5
WATER QUALITY EFFECTS AND NONPOINT
    SOURCE CONTROL FOR FORESTRY:
     AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
              AUGUST, 1993
                Prepared by:

              Tetra Teeh, Inc.
              Fairfax, Virginia
        Nonpoint Source Control Branch
    Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds
      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
              Washington, DC

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                               ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The project manager for the development of this annotated bibliography was John Cannell in EPA's
Nonpoint Source Control Branch. It was prepared by John Craig, Mary Ann Parcher, Julie Wright, and
George Townsend of Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia, under EPA Contract Number 68-C3-0303.  The
authors would like to thank John Cannell of the Nonpoint Source Control Branch for his contribution to
the preparation of this document.  Comments on this document and requests for additional copies should
be directed to:

              John Cannell
              Nonpoint Source Control Branch  (WH-553)
              Office of Wetlands, Oceans,  and Watersheds
              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency                                   \
:     •         401 M Street SW            -             .      ,                      •
              Washington," DC 20460            .        ...„••

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction	 . .	  1
Program and Policy Studies and Reviews  .	•	> • •	  3
Instream Studies	•	|7
      Chemical	 • • ..... • • • - • •  1'
      Biological  .	 ... . . . • •	''•*''•'  7,
      Physical	42
      Watershed Level Studies . . .	  61
Road Construction and Use	  67
      Impacts on Water Quality	•	  67
      BMPs and Specifications,	• • •	 .\ .  82
      Costs and Effectiveness of BMPs	  94
Timber Harvest	;......'.	...v..............	..  101
      Impacts on Water Quality	• • • •	  101
      BMPs and Specifications	  138
      Costs and Effectiveness of BMPs	  149'
Site Preparation and Regeneration	 .  158
      Impacts on Water Quality	  158
      BMPs and Specifications	• ....... • 	 ...,..:. .	  168
      Costs and  Effectiveness of BMPs	  173
Forestry Chemicals	-	  178
      Impacts on Water Quality	  178
      BMPs and Specifications	  190
      Costs and Effectiveness of BMPs		   191
Streamside Management Areas and Riparian Areas	   193
      Impacts on Water Quality  .	   193
      BMPs and Specifications	 .	207
       Costs and Effectiveness of BMPs  ...'	;....... 212
Wetlands  ....	• • •	_•	  217
       Impacts on Water Quality	• .• • • 217
       BMPs and Specifications	•'••••	• •	  221
       Costs and Effectiveness of BMPs	222
 Modeling	-	• • •  224
       Modeling Water Quality Impacts	•	• •	• •  224,
       Modeling Effects of Management Practices		•	231
 Water Quality Monitoring	  .	• •	•  • • •  236
       Methods and Procedures	• •	 .  236
       Data Analysis and Study Design	• • • •	240

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                         1. INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE
The purpose of this document is to provide
technical background information relevant to
forestry-related nonpoint pollution. The impetus
for developing this document came in January
1993, when the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) released a guidance specifying
management measures for sources of nonpoint
pollution in coastal waters as required under
section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Act
Reauthorization Amendments of 1990 (CZARA).
The guidance provides the States and Territories
with information on the types of management
measures that should be included in State and
Territorial coastal nonpoint source control
programs.  The guidance focuses on five major
categories of nonpoint sources mat impair or
threaten coastal waters nationally: (1) agricultural
runoff; (2) urban runoff; (3) silvicultural
(forestry) runoff; (4) marinas and recreational
boating; and (5) channelization and channel
modification, dams, and streambank and shoreline
erosion.

Chapter 3 of the guidance—"Management
Measures for Forestry"—contains 10 management
measures designed for various phases of forestry
operations relevant to the control of sources of
sUvicultural nonpoint pollution.  They are:  (1)
preharvest planning; (2) streamside management
areas; (3) road construction/ reconstruction; (4)
road management; (5) timber harvesting; (6) site
preparation and forest regeneration;  (7) fire
management;  (8) revegetation of disturbed areas;
 (9) forest chemicals management;  and (10)
 wetland forest management. Under each of these
 management measures, the  guidance presents
.information on: the specific activities and
 locations for which the measure is suitable; the
 rationale for the management measure's selection;
 the management measure's  purpose; information
 on the effectiveness,  either  alone or in
 combination with other practices;  and information
 on costs of the practices.

 The CZARA guidance document contains limited
 background information on each of the
 management measures, however, comprehensive
 background information from various geographic
 regions on each of the  management measures  is
not included. Impacts from the forestry activities
related to each management measure are well
documented, especially when compared to data
that show undisturbed forested watersheds provide
excellent protection to water and soil resources.
The impacts from forestry-related activities, such
as road construction, timber harvest, mechanical
and chemical site preparation, etc. include
changes hi the chemical, biological, and physical
properties of water resources.

This document builds on the information
presented in the guidance by providing a single
source of background information to interested
parties, in  the way of an annotated bibliography,
on the impacts of forestry-related activities and
the costs and/or effectiveness of best management
practices (BMPs) used to mitigate the  impacts.
This document contains information on over 900
research reports, journal articles, federal
publications, etc.  Approximately SO percent have
been annotated. The references  that are included
but not annotated may also be useful in
assembling a library of pertinent information on
forestry nonpoint source pollution.  This
annotated bibliography is not intended to be a
comprehensive or critical review of all literature,
but a review of a relevant subset of available
information. The following criteria were used in
the selection of papers for annotation: (1) paper
content; (2) the relevance to current forestry
practices;  and (3) the date of publication. The
 content of the paper was the primary  factor used
 in the determination of whether  or not to annotate
 a paper.  Papers with significant amounts of data,
 with sound conclusions, and that were based on
 current technologies were annotated.  In cases
 where the age of the paper was  the only critical
 factor, especially  when the paper provides a
 historical  perspective, it was also annotated.  The
 references are presented in  specific sections based
 on subject matter.

 This document contains the following sections:

         •       Program and policy studies and
                reviews
         •       Instream studies
         •       Road construction and use

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         •      Timber harvesting
         •      Site preparation and regeneration
         •      Forestry chemicals
         •      Streamside management areas and
                riparian areas
         •      Wetlands
         •      Modeling
         •      Water quality monitoring

 The outline for this document was intended to
 follow the management measures presented hi the
 guidance as much as possible.  The section on
 program and policy studies and reviews contains
 documents produced by federal, state, or local
 regulatory agencies on regulations or laws  which
 may impact the implementation of forestry BMPs
 or other related activities. Information on  most
 state BMP manuals are presented in this section.
 The instream studies section is  presented in four
 subsections: chemical (nutrients, pesticides,
 dissolved oxygen, etc.), biological (aquatic
 habitat, aquatic life), physical (temperature,
 suspended solids, sediment, woody debris,  etc ),
 and watershed level studies of cumulative effects.
 Studies directed at determining  the water quality
 effects of forestry activities are  included in this
 section.

 The sections on forestry-related BMPs and
 protection of natural resources (road construction
 and use, timber harvesting, site preparation and
 regeneration, forestry chemicals, streamside
 management areas and riparian areas,  and
 wetlands) have information presented in the
 following subsections: (1) impacts on water
 quality and aquatic habitat, (2) BMP
 specifications, and (3) costs and effectiveness of
 BMPs. The section on modeling has two
 subsections: modeling water quality impacts of
 forestry operations and modeling water quality
 effects of management practice implementation.
 The water quality  monitoring section includes
 subsections on methods and procedures and data
 analysis and study design.

 Because of the large amount of research
 conducted on the water quality impacts of forestry
 activities, especially the major activities such as
road construction,  harvest, and site preparation,
these sections of this document contain the
 majority of papers. However, some repetition of
 documents exists in the bibliography across the
 different subject areas. For example, many
 documents contain significant data and
 conclusions regarding both road construction and
 timber harvest impacts on water quality. ,In many
 instances,  no one topic dominates the data
 collection  and discussion within the paper. In
 these situations, the bibliography contains the
 same record (not always annotated) in both
 sections. This procedure was deemed necessary
 to ensure that bibliography users do not miss
 useful references because of its placement in the
 document.

 The bibliography will be available from EPA as a
 published hardcopy or from the EPA Nonpoint
 Source Bulletin Board as a retrievable file. The
 bibliography was developed using a bibliographic
 software package, however the electronic file
 from this development will have limited
 distribution.

 To use this document, determine the subject of
 interest (timber harvest, models, water quality,
 BMPs, costs,  etc.).  The references within each
 section are listed alphabetically, with all the
 annotated references preceding the non-annotated.
 The annotation presents the basic objectives of the
 paper,  major results and conclusions,  and also
 contains a brief summary of the information
presented.

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              2. PROGRAM AND POLICY STUDIES AND REVffiWS
 American Forest Council. 1991. Effective use
 of communications in implementing a highly
 successful best management practices compliance
program, case study West Virginia. American
 Forest Council Report. 9 pages.

 This paper describes the success of a voluntary
 best management practices compliance program
 used by West Virginia prior to the enactment of
 the Forest Practices Act (FPA) of 1992.  The
 paper describes the methods used to monitor
 compliance and compares the success of the
 program with the success of regulatory programs.

 Bethea, J.M. 1985. Perspectives on nonpoint
 source pollution control: Silviculture. In:
 Perspectives on Nonpoint Source, Pollution:
 Proceedings of a National  Conference. Kansas
 City, Missouri, May 19-22, 1985. U.S.
 Environmental Protection Agency.

 Introductory paper on the nature of silviculture
 disturbances and regulatory/nonregulatory
 approaches to the management of such
 disturbances. Suggestions on how to succeed in
 reducing silvicultural nonpoint source pollution
 through a nonregulatory approach are given.

 Bilby, R.E., and LJ. Wasserman. 1989. The
 development  of the Washington State riparian
'management regulations.  In: Forestry on the
 Frontier, Proceedings of the 1989[Society of
 American Foresters National Convention.
 Spokane, Washington, pp. 148-154.

 A description of a series of negotiations in
 Washington State on the development of the
 Timber, Fish, and Wildlife Agreement is
 presented in a historical perspective.  Regulatory
 guidelines relating to all aspects of forest practices
 are provided. Tree population density and other
 physical parameters were studied to produce
 site-specific riparian management alternatives for
 both eastern and western Washington.  The
 amount of woody debris flowing through streams
 provided the framework for much of the
 regulations.
Coats, R.N., and T.O. Miller. 1981.
Cumulative silvicultural impacts on watersheds:
A hydrologic and regulatory dilemma.
Environmental Management. 5(2):147-160.

The cumulative effects of multiple logging
operations on single watersheds are presented.
Both California and federal laws require that these
effects be considered when approving forest
plans, but in actuality plans are approved on an
individual basis.  Ways to approach the problem
and encourage the formation of a geological
reference system to be used in planning are
included.

Collman, S.J. 1989. Integrated pest
management: A Seattle street tree case study.
In: Forestry on the Frontier,  Proceedings of the
1989 Society of American Foresters National
Convention. Spokane, Washington, pp.
416-420.

This is a case study of the application of
integrated pest management (IPM) to an urban
forestry problem.  An infestation of oystershell
scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) was reportedly causing
the decline of ash cultivars along Seattle's streets.
Examination of the declining trees found that
59.7% had only light or no scale infestation.
Many healthy trees had heavy infestations.  Data
on aspects of the life history  of the scales during
the infestation demonstrated that literature
information on hatching times was incorrect,
which would have had an effect on the timing of
insecticide applications.  The author concludes
that there was a 70% chance that the declining hi
some trees was due to less-than- optimum site
conditions rather than the scale insects.  A
thorough examination of the problem should
precede  any textbook treatment application.

Cubbage, F.W. 1987. Costs of forest water
quality protection. In: Forestry and  Water
Quality: A Policy Workshop for State Foresters.
Oklahoma  City, Oklahoma, July 6-9,  1987.

This paper presents a review of the costs of
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 forestry NFS controls, including agency
 administrative costs, direct costs to landowners or
 timber operators (e.g., plan preparation), and
 indirect costs on timber supplies.  Forest practice
 costs are reviewed for California,  Massachusetts,
 Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
 The various approaches used by these states and
 their effect on implementation cost are analyzed
 as well. The approach used by forestry and other
 agencies for implementing the voluntary or
 required practice rules greatly affects the various
 costs of program implementation,  as well as who
 bears the costs.  Criteria used to select the means
 of controlling NFS pollution must  include BMP
 effectiveness, political and social acceptability,
 and economic efficiency.

 Cubbage, F.W., and C.E.  DeForest. 1991.
 BMPs and harvesting regulations in the South.
 In: Forestry and the Environment ...Engineering
 Solutions. New  Orleans, Louisiana, June 4-6,
 1991. American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers.

 This paper provides an overview of best
 management practices that apply to forestry
 practices, including road construction, timber
 harvest, stream crossing, streamside management
 zones, and maintenance and  retiring of structures.
 This paper presents basic information about the
 types of BMPs that may be used.  The paper
 introduces regulatory trends  in the  states of
 Florida, North Carolina,  West Virginia, and
 Maryland, as well as regulatory trends in forested
 wetlands.

 Cubbage, F.W., M.A. Elfner, and T.G.
 Harris, Jr. 1991. Economic values of forested
 wetlands. In: Southern Forest Economics
 Workers Meeting. Washington, DC, February
20-22, 1991. 14  pages.

The economic value of forested wetlands was
calculated through market analysis  and a
cost-benefit analysis to determine whether a
policy of protecting wetlands from  destruction is
warranted.  This unbiased approach to the
wetland issue bridges the gap between
conservationists and timber harvesters by
assigning monetary values to the market
 evaluation of wetland forest products.  Despite
 these calculations, the author concludes that
 overall wetland protection will be determined by
 political, not economic, criteria.

 Cubbage, F.W., L.K. Kirkman, L.R. Boring,
 T.G. Harris, and C.E. DeForest. 1990. Federal
 legislation and wetlands  protection in Georgia:
 Legal foundations,  classification schemes, and
 industry implications. Forest Ecology and
 Management. 33/34:271-286.

 This paper provides a detailed review of the
 development and current status of U.S. laws
 governing operations in forested wetlands.  The
 potential impacts of these laws on southern
 forestry are also presented.

 Cubbage, F.W., and W.C. Siegel. 1988. State
 and local regulation of private  forestry in the
 east. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry.
 5(2):103-108.

 State and local  regulation  of private forestry in
 the eastern United States is increasing. A number
 of statewide laws regulate the practice of forestry
 in some fashion.  Many local governments in the
 northeastern states and a few in the  South have
 enacted or considered ordinances governing
 logging operations, primarily to prevent property
 damage or to preserve amenity values.  The trend
 toward disjointed local regulation may prompt
 renewed calls from the forestry sector for uniform
 state forest practice laws.

 Cubbage, F.W., W.C. Siegel, and P.M.
 Lickwar. 1989. State water quality laws and
 programs to control noinpoint source pollution
 from forest lands in the south. In: Water: Laws
and Management Conference. Tampa, Florida,
September 17-22, 1989. American  Water
Resources Association, pp. 8A-29 to 8A-37.

This paper briefly reviews federal laws to
maintain water quality and specifically reviews
state water quality statutes and  programs that
affect forestry in the  South. State programs for
controlling nonpoint source pollution are
summarized.  The authors  conclude that state
water quality legislation in the South that affects

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forestry is not restrictive and most southern states
rely on voluntary implementation.  Most state
water quality laws could be implemented more
forcibly.

Cubbage, F.W., W.C. Siegel, and T.K.
Haines. 1987. Water quality laws affecting
forestry in the eastern United States. In:
Symposium on Monitoring, Modeling, and
Mediating  Water Quality. American Water
Resources  Association, pp. 597-609.

The impact of silvicultural practices on water
quality and the history of water quality legislation
affecting forestry are briefly addressed.  Current
regulatory and nonregulatory means of controlling
nonpoint sources of pollution and their
relationship to forestry practices are addressed.
The current status (1987) of the various
approaches and future prospects are addressed.

Cunningham, R.S. 1989. Resolving forest plan
and project appeals in the eastern region of the
Forest Service. In: Forestry on the Frontier,
Proceedings of the 1989 Society of American
Foresters National Convention* Spokane,
Washington, pp. 277-280.

The process of open discussioas and negotiations
with the public and  special interest groups over
Forest Service (FS) Land and Resource
Management Plans (LRMP) is presented.  The FS
has found that following proper legal processes
and being technically correct are not enough  to
ensure success in solving forest management
disputes.  Negotiations and discussions allow a
better understanding by all parties involved.

Dissmeyer, G.E., and E. Frandsen. 1988.  The
economics of silvicultural best management
practices.  In: Nonpoint Source Pollution: 1988 -
Policy, Economics, Management, and
Appropriate Technology. Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
November 6-11, 1988. V. Novotony (ed.).
American Water Resources  Association,
Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 77-86.

Matrices were developed to estimate the economic
benefits of implementing nonpoint BMPs.
Through three examples, this study illustrates
incremental outputs and values of induced goods
and services to investments in soil and water
resource management on forestland and
rangeland.

Dissmeyer, G.E., and R. Miller. 1991.  A status
report on the implementation of the silvicultural
nonpoint source program in the southern states.
12 pages.

The results of a survey of Forest Service Southern
Region states are presented. The survey
questionnaire was developed to assess the status
of silvicultural nonpoint source programs  in the
South.  This paper documents the State Foresters'
involvement and accomplishments and their
planned actions in the coming years.  The 13
states included in the survey consisted of 5
nonregulatory programs,  4 nonregulatory
programs with state authority to  make them
regulatory, and 4 nonregulatory programs with
existing state regulatory programs for
non-compliers.  The survey questionnaire and the
nature of the responses are included.

Essig, D.A. 1991. Implementation of
silvicultural nonpoint source programs in the
United States (Report of survey  results).  National
Association of State Foresters.  17 pages.

The results of a survey questionnaire developed to
provide a nationwide picture of the status of
silvicultural nonpoint source programs are
presented in this paper.  All 19 questions posed to
the State Foresters,  their individual responses, and
a summary of regional responses are presented.
The questionnaire contained questions concerning
the level of participation  by the state forestry
office in developing nonpoint source  assessments,
the presence or absence of a forestry BMPs
program, the publications states provide to
foresters to reduce water quality impacts, and
training or workshops conducted.

Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Division of Forestry. 1989.
Results of the 1989 silvicultural 208 compliance
survey. 8 pages.

The results of a biennial survey, by the Florida

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 Department of Environmental Regulation are
 described.  The BMP compliance of sites recently
 involved in silvicultural operations is evaluated.
 These BMPs were to remain nonregulatory if
 compliance had been attained.

 Florida Department of Agriculture and
 Consumer Services, Florida Division of
 Forestry. 1992. Results of the 1991 Silvicultural
 208 Compliance Survey. 10 pages.
 The primary purpose of the biennial survey was
 to determine statewide compliance with
 silvicultural BMPs. Of the 150 surveyed sites,
 which were chosen in locations with the greatest
 potential for water quality impacts, 141 were
 found to be in compliance with silvicultural
 BMPs.

 Floyd, D.W., and M.A. MacLeod. 1993.
 Regulation and perceived compliance: Nonpoint
 pollution reduction programs in four states.
 Journal of Forestry. 91(5):41-47.

 This article reviews the types of state NPS
 programs created after passage of the Clean
 Water Act. State programs are categorized into
 four groups, and a  state program is reviewed  as
 an example of each group: primarily voluntary
 (Ohio), quasiregulatory (West Virginia), primarily
 regulatory (Maryland), and those with a
 comprehensive forest practices law
 (Massachusetts).  The reasons that states may
 choose one type or another are mentioned. The
 expected success of voluntary programs is
 discussed from the point of view of predictive
 behavior theory.  The authors conducted a survey
 of Society of American Foresters members to test
 hypotheses regarding the relationship between
 type of program and degree of compliance,
 knowledge of BMPs, and attitude toward forestry
 NPS pollution. They found that as program
 stringency increases, perceived compliance does
 also.  No strong relationship was found either
 between program type and BMP knowledge or
 between program type and attitude toward
forestry NPS pollution.  The authors conclude
that successful forestry NPS pollution reduction
plans should combine regulatory and educational
elements.
 Fowler, J.M., E.O. Heady, and D.A.
 Christensen. 1983. Interface afforest and
 agriculture in nonpoint pollution control. Center
 for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa
 State University, Ames,  Iowa. CARD Report
 117. 131 pages.

 The major purpose of the paper was to analyze
 the contribution of forestry practices to
 environmental problems so that policy options
 encompassing both the agricultural and forestry
 sectors can be formulated. The specific
 objectives of this study were: (1) to develop
 relationships between the dominant site
 characteristics of forested areas and the rate of
 suspended sediment generated;  (2) to  integrate
 results from  site-specific local forest research into
 a comprehensive national model; and  (3) to
 analyze  selected environmental  and resource
 policies  that are consistent with national, river
 basin, or producing area objectives.  Separate
 chapters address the role of site characteristics
 and undisturbed rates of sedimentation, fire, mass
 erosion, environmental effects of timber
 harvesting, and mathematical models for
 achieving forest production and protecting
 environmental quality that interact with the
 agricultural sector via the river  basin network.
 Models focused on minimum cost and minimum
 sediment production, and combinations of these
 goals, are presented.

 Greene, C.S. 1988.  Water quality, timber and
 herbicides. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual
 Forest Vegetation Management Conference.
 Redding, California, November 3-5, 1987. pp.
 17-33.

 This article discusses the evolution of regulations
 and related enforcement law developed by the
 California Regional Water Quality Control Board,
 North Coast Region for the protection of regional
 waters from the aerial application of herbicides.
 The sources of State and Regional Board
 authority, the protocol for initiating proposed
 spray projects, the development of water
 monitoring programs, spill contingency plans and
 water user notification procedures and  the
 adoption  of BMPs for the aerial  application of
herbicides are described. Incompatibilities

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between failure to comply with regulations and
enforcement law were resolved by recent
amendments to and interpretations of the law.
The paper emphasizes that laws and their
enforcement are separate but related processes,
and that feedback from persons involved in the
two processes leads to changes in both the laws
and their enforcement.

Gregory, R., £. Niemi, and R. Mendelsohn.
1989. A model for evaluating the impacts of
forest management regulations.  Journal of
Environmental Management. 29:129-144.

This paper addresses the need of
forest-management agencies to anticipate the
impacts of regulations governing forest practices
and outlines a model for evaluating the economic
impacts of proposed changes in the forest
environment*'  The approach described is based on
two premises. First, the primary effect of
changes of forest management rules is on the
environment and therefore linkages between the
rule changes, environmental impacts, and then
economic values must be developed. Second, both
market and nonmarket effects must be evaluated.

Greis, J.G. 1980; Silviculture water quality
management program for Florida. In:
Proceedings of the Society of American
Foresters, pp. 158-159.

The Florida Department of Environmental
Regulation and a committee of forest
professionals teamed up to produce best
management practice guidelines for silvicultural
activities.  The article addresses the demographic
framework of Florida's specific needs and
conveys the main points of water  quality
management.  This short document contains no
data but provides a good summary of the BMP
development process.

Hawks, LJM F.W. Cubbage, H.L. Haney, Jr.,
R.M. Shaffer, and D.H. Newman. 1993. Forest
water quality protection: A comparison of
regulatory and voluntary programs.  Journal of
Forestry. 91(5):48-54.

This study compares Maryland's primarily
 regulatory approach to forestry pollution control
 with the voluntary approach used in Virginia.
 Three indirect measures were used to assess and
 compare the two programs: the method each  state
 uses to meet its pollution control goals, program
 implementation costs borne by each state, and
 ease of compliance and execution costs borne by
 landowners. The authors found each state's
 approach equally effective at obtaining BMP
 compliance. However, Virginia's voluntary
 approach was found to be easier to implement and
 to be an easier system for foresters and
 landowners (to obtain information, for instance),
 whereas Maryland's complex, multilayered
 regulatory approach is difficult to coordinate, and
 implement and therefore more costly. On a
 harvest volume basis, Maryland spent $1.70  to
 $3.20 per thousand board feet (MBF) in 1990,
 while Virginia's cost was  $0.50 to $0.58 per
 MBF.  However, Virginia's harvest was almost 5
 times greater than Maryland's, possibly reducing
 the cost per harvested volume.

 Henly, R.K.,  and P.V. EHefson. 1987.  State-
 administered forestry programs: Current status
 and prospects for expansion.  Renewable
 Resources Journal. 5(4):19.
    v ,  .                    .
 This paper provides the results of a national
 survey of the lead state forestry agencies to
 determine the types of programs emphasized and
 what programs need emphasis in the future.  This
 paper presents several tables of regional results
 from  a thorough questionnaire,  with a high
 response from the forestry agencies.

, Hickman,  C.A., and C.E. Martus.  (undated).
 Local regulation of private forestry in the eastern
 United States. USDA Forest Service, Southern
 Forest Experiment Station.

 The purpose of this study is to determine the
 nature and extent of state and local forestry
 regulation, and to evaluate how these laws and
 ordinances are likely to influence future timber
 supplies and conditions of availability. The  study
 identifies and  describes the local forestry
 regulatory ordinances that.have been adopted in
 the eastern United States; documents the extent to
 which such ordinances have been enacted;

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  highlights important subregional differences in the
  nature and extent of local forestry regulation; and
  discusses probable trends in local forestry
  regulation.

  Ice, G.G., R.L. Beschta, R.S. Craig, and J.R.
  Sedell. 1988. Riparian rules for Oregon forests,
  In: USDA Forest Service. General Technical
  Report PSW-110. pp. 533-536.

  This paper chronicles the development and
  implementation in 1987 of Forest Practice Rules
  specifically designed to improve protection of
  riparian habitat for fish and wildlife.

  Jones  & Stokes Associates, Inc. 1973. A method
 for regulating timber harvest and road
  construction activity for water quality protection
  in northern California, Volume II: Review and
 problem and annotated bibliography.  California
  State Water Resources Control Board.

  The second volume of a two-part document
  reviews the problems associated with timber
 harvesting, road  construction, and similar
 land-disturbing practices in northern coastal
 California. Volume II provides a good general
 discussion of the problems of erosion associated
 with forest activities and is intended primarily as
 background material for understanding the
 concepts and proposals discussed in Volume I.

 Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc. 1973. A method
for regulating timber harvest and road
 construction activity for water quality protection
 in northern California, Volume I: Procedures
 and methods.  California State Water  Resources
 Control Board.

 The first volume of a two-part document
 examines the legal and administrative aspects of
 water and land  resource management in northern
 coastal California and suggests a system for
 evaluating the risk to stream ecosystems from
forest activities, and for making management
decisions based on that evaluation.

Kemper, R.E., and L.S. Davis. 1976. Costs of
environmental  constraints on timber harvesting
and  regeneration. Journal of Forestry.
  74(1):754-761.

  This paper presents a methodology for measuring
  the cost of aesthetic and environmental constraints
  on timber harvesting and regeneration. The
  methodology was empirically quantified for two
  western national forests. The authors concluded
  from these case studies that the costs of increasing
  environmental care are substantial enough to
  warrant detailed quantification and consideration
  in public timber pplicy deliberation.

  Kolenbrander, L.G.  1984. Special management
  areas processes and strategies. In: Proceedings
  of the Special Management Areas Conference.
  Denver, Colorado, April 24-25, 1984. The
  Nature Conservancy,  San  Francisco,
  California. 141 pages.

  The purpose of the Special 'Management Areas
  Conference was to provide agency resource
  specialists, resource planners, area managers, and
  public interest groups with a comprehensive
  introduction to the purposes, planning,
 designation, and management of Special
 Management Areas (SMAs). Speakers at the
 conference presented information on  the value and
 uses of SMAs and how they fit into a multiple-use
 land management framework, data bases useful
 for resource inventories, the planning process for
 designating SMAs, and the problems and
 opportunities involved in managing SMAs.  Case
 studies were reviewed.  These papers present an
 overview of the developing concept of SMAs and
 their role in resource management.

 Lickwar, P.M., F.W. Cubbage, and C.A.
 Hickman. 1990. Current southern state
 programs for control of forestry nonpoint
 source pollution.  Southern Journal of Applied
 Forestry. 14(2):64-69.

 A survey was conducted in the southern states in
 1987 to determine what silviculture nonpoint
 pollution control programs were being
 implemented. The author determined  that
virtually  all state NFS programs in the South  were
nonregulatory and that they relied on educational
programs to emphasize the value  of BMPs.
Although the states believed that BMPs would

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continue to be the primary method for controlling
silviculture NPS pollution, few believe that     '
greater regulation of forestry activities was
needed. Overall, this document provides a
summary of what is being done about controlling
NPS pollution from forestry in the South.

Lotspeich, F.B. 1971. Environmental guidelines
for road construction in Alaska. Environmental
Protection Agency, Alaska Water Laboratory
College. Report No.  1610  GOI.

This report compiles and describes the BMPs.
required to ensure environmental protection
during road construction under cold climate
conditions.  General topics  are route selection,
engineering design, construction activities,
maintenance, and problems of. the true arctic.
Numerous figures illustrate BMPs.  An appendix
includes the National  Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA) of 1969, Executive Order 11514
(Protection and Enhancement of Environmental
Quality), and a series of instructional ,
memorandums by the U.S. Department of
Transportation dealing with highway construction
in response to EO 11514.

Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett.. 1990.
Evaluation of best management practices for
controlling nonpoint pollution from silvicuitural
operations.  Water Resources Bulletin.
26(l):41-52.

Fifteen years of streamflow and water quality data
were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of
BMPs in controlling nonpoint source pollution
from a 110-acre commercial clearcut located in
the Ridge and Valley Province of central
Pennsylvania.  In general,  the BMPs analyzed
effectively reduced water quality impacts
 associated with timber harvest. Although some
 increases in water quality constituents were
observed, most were well below the drinking
 water standards although they may violate EPAs
 antidegradation policy. The authors suggest that
 buffer strips of unharvested timber provided the
 most protection to the streams and that improved
 performance may be  possible through annual
 inspections and increasing  the width of buffer
 strips if necessary. The information presented in
this report demonstrates the potential for
reductions in nonpoint source pollution possible
with various BMPs.

Martus, C.E., H.L. Haney, and W.C. Siegei.
1993. Preliminary impact of local government
forestry-related ordinances affecting harvesting
in the eastern United States. In: Proceedings of
Southern Forest Economics Workers' Annual
Workshop. Research Triangle Park, North
Carolina. , North Carolina.

A survey of 748 loggers and consultants in three
northeastern and three southern states.  In the
Northeast,  the importance of regulation is limited
by low levels of forest activity and small forested
acreage. But in the South, large timber acreage
and active  markets magnified the importance of
local, regulation.  Loggers and consultants
reported examples of costly requirements, but
most local  laws were not viewed as burdensome.
The results show that local forestry laws currently
impose less of a burden than their absolute
number would suggest.

Orsborn, J.F.,  and J.W. Anderson. 1986.
Stream improvements and fish responses: A
bio-engineering approach. Water Resources
Bulletin. 22:381-388.

This paper discusses the problems and benefits
associated  with stream improvements and fish *
response using an integrated, bioengineering
approach.  Various 'conceptual models are
discussed to describe system complexities and
factors that constrain project evaluation.
Conclusions regarding the reasons for project
success are followed by recommendations for
concerted and diversified  efforts to improve
success in stream stewardship.

Perry, J.A., R.C. Ward, and J.C. Loftis. 1984.
Survey of state water quality monitoring
 programs. Environmental Management.
 8(l):21-26.

 The results of a survey of all state water quality
 monitoring programs are  presented.  Twenty
 questions were asked in the general areas of
 fixed-station monitoring,,special studies, and

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  biological monitoring.  The article presents the
  survey data and makes recommendations on ways
  to improve monitoring.

  Roby, K., J. Rector, and M. Furniss. 1991.
  PSW region of the Forest Service about to
  launch BMP evaluation process. USDA Forest
  Service, Pacific Southwest Region. White
  paper. 2 pages.

  This short article provides a general description of
  best management practices (BMP).  It describes
  the history, objectives, primary components, and
  evaluation of BMPs.  On-site and in-channel
  evaluations of BMPs are also addressed.

  Salazar, D.J., and F.W. Cubbage. 1990.
  Regulating private forestry, in the West and
  South. Journal of Forestry. 88(1):14.

  The authors review two  approaches to forest
 practice regulation: (l)comprehensive regulation
 by state forestry agencies and (2) fragmented
 regulation administered by state and local
 environmental protection and land use agencies.
 The approach used by a  state depends primarily
 on whether states share forest practice regulatory
 authority with local governments.  Comprehensive
 regulation is typical in western states, while the
 fragmented approach is more typical in
 northeastern states.  Southern states have relied
 primarily on education and voluntary forest
 practice implementation.  The article reviews the
 regulatory policies of Georgia,  Oregon, and
 California.  The regulatory policies of state versus
 local governments primarily reflect economic
 concerns such as forest resources value or
 property value. The use of forest practice
 regulation to protect water quality is also related
 to its economic value as measured by fisheries,
 recreation, and other factors. The authors
 examine the process of and factors involved in
 developing forest practice regulatory policy in the
 West and South.

 Salo, E.G., and T.W. Cundy  (eds.). 1987.
 Streamside management forestry and fishery
 interactions. College of Forest Resources,
University of  Washington. 471 pages.
  The results of a symposium held to synthesize
  technical information on forestry and fisheries
  interactions and to discuss regulatory changes
  governing forest management practices are
  presented.  Contents include: Variables Related to
  Fish Habitat (e.g., sediment, woody debris,
  temperature); Forest Management of the
  Streamside Zone; Case Studies - Effects of
  Timber Harvest on Fishery Resources; and Panel
  Discussions.  The presented papers focus for the
  most part on the Pacific Northwest. The panel
  discussions concern economics and social
  considerations,  Streamside management zone
  BMPs, and policy perspectives. This collection
  of papers provides complete discussion of the
  interdependence of forestry and fisheries
  resources.

 Schultz, B. 1992. Montana forestry best
 management practices implementation
 monitoring: The 1992 forestry BMP audits final
 report. Montana Department of State Lands,
 Forestry Division, Missoula, Montana. 32
 pages.

 This report summarizes the findings of Montana's
 1992 forestry BMP audits. The audits evaluate
 whether BMPs are being applied and whether they
 are effectively limiting NFS pollution.  Three
.audit teams evaluated up to 58 practices on 46
 sites for a total of 2,029 practices rated for BMP
 application. Eight-seven percent of the practices
 rated on all sites met BMP requirements. Nine
 high-risk BMPs, the most important for protecting
 watersheds, were evaluated separately,  and 72%
 of these met application requirements.  Most
 sites-40 of 46-had at least one minor departure
 from BMP application; 20 of 46 sites had at least
 one major departure.  On 21 of 46 sites, audit
 teams noted that a change in stream crossing
 would have prevented or reduced sediment
discharge. The wider SMZs were, the fewer
were the impacts in the SMZ from harvest
practices. The greatest departure from BMPs, as
well as the most  impacts, was associated with
road drainage.  Application and effectiveness of
BMPs were highest on state lands, followed by
federal and industrial sites and nonindustrial
private sites. The study recommends that the
audits be continued; education programs be
                                              10

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continued; site owners and logging contractors
attend the audits; landowners and contractors
develop remedies for the problems noted; and the
audit process be instituted for other land uses,
including mining, livestock grazing, agriculture,
and subdivision development.

Sidle, R.C., and A.N. Sharpley. 1991.
Cumulative effects of land management on soil
and water resources: An Over-view. Journal of
Environmental Quality. 20(l):l-3.

An overview of the cumulative effects of land
management is provided, as well as an
introduction to the  papers presented at a special
symposium held during the American Society of
Agronomy meetings in 1989. An overview of the
research is presented and future research needs
are discussed.

Solomon, R.M., and P.E. Avers. 1987. A water
quality monitoring framework to satisfy legal
requirements.  American Water Resources
Association. Technical Publication Series TPS
87-2. pp. 231-242.

The paper discusses the development of water
quality monitoring  requirements as they relate to
the Forest Service.  A monitoring framework that
will meet legal requirements is suggested.  The
framework includes three types of monitoring: (1)
implementation, or determining whether
monitoring plans were implemented as designed;
(2) effectiveness, or determining whether the
prescribed practices meet their objectives; and (3)
validation, or investigating whether coefficients,
models, and standards are valid to meet policy,
laws, and regulations.  Examples of each type of
monitoring are given, and the usefulness of
monitoring as  a feedback mechanism for      -
management decision-making is discussed.

USDA Forest Service. 1992. Informational
Report: Background Report for Development of
the Forest Service Management Strategy for
Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Habitat. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Salmon Work Group
and  Field Team, Washington, DC.

The purpose of this report is to provide
background information for the development for
management of Pacific salmon and steelhead
stocks, and to increase awareness about the issues
within the Forest Service and with outside groups
as well.  The document discusses the
organizational framework that includes three
components: a Washington Office Policy Group
which provides overall direction, and a
Washington Office Work Group and an
inter-regional Field Team that will cooperatively
develop the strategy. The strategy was targeted
for completion in 1993.

USEPA. 1980. An approach to water resources
evaluation ofnon- point silvicultural sources (a
procedural handbook). U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Athens GA.

This useful handbook provides an analysis
methodology that can be used to describe and
evaluate changes in water resources resulting from
nonpoint silvicultural activities.  It covers only the
pollutant generation and transport processes and
does not consider the economic, social, and
political aspects of pollution control.  The
document contains  significant amounts of data to
aid with the selection of BMPs.

USEPA. 1988. Effectiveness of agricultural and
silvicultural nonpoint source controls: Final
report.  U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency,
Region 10, Seattle, Washington.

This document presents an analysis of specific
monitoring methods and monitoring programs for
nonpoint source controls associated with
silvicultural and agricultural practices. From the
analysis, information is provided to aid in
determining base  guidelines for monitoring the
effectiveness of NFS control programs.

USEPA. 1987. Surface water monitoring: A
framework for change.  U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Office of Water, OPPE,
Washington, DC.

