)—
This EPA publication describes how
to implement the watershed protection
approach for specific watersheds. For
a copy, contact NCEPI at (513)

Evaluation of Environmental Invest-
ments Procedures Manual Interim:
Cost Effectiveness and Incremental
Cost Analysis (IWR Report
This Corps interim manual provides
 step-by-step instructions for how cost
 effectiveness and incremental cost
 analysis can be used in restoration and
 mitigation planning and decision-
 making.  The manual is accompanied
 by software that automates the
 procedure's calculations.  For copies,
 fax requests to (703) 355-8435
 (preferred), or call Arlene Nurthen,
 phone (703) 355-3042. For more
 information, contact Ridge Robinson,
 phone (703)355-2786.

 Trade-Off Analysis for Environmen-
 tal Projects: An Annotated Bibliog-
 raphy (IWR Report #95-R-8)—
 This Corps literature review focuses
 on opportunities for using trade-off
 methodologies and group processes in
 environmental plan formulation and

 Fall 1995
         Watershed Events
                                                                                               Paop 11
 evaluation. For copies, fax requests
 to (703) 355-8435 (preferred), or call
 Arlene Nurthen, phone (703)
 355-3042. For more information,
 contact Joy Muncy, phone (703)

 Economic Valuation of Natural
 Resources: A Handbook for
 Coastal Resource Policymakers—
 This NOAA publication addresses
 basic economic concepts of environ-
 mental valuation, including willing-
 ness to pay, cost-effectiveness
 analysis, economic impact analysis,
 and sustainable development.
 Regional case studies present
 practical applications of concepts.
 For copies of the report, contact the
 NOAA Coastal Ocean Office, phone
 (301) 713-3338, fax (301) 713-4044.

 Cumulative Impacts Assessment
 Guide for Michigan's Wetland
 Permit Program—
 This OCRM report includes a review
 and critique of existing techniques
 for assessing cumulative wetland
 impacts and provides recommenda-
 tions for incorporating these impacts
 into the wetlands permit review
 process. The report also identifies
 data needed to assess cumulative
 impacts and provides information on
 decision-making that will withstand
 legal challenges. For a copy of the
 report, contact Kenneth Walker,
 OCRM Coastal Programs, phone
 (301) 713-3113, ext. 169.

 New Publications of the
 U.S. Geological Survey—
 Free copies of this monthly catalog
 are available by written request to
 the U.S. Geological Survey, 582
 National Center, Reston, VA 22092.
 The catalog is also accessible via the
 USGS's World Wide Web home
page at URL=http://www.usgs.gov.
                     CYBER  SPACE
  The following is a listing of Internet
  resources which may be of interest
  to readers.  To be added to the
  mailing list of "Internet Newsbrief,"
  an electronic update service from the
  EPA Headquarters Library, contact
  Robin Murphy at ALL-IN-1
  murphy.robin or at (202) 260-5080.
  Watershed Events appreciates
  Robin's contribution of these re-
  sources for readers.

  RTF Seminar Series
  Resources For the Future will
 present a Wednesday Seminar Series
 at their Washington, DC office for
 serious discussion and debate of
 environment and natural resource
 related policy and research issues.
 To subscribe to the electronic
 seminar mailing list, send the
 following message—Subscribe
 RFFSEM-L Your Full Name—to

 National Environmental Informa-
 tion Resources Center
 This cooperative effort of George
 Washington University and the U.S.
 EPA provides a listing of Internet
 resources on environmental topics,
 grouped by name and subject and a
 list of interactive discussion groups.

 Superfund Program Information
 Guidelines for pesticide and toxic
 substances testing developed by
 EPA's Office of Prevention, Pesti-
 cides, and Toxic Substances in an
 effort to minimize  variations in test
procedures used to meet regulatory
  Weed Killers by the Glass
  Presents the results of a recent study
  completed by the Environmental
  Working Group of herbicide and
  pesticide contamination of tap water.
  The study, which began in May, tested
  tap water in 29 cities in the corn belt,
  Louisiana, and Maryland.

  ARS Water Database
  The U.S. Department of Agriculture,
  Agricultural Research Service data-
  base provides precipitation and runoff
 data for small, agricultural watersheds
 throughout the United States useful in
 reconstructing storm hydrographs.

 Coastal Marsh Project
 Sponsored by NASA's Mission to
 Earth and the University of Maryland,
 the project assesses the health of
 coastal marshes and identifies areas at
 risk using satellite imagery and
 cartographic information from the
 National Wetlands Inventory.

 Chemical Fact Sheets
 These Office of Prevention, PesticMes,
 and Toxic Substances fact sheets
 provide information on the production,
 use, environmental fate, health and
 environmental effects, and regulations
 pertaining to selected chemicals.

 URL=http://www. waterwiser.org
This cooperative effort of the Ameri-
can Water Works Association and the

    See CYBER SPACE, page 12

   CYBER SPACE, from page 11
U.S. EPA provides bibliographies,
articles, and a book listing on water
conservation and efficiency. A
forum for discussion, an events
calendar, and links to other water
resources are also offered.