This report presents the findings and
recommendations of a major EPA study on
surface water monitoring activities conducted by
the Agency.  The results are based on more than
                                              11

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  150 structured interviews with key state and
  federal managers, and numerous less formal
  discussions with EPA and state scientific and
  technical staff.  The report presents the findings
  on where surface water monitoring is today, why
  the present state/EPA program is not adequate to
 meet emerging needs, and where and how
 changes should be made.

 USEPA. 1991.  Watershed monitoring and
 reporting for section 319 national monitoring
 program projects. U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency.

 Section 319 of the Clean Water Act requires that
 EPA develop, both a national framework and
 monitoring guidelines for the National Monitoring
 Program. Key aspects of the national framework
 have been developed and are summarized in this
 document. This document also provides
 monitoring and reporting guidelines.

 Alabama Forestry Commission. 1993.  Alabama's
 best management practices for forestry.

 Alaska Department of Natural Resources. 1992.  >
 Draft forest resources and practices regulations.

 Arkansas Forestry Commission.  Best
 management practices guidelines for silviculture.

 Arkansas Forestry Commission. Final report,
 continuing nonpoint source control (Forestry). 17
 pages.

 Bauer, S.B.  1985. Evaluation of nonpoint source
 impacts on water quality from forest practices in
 Idaho: Relation to water quality standards. In:
 Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution:
 Proceedings of a National Conference. Kansas
 City, Missouri, May 19-22,  1985. U.S.
 Environmental Protection Agency, pp. 455-458.

Beasley,  J.L., and W.C. Harper. 1985.  U.S.
Department of Agriculture's  perspective on
silvicultural nonpoint source  water quality. In:
Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution:
Proceedings of a National Conference. Kansas
City, Missouri, May 19-22,  1985. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, pp. 321-324.
  Belt, G.H., J. O'Laughlin, and T. Merril.  1992.
  Design afforest riparian buffer strips for the
  protection of water quality: Analysis of scientific
  literature. University of Idaho, Wildlife and
  Range Policy Analysis Group Report No. 8. 35
  pages.

  Boyette,  W.C.  1993. Progress report on
  implementation of silvicultural nonpoint source
 programs in the United States. National
  Association of State Foresters. 44 pages.

  Brown, G.W.  1985. Controlling nonpoint source
  pollution from silvicultural operations: What we
  know and don't know.  In: Perspectives on
 Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a
 National Conference. Kansas City, Missouri, May
  19-22, 1985. U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency.

 Brown, T.C., Brown D., and D.  Binkley. 1993.
 Laws and programs for controlling nonpoint
 source pollution in forest areas.  Water Resources
 Bulletin.  29(1): 1-13.

 California Department of Forestry and  Fire
 Protection. 1991.  California forest practice rules.

 Connecticut Resource Conservation and
 Development Forestry Committee. 1990.  Timber
 harvesting and water quality in Connecticut: A
 practical  guide for protecting water quality while
 harvesting forest products.

 Cubbage, F.W., and W.C. Siegel. 1985. The law
 regulating private forest practices.  Journal of
 Forestry,  pp. 538-545.

 Cubbage, F.W., T.M. Skinner, and C.D.
 Risbrudt.   An economic evaluation of the Georgia
 rural forestry assistance program. University of
 Georgia, College of Agriculture Experiment
 Stations, Research Bulletin 322. 59 pages.

 Cullen, J .B. 1991.  Best management practices
for erosion control on timber harvesting
 operations in New Hampshire resource manual.
 New Hampshire Department of Resources and
 Economic Development, Division of Forests and
 Lands.
                                              12

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Davis, R.L., and R.L. Miller.  1985.
Implementing the public/ private nonpoint source
management partnership: A state forestry
perspective. In: Perspectives on Nonpoint Source
Pollution: Proceedings of a National Conference.
Kansas City, Missouri, May 19-22, 1985. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, pp. 325-329.

Dissmeyer, G.E. 1991. Monitoring BMP
compliance, identifying implementation problems,
and implementation vs. other types of monitoring.
In: Southern Group of State Foresters Workshop
on Implementation Monitoring of Forestry Best
Management Practices. Atlanta, Georgia, January
23-25, 1990.  USDA Forest Service,  Southern
Region, pp. 80-84.

Duerr, W.A., and J.C. Jones-.  1976. Forestry
practices and water quality enhancement. In:
Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Forestry and
Wildlife Forum. Virginia Polytechnic  Institute and
State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, pp. 73-81.

Eckerberg, K. 1985. Environmental
considerations in Swedish forestry: A study of the
administrative process.  Environmental
Management. 9(1): 19-26.

Eggleston, J.E. 1980. Role of federal land
managers to control nonpoint source pollution
from forestry activities. In: U.S. Forestry and
Water Quality: What Course in the 80's?
Richmond, Virginia, June  19-20, 1980. Water
Pollution Control  Federation and Virginia Water
Pollution Control  Association,  pp. 183-185.

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Division of Forestry. 1988. Results of
the 1987 silvicultural 208 compliance survey. 13
pages.

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Florida  Division of Forestry. 1991.
Silviculture best management practices manual.
76 pages.

Froehlich, H.A. 1976. Inorganic pollution from
forests and rangelands. In:  Non-point sources of
water pollution. Oregon State University Water
Resources Research Institute, pp.  9-16.
Gay, B.W., and T. Demott. 1989. Silviculture
best management practices-A comprehensive
assessment. Water: Laws and Management
Conference. Tampa, Florida, September 17-22,
1989. American Water Resources Association.
pp. 14A to 14A-7.

Georgia Forestry Commission. 1988.
Recommended best management practices for
forestry in Georgia.

Goetzl, A., and W.C. Siegel. 1980. Water quality
laws in southern states: How they affect forestry.
Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(1):2-10.

Graham, R.T. 1989. Importance of integrating
harvesting, site preparation, and regeneration:
The silvicultural system.  In: Forestry on the
Frontier, Proceedings of the 1989 Society of
American Foresters National Convention.
Spokane,  Washington, pp. 217-218.
Gregory,  G.R. 1955. An economic approach to
multiple use.  Forest Science. 1:6-13.

Hawks, L.J., and F.W. Cubbage. 1991.
Maryland's regulatory and Virginia's voluntary
forest water quality programs. In: Proceedings,
1991  Southern Forest Economics  Workers
Meeting. Louisiana State University, Baton
Rouge, Louisiana. S.J. Chang (ed.).

Henly, R.K., and P.V. Ellefson.  1986. State
forest practice regulation in the United States:
Administration, cost, and accomplishments.
University of Minnesota, Department of Forest
Resources.  154 pages.

Henly, R.K./P.V. Ellefson, and  R.J. Moulton.
 1988. State regulation of private forest practices:
What accomplishments at what costs?  Western
 Wildlands.  13(4):23-28.

 Ice, G.G.  1989. Guidelines and approaches for
 forest riparian management: State forest practice
 rules. In: Forestry on 'the Frontier, Proceedings of
 the 1989 Society of American Foresters National
 Convention. Spokane, Washington,  pp. 94-98.

 Ice, G.G.  1985. The status of silvicultural
 nonpoint source programs. In: Perspectives on
                                               13

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  Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a
  National Conference. Kansas City, Missouri, May
  19-22, 1985. U.S. Environmental Protection
  Agency, pp. 223-226.

  Idaho Department of Lands. 1992. Rules and
  regulations pertaining to the Idaho Forest
  Practices Act Title 38, Chapter 13, Idaho Code.

  Illinois Department of Conservation. 1990.
  Forestry development cost-share program.
  Illinois Administrative Code Tale 17, Chapter I,
  subchapter d, Pan 1536. 15 pages.

  Irland, L.C. 1985. Logging and water  quality:
  State regulation in New England.  Journal of Soil
  and Water Conservation. 40(1):98- 102.

  Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and
  Environmental Protection, Division of Forestry.
  1992. Kentucky forest practice guidelines for
  water quality management.

 Kittredge, D.B., Jr., and M.L. Parker. 1989.
 Massachusetts best management practices: Timber
 harvesting -water quality handbook. University of
 Massachusetts Cooperative Extension.

 Logan, B.,  and  B. Clinch. 1991. Montana
forestry BMP's. Montana Department of State
 Lands.

 Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry
 and Louisiana Forestry Association. 1988.
Recommended forestry best management practices
for Louisiana.

Maine Forest Service. 1991. Erosion and
sediment control handbook for Maine timber
harvesting operations best management practices.

Maryland Department of Natural Resources..
1992. Maryland's guide to forest operations and
best management practices.

Maryland Department of the Environment and the
Maryland Forest Service. 1992. Soil and erosion
control guidelines for forest harvest operations in
Maryland.
  Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,,
  Division of Forestry.  1991. Minnesota Forest
  Stewardship Program. 47 pages.

  Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,
  Division of Forestry.  1989. Water quality in foret
  management: Best management practices in
  Minnesota. 104 pages.

  Mississippi Forestry Association, Environmental
  Affairs Committee. 1989. Mississippi's best
  management practices handbook.

  Missouri Department of Conservation. 1990.
  Missouri watershed protection practices:
  Management guidelines for maintaining forested
  watershed to protect streams.

  NCASI. 1990. Best management practices for
 forest wetlands: Concerns, assessment,
  regulations, and research. Nat. Council of the
  Pap. Ind. for Air and Stream Improvement. Tech
 Rev. Bull. No. 583.

 NCASI. 1983. Summary of silvicultural nonpoint
 source control programs-1982. National Council
 of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
 Improvement. Special Report 83-01.

.New Mexico Natural Resources Department,
 Forestry Division. 1983. Water quality protection
 guidelines for forestry operations in New Mexico.

 North Carolina Department of Environment,
 Health and Natural Resources, Division of Forest
 Resources. 1989. Forestry best management
practices manual.

 Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division
of Forestry. 1991. BMP's for erosion control on
loggingjobs.

Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Forestry
Division. 1985. Forest manager's guide for water
quality in Oklahoma.

Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest Practices
Section. 1991. Forest practice rules: Eastern
Oregon Region, Northwest  Oregon Region, and
Southwest Oregon Region.
                                             14

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Padgett, W.G., A.H. Winward, and A.P.
Youngblood. 1987. Classification of riparian
communities in the intermountain region. In:
Proceedings of the Society of Wetland Scientists'
Eighth Annual Meeting: Wetland and Riparian
Ecosystems of the American West. Seattle,
Washington, May 26-29,  1987. K.M. Mutz and
L.C. Lee (eds.). pp. 101-106.

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Resources, Bureau of Soil and Water
Conservation. Controlling erosion and
sedimentation from timber harvesting operations.

Putnam, W.C. 1990. Implementation of best
management practices in the  Northern Region. In:
Proceedings: National Workshop on Monitoring
Forest Plan  Implementation.  -USDA Forest
Service.     -

Salo, E.O.,  and T.W. Cundy (eds.). 1987.
Streamside management forestry and fishery
interactions. College of Forest Resources;,
University of Washington. 471  pages.

Schmidt, L.J.  1987. Recognizing  and improving
riparian values: The Forest Service approach to
riparian management. In: Proceedings of the
Society of Wetland Scientists' Eighth Annual
Meeting: Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems of the
American West. Seattle, Washington, May 26-29,
1987. K.M. Mutz and L.C.  Lee  (eds.). pp.
36-38.

Sidle, R.C.  1989. Overview  of cumulative effects
concepts and issues. In: Forestry on the Frontier,
Proceedings of the 1989 Society of American
Foresters National Convention. Spokane,
Washington, pp. 103-107.

Skill, N.T.  1980. A contribution to quality forest
management: The Oregon Forest  Practices. Act.
In: U.S. Forestry and Water Quality: What
Course in the 80's? Richmond, Virginia, June
19-20, 1980. Water Pollution Control Federation
and Virginia Water Pollution Control Association.
pp. 186-190.

Smith, D.M. 1978. Implications for silvicultural
management in the impacts of regeneration
 systems on soils and environment. In: Forest Soils
 and Land Use, Proceedings of the Fifth North
 American Forest Soils Conference. Colorado State
 University, Fort Collins^ Colorado.  C.T.
 Youngberg (ed.). pp. 536-545.

 South Carolina Forestry Commission. 1989. Best
 management practices for South Carolina's
 forested wetlands.

 Spangenberg, N.E. 1987. Implementation
 strategies for agricultural and silvicultural
 nonpoint source pollution control in California
 and Wisconsin.  Water. Resources Bulletin. 23(1):
 133-137.                     .

 Stuart, G. 1987. Private land items for work
 group awareness and consideration. In: Nonpoint
 Workshop. Salt Lake City, Nevada, November
 16-20, 1987.

 Swank, G.W. 1985. Streamside management units
 in the Pacific Northwest. In: Conference on
 Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management:
 Reconciling Conflicting Uses. USDA Forest
 Service, April 16-18. pp.  435-438.

 Tennessee Department of Conservation, Division
 of Forestry. 1989. Best management practices for
 silvicultural and other forest activities in
 Tennessee.

 Tennessee Department of Conservation, Division
 of Forestry. Loggers' Guide to  Forestry: Best
 management practices for protection of water
 quality in Tennessee.

 Texas Forestry Association. 1989. Texas best
 management practices for silviculture.

 U.S. Congress. 1990. Tongrass Timber Reform
 Act. Public Law 101- 626, November 28, 1990,
 104 Stat. pp.  4426-4435.

 U.S. General Accounting Office.  1990. Water
 pollution: Greater EPA leadership needed to
 reduce nonpoint source pollution. GAO/ RCED-
 91-10. U.S. General Accounting Office,
, Resources, Community and Ecoh. Development
 Commission,  Washington, DC. 56 pages.
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 USDA Forest Service. 1978. Program of research
 for forests and associated rangelands. , USDA
 Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report NE-42.

 USDA Forest Service and USEPA.  1978.
 Streamside management zone statutes and
 ordinances, criteria and institutional
 arrangements serving water quality objectives on
 state and private forest lands, pp. 10-22.

 Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and
 Recreation. 1987. Acceptable management
 practices for maintaining water quality on logging
 jobs in Vermont.

 Virginia Department of Forestry.  1989. Forestry
 best management practices for water quality in
 Virginia.

 Washington State Forest Practices Board and
 Department of Ecology. 1992. Washington forest
 practices rules and regulations.

 Weller, C.G. 1990. Monitoring engineering
 activities. In: Proceedings of the National
 Workshop on Monitoring Forest Plan
 Implementation. Minneapolis, Minnesota, May
 14-17. USDA Forest Service, pp. 75-79.

 Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality.
 1992. Wyoming nonpoint source management
plan: Silviculture best management practices-Final
 draft.

 Yee, C.S. 1985. Regulation of nonpoint sources
 of pollution from timber harvesting-A case history
 of the California experience. In: Perspectives on
Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a
National Conference. Kansas City, Missouri, May
 19-22, 1895. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency.
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                                3. INSTREAM STUDIES
CHEMICAL

Baker, M.B., Jr. 1990. Hydrologic and water
quality effects of fire. USDA Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment
Station. General Technical Report RM-191. pp.
31-42.

This paper provides a review of studies conducted
to determine the effects of prescribed burning on
forest and rangelands of the Southwest.  It
provides a qualitative analysis on the types of
water quality effects observed after prescribed
burning; no  substantial quantitative results are
presented. The paper includes citations for nearly
70 articles related to water quality effects from
prescribed burning.

Bormann, F.H., G.E. Likens, T.G. Siccama,
R.S. Pierce, and J.S. Eaton. 1974. The export
of nutrients and recovery of stable condition
following deforestation at Hubbard Brook.
Ecological Monographs. 44(3):255-277.

The effects of deforestation on the export of
organic and  inorganic paniculate matter,
credibility, and the importance of dissolved
substances in exported materials are presented in
this paper. At the Hubbard Brook Experimental
Forest, a forested watershed was clearcut and left
in place.  For the next 3 years, vegetative
regeneration was controlled via the use of
herbicides. Large increases  (15 times) in
paniculate matter export were observed in the
clearcut watershed, although little difference was
observed the first 2 years and a dramatic
difference was observed during the third year.  In
addition, the average ratio of export of dissolved
substances to paniculate matter was 2.3 for
undisturbed  and  > 8.0 during the first two  years
for clearcut. This paper provides significant
amounts of data  comparing  deforested and
undisturbed forested watersheds over several
years.  The temporal changes in water quality due
to changes in vegetative cover provides significant
evidence of the impacts of deforestation on water
quality.
Bormann, F.H., G.E. Likens, D.W. Fisher,
and R.S. Pierce. 1968. Nutrient loss accelerated
by clear cutting of a forest ecosystem. Science.
159:882-884.

The effect of forest clearcut on nutrient loss was
examined.  The nutrient concentration hi runoff
water was compared to concentrations observed hi
an undisturbed forested watershed. Data from the
study indicated significantly higher nutrient losses
fronvthe clearcut watershed.  The results of this
study suggest the following about nutrient
depletion due to clearcut: reduced transpiration
and increased runoff lead to greater export;
reducing root surfaces reduces uptake and
storage, removal of nutrients in forest products,
and increased mineralization of exposed soils.
This paper provides good data for comparison to
other similar studies conducted within the
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest.

Brozka, R.J., G.L. Rolfe, and L.E. Arnold.
1981. Water quality from two small forested
watersheds  in southern Illinois, Water
Resources Bulletin. 17(3):443-447.

This paper presents partial results of a larger
research effort to determine the water quality
benefits of various  watershed  management  ,
alternatives. Two  intermittent streams on
oak-hickory watersheds were tested for NaVKV
Ca*+, Mg++, P, and NO3". Water quality  in the
watersheds was found to be high and was
attributed to their forested cover. Tables of
precipitation and nutrient concentrations hi the
streams are provided.

Chang, M., J.D. McCullough,  and  A.B.
Granillo.  1983. Effects of land  use and
topography on some water quality variables in
forested east Texas.  Water Resources Bulletin.
19(2):191-196.

The spatial variation of five water quality
variables was analyzed using composite water
samples collected periodically from eight small
watershed in forested East Texas during 1977-
                                              17

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 1980.  Based on 31 observations the average
 yields of nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, total kjeldahl
 nitrogen, total phosphorus, chloride, and total
 suspended sediment were 1.43, 21.96, 3.09,
 50.11, and 90.39 kg/ha/yr, respectively.  The
 article closes with three conclusions: (1) water
 flowing from forested watershed is normally freer
 from suspended solids than that from pasture
 watersheds; (2) Drainage density, watershed shape
 factor, compaction coefficient, stream frequency,
 and watershed mean slope were most useful in
 predicting water quality conditions; and (3) none
 of the observations of Cl, N03-NO2 or TSS
 exceeded the proposed quality standards of EPA
 and the State of Texas.  Concentrations of PO4
 were in excess of standards.

 Childers, D.L.,  and J.G. Gosselink. 1990.
 Assessment of cumulative impacts to water
 quality in a forested wetland landscape.
 Journal of Environmental Quality.  19:455-464.

 This article presents a historical analysis of water
 quality in the Tensas Basin, Louisiana, as part of
 a cumulative impact analysis of the landscape.
 Historical records of suspended sediment, N, P,
 and turbidity from three streams in the bashi
 demonstrated that the watershed's water quality is
 characteristic where the original forest cover has
 been cleared. Aquatic primary productivity in the
 Basin appears to  be nitrogen limited.  A
 goal-oriented management plan for the watershed
 was developed based on the study results.
 Management practices to counteract the
 cumulative effects of conversion to agricultural
 land include runoff control, protecting forested
 corridors along streams, and creating new buffer
 zones.

 Feller, M.C. 1989. Effects of forest herbicide
 applications on streamwater chemistry in
 southwestern British Columbia.  Water
 Resources Bulletin. 25(3):607-616.

 The herbicide glyphosate was applied to portions
 of two watersheds in southwestern British
 Columbia to kill vegetation that was competing
 with Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
plantations.   This application had  little significant
 effect on streamwater chemistry (K+, Na2+,
 Mg2+, Ca2+, C1-, N03-, NH.+, PO,3", SO/, and
 SiO2 concentrations, electrical conductivity, and
 pH) when vegetation cover in a watershed was
 reduced by 4%, but had significant effects, which
 lasted for at least 5 years, when cover was
 reduced by 43%.  The greatest percentage
 increases were observed for NO/, which
 increased from typical pretreatment levels of
 < 0.5 mg/1 to a maximum of 4.6 mg/1 during the
 first posttreatment water year. Nitrate levels,
 usually the most impacted by forestry activities,
 stayed below those recommended for drinking
 water (44 mg/1). This study presents the type of
 long-term data needed to analyze trends in water
 quality due to chemical  applications.

 FfoIIiot, P.F. 1989. Water quality of
 streamflow from selected forested watersheds
 in Arizona.  Hydrology and water resources in
 Arizona and the Southwest. 19:1-5.

 A study was initiated to collect baseline water
 quality data for use hi Arizona water resources
 planning and management strategies.  A table is
 presented with mean and standard deviations for 3
 years of samples for the following water quality
 constituents: total soluble salts, calcium,
 magnesium, sodium, chloride, sulfate,
 bicarbonate, fluoride, nitrate, and pH.  This paper
 provides no cause-and-effect relationships for
 differences in pollutant concentrations in the
 watersheds. The paper provides baseline data but
 needs effects of different land uses to be more
 useful.

 Foggin, G.T., III, and L.K. Forcier. 1974.
 Cation concentrations in small streams draining
 match forested and deaf cut watersheds in
 western Montana. Montana State University,
 Joint Water Resources Research Center,
 Bozeman, Montana. Res. Report 58. 54  pages.

 The impacts of clearcutting practices on the
 nutrient output of forested ecosystems and the
 effect on stream water quality are examined in
 this study.  Fifteen clearcut basins in western
 Montana were selected and their morphometric
 characteristics determined. Water samples from
these watersheds were analyzed for nutrients and
other water quality parameters.  It was  determined
                                               18

-------
that the clearcut basin produced higher dissolved
nutrient ioads, as well as increased flow.

Fredriksen, R.L. 1971. Comparative chemical
water quality-Natural and disturbed streams
following logging and slash burning. In:
Proceedings of a Symposium: Forest Land Uses
and Stream Environment. Oregon State
University, October 19-21, 1970. J.T. Krygier
and J.D. Hall (eds.). Corvallis, OR. pp.
125-137.

The loss of nutrients from an old growth Douglas
fir forest was measured in streams following
timber harvest and slash burning.  Nutrient cation
losses increased 1.6 to 3.0 times the loss of the
undisturbed watershed. The surge of nutrients
following slash burning contained ammonia and
manganese concentrations greater  than federal
water quality standards for  12 days after burning.
The authors conclude that nitrogen losses can be
minimized by avoiding slash burning when
possible. This paper presents many figures and
tables with.the data from the study.

Fredriksen, R.L., D.G.  Moore,  and L.A.
Norris. 1973. The impact of timber harvest,
fertilization, and herbicide treatment  on
streamwater quality in western Oregon and
Washington. In: Forest Soils and Forest Land
Management, Proceedings of the Fourth North
American Forest Soils Conference. B. Bernier
and C.H. Winget (eds.). pp. 283-313.

This paper describes the impacts of forest
management practices on stream water quality in
the Douglas fir region. The conceptual base for
understanding the processes of soil erosion and
stream sedimentation and the outflow of native
nutrients, fertilizers, and  herbicides in streams is
presented in this study. Research findings from
studies in Cascade and Coast Range watersheds
illustrate these concepts.  The methodology
commonly used in watershed studies is  explained,
and water quality effects  of forestry activities are
reviewed in detail.  This  is an excellent review of
water quality effects, with data presented from
numerous studies conducted in the region. The
authors present five conclusions based on the
review. Sedimentation of forest streams after
timber harvest increases with increasing angle of
slope, and forest roads that cross steeply inclined
streams rather than roads on ridge tops. Clearcut
forests and roads in steep country require more
recovery time.  Sedimentation can be decreased
by careful planning.  Nutrients are lost after
clearcutting, but loss decreases rapidly with
revegetation. Nitrogen concentrations hi streams
does not increase beyond accepted drinking water
standards.  The biological effects of forest
fertilization on N transformations and movements
in forest soils should be investigated.  Long-term
consequences of repeated forest fertilization on
water quality must be determined. The drift or
direct application of spray materials  to surface
waters is the principal route of herbicide entry
into streams.

Gibbs, K.E., T.M. Mingo, and D.L.
Courtemanch. 1984. Persistence of carbaryl
(Sevin-4-oil) in woodland ponds and its effects
on pond macroinvertebrates following forest
spraying.  Canadian Entomologist. 116:203-213.

The water quality impact of an aerial spraying of
the insecticide carbaryl is presented. Carbaryl
(Sevin-4-oil) was applied to woodland ponds in
northern Maine at the rate of 840 g A.I./ha.
Maximum residue  levels found were 254 ug/1 in
the water and 53,793 ug/kg (dry wt) in the
sediment. Residues of the carbaryl were
detectable in the water samples for 14 months and
in the sediment for 16 months after spraying.
The study presents significant amounts of data on
the levels of the carbaryl residues and on the
number of aquatic  organisms present prior to and
after spraying. The amphipods Hyallela azteca
and Crangonyx richmondensis were reduced to
near zero levels after the applications and failed to
recolpnize ponds for 30 months after treatment.
The concentrations observed in this study may be
somewhat higher than typical because the sprayed
ponds had no vegetative buffer to intercept any of
the spray.
                                              19

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 Golden, M.S., C.L. Tuttle, J.S. Kush, and
 J.M. Bradley. 1984. Forestry activities and
 •water quality in Alabama: Effects,  recommended
 practices, and an erosion-classified system.
 Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
 Station. Bulletin 555.

 The report was prepared primarily as a source of
 information on the relationship between forestry
 practices and water quality, with orientation
 toward forestry practices prevalent hi Alabama.
 Information on stream pollutants such as
 sediment, nutrients, pesticides, organic material,
 waste and litter, and temperature is provided.
 The review includes over  160 directly cited
 documents on these subjects. Also included in the
 report are recommendations of principles and
 practices designed to minimize the water quality
 impacts from Alabama  forestry practices.

 Gottfried, GJ.,  and L.F. DeBano. 1990.
 Stream/low and water  quality responses to
preharvest prescribed burning in an undisturbed
ponderosa pine watershed. USD A Forest
 Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and  Range
 Experiment Station. General Technical Report
 RM-191. pp. 222-228.

 The impacts of prescribed burning on streamflow
 and water quality were evaluated following a
 prescribed burn.  Prefire and postfire levels of
 nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, phosphates,
 calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium were
 used as  indicators of stream water quality.  No
 significant changes in streamflow were observed
 after the burn; significant, but small, changes in
 nutrient levels were observed. Because only 43%
 of the watershed was burned, the water quality
 and stream flow values do not represent total
 loads of nutrients from  the watershed or the total
 water yield.  Also, data were presented only for
water samples collected for 1 year after burning.

 Granillo, A.B., M. Chang, and E.B. Rashin.
 1985. Correlation between suspended sediment
and other water  quality parameters in small
streams of forested east Texas.  The Texas
Journal of Science. 37(2/3):227-234.

A study is described in which sediment load and
 its relationship with four other water quality
 parameters were examined in streams of eight
 mostly forested watersheds.  Total suspended
 sediment (TSS) appears to be a reasonable
 indicator of stream water quality in the study
 area, as seen by the high correlations between
 TSS and Kjeldahl nitrogen, total  phosphorus, and
 chloride.

 Harr, R.D., and R.L. Fredriksen. 1988. Water
 quality after logging small watersheds within
 the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon. Water
 Resources Bulletin. 24(5):1103-1111.

 The water quality impacts from clearcut practices
 and slash burning are presented.  Logging
 significantly increased nitrate- nitrogen levels for
 up to 7 years after harvest; smaller increases were
 observed after slash burning.  Suspended sediment
 also had a small increase attributed to construction
 of a permanent road that crossed streams.  Annual
 stream temperatures increased 2-3 °C after
 logging but  returned to pretreatment levels after 3
 years. This watershed study presents significant
 data on the effects of forest harvest and slash
 burning on water quality.

 Helvey, J.D., J.N. Koclienderfer, and PJ.
 Edwards. 1989. Effects of forest fertilization on
 selected ion concentrations in central
 Appalachian streams. In: Seventh Central
 Hardwood Forest Conference. Carbondale,
 Illinois, March 5-8. USDA Forest Service.
 General Technical Report NC-132. pp.
 278-282.

Two small forest watersheds in West Virginia
 were fertilized with nitrogen and  phosphorus to
 determine effects on streamflow chemistry.
 Fertilizer application rates were 336 kg/ha N as
 ammonium nitrate and 224 kg/ha P2OS as triple
superphosphate.  Concentrations of nitrate-N
 increased on both watersheds 5 months after
fertilization.  Maximum monthly  concentrations
were 8.5 and 7.3 mg/1 (background levels were a
maximum 1-2 mg/1).   Elevated levels of nitrate-N
were observed for 3 years following treatment.
Phosphate-phosphorus concentrations did not
change appreciably.
                                              20

-------
 Keeney, D.R. 1973. The nitrogen cycle in
 sediment-water systems. Journal of
 Environmental Quality. 2(l):15-28.

 This paper reviews literature cm the fate of
 nitrogen in waters and sediments.  Emphasis is
 placed on the importance of N to aquatic
 productivity, the pathways leading to N gains or
 losses in aquatic ecosystems, and the availability
 of N in sediments to the overlying waters.  The
 effects of sediment properties, lake morphology,
 and environmental factors (pH, temperature, DO,
 oxidation-reduction potential) on the pathways and
 rates of N turnover are considered. An extensive
 bibliography is provided.

 Kochenderfer, J.N., and G.M. Aubertin. 1975.
 Effects of management practices on water
 quality and quantity:  Fernow Experimental
 Forest, West Virginia. In: Municipal Watershed
 Management Symposium  Proceedings. USDA
 Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report NE-13. pp.
 14-24.

 The data from 22 years of research into the
 influence of forestry practices on the quantity and
 timing of streamflow and on water quality
 parameters such as turbidity, temperature, specific
 conductance, pH, alkalinity, and nutrient
 concentrations are reviewed in this paper.  Water
 quality degradation was observed from clearcut
 experimental watersheds, whereas minor changes
 ifl water quality were observed when forestry
 practices were well planned and conducted.  The
 authors conclude that at the time of this paper,
 forests could not be managed for timber products
 and water yield and that water quality degradation
 could easily be avoided by using erosion control
 management practices.  Data from the research
 are presented, although no statistical analysis of
 the data is provided.

 Martin, C.W.  1979. Precipitation and
 streamwater chemistry in an undisturbed
 forested watershed in New Hampshire.
 Ecology. 60(1): 36-42.

 A study was initiated to determine the
precipitation and streamwater chemistry of
 forested watersheds at various stages of
 succession, including a forested watershed heavily^
 logged 55 years ago,  a watershed commercially
 clearcut in 1970, and a watershed clearfelled in
 1967 and sprayed with herbicide for 3 years.  The
 previously reported hypothesis that nutrient
 concentrations would  be higher in streams
 draining mature forested areas due to lower net
 accumulation in these stands compared to younger
 stands was tested. The authors found a net loss
 of nitrate from all watersheds.  However, a net
 accumulation of ammonium that was sufficient to
 give a net increase in total N in all watersheds
 was found.

 Meyer, J.L.,  and C.M. Tate. 1983. The effects
 of watershed  disturbance on dissolved organic
 carbon dynamics of a stream. Ecology.
 64(1)^3-44.

 Two second-order streams in the Coweeta
 Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, were
 studied for annual dissolved organic carbon
 (DOC) export. One of the watersheds was
 completely clearcut 2  years prior to the beginning
 of the study, while the other was left undisturbed.
 The document provides excellent analytical data
 for DOC transport during  baseflow and storm
 periods.  Lower DOC export from the clearcut
 watershed was concluded to be the result of lower
 inputs in subsurface water as well as in stream
 generation.

 Mikalsen, K.T. 1986Y Preliminary results of
 Georgia nonpoint source  impact assessment   :
 study: Commercial forestry. In Research on the
 Effects of Forest Harvesting, Drainage,
 Mechanical Site Preparation, and Prescribed
 Fire on Water Quality.

 Commercial forestry activities adjacent to five
 streams throughout physiographic regions in
 Georgia resulted in varying degrees of water
 quality impact.  Beneficial  use was denied in one
 stream, impaired in two streams, and not
substantially affected in two streams.  The major
 impairment observed in the streams was an
 increase in sediment deposition, which altered or
destroyed aquatic habitats.  It  was concluded that
the implementation of  BMPs must be continued
                                              21

-------
 and sampling must also be continued to ensure
 that high water quality standards are maintained.

 Neary, D.G., P.B. Bush, J.E. Douglass, and
 R.L. Todd. 1985. Picloram movement in an
 Appalachian hardwood forest watershed.
 Journal of Environmental Quality.
 14(4):585-591.

 The herbicide picloram was applied at a rate of
 5.0 kg/ha to 4 ha of a 28-ha watershed in western
 North Carolina.  The herbicide was broadcast
 manually as a pellet formulation in May, with the
 intention of removing a poor-quality mixed oak
 overstory and rhododendron-laurel understory
 prior to planting white pine.  Picloram residues in
 soil samples peaked in concentration in the upper
 0.07 m at 11.58 mg/kg, had a half life of about 4
 weeks, and declined to near detection limits 28
 weeks after application. Residues were detected in
 soil solution 1.2 m into the soil. Only sporadic,
 low-level residues were detected in stream flow
 during a 70-week period.  Use of picloram did
 not affect the quality of stream flow from the
 watershed for domestic  or agricultural purposes.

 Pionke, H.B., and G. Clusters. 1973. Pesticide-
 sediment-water interactions. Journal of
 Environmental Quality. 2(l):29-45.

 This article reviews the impact of
 pesticide-sediment-water interactions on the
 distribution and persistence of pesticides in
 receiving lakes. The authors discuss pesticide
 persistence, transport through the atmosphere,
 ground water and surface runoff, and the effects
 of pH, lake stratification, characteristics and
 content of sediment organic matter and clay, and
 salinity.  The authors conclude with a discussion
 and review of the factors affecting pesticide
 persistence in aquatic systems.  An appendix of
 common and chemical names of insecticides,
 pesticides, and herbicides is provided, as is an
 extensive bibliography.

Ponce, S.L. 1974. The biochemical oxygen
 demand  of finely divided logging  debris in
stream water. Water Resources Research.
 10(5):  983-988.
 The impact of Douglas fir needles and twigs,
 western hemlock needles, and red alder leaves on
 dissolved oxygen and thus on the quality of
 mountain stream water was examined.  The leaf
 material  exposed to fluctuating temperature
 exerted a 5 day BOD of 4.0, 2.4 and 4.2 times
 greater than the  standard temperature BOD for
 Douglas fir needles, western hemlock needles,and
 red alder leaves, respectively. Oxygen depletion
 was more likely to cause aquatic disruptions than
 were leachate effects.

 Silsbee, D.G., and G.L. Larson. 1983. A
 comparison of streams in logged and unlogged
 areas of Great Smoky Mountains National
 Park (Tennessee).  Hydrobiologia.
 102(2):99-111.

 This study compared stream quality in a
 never-logged watershed and  a primitively-logged
 (50 years ago) watershed in the Great Smokey
 Mountains National Park.  Water quality, stream
 channel characteristics, and macroinvertebrates
 were evaluated.  The water from the unlogged
 stream was higher in nitrate, sulfate, phosphate,
 and calcium than that of the  logged stream. This
 paper provides information on the long-term
 water quality impacts associated with logging.

 Swank, W.T., L.F. DeBano, and D. Nelson.
 1989. Effects of timber management practices
 on soil and water. In: The Scientific Basis for
 Silviculture! and Management Decisions in the
 National Forest  System.  R.M. Burns (ed.).
 USDA Forest Service.  General Technical
 Report WO-55.  pp. 79-106.

 This paper presents  a detailed review of the
 effects of various forest management practices on
 soil and water characteristics.  The major topics
 reviewed include forest management practices,
general effects on soil and water, and effects  on
different forest types. The section on general
effects on soil and water includes review of water
quantity, water quality, erosion, nutrient
loss/change, fire, and herbicides.  The different
forest types, including western inland conifers,
pacific coast conifers, northeastern conifers,
eastern hardwoods, and southern conifers, are
reviewed for water yield, streamflow timing,
                                              22

-------
erosion and sedimentation, water quality and
temperature, and soil and soil nutrients. This
review cites over  100 references.

Tiedemann, A.R., T.M. Quigley, and T.D.
Anderson. 1988.  Effects of timber harvest on
stream chemistry and dissolved nutrient losses
in northeast Oregon.  Forest Science.
34(2)^44-358.

An upper slope conifer forest in eastern Oregon
and Washington was studied.  Three harvested
watersheds (41% clearcut and 17% selection
harvest) were compared to a control watershed.
Nitrate-N concentrations hi stream flow increased
in response to both clearcutting treatments. The
maximum level observed  (0.52 mg/1) was,
however, far below maximum allowable levels for
drinking water standards (10 mg/1).  Small but
significant increases in cation concentrations were
observed with both clearcutting treatments.
Comparisons of chemical characteristics and
constituents among the four watersheds under
study revealed enormous variability. However,
this study supported other studies from the Pacific
Northwest that indicated that forest harvest
activities have no adverse impact on water quality
for drinking purposes.  The dissolved nutrient
concentrations and variations are provided! and
discussed in detail.

Blackmon, E.G. (ed). 1985. Forestry and water
quality: A mid- south symposium. Little Rock,
Arkansas, May 8-9,  1985. Arkansas Cooperative
Extension Service, University of Arkansas.

Burdick, G.E., H.J.  Dean, and E.J.  Harris. 1960.
The effect of Sevin upon the aquatic environment.
New York Fish and Game Journal. 7:14-25.

Cole, D.W., W.J.B. Crane, and C.C. Grier.
1973. The effect of forest management practices
on water chemistry in a second growth Douglas
fir ecosystem. In: Forest Soils and Forest Land
Management,  Proceedings of the Fourth North
American Forest Soils  Conference. Laval
University, Quebec,  pp.  195-207.

Cornish, P.M., and D. Binns. 1987. Streamwater
quality following logging and wildfire in a dry
sclerophyll forest in southeastern Australia.
Forest Ecology and Management.. 22:1-28.

Davis, E.A., and P.A. Ingebo. 1970. Fenuron
contamination of stream water from a chaparral
watershed in Arizona. In Research Progress
Report of the Western Society of Weed Science.
pp. 22- 23.

Douglass^ I.E., and W.T. Swank.  1975. Effects
of management practices on water quality and
quantity: Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North
Carolina. In: Municipal Watershed Management
Symposium Proceedings. USDA Forest Service,
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. General
Technical Report NE-13. pp. 1-13.

Duffy, P.D., J.D. Schreiber, D.C. McClurkin,
and L.L. McDowell. 1978. Aqueous- and
sediment-phase phosphorus yields from five
southern pine watersheds.  Journal of
Environmental Quality. 7(1):45-50.

Feller, M.C., and J.P.  Kimmins. 1979. Chemical
characteristics of small  streams near Haney hi
southwestern British Columbia.  Water Resources
Research. 15(2):247-258.

Froehlich, H.A.  1976.  Inorganic pollution from
forests and rangelands.  In: Non-point sources of
water pollution.  Oregon State University Water
Resources Research Institute, pp. 9-16.

Johnson, P.L., and W.T. Swank. 1973. Studies
of cation budgets in the Southern Appalachians on
four experimental watersheds with contrasting
vegetation.'  Ecology. 54:70-80.

Kerr, P.C., D.L. Brockway, D.F. Paris, and S.E.
Craven.  1973. Carbon  cycling in sediment water
systems. Journal of Environmental Quality.
2(1):46-51.

Lawson, E.R., T.L. Rogerson, and L.H.
Hileman. 1985. Water  quality of stormflows  from
hardwood forested catchments in the Boston
mountains. In: Fifth Central Hardwood Forest
Conference. Urbana, Illinois, April 15-17, 1985.
pp.. 215-221.
                                              23

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 Likens, G.E., F.H. Bormann, and N.M. Jphnson.
 1969. Nitrification: Importance to nutrient losses
 from a cutover forested ecosystem.  Science
 163:1205-1206.

 NCASI. 1980. Research and field investigation of
 the impact of southern forestry management
 practices on receiving water quality and utility.
 National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
 and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin No.
 337.

 Neary, D.G., and J.L. Michael. 1989. Effect of
 sulfometuron methyl on ground water and stream
 quality in coastal plain forest watersheds.  Water
 Resources Bulletin. 25(3):617-623.

 Norris, L.A. 1976. Forests and rangelands as
 sources of chemical pollutants. In: Non-Point
 Sources of Water Pollution.  Oregon State
 University,  Water Resources Research Center.
 pp. 17-36.

 Nutter, W.L.  1982. Water quality and yield from
 the intensively managed forest. In: Proceedings of
 the Society of American Foresters, pp.  89-93.

 Red, J.T., and W.L. Nutter. 1986. Wastewater
 renovation in a slash pine plantation subjected to
 prescribed burning. Journal of Environmental
 Quality. 15(4):351-356.

 Riekerk, H. 1989. Forest fertilizer and
 runoff-water quality. In: Proceedings - Soil and
 Crop Science Society of Florida. Vol. 48, pp
 99-102.

 Sain, P., J.B. Robinson,  W.N. Stammers, N.K.
 Kaushik, and H.R. Whiteley. 1977. A laboratory
 study on the role of stream sediment in nitrogen
 loss from water. Journal of Environmental
 Quality. 6(3):274-278.

 Schreiber, J.D., P.D. Duffy, and D.C.
 McClurkin.  1976. Dissolved nutrient losses in
 storm runoff from five southern pine watersheds.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 5(2):201-205.
 Tiedemann, A.R., J.D. Helvey, and T.D.
 Anderson. 1978. Stream chemistry and watershed
 nutrient economy following wildfire and
 fertilization in eastern Washington. Journal of
 Environmental Quality. 7(4):580-588.

 Triska, F.J., J.R. Sedell, K.C. Cromack, S.V.
 Gregory, and P.M. McCorison. 1984. Nitrogen
 budget for a small coniferous forest stream.
 Ecological Monographs. 54(1): 119-140.
 BIOLOGICAL

 Berman, C.H., and T.P. Quinn. 1991.
 Behavioral thermoregulation and homing by
 spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus
 tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Yakima River.
 Journal of Fish Biology. 39(3): 301-312.

 This study investigated the possible link between
 elevated thermal regimes and spring chinook
 salmon habitat selection and migration.  Nineteen
 salmon were radiotagged and monitored for
 internal body temperature and movement for 4
 months.  The fish maintained an average internal
 temperature of 2.5 °C below ambient temperature
 prior to spawning and were most commonly
 located in islands, pools, and rock outcroppings
 along stream banks.  Their behavior appeared to
 be modified to optimize temperature regimes aiid
 energy conservation. From these results, the
 authors concluded that cold-water refuges must be
 available for the salmon to avoid long-term
 population problems.

 Beschta, R.L., R.E. Bilby, G.W. Brown, L.B.
Holtby, and T.D. Hofstra. 1987. Stream
 temperature and aquatic habitat: Fisheries and
 forestry interactions. In: Streamside
Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions.
University of Washington. E.O. Salo, and
T.W. Cundy, (eds.) Inst. of Forest Res. No. 57.
Ch. 6, pp. 191-232.

The objectives of this paper are to characterize
stream temperature regimes in forested
                                             24

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ecosystems, to indicate the underlying physical
mechanisms of temperature change resulting from
the removal of forest canopies over streams, and
to identify the various processes by which
temperature changes following logging can affect
aquatic communities and the production of fish.
Over 100 references are cited in this review.

Bilby, R.E., and P.A. Bisson. 1992.
Autochthonous versus autochthonous  organic
matter contributions to the  trophic support of
fish populations in dear-cut and old-growth
forested streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries
and Aquatic Science* 49(3):540-551.

Annual organic matter inputs and production of
stocked coho salmon, coastal cutthroat, and
shorthead sculpin from spring to autumn was
monitored for 2 years in two headwater tributaries
of the Deschutes River, Washington.  One site
was bordered by old- growth coniferous forest
and the other an  area clearcut without buffer
strips 7 years before.  Although organic inputs
were nearly twice as high in  the old-growth
stream, the clearcut stream experienced greater
fish production.  The differences in fish
production were  most prevalent during early
summer.  The authors hypothesized that fish
populations depended on food derived from
autotrophic pathways during  spring and summer
in the presence or absence of forest canopy.

Binns, N.A., and F.M. Eiserrnan. 1979.
Quantification of fluvial trout habitat in
Wyoming. Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society. 108:215-228.

A habitat quality index was developed  to predict
trout standing crop in Wyoming streams.
Measurements of trout habitat were collected from
36 streams that ranged in elevation from. 1,146 to
3,042 m.  A multiple regression analysis indicated
those habitat measurements best related to trout
standing crop in  the study streams.  Nine habitat
attributes, including late summer stream flows,
annual stream flow variation, water velocity, trout
cover, stream width, eroding stream banks,
stream substrate, nitrate- nitrogen
eoncentration,and maximum summer stream
temperatures, were used hi the model.

Bjornn, T.C., and D.W. Reiser. 1991. Habitat
requirements of salmonids in streams, In:
Influences of Forest Land and Rangeland
Management on Salmoriid Fishes and Their
Habitat. Meehan, W.R., (ed.) American
Fisheries Society Special Publication 19.
Chapter 4. pp. 83-138.

This chapter presents a review of information on
the range of habitat conditions for each life stage
of salmonids that allow various species to exist.
The chapter focusses primarily on salmonids of
the Pacific drainages of North America.  The
following factors which influence migration,
spawning, rearing, and incubation are reviewed:
temperature,  dissolved oxygen, turbidity, barriers,
streamflow, space, water depth and velocity,
substrate, cover, and stream productivity.

Bugert, R.M., T.C. Bjornn, and W.R.
Meehan. 1991. Summer habitat use by young
salmonids and their responses to  cover and
predators in a small southeast Alaska stream.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
120:474-485.

The effect of some habitat changes associated with
logging on habitat selection by juvenile steelhead,
coho salmon and Dolly Varden living together in
small spawning and nursery stream on Prince
Wales Island was examined.  The assessments
were based on juvenile use in streams with
various types of riparian and instream cover with
predators present and absent;  Habitat use by the
3 species differed primarily in depth of water and,
position in water column. All three species
selected lower positions in the water column in
pools without cover than  in pools with riparian or
instream cover.  In addition to the  results
presented, a general review (over 50  references)
of the literature is included.
                                              25

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Chapman, D.W. 1988. Critical review of
variables used to define effects of fines in redds
of large salmonids.  Transactions of the
American fisheries Society. 117:1-21.

The author critically reviews the variates used to
evaluate effects of fine sediments on survival to
alevin emergence in redds of large salmonids in
streams. The following variables are discussed:
the structure of the salmonid redd and physical
variables within it; the relationships between
substrate particle sizes, permeability, and
survival; and the effect of fines on incubation and
emergence success and the utility of survival
predictors.

Chapman, D.W. 1962. Effects of logging upon
fish resources of the west coast.  Journal of
Forestry. 60(8):533-537.

This article is a basic summary of the major
effects of logging on fish resources.  The article
is not a description of new research but references
other literature.

Cordone, AJ., and D.W. Kelley. 1961. The
influences of  inorganic sediment on the aquatic
life of streams. California Fish and Game.
47:189-228.

This report contains a general review of studies
on the effects  of inorganic sediment on the aquatic
life of streams. More than 100 references on the
following topics are included: direct effect of
sediment on fish,  influences of sediment on eggs,
alevins, bottom organisms, aquatic plants,
chemical and physical characteristics, fish habitats
and populations, and long-term siltation research.

Edwards, C J. A review of aquatic impact
associated with turbidity. In: Proceedings of
Technical Workshop on Sediments. Corvallis,
Oregon, February 3-7, 1992. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency and USDA
Forest Service.

This paper provides a review of the effects of
sediment on the trophic structure of aquatic
systems. The report is divided into primary,
secondary, and high order producers.

Erman, D.C., and N.A. Erman.  1984. The
response of stream macroinvertebrates to
substrate size and heterogeneity.
Hydrobiologia. 108(l):75-82.

The effect of substrate size and heterogeneity on
macroinvertebrate abundance and species diversity
was presented in this paper. Variation in size
class proportions and number of size classes had
no independent effect on'macro invertebrate
abundance or richness. Median particle size,
stream current, and detritus accounted for most of
the significant variation in macroinvertebrates
colonizing the experimental substrates. Surfaces
with high heterogeneity were colonized by more
individuals (not taxa) than surfaces with low
heterogeneity.

Erman, D.C., J.D. Newbold, and K.B. Roby.
1977. Evaluation of streamside buffer strips for
protecting aquatic organisms. California Water
Resources Center, University of California,
Davis, California. 48 pages.

Sixty-two northern California streams were
studied to evaluate the impact on invertebrate
communities of logging with and without
streamside buffer strips. Logging without buffer
strips causes a significant change in benthic
invertebrates compared to unlogged streams.
Populations of Chironomidae, Baetis, and
Nemoura increase, but overall  invertebrate
diversity is reduced in logged streams.  Streams
with buffer strips at least 30 m wide have
invertebrate populations and physical
characteristics indistinguishable from those of
unlogged streams.  Streams with buffer strips less
than 30 m wide generally show the same impacts
as streams without protective measures.  Streams
logged without protective measures at least 10
years prior to 1975 still had invertebrate
diversities significantly lower than unlogged
streams.  The indices of taxonomic diversity and
ecological distance were used.  Numerous data
                                              26

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tables and a full discussion of methods are
provided.                             >

Fausch, KJX, C.L. Hawkes, and M.G.
Parsons. 1988. Models that predict standing crop
of stream fish Jrom habitat variables: 1950-1985.
USDA Forest Service, Padfic NW Research
Station. General Technical Report PNW-213.
52 pages.

The document presents a comprehensive review
of a diverse array of models that predict standing
crop of stream ttsh from measurable
characteristics of the environment. The purpose
of the review was to organize the models diversity
by the types of habitat (independent) variables
found significant, the mathematical structure, the
size of the data sets used to develop the models,
and how well the models fit these data.  The
authors have highlighted investigations they felt
used sound approaches to model development,
testing, and interpretation so that others might
follow that lead.

Fight, R.D., L.D. Garrett, and D.L.
Weyermann  (eds.). 1990. SAMM: A prototype
southeast Alaska multiresource model. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research
Station. General Technical Rejport
PNW-GTR-255. 109 pages.

An environmental assessment method was used by
an interdisciplinary team of forest  specialists to
gain an understanding of resource  interactions and
tradeoffs resulting from forest management
activities in southeast Alaska. A forest
multiresource projection model (Southeast Alaska
Multiresource Model (SAMM)) was developed in
the process. The model was proclaimed to be
capable of characterizing and displaying
interactions of four major resources over a
150-year rotation: timber, wildlife, hydrology,
and fisheries.  At the time the document was
published, full use of the model for quantitative
analysis was not available; only qualitative
planning assessment were recommended.
Folmar, L.C., H.O. Sanders, and A.M. Julin.
1979. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and
several of its formulations to fish and aquatic
invertebrates. Archives of Environmental
Contamination and Toxicology. 8:269-278.

Studies were conducted of the herbicide's toxicity
to aquatic invertebrates (scuds, midge larvae,
mayfly nymphs, and daphnids) and fish (Rainbow
trout, fathead minnows, channel catfish, and
bluegills). Acute tpxicities for Roundup ranged
from 2.3 mg/L to 43 mg/L.  Technical glyphosate
was considerably less toxic than Roundup.
Roundup was more toxic to rainbow trout and
bluegills at higher temperatures and at pH 7.5
than pH 6.5. Eyed  eggs were the least sensitive
life stage, but toxicity increased markedly as the
fish entered  the sac fry and early swim-up stages.
Application  of Roundup at recommended rates
along ditchbank areas of irrigation canals should
not adversely affect  resident populations of fish or
invertebrates. However, spring applications in
lentic situation, where dissolved oxygen levels are
low or temperatures are elevated, could be
hazardous to young-of-the-year fishes. Toxicity
tables listing the LC50 or EC50 concentrations
used and confidence limits are provided.

Fraley, J., T. Weaver, and J. Vashro. 1989.
Cumulative effects  of human activities  on bull
trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Upper
Flathead Drainage, Montana. In:  Proceedings
of the Symposium on Headwaters Hydrology.
American Water Resources Association,
Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 111-120.

The potential cumulative effects of land
management practices, such as timber harvest and
road building in the Flathead Lake watershed, on
the population of the bull trout are summarized.
The authors provide evidence from  other
monitoring studies that suggests that the
deposition of fine sediments from streamside
disturbances and forest road construction activities
have adversely affected and could continue to
adversely affect the bull trout.  Based on
information summarized in this paper, the authors
called for amendments of current management
                                              27

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standards, including riparian guidelines and
increased implementation of best management
practices to reduce sediment delivery.

Frear, S.T. 1982. Ecological benefits of large
organic debris in streams. In: Forestry Research
West. USDA Forest Service, pp. 7-10.

This informational article reveals the benefits of
large organic debris in forest streams. The
document lacks data but describes qualitative
benefits of proper forest stream management.
The author concludes by providing guidelines for
forest managers to help minimize the impact of
human activities on stream environments
associated with silviculture.

Gibbs, K.E., T.M. Mingo, and D.L.
Courtemanch. 1984. Persistence of carbaryl
(Sevin-4-oil) in woodland ponds and its effects
on pond macroinvertebrates following forest
spraying. Canadian Entomologist. 116:203-213.

The water quality impact of an aerial spraying of
the insecticide carbaryl is presented. Carbaryl
(Sevin-4-oil) was applied to woodland ponds in
northern Maine at the rate of 840 g A.I./ha.
Maximum residue levels found were 254 ug/1 in
the water and 53,793 ug/kg (dry wt) in the
sediment. Residues of the carbaryl were
detectable hi the water  samples for 14 months and
in the sediment for 16 months after spraying.
The study presents significant amounts of data on
the levels of the carbaryl residues and on the
number of aquatic organisms  present prior to and
after spraying. The amphipods Hyallela azteca
and Crangonyx richmondensis were reduced to
near zero levels after the applications and failed to
recolonize ponds for 30 months after treatment.
The concentrations observed hi this study may be
somewhat higher than typical because the sprayed
ponds had no vegetative buffer to intercept any of '
the spray.

Graham, A.A. 1990. Siltation of  stone-surface
peri phyton in rivers by clay-sized particles
from low concentrations in suspension.
Hydrobiologia. 199(2):107-115.
This paper presents the results of a study
investigating siltation of periphyton in the Waitaki
River hi New Zealand, a river with chronic
loading of clay-sized mineral particles in
suspension at low concentrations. At
concentrations between 1 and 10 g/m3 of
suspended mineral silt during normal flow, silt
accumulation hi epilithic periphyton accounted for
about 50% of its dry weight. This caused  a
reduction  hi the mean organic content of
periphyton to 22%, compared to 52% hi a
reference  stream were concentrations were less
than 1 g/m3 during non-freshet flow. Possible
implications of the reduction in periphyton food
value was also discussed.

Grant, J.W., J. Englert, and B.F. Bietz. 1986.
Application of a method for assessing the
impact of watershed practices:  Effects of
logging on salmonid standing crops. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management.
6:24-31.

Total salmonid  biomass  is used as an indicator of
stream habitat quality for salmonids and to assess
the impacts of logging disturbances, including
stream crossings, clearcuts, and bank
modification, on the salmonid populations of 10
streams in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
Salmonid  biomass decreased significantly
downstream of two stream crossings, probably
due to increased siltation, while seven clearcuts
and one bank modification along the other eight
streams had no significant effect  on salmonid
biomass.  Removal of the canopy cover was
associated with increases in the fork length or
weight at age, or both, of juvenile Atlantic
salmon but had no consistent effect on the size at
age of brook trout.  The authors  discuss the
negative (increased sediment load) and positive
(increased productivity) consequences of canopy
cover removal,  and emphasize that site-specific
circumstances should be taken into account when
determining how to manage streams.
                                              28

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Gray, LJ., and J.V. Ward. 1982. Effects of
sediment releases from a reservoir on stream
macroinvertebrates.  Hydrobwlogia.
96(2):177-184.

The effects of sediment release from the Guernsey
reservoir on macroinvertebrates of the North
Platte River, Wyoming, were examined.
Suspended solids concentrations during the
sediment release increased from < 20 ing/L to >
300 mg/L. Because the fine particles remained in
suspension, mean particle size was not changed.
Densities of chironomids  decreased over 90%
during sediment release but returned to
pre-sediment release levels within 3 weeks.
Changes in benthic populations were highly
correlated with increases  in suspended solids.
The authors noted that the direction of changes in
macroinvertebrate populations was predictable
from previous studies of the effect of sediment on
invertebrates, particularly chironomids.

Gurtz, M.E., and J.B. Wallace. 1984.
Substrate- mediated response of stream
invertebrates  to disturbance.  Ecology.
65(5):1556- 1569.

The response of aquatic invertebrates to
clear cutting was examined in a second order
stream in die southern Appalachian mountains.
For 21 months after clearcut, invertebrates were
sampled in the following  substrates: rock face,
cobble riffles, pebble riffles, and sand. In the
clearcut watershed, more taxa increased1! hi rock
substrate, followed by cobble riffles, pebble     ,
riffles, and sand.  The most significant reductions
in taxa was observed  in sand substrate. The
authors noted, based on differences among
function groups of insects, that biological stability
was closely linked with physical stability.

Hansmann, E.W., and H.K. Phinney. 1973.
Effects of logging on peri phyton in coastal
streams of Oregon.  Ecology,  54:194-199.

Prelogging .and postlogging oxygen levels,
temperature, and sedimentation loads  were
analyzed in a study of small watersheds in
Oregon.  Clearcut logging was applied to one
watershed of 71 hectares, while a second
watershed was patch-cut leaving a buffer-strip of
vegetation along the stream channel.  A third
watershed remained as a control.  The study
showed that a close relationship exists between
watershed practices and floral characteristics of
the drainage system and that stream characteristics
can maintain themselves if adequate protection is
given to stream vegetation.

Harr, R.D., and R.A. Nichols. 1993.
Stabilizing forest roads to help restore fish
habitats: A northwest Washington example.
Fisheries. 18(4):18-22.

Due to increased landslide risk and sediment
delivery from 30 to 40-year old forest roads in
the Canyon Creek  watershed, the  roads were
decommissioned by stabalizing fills, removing
stream crossings, recontouring slopes, and
reestablishing drainage patterns.  The failure rate
of the roads prior to recommissioning was 110
tunes higher than undisturbed forest and 6 times
higher than logged forest. The average cost of
decommissioning the roads was $3,500 per km
where considerable earthmoving was necessary.
Lower costs were associated with lesser
earthmoving jobs;  the highest costs resulted when
fills at stream  crossings or landings had to be
removed.  In contrast to unused roads not treated,
decommissioned roads and landings were largely
undamaged by rain on snow runoff that produced
a 50-year flood in  November 1989 and sustained
little damage during rain on snow runoff in
November 1990 that severely damaged main haul
roads in northwest Washington.  The authors
concluded that reducing the landslide and failure
rate of roads used  in forestry operations would
greatly improve conditions for salmonids.

Hartman, G.F., and T.G. Brown.  1987. Use of
small, temporary, floodplain tributaries by
juvenile salmonids in a West Coast rain-forest
drainage basin.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries
and Aquatic Sciences. 44:262-270.

The use of small floodplain tributaries by juvenile
                                              29

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 salmonids is examined in this paper.  Information
 was gathered on the movement of trout within the
 floodplain habitat or their distribution within it.
 The results  of this study indicate that adult and
 juvenile salmonids use many of the small
 drainages in the Carnation Creek basin and
 therefore human activities, such as logging, may
 adversely impact the habitat.  The authors
 recommend the following planning and
 management steps: mark  small tributaries during
 periods of high flow, locate roads to avoid
 redirecting ground water  seepage, locate landing
 sites away from small tributaries, plan yarding
 activities so that yard scars and debris do not
 block entrances to small tributaries, conduct
 active logging during dry periods when possible,
 and plan the application of pesticides to avoid
 small tributaries and swampy areas.

 Hartman, G., J.C. Scrivener, L.B.  Ho It by, and
 L. Powell. 1987. Some effects of different
 streamside  treatments on physical conditions
 and fish population processes in Carnation
 Creek,  a coastal rain forest stream in British
 Columbia. In: Streamside Management: Forestry
 and Fishery Interactions. E.O. Salo and  T.W.
 Cundy  (eds). University  of Washington, College
 of Forest  Resources, Seattle, Washington, pp.
 330-372.

 Carnation Creek has been studied continuously
 since 1971.  During this time 41 % of the
 watershed was logged.  Three different streamside
 treatments conducted in the alluvial floodplain
 portion  were evaluated: (1) an intensive treatment
 of clearcutting, felling of  streambank alder, and
 yarding of felled trees and merchantable timber;
 (2) a careful treatment of  clearcutting to the
 margin of the stream and  felling of streambank
 alder, with no in-channel  activity; and  (3) a leave
 strip treatment in which a variable width strip of
vegetation was left along the stream.  Stream
temperature increased due to logging.   The
decrease in volume and stability of large debris
was accompanied by streambank erosion and
straightening of the channel.  This in turn caused
a change in gravel quality hi the lower sections of
the stream.  Coho and chum salmon egg-to-fry
 survival was lower following the first major storm
 following logging. Trout smolt numbers
 decreased, but coho smolts increased by 76%
 between 1976 and 1983.  Afterward they
 decreased to prelogging levels.

 Hausle, D.A., and D.W.  Coble. 1976. Influence
 of sand in redds on survival and emergence of
 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).
 Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
 105:57-63.

 This study investigates the effect of sand hi
 spawning gravel on emergence of brook trout
 from redds to estimate the survival rate from egg
 deposition to emergence for brook trout hi
 Lawrence Creek,  Wisconsin. Brook trout alevins
 were put in sand-gravel mixtures of known
 composition in a fiberglass trough, and
 subsequently the emerging fry were recovered.
 The study showed that sand inhibited emergence.

 Hawkins, C.P., MX. Murphy, and N.H.
 Anderson. 1982. Effects of canopy, substrate
 composition, and gradient on the structure of
 macroinvertebrate communities in Cascade
 Range streams of Oregon. Ecology.
 63:1840-1856.

 The relationship between stream community
 structure and abundance and the density and type
 of riparian vegetation present is examined. Six
 streams in the western Cascade Mountains were
 studied between 1978 and 1979, and it was
 determined that neither the canopy nor the
 substrate strongly influenced the number of taxa.
This paper presents limited data addressing the
 complexity of streamside forests and focuses
almost exclusively on community structure.
 Numerous tables on community structure for the
Western Cascades are provided.
                                             30

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Heifetz, J., MX. Murphy, and K.V. Koski.
1986. Effects of logging on winter habitat of
juvenile sahnonids in Alaskan streams. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management.
6:52-58.

This study was conducted in southeastern Alaska
to determine the effects of logging on winter
habitat of juvenile saimonids.  The types of
streams studied were located in the following
areas: undisturbed old-growth forest, clearcut
with riparian buffer strips, and clearcut logged
along at least one bank.  The authors found that
most fish species resided hi pools, and riffles and
glides were avoided.  The types of pools utilized
varied widely during the study. Also, the amount
of woody debris, which caused over 70% of the
pools, was significantly greater in occupied pools.
Several tables of data quantifying salmonid
numbers for each stream type and pool type are
included.

Hilmon, J.B., and J.E. Douglass. 1968.
Potential impact of forest fertilization on range,
wildlife, and watershed management. In: Forest
Fertilization: Practice and Theory.  Tennessee
Valley Authority, pp.  197-202.

This is a review of the potential, impacts of
fertilization on forage, wildlife, and water
resources.  Results of studies carried out in
Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina are
presented.  Plots received different rates of
fertilization, and the nutrient quality of forage for
livestock was measured.  A similar study was
carried out on plots managed for both timber and
forage production.  The authors briefly discuss
the effects of fertilization on the nutrient: value of
wildlife forage, and, in greater detail, the water
 quality and yield effects of fertilization.

HHtibran, R.C. 1967. Effects of some
 herbicides on fertilized fish eggs and fry.
 Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
 96:414-416.

 The toxicity of amitrole, dalapon, endothall,
 dichlobenil, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-D, isooctyl
ester of 2,4-DP, propionic acid, and potassium
salt of silyex at various concentrations was
examined hi a laboratory study. At the
concentrations used, no reduction in die survival
period of any of the fry was observed. Other
herbicides did reduce the survival period at some
of the concentrations used.  Endothall, because of
its low toxicity to fish, low toxicity to eggs or
fry, and rates of aquatic use, appears to be one of
the safest herbicides to use during the spawning
season.  Fry were more susceptible to the toxicity
of herbicides than were fertilized  eggs. Granular
formations of some herbicides proved to be less
toxic than liquid formulations.

House, R., V. Crispen, and R. Monthey. 1989.
Evaluation of stream rehabilitation projects -
Salem district (1981-1988). Technical Note
OR-6-.6600. USDI, Bureau of Land
Management, Portland OR.  50  pages.

This  document presents information on the
effectiveness of stream rehabilitation structures in
the Alsea and Nestucca River  drainages,  Oregon.
Over 800 structures were evaluated in this  study.
Cost data for the structures is  also included.  In
general, large increases hi  aquatic populations
were observed after installation of the structures.
The following structure types  were evaluated:
dams, deflectors, diversions, cover, scour, riprap,
gravel, and others. Many  tables  are presented
with information of changes in habitat attributable
to the rehabilitation projects, adult and juvenile
fish populations, and  estimated benefits and costs
      11                   "•-.-'•
Howard, R.J., and J.A. Allen.  1989.
 Streamside habitats  in southern forested
wetlands: Their role and  implications for
 management. In: Proceedings of the
 Symposium: Forested Wetlands of the Southern
 United States. Orlando, FL, July 12-14,  1988.
 USD A Forest Service. GTR  SE-50. pp. 97-106.

 This paper summarizes recent literature
 concerning the value of streamside forested
 wetlands of the Southern United  States as fish and
 wildlife habitat.  The role  of wetlands in
 providing fish spawning and nursery habitat
                                                31

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 during inundation, protecting water quality, and
 supplying cover and food to channel-dwelling fish
 is described.  Habitat edge and vegetation
 composition and structural  complexity for wildlife
 are examined, as well as the effects of soil
 moisture and proximity of permanent surface
 water on wildlife species distribution.  Lastly,
 management practices and recommended widths
 for forested streamside buffer zones are also
 presented.

 Johnson, S.W., J. Heifetz, and K.V. Koski.
 1986. Effects of logging on the abundance and
 seasonal distribution of juvenile steelhead in
 some southeastern Alaska streams.  North
 American Journal of Fisheries Management.
 6:532-537.

 This study was conducted in southeastern Alaska
 to determine the effects of logging on the seasonal
 abundance of juvenile steelhead. The paper
 presents results from 18 streams surveyed during
 the study. The streams studied were located in
 the following areas: undisturbed old-growth
 forest, clearcut with riparian buffer strips, and
 clearcut logged along at least one bank.  Results
 indicated seasonal differences in fry abundance
 and size by stream type. In summer, the fry were
 larger in the clearcut streams due to greater
 overall production attributed to higher water
 temperatures and increased solar radiation.
 However, hi winter, parr density increased in  the
 undisturbed  and buffered stream types.  This was
 assumed to result from migration of parr to
 preferred whiter habitat of pools and abundant
 cover. The authors concluded that the benefits
 observed during clearcut were negated by the lack
 of whiter rearing habitat.

 Lantz, R.L. 1971. Influence of water
 temperature on fish survival, growth, and
 behavior. In:  Proceedings  of a Symposium:
 Forest Land Uses and Stream Environment.
 Oregon State Univ., October 19-21, 1971. J.T
 Krygier and J.D. Hall  (eds.). OSU, Corvallis,
 OR. pp. 182-193.

This paper presents  a review of the effect of
 water temperature on fish and the influence that
 streamside vegetation has on controlling
 temperature fluctuations. The authors conclude
 that an important land management tool is leaving
 buffer strips along streams hi forested areas. This
 paper provides a general review of the literature
 on stream water temperature control, as well as
 the resulting improvement hi fish survival and
 reproduction resulting from leaving buffer strips
 when harvesting.

 Li, H.W., C.B. Schreck, C.E. Bond, and E. '
 Rexstad. 1987. Factors influencing changes in
fish assemblages of pacific northwest streams,
 In: Community and Evolutionary Ecology of
 North American Stream Fishes.  Matthews,
 W J., and D.C. Heins, (eds.) Chapter 24:
 193-202.

 The practices affecting the change hi fish
 populations hi the pacific northwest are reviewed
 hi this chapter. Dams and, forestry, grazing, and
 bank stabilization practices have changed the
 morphology of watersheds and diminished the
 role of woody debris and riparian vegetation as
 regulators of physical change and stream
 metabolism. Topics reviewed include fauna!
 characteristics hi relationship to spatial scale,
 Impacts of fishing, impacts of dams, and impacts
 on riparian habitats.

 Lloyd, D.S. 1987. Turbidity as a water quality
 standard for saunonid habitats in Alaska.
 North American Journal of Fisheries
 Management.  7(l):34-4§.

 A review of studies on the effects of turbidity on
 salmonid habitat was used to determine if
 turbidity could be used as a water quality
 standard. Based on information from the review,
 water quality standards allowing increases of 25
 or 5 nephelometric turbidity units above ambient
turbidity in clear cold-water habitats provides
 moderate and relatively high protection,
 respectively, for salmonid fish resources hi
 Alaska. Stricter standards may be required for
 extremely clear waters, but stringent standards are
not required for naturally turbid waters. Over 90
                                              32

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 references are cited in this review.

 Lloyd, D.S., J.P. Koenings, and J.D.
 LaPerriere. 1987. Effects of turbidity in fresh
 waters of Alaska. North American Journal of
 Fisheries Management. 7(l):18-33.

 Findings from previous investigations are
 reviewed to describe the effects of turbidity on
 coldwater systems in Alaska and to describe
 relationships between suspended sediment
 concentration and resulting turbidity. A model
 was developed that describes the decrease in
 primary production in shallow interior Alaskan
 streams caused by sediment-induced turbidity.
 The turbidity measurements correlated less
 consistently with measures of suspended sediment
 concentrations, but provided an adequate
 estimator for use as a water quality standard to
 protect aquatic habitats.

 Mayack, D.T., P.B. Bush, D.G. Neary, and
 J.E. Douglass. 1982. Impact of hexazinone on
 invertebrates after application to forested
 watersheds. Archives of Environmental
 Contamination and Toxicology.  11:209-217.

 The herbicide hexazinone was applied to a
 forested watershed in the Piedmont region of
 Georgia.   Aquatic macrophytes and terrestrial
 invertebrates were monitored and sampled for
 residue levels of the chemical.  Residue levels in
 terrestrial invertebrates were a maximum of two
 orders of magnitude greater than comparable
 levels (0.01 to 0.18 ppm) found in forest floor
. material.  Hexazinone and its metabolites were
 generally not detected (<0.1 ppm) in aquatic
 invertebrates and macrophytes.  No community
 changes, alteration in species, or population
 densities were recorded as a result of this
 application. No data on forestry activities and
 impacts are included.

, McCabe, G.D., and W.J. O'Brien.  1983. The
 effects of suspended silt on feeding and
 reproduction of Daphnia pulex. The American
 Midland Naturalist.  110(2):324-337.
This paper presents the effect of suspended silt on
the feeding and reproduction of Daphnia pulex
and the impact of suspended silt and clay on
freshwater zooplankton community structure.
Both filtering and assimilation rates were severely
depressed at low concentrations of silt and clay.
The population growth rate of zooplankton was
also diminished by suspended; silts and clays.
Between two lakes with differing turbidity levels,
the relative abundance of zooplankton was
different, with the more turbid lake having a
higher relative abundance of large zooplankton
species. The authors concluded that higher
concentrations of fines may result in changes in
aquatic population structure.

Mclntyre, J.D. Responses of intermountain
salmonids to sediment in streams. In:
Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USD A Forest Service.      .

This paper presents a short review of the
literature on the effects of sediment on salmonids.
Better methods are needed for  developing
appropriate indices of stream disturbance and  to
determine how much sediment disturbs stream
productivity, not  whether it does.

Meehan, W.R.,  and t.C. Bjornn. 1991.
Salmonid distributions and life histories, In:
Influences of Forest Land and Rangeland
Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their
Habitat. Meehan, W.R., (ed.) American
Fisheries Society Special Publication 19.
Chapter 3. pp. 47-82.

The distribution and life histories Of salmonids in
North America are presented in this chapter.
General distribution and life history patterns are
discussed for salmonids in general.  Specific
distribution and life  history pattern information in
presented for the following salmonids: pink
salmon, chum salmon, sockeye salmon or
kokanee, coho salmon, chinook salmon, rainbow
trout or steelhead, cutthroat trout, brown trout,
atlantic salmon, arctic char, Dolly Varden, bull
                                               33

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  trout, brook trout, and lake trout.

  Meehan, W.R., W.A. Fair, D.M. Bishop, and
  J.H. Patric. 1969. Some effects of dearcutting
  on salmon habitat of two southwest Alaska
  streams. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment
  Station. Research Paper PNW-82.

  This report presents significant amounts of data
  from research and describes the main conclusions
  regarding the effect of clearcutting on streamflow,
  suspended sediment, water temperature, and log
  debris on salmon habitat. Temperature
  measurements show that on clear summer days,
  shade-producing streamside yegetation plays a
  definite role hi cooling  or maintaining coolness of
  the study streams.  No significant difference was
  found between the two areas under clear-shaded
  and cloudy weather  conditions.  This report also
  contains the references from a detailed literature
 review.

 Murphy, MX., and J.D. Hall. 1981. Varied
 effects of clear-cut logging on predators and
 their habitat in small streams of the Cascade
 Mountains, Oregon. Canadian Journal of
 Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 38:137-145.

 The differences hi predator numbers in a stream
 draining a logged and forested area are presented
 in this paper.  Stream inventories of the predators
 including fishes, salamanders, and certain
 invertebrates were conducted.  Varied results
 were obtained. Newly logged areas exposed to
 sunlight had greater biomass of predators than did
 old growth forest areas.  However, second-growth
 logged areas reshaded by deciduous forest canopy
 had lower biomass than the old growth forest.
 This journal article provides a detailed discussion
 of the predator-prey interactions that may  be
 occurring in the old growth and logged forests
 and also  provides significant data and results.

Murphy, M.L., C.P. Hawkins, and N.H.
Anderson. Effects of canopy modification and
accumulated  sediment on stream communities.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
  110:469-478.

  Small streams differing in sediment composition
  were compared in logged and forested reaches to
  determine the effects of accumulated fine
  sediment on stream communities under different
  trophic conditions.  Trophic levels (treatments)
  included recently clear-cut areas without forest
  canopies, second-growth forest with deciduous
  canopy, and old-growth coniferous forest.  One
  stream with predominantly coarse sediment and
  one with fine sediment were compared for each
  treatment.  In general,  streams traversing open
  clearcuts had greater rates of microbial respiration
  and greater densities or biomass of aufwuchs,
  benthos, drift, salamanders, and trout than did the
  shaded, forested sites regardless of sediment
  composition.  The article concludes that for these
  small Cascade Range streams, changes hi trophic
 status and increased primary productivity resulting
 from shade removal may  mask or override the
 effects of sedimentation.

 Murphy, M.L., J. Heifetz, S.W. Johnson,
 K.V.  Koski, and J.F. Thedinga.  1986. Effects
 of clear-cut logging with and without buffer
 strips on juvenile salmonids in Alaskan
 streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
 Aquatic Sciences. 43(8):1521-1533.