Native Americans and
the Environment
Provides bibliographies on topics
such as land and water rights, fishing
rights, natural resource management,
and others.  Links to resources on
environmental racism, environmental
justice, and environmental equity are
also included.

U.S. Water News On-line
Print version of U,S, Water News,
plus additional articles.

USGS On-Line Link
Recent press releases are available
under USGS Information Releases.
Scientific information on the
Nation's water resources is accessible
by selecting the water icon.

NAWQA Program
Information on the program, study
units, and a bibliography.  Or write to
the Chief, NAWQA, U.S. Geological
Survey, 413 National Center, Reston,
VA 22092.

Bureau of Reclamation
 On-Line Link
 Recent press releases, speeches, and
water resource data are available
 through Reclamation's home page.
    Watershed Events	FalM995
While In Cyber Space-

             Explore Watershed Highlights

A companion publication to Watershed Events is now available on the
Internet on the EPA Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds
(OWOW) home page. Unlike Watershed Events, Watershed High-
lights is not developed around a feature article. It is designed to
provide a forum for individuals and organizations to share information
relevant to watersheds.

Posted at least once a month, Watershed Highlights includes legislative
information; Federal, State, and local program information; current
best sellers; and oldies, but goodies related to the watershed approach
and ecosystem management. There are two ways to access Watershed
Highlights on the Internet:

1)  Go to URL=http://www.epa.gov/OWOW and click on "What's

2)  or...Go to URL=http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/nps/wtrintro.html

Readers are encouraged to submit information for Watershed High-
lights and comments to John Pai at OWOW, via email to
pai.john@epamail.epa.gov., or fax to (202) 260-2529.
 ffijs^i                                               -I :/
 fe'buBpn'boafd & phasing over to &
f Sx^iaigfeWfee Internet 'Ttienew eonfiguralteowin malcfc
 of file servers J list servers, gophers, m& ifce Wotfd Wide Wefc, ,
                  «*& readable on-tie-,
 W3j£te^^                                    ,/"-'

 In addftibfi, Ni^SlhiPO^e MP& Inl^dtbii Sxch^ge's
 cgsaisdojnf 0fou$ openfecl lii Seplefriber*  rf y«u nave an
' ac*3»«?l ar«j ypu wotild life to wbsqtibe t?
 %                 "                    '
                                        essaeje: subscribe
                                       ^Afbryousufosonlb^ ,
 you will receive a i#eiconie message wplairarag $1$ tfisous^or*, - -
^sia|djte^|>feaiums. Toposl^;the.'l|Sitsendf«&ss&$esto:;;

 Fall 1995
Watershed Events
Paoe 13

     We have added a new feature in this issue of Watershed Events. We
     are introducing to our readers, the most relevant programs or
     activities under the -watershed approach in different agencies; what
     the programs are and what they do. Hopefully, this new feature will
     help our readers to take advantage of the services these programs
     and activities have to offer.

               Water Resource Programs of the
                U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

 Historically, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) water resources
 development program has been charged with improving and maintaining
 navigable waterways and reducing flood damages. Accompanying these
 primary missions are complementary programs for generating hydroelectric
 power, providing water supplies, protecting coastal shorelines, managing
 natural resources, and providing recreational opportunities.

 The Corps' water resources program has changed significantly over the last
 two decades, however, shifting from construction of new projects to the
 improved operation of existing projects with increased concern for the
 environment. Environmental restoration is now a priority mission in the
 budgetary process and the Corps can participate in the modification of
 existing projects for the purposes offish and wildlife habitat restoration.

 Broadly, the Corps' role in environmental quality is supported by several
 federal laws, executive orders, and treaties, including the Fish and Wildlife
 Coordination Act of 1958, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969,
 and the Water Resources Development Acts (WRDA) of 1986 and 1990.
 For example, Section 307(a) of WRDA 1990 establishes "no net loss of
 wetlands" and an "increase in the quality and quantity of the Nation's
 wetlands" as goals of the water resources development program.

 The Corps may pursue specific environmental restoration activities under
 one of several generic legislative authorities. Section 1135 of the WRDA of
 1986 authorizes the implementation of environmental restoration projects
 through structural or operational changes to completed Corps projects.  The
 Section 1135 program is budgeted for up to $25 million per year, with no
 single project to exceed $5 million without Congressional authorization.
 Section 204 of WRDA 1992 authorizes the Corps to protect, restore, and
 create aquatic and ecologically related habitats, including wetlands, in
 connection with dredging for construction, operation, or maintenance of
 Corps navigation projects.