 To assess short-term effects of logging on juvenile
 Oncorhynchus idsutch, Salvelins malma, Salmo
 gairdneri, and Salmo clarld in southeastern
 Alaska, the fish density and habitat in summer
 and  winter were compared in 18 streams in
 old-growth forest and in clearcuts with and
 without buffer strips.  The study concludes that
 clearcutting may increase fry abundance in
 summer in some streams by increasing primary
 production, but may reduce abundance of parr hi
 winter if debris is removed.  Use of buffer strips
 maintains or increases debris, protects habitat,
 allows increased primary production, and can
 increase abundance of fry or parr. The report
 also  contains references to more than 50 other
papers.
                                             34

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Murphy, M.L., K.V. Koski, J. Hrifetz, S.W.
Johnson, D. Kirchhofer, and J.F. Thedinga.
1984. Role of large organic debris as winter
habitat for juvenile salmonids  in Alaska
streams. In: Western Proceedings of the 64th
Annual Conference of the Western Association
of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.  Victoria, British
Columbia, July 16-19, 1984. pp. 251-262.

To assess short-term effects of logging OB juvenile
Oncorhynchus kisutch, Salvelins malma, Salmo
gairdneri, and Scdmo clarld in southeastern
Alaska, the fish density and habitat in summer
and winter were compared in 18 streams in
old-growth forest and in clearcuts with and
without buffer strips.  Buffered  reaches did not
consistently differ from old-growth reaches;
clearcut reaches had more periphyton, lower
channel stability, and less canopy, pool volume,
large woody debris, and undercut banks than old-
growth reaches. Fry abundance was  related to the
amount of large woody debris.  Clearcutting may
increase fry abundance in summer in some
streams by increasing primary production, but
may reduce abundance of parr in winter if debris
is removed.  Use of buffer strips maintains or
increases debris, protects habitat, allows increased
primary production, and can increase abundance
of fry and parr. This paper presents  partial
results of a larger study;  the companion paper is
Thedinga, Murphy, Heifetz, Koski, and Johnson,
 1989.  This report presents significant amounts of
data and conclusions and contains references to
more than 50 other papers.

Narver, D.W. 1971. Effects of logging debris
, on fish production. In: Proceedings of the
Symposium: Forest Land Uses  and Stream
Environment. , 19-21 October, 1970.  J.T.
Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.).  Oregon State
University, Corvallis, Oregon, pp.  100-111.

Stream salmonids (eight species of Pacific
salmon, trout, and char) are discussed in relation
to their environmental requirements and the
possible impact of logging debris on  their
production.  The emphasis is on small streams
because of their great importance as nursery and
spawning areas for certain species and because
they may be more susceptible to damage than
larger streams or rivers.  Extensive use is made
of pertinent literature. The author concludes that
accumulations of logging debris in small streams
can have serious effects on the production of
salmonid fishes.

Newcombe, C.P., and D.D. MacDonald.  1991.
Effects of suspended sediments on aquatic
ecosystems.  North American Journal of
Fisheries Management. ll(l):72-82.

This paper provides a review of the factors that
contribute to effects of suspended sediment on
fish and aquatic life.  The information presented
in this review is intended to provide guidance on
data that should be collected to develop a verified.
model of the environmental effects of suspended
sediment.  Topics reviewed include: effects on
salmonid fishes, aquatic invertebrates, and
periphyton and models of suspended sediment
effects.  Over 50 references are cited in this
paper.

Nuttall, P.M. 1972.  The effects of sand
deposition upon the  macroinvertebrate fauna of
the River Camel, Cornwall. Freshwater
Biology. 2:181-186.

A monitoring effort was initiated in western
England to determine the effects of sand
deposition on macroinvertebrates in the stream.
The authors found that a lower incidence of plant
and animal species was observed after large sand
deposits. The decrease in numbers was found to
result from the, unstable nature of the sand
deposits rather than the turbidity or abrasion
caused by the sand.

Phillippi, M.A., and G.B.  Coltharp. 1990.
Post-treatment effects of forest fertilization on
the predominant benthic community of a  ••'
headwater stream in eastern Kentucky.
Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of
Science. 51(1/2):18-2S.

Biological sampling was conducted from 1978 to
                                              35

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  1981.  Higher concentrations of nitrate-N were
  present in the affected stream compared to two
  unaffected streams.  Standing-crop biomass of
  invertebrates and the number of individuals were
  not significantly different between the treated
  stream and one untreated stream. The number of
  taxa and the species diversity were significantly
  higher in the unaffected stream in the unfertilized
  watershed.  The authors  conclude that the benthic
  fauna is unaffected by the forest fertilization.
  Graphs of species  abundance and number of
  individuals of different taxa accompany the text.

  Platts, W.S. 1979. Relationships among stream
  order, fish populations, and aquatic
  geomorphology in an Idaho river drainage.
  Fisheries. 4(2):5-9.

  This study evaluates  the relationship of stream
  order on fishery status.  Correlations are made
  between stream order and number of fish species,
 summer water space  for fish, fish population
 increases and approximate stream size.  Little
 information was presented which related this
 information with watershed  or riparian
 management.

 Platts, W.S., and  W.F. Megahan. 1975. Time
 trends in riverbed sediment composition in
 salmon and steelhead spawning areas: South
 Fork Salmon River, Idaho. In: Transactions of
 the 40th North American Wildlife and Natural
 Resources Conference.  Wildlife Management
 Institute, Washington, DC. pp. 229-239.

 The number of returning adult summer chinook
 salmon and steelhead  trout entering the South
 Fork Salmon River steadily declined for the 17
 years prior to the report's publication. This
 report discusses  the history of land use and habitat
 rehabilitation efforts in the river watershed, siting
possible reasons for increased sedimentation that
 could affect salmon habitat.  The report
specifically describes temporal trends in riverbed
material size composition in  the four major
spawning areas of the main river channel.
Considerable variation in riverbed sediment size
composition was found at varying locations in the
  river. Fine and coarse sands in excess of 10-15%
  led to unsuccessful salmon spawning. Changes in
  forest practices, particularly a moratorium on
  logging and road construction in the upper
  drainage, led to a change in sediment
  composition, from 45-80% fines to  12-26% fines,
  and an increase in suitability for spawning.

  Platts, W.S., and R.L. Nelson. 1989. Stream
  canopy and its relationship to salmonid
  biomass in the intermountain West. North
  American Journal of Fisheries Management.
  9:446-457.

  Several riparian habitat components, including
  canopy density, light intensity, unobstructed sun
  arc, and average potential daily thermal input in
  grazed and ungrazed portions of representative
  streams in the northern Rocky  Mountains and the
  Great Basin of the western United States, were
  measured.  The objectives were to assess
 prevailing stream canopy conditions and to
 determine to what extent these  habitat components
 were correlated with salmonid biomass.
 Unobstructed sun arc was significantly correlated
 with thermal input and was the best overall
 predictor of salmonid biomass per unit volume.
 Thermal input was a better predictor of salmonid
 biomass per unit volume in the Great Basin than
 in the Rocky Mountains. Mean estimates of fish
 biomass per unit volume were better  related to
 stream canopy attributes than to biomass estimates
 based on stream surface area.

 Reeves, G.H., F.H. Everest, and T.E.
 Nickelson. 1989. Identification of physical
 habitats limiting the production ofcoho salmon
 in western Oregon and Washington. USDA
 Forest Service,  Pacific Northwest Research
 Station. General Technical  Report
 PNW-GTR-245. 18 pages.

 This document was designed to help fishery
 managers identify factors limiting the production
 of coho salmon in streams of coastal and interior
 Oregon and Washington.  The guide is designed
to identify potential physical limitations to fish
production that may be moderated or removed by
                                              36

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habitat rehabilitation or enhancement programs.
The guide is most accurate for streams up to large
fourth-order and small fifth- order streams.

Richards, C. Ecological effects of fine
sediments in stream ecosystems. In:
Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.

A review of the ecological effects of fine
sediment in stream ecosystems is presented.
Topics include suspended sediment, sediment
deposition, and secondary effects of sediment.
Also included are several general approaches that
have been taken to develop sediment criteria.

Rutherford, D.A., A.A. Echelle, and O.E.
Maughan. 1987. Changes in the fauna of the
Little River drainage, southeastern Oklahoma,
1948-1955 to  1981-1982: A test of the hypothesis
of environmental degradation, In: Community
and Evolutionary Ecology of North American
Stream  Fishes. Matthews, WJf., and D.C.
Heins, (eds.)  Chapter 22:178-183.

This chapter presents an analysis of the
differences in fish fauna between two  intervals of
time separated by 25 years.  In those 25 years,
 the drainage area was altered by clearcut logging.
 No evidence was found to  suggest extinctions or
 invasions of new species.  However, the
 frequency of occurrence of individual species and
 indices of community similarity suggest that the
 faunal structure is different than hi 1949-1955.
 The authors concluded that the change was the
 result of the timber harvesting activities which
 occurred in the watershed.

 Scannell, P.W. Effects of increased
 sedimentation  on  fresh waters of interior
 Alaska. In: Proceedings of Technical Workshop
 on Sediments.  Corvallis,  Oregon, February 3-7,
 1992. U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
 and USDA Forest Service.

 This paper presents a summary of a research
effort in Alaska to determine the effects of
sediments on water quality, stream habitat, and
fisheries.  The focus of this paper is on the effects
of increased sedimentation on aquatic
invertebrates, stream periphyton, and site-feeding
fish.  Aquatic invertebrate density was strongly
correlated with both turbidity and total suspended
solids hi the stream. Increased sediment loads
reduced primary productivity but did not preclude
it until settleable solids became measurable.
Arctic graylings were excluded from segments of
streams with low water quality and direct and
indirect mortality resulting from sediment was
observed.                      >

Schlosser, IJ. 1982. Trophic structure,
reproductive success, and growth rate of fishes
in a natural and modified headwater stream.
Canadian Journal  of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences. 39(7):968-978.

The impact of removing riparian vegetation,
channel  straightening, and fluctuations hi flow
regime on trophic structure, reproductive success,
 and growth rate of fishes was assessed hi
 east-central Illinois. The  authors found that
 channel  morphology, in conjunction with flow
 regime,  appears to be especially important in
 determining habitat stability and a broad range of
 fish community attributes. Also, alteration of .
 riparian vegetation increased instability in the fish
 community by shifting the nature and seasonal
 dynamics of the organic energy base.

 Scrivener, J.C., and B.C. Anderson. 1984.
 Logging impacts and some mechanisms that
 determine the size of spring and summer
 populations of coho salmon fry in Carnation
 Creek,  B.C* Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
 Aquatic Sciences.  41:1097-1105.

 The effects  of forestry practices on salmonid
  resources in British Columbia are analyzed in this
  paper.  The Coho  fry movement, distribution, and
  growth for spring  and summer were recorded
  over a 2-year period prior to and following
  logging.  Interestingly, growth rates tended to be
  high following streamside logging.  It was found
                                               37

-------
   that a complex number of factors affect the
   physical parameters of Coho fry and that they are
   not necessarily dependent exclusively on
   silvicultural activity.

   Scrivener, J.C., and MJ. Brownlee. 1989.
   Effects  of forest harvesting on spawning gravel
  and incubation survival of chum
   (Oncorhynchus keta) and coho salmon (O.
  Jdsutch) in Carnation Creek, British Columbia.
  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
  Sciences. 46(3):681-696.

  The objective of this study was to assess the
  effects of current forestry harvesting practices on
  spawning gravel composition^ intergravel
  dissolved oxygen, and permeability, and the
  influence of these features on the survival and size
  of emerging fry.  Following logging, fines in the
  stream bed of Carnation Creek increased from 4.6
  to 5.7%, although suspended sediment
  concentration did not increase. Also following
  logging,  the survival to emergence declined from
  29.1 to 16.4% for coho  salmon and  from 22.2 to
  11.5% for chum salmon. Annual changes in
  substrate composition and peak flows explained
  60 and 73% of the variability in survival to
 emergence for chum and coho salmon,
 respectively.  Changes in streambed  fines
 appeared to depend on the timing of logging
 operations and large freshets.

 Sedell, J.R., P.A. Bisson, FJ. Swanson, and
 S.V. Gregory. 1988. What we know about large
 trees that fall into streams and rivers, In: From
 the forest to the sea: A story of fallen trees.
 USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest
 and Range Experiment Station.  General
 Technical Report PNW-229. pp. 47-81.

 The physical and biological characteristics of
 forested streams in the Northeast are discussed at
 length. The history of logging activities, riparian
 management, and ecosystem structure are
 compared; the effects of removed and downed
timber on habitat are emphasized.  Physical
variables  and stream debris frequency were
studied for their effects on fish species and habitat
   development.  The data indicate that complete
   removal of timber from any stream has an
   adverse impact on fish-dependent food chains and
   sediment capture. Overall, this article addresses
   stream debris dynamics and the effects on
   indigenous species.  The document contains
   numerous figures and tables.

   Sigler, J.W., T.C. Bjorn, and F.H. Everest.
   1984. Effects of chronic turbidity on density
  and growth of steelheads and coho salmon.
  Transactions of the American Fisheries Satiety.
  113(2): 142-150.
                        i'
  The effects of chronic turbidity on young
  steelhead and coho salmon were evaluated in
  laboratory experiments in straight and oval
  channels.  Fish exposed to continuous clay
  turbidities had lower weight gain and growth than
  fish living  in clear water, and more of them
  emigrated from channels during the experiments.
  The authors conclude  that fish in natural waters
  subjected to turbidity soon after emergence will
  emigrate, which could reduce production in those
  tributaries if the emigrants do not secure suitable
  habitat in downstream areas.

 Thedinga,  J.F., M.L. Murphy, J. Heifetz,
 K.V. Koski, and S.W. Johnson. 1989. Effects
 of logging on size and age composition of
 juvenile coho salmon  and density of pre-smolts
 in southeast Alaska streams. Canadian Journal
 of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.  46:1383-1391.

 Short-term effects of logging on age composition
 and size of juvenile coho salmon (Onchrhynchus
 tisutch) were studied in 18 streams in southeast
 Alaska in 1982 and 1983. Studies were in
 old-growth forests where stream reaches had been
 clearcut with or without buffer strips. The
 number of fry in summer and winter was
 proportionately higher in clearcut and buffered
 reaches than in undisturbed reaches. A higher
 percentage of large (£75 mm) fry remained in
 buffered reaches than in clearcut and undisturbed
 reaches.  Therefore, the density of fry that were
potentially large enough to become smolts the
next spring was greater in buffered reaches. The
                                             38

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larger fry in the buffered and clearcut reaches
compared with undisturbed reaches were probably.
the result of earlier fry emergence resulting from
increased water temperature.  This paper presents
partial results of a larger study.  The companion
paper is Murphy, Heifetz, Johnson, Koski and
Thedinga, 1986.

Tripp, D.B., and V.A. Poulin. 1986. The
effects of logging and mass wasting on salmonid
spawning habitat in stream on the Queen
Charlotte Islands. British Columbia Ministry of
Forests and Lands, Research Branch. 29 pages.

Three separate investigations were carried out hi
this study to assess the effects of logging and
mass wasting on salmonid spawning habitats,
including: (1) a synoptic survey of the gravel
composition hi logged and unlogged streams
affected by varying degrees of mass wasting; (2) a
survey of the amount of gravel scour occurring in
 12 logged streams subjected to  various degrees of
mass wasting; and (3) an egg incubation study
designed to  examine coho fry emergence success
in upwelling-type incubation boxes containing
different concentrations of sand and gravel.
Declines in  coho egg-to-fry survival due to
 logging and/or mass wasting were estimated at
 15-20%, with logging accounting for most of the
 decline hi gravel quality.  This paper presents
 significant results from a comprehensive study of
 forestry- related habitat degradation.

 Tschaplinski, PJ., and G.F.  Hartman. 1983.
 Winter  distribution of juvenile coho salmon
 (Oncorhynchus tdsutch) before and after
 logging in Carnation Creek, British Columbia,
 and some implications  for overwinter survival.
 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
 Sciences. 40:452-461.

 Carnation Creek on the west coast of Vancouver
 Island was studied for the movement of coho fry
 prior to and after logging activities. In the areas
 of streambank damage, the coho fry moved to
 more sheltered settings during the winter season.
 Management practices, such as leaving
 streambank vegetation, were confirmed to prevent
the influx of undesirable silvicultural materials
from entering the spawning areas of salmon and
cutthroat trout.  Tables and figures presented
demonstrate that logging the SMZ neither reduces
the number of coho wintering hi Carnation Creek
nor reduces the number leaving hi the spring.

USDA Forest Service. 1992. Informational
Report: Background Report for Development of
the Forest Service Management Strategy for
Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Habitat. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Salmon Work Group
and Field Team, Washington, DC.

The purpose of this report is to provide
background information for the development for
management of Pacific salmon and  steelhead
stocks, and to increase awareness about the issues
within the Forest Service and with outside groups
as well.  The document discusses the
organizational framework that includes three
components: a Washington Office Policy Group
which provides overall direction, 'and a
Washington Office Work Group and an
inter-regional Field Team that will  cooperatively
develop the strategy.  The strategy was targeted
for completion in 1993.

Vohs, P.A., I.J. Moore, and J.S. Ramsey.
 1993. A critical review  of the effects of turbidity
 on aquatic organisms in large rivers. U.S. Fish
 and Wildlife Service, Environmental
 Management Technical Center, Special report
 93-S002.139 pages.

 A comprehensive critical review of the biological
 effects of suspended sediments (including
 turbidity, washload, and filterable solids) was
 prepared by the United States Fish and Wildlife
 Service. This critical review covers 12T
 references.

 Waters, T.F. 1961. Standing crop and drift of
 stream bottom organisms. Ecology.
 42:532-537.

 The study was performed to investigate the
 standing crop and drift rate of bottom fauna as
                                               39

-------
  affected by varying levels of productive capacity.
  The distribution of mean rates of drift among the
  five streams corresponded closely to the ranking
  of the streams on the basis of expected
  productivity.  The study states that it would
  appear that the drifting of stream invertebrate
  animals is a process very intimately associated
  with production and may be essential for the
  orderly conduct of stream communities.

  Webster, J.R. 1983. The role of benthic
  macroinvertebrates in detritus dynamics of
  streams: A computer simulation. Ecological
  Monographs. 53(4)-383-404.

  Detritus dynamics in a second-order stream in the
  southern Appalachian  Mountains were simulated
  with a computer model,  based on data from a
  number of stream studies.  The model was used
 to evaluate the role of macroinvertebrates  in the
 stream. Macroinvertebrates accounted  for only a
 small portion of the respiration of detritus. Their
 major contribution was a conversion of benthic
 detritus into transported detritus.  On an annual
 budget, macroinvertebrates decrease the efficiency
 of detritus processing because they increase
 transport loss, while on a long-term basis they
 prevent accumulation of large amounts of detritus
 in the stream.  In this  way they provide an
 important link between low-order and
 higher-order streams.  The paper fully discusses
 the model used for this simulation and analyzes
 the results with respect to field data.

 Yee, C.S., and T.D. Roelofs. 1980. Planning
forest roads to protect salmonid habitat. USD A
 Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
 Range Experiment Station. General Technical
 Report PNW-109. 260 pages.

 This document presents information on alleviating
 the environmental impacts, particularly on
 anadromous fish and their habitats, associated
with forest road construction.  The document
provides design, construction, and maintenance
guidelines for roads to  minimize impacts. -
Sections on sedimentation, road-stabilizing
additives, and fish migration are included.
  Berg, L., and T.G. Northcote. 1985. Changes hi
  territorial, gill- flaring, and feeding behavior hi
  juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhunchus Idsutch)
  following short-term pulses of suspended
  sediment.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
  Aquatic Sciences. 42:1410-1417.

  Bisson, P.A., and J.A. Sedell. Salmonid
  population in streams in clearcut vs. old-growth
 forests of'western Washington. Weyerhaeuser
  Company, Tacoma, Washington, 17 pages,.

  Brown, G.W. 1974.  Fish habitat. USDA Forest
  Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
  Experiment Station, General Technical Report
  PNW-24. pp. E1-E15.

  Bugert, R.M., and T.C. Bjornn. 1991. Habitat
  use by steelhead and coho salmon and their
  responses to predators and cover in laboratory
 streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries
 Society. 120:486-493.

 Burns, J.W. 1972. Some effects of logging and
 associated road construction on northern
 California streams. Transactions of the American
 Fisheries Society.  101(1): 1-17.

 Chutter, P.M. 1969. The effects of silt and sand
 on the invertebrate fauna of streams and rivers.
 Hydrobiologia. 34:57- 76.

 Grouse, M.R., C.A. Callahan, K.W. Malueg, and
 S.E. Dominguez. 1981. Effects of fine sediments
 on growth of juvenile coho salmon in laboratory
 streams.  Transactions of the American Fisheries
 Society.  110:281-286.

 Crowder, L.B., and W.E.  Cooper. 1982. Habitat
 structural complexity and the interaction between
 bluegills and their prey. Ecology
 63(6): 1802-1813.

 Everest, F.H., and W.R. Meehan. 1981. Forest
 management and anadromous fish habitat
 productivity. In: Transactions of the 46th North
American Wildlife and Natural Resources
                                             40

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 Conference. Wildlife Management Institute,
 Washington, DC. pp. 521-530.

 Gibbons, D.R., and E.G. Salo. 1973. An
 annotated bibliography of the effects of logging on
fish of the western United States and Canada.
 USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Fprest
 and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon.
 General Technical Report PNW-10. 145 pages.

 Gorman, O.T., and J.R. Karr. 1978. Habitat
 structure and stream fish communities. Ecology.
 59(3):507-515.-L-

 Gregory, S.V., G.A. Lamberti, D.C. Erman,
 K.V. Kbski, M.L. Murphy, and J.R. SedelL
 1987. Influence of forest practices on aquatic
 production. In: Streamside Management: Forestry
 and Fishery Interactions. University of
 Washington. E.O. Salo, and T.W. Cundy, (eds.)
 Institute of Forest Resources No. 57. Chapter 7,
 pp. 233-255.

 Hawkins, C.P., and J.R. Sedell. 1981.
 Longitudinal and seasonal changes in functional
 organization of macroinvertebrate communities in
 four Oregon streams. Ecology. 62:387-397.

 Heller, D.A., J.R. Maxwell, and M. Parsons.
 1983. Modeling the effects of forest management
 on salmonid habitat. USDA Forest Service,
 Pacific Northwest Region.  63 pages.

 Hesser, R., R. Hoopes, C.B. Weirich, J. Selcher,
 B. Hollender, and R. Snyder. 1975. Chapter 2:
 The aquatic biota. In: Oearcutting in
 Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University,
 School of Forestry Resources, University Park,
 Pennsylvania, pp. 9-20.

 Hoffman,  R.J. 1986. A horizontal intragravel
 pipe for sampling water quality in salmonid
 spawning gravel.  North American Journal of
 Fisheries Management. 6:445-448.

 House, R., and V, Crispen. 1990. Economic
 analyses of the value of large woody debris as
salmonid habitat in coastal Oregon streams.
Technical Note OR-7:6512. USDI, Bureau of
Land Management, Portland OR.  11 pages.

Hurlbert, S.H., M.S. Mulla, and H.R. Willson.
1972. Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide
on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and insect
populations of fresh-water ponds. Ecological
Monographs. 42(3):269-299.               .

Lawson, P.W. 1993. Cycles in ocean
productivity, trends in habitat quality, and the
restoration of salmon runs  in Oregon. Fisheries.
18(8):6-10.

Lee, R., and D.E. Samuel. 1976. Some thermal
and biological effects of forest cutting in West
Virginia.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
5(4):362-366.

Meehan, W.R. (ed.). 1991. Influences of forest
and rangeland management on salmonid fishes
and their habitat. American Fisheries Society
Special Publication 19. 751 pages.

Miller, D.L., P.M. Leonard, R.M. Hughes, J.R.
Karr, P.B. Moyle, L.H. Schrader, B.A.
Thompson, R.A.  Daniels,  K.D. Fausch, G.A.
Fitzhugh, J.R. Gammon, D.B. Halliwell, P.L.
Angermeier, and  D.J. Orth. 1988. Regional
applications of an index of biotic integrity, for use
in water resources management.  Fisheries.
 13(5): 12-20.

Moyle, P.B., and J.E.  Williams. 1990,
Biodiversity loss  in the temperate zone: Decline
of the native fish fauna of California.
 Conservation Biology.  4(3):275-284.

 Newbold, J.D., D.C. Erman, and K.B. Roby.
 1980. Effects of logging on macroinvertebrates in
 streams with and without buffer strips.  Canadian
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 37:
 1076-1085.

 Reeves, G.H. Sediment and aquatic organisms in
 the Pacific Northwest: The need for new
                                              41

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 perspectives. In: Proceedings of Technical
 Workshop on Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon,
 February 3-7, 1992. U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency and USDA Forest Service.

 Ringler, N.H., and J.D. Hall. 1975. Effects of
 logging on water temperature and dissolved
 oxygen in spawning beds. Transactions of the
 American Fisheries Society. 104:111-121.

 Ringler, N.H., and J.D. Hall. 1988. Vertical
 distribution of sediment and organic debris in
 coho salmon redds in three small Oregon
 Streams.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
 Aquatic Science. 45:742-747.

 Salo, E.O., and T.W. Cundy (eds.). 1987.
 Streamside management forestry and fishery
 interactions. College of Forest Resources,
 University of Washington. 471 pages.
 Sheldon, A.L. 1988. Conservation of stream
 fishes: Patterns of diversity, rarity, and risk.
 Conservation Biology. 2(2): 149-156.

 Sheridan, W.L., and W.J. McNeil. 1968. Some
 effects of logging on two salmon streams in
 Alaska. Journal of Forestry. 66:128-133.

 Shortreed, K.S., and J.G.  Stockner. 1983.
 Periphyton biomass and species composition in a
 coastal rainforest stream in B.C.: Effects of
 environmental changes  caused by logging.
 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
 Sciences. 40:1887-1895.

 Stanford, J.A.,  and J.V. Ward.  1988. The
 hyporheic habitat of river ecosystems.  Nature.
 335:64-66.

 Thut, R.N., and E.P. Haydu. 1971. Effects of
 forest chemicals on aquatic life. In: Proceedings
 of the Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
Environment. Oregon State University, October
 19-21,  1970.  J.T.  Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.).
 OSU, Corvallis, Oregon, pp.  159-171.
 PHYSICAL

 Anderson, H.W. 1971. Relative contributions
 of sediment from source areas, and transport
 processes. In: Proceedings of the Symposium:
 Forest Land Uses and Stream Environment.
 Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon,
 October 19-21, 1970. J.T. Krygier and JJX
 Hall, (eds.) pp. 55-63.

 This paper reports new findings and summarizes
 pertinent results from the literature on the
 contribution and movement of sediment from
 various timber practices:  Multiple methods of
 sediment introduction are discussed, and then-
 relative impacts on streams are quantified.  This
 is not a case study for one particular watershed or
 stream, but a summary of the expected effects of
 timber harvest activities on sediment discharge.
 Overall, the author provides a general review of
 limited data for sediment transport processes.

 Andrus, C.W., B.A. Long, and H.A.,
 Froehlich. 1988. Woody debris and its
 contribution to pool formation in a coastal
 stream  50 years after logging.  Canadian
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.
 45:2080-2086.

 The objective of this study was to determine how
 young stands of timber might be managed so that
 they supply adequate amounts of woody debris to
 fish-bearing streams.  The amount of woody
 debris is, in part, a product of the surrounding
forest.   The amount of woody debris in coastal
Oregon streams has  been altered over the past 80
years as a result of logging, road building, and
the conversion of forested land to other uses.  In
this study, a watershed that had not been logged
since a wildfire swept through the area 50 years
earlier was sampled  for age of debris and pool
depth and volume.  Debris from the current stand
of trees  along the stream accounted  for only 14%
of debris volume in the stream and only  8% of
the debris responsible for creating pools.  Study
results indicate that riparian trees must be left to
grow longer than 50 years to ensure that an
adequate, long-term  supply of woody debris is
                                             42

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available to stream channels. Debris from
previous stands plays a crucial role in the interim
and should not be removed from stream channels.

Angermeier, P.L., and J.R. Karr. 1984.
Relationships between woody debris and fish
habitat in a small warmwater stream.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
113(6):716-726.

This paper presents the results of a study
conducted to determine the effect of woody debris
removal on habitat, invertebrate availability, and
fish distribution hi warmwater streams.   In
general, when woody debris was removed from
one side of the channel, fish and benthic
invertebrates were more abundant on the side with
woody debris. The adaptive significance between
fish and woody debris appeared to be related to
camouflage more than increased food availability
or protection from strong currents. The authors
concluded that excessive removal of woody debris
from streams, particularly low gradient streams
(water depth decreased upon removal of woody
debris), would disrupt the structure and function
of small streams.

Angino, E.E., and W J. O'Birien. 1968.
Effects of suspended material on water quality.
International Association of Scientific
Hydrology 78:120-128.

This paper summarizes some of the effects of
suspended load on water quality, particularly its
effect on turbidity, hardness, alkalinity,  water
color, photosynthetic activity, and organisms.
When written, the direct effect of suspended
solids on these aspects of water quality was
poorly understood. This paper provides a review
of the state of knowledge at the time.

Baker, M.B., Jr. 1990. Hydrologic and water
quality effects of fire. USDA Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment
Station. General Technical Report RM-191. pp.
31-42.
to determine the effects of prescribed burning on
forest and rangelands of the Southwest. It
provides a qualitative analysis on the types of
water quality effects observed after prescribed
burning; no substantial quantitative results are
presented.  The paper includes citations for nearly
70 articles related to water quality effects from
prescribed burning.

Beschta, R.L. 1979. Debris removal  and its
effects on sedimentation in an Oregon Coast
Range stream. Northwest Science. 53:71-77.

This paper addresses the consequences of
removing large organic debris from streams.
Results indicated an increase in suspended
sediment and turbidity during storms occurring
after removal of the debris. The author suggests
removal of woody debris to allow for fish passage
should be conducted with consideration of
sediments stored within the debris and the
potential for scour upon debris removal.

Beschta, R.L., R.E.  Bilby, G.W. Brown, L.B.
Holtby, and T.D. Hofstra. 1987. Stream
temperature and aquatic habitat: Fisheries and
forestry interactions. In: Streamside
Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions.
University of Washington. E.O. Salo, and
T.W. Cundy, (eds.) Institute of Forest
Resources No. 57. Chapter 6, pp. 191-232.

The objectives of this paper are to characterize
stream temperature regimes in forested
ecosystems, to  indicate the underlying physical
mechanisms of temperature change resulting from
the removal of forest canopies over streams, and
to identify the various processes by which
temperature changes following logging can affect
aquatic communities and the production of fish.
Over 100 references are cited in this review.

Beschta, R.L., and R.L. Talyor. 1988. Stream
 temperature increases and land use  in a
 forested Oregon watershed.  Water Resources
 Bulletin. 24(l):19-25.
 This paper provides a review of studies conducted    The long-term changes in stream temperatures in
                                               43

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  relation to management activities and natural
  hydrologic events was studied in the Salmon
  Creek watershed in western Oregon.  Over a
  30-year period, average daily maximum and
  minimum stream temperatures (calculated from
  the 10 warmest days of each year) have risen 6
  °C and 2  °C, respectively although only a small
  increase in air temperature was observed over the
  same period. The authors noted a highly
  significant relationship between a cumulative
  index of forest harvesting and maximum stream
  temperatures. Maximum temperatures also
  increased for several years following peak flow
  events, which tended to obscure specific cause
  and effect relationships between timber harvest
  activities and long-term stream temperature
  changes.

  Bilby, R.E.  1984. Removal of woody debris
  may affect stream channel stability. Journal of
  Forestry. 82:609-613.

  This paper reports on an investigation of the
  effect of removing large woody debris (LWD)
 from a small stream after logging, as is mandated
 by several western states.  Large changes in
 channel structure were observed during the first
 high flow after cleaning.  The location of debris
 left in the stream and stream sediment were
 substantially altered.  The degree of channel
 rearrangement was greater than that in a
 comparable undisturbed stream.  The loss in
 channel stability due to indiscriminate removal of
 LWD may have adverse effects on fish
 populations.  LWD influencing channel
 morphology should be left in place during
 cleaning.  Post-logging cleaning guidelines are
 provided in the form of a dichotomous key,
 though the author stresses that these guidelines are
 applicable only to streams similar to Salmon
 Creek in the Coast Range of Washington, where
 the study was conducted. The author found that
 the degree to which the debris  is buried, its length
 and diameter, and whether it is braced by
 boulders, bedrock outcrops, or other stable pieces
 of debris determine whether it should be removed
or left in place.
  Bilby, R.E., and G.E. Likens. 1980.
  Importance of organic debris dams in the
  structure and function of stream ecosystems.
  Ecology. 61(5):1107-1113.

  Small headwater streams in forested areas are
  heavily dependent on the input of organic material
  from the surrounding terrestrial system as an
  energy source. Debris dams act as retention.
  mechanisms that allow organic matter to be
  processed in the stream ecosystem rather than
  transported downstream in coarse paniculate
  form.  In this study, all organic debris was
  removed from a 175-m stretch of a second-order
  stream in New Hampshire.  A dramatic increase
  in organic carbon export (dissolved = 18%; fine
  paniculate = 632%; coarse paniculate = 138%)
  from the system resulted. Organic debris dams
  are extremely important components of small
  stream ecosystems.  In first-order streams, the
  dams contain nearly 75% of the standing stock, of
  organic matter. In second-order streams, this
  proportion drops to 58 %p and in third-order
  streams it is  20%.

 Bilby,  R.E., and J.W. Ward. 1991.
 Characteristics and function of large woody
 debris  in streams draining  old-growth,
 clear-cut, and second-growth  forests in
 southwestern Washington.  Canadian Journal
 of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.
 48(12):2,499-2,508.

 A comparison of large woody debris (LWD)
 abundance, characteristics, and  function in
 streams bordered by forests of differing ages:
 old-growth, recent clearcut, and 40 to 60-year
 second growth was made in this paper. The
 amount of LWD in 70 stream reaches decreased
 with increasing stream size for all stand types but
 was greatest at old-growth sites.  Pool size was
 similar for all stand types in smaller streams, but
 averages 10m2 in streams > 10 m wide at old-
growth and 4m2 for other stand types.  The
authors  noted that changes in LWD amount,
characteristics, and function occurred very rapidly
following removal of streamside vegetation.
                                              44

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 Bisson, P.A., R.E. Bilby, M.D. Bryant, C.A.
 Dolloff, G.B. Grette, R.A. House, M.L.
 Murphy, K.V. Koski, and J.R. Sedell. 1987.
 Large woody debris in forested streams in the
 Pacific Northwest: Past, present, and future.
 In: Streamside Management: Forestry and
 Fishery Interactions. University of Washington.
 E.O.  Salo, and T.W. Cundy, (eds.) Institute of
 Forest Resources No. 57. Chapter 5, pp.
 142-190.

 This chapter presents a review of the form,
 function, and management of woody debris in
 streams. Three conclusion were made based on
 the review: l)large woody debris enhances the
 quality of fish habitat in all stream sizes; 2) fish
 population abundance and species composition are
 altered during logging,  stream cleaning, and
 short-term harvest rotations because of changes to
 sources and delivery mechanisms; and 3) there  is
 an urgent need for field experiments and
 long-term studies that focus on protection of large
 woody debris in streams and recruitment of debris
 from the surrounding forest.

 Brown, G.W. 1969. Predicting temperatures  of
 small streams.  Water Resources Research.
 5:68-75.

 Sections of three small streams in western
 Oregon, typical of streams in the forested regions
 of the  Oregon Cascade and Coast Ranges, were
 studied to determine whether stream temperature
 could be accurately predicted.  One section was
 heavily shaded and had a graved bottom, and the
 other sections were exposed to direct sunlight.
 One exposed section had a rock bottom and the
 other had a gravel bottom. The author found that
 hourly temperatures of small streams can be
 accurately predicted using an energy balance.  On
 the three study streams,  hourly temperature
 changes of 0-16°F were predicted to within 1°F
.more than 90% of the time.  On unshaded
 stretches, net radiation is the predominant energy
 source, while evaporation and convection account
 for less than 10% of the total energy exchange.
 Conduction of heat into the stream bottom is an
 important energy balance component on  shallow
 streams having a bedrock bottom, where up to
 25% of the energy absorbed by the stream may be
 transferred into the bed.  Using this technique,
 foresters can control water temperature through
 manipulation of streamside vegetation.

 Brown, G.W. 1970. Predicting the effect of
 clearcutting on stream temperature. Journal of
 Soil and Water Conservation. 25:11-13.

 This paper presents a methodology for predicting
 the effects of clearcutting on stream water-
 temperature. The author states that predicting the
 effects could be done by  estimating maximum
 daily changes, rather than hourly changes which
 would require experience in micrometeorology
 and additional equipment. This paper presents a
 simple model for estimating the daily maximum
 changes assuming the following: the stream
 surface is uniformly exposed to direct sunlight,
 direct solar radiation dominates the net heat gain
 in small streams,  maximum temperature will
 occur during midday hours on a clear day, and
 predicted solar input can be used to estimate heat
 input.  Model  equations are also presented in this
 paper.  Much of the background to this work was
 published in Brown 1969 and Brown and Kryger
 1970.

 Brown,  G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1967.
 Changing water temperatures in small
 mountain streams. Journal of Soil and  Water
 Conservation.  22:242-244.

 Two small  streams in Oregon were studied for the
 effect on water temperature of clearcutting. This
 is an early  study of the,effect of logging practices
 on water temperature, and the water quality and
 biological consequences of elevated water
 temperature due to clearcutting are discussed.

 Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1971.
 Clear-cut logging and sediment production in
 the Oregon coast range.  Water Resources
Research. 7(5):1189-1198.

The impact of road construction, two patterns  of
                                             45

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  clear-cut logging, and controlled slash burning on
  the suspended sediment yield and concentration
  from three small watersheds was studied for 11
  years.  Sediment production was doubled after
  road construction but before logging in one
  watershed and was tripled after burning and
  clearcutting of another watershed.  Felling and
  yarding did not produce statistically significant
  changes in sediment concentration.  Variation in
  the relation between sediment concentration and
  water discharge on small undisturbed streams was
  large. Conclusions about the significance of all
  but very large changes in sediment concentrations
  are limited because of annual variation for a given
  watershed, variation between watersheds, and
  variation with stage at a given point. Tables
  present sediment concentrations in the two altered
  watersheds and one control watershed for the
  duration of the study.

 Brozka, RJ., G.L.  Rolfe, and  L.E. Arnold.
 1981. Water quality from two small forested
 watersheds  in southern Illinois. Water
 Resources Bulletin. 17(3):443-447.

 This paper presents partial results of a larger
 research effort to determine the water quality
 benefits of various watershed management
 alternatives.  Two intermittent streams on
 oak-hickory watersheds were tested for Na+, K+
 Ca++, Mg++, P,  and NO/.  Water quality in the'
 watersheds was found to be high  and  was
 attributed to  their forested coyer.  Tables of
 precipitation and nutrient concentrations in the
 streams are provided  .

 Bryant, M.D. 1980.  Evolution of large, organic
 debris after timber harvest: Maybeso Creek, 1949
 to 1978. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
 Northwest Forest and Range Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report PNW-101.
 30 pages.

 The role of large debris (tree boles and root
 wads) in contributing  to the morphological
 changes to Maybeso Creek, Alaska were  .
presented in the paper.  The Maybeso Creek
valley was logged from 1953 to 1960 and maps
  showing large accumulations of debris and stream
  channel features were made hi 1949 and updated
  in 1960.  Before logging (1949 maps), sparse
  accumulations of large debris were scattered
  throughout the stream.  After logging, the debris
  accumulations increased in number and density.
  In addition, the natural material was well-
  controlled and stable, whereas logging debris was
  floatable and less stable.

  Burns, R.G., and J.D. Hewlett. 1983. A
  decision  model to predict sediment yield from
  forest  practices.  Water Resources Bulletin.
 The audiors propose a sediment hazard index
 based on the amount of exposed mineral  soil and
 its proximity to streams as a means to choose
 among BMPs. Forest managers need to predict
 sediment yield to perennial streams following
 forestland operations, but the universal soil loss
 equation (USLE) is not directly applicable to
 forest operations because of the heterogeneous
 soil surface conditions left by harvesting, site
 preparation, and planting.  The model described
 includes rainfall erosivity, soil credibility and
 average land slope, together with the sediment
 hazard index (W).  A paired  watershed
 experiment in the central Georgia Piedmont was
 used to estimate parameters in the model.  The
 80-acre experimental basin was clearcut, drum
 roller chopped twice, and machine planted. The
 standard error of estimate of sediment yield was
 computed to be about 50 Ib/ac per 4-month
 sampling period.  Use of William's erosivity
 index (storm flow times peak flow) reduced the
 standard error to 33 Ib/ac.  A graph of sediment
 delivery versus sediment hazard index is
 provided, and the index can be used to design and
 evaluate forest operations in advance.  The
 authors note that application of the method
presumes the use of streamside management zones
and sensible reading standards.
                                              46

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Chatwin, S.C., D.E. Howes., J.W. Schwab, and
D.N. Swanston. 1991. A guide for management
of landslide-prone terrain in the Pacific
Northwest. British Columbia Ministry of
Forests. Land Management Handbook No. 18.
212 pages.

This guide was prepared for personnel operating
in areas with existing or potential laud stability
problems. The document was developed for use
in the Pacific Northwest; however, the principles
presented may be applicable to other areas.  Four
topics are addressed: slope movement processes,
recognition of landslide-prone areas, measures to
manage unstable terrain during forestry activities
(especially road construction and timber harvest),
and road deactivation and revegetation on unstable
terrain.  Detailed definitions and techniques for
determining potential instability and methods for
preventing landslides from forestry roads are
included.

Childers, D.L., and J.G. Gosselink. 1950.
Assessment of cumulative impacts to water
quality in a forested wetland landscape.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 19:455-464.

This article presents a historical analysis of water
quality in the Tensas Basin, Louisiana, as part of
a cumulative impact analysis of toe landscape.
Historical records of suspended sediment, N, P,
and turbidity from three streams in the basin
demonstrated that the watershed's water quality is
characteristic where the original forest cover has
been cleared. Aquatic primary productivity in the
Basin appears to be nitrogen-limited. A
goal-oriented management plan for the watershed
was developed based on the study results.
Management practices to counteract the
cumulative effects of conversion to agricultural
land include runoff control, protecting forested
corridors along streams, and creating new buffer
zones.                                   ,

Cordone, A J., and D.W. Kelley. 1961. The
influences of inorganic sediment on the aquatic
life of streams.  California  Fish and Game.
47:189-228.     ,             .      '      '
This report contains a general review of studies
on the effects of inorganic sediment on the aquatic
life of streams.  More man 100 references on the
following topics are included: direct effect of
sediment on fish, influences of sediment on eggs,
alevins, bottom organisms, aquatic plants,
chemical and physical characteristics, fish habitats
and populations, and long-term siltation research.

Dietrich, W.E., T. Dunne, Humphrey N.F.,
and L.M. Reid. 1982. Construction of sediment
budgets for drainage basins. In: Sediment
Budgets and Routing in Forested Drainage
Basins.  FJ. Swanson, R.J. Janda, T. Dunne,
and D.N. Swanston, (eds.) USDA Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station. General Technical Report
PNW-141. pp. 5-23.

This paper presents information the authors
suggest is essential to make a sediment budget
meaningful.  Information presented included
definition of sediment budget, recognition and
quantification of transport processes, identification
of linkages among processes and storage
elements, definition of recurrence intervals, and
quantification of storage elements. Over 50 _
references are cited in this paper.

Edwards, C.J. A review of aquatic impact
associated with turbidity. In: Proceedings of
Technical Workshop on Sediments.  Corvallis,
OR, February 3-7, 1992. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and USDA Forest Service.

This paper provides a review of the effects of
sediment on the trophic structure of aquatic
systems.  The report is divided into primary,
secondary, and high order producers.

Erman, D.C., and N.A.  Erman. 1984. The
response of stream macroinvertebrates to
substrate size and  heterogeneity.
Hydrobiologia. 108(l):75-82.

The effect of substrate size and heterogeneity on
macroihvertebrate abundance and species diversity
was presented in this paper.  Variation in size
                                              47

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  class proportions and number of size classes had
  no independent effect on macroinvertebrate
  abundance or richness. Median particle size,
  stream current, and detritus accounted for most of
  the significant variation in macroinvertebrates
  colonizing the experimental substrates. Surfaces
  with high heterogeneity were colonized by more
  individuals (not taxa) than surfaces with low
  heterogeneity.

  Everest,  F.H., R.L. Beschta, J.C. Scrivener,
  K.V. Koski, J.R. Sedell, and CJ. Cedarholm.:
  1987. Fine sediment and salmonid production:
  A paradox. In: Streamside Management:
  Forestry and Fishery Interactions. University of
  Washington.  E.G. Salo, and T.W. Cundy,
  (eds.) Institute of Forest  Resources No. 57.
  Chapter 4, pp. 98-142.

  The purpose of this chapter is to examine
  state-of-the-art knowledge  of the effects of
  sediment on salmonids  The topics reviewed
  include  forest management and sediment
 production, sediment processing by forest
 streams, forest management and sedimentation,
 variability of fine sediments in streambeds, effects
 of sedimentation on salmonids, natural mitigation
 of the effects of fine sediment in streams,
 sediment as a factor limiting salmonid
 populations, cumulative effects of sedimentation
 and fishing, and streamside management
 guidelines and  sediment. Over 120 references are
 cited in  this review.

 Feller, M.C. 1981. Effects of clearcutting and
 slash burning  on stream temperature in
 southwestern British Columbia. Water
 Resources Bulletin. 17(5):863-866.

 Two watersheds were studied for the effect of
 logging practices on summer and  winter water
 temperatures.  One of the watersheds was clearcut
 and then planted, and the other was clearcut, slash
 burned, and then planted.Tables of watershed
 characteristics and duration of temperature effects
 are included. Both practices were found to
 increase  stream temperature, but slash burning
increased the temperature effect beyond that of
  clearcutting alone.  This is attributed to burning
  the slash that remains at streamside after
  clearcutting. Clearcutting was found to increase
  minimum and maximum winter stream
  temperatures during the second winter following
  the cutting. Slash burning decreased minimum
  and maximum whiter stream temperatures in the
  first whiter following the burning.  The effect on
  stream temperature  of clearcutting and slash
  burning lasted longer (> 7 years) than that of
  clearcutting alone.

  Frear, S.T. 1982. Ecological benefits  of large
  organic debris in streams. In: Forestry Research
  West. USDA Forest Service, pp. 7- 10.

 This informational article reveals the benefits of
 large organic debris in forest streams. The
 document lacks data but describes qualitative
 benefits of proper forest stream management.
 The author  concludes by providing guidelines for
 forest managers to help minimize the impact of
 human activities on stream  environments
 associated with silviculture.

 Grant, G. 1988. The RAPID technique: A new
 method for evaluating downstream  effects of
forest practices  on riparian zones. USDA Forest
 Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
 General Technical Report PNW-GTR-220. 36
 pages.

 The riparian aerial photographic inventory of
 disturbance (RAPID) techniques is a method for
using measurements made on aerial photographs
of patterns of riparian canopy disturbance to
evaluate changes in channel conditions and
relating them to their possible upstream causes.
This document uses examples from western
Oregon to describe an application of the technique
to evaluate downstream or cumulative effects of
forest practices.  Information is provided on
background and theory, collecting data, analyzing
and interpreting results, and conclusions.
                                              48

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Gray, J.R.A., and J.M. Edington. 1969. Effect
of woodland clearance on stream temperature.
Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada. 26:399-403.

This paper presents the results of a study
quantifying the differences in stream temperature
after clearance of the adjacent woods.  The
authors observed significantly greater water
temperatures in the cleared areas than in
undisturbed areas. The temperatures in the
forested stream were also compared  to
temperatures in stream flowing through an open
farm to demonstrate the cooling affect of forests.

Grenney, W J., and E. Heyse. 1985.
Suspended sediment-river flow analysis.
Journal of Environmental Engineering.
111(6):790-803.

The application of bivariate probability
distribution functions to represent the suspended
sediment concentration-water discharge data for
the San Juan River at Bluff, Utah, is presented.
This approach has several advantages over more
traditional methods, including preservation of
sediment concentration information and
convenience for computer implementation.  A
bivariate log-normal density function was found to
be a convenient, accurate method for
parameterizing the frequency distribution of
sediment concentrations and water discharges for
the San Juan River.

 Guy, H.P., and G.E. Ferguson. 1970. Stream
 sediment: An environmental problem.  Journal
 of Soil and Water Conservation. 25:217-221.

 A general review of problems associated  with
 sediment deposited in streams.  The article
 tabulates sediment sources and  their common
 environmental effects. Two case histories-one of
 sediment runoff from highway  construction and
 one of residential construction-are reviewed. The
 authors suggest a number of research  areas where
 data are needed to alleviate the problems of
 erosion and sedimentation.
Hansen, E.A. 1971. Sediment in a Michigan
trout stream: Its source, movement, and some
effects on fish habitat. USD A Forest Service.
Research Paper NC-59. 14 pages.

A study is described in which three monitoring
stations were set up on the Pine River to monitor
total sediment load and to determine contributing
sources to sediment load.  Other categories of
focus are sediment budget, sediment size, and
streambank erosion. There was less sand on the
streambed in the downstream section, despite the
560% increase in sand sediment load due to the
high transport capacity of a pool and rifle stream.
A hypothetical program stabilizing all of the
identifiable eroding banks would reduce sediment
load by 45% at one of the stations.  Because the
particle size distribution of streambank sediments
was nearly the same as that of sediments already
in transport,  stabilization of eroding banks would
not produce much change in the particle size
distribution of the sediment load. If the objective
were to lower turbidity during floods, banks
containing clays should be stabilized.

Harmon, M.E., J.F. Franklin, F.J. Swanson,
P. SoIIins, S.V. Gregory, J.D. Lattin, N.H.
Anderson, S.P. Cline, N.G. Aumen, J.R.
Sedell, G.W. Lienkaemper, K.  Cromack, Jr.,
and K.W. Cummins. 1986. Ecology of coarse
woody debris in temperate ecosystems.
Advances in Ecological Research. 15:133-302.

This paper presents a comprehensive review of
the ecological role of coarse woody debris (CWD)
 in temperate climates. The following topics are
 reviewed: 1) input of woody debris, including
 spatial and temporal patterns and rates of input;
 2) decomposition of woody debris which
 encompasses types of decay  processes, decay .
 models, decay rates, and factors controlling
 decomposition; 3) amount and distribution of
 CWD,including information on estimating
 biomass* factors controlling biomass, and
 distribution of CWD; 4) role of CWD, including
 information on plant and animal habitat,
 importance of CWD in nutrient cycling, and
 geomorphic functions; and 5) conclusions which
                                               49

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  compare CWD in terrestrial and aquatic
  ecosystems and presents information on the
  effects of human activities on CWD.  The review
  references over 500 articles.

  Harr, R.D. Overview of sediment research on
  forestland in the Pacific Northwest. In:
  Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
  Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
  1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  and USDA Forest Service.

  The effect of forest management activities on soil
  erosion in the Pacific Northwest is summarized in
  this cursory literature review  of past and current
  research. Topics include small watershed studies,
  suspended sediment and turbidity, and sediment
  delivery and transport. Nearly 50 references are
  cited  in this paper.

 Heede, B.H. 1990. Stream dynamics: An
 overview for land managers.  General Technical
 Report RM-72. USDA Forest Service, Rocky
 Mountain Forest and Range Experiment
 Station. 26 pages.

 Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated
 through discussion of processes and process
 indicators.  Theory is included only where helpful
 to explain concepts. Although only qualitative
 predictions of stream behavior are presented,
 these predictions show how management actions
 will affect the stream and its environment.

 Heifetz, J., MX. Murphy, and K.V. Koski.
 1986.  Effects of logging on winter habitat of
 juvenile salmonids in Alaskan streams.  North
 American Journal of Fisheries Management
 6:52- 58.

 This study was  conducted in southeastern Alaska
 to determine the effects of logging on winter
 habitat of juvenile  salmonids.  The types of
 streams studied were located in the following
 areas: undisturbed  old-growth forest, clearcut
 with riparian buffer strips, and clearcut logged
 along at least one bank. The authors found that
most fish species resided in pools, and riffles and
  glides were avoided.  The types of pools utilized
  varied widely during the study. Also, the amount
  of woody debris, which caused over 70% of the
  pools, was significantly greater in occupied pools.
  Several tables of data quantifying salmonid  -
  numbers for each stream type and pool type are
  included.

  Hicks, B J., R.L. Beschta, and R.D. Hair.
  1991. Long-term changes in streamflow
  following logging in western Oregon and
  associated fisheries implications.  Water
  Resources Bulletin. 27(2):217-226.
                        ' t
  The long-term effects of logging on  low summer
  streamflow was investigated using data collected
  from 1953-1988.  Three watersheds  in western
  Oregon were clearcut and  burned, unlogged, and
  25% patch cut and burned. Monitoring occurred
  for 9- 10 years pre-logging and 21-25 years
  post-logging and burning.  August streamflows,
  which were the lowest of any month, increased by
  159% after clearcutting watershed 1 but the
  effects lasted for only eight years.  August
 streamflow increased by 59% in watershed  three
 after 25% patch cut and burning. This paper
 presents important data on  the changes in water
 yield during periods of summer low flow
 conditions.  Some evidence was presented which
 suggests that conifer species in the riparian zone
 maintain summer water yields better than
 hardwoods.

 Holtby, L.B. 1988. Effects of logging on stream
 temperatures in Carnation Creek, B.C.
 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
 Sciences.  45:502-515.

 The objectives of this study were to quantify the
 effects of clearcut logging on stream temperatures
 in Carnation Creek and to quantify the effects of
 the logging-related component of those
 temperature changes on the  coho salmon
 population. Forty-one percent of the basin of the
 creek was clearcut, increasing stream
temperatures in all months of the year. As a
result, coho salmon emerged earlier and increased
the length of their summer growing season by up
                                             50

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to 6 weeks.  Over-winter survival improved as a
result of increased growth by the fall.  Warmer
spring temperatures were also associated with
earlier seaward migration of smolts, probably
resulting in decreased smolt-to-adult survivals.
For this analysis, the author used a linked, series
of models to predict the effects of logging on
stream temperatures and then the effects of those
temperatures on critical coho life history events.
A life history model was used to quantify the
effects of  stream temperature changes related to
logging on the population size of adult coho
salmon. The author concludes: (1) habitat
perturbations can have quantifiable effects on fish
populations; (2) habitat alteration can affect more
than one life stage simultaneously and in opposite
directions; (3) the effects of perturbations at one
life stage  can persist throughout the remainder of
the life  cycle; and (4) for anadromous fish
species, the effects of habitat perturbations during
freshwater rearing can persist into the marine
phase.

House,  R., V. Crispen, and R. Monthey. 1989.
Evaluation of stream rehabilitation projects -
Salem district (1981-1988). Technical Note
OR-6:6600. USDI, Bureau of Land
Management,  Portland OR. 50 pages.

This document presents information on the
effectiveness of stream rehabilitation structures in
the Alsea and Nestucca River drainages, Oregon.
Over 800 structures were evaluated hi this study.
Cost data for the structures is also included.  In
general, large increases in  aquatic populations
were observed after installation of the structures.
The following  structure types were evaluated:
dams, deflectors, diversions, cover, scour, riprap,
gravel,  and others. Many  tables are presented
with information of changes in habitat attributable
to  the rehabilitation projects, adult and juvenile
fish populations, and estimated benefits and costs.

King, J.G. Sediment production and transport
in  forested watersheds in the northern Rocky
Mountains. In: Proceedings of Technical
 Workshop on Sediments. Corvallis,- Oregon,
February 3-7, 1992. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and USDA Forest Service.

A review of erosion and sedimentation research
from forest activities in the northern Rocky
Mountains is presented. Topics include erosion
and sedimentation from undisturbed forest
watersheds, harvesting and road-building effects,
and future prospects for understanding sediment
movement processes.  Limitations of the current
methodologies for estimating sediment movement
from watersheds are presented.

Kunkle, S.H., and G.H. Comer. 1971.
Estimating suspended sediment  concentrations
in streams by turbidity measurements.  Journal
of Soil and Water Conservation.  26(1):18-20.

The authors investigate the relationship between
turbidity and sediment loading to  determine
whether it is practical to estimate suspended
sediment loading from turbidity measurements.
The study was conducted on the Sleepers River hi
Vermont.  Turbidity measurements were found to
have value in estimating suspended sediment
loadings, but a sediment-turbidity relationship
must be developed specific to  the .watershed of
interest due to the numerous variables involved
that influence sediment loadings.  An equation to
estimate suspended sediment concentration from
turbidity for the Sleepers River watershed is
presented.

Lantz, R.L. 1971. Influence of  water
temperature on  fish survival, growth, and
behavior. In: Proceedings of a Symposium:
Forest Land Uses and Stream Environment.
Oregon State University, October 19-21, 1971.
J.T Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.). OSU,
Corvallis, Oregon, pp. 182-193.

This paper presents a review of the effect of
water temperature on fish and the influence that
streamside vegetation has on controlling
temperature fluctuations.  The authors conclude
that an important land management tool is leaving
buffer strips along streams in forested areas.  This
 paper provides a general review of the literature
 on stream water  temperature control, as well  as
                                               51

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 the resulting improvement in fish survival and
 reproduction resulting from leaving buffer strips
 when harvesting.

 Lloyd, D.S. 1987. Turbidity as a water quality
 standard for salmonid habitats in Alaska.
 North American Journal of Fisheries
 Management. 7(1)^4-45.

 A review of studies on the effects of turbidity on
 salmonid habitat was used to determine if
 turbidity could be used as a water quality
 standard. Based on information from the review,
 water quality standards allowing increases of 25
 or 5 nephelometric turbidity units above ambient
 turbidity hi clear cold-water habitats provides
 moderate and relatively higti protection,
 respectively, for salmonid fish resources in
 Alaska.  Stricter standards may be required for
 extremely clear waters, but stringent standards are
 not required for naturally turbid waters. Over 90
 references are  cited in this review.

 Marion, D.A., and SJ. Ursic. Sediment
 production in  forests of the Coastal Plain,
 Piedmont, and Interior Highlands. In:
 Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
 Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
 1992.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 and USDA Forest Service.

 This paper presents a discussion of sediment
 production from small catchments in various
 physiographic regions and provides information
 on the magnitude and duration of the changes
 associated with silvicultural activities.  Higher
 sediment delivery was reported from Coastal
 Plain soils than the Piedmont and Interior
 Highlands because of the high erosion potential of
 the soils and  channelization of flow. The authors
 also  reported on the effects of timber harvest
 activities on sediment delivery. No long-term
 increases (greater than 3 years) hi sediment
production were observed in harvested and burned
watersheds.  In contrast, persistent increases in
sediment production can occur when intensive
mechanical site preparation is employed.  Harvest
activities which minimized ground disturbance
 and protect channel areas were identified as
 practices that would not increase on- site sediment
 production.

 Martin, C.W., and J.W. Hornbeck. Erosion,
 sediment, and turbidity In New England
 forests. In: Proceedings of Technical Workshop
 on Sediments.  Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 and USDA Forest Service.

 The current knowledge, primarily from research
 conducted  at Hubbard Brook, for protecting forest
 streams against erosion, sedimentation, and
 stream turbidity is summarized  in this paper. Data
 on the impacts of forest harvest experiments at
 Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest are
 presented,  and future research and modeling
 needs are discussed.

 Maser, C., R.F. Tarrant, J.M. Trappe, and
 J.F. Franklin (tech. eds.). 1988. From the forest
 to the sea: A story of fallen trees. General
 Technical  Report PNW-GTR-229. USDA Forest
 Service and USDI BLM. 153 pages.

 This document presents a synthesis of existing
 research information on the impact of fallen trees
 in various stages on ecological diversity and
 offers some hypotheses and conclusions.  The
 information presented is intended to help resource
 managers make decisions on the loss of woody
 debris on habitat diversity and ecological
 processes.  The following chapters are included:
 coarse woody debris in forests and plantations of
 coastal Oregon; what is known about large trees
that fall to the forest floor and into streams and
rivers, estuaries, the sea,  and coastal beaches;  and
options for  public lands.   Nearly 350 references
are cited in this document.
                                              52

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McDade, M.H., FJ. Swanson, W.A. McKee,
J.F. Franklin, and J. Van Sickle. 1990. Source
distances for coarse woody debris entering
small streams in western Oregon and
Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest
Research. 20(3)^26-330.

The objective of this  study was to determine the
source-distance patterns of coarse woody debris in
selected streams. The distance from streambank
to rooting site was  determined for at least 30
fallen trees at each study site on 39 streams in the
Cascade and Coast ranges of Oregon and
Washington.  The distribution of distances from
rooting site to bank was similar among streams of
different characteristics.  From all streams, 11
percent of the total number of debris pieces
originated within 1 meter of the channel and over
70 percent originated within 20 meters.  Tall
stands (old-growth  conifers) contributed woody
debris from greater distances than shorter
(mature) trees.

Mclntyre, J.D. Responses of Intel-mountain
salmonids to sediment in streams. In:
Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February  3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.

This paper presents a short review of the
literature on the effects of sediment on salmonids.
Better methods are needed  for developing
appropriate indices of stream disturbance and to
determine how much sediment'disturbs stream
productivity, not whether it does.

Meehan, W.R. 1970. Some effects of shade
cover on stream temperature in southeast Alaska.
Research Note PNW-113. USDA Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station.
     ,            j>
This study was done  to determine the role of
streamside vegetation under the cool, moist
conditions of southeast Alaska. Study objectives
were (1) to develop a practical  method for
measuring the effects of shade on stream
temperature and (2) to conduct exploratory studies
of the relationship between stream cover and
water temperature. The study was conducted in
small streams in the northern part of southeast
Alaska. Measurements of stream temperature
were taken on sunny and completely overcast
days and along unshaded and shaded stretches of
the streams. Weather information for sampling
days and temperature data are tabulated.
Temperature measurements demonstrated that
streamside vegetation plays a definite role in
maintaining cool stream temperatures.  The author
notes that temperature increases in streams after
clearcutting in southeast Alaska do not approach
levels lethal to fish.  The precise role of
streamside'vegetation in the aquatic environment
needs further research in order for fisheries and
land managers to prescribe clearcutting for
optimum timber and fisheries production.

Meehan, W.R., W.A. Fair, D.M. Bishop, and
J.H. Patric. 1969. Some  effects of clearcutting
oh salmon habitat of two southwest Alaska
streams. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment
Station. Research Paper PNW-82.

This report presents significant amounts of data
from research and describes the main conclusions
"eearding the effect of clearcutting on streamflow,
   Bended sediment, water temperature, and log
ticoris on salmon habitat.  Temperature
measurements show that on clear summer days,
shade-producing streamside vegetation plays a
definite role in cooling or maintaining coolness of
the study streams.  No significant difference was
found between the two areas under clear-shaded
and cloudy weather conditions. This report also
contains the references from a detailed literature
review.

Minckley, W.L., and J.N. Rinne.  1985. Large
woody debris in hot- desert streams: An
historical review.  Desert Plants. 7(3):142- 153.

This paper provides a review of woody debris
input into southwestern desert streams. Debris
has been denied to present- day desert streams
                                             53

-------
 because of interception by impoundments and
 decimation of riparian vegetation.  Historical
 changes, functions of large woody debris in the
 system, and probable future conditions are
 reviewed.

 Murphy, M.L., and K.V. Koski. 1989. Input
 and depletion of woody debris in Alaska
 streams and implications for streamside
 management.  North American Journal of
 Fisheries Management. 9(4):427-436.

 Natural rates of input and depletion of large
 woody debris (LWD) in southeast Alaska streams
 were studied to provide a basis for managing
 streamside zones to maintain LWD for fish habitat
 after timber harvest.  Input and depletion rates
 were inversely proportional to LWD diameter and
 ranged from 1%/year for large LWD in all stream
 types to 3%/year for small LWD in large, high-
 energy, bedrock-controlled streams. A model
 indicated that 90 years after  clear-cut logging
 without a stream-side buffer strip large LWD
 would be reduced by 70% and recovery to
 preloggmg levels would take more than 250
 years. Because nearly all LWD is derived from
 within 30 m of the stream, the use of a 30-m
 wide, unlogged buffer strip along both sides of
 the stream during timber harvest should maintain
 LWD.

 Murphy, M.L., K.V. Koski, J. Heifetz, S.W.
 Johnson, D. Kirchhofer, and J.F. Thedinga.
 1984. Role of large organic debris as winter
 habitat for juvenile salmonids in Alaska
 streams. In: Western Proceedings of the 64th
Annual Conference of the Western Association
 of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Victoria,  British
 Columbia, July 16-19,1984. pp. 251-262.

To  assess short-term effects of logging on juvenile
 Oncorhynchus kisutch, Salvelins malma, Salmo
gairdneri, and Salmo clarki  in southeastern
Alaska, the fish density and habitat in summer
and whiter were compared in 18 streams  in
old-growth forest and in clearcuts with and
without buffer strips.  Buffered reaches did not
consistently differ from old-growth reaches;
 clearcut reaches had more periphyton, lower
 channel stability, and less canopy, pool volume,
 large woody debris, and undercut banks than old-
 growth reaches.  Fry abundance was related to the
 amount of large woody debris.  Clearcutting may
 increase fry abundance in summer in some
 streams by increasing primary production, but
 may reduce abundance of parr hi whiter if debris
 is removed. Use of buffer strips maintains or
 increases debris, protects habitat, allows increased
 primary production, and can increase abundance
 of fry and parr. This paper presents partial
 results of a larger study.; the companion paper is
 Thedinga, Murphy, Heifetz,  Koski, and Johnson,
 1989.  This report presents significant amounts of
 data and conclusions and contains references to
 more than 50 other papers.

 Platts, W.S., and W.F. Megahan.  1975. Time
 trends in riverbed sediment composition in
 salmon and steelhead spawning areas: South
 Fork Salmon River, Idaho. In: Transactions of
 the 40th North American Wildlife and Natural
 Resources Conference. Wildlife Management
 Institute, Washington, DC. pp. 229-239.

 The number of returning adult summer chinook
 salmon and steelhead trout entering the South
 Fork Salmon River steadily declined for the 17
 years prior to the report's publication.  This  ;
 report discusses the history of land use and habitat
 rehabilitation efforts in the river watershed, siting
 possible reasons for increased sedimentation that
 could affect salmon habitat. The report
 specifically describes temporal trends in riverbed
 material size composition in the  four major
 spawning areas  of the main river channel.
 Considerable variation in riverbed sediment size
 composition was found at varying locations hi the
river. Fine and coarse sands in  excess of  10-15%
led to unsuccessful salmon spawning. Changes hi
forest practices, particularly a moratorium on
logging and road construction in the upper
drainage, led to a change in sediment
composition, from 45-80% fines to 12-26% fines,
and an increase in suitability for spawning.
                                             54

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Reeves, G.H., F.H. Everest, and T.E.
Nickelson. 1989. Identification of physical
habitats limiting the production of coho salmon
in western Oregon and Washington. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research
Station. General Technical Report
PNW-GTR-245. 18 pages.

This document was designed to help fishery
managers  identify factors limiting the production
of coho salmon in streams of coastal and interior
Oregon and Washington. The guide is designed
to identify potential physical limitations to fish
production that may be moderated or removed by
habitat rehabilitation or enhancement programs.
The guide is most accurate fpr streams up to large
fourth-order and small fifth- order streams.

Richards, C. Ecological effects of fine
sediments in stream ecosystems. In:
Proceedings of Technical Worlkshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.

A review  of the ecological effects of fine
sediment in stream ecosystems is presented.
Topics include suspended sediment, sediment
deposition, and secondary effects of sediment.
Also included  are several general approaches  that
have been taken to develop  sediment criteria.

Rishel, G.B.,  J.A. Lynch,  and E.S. Corbett.
1982. Seasonal stream temperature changes
following forest harvesting. Journal of
Environmental Quality. 11(1):112-116.

The objectives of this study were to  document
changes in water temperature of small headwater
streams following a clearcut—herbicide treatment
and a commercial clearcut harvest. The study
was designed to provide data on the maximum
expected  change in stream temperature following
forest cover removal and to evaluate the
effectiveness of a buffer zone on the commercial
clearcut site in controlling stream temperature •
changes.  The average monthly maximum
temperature change in the clearcut-herbicide
treatment stream was 4.4 °C, and the highest
recorded temperature in the stream was 32 °C,
compared to 22 °C on an adjacent forested
watershed.  On the clearcut watershed with a
buffer strip, only slight changes hi stream
temperature were observed. The average monthly
maximum stream temperature increase was < 1
°C, and the highest temperature recorded was 23
Robison, E.G., and R.L. Beschta. 1990.
Characteristics of coarse woody debris for
several coastal streams of southeast  Alaska,
USA.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences. 47(9): 1684-1693.

Coarse woody debris was measured along five
undisturbed low- gradient stream reaches.
Measurements taken included volume, decay
class, and horizontal orientation. Debris is an
important component of salmonid fish habitat in
the Pacific Northwest and influences habitat for
other aquatic organisms.  Debris can  also deflect
stream flows and block fish migration; however,
its removal is usually associated with  lowered
salmonid production. This study was undertaken
to evaluate the extent to which debris volume,
piece characteristics, and spatial distribution
varied with stream size.  The authors  identified
four "influence zones" for stream reaches: Zone 1
includes debris that offers cover at low flow,
Zone 2 affects stream flow at high flow, and
Zones 3 and 4 provide sources of debris to the
streams.  The authors conclude that the amount
and location of coarse woody debris varies with '
stream size, and they recommend that debris
locations be differentiated by stream influence
zone in forest inventories.

Scanned, P.W. Effects of increased
sedimentation on fresh waters of interior
Alaska. In: Proceedings of Technical Workshop
on Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.

 This paper presents a summary of a research
 effort in Alaska to determine the effects of
                                              55

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  sediments on water quality, stream habitat, and
  fisheries. The focus of this paper is on the effects
  of increased sedimentation on aquatic
  invertebrates, stream periphyton, and site-feeding
  fish. Aquatic invertebrate density was  strongly
  correlated with both turbidity and total  suspended
  solids in the stream. Increased sediment loads
  reduced primary productivity but did not preclude
  it until settleable solids became measurable.
  Arctic graylings were excluded from segments of
  streams with low water quality and direct and
  indirect mortality resulting from sediment was
  observed.

  Schlosser, IJ. 1982. Trophic structure,
  reproductive success, and growth rate of Fishes
  in a natural and modified headwater  stream.
  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
  Sciences.  39(7):968-978.

 The  impact of removing riparian vegetation,
 channel straightening, and fluctuations in flow
 regime on trophic structure, reproductive success,
 and growth rate of fishes was assessed in
 east-central Illinois. The authors found  that
 channel morphology, in conjunction with flow
 regime,  appears to be especially important in
 determining habitat stability and a broad range of
 fish community attributes.  Also, alteration of
 riparian vegetation increased instability in the fish
 community by shifting the nature and seasonal
 dynamics of the organic energy base.

 Scrivener, J.C., and MJ. Brownlee. 1989.
 Effects of forest harvesting on spawning gravel
 and incubation survival of chum
 (Oncorhynchus keta) and coho salmon (o.
 kisutch) in Carnation Creek, British Columbia.
 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
 Sciences. 46(3):681-696.

 The objective of this study was to assess the
 effects of current forestry harvesting practices on
 spawning gravel composition, intergravel
 dissolved oxygen, and permeability, and  the
 influence of these features on the survival and size
 of emerging fry. Following logging,  fines in the
stream bed of Carnation Creek increased from 4.6
  to 5.7%, aldiough suspended sediment
  concentration did not increase.  Also following
  logging, the survival to emergence declined from
  29.1 to 16.4% for coho salmon and from 22.2 to
  11.5% for chum salmon. Annual changes in
  substrate composition and peak flows explained
  60 and 73% of the variability hi survival to
  emergence for chum and  coho salmon,
  respectively.  Changes in streambed fines
  appeared to depend on the timing of logging
  operations and large freshets.

  Sedell, J.R., P.A. Bisson, FJ. Swanson, and
  S.V, Gregory. 1988. What we know about large
 trees that fall into streams and rivers, In: From
 the forest to  the sea: A story of fallen trees.
 USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest
 and Range Experiment Station. General
 Technical Report PNW-229. pp. 47-81.

 The physical and biological characteristics of
 forested streams in the Northeast are discussed at
 length. The history of logging activities, riparian
 management,  and ecosystem structure are
 compared; the effects of removed and downed
 timber on habitat are emphasized.  Physical
 variables and stream debris frequency were
 studied for their effects on fish species and habitat
 development.  The data indicate that complete
 removal of timber from any stream has an
 adverse impact on fish-dependent food chains and
 sediment capture.  Overall, this article addresses
 stream debris dynamics and the effects on
 indigenous species. The document contains
 numerous figures and tables.

 Stall, J.B.  1972. Effects of sediment on water
 quality.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
 1(4)^53-360.

 This paper documents the role of sediment in
 water quality and describes the magnitude of
 erosion and sedimentation, their predictability, the
 effect of erosion on land economic values and
water use, and control programs. General
information is provided pertaining to all major
land uses.
                                              56

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Swank, W.T., L.F. DeBano, and D. Nelson.
1989. Effects of timber management practices
on soil and water. In: The Scientific Basis for
Silvicultural and Management Decisions in the
National Forest System.  R.M. Burns (ed.).
USDA Forest Service.  General Technical
Report W6-55. pp. 79-106.

This paper presents a detailed review of the
effects of various forest management practices on
soil and water characteristics. The major topics
reviewed include forest management practices,
general effects on soil and water, and effects on
different forest types.  The section oh general
effects on soil and water includes review of water
quantity, water quality, erosion, nutrient
loss/change, fire, and herbicides. The different
forest types, including western  inland conifers,
pacific coast conifers,  northeastern conifers,
eastern hardwoods,  and southern conifers, are
reviewed for water yield, streamflow timing,
erosion and sedimentation, water quality and
temperature, and soil and soil nutrients. This
review cites over 100 references.

Swanson, FJ., RJ. Janda, T, Dunne, and
D.N. Swanston. 1982. Sediment budgets and
routing in forested drainage basins. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station. General Technical
Report PNW-141.165 pages.

This document contains results  from 14 papers
and 5 summaries from discussion groups on
sediment budget and routing studies conducted
principally in forested drainage basins. Other
topics included in the papers include sediment
routing studies using computer  models, physical
models, and field observations.  This work
emphasizes methods for judging the relative
importance of sediment sources within a basin,
the many roles of biological factors in sediment
transport and storage,  and the importance of
recognizing changes in sediment storage within
basins when interpreting sediment yield.
  Swanson, FJ., and G.W. Lienkaemper. 1978.
  Physical consequences of large organic debris in
  Pacific Northwest streams. USDA Forest
  Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
  Experiment Station. General Technical Report
  PNW-69.

  This paper presents a general overview of the
  physical characteristics, history, and effects of
  natural organic debris in streams.  A case study
  showing the characteristics of potential
  management impacts of the movement of stream
  debris is presented.  Evidence of increased
  frequency of debris torrents after clearcutting and
  road construction was observed.  In two western
  Oregon watersheds, increases hi debris torrents of
  about 4 and 9 tunes for clearcut and 40 to 130
  tunes for road rights-of-way relative to the
  frequency in forested areas were observed.