Section 1103 of WRDA 1986 gives the Corps authority to plan and imple-
ment restoration projects in support of the Upper Mississippi River Environ-
mental Management Plan (UMRS-EMP), which was established to help
balance increased commercial navigation on the Upper Mississippi River
                              Watershed Events :.  , ,;
                              Csiitie Oarnas, U+S, Buasau
                              •of Reclamation  ',   ' " '"", ,
                              Eifean Katie, NaSenal Oceanic- "
                              m$ A^s£N**& A#»SW$t«*to ,,
                              Osbl»6 i-tefobs,. T&snsssea
                               /"" %-:aad Watersheds',   ;;
                              See INTRODUCING..., page 14

Page 14
Watershed Events
                                                                                             Fall 1995
   INTRODUCING..., from page 13
system with other economic, environmental, and recreational objectives.
Habitat rehabilitation and enhancement projects, which focus on restoring
high value fish and wildlife habitat, comprise the largest element of the

The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act of 1990
authorizes several agencies, including the Corps, to implement restoration
projects that provide for the long-term conservation of wetlands and depen-
dent fish and wildlife populations in coastal areas.  In addition, Corps author-
ity for new individual studies and projects to restore ecological resources (for
example, the Kissimmee River, Florida; the Anacostia River, Washington,
DC and Maryland; and the Everglades, Florida) has been authorized by
Water Resources Development Acts and Congressional Committee resolu-

[For more information, contact Leigh Skaggs, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Institute for Water Resources, (703) 355-3091.]

            Transportation Enhancements Fund
                 Water Quality improvements

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) set
aside a total of $2.8 million over six years for special projects which improve
communities and the environment.

The Transportation Enhancements initiative provides funding for 10 catego-
ries of projects—including mitigation of highway runoff.  ISTEA gives new
players in the transportation planning process—environmentalists, commu-
nity groups, and others—input into how federal transportation funds are

In Pennsylvania, for example, the state Department of Transportation estab-
lished a special advisory committee of environmental groups to solicit and
evaluate proposals for Enhancement projects and make recommendations.

As of June 1994, approximately $650 million had been spent on Enhance-
ment activities. The wide range of water projects funded through this pro-
gram include erosion control, wetland restorations, highway runoff control,
and fish ladders.

[For more information, contact Fred Skaer, FHWA, Office of Environment
and Planning, phone (202) 366-2058.]
   **th« Nation behaves well if it &&$& the mm&&®to&&% & a$ss&
   which it mast turn over to the ae»
   paired to value."

   President Theodore Roosevelt
                             Orleans* LA {0on*ac| Lyrt
                             Virtual Reafity* scissored b*$rf&«
                                     Or,   uiHe«r»o
                                       Oiego, CA'
                                          l' Peter E • Stock,

Fall 1995
                                           Watershed Events
                                        Page 15
                             The Reader is Always Write (Right)!

       Two Watershed Events readers wrote us regarding the Did You Know? facts in the Summer 1995
       issue. We appreciate their comments.

       Carter D. Christenson, Deputy State Conservationist, New Hampshire writes...
          "Watershed Events is a very informative bulletin. But in reading the Summer issue, I took
          interest in your Did You Know? section on page 10. The first item says, 'The quantity of
          water on earth remains constant, 326 cubic miles.'  I know that cannot be correct, but you
          now have my curiosity up. How many zeros did you leave off the answer?"

       Several other observant readers found this error as well and called us.  llie first item should read:
       The quantity of water on earth remains constant—326 million cubic miles. (Note: One cubic mile
       contains one trillion gallons of water.)

       David Farrington, P.E., Oklahoma, wrote in reference to the "Did You Know?" fact that "Watering
       the lawn and washing the car consume 100 gallons of water"...
          "This is not the case in Oklahoma.  During July or August it is not uncommon to use 500
          gallons or more to water the lawn.  When we wash a car at home the water usage is 30
          gallons or less. First we hose the car down, then it's water and soap in a 5 gallon bucket to
          wash, then a final rinse. If I take it to the car wash, it will use less than 8 gallons if I feed the
          machine twice. The normal commercial car wash uses less than 1 gallon per minute of
                                         a Matter of Fact,.
  Rangeland is land where the native vegetation is
  mostly grasses or similar plants, herbs, or shrubs
  suitable for grazing or browsing. More than 99
  percent of the Nation's rangeland is west of the
  Mississippi River.

  Prime farmland is rural land with the best combina-
  tion of physical and chemical characteristics for
  producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed
  crops, that is available for these uses. The Nation's
  prime farmland is 65 percent cropland, 14 percent
  forest land, 11 percent pastureland, and six percent
  rangeland. The rest is other undeveloped rural

  With 36.8 million acres of prime farmland, Texas
  has more than any other state.
 From 1982 to 1992...
 14.8 million acres were converted from cropland
 to pastureland, 4.2 million acres to developed
 land, 3.1 million acres to forest land, and 2.1
 million acres to rangeland.

 Federal land tolaled408 million acres in 1992	
 21 percent of the Nation's total area.

 Nevada has more Federal land by far than any
 other state, with 60 million acres. That's 85
 percent of me state.

Source: National' Resources Inventory, A summary of
natural resource trends in the U.S. between 1982 and
1992, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service,
April 1995.

Office of Wetlands, Oceans,
and Watersheds (4501F)
401 M Street, SW
Washington, DC 20460

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Penalty for Private Use

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