  Swift, L.W.,  Jr. 1982. Duration of stream
  temperature increases following forest cutting
  in the southern Appalachian Mountains.  Water
  Resources Bulletin.  18(6):273-275.

  The effect of clearcutting riparian areas on water
  temperature wa* Cammed at the Coweeta
  Hydrologic Lai  .    ry, North Carolina.  During
  the first two su:  ...rs of the study, stream
  temperatures at the downstream edge of clearcut
  was increased by an average of 3.3 °C.  The
  increase declined the next three summers to 1.2
  °C. In addition, the daily range of water
  temperatures (maximum minus minimum)
  increased for all 5 years after clearcut.  The
  authors also used a method by Brown (1970) to
  estimate water temperature changes and found that
  the method significantly overestimated the actual
  increase.

  USDA Forest Service. Undated. Forest
  hydrology: Hydrologic effects of vegetative
  manipulation, Part II.

  This document is concerned with the manipulation
'  of vegetation and the subsequent effects that may
  be expected from water yield. The techniques,
  procedures, and guidelines contained in the
                                             57

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  document are designed for use by field foresters
  to assess past, present, and future vegetation
  manipulation practices on the water and watershed
  resource. The guidelines are intended to aid in
  the optimum management of the forest resource
  while maintaining values placed on it by
  silvicultural, social, economic, and ecological
.  constraints.

  Van Sickle, J., and S.V. Gregory.  1990.
  Modeling inputs of large woody debris to
  streams from falling trees. Canadian Journal
  of Forest Research. 20(10):1593-1601.

  This paper presents a generalized model for
  estimating the amount of large woody debris
  delivered to streams from stands of mixed tree
  heights and species composition. The estimates
  of debris input were based on the density
  (trees/area), tree size  distribution, and tree-fall
  probability of the riparian stand adjacent to the
  stream.  The model was applied to an old-growth
  coniferous stand hi Oregon's Cascade Mountains.
  Debris pieces  in the stream were generally shorter
  than predicted by the  model, probably because of
  bole breakage during tree fall.  The authors
  discuss the coupling of the model to a stream
  dynamics model to give land managers a tool to
  explore the long-term consequences of
  management alternatives for woody debris inputs
  to streams and floodplains.

  Vohs, P.A., IJ. Moore, and J.S. Ramsey.
  1993. A  critical review of the effects of turbidity
  on aquatic organisms in large rivers. U.S. Fish
  and Wildlife Service, Environmental
  Management Technical Center, Special report
  93-S002. 139 pages.

  A comprehensive critical review of the biological
  effects of suspended sediments  (including
 turbidity, washload, and filterable solids) was
 prepared by the United States Fish and Wildlife
 Service.  This critical  review covers  121
 references.

 Adams, T.N.,  and K.  Sullivan. 1988.  The
physics afforest stream heating: A simple model.
 Weyerhaeuser Technical Report.

 Benda, L. 1990. The influence of debris flows on
 channels and valley floors in the Oregon coast
 range, USA.  Earth Surface Processes and
 Landforms. 15:457-466.

 Berry, J.D. 1975. Modeling the impact of logging
 debris in streams.  In: Proceedings of the
 Watershed Management Symposium. Logan, Utah,
 August 11-13, 1975. American Society of Civil
 Engineers, Division of Irrigation and Drainage.
 pp.  676-680.
                       !              .
 Beschta, R.L. 1983. Sediment and organic matter
 transport in mountain streams of the pacific
 northwest In: Symposium on Erosion and
 Sedimentation. Colorado State University, Fort
 Collins, Colorado. Dr. D.B. Simons Symposium.
 pp. 169-189.

 Bethlahmy, N. 1971.  Maximum peak flows for
 selected return periods for watersheds west of the
 continental divide in Idaho and Montana. USDA
 Forest Service, Research Paper INT-113.

 Bilby, R.E. 1981.  Role of organic debris dams in
 regulating the export of dissolved and paniculate
 matter from a forested,watershed.  Ecology.
 62(5): 1234-1243.

 Blackmon, E.G.  (ed). 1985.  Forestry and water
 quality: A mid- south symposium. Little Rock,
 Arkansas, May 8-9, 1985. Arkansas Cooperative
 Extension Service, University of Arkansas.

 Burton, T.M., and G.E. Likens. 1973. The effect
 of strip-cutting on stream temperatures in the
 Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New
 Hampshire.  BioScience. 23:433-435.

 Cherry, J., and R.L. Beschta. 1989, Coarse
woody debris and channel morphology: A flume
study. Water Resources Bulletin.
25(5): 1031-1036.
                                              58

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Grouse, M.R., C.A. Callahan, K.W. Malueg, and
S.E. Dominguez. 1981. Effects of fine sediments
on growth of juvenile coho salmon in laboratory
streams.  Transactions of the American Fisheries
Society. 110:281-286.

Douglass, J.E., and W.T. Swank. 1975. Effects
of management practices on water quality and
quantity: Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North
Carolina. In: Municipal Watershed Management
Symposium Proceedings. USDA Forest Se'rvice,
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. General
Technical Report NE-13. pp. 1-13.

Glymph, L.M., and H.C. Storey. 1967.
Sediment-its consequences and control. In:
Agriculture and the quality of our environment.
N.C. Brady (ed:). American Association for the
Advancement of Science Pub. 85:205-220.

Gorman, O.T., and J.R. Karr.  1978. Habitat
structure and stream fish communities.  Ecology.
59(3):507-515.

Gregory, S.V., G.A. Lamberti, D.C. Erman,
K.V. Koski, M.L. Murphy, and J.R. Sedell.
1987. Influence of forest practices on aquatic
production. In: Streamside Management: Forestry
and Fishery Interactions. University of
Washington.  E.G. Salo, and T.W. Cundy, (eds.)
Institute of Forest Resources No. 57. Chapter 7,
pp. 233-255.

Heede, B.H.  1985. Application of
geomorphological concepts to evaluate timber
harvest influences on a stream channel-A case
study.  Annals of Geomorphology, Supplement 55,
Fluvial Geomorphology.  H. Bremer (ed.).
Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin, pp. -121-130.

Hewlett, J.D., and J.C. Fortson.  1982. Stream
temperature under an inadequate buffer strip in
the Southeast Piedmont. Water Resources
Bulletin. 18(6):983-988.

House, R., and V. Crispen: 1990. Economic
analyses of the value of large woody debris as
salmonid habitat in coastal Oregon streams.
Technical Note OR-7:6512. USDI, Bureau of
Land Management, Portland OR.  11 pages.
Lee, R., and D.E. Samuel. 1976. Some thermal
and biological effects of forest cutting in West
Virginia. Journal of Environmental Quality.
5(4):362-366.

Levno, A., and J. Rothacher. 1969. Increases in
maximum stream temperatures after slash and
burning in a small experimental watershed.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest
and Range Experiment Station. Research Note
PNW-110. 7 pages.

Lloyd, D.S., J.P. Koenings, and J.D. LaPerriere.
1987. Effects of turbidity in fresh waters of
Alaska. North American Journal of Fisheries
Management. 7:18-33.

Lull, H.W., and K.G. Reinhart. 1972. Forests
and floods in the eastern United States. USDA
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station. Research Paper NE-226.  94 pages.

Megahan, W.F. 1972. Logging, erosion,
sedimentation-Are they dirt words? Journal of
Forestry. 70(7):403-407.

Miner, N.H. 1968. Natural filtering of suspended
soil by a stream at low flow. USDA Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station. Research  Note PNW-88.

NCASI. 1980. Research and field investigation of
the impact of southern forestry management
practices on receiving water quality and utility.
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin No.
337.

Nuttall, P.M. 1972. The effects of sand
deposition upon the macroinvertebrate fauna of
the River Camel, Cornwall. Freshwater Biology.
2:181-186.
                                             59

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 Oschwald, W.R. 1972. Sediment-water
 interactions. Journal of Environmental Quality.
 l(4):360-366.

 Patton, D.R. 1980. The effect of streamside forest
 harvesting on stream temperature in the Georgia
 mountains. Master's Thesis, University of
 Georgia, School of Forest Resources, Athens,
 Georgia. 49 pages.

 Patton, D.R. 1973. A literature review of timber
 harvesting effects on stream temperatures:
 Research needs for the Southwest. USDA Forest
 Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
 Experiment Station. Research Note RM-249. 4
 pages.

 Potts, D.F., and B.K.M. Anderson. 1990.
 Organic debris and the management of small
 stream channels. Western Journal of Applied
 Forestry. 5(l):25-28.

 Reeves,  G.H. Sediment and aquatic organisms in
 the Pacific Northwest: The need for new
 perspectives. In: Proceedings of Technical
 Workshop on Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon,
 February 3-7, 1992. U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency and USDA Forest Service.

 Ringler, N.H., and J.D. Hall. 1975. Effects of
 logging on water temperature and dissolved
 oxygen hi spawning beds. Transactions of the
 American Fisheries Society. 104:111-121.

 Ringler, N.H., and J.D. Hall. 1988. Vertical
 distribution of sediment and organic debris in
 coho salmon redds in three small Oregon
 Streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries,and
Aquatic Science. 45:742-747.

Robinson, A.R. 1971. Sediment: Our greatest
pollutant? Agricultural Engineering. 53:406-408.

Robison, E.G., and R.L.  Beschta.  1990.
Identifying trees in riparian areas that can  provide
coarse woody debris to streams. Forest Science.
36(3):790-801.
 Rothacher, J.  1971. Regimes of streamflow and
 their modification by logging. In: Proceedings of
 the Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
 Environment. Oregon State University, October
 19-21, 1970.  J.T Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.).
 OSU, Corvallis, Oregon, pp. 40-54.

 Rothacher, J.  1954. Soil erosion in Copper Basin.
 Journal of Forestry. 52(1):41.

 Ryan, S.E., and G.E. Grant. 1991. Downstream
 effects of timber harvesting on channel
 morphology hi Elk River Basin, Oregon.  Journal
 of Environmental Quality. 20(l):60-72.

 Salo, E.G., and T.W. Cundy (eds.). 1987.
 Streamside management forestry and fishery
 interactions. College of Forest Resources,
 University of Washington. 471 pages.

 Sedell, J.R., F.N. Leone, and W.S. Duval. 1991.
 Water transportation and storage of logs. In:
 Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management
 on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. W.R.
 Meehan (ed.).

 Sedell, J.R., G.H. Reeves, F.R. Hauer, J.A.
 Stanford, and C.P. Hawkins. 1990. Role of
 refugia in recovery from disturbances:  Modern
 fragmented and disconnected river systems.
 Environmental Management. 14(5):711-724.

 Sopper, W.E., and H.W.  Lull. 1965. Strearaflow
 characteristics of physiographic units in the
 Northeast.  Water Resources Research.
 1:115-124.

 Sparks, R.E., P.B. Bayley,  S.L. Kohler, and
 L.L. Osborne. 1990. Disturbance and recovery of
 large floodplain rivers. Environmental
Management. 14(5):699-709.

Sullivan, K. 1985. Long-term patterns of water
quality in a managed watershed in Oregon: 1.
Suspended sediment.  Water Resources  Bulletin
21(6):977-987.
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Swanson, F.J., M.D. Bryant, G.W. Lienkaemper,
and J.R. Sedell. 1984. Organic debris in small
streams, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska
cleanup. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest
Forest and Range Experiment Station. General
Technical Report PNW-166. 12 pages.

Swift, L.W., and S.E. Baker. 1973. Lower water
temperatures within a stream buffer strip. USDA
Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment
Station. Research Note SE-193. 7 pages.

Swift, L.W., Jr., and J.B. Messer. 1971. Forest
cuttings raise temperatures of small streams in the
southern Appalachians. Journal of Soil and
Water Conservation. 26:111-116.

Thomas, R.B.  1985. Measuring suspended
sediment in small mountain streams. USDA
Forest Service. General Technical Report
PSW-83. 9 pages.

Ursic, SJ.  1991. Hydrologic effects of two
methods of harvesting mature southern pine.
Water Resources Bulletin. 27(2):303-315.

Ursic, SJ., and F.E. Dendy. 1963. Sediment
yields from small watersheds under various land
uses and forest covers. In: Proceedings of the
Federal Inter-Agency Sedimentation Conference.
USDA Miscellaneous Publication 970. pp. 47-52.

USEPA and USDA Forest Service. Proceedings
of Technical Workshop on Sediments.  Corvallis,
Oregon, February 3-7, 1992. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and USDA Forest Service.
WATERSHED LEVEL STUDIES

Anderson, H.W. 1954. Suspended sediment
discharge as related to streamflow, topography,
soil, and land use.  Transactions of the
American Geophysical Union. 35:268-281.

Suspended sediment sampling yielded values for
average annual suspended sediment from 29
watersheds in western Oregon.  These values
were related by regression analysis to streamflow
(mean annual runoff and peakedness of runoff),
topography (slope, area and elevation), soil type,
and channel bank characteristics.  Sediment
discharge was found to be significantly related to
mean annual runoff, peakedness of runoff, slope,
soil type, and land use.  Based on the study, the
author developed a map of erosion potential .for
western Oregon and discusses at some length the
factors responsible for differences in suspended
sediment discharge between watersheds.
Application of the results to land use planning and
future predictions of erosion within watersheds is
also discussed.         .

Beschta, R.L., and R.L. Talyor. 1988. Stream
temperature increases and land use in a
forested Oregon watershed.  Water Resources
Bulletin. 24(l):19-25.

The long-term changes in stream temperatures in
relation to management activities and natural
hydrologic events was studied hi the Salmon
Creek watershed in western Oregon. Over a
30-year period, average daily maximum and
minimum stream temperatures (calculated from
the 10 warmest days of each year) have risen 6
°C and  2 °C, respectively although only a small
increase in air temperature was observed over the
same period. The authors noted a highly
significant relationship between a cumulative
index of forest harvesting and maximum stream
temperatures.  Maximum temperatures  also
increased for several years following peak flow
events,  which tended to obscure specific cause
and effect relationships between timber harvest
activities and long-term stream temperature
changes,

Brooks, K.N., H.M. Gregersen, E.R.
Berglund, and M. Tayaa. 1982. Economic
evaluation of watershed projects-an overview
methodology and application.  Water Resources
Bulletin. 18(2):245-250.

An economic tool for use in determining which
watershed rehabilitation projects are most
                                             61

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  economically viable is presented.  The tool was
  applied to a project in Morocco to control
  sedimentation and thereby increase downstream
  reservoir capacity for irrigation.  The tool
  involves four steps: (1) analyzing existing
  watershed and expected watershed conditions
  based on changes resulting from the project;
  (2) developing value estimates for the project
  inputs and outputs; (3) calculating the project's
  worth; and (4) testing the sensitivity of the
  analysis to the assumptions used in its
  development. A full cost/benefit analysis for the
  case study project is presented.  The authors
  present this economic tool as an alternative to a
  much more costly feasibility study.

  Childers, D.L., and J.G. Gosselink. 1990.
  Assessment of cumulative impacts to water
  quality in a forested wetland landscape.
 Journal of Environmental Quality. 19:455-464.

 This article presents a historical analysis of water
 quality in the Tensas Basin, Louisiana, as part of
 a cumulative impact analysis of the landscape.
 Historical records of suspended sediment, N, P,
 and turbidity from three streams in the basin
 demonstrated that the watershed's water quality is
 characteristic where the original forest cover has
 been cleared. Aquatic primary productivity in the
 Basin appears to be nitrogen limited.  A
 goal-oriented management plan for the watershed
 was developed based on the study results.
 Management practices to counteract the
 cumulative effects of conversion to agricultural
 land include runoff control, protecting forested
 corridors  along streams, and creating new buffer
 zones.

 Coats, R.N., and T.O. Miller. 1981.
 Cumulative silvicultural impacts on watersheds:
 A hydrologic and regulatory dilemma.
 Environmental Management.  5(2):147-160.

 The cumulative effects of multiple logging
 operations on single watersheds are presented.
 Both California and federal laws require that these
 effects be considered when approving forest
plans, but in actuality plans are approved on an
  individual basis. Ways to approach the problem
  and encourage the formation of a geological
  reference system to be used in planning are
  included.

  Fraley, J., T. Weaver, and J. Vashro. 1989.
  Cumulative effects of human activities on bull
  trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Upper
  Flathead Drainage, Montana. In: Proceedings
  of the Symposium on Headwaters Hydrology.
  American Water Resources Association,
  Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 111-120.

  The potential cumulative1 effects of land
  management practices, such  as timber harvest and
  road building in the Flathead Lake watershed, on
  the population of the bull trout are summarized.
  The authors provide evidence from other
  monitoring studies that suggests that the
  deposition of fine sediments  from streamside
 disturbances and forest road  construction activities
 have adversely affected and could continue to
 adversely  affect the bull trout.  Based on
 information summarized in this paper, the authors
 called for  amendments of current management
 standards, including riparian  guidelines and
 increased implementation of best management
 practices to reduce sediment  delivery.

 Frear, S.T. 1982. Timber harvesting and water
 quality in the Bull Run Municipal Watershed.
 In: Forestry Research West.  USDA Forest
 Service, pp. 4-8.

 Timber harvesting and its effects on the Bull Run
 Municipal  Watershed are discussed. The
 watershed  contains significant silvicultural activity
 and also serves as a large source of drinking
 water for the region.  The interaction between the
 two amenities was studied.  The study included
 three watersheds: one was a control, and two
 were used for various timber  management
 practices including road construction, timber
 harvest, and site preparation.  The author
 concludes that timber harvest  activities in this
watershed do not cause appreciable degradation hi
water quality.
                                              62

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 Hansmann, E.W., and H.K. Phinney. 1973.
 Effects of logging on periphyton in coastal
 streams of Oregon. Ecology. 54:194-199.

 Prelogging and postlogging oxygen levels,
 temperature, and sedimentation loads were
 analyzed in a study of small watersheds in
 Oregon. Clearcut logging was applied to one
 watershed  of 71 hectares, while a second
 watershed  was patch-cut leaving a buffer-strip of
 vegetation along the stream channel. A third
 watershed  remained as a control. The study
 showed that a close relationship exists between
 watershed  practices and floral characteristics of
 the drainage system and that scream characteristics
 can maintain themselves  if adequate protection is
 given to stream  vegetation.

 HHmon, J.B., and J.E. Douglass. 1963.
 Potential impact of forest fertilization on range,
 wildlife, and watershed management. In: Forest
 Fertilization: Practice and Theory.  Tennessee
 Valley Authority,  pp. 197-202.

 This is a review of the potential impacts of
 fertilization on forage, wildlife, and water
 resources.  Results of studies carried out in
 Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina are
 presented. Plots received different rates of
 fertilization, and the nutrient quality of forage for
 livestock was measured.  A similar study was
 carried out on plots managed for both timber and
 forage production.  The authors briefly discuss
 the effects of fertilization on the nutrient value of
 wildlife  forage,  and, in greater detail, the water
 quality and yield effects of fertilization.

 Kochenderfer,  J.N., and G.M. Aubertin. 1975.
 Effects of management practices on water
 quality and quantity: Fernow Experimental
 Forest,  West Virginia. In: Municipal Watershed
 Management Symposium' Proceedings. USDA
 Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report NE-13. pp.
 14-24.

 The data from 22 years of research into the
- influence of forestry practices on the quantity and
timing of streamflow and on water quality
parameters such as turbidity, temperature, specific
conductance, pH, alkalinity, and nutrient
concentrations are reviewed in this paper. Water
quality degradation was observed from clearcut
experimental watersheds, whereas minor changes
hi water quality were observed when forestry
practices were well planned and conducted.  The
authors conclude that at the tune of this paper,
forests could not be managed for timber products
and water yield and that water quality degradation
could easily be avoided by using erosion control
management practices. Data from the research
are presented, although no statistical analysis of
the data is provided.

Martin, C.W. 1979. Precipitation and
streamwater chemistry in an undisturbed
forested watershed in New Hampshire.
Ecology. 60(1): 36-42.

A study was initiated to determine the
precipitation and streamwater chemistry of
forested watersheds at various stages of
succession, including a forested watershed heavily
logged 55 years ago, a watershed  commercially
clearcut in 1970,  and a watershed clearfelled in
1967 and sprayed with herbicide for 3 years. The
previously reported hypothesis that nutrient
concentrations would be higher hi streams
draining mature forested areas due to lower net
accumulation in these stands compared to younger
stands was tested. The authors found a net  loss
of nitrate from all watersheds. However, a net
accumulation of ammonium that was sufficient to
give a net increase in total N hi all watersheds
was  found.

Meyer, J.L., and C.M. Tate. 1983. The effects
of watershed disturbance  on  dissolved organic
carbon dynamics of a stream. Ecology.
64(1)^3-44.

Two second-order streams  hi the Coweeta
Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, were
studied for annual dissolved organic carbon
(DOC) export. One of the watersheds was
completely clearcut 2 years prior to  the beginning
                                               63

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 of the study, while the other was left undisturbed.
 The document provides excellent analytical data
 for DOC transport during baseflow and storm
 periods.  Lower DOC export from the clearcut
 watershed was concluded to be the result of lower
 inputs in subsurface water as well as hi stream
 generation.

 Neary, D.G., and J.B. Currier. 1982. Impact
 of wildfire and watershed restoration on .water
 quality on South Carolina's Blue Ridge
 Mountains. Southern Journal of Applied
 Forestry. 6(2):81- 90.

 Neary and Currier studied the change in water
 quality caused by a large wildfire in South
 Carolina's Blue Ridge Mountains. Five
 watersheds contained five different conditions,
 including undisturbed; burned only; burned and
 fertilized; and burned, fertilized and covered with
 fire retardant.  Concentrations of NOj-N
 increased the most (peak of 0.394 mg/1) as a
 result of fertilizer applications during restoration
 operations. Nitrate-N, NH4-N, PO4-P levels were
 elevated on the burned and fertilized watersheds
 mainly during storm events.  Sodium, K, Ca, and
 Mg  concentrations were 12-82% above
 background levels during most of the monitoring
 period. Suspended solid concentrations showed
 no relationship to watershed condition. Changes
 in water quality were of no biological significance
 to aquatic ecosystems and did not affect use of the
 watersheds as sources of drinking water. Based
 on the results of this intensive study, the authors
 concluded that the wildfire did not adversely
 affect the water quality for ecosystems or
 drinking.

 Pearce, R. 1987. Casper Creek: Discovering how
 watersheds respond to logging. USDA Forest
 Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range
 Experiment Station.

 This paper discusses the watershed impacts
 associated with different forestry practices  in the
 Casper Creek watershed hi California.  Changes
 in streamflow and sedimentation from road
building and timber harvest were documented
 from two different long-term studies. In the first
 study, results indicated an 80% increase hi
 sediment after road building and a 275% increase
 after logging. Most sediment was lost during
 short periods of high flow hi the watersheds.  In
 the second study (not yes completed), the roles of
 the two watersheds were switched after the
 watersheds were allowed to stabilize. The authors
 hope to present the results of the second study
 soon after the research is  completed.

 Troendle, C.A., and R.M. King. 1985. The
 effect of timber harvest on the Fool Creek
 watershed,  30 years later.  Water Resources
 Research. 21(12):1915-1922.

 The Fool Creek watershed at the Fraser
 Experimental Forest, Colorado, was harvested
 using a pattern of alternating clearcut and forested
 strips in  1956.  After 30 years of postharvest
 record, subtle impacts on the hydrology of the
 watershed were detected that had not been
 significant in the past.

 Yount, J.D., and G J. Niemi. 1990. Recovery
 of lotic communities and ecosystems from
 disturbance-A narrative review of case studies.
 Environmental Management. 14(5):547-569.

 This paper presents a review of case studies of the
 recovery of flowing water systems  from
 disturbance.   The case study of interest to forestry
 NPS is the recovery of streams from disturbances
 to a watershed. The review presents  information
 suggesting that stream recovery would lag behind
 terrestrial recovery after a disturbance because of
 the  temporal relationship between forest
 succession and die dynamics of organic debris
 accumulation.  Other case  studies are presented
 on the following: recovery from floods and
 spates; recovery from drought; recovery from
 biocide applications, recovery from toxic chemical
discharges and spills; recovery from fish
management  practices; recovery from physical
modification of the channel; recovery  from
experimental manipulations; and recovery from
multiple disturbances.
                                              64

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Anderson, H.W., M.D. Hoover, and K.G.
Reinhart.  1976.  Forests and water: Effects of
forest management on floods, sedimentation, and
-water supply. USDA Forest Service. General
Technical Report PSW-18. 115 pages.

Anderson, H.W., and J.R. Walliis. 1965. Some
interpretations of sediment sources and causes,
Pacific Coast basin in Oregon and California. In:
Proceedings of the Federal Inter-Agency
Sedimentation Conference, pp. 22-30.

Baumgartner, D.M. (ed). 1981. Interior west
watershed management: Proceedings of a
symposium. Spokane, Washington, April 8-10,
1980. Washington State University, Cooperative
Extension Service. 288 pages.

Bethlahmy, N. 1971. Maximum peak flows for
selected return periods for watersheds west of the
continental divide in Idaho and Montana. USDA
Forest Service, Research Paper INT-113,,

Copeland, O.L., Jr. 1963. Land use and
ecological factors in relation to sediment yields.
In: Proceedings of the Federal Inter-Agency
Sedimentation Conference. U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Miscellaneous Publication 970. pp.
72-84.

Dillon, P.J., and W.B. Kirchner.  1975. The
effects of geology and land use on the export of
phosphorus from watersheds. Water Resources.
9:135-148.                 ,

Fisher, S.G., and G.E. Likens. 1973. Energy
flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshke: An
integrative approach to stream ecosystem
metabolism.  Ecological Monographs.
43(l):421-439.

Gregory,  J.D. 1988. Hydrologic impacts of forest
water management.  In: The Ecology and
Management of Wetlands,  Volume 2:
Management,  Use and  Value of Wetlands. Hook
et al. (eds.). Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp.
137-147.                   .
Hewlett, J.D., and J.E. Douglass. 1968. Blending
forest uses. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern
Forest Experiment Station. Research Paper
SE-37. 16 pages.   '

Leaf, C.F. 1975.  Watershed management in the
central and southern Rocky Mountains: A
summary of status of our knowledge by vegetation
type. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain
Forest and Range Experiment Station. Research
Paper RM-142. 28 pages.

Leaf, C.F. 1975.  Watershed management in the
Rocky Mountain subalpine zone: The status of our
knowledge: USDA Forest Service, Rocky
Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Research Paper RM-137. 31  pages.

Lotspeich, F.B. 1980. .Watersheds as the basic
ecosystem: This conceptual framework provides a
basis for a natural classification system. Water
Resources Bulletin. 16:581-586.

Love,  L.D., and B.C. Goodell. 1960. Watershed
research on the Fraser Experimental Forest.
Journal of Forestry. 58:272-275.

Lull, H.W., and K.G. Reinhart. 1972. Forests
and floods in the eastern United States. USDA
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station. Research  Paper NE-226.  94 pages.

Meehan, W.R. (ed.). 1991. Influences afforest
and rangeland management on salmonid fishes
and their habitat.  American Fisheries Society
Special Publication 19. 751 pages.

NCASI.  1984. Forestry management practices
and cumulative effects on water quality and
utility. National Council of the Paper Industry for
Air and Stream Improvement. Technical Review
Bulletin No. 435.

NCASI.  1991. The New Alsea Watershed study.
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin No.
602.
                                             65

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 Odum, E.P. 1985. Trends expected in stressed
 ecosystems. Biosdence. 35(7):419-422.

 Pierce, R.S. 1967. Evidence of overland flow on
 forest watersheds. Forest Hydrology. W.E.
 Sopper, and H.W. Lull (eds.). Pergamon Press,
 NY. p.247-252.

 Richter, D.D., C.W. Ralston, and W.R. Harms.
 1983. Chemical composition and spatial variation
 of bulk precipitation at a coastal plain watershed
 in South Carolina.  Water Resources Research.
 19(1): 134-140.

 Rygh, J. 1990. Fisher Creek Watershed
 improvement project final report. Payette National
 Forest. 13 pages.

 Salo, E.G.,  and T.W. Cundy (eds.). 1987.
 Streamside management forestry and fishery
 interactions. College of Forest Resources,
 University of Washington. 471 pages.

 Settergren, C.D., R.M. Nugent, and G.S.
 Henderson.  1980. Timber harvest water yields in
 the Ozarks.  In: Symposium on Watershed
 Management, vol.11, pp. 661-669.

 Sparks, R.E., P.B. Bayley, S.L. Kohler, and
 L.L. Osborne. 1990. Disturbance and recovery of
 large floodplain rivers. Environmental
Management. 14(5):699-709.

Woodwell, G.M. 1970. Effects of pollution on
the structure and physiology of ecosystems.
Science. 168(3929):429-433.
                                            66

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                        4. ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND USE
IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY

Amaranthus, M.P., R.M. Rice, N.R. Barr, and
R.R. Ziemer. 1985. Logging and forest roads
related to increased debris slides in
southwestern Oregon. Journal of Forestry.
83(4)^29-233.

This article presents data from a study of mass
erosion in the Siskiyou National Forest in
southwestern Oregon.  The effects of forest
activities on soil mass movement frequency and
volumes and information on the conditions at
landslide sights which might aid in the prediction
of future slides was identified.  The slide
frequency during the study period was one slide
every 4.3 years per 1000 acres.  Erosion from
roads was approximately 100 times those on
undisturbed areas, while erosion from harvested
areas was 7 times that of undisturbed areas.
About 75%  of slides occurred on slopes steeper
than 70%.

Anderson, B., and D.F. Potts. 1987. Suspended
sediment and turbidity following road
construction and logging in western Montana.
Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
23(4):681-690.                              ^

 Suspended sediment production and turbidity
 following forest management activities are well
 documented for areas where soils are highly
 erodible or where terrain is unstable.  Areas with
 stable sediments may require less stringent forest
 practice regulations for logging and road
 construction than areas with unstable soils. This
 study investigated the relationships between
 suspended sediment production, turbidity, and
 discharge in a watershed characterized by stable
 sediments and the changes in these parameters
 associated with logging and road construction.
 Sediment yields increased 7.7-fold in the first
 year following road construction in a
 second-order drainage and twofold in the second
 year following logging. Sediment supply
 limitations resulted in poor  correlations between
 sediment concentrations and discharge.  Turbidity
was much better correlated with discharge and
serves as a better indicator of sediment
concentration.

Askew, G.R., and T.M. Williams. 1984.
Sediment concentrations from intensively
prepared wetland sites. Southern Journal of
Applied Forestry. 8(3):1S2-157.

This study was designed to evaluate the drainage
and conversion process used by a major forest
industry and to determine which aspect of the
conversion process, if any, was a primary source
of sediment. Suspended sediment concentrations
were measured in water draining from a
5,900-acre Carolina bay undergoing conversion to
loblolly pine plantations. Samples were collected
during the first stormflow event of each month
between January 1981 and December 1982 from
subwatersheds involved in some of several phases
of conversion. Suspended sediment concentration
in water leaving the bay averaged only 16 mg/1
for 13 storms. Road erosion and ditch installation
produced the highest suspended sediment
 concentrations.  Suspended sediment
 concentrations decreased substantially with
 increasing distance from the sediment source.
 Logging and site preparation activities did not
 cause an appreciable increase in suspended     :
 sediment when equipment did hot operate in the
 drainage ditches. This study indicates that main
 haul roads and new drainage ditches are the
 sources of much of the increased suspended
 sediments found in drainage from managed forests
 in the lower coastal plain.  The authors conclude
 that the impact of these activities can be
 minimized by using a drainage system that
 contains a length of main channel between
 sediment sources  and sensitive areas.
                                               67

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  Bauer, S.B. 1985. Evaluation of nonpoint
  source impacts on water quality from forest
  practices in Idaho: Relation to water quality
  standards. In: Perspectives on Nonpoint Source
  Pollution: Proceedings of a National
  Conference. Kansas City, Missouri, May 19-22,
  1985. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  pp. 455-458.

  The results of an interdisciplinary task force
  appointed to determine the impacts of forest
  operations on water quality are presented.
  Twenty-five forestry sites, operated by state,
  federal, and private ownership, were reviewed.
  Seven of the sites had major impacts on salmonid
 habitat due to direct delivery of sediment from
 skid trails or roads. The remaining sites had
 impacts prevented by low geologic hazards,
 streams with no protected uses, or good practices.
 Other task force findings are also presented in the
 paper.

 Beasley, R.S., E.L. Miller, and S.C. Gough.
 1984. Forest road  erosion in the Ouachita
 mountains. In: Mountain Logging Symposium
 Proceedings. West Virginia  University, June
 5-7, 1984.  P.A. Peters and J. Luckok=
 (eds.),  (eds.) pp. 202-213.

 The quantity and deposition of sediments eroded
 from four segments of an established forest road
 in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas were
 determined for each storm event that occurred
 between June 1, 1982, and May 31, 1983.
 Measurements included total discharge volume,
 discharge rates and  peaks, deposited sediment,
 suspended sediment, and downslope movement of
 deposited sediments. Of 36 storm events, one
 storm (13 inches in 24 hours) accounted for about
 half of the total annual sediment yield.  Most of
 the sediment  was deposited a short distance
 downslope of the road. The results of this study
 may be very useful  to managers of sites similar to
 those used in the study.

 Bilby, R.E. 1985. Contributions of road
 surface sediment to a western Washington
stream.  Forest Science. 31(4):827-838.

This paper presents  the results of a study
 conducted to determine the extent to which forest
 road sediments deposit in streambeds. The results
 showed that sediment deposition occurred only
 during low flow conditions because the majority
 of the sediment from the road surface was very
 fine.  In addition, the gradient of the road and the
 roadside vegetation were thought to reduce the
 magnitude of larger sediment particles reaching
 the stream.  This study presents information on
 the mechanisms of sediment runoff from forest
 roads.

 Blackmon, B.C. (ed). 1985. Forestry and  water
 quality: A mid- south symposium. Little Rock,
 Arkansas, May 8-9,1985. Arkansas
 Cooperative Extension Service, University of
 Arkansas.

 This document contains papers from  a symposium
 on forestry and water quality. Topics addressed
 in the symposium include historical perspectives
 on forestry and water quality, legislative trends,
 physical and chemical elements of forest
 hydrology, education programs,  and results of
 original research. Because of the importance of
 forest road construction in reducing
 forestry-related water quality problems, a section
 is also included on the hydrology of forest roads.
 The symposium proceedings contain nearly 20
 individual papers addressing these topics.

 Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1971.
 Clear-cut logging and sediment production in
 the Oregon coast range.  Water Resources
 Research. 7(5):1189-1198.

 The impact of road  construction, two patterns of
 clear-cut logging, and controlled slash burning on
 the suspended sediment yield and concentration
 from three small watersheds was studied for 11
 years.  Sediment production was  doubled after
 road construction but before logging in one
 watershed and was tripled after burning and
 clearcutting of another watershed.  Felling and
 yarding did not  produce statistically significant
 changes in sediment concentration.  Variation in
the relation between sediment concentration and
water discharge on small undisturbed streams  was
large. Conclusions about the significance of all
but very large changes in sediment concentrations
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are limited because of annual variation for a given
watershed, variation between watersheds, and
variation with stage at a given point.  Tables
present sediment concentrations in the two altered
watersheds and one control watershed for the
duration of the study.

Burns, J.W. 1972. Some effects of logging and
associated road construction on northern
California streams.  Transactions of the
American Fisheries Society. 101(1):1-17.

This report describes the results of a study
conducted from 1966 to 1969 to  determine the
degree of streambed sedimentation, water quality
degradation, and aquatic habitat alteration
associated with forest road construction. The
authors found that heavy use of bulldozers on
steep slopes during road construction causes
excessive sedimentation. Also, if the road
construction is conducted at a time when juvenile
fish are present, decay of debris in the water may
significantly decrease the dissolved oxygen in the
water. This paper provides a good review of the
effects of road construction on water quality and
fish survival and reproduction.

Campbell, AJ.,  R.C. Sidle, and H.A.
Froehlich. 1982.  Prediction of peak flows for
culvert design on small watersheds in Oregon.
Oregon State University, Water Resources
Research Institute, WRRI-74. 98 pages.

Equations developed from 80 watersheds ranging
in size from 0.21 to  10.60 square miles  and
useful for predicting peak flows  on small
watersheds in Oregon are presented.  Oregon was
divided into six physiographic regions for the
purposes of the study and equations specific to
each  region are given.  Annual peak flow data
from gaging stations with more than 20  years of
record were used for the analyses.. Flood
magnitudes having recurrence  intervals of 10, 25,
50, and 100 years were related to physical and
climatic indices of drainage basins by multiple
regression analysis.  Drainage basin area was the
most important variable in explaining the
variation of flood peaks in all  regions.  Mean
basin elevation and mean annual precipitation
were also significantly related  to flood peaks  in
two regions in western Oregon. The prediction
equations provide a better basis for culvert design
on small forested watersheds than rules of thumb
or empirical methods.

Case, A.B., and D.A. Rowe. 1978.
Environmental guidelines for resource road
construction. Canada Forestry Service,
Fisheries and Environment, Newfoundland
Forest Research Center, Information Report
N-X-162. 41 pages.

Information on the effects of forest road
construction on aquatic and terrestrial
environments is presented in this document.  In
addition, construction guidelines are presented to
aid in preventing or minimizing environmental
disturbances associated with road  construction.
The report is designed principally for resource  '
road development in Newfoundland and Labrador.
While the focus  of the paper is on protecting
important habitat (e.g., fish spawning areas,
moose yards, waterfowl breeding areas) generally
and is not specific to forestry activities, the
recommended guidelines are well outlined and
include recommended buffer widths and other
technical guidance.  A table lists environmental
effects associated with road construction activities.

Duncan, S.H., S.H. Bilby, J.W. Ward, and
J.T. Heffner. 1987. Transport of road-surface
sediment through ephemeral stream channels.
Water Resources Bulletin. 23(1):113-119.

The majority of road drainage points in western
Washington and Oregon enter small, rather than
large, streams.  The impact of road surface
sediment on biota in larger streams, therefore,
depends on transport through smaller
watercourses. Experimental additions of sediment
to two small  streams were conducted.   Small
streams were found to store large amounts of
sediment washed from road surfaces.  Neither  ,
stream  transported more than 45% of the added
material to its mouth (95 m and 125 m).  Larger
particles were delivered at a lower rate than were
finer particles.  Significant differences in the
transport of sediment in two larger sediment size
categories  were due to a greater amount of woody
debris in the stream with the lower delivery rate
                                               69

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  and a slightly longer and less steep channel.

  Ferguson^ R.I., and T.A. Stott. 1987. Forestry
  effects on suspended sediment and bedload
  yields in the Balquhidder catchments, Central
  Scotland.  Earth Sciences, Transactions of the
  Royal Society of Edinburgh. 78:379-384.

  Outputs of suspended sediment and bedload from
  the 7.7-km2 moorland Monachyle basin and the
  6.8-km2, 40%-forested Kirkton basin near
  Balquhidder and inputs from tributary streams and
  mainstream bank erosion are compared.
  Sediment yield is about three tunes higher hi the
  forested basin and varies more sensitively with
  streamflow, suggesting greater availability of
  erodible sediment.  The output is predominantly
 suspended sediment and is derived mainly from
 tributary streams. Initial observations following
 partial moorland plowing and forest clearcutting
 in 1986 indicate that erosion of timber loading
 areas and logging roads is the main sediment
 source.

 Fraley, J.f T. Weaver, and J. Vashro. 1989.
 Cumulative effects  of human activities on bull
 trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Upper
 Flathead Drainage, Montana. In: Proceedings
 of the Symposium on Headwaters Hydrology.
 American Water Resources Association,
 Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 111-120.

 The potential cumulative effects of land
 management practices, such as timber harvest and
 road building in the Flathead Lake watershed, on
 the population of the bull trout are summarized.  ,
 The authors provide evidence from other
 monitoring studies that suggests that the
 deposition of fine sediments from streamside
 disturbances and forest road construction activities
 have adversely affected and could continue to
 adversely affect the bull trout. Based on
 information summarized in this paper, the authors
 called for amendments of current management
 standards, including riparian guidelines and
 increased implementation of best management
 practices to reduce sediment delivery.

Fukushima, Y. 1987. Estimating  discharge and
sediment yield from a forest road. In: Erosion
 and Sedimentation in the Pacific Rim,
 Proceedings of the CorvaUis Symposium. Oregon
 State University, August, 1987. R.L. Beschta
 et al. (eds.). IAHS Publication #165, CorvaUis,
 Oregon, pp. 265-266.

 This short paper presents a method for estimating
 sediment yield from a forest road using rainfall
 and soil properties.  The paper presents
 information that may be useful for planning road
 sites; however, the degree of usefulness is limited
 by the lack of supporting data or calibration of
 method using other data.

 Gardner, R.B. 1971. Purest road standards as
 related to economics  and the environment.
 USDA Forest Service. Research Note INT-145.

 This brief note discusses the problems related to
 planning a forest road system.  Data needed for
 planning an optimum  system were not available at
 the time,  and the author discusses factors that
 should be taken into account to plan the best
 system possible in the absence of such data and to
 protect the quality of the environment.  Cost data
 (annual road costs per mile for  10,000 vehicles
 per annum (VPA) and 20,000 to 40,000 VPA,
 and single lane versus double lane for  10,000,
 20,000, and 40,000 VPA) are presented in tables.

 Golden, M.S., C.L. Tuttle, J.S. Kush, and
 J.M. Bradley. 1984.  Forestry activities and
 water quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
practices, and an erosion-classified system.
 Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
 Station. Bulletin  555.

The report was prepared primarily as a source of
 information on the relationship between forestry
practices and water quality, with orientation
toward forestry practices prevalent in Alabama.
Information on stream pollutants such as
sediment,  nutrients, pesticides, organic material,
waste and litter, and temperature is provided.
The review includes over 160 directly cited
documents on these subjects. Also included hi the
report are recommendations of principles and
practices designed to minimize the water quality
impacts from Alabama forestry practices.
                                              70

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Grant, G. 1988. The RAPID technique: A new
method for evaluating downstream effects of
forest practices on riparian zones. USD A-Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station. General Technical Report
PNW-220.

The RAPID (riparian aerial photographic
inventory of disturbance) technique is a method
for using measurements made on aerial
photographs of patterns of riparian canopy
disturbance to evaluate changes in channel
conditions through tune and to Irak such changes
with their possible upstream causes. The RAPID
technique provides resource specialists and
managers with a relatively quick way of
identifying stream reaches that are chronically or
recently disturbed by a variety of channel
processes, including increased peak flows and
sedimentation from point and  nonpoint sources.
With examples from western Oregon, this paper
describes how to apply the RAPID technique and
analyze the results to evaluate downstream or
cumulative effects of forest practices.

Guy, H.P., and G.E. Ferguson.  1970. Stream
sediment: An environmental problem. Journal
of Soil and Water Conservation. 25:217-221.

A general review of problems associated with
sediment deposited in streams.  The article
tabulates sediment sources and their common
environmental effects. Two case histories-one of
sediment runoff from highway construction and
one of residential construction-are reviewed.  The
authors suggest a number of research areas where
data are needed to alleviate the problems of
erosion and sedimentation.

Harr, R.D.,  and R.L. Fredriksen. 1988. Water
quality after logging small watersheds within
the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon.  Water
Resources Bulletin. 24(5):1103-1111.

The water quality impacts from dearcut practices
and slash burning are presented. Logging
significantly increased nitrate-nitrogen levels for
up to 7 years after harvest; smaller increases were
observed after slash burning.  Suspended  sediment
also had a small  increase attributed to construction
of a permanent road that crossed streams. Annual
stream temperatures increased 2-3 °C after
logging but returned to pretreatment levels after 3
years.  This watershed study presents significant
data on the effects of forest harvest and slash
burning on water quality.

Harr, R.D., and R.A. Nichols. 1993.
Stabilizing forest roads to help restore fish
habitats: A northwest Washington example.
Fisheries. 18(4):18-22.

Due to increased landslide risk and sediment
delivery from 30 to 40-year old forest roads in
the Canyon Creek watershed, the roads were
decommissioned by stabilizing fills, removing
stream crossings, recontouring slopes, and
reestablishing drainage patterns.  The failure rate
of the roads prior to recommissioning was 110
times higher than undisturbed forest and 6 times
higher than logged forest.  The average cost of
decommissioning the roads was  $3,500 per km
where considerable earthmoving was necessary.
Lower costs were associated with lesser
earthmoving jobs; the highest costs resulted when
fills at stream crossings or landings had to be
removed.  In contrast to unused roads not treated,
decommissioned roads and landings were largely
undamaged by rain on snow runoff that produced
a 50-year flood in November 1989 and sustained
little damage during rain on snow runoff in
November 1990 that severely damaged mam haul
roads  in northwest Washington.   The authors
concluded that reducing the landslide and failure
rate of roads used in forestry operations would
greatly improve Conditions for salmonids.

Haupt,  H.F. 1959. Road and slope
characteristics affecting sediment movement
from logging roads.   Journal of Forestry.
57(5):329-332.

Two general means of controlling sediment runoff
from logging roads are to (1) install culverts,
paving,  diversion trenches, etc. to carry water
away to protected areas and (2) to reduce runoff
from road surfaces and have enough natural slope
distance below the road embankment to dissipate
the eroded sediment.   This study was conducted
to determine the length of slope required to
                                              71

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  dissipate this drainage from logging roads situated
  on steeply sloping granitic soils in southwestern
  Idaho.  Road width, cross ditch interval, road cut
  height, road gradient, embankment slope length,
  slope obstruction index, and lower side slope
  gradient were studied on 75 sections of road.
  Each of these variables was analyzed
  mathematically for its contribution to sediment
  flow distance.  Slope obstruction index, cross
  ditch interval squared, embankment slope length,
  and the product of the cross ditch interval and
  road gradient were found to influence sediment
  flow significantly. An equation using these
  variables was developed to determine the safe
  width of buffer strips necessary to protect lower
  roads or stream channels from sediment damage
  from road construction activities.

 Helvey, J.D. 1981. Flood frequencies and
  culvert sizes needed for small watersheds in the
 central Appalachians. USDA Forest Service.
 General Technical Report NE-62. 7 pages.

 This study builds on work done by Douglass
 (1974) in the Appalachians in North Carolina.
 Relationships for peak discharge, recurrence
 interval, drainage area, and elevation were
 necessary for the Central Appalachian area where
 hundreds of miles of logging road are built and
 thousands of culverts are installed each  yeari  The
 objectives of the study were (1) to analyze
 streamflow data from forested watersheds in
 north-central West Virginia and compute flood
 frequencies  for these areas and (2) to present
 culvert sizes necessary to carry the expected peak
 discharge for various drainage areas and
 computed flood frequencies.  Seven watersheds in
 the Fernow  Experimental Forest and two from the
 Clover Run area were studied in the Allegheny
 Mountain Range of the Appalachian Plateau.  A
 table presents estimated culvert diameters needed
 to carry flood water from forested areas ranging
 from 30 to 100 acres and at recurrence intervals
 of 5 to 50 years.

Hewlett, J.D. 1978. Forest water quality: An
experiment in harvesting and regenerating a
Piedmont forest. School of Forest Resources,
University of Georgia. 22 pages.
  Two streams in Putnam County, Georgia, were
  selected to determine the effects that harvesting
  and regeneration have on water quality and flow
  in order to determine appropriate BMPs.
  Periodic samples were taken and flow recorded.
  The study indicated that 90% of the undesirable
  mass export of sediment resulted from poor
  access roads and streamside management.

  Hornbeck, J.W. 1967. Clear cutting and the
  erosion hazard. Northern Logger and Timber
  Processor. 16:14-15,38-39,48.

  Hornbeck dispels the myth that clearcutting
  forests creates soil  erosion problems by tracing
  the soil erosion back to its source- poorly planned
  and constructed roads.  He recommends setting
  high standards for roads, including following the
  contour of the land, using water bars, and
 building bridges at  stream crossings.

 Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc. 1973. A method
 for regulating timber harvest and road
 construction activity for water quality protection
 in northern California, Volume 11: Review and
 problem and annotated bibliography. California
 State Water Resources Control Board.

 The second volume of a two-part document
 reviews the problems associated widi timber
 harvesting, road construction,  and similar
 land-disturbing practices in northern coastal
 California.  Volume II provides a good general
 discussion of the problems of erosion associated
 with forest activities and is intended primarily as
 background material for understanding the
 concepts and proposals discussed in Volume I.

 Kidd, W.J., and J.N. Kochenderfer. 1973. Soil
 constraints on  logging road construction on
 steep land east and west. Journal of Forestry.
 71(5):284-286.

 A review of road problems and solutions common
 to both the east and  west coasts of the United
 States is presented.  The problems briefly
discussed include erosion, slumping, compaction,
and drainage. The solutions  mentioned are proper
construction; use of culverts, ditches, and dips;
and use  of straw mulch to cover fill slopes:
                                              72

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Controlling erosion on skid trails is also
mentioned briefly. The article is introductory,
providing little technical information. It does list
several related references applicable separately to
steep lands west and east.

King, J.G. 1989. Streamflow Responses to Road
Building and Harvesting: A Comparison  With
the Equivalent  Gearcut Area Procedure. USDA
Forest Service, Inter-mountain  Research
Station, Ogden, Utah.  Research Paper
INT-401. 13 pages.

Increases in annual Streamflow and peak
streamflows were determined on four small
watersheds north-central Idaho after road building
and timber harvest. These measured data were
than compared to values predicted by the
equivalent clearcut area procedure (EGA), a
methodology commonly used to project
hydrologic changes associated with timber
management practices.  The increase in average
annual Streamflow following harvesting and road
building was much larger than predicted by the
EGA procedure.  The author notes that current
procedures for estimating the hydrologic
responses to timber removal of third to filth order
streams often ignore what may be hydrologically
important modifications of low-order streams.
Potential modifications to headwater basins should
be considered when scheduling harvest entries and
locating harvest units, especially when .conditions
are such that the stream system  is likely .to be
sensitive to Streamflow modification.

Kochenderfer, J.N., and J.D.  Helvey. 1984.
Soil losses from a "minimum-standard" truck
road constructed in the Appalachians. In:
Mountain Logging Symposium Proceedings. ,
June 5-7, 1984.  P.A. Peters and J. Luckok
(eds.). West Virginia University, pp. 215-225.

Soil losses from 11 road sections; in the central
Appalachians were measured.  Nine of the
sections were located on a newly constructed
"minimum-standard" truck road, and two were on
a graveled higher standard road. Pictures and
data from this study are used to detail the
differences in soil loss from the different  road
types.
Kochenderfer, J.N., and J.D. Helvey. 1987.
Using gravel to reduce soil losses from
minimum-standard forest roads. Journal of
Soil and Water Conservation. 42(1):46-50.

This paper presents the results of a study
conducted to compare the soil losses from
graveled and ungraveled forest roads.  Road
sections were ungraveled, covered with 3 inches
of clean gravel, or covered with 1 inch of
crusher-run gravel. Average annual soil losses
ranged from 47 tons/acre on ungraveled road
sections to 6 tons/acre on sections surfaced with 3
inches of clean limestone gravel. After the first
year, soil losses on graveled sections of
minimum-standard roads were similar to those on
the higher standard road. The authors
recommend 3-inch clean gravel for new roads
because larger gravel reduces the amount of soil
exposed  in roadbeds and provides a firm roadbed
resistant to rutting. It also reduces the erosive
force of overland flow across the roadbed by
reducing runoff velocity.

Kochenderfer,  J.N., G.W. Wendel, and H.C.
Smith. 1984. Cost of and soil loss on "minimum
standard" forest truck roads constructed in the
central Appalachians. USDA Forest Service,
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.
Research Paper NE-544. 8 pages.

A "minimum-standard" forest road is described,
and cost data are presented  for eight such roads
constructed in the central Appalachians. The
average  cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,
 119 (range $5,048 to $14,424). Soil loss was
measured from several sections of a minimum-
standard road.  Traffic was regulated the first
year and unrestricted the second year. Losses
ranged from 44 tons per acre on ungraveled road
sections to 5 tons per acre on graveled sections.
Soil loss from the graveled  sections on the
minimum-standard road was about the same as
that from higher standard graveled roads.
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  Krause, H.H. 1982. Effect of forest
 • management practices on water quality—A
  review of Canadian studies. In: Proceedings of
  the Canadian Hydrology Symposium - Associate
  Committee on Hydrology. Fredericton, New
  Brunswick, June 14-15,1982. National
  Research  Council Canada,  Canada, pp. 15-29.

  The water quality effects of forest management
  practices are reviewed separately for the British
  Columbia Coastal Range, Rocky Mountains,
  Canadian shield, and Appalachian region.
  Sedimentation is a problem after road construction
  and occasionally after slash burning.
  Temperature increases  are problematic at low
  altitudes in areas with warm summers.  Changes
  in dissolved solids depend on the type of
  operation, forest cover, soils,-and geologic
  substrate.

 Lin, Y.L.  1987. Erosional effects of road
 construction in Pi-Lu  Experimental Watershed.
 In: Erosion and Sedimentation in the Pacific
 Rim, Proceedings of the  Corvallis Symposium.
 Oregon State University, August,  1987. R.L.
 Beschta (ed.). IAHS Publication No. 165,
 Corvallis, Oregon, pp. 267-268.

 Some conservation forests in Taiwan are
 considered mature to overmature and in need of
 harvesting.  This study  was done to investigate
 the effects of the inevitable road construction that
 must accompany harvesting on sediment yield.
 Sediment was trapped in weirs for 4  years prior
 to road construction. A 4.5 m-wide  contour road
 was built 2600 m  above sea level. Local
 conditions in the area were as follows: average
 annual rainfall = 2256 mm, average  slope =
 78%, and black Tertiary slate bedrock. Road
 construction did not significantly change the
 average annual amount of sediment yield.
 Preconstruction yields at weirs were 129 and 113
 nrVyr. Postconstruction yields at the same weirs
 were 118  and 145 nrVyr.

McCashion, J.D., and  R.M. Rice. 1983.
Erosion on  logging roads in Northwestern
California: How much  is  avoidable? Journal of
Forestry. (l):23-26.
  A study was made on 344 miles of logging roads
  in northwestern California to assess sources of
  erosion and the extent to which road-related
  erosion is avoidable.  The authors found that 24%
  of the erosion measured on the logging roads
  could have been prevented by conventional
  engineering methods. The remaining 76% was
  caused  by site conditions and choice of alignment.
  Forty percent of the total erosion on 30,300 acres
  of commercial timberland was derived from the
  road system and 60% from the harvested areas.
  The proportion of erosion from harvested areas is
  likely to increase over the years if harvested areas
  are reentered for subsequent harvests.
                        i
  Megahan, W.F. 1981. Effects of silvicultural
  practices on erosion and sedimentation in the
  interior west-A case for sediment budgeting.
  In: Interior West Watershed Management
  Symposium Proceedings. D.M.  Baumgartner
  (ed.). Washington State University,
  Cooperative Extension, pp.  169-182.

 This paper is a review of research done in the
 interior  western United States on the effects of
 timber removal, road construction, and fire on
 erosion  and sedimentation. The author describes
 the processes of erosion-sedimentation, surface
 erosion, and mass erosion; the role of fire; and
 means to control erosion from roads. The author
 concentrates on erosion from  roads because they
 have been found to be the greatest source of
 sediment discharge. The paper includes a figure
 of a sediment budget in forested watersheds and
 tables comparing the erosion control effectiveness
 of various management practices.  Suggestions for
 future research are also discussed.

 Megahan, W.F. 1987. Effects of forest roads
 on watershed function in mountainous areas.
 In: Environmental  Geotechnics and Problematic
 Soils and Rocks.  A.S. Balasubramaniam et al
 (eds.). pp. 335-348.

 A review of the effects of forest roads on
 watersheds in the  interior western United States is
presented.  On-site effects include reduced forest
productivity, increased runoff, and accelerated
surface and mass erosion. Downstream  effects
include changes in stream flow rates, water
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quality and channel characteristics.  Erosion and
sedimentation are the most common and damaging
effects of road construction. Practices to reduce
erosion and sedimentation are summarized into
four principles.  Megahan discusses these
principles in detail.

Megahan, W.F. 1978. Erosion processes on
steep  granitic road fills in Central Idaho. Soil
Science Society of America Journal.
42(2)350-357.

Thirty erosion plots were established to study
erosion occurring on steep road fills constructed
from granitic soil materials.  The study,
conducted in Idaho, determined that erosion was
significantly reduced following mulch application
and tree planting.  Also, erosion hi the plots was
found to be highly dependent on wind and slope,
and the particle size eroded during the summer
months, but rapidly increased in October.  Tables
and figures that graphically demonstrate erosion
rates and particle size change are included.

Megahan, W.F. 1986. Recent studies on erosion
and its control on forest lands in the United
States.

Recent research on erosion and erosion control
conducted in the United States is reviewed. The
effects of road construction, forest fire, and
timber harvest are considered in relation to
surface and mass erosion.  Surface erosion has
been predicted by using the Universal Soil Loss
Equation (USLE), locally  gathered data, and
detailed mathematical models. The USLE is
useful only when considering areas with gentle
terrain.  Empirical predictions are commonly used
and mathematical models show promise.  Mass
erosion hazards are defined using landslide
inventories from specific areas, statistical
approaches, and stability analyses of given sites.
The advantages and disadvantages of these
approaches are discussed.  The management
applications of these approaches are discussed as
well.
   i

Megahan, W.F., and W.J. Kidd. 1972. Effect
of logging roods on sediment production rotes  in
the  Idaho Batholith. USDA Forest Service.
Research Paper INT-123. 14 pages.

Effects of logging road construction on sediment
production rates were studied on small, ephemeral
drainages in the Idaho Batholith, a large area of
granitic rock characterized by steep slopes and
highly erodible soils. For the 6-year study
period, about 30% of the total accelerated
sediment production from roads was caused by
surface erosion; the remainder resulted from mass
erosion.  Surface erosion on roads decreased
rapidly with time after extremely high initial
rates. A mass failure of a road fill slope occurred
about 4 years after construction, when surface
erosion had fallen to a low rate. The sediment
production rate attributed  to erosion within the
area disturbed by road construction averaged 770
times greater (220 due to  surface erosion and 550
to mass erosion) than that for similar, undisturbed
lands in the vicinity.  Results suggest three guides
to control surface erosion in the area: (1) erosion
control measures should be applied immediately
after road construction; (2) treatments must
protect the soil surface until vegetation becomes
established; and (3) downslope barriers should be
used effectively to delay and reduce downslope
movement of sediment.

Megahan, W.F., and P.N. King. 1985.
Identification of critical areas of forest lands
for control of nonpoint sources of pollution.
Environmental Management. 9(1):7-18.

The authors present a critical areas approach to
controlling NFS pollution from forestlands.
Critical areas include sites with high mass and
surface erosion hazards, overland flow areas, and
the riparian zone.  Most NFS pollution problems
on forestlands can be controlled by identifying
these critical areas and carefully planning their
management. The discussion of these three critical
areas is accompanied by guidelines for identifying
them and examples of land use constraints that
might be applied; for instance, limiting activities
causing severe soil disturbance and road
construction requiring large cutslopes where
surface erosion hazards are high.
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 Megahan, W.F., S.B. Monsen, and M.D.
 Wilson. 1991. Probability of sediment yields
 from surface erosion on granitic roadfills in
 Idaho.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
 20(1):S3-60.

 Field plots were used to measure sediment yield
 from granitic roadfills on forest roads in the
 mountains of Idaho.  Three years of data were
 collected from plots with slopes ranging from 34
 to 41 degrees. Of the site-specific factors
 analyzed, only ground cover density and rainfall
 erosivity (of the.USLE) were statistically
 significant.  Using the prediction equation from
 the regression analysis and the data, a Monte
 Carlo simulation model was used to determine the
 probability of the occurrence-of sediment yield
 from granitic roadfills under various ground cover
 conditions.  A total of 5000 estimates of sediment
 yield were made using 10 ground cover densities
 ranging  from 5 to 90 %.  The authors presented
 this method as a tool for predicting soil loss from
 forest roads in the highly erodible Idaho batholith.
 This approach may help alleviate some of the
 cumulative  downstream effects of sedimentation
 from roads.

 NCASI. 1980. Research and field investigation
 of the impact of southern forestry management
practices on receiving water quality and utility.
 National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
 and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin
 No. 337.

 This is an assembly  of papers and abstracts of
 presentations made at the 1980 NCASI Southern
 Regional Meeting.  The papers describe work
 under way at universities, individual company
 programs, programs in the South being conducted
 by USDA Forest Service, and aquatic biology.
 Sample titles include: Regional Road
Project-Management Options to Control Erosion;
Assessment of NPS Pollution from Intensive
Forest Practices in the South Central Region,
Texas; Demonstration of Sensitive Area
Mechanical  Site Preparation; The Use of
Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream
Quality Changes; and  Report on Ongoing
Programs and Information Needs Relating to
Southern Forest Practices and Water Quality.
 Nutter, W.L. 1982. Water quality and yield
 from the intensively managed forest. In:
 Proceedings of the Society of American
 Foresters, pp. 89-93.

 A review of the impacts of intensive forest
 management, including timber harvest, site
 preparation, road construction, and forest
 fertilization, on water yield and water quality is
 presented.  This short review presents an
 overview of the impacts of intensive forestry
 operations.

 Patric, J.H. 1978. Harvesting effects on soil
 and water in the eastern hardwood  forest.
 Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
 2(3):66-73.

 For the eastern United States, there is
 overwhelming evidence that neither the
 productivity of forest soil nor the quality of forest
 water are substantially lessened during or after
 responsibly managed harvest of wood products.
 Hpwever, careless practices such as dragging logs
 across the forest floor (which disrupts organic
 cover) building more roads than are necessary,
 operating machinery in streams, and locating
 roads near streams damage both forest
 productivity and water quality. Proper
 management of forest roads is the key to
 minimizing the adverse impacts of forest
 activities. Forest roads cause little adverse effect
 on soil or water given proper location, drainage,
 traffic control, and maintenance.  This paper
 provides an overall qualitative analysis of the
 problems  associated with timber harvesting.

 Reid, L.M., and T. Dunne. 1984. Sediment
 production from forest road  surfaces. Water
 Resources Research. 20(11):1753-1761.

 This paper presents the results of a study
 conducted to determine the runoff rates and
 sediment yields from different road segments
 subjected to a variety of traffic levels.  The
 authors found that heavily used roads contributed
 130 times as much sediment as an abandoned
 road.  A paved road, where cut slopes and  ditches
 were the only sources of sediment, yielded  less
than 1 % as much sediment as a heavily used road
                                              76

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with a gravel surface.  The study was conducted
in the Cascade Mountains in eastern Washington
State.  Complete data on the roads used in the
study are provided.

Rice, R.M., J.S. Rothacher, and W.K
Megahan. 1972. Erosional consequences of
timber harvesting: An appraisal. In:
Watersheds in Transition Symposium
Proceedings. Urbana, Illinois. American Water
Resources Association, pp. 321-329.

This paper summarizes current (1972)
understanding of the effects of timber harvesting
on erosion. Rates of erosion on mountain
watersheds vary widely, but the relative
importance of different types of erosion and the
consequences of disturbance remain fairly
consistent. The authors suggest that a number of
conclusions are therefore valid for most
circumstances. Among these conclusions are:
sediment production declines rapidly following
disturbance; cutting of trees does not significantly
increase erosion, but clearcutting on steep
unstable slopes may lead to increased mass
erosion; accelerated erosion is a possible
undesirable side effect of the use of fire in
conjunction with logging; the road system built
for timber harvesting far overshadows logging or
fire as a cause of increased erosion; and
potentially hazardous areas can be identified in
advance of the timber harvest.  Tables comparing
the amount of soil disturbed by different logging
practices and the amount of soil eroded from
logging roads  in different logging areas are
provided.

Ryan, S.E., and G.E. Grant. 1991.
Downstream effects of timber harvesting on
channel morphology in Elk River Basin,
Oregon,  journal of Environmental Quality.
20(l):60-72.

Downstream effects, a type of cumulative
watershed effect, were identified using changes in
the width and distribution of open riparian
canopies  measured from aerial  photography taken
between 1956  and 1979 in Elk  River Basin,
southwest Oregon.  A causal link between
downstream changes in channel morphology and
upslope forestry activities was assumed where
open reaches extended continuously downstream
from clearcuts and roads or the timing and pattern
of opening downstream varied in direct relation to
the intensity of upslope forestry activities.  Open
riparian canopies were observed in first- through
fifth-order channels, though only 11% of open
reaches in low-order channels were spatially
connected to open reaches in higher order
channels.  Open canopies in higher-order channels
were restricted mainly to wide and low-gradient
channel reaches. Open canopies in low-order
tributaries were attributed to landslides and
surface erosion generated from clearcuts and
roads.

Stuart, G., and J. Vowell. 1989. Forest
practices  for controlling nonpoint source
pollution. In: National Nonpoint Conference.
St. Louis, Missouri, April 23-26, 1989.

This paper presents the various best management
practices that may be used to prevent adverse
water quality conditions or excessive erosion from
forest road construction.  General information on
forest road construction and maintenance NFS
controls is provided.

Swanson, F.J., and C.T. Dyrness. 1975.
Impact of clearcutting and road construction
on soil erosion by landslides in the western
Cascade Range, Oregon. Geology.          '
3(7):393-396.

Susceptibility to erosion by rapid soil movement
differed greatly between two zones of the HJ.
Andrews Experimental Forest.  A stable zone
occurs where terrain is underlain by lava-flow
bedrock.  Only two small road-related slides have
occurred there since 1950. An unstable zone
underlain by altered volcaniclastic rock has had
139 slides in the same period.  Slide erosion has
been 30 times greater along road rights-of-way .
than on forested sites in the unstable zone.
                                              77

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 Swift, L.W., Jr. 1986. Filter strip widths for
 forest roads in the southern Appalachians.
 Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
 10(l):27-34.

 The objectives of this study were (1) to compare
 filter strip standards to field measurements of
 sediment movement in the southern Appalachian
 Mountains and (2) to determine the mitigating
 influences of mulch or grass on fill slopes and of
 obstructions to flow within filter strips. The
 author found that filter strip standards currently
 applied to forest roads in the southern
 Appalachian Mountains may specify greater
 widths than are necessary with prevailing
 construction practices.  Measurements of the
 distance that sediment traveled downslope below
 newly constructed roads were less than previously
 reported. Distances were notably less if natural
 obstructions existed  on the forest floor,  brush
 barriers  were at the  edge of the right- of-way,
 road fills were grass-covered, or roads were
 outsloped and drained by broad-based dips.  Filter
 strip slope distance in feet can be calculated as 43
 + 1.39(slope %). A table of minimum filter strip
 widths for graveled forest roads is presented.
 Factors influencing sediment movement
 downslope include slope distance, natural
 vegetative cover, forest litter, presence of brush
 barriers, and whether sediment is being carried by
 diffuse flow or flow associated with a storm water
 discharge by a culvert.

 Swift, L.W., Jr.  1984. Gravel and grass
 surfacing reduces soil loss from mountain
 roads.  Forest Science. 30(3):657-670.

 Soil loss from forest roads was measured on two
 soils hi the southern Appalachian Mountains.
 Losses from a roadbed without surfacing (bare
 soil) and later with grass cover were compared
 with those from roadbeds surfaced with different
 types and amounts of rock.  In the first 2 months
 after construction in  a deep sandy loam, soil loss
 rates were eight times  greater from the bare soil
 site than  from roadbeds with 15-20 cm of gravel.
 Cumulative loss during the first 8 months after
 construction was over 200 tons/ha from the bare
soil roadbed and less than 35 tons/ha from
roadbeds surfaced with graded crushed rock or
 large washed stone. Losses rose as logging traffic
 began and road maintenance disturbed stabilized
 road surfaces and contributed to losses.

 Swift, L.W., Jr. 1984. Soil losses from
 roadbeds and cut and fill slopes in the southern
 Appalachian mountains.  Southern Journal of
 Applied Forestry. 8(4):209-215.

 The differences in soil loss from road cut, fill,
 and roadbed surfaces were presented. Losses
 were greatest on cut (36% to 71%) and  fill slopes
 (16% to 33%) and least on the roadbed  surface
 (13% to 30%). Gravel placedon  roadbeds
 reduced losses to about 20% of the initial rates,
 and established grass cover reduced losses to
 1-3% of initial losses.  The authors recommend
 that soil losses should be reduced by protecting
 disturbed surfaces and  using storm water control
 BMPs.  The article does not present comparative
 data for soil loss reduction attributable to various
 BMPs,  but does recommend numerous BMPs.

 Trettin, C.C., and PJ. Sheets. Impacts of
forest drainage on voter quality. Center for
 Intensive Forestry in Northern Regions,  pp.
 231-239.

 The effects of a prescription-type  forest  drainage
 system on water quality in the upper peninsula of
 Michigan were evaluated.  No significant
 differences hi calcium,  total nitrogen, pH,
 suspended sediment, or water temperature were
 observed between drainage water and river
 samples. Iron and magnesium concentrations
 were slightly higher in  the drainage water.  The
 drainage system appeared to serve its purpose by
 draining the high water table and not causing
 appreciable water quality impacts.  The authors
 suggest following some basic best management
practices, such as not driving across ditches and
properly installing ditches, to prevent water
quality impacts.

Trimble, G.R., and S. Weitzman. 1953. Soil
erosion on  logging roads.  Soil Science  Society
of America Proceedings. 17:152-154.

Sample skid roads were studied before, during,
and after experimental logging operations on  the
                                              78

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Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia.
Erosion was related to grade, length of slope,
intensity of use, soil, vegetation, and climatic
factors. Degree of erosion was determined for
different skid road conditions. Proper road
location, road construction techniques, road
maintenance, and use are important to reducing
erosion from forest roads. A table of
recommended spacing between water bars to
control erosion as a function of grade is
presented.

Weitzman, S., and G.R. Trimble, Jr. 1952.
Skid-road erosion can be,reduced.  Journal of
Soil and Water Conservation. 7:122-124.

The preliminary results of a skid road experiment
are presented. This experiment had four study
sites with different qualities of skid roads.  The
"high-quality" road site had the fewest roads on
the smallest slopes.  The "good," "fair," and
"poor" sites had progressively more road area and
the roads ran over steeper slopes. The authors
measured erosion rates off the sites and found
significantly less erosion as the road quality
increased.

Wright, K.A., K.H. Sendek, R.M. Rice, and
R.B. Thomas.  1990. Logging effects on
streamflow:  Storm runoff at Casper Creek on
Northwestern California. Water Resources
Research. 26(7):1657- 1667.

The effects of road building and selective tractor
harvesting on storm runoff were assessed for a
small (424-ha) coastal watershed in northern
California.  Lag time (the time required for 50%
of the  input into the watershed to produce 50% of
the output) and peak flows were analyzed. After
road building and logging, lag time was decreased
Approximately 1.5 hours, and very small storm
volumes and peak flows increased 132% and
111%, respectively.  Storm volumes  and peaks of
large storms were not significantly increased by
roads or logging. The authors conclude mat in a
rain-dominated hydrologic environment logging
and forest road construction are not likely to
change the flow regime  of a stream adversely.
These  results conflict with others reported (Harr
et al.,  1975). The authors of this study compared
 the results of the two studies and speculated that
 the lack of large storm flows in the Harr study
 may account for the conflicting results.

 Yoho, N.S. 1980. Forest management and
 sediment production in the south-A review.
 Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(1):27-
 36.

 The author reviews sediment yields from various
 forestry activities, finding that forest practices
 commonly result in small short-term increases and
 that significant increases are limited to practices
 conducted with heavy machinery.  Yields from
 similar sites receiving the same type of
 disturbance vary by several hundred percent, and
 sediment yields are reduced when channel
 disturbance is avoided. Careful planning, design,
. construction, use, and maintenance of forest roads
 and skid trails achieve the greatest reductions.
 The author provides comparative soil loss data for
 a variety of land uses: less than 0.1 ton/acre/yr
 (undisturbed mixed forest,  forest thinning); 0.1  -
 1.0 ton/acre/yr (carefully clearcut forest,
 abandoned fields); 1.0- 10.0 tons/acre/yr
 (annually burned forest, 'mechanical, site
 preparation); 10 - 100 tons/acre/yr  (carelessly
 cultivated  or steep sloped fields); and 100 or more
 tons/acre/yr (active construction, gullies).

 Adams, T.E., and R.M. Rice.  1989. Erosion and
 sedimentation concerns related to hardwood
 management in California.  Western Journal of
 Applied Forestry. 4(l):31-33.

 Anderson, H.W. 1971. Relative contributions of
 sediment from source areas, and transport
 processes. In: Proceedings of the Symposium:
 Forest Land Uses and Stream Environment.
 Oregon State University, October 19-21, 1970.
 T. Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.). OSU, Corvallis,
 Oregon, pp.  55-63.

 Anderson, H.W., M.D. Hoover, and K.G.
 Reinhart. 1976.  Forests and water: Effects of
 forest management on floods, sedimentation, and
 water supply. USDA Forest Service. General
 Technical  Report PSW-18.  115 pages.
                                              79

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 Anderson, L., and M. Bryant. 1980. Fish
passage at road crossings: An annotated
 bibliography. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
 Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
 General Technical Report PNW-117.

 Aubertin, G.M., and J.H. Patric. 1974. Water
 quality after clearcutting a small watershed in
 West Virginia.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
 3:243-249.

 Baumgartner, D.M. (ed). 1981. Interior west
 watershed management: Proceedings of a
 symposium. Spokane, Washington, April 8-10,
 1980. Washington State University,  Cooperative
Extension Service. 288 pages.

Brown, G.W. 1985. Controlling nonpoint source
pollution from silvicultural operations: What we
know and don't know. In: Perspectives on
Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a
National Conference. Kansas City, Missouri, May
 19-22, 1985. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency.

Brown, G.W. 1972. Logging and water quality in
the Pacific Northwest. In: Watersheds in
Transition Symposium Proceedings. Urbana,
Illinois. American Water Resources Association.
pp. 330- 334.

Chamberlin, T.W., R.D. Harr, and F.H. Everest.
1991. Timber harvesting, silviculture, and
watershed processes. In: Influences of forest and
rangeland management on salmonid fishes and
their habitats.  W.R.  Meehan (ed.).  American
Fisheries Special Publication  19:181-206.

Cromack, K., Jr., F.J. Swanson, and C.C. Grier.
1978. A comparison of harvesting methods and
their impact on soils and environment in the
Pacific Northwest. In: Forest Soils and Land Use,
Proceedings of the Fifth North American Forest
Soils Conference. Colorado State University, Fort
Collins, Colorado. C.T. Youngberg (ed.). pp.
449-478.
 Dickerson, B.P. 1975. Stormflows and erosion
 after tree-length skidding on coastal plains soils.
 Transactions of the ASAE. 18: 867-868,872.

 Douglass, J.E.  1974. Flood frequencies and
 bridge and culvert sizes for forested mountains in
 North Carolina. USDA Forest Service. General
 Technical Report  SE-4. 21 pages.

 Dunford, E.G.  1962. Logging methods in relation
 to stream flow and erosion. 5th World Forestry
 Congress, 1960 Proceedings. 3: 1703-1708.

 Dyrness, C.T. 1967. Mass soil movements in the
 H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. USDA Forest
 Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
 Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon. Research
 Paper PNW-42. 12 pages.

 Farrington, R.L., and M.E.  Savina. 1977.
 Off-site effects of roads and clear cut units on
 slope stability and stream channels: Fox planning
 unit. Unpublished report. USDA  Forest Service,
 Six Rivers National Forest. 76 pages.

 Fredricksen, R.L. 1963. Sedimentation after
 logging road construction in  a small western
 Oregon watershed. In: Proceedings of the Federal
 Inter-Agency Sedimentation Conference. U.S.
 Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous
 Publication 970.

 Fredriksen, R.L. 1963. A case history of a mud
 and rock slide on an experimental watershed.
 Research Note PNW-1. USDA Forest Service,
 Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment
 Station. 4 pages.

 Fredriksen, R.L. 1970. Erosion and
 sedimentation after logging road construction in a
 small western Oregon watershed. Research Paper
 PNW-104. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
 Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station.
 15 pages.

Haupt, H.F. 1959. A method for controlling
sediment from logging roads. USDA Forest
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Service, Intermountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. Miscellaneous Publication 22.
22 pages.                   .

Haupt, H.F., H.C. Rickard, and L.E. Finn.
1963. Effect of severe rainstorms on insloped and
outsloped roads. USDA Forest Service. Research
NoteINT-1. 8 pages.

Krygier, J.T., and R.D. Harr.  1972. Changes in
storm hydrographs due to road building and
clearcut logging on coastal watersheds in Oregon.
Water Resources-Research Institute, Oregon State
University, Corvallis, Oregon.  59 pages.

Larse, R.W. 1971. Prevention  and  control of
erosion and stream sedimentation from forest
roads. In: Proceedings of the Symposium: Forest
Land Uses and the Stream Environment. Oregon
State University, October 19-21, 1970.  J.T
Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.). OSU, Corvallis,
Oregon, pp.  76-83.

Megahan, W.F. 1972. Logging,  erosion,
sedimentation-Are they dirt words? Journal of
Forestry.  70(7):403^07.

Megahan, W.F. 1980. Nonpoint source pollution
from forestry activities in the western United
States:  Results of recent research and research
needs. In: U.S. Forestry and Water Quality: What
 Course in the 80s? . Richmond,  VA, June 19-20,
 1980. Water Pollution Control Fijderation and
Virginia Water Pollution Control Association, pp.
92-151.

 Miller, E.L., R.S. Beasley, and J.C. Covert.
Forest road sediments: Production and delivery to
 streams.  USDA Forest Service, pp. 164-176.

 NCASI.  1984. Forestry management practices
 and cumulative effects on water quality and
 utility.' National Council of the Paper Industry for
 Air and Stream Improvement. Technical Review
 Bulletin No. 435.
    \
 Noble, E.L., and L.J. Lundeen. 1971. Analysis
of rehabilitation treatment alternatives for
sediment control. In: Proceedings of the
Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
Environment. Oregon State University, Oct.
19-21, 1970.   J.T. Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.).
OSU, Corvallis, Oregon, pp.  86-96.

Paeth, R.C., M.E. Harward, E.G. Know, and
C.T. Dyraess. 1971. Factors affecting mass .
movement of four soils in the western  Cascades
of Oregon. Soil Science Society of America
Proceedings. 35:943-947.

Pardo, R. 1980. What is forestry's contribution to
nonpoint source pollution? In: U.S. Forestry and
Water Quality: What Course in the 80s?
Richmond, Virginia, June 19-20, 1980. Water
Pollution Control Federation and Virginia Water
Pollution Control Association, pp.  31-41.

Patric, J.H. 1976.  Soil erosion in the eastern
forest.  Journal of Forestry. 74(10):671-677.

Peters, P.A., and J. Luchok (eds).  1984.
Mountain Logging Symposium Proceedings. West
Virginia University, June 5-7, 1984. 372 pages.

Sidle, R.C. 1989.  Cumulative effects of forest
practices on erosion and sedimentation. In:
Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of the 1989
Society of American Foresters National
 Convention. Spokane, Washington, pp. 108-112.

 Sidle, R.C. 1980.  Impacts of forest practices on
 surface erosion. Pacific Northwest Extension
 Publication PNW  195. 15  pages.

 Smith, A.C. 1963. Tractor roads and  trails
 planning, use and  post treatment. In: Symposium,
 on Forest Watershed Management. March 25-28,
 1963.  Society of  American Foresters and Oregon
 State University, pp. 283-290.

 Sullivan, K. 1985. Long-term patterns of water
 quality in a managed watershed in Oregon: L
 Suspended sediment.   Water Resources Bulletin.
 21(6):977-987..
                                               81

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   Vogenberger, R.A., and J.A. Curry. 1959.
   Watershed protective logging.  Southern
   Lumberman. 199(2489):93-94.

   Winkelaar, P. 1971. Forest Road Location and
   Erosion Control on Northern New Hampshire
   Soils. Cooperative Extension Service, University
   of New Hampshire, Extension Publication No 2
   19 pages.

   Ziemer,  R.R.  1981. Storm flow response to road
   building and partial cutting in small streams of
   northern California.  Water Resources Research
   17(4):907-917.
  BMPs AND SPECIFICATIONS

  Anderson, L., and M. Bryant. 1980. Fish
  passage at road crossings: An annotated
  bibliography. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment
  Station. General Technical Report PNW-117.

  This annotated bibliography was prepared as a
  guide to the literature available on problems
  associated with fish passage at road crossings   It
  reviews 45 articles covering bridge installations
  culvert installations, design criteria, economics
 evaluations of installations, fish passage
 (swimming speeds and rates of passage  light
 criteria, and velocities), hydraulic evaluation,'and
 special applications  (arch culverts, baffles
 fishways, slot orifices, and other adaptations).
 Two bibliographies are also reviewed.  The listing
 is intended to cover  a broad spectrum of literature
 of interest to field biologists, engineers,  and land
 managers.

 Bauer, S.B., G.W.  Harvey, and T.A. Burton.
 Idaho 319 Nonpoint source program summary:
 Forest roads inventory and stabilization report.
 In: Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
 Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon,  February 3-7,
 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.
   An inventory of forest road stability was
   conducted in the Idaho Clearwater basin.  Roads
   causing the greatest impact on stream water
   quality were identified and priority stream
   segments and  roads were selected based on the
   results of an empirical sedimentation model.  The
   model simulated sediment yields using the
   following mitigation measures: foil vegetation of
   fill slopes; fall vegetation of cut slopes; cut slope
   gradient decreased 10%; cut slope gradient
   decreased 20%; road tread graveled; and road
   tread paved. In general, rehabilitation of cut
   slopes and relocation away from streams were the
   most effective  measures 'for reducing sediment.

  Beasley, R.S., EX. Miller, and S.C. Gough.
  1984. Forest road erosion in  the Ouachita
  mountains. In: Mountain  Logging Symposium
  Proceedings. West Virginia University, June
  5-7, 1984.  P.A. Peters and J. Luckok (eds.),
  (eds.) pp.  202-213.                         '

  The quantity and deposition of sediments eroded
  from four segments of an established forest road
  in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas were
  determined for  each storm event that occurred
  between June 1, 1982, and  May 31, 1983.
  Measurements included total discharge volume
  discharge rates  and peaks, deposited sediment '
  suspended sediment, and downslope movement of
 deposited sediments.  Of 36 storm events, one
 storm (13 inches in 24 hours) accounted for about
 half of the total  annual sediment yield.  Most of
 the sediment was deposited a short distance
 downslope of the road.  The results of this study
 may be very useful to managers of sites similar to
 those used in the study.

 Berglund, E.R. 1976. Seeding to control
 erosion along forest roads. Oregon State
 University Extension Service, Circular 885 19
 pages.

 Some accelerated erosion from forestland use is
 inevitable, but considerable loss of soil can be
 curbed by controlling erosion along forest
roadsides. This study discusses soil erosion
control techniques.  One such control techniques
                                             82

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is to seed grasses and legumes to revegetate, bare
soil surfaces resulting from road construction.
Other control techniques are reviewed as part of a
revegetation erosion control program.

Burroughs, E.R. Jr., and J.G. King. 1989.
Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads. USD A
Forest Service, Intel-mountain Research
Station. General Technical Report INT-264. 21
pages.

This document presents the expected reduction hi
surface erosion from selected treatments applied
to forest road traveled ways, cuitslopes, fillslopes,
and ditches.  Estimated erosion reduction in
expressed as functions of ground cover, slope
gradient, and soil properties whenever possible.
A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size
for protection of road ditches.

Case, A.B., and D.A. Rowe. 1978.
Environmental guidelines for resource mad
construction. Canada Forestry Service,
Fisheries and Environment, Newfoundland
Forest Research Center, Information Report
N-X-162. 41 pages.

Information on the effects of forest road
construction on aquatic and terrestrial
environments is presented in this document.  In
addition, construction guidelines are presented to
aid in preventing or minimizing; environmental
disturbances associated with road construction.
The report is designed principally for resource
road development in Newfoundland and Labrador.
While the focus of the paper is on protecting
 important habitat (e.g., fish spawning areas,
moose yards, waterfowl breeding areas) generally
 and is not specific to forestry activities, the
 recommended guidelines are well outlined and
 include recommended buffer widths and other
 technical guidance.  A table lists environmental
 effects associated with road construction activities.

 Cook, MJ., and J.G. King. 1983. Construction
 cost and erosion control effectiveness of filter
 windrows on Jill slopes. USDA Forest Service,
 Intel-mountain Forest and Range Experiment
Station, Ogden, UT. Research Note INT-335. 5
pages.

This paper presents information on the cost and
effectiveness of filter windrows (slash) for
reducing sediment loss from road fill slopes. The
authors estimated conservatively that the
windrows had a trapping efficiency of 75 to 85%
based on measurements of windrowed and non
windrowed fill slopes.  The construction cost was
$59/100 feet of windrowed slope.  The authors
recommend the use of filter windrows because
they are relatively inexpensive, efficient,  and can
be constructed simultaneous with road
construction for immediate protection of water
resources.

Cubbage, F.W., and  C.E. DeForest.  1991.
BMPs and  harvesting regulations in the South.
In: Forestry and the Environment...Engineering
Solutions. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 4-6,
1991. American  Society of Agricultural
Engineers.

This paper provides an overview of best
management practices that apply to forestry
practices, including road construction, timber
harvest, stream crossing, streamside management
zones, and maintenance  and retiring of structures.
This paper presents basic information about the
types of BMPs that may be used.  The paper
 introduces regulatory trends in the states of
 Florida, North Carolina, West Virginia,  and
 Maryland, as well as regulatory trends in forested
 wetlands.

 Dunford, E.G. 1962. Logging methods in
 relation to stream flow and erosion. 5th World
 Forestry Congress, 1960 Proceedings. 3:1703-
 1708.

 This paper provides a general description of
 logging operations and discusses the effects of
 logging on soil properties  (compaction and
 erosion) and the importance of the area disturbed.
 The effects of logging on streams, including
 temperature changes, increased sediment loads,
 and alteration of general hydraulic characteristics,
                                               83

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 are discussed. Remedial measures (prelogging
 plans, proper location and maintenance of logging
 roads, and providing proper dispersion of surface
 runoff) are seen as essential to proper
 environmental forest protection.

 Eubanks, S.T. 1980. Full-restoration method
 for closing spur roads. Journal of Forestry.
 78:644-645.

 Restoration of a temporary forest road should
 meet all or most of the following objectives:
 (1) reduce or eliminate soil erosion; (2) reduce
 the cost of maintenance when the road is not in
 use; (3) provide forage for cattle or big game;
 (4) reestablish the natural appearance of the land;
 and (5) prevent or discourage motor vehicle use.
 The most common method of restoration-
 scarification, waterbarring, and revegetation - is
 effective in meeting objectives 1-3, but not 4 and
 5.  This article describes a restoration method that
 has proven effective hi central Washington State
 that meets all five objectives.  It consists of
 reshaping the takeoff and a predetermined length
 of roadbed to original ground profile, followed by
 revegetation.  Then the usual scarification, etc.
 are done. This full restoration method should be
 taken into consideration at the original planning
 stage of road construction.  Experience in the
 Tieton Ranger District in Washington has shown
 that full restoration requires approximately the
 same amount of time and effort as original
 construction, and costs are developed accordingly.

 Gebhards, S., and J. Fisher. 1972. Fish
passage and culvert installations. Idaho Fish
 and Game Department.

 Idaho law provides that anyone proposing to alter
 a stream channel must first obtain audiority to do
 so from the Idaho Department of Water
 Administration. The Idaho Department of Fish
 and Game reviews applications and  ensures that
 installations will not interfere with the passage or
habitat of any species of fish. This document
reviews the passage and spawning requirements of
important fish species in Idaho and culvert
designs that inhibit passage and spawning.
 Culvert design and installation that ensure
 successful fish passage are then reviewed.
 Important design features include gradients that
 are as flat as possible, water velocities that do not
 prevent passage, minimum water depth for the
 species involved,, and minimum clear width of
 baffled sections. Fishways should be provided
 where necessary due to physical limitations. The
 important factors to consider are reviewed here
 and should be adapted to specific species and
 conditions for other parts of the country.

 Groves, F.D., R.K. Baughman, M.E. Hundley,
 and R.L. Sherman. 1979. Timber haul road
 construction in southern mountains.  Southern
 Journal of Applied Forestry. 3(l):68-76.

 A discussion of the factors to be considered when
 planning and building forest roads.  Road
 construction standards  (grade, dimensions,
 stabilization, cut and fill, and drainage  structures)
 applicable to West Virginia and costs of road
 construction in the area are presented.  Costs
 range from $5,000 to $35,000 per mile of
 completed road, depending on steepness and
 difficulty  of terrain.

 Hartung, R.E., and J.M. Kress. 1977.
 Woodlands of the Northeast: Erosion and
 sediment control guides. USDA Soil
 Conservation Service, Northeast Technical
 Service Center and Forest Service,  Northeast
 Area S and PF. 26 pages.

 This is a guidance manual for forestry activities in
 the northeastern United States.  Extensive
 measures for erosion and sediment control are
 described, and structural design criteria are
provided.  Water control on roads, seeding of
 roadbanks, building of  logging road bridges, and
the need for adequate filter strips are  described.
                                              84

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Haupt, H.F. 1959. A method for controlling
sediment from logging roads. USDA Forest
Service, Intel-mountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. Miscellaneous Publication
22. 22 pages.

This publication describes a method of protecting
downslopes, downhill roads, and stream channels
from the damaging effects of sediment that
originates primarily from roads high on slopes.
Information used to develop the method  was
collected in 1956 from an experimental area on
the Little Owl Creek tributary of the Boise River.
Site characteristics amenable to control or
alteration by  a road planner selected for  the
development of a multiple regression equation
relating these characteristics to sediment flow.
The site characteristics chosen were road width,
cross ditch interval, road cut height, road
gradient, embankment slope length, slope
obstruction index, and lower sidle slope gradient.
The application of the equation that was
developed for the experimental watershed is fully
detailed. Tables list specifications for the chosen
site characteristics for a full range of site
conditions.

Helvey, J.D. 1981. flood frequencies and
culvert sizes  needed for small watersheds in the
central Appalachians.  USDA Forest Service.  '
General Technical Report NE-62. 7 pages.

This study builds on work done by Douglass
(1974) in the Appalachians hi North Carolina.
Relationships for peak discharge, recurrence
interval, drainage area, and elevation were
necessary for the Central Appalachian area  where
hundreds of miles of logging road  are built and
thousands of culverts are installed  each year.  The
objectives of the study were (1) to analyze
streamflow data from forested watersheds in
north-central West Virginia and compute flood
frequencies for these areas and (2) to present
culvert sizes necessary to carry the expected peak
discharge for various drainage areas and
computed flood frequencies.  Seven watersheds in
the Fernow Experimental Forest and two from the
Clover Run area were studied in the Allegheny
Mountain Range of the Appalachian Plateau. A
table presents estimated culvert diameters needed
to carry flood water from forested areas ranging
from 30 to 100 acres and at recurrence intervals
of 5 to 50 years.

Huff, J.L., and E.L. Deal. 1982. Forestry and
water quality in North Carolina: A voluntary
program for the control ofnonpoint sources of
pollution from logging and silvicultural
activities. North Carolina Agricultural
Extension Service and North Carolina State
University. 8 pages.

This extension service publication discusses BMPs
for forest road construction to control erosion.
General headings include planning logging roads,
constructing logging roads, harvesting,
maintenance of logging roads, maintenance of
logging roads after logging, and regenerating a
new stand.  BMPs are  listed and briefly discussed
under each heading.

Hynson, J., P. Adams, S. Tibbetts, and R.
Darnell. 1982. Handbook far protection of 'Jish
and wildlife from construction of farm and forest
roads. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
FWS/OBS-82/18. 153 pages.

One requirement for an exemption from the   .
requirement for a section 404 (CWA) permit is
that farm and forest roads be constructed and
maintained in accordance with acceptable BMPs.
This handbook describes 54 such BMPs for
planning road and facility layout and design,
erosion control, construction  and maintenance
operations,  and restoration to natural conditions.
The BMPs are evaluated .as to their
environmental, institutional, technical, and
economic effectiveness. A discussion of the
purpose, description, performance, and limitations
is also provided for each BMP, and an approach
is developed that guides handbook users in the
selection of BMPs applicable to site- specific
conditions.
                                               85

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 Kidd, W J., and J.N. Kochenderfer. 1973. Soil
 constraints on logging road construction on
 steep land east and west.  Journal of Forestry.
 71(5)^84-286.

 A review of road problems and solutions common
 to both the east and west coasts of the United
 States is presented.  The problems briefly
 discussed include erosion, slumping, compaction,
 and drainage.  The solutions mentioned are proper
 construction; use of culverts, ditches, and dips;
 and use of strawjnulch to cover fill slopes.
 Controlling erosion on skid trails is also
 mentioned briefly.  The article is introductory,
 providing little technical information.  It does list
 several related references applicable separately to
 steep lands west and east.

 Kochenderfer, J.N. 1970. Erosion control on
 logging roads in the Appalachians. USDA Forest
 Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
 Station. Research Paper NE-158. 28 pages.

 This general Forest Service report discusses
 problems related to erosion and  sedimentation
 from forest roads.  Information on planning the
 road system, logging road location, drainage,
 maintenance, traffic regulation, care after logging,
 and  seeding is included.  Common BMPs (e.g.,
 culverts, filter strips, stream crossings) are
 discussed. Tables provide Specifications for
 distance between water bars and dips versus road
 grade, and for culvert diameters required for
 drainage areas in the southern Appalachian
 forests. The list of references is not extensive.

 Kochenderfer,  J.N., and J.D. Helvey. 1987.
 Using  gravel to reduce soil losses from
 minimum-standard forest roads. Journal of
 Soil and Water Conservation. 42(1):46-50.

 This paper presents the results of a study
 conducted to compare the soil losses from
 graveled and ungraveled  forest roads.  Road
 sections were ungraveled, covered widi 3 inches
of clean gravel,  or covered with  1  inch of
 crusher-run gravel.  Average annual soil losses
ranged from 47  tons/acre on ungraveled road
 sections to 6 tons/acre on sections surfaced with 3
 inches of clean limestone gravel. After the first
 year, soil losses on graveled sections of
 minimum-standard roads were similar to those on
 the higher standard road. The authors
 recommend 3-inch clean gravel for new roads
 because larger gravel reduces the amount of soil
 exposed in roadbeds and provides a firm roadbed
 resistant to rutting.  It also reduces the erosive
 force of overland flow across the roadbed by
 reducing runoff velocity.

 Lantz, R.L. 1971. Guidelines for stream
 protection in logging operations. Oregon State
 Game Commission, Portland, Oregon. 29
 pages.

 This report reviews why certain logging practices
 in the West Coast Douglas fir region  are more
 desirable than others for protecting  fish habitat
 and water quality.  Streams can be protected to a
 large extent by  (1) keeping streamside vegetation
 intact and (2) taking precautions to eliminate or
 minimize soil disturbance and erosion,
 particularly that resulting from roads.  The report
 emphasizes the need to change or eliminate some
 traditional logging practices due to the resource
 conflicts between and interdependence of fisheries
 and timber production. The report addresses the
 freshwater requirements of salmon and trout, the
 importance of protecting stream habitat, and
 forestry practices that can be used to protect fish
 habitat.  The author discusses streamside
 management areas and road location,
 construction, and maintenance practices.

 Lotspeich, F.B. 1971. Environmental guidelines
for road construction in Alaska.  Environmental
 Protection Agency, Alaska Water Laboratory
 College. Report No. 1610 GOI.

 This report compiles and describes the BMPs
 required to ensure environmental protection
 during road  construction under cold  climate
 conditions.  General topics are route selection,
 engineering design, construction activities,
 maintenance, and problems of the true arctic.
 Numerous figures illustrate BMPs. An appendix
                                              86

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includes the National Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA) of 1969, Executive Order 11514
(Protection and Enhancement of Environmental
Quality), and a series of instructional
memorandums by the U.S. Department of
Transportation dealing with highway construction
in response to EO 11514.

McClimans,  R J. 1980. Best management
practices for forestry activities;. In: Watershed
Management. Boise, Idaho, July 21-23,1980.
C.W. Johnson (ed.). American Society of Civil
Engineers, Irrigation and Drainage Division,
Committee on Watershed Management, pp.
694-705.

This paper defines critical combinations of site
conditions  for which BMPs are needed to
minimize adverse impacts on soil and water
resources.  The document also includes
assessment methodologies, as well as charts and
graphs for the selection and application of
appropriate BMPs.  Forest practices are grouped
according to  their capacity to cause water
pollution, the nature of the more commonly
applied BMPs to control pollution, and site
considerations. Guides, based on slope of land
and distance from water, are provided to
determine  whether a particular BMP is necessary
for the particular group of activities. Graphs
developed to determine BMP applicability are
presented, and the selected BMPs are discussed
for each group of forest activities. Specifications
for some BMPs are also presented.

 Megahan, W.F. 1978. Erosion processes on
 steep granitic road fills in Central Idaho. Soil
 Science Society of America Journal.
 42(2)350-357.

 Thirty erosion plots were established to study
 erosion occurring on steep road fills constructed
 from granitic soil materials. The study,
 conducted in Idaho, determined that erosion was
 significantly reduced following mulch application
 and tree planting.  Also, erosion in the plots was
 found to be  highly dependent on wind and slope,
 and the particle size eroded during the summer
months, but rapidly increased in October. Tables
and figures that graphically demonstrate erosion
rates and particle size change are included.

Megahan, W.F., and W J. Kidd. 1972. Effect
of logging roads on sediment production rates in
the Idaho BathoUth. USD A Forest Service.
Research Paper INT-123. 14 pages.

Effects of logging road construction on sediment
production rates were studied on small, ephemeral
drainages in the Idaho Batholith, a large area of
granitic rock characterized by steep slopes and
highly erodible soils.  For the 6-year study
period, about 30% of the total accelerated
sediment production from roads was caused by
surface erosion; the remainder resulted from mass
erosion.  Surface erosion on roads decreased
rapidly with time after extremely high initial
rates.  A  mass failure of a road fill slope occurred
about 4 years after construction, when surface
erosion had fallen to a low rate. The sediment
production rate  attributed to erosion within the
area disturbed by road construction averaged 770
tunes greater (220 due to  surface erosion and 550
to mass erosion) than that for similar, undisturbed
lands in the vicinity.  Results suggest three guides
to control surface erosion in the area: (1) erosion
 control measures should be applied immediately
 after road construction; (2) treatments must
protect the soil  surface until vegetation becomes
 established; and (3) downslope barriers  should be
 used effectively to delay and reduce downslope
 movement of sediment.

 Mumma, J.W., and J.S. Tixier. 1988. Soil and
 water conservation practices handbook. USDA
 Forest Service R-l Missoula, Montana and R-4,
 Ogden, Utah. Handbook 2509.22.

 The primary purpose of this document is to
 present BMPs for use in minimizing adverse
 impacts from forestry practices.  It describes the
 application, monitoring, evaluation, and
 adjustment of these practices.  Examples of BMPs
 that have been  field-tested and are known to
 provide protection under specific circumstances
 are also  presented. This general forestry BMP
                                               87

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  document includes definitions and the purposes
  for each practice.

  Neuman, L. 1987. Silviculture and best  '
  management practices. In: Erosion Control:
  You're Gambling Without U. International
  Erosion  Control Association, pp. 145-155.

  This report presents information on the types of
  impairments typical of forestry activities and
  provides information on management techniques
  that may be used to minimize the impacts.  The
  practices presented in this paper include timber
  harvesting, site preparation, and road construction
  and drainage.  Erodibility factors, assigned to
  Florida soils by the SCS, and slope determine a
 site's sensitivity to erosion, and the paper presents
 site sensitivity classes for Florida soils. This
 classification is related to suggested BMP usage
 and implementation.  Many useful tables of
 specifications for when and how to construct the
 practices  are presented.

 Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 1990.
 Environmental guidelines for access roads and
 water crossings. Queen's Printer for Ontario,
 Ontario,  Canada. 63 pages.

 This document presents the best management
 practices for road construction suggested for use
 by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.
 Information on the design criteria, construction,
 maintenance, and retirement of the structures is
 presented. The document provides many pictures
 and explains each structure and usage in detail.

 Oregon State University.  1984.  Forest roads
 conference. Corvallis, Oregon, May 1-3,1984.
 Oregon State University,  College of Forestry.

 This document is the proceedings of a forest
 roads conference held in May  1984.  Topics
 included in the document include road planning,
 road design, road drainage, road construction,
 and road maintenance. This document provides a
significant amount of data and  information on
forest road design and construction.
 Packer, P.E. 1967. Criteria for designing and
 locating logging roads to control sedimentation.
 Forest Science. 13:2-18.

 A study was conducted by the Intermountain
 Forest and Range Experiment Station in the
 northern Rocky Mountains to develop specific
 criteria for locating and designing secondary
 logging roads.  The separate effects of a number
 of watershed and road characteristics that can
 influence erosion of forest roads were studied
 mathematically. Packer found that the following
 factors were important in determining the spacing
 between cross drains to prevent rills from eroding
 deeper than 1 inch: road grade, road surface soil
 aggregates, topographic position, exposure, and
 upper slope steepness.  A table presents
 recommended spacings for road grades and soil
 types.  The distance sediment moves downsiope
 from logging roads was found to depend most on
 obstruction spacing and land of obstruction,
 undisturbed slope soil aggregates, cross drain
 spacing intervals, distance to first obstruction, age
 of roads, and fill slope cover density.  A table
 presents recommended protective strip widths
 based on obstruction spacing and type of
 obstruction.  Packer discusses site characteristics
 that were not considered in this study that could
 have a significant effect on erosion but for which
 data were insufficient to analyze effects.

 Pope, P.E. 1978. Forestry and water quality:
 Pollution control practices.  Forestry and
 Natural Resources. Purdue University
 Cooperative Extension Services. FNR 88. 6
 pages.

 Best management practices (BMPs) for forestry
 activities are presented, stressing that feasible
 BMPs must depend on site- specific,  case-by-case
 information such as management objectives  and
 natural conditions.  Information on the
 effectiveness of BMPs is not provided.  The
principal types of erosion control practices and
qualitative positive and negative features,  based
on EPA Technical Report 37  (1977) are included.
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Rothwell, R.L. 1971. Watershed management
guidelines for logging and road construction.
Canadian Forestry Service, Department of
Fisheries and Forestry, Forest Research
Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Information Report A-X-42. 78 pages.

This guidance document was prepared to
minimize the impacts to water quality resulting
from silviculture in North America.  The
document covers virtually all activities from start
to finish of a logging event.  These activities
include road construction and maintenance.
Appropriate best management practices are
graphically described.

Rothwell,  R.L. 1978.  Watershed management
guidelines for logging and road construction in
Alberta. Canadian Forest Service, Northern
Forest Research  Center. Information Report
NOR-X-208. 43 pages.

This document presents information on general
guidelines to follow when constructing and
maintaining a forest road. Information provided
hi the document includes the following: road
gradient, road width, aspect, stream protection,
stream crossings, cuts and fills, drainage, and
retirement. This paper presents specifications for
many of the best  management practices suggested.

Stuart, G., and J. Vowell. 1989. Forest
practices for controlling nonpoint source
pollution. In: National Nonpoint Conference.
St. Louis, Missouri, April 23-26, 1989..

This paper presents the various best management
practices that may be used to prevent adverse
water quality conditions or excessive erosion from
forest road construction.  General information on
forest road construction and maintenance NFS
controls is provided.

Swift, L.W., Jr. 1988. Chapter 23: Forest
access roads: design, maintenance, and soil
 loss. In: Proceedings of Symposium: Forest
Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta. Athens,
Georgia, October 1984. W.T. Swank and D.A.
Crossiey, Jr. (eds.). Springer-Verlag New
York. pp.  313-324.

The chapter gives a history of road-related
research at Coweeta and summarizes the findings
of that research. Roads and skid trails are
recognized as major sources of sediment from
forestry- related activities. Related research at
Coweeta has included roadbank stabilization tests
(1934-58),  exploitative logging demonstrations
(1941-56),  integrated forest and watershed
management demonstration (1954-55),
management tests (1956-60), multiresource
management demonstrations (1962-64), BMPs,
transportation planning, bridge and culvert size,
operational application of road design guidelines
(1976-84),  and road maintenance. This research
has led to certain conclusions regarding forestry
roads. The most effective road system results
from a transportation plan developed to serve an
entire basin rather than the short-term needs of
individual road projects.  Exposed soil should be
revegetated quickly.  Storm water should be
removed from the road at frequent intervals and
in small  amounts.  Contour roads and gentle
grades produce less sediment and require less
maintenance.  Gravel surfacing is best, and a
grassed roadbed is good where traffic is light.
The stream crossing is the most critical part of the
entire road, and every  effort should be made to
protect and vegetate fill slopes and divert storm
waters on the road away from the stream.
Unnecessary maintenance should be avoided.

Swift, L.W., Jr. 1986. Filter strip widths for
forest roads in the southern Appalachians.
Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
10(l):27-34.

The objectives of this study were (1) to compare
filter strip standards to field measurements of
sediment movement in the southern Appalachian
Mountains and (2) to determine the mitigating
 influences of mulch or grass on fill slopes and of
 obstructions to flow within filter strips. The
 author found that filter strip standards currently
 applied to forest roads in the southern
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 Appalachian Mountains may specify greater
 widths than are necessary with prevailing
 construction practices.  Measurements of the
 distance that sediment traveled downslope below
 newly constructed roads were less than previously
 reported. Distances were notably less if natural
 obstructions existed on the forest floor, brush
 barriers were at the edge of the right- of-way,
 road fills were grass-covered, or roads were
 outsloped and drained by broad-based dips.  Filter
 strip slope distance in feet can be calculated as 43
 + 1.39(slope %).  A table of mininuini filter strip
 widths for graveled forest roads is presented.
 Factors  influencing sediment movement
 downslope include slope distance, natural
 vegetative cover, forest litter, presence of brush
 barriers, and whether sediment is being carried by
 diffuse flow or flow associated with a storm water
 discharge by a culvert.

 Swift, L.W., Jr. 1985. Forest road design to
 minimize erosion in the southern Appalachians.
 In: Forestry and Water Quality-A Mid- south
 Symposium. University of Arkansas, May 8-9,
 1985. B.C. Blackmon (ed.). University of
 Arkansas, Cooperative Extension Service, Little
 Rock, Arkansas, pp. 141-151.

 Excessive erosion and low serviceability of roads
 are problems associated with forest management
 in the mountains of the southeastern United
 States. Results of research at the Coweeta
 Hydrologic Laboratory  in western North Carolina
 on developing and demonstrating low-cost,
 low-maintenance road design are presented. The
 most effective road systems result from a
 transportation plan developed to serve an  entire
 basin rather than short-term needs of individual
 locations. Soil should be revegetated quickly.
 Outsloping and dips should be used to remove
 storm water at frequent intervals and in small
 amounts.  Contour roads and gentle slopes require
 less maintenance and produce less sediment.  The
 stream crossing is the most critical part of the
 entire road, and special  efforts should  be made to
protect and vegetate fill slopes and divert storm
water on the road away from streams.
 Swift, L.W., Jr. 1984. Gravel and grass
 surfacing reduces soil loss from mountain
 roads.  Forest Science, 30(3):657-670.

 Soil loss from forest roads was measured on two
 soils hi the southern Appalachian Mountains.
 Losses from a roadbed without surfacing (bare
 soil) and later with grass cover were compared
 with those from roadbeds surfaced with different
 types and amounts of rock.  In the first 2 months
 after construction in a deep sandy loam, soil loss
 rates were eight times greater from the bare soil
 site than from roadbeds with 15-20 cm of gravel.
 Cumulative loss during jthe first 8 months after
 construction was over 200 tons/ha from the bare
 soil roadbed and less than 35 tons/ha from
 roadbeds surfaced with graded crushed rock or
 large washed stone. Losses rose as logging traffic
 began and road maintenance disturbed stabilized
 road surfaces and contributed to losses.

 Trimble, G.R., and R.S. Sartz. 1957. How far
 from a stream should a logging road be
 located?  Journal of Forestry. 55(5)339-341.

 Observations were made along a forest road that
 traverses a well- stocked northern hardwood
 forest of somewhat uneven age in the Hubbard
 Brook Experimental Forest in the White
 Mountains of New Hampshire.  Data are plotted
 as a relationship between degree of slope and
 distance sediment is can-led by storm runoff,
 yielding recommended widths of filter strips for
 various conditions. A rule of thumb is a filter
 strip 25 feet wide on level ground with a 2-foot
 increase in width for each 1% increase in slope of
 the land between road and stream.

 Trimble, G.R., and S. Weitzman. 1953. Soil
 erosion on logging roads. Soil Science Society
 of America Proceedings. 17:152-154.

 Sample skid roads were studied before, during,
 and after experimental logging operations on the
Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia.
Erosion was related to grade, length of slope,
intensity of use, soil, vegetation, and climatic
factors.  Degree of erosion was determined for
                                              90

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different skid road conditions.  Proper road
location, road construction techniques, road
maintenance, and use are important to reducing
erosion from forest roads, A table of
recommended spacing between water bars to
control erosion as a function of .grade is
presented.

USDA Forest Service. 1992. Investigating Water
Quality in the Pacific Southwest Region, Best
Management Practices Evaluation Program
(BMPEP): A User's Guide. USDA  Forest
Service, Region 5, San Francisco,  California.

This document is the result of a continuous  loop
of on-site evaluations, BMP prescription
development, implementation, monitoring, and
feedback.  The monitoring/evaluation program
described in this user's guide provides the
feedback loop to obtain and document
observations of how well BMPs protect water
quality and also helps to identify deficiencies and
their causes and necessary corrective actions.
On-site evaluations were made on the following
activities: streamside management zones, skid
trails, suspended yarding, landings, meadow
protection, special erosion control and
 reyegetation, timber administration, road surface,
 drainage, slopes protection, stream  crossings,
 servicing and refueling,  in-channel construction
 practices, temporary roads, rip-rap, snow
 removal, protection of roads during wet periods,
 pioneer road construction, prescribed fire,
 revegetation of surface disturbed areas,  and
 location of stock facilities in wilderness. In
 addition, assistance in accessing the Best
 Management Practices Evaluation Program
 database (BMP-DB) is provided.

 Weitzman, S., and G.R. Trimble, Jr.  1952.
 Skid-road erosion can  be reduced. Journal of
 Soil and Water Conservation. 7:122-124.

 The preliminary results of a skid road experiment
 are presented. This experiment had four study
 sites with different qualities of skid roads.  The
  "high-quality" road site had the fewest roads on
 the smallest slopes.  The "good,"  "fair," and
I?poor" sites had progressively more road area and
the roads ran over steeper slopes.  The authors
measured erosion rates off the sites and found
significantly less erosion as the road quality
increased.

Windsor, C.L. 1989. Recommended
management practices for forested wetlands
road construction. In: Proceedings of the .
Symposium on the  Forested Wetlands of the
Southern  United States. Orlando, Florida, July
12-14, 1988. USDA Forest Service, Southeast
Forest Experiment Station. General Technical
Report SE-SO. pp. 51-53.

This paper lists the provisions of section 404  of
the CWA and BMPs developed by Georgia,
Florida, and South Carolina relating to wetland
road construction.  An example of a wetland  road
system in Georgia  that incorporated many of  the
BMPs is reviewed. Four commonly used bad
management practices are also discussed: filling
 intermittent streams with  unstabilized fill material;
placing culverts in the wrong place or using the
 wrong size culvert; using a long fill with an
 inadequate number of culverts; and grading roads
 flat and leaving the berm along the outside edges
 of the road. Beavers stopping up culverts are also
 a common problem in the South.  .    ,

 Yee, C.S., and T.D. Roelofs. 1980. Planning
forest roads to protect salmonid habitat. USDA
 Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
 Range Experiment Station. General Technical
 Report PNW-109. 260 pages.

 This document presents information on alleviating
 the environmental impacts, particularly on
 anadromous fish and their habitats, associated
 with forest road construction.  The document
 provides design, construction, and maintenance
 guidelines for roads to minimize impacts.
 Sections on sedimentation, road- stabilizing
 additives, and roads,  and fish migration are
 included.

 Adams, P.W.  1991.  Maintaining woodland
 roads. Oregon State University Extension Service,
                                                91

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 Extension Circular 1139.

 Arnold, J.F. 1963. Road location to retain
 maximum stability. In: Symposium on Forest
 Watershed Management. March 25-28, 1963.
 Society of American Foresters and Oregon State
 University, pp. 215-224.

 Banta, D. 1963. Maintaining soil stability in the
 design and construction of logging roads. In:
 Symposium on Forest Watershed Management.
 March 25-28, 1963. Society of American
 Foresters and Oregon State University, pp.
 225-232.

 Bethlahmy, N., and W.J. Kidd, Jr.  1966.
 Controlling soil movement from steep road fills.
 USDA Forest Service Research Note,  INT-45. 4
 pages.

 Blackmon, B.C. (ed). 1985.  Forestry and water
 quality: A mid- south symposium. Little Rock,
 Arkansas, May 8-9, 1985. Arkansas Cooperative
 Extension Service, University of Arkansas.

 Burroughs, E.R., G.R. Chalfant, and M.A.
 Townsend. 1973.  Guide to reduce road failures
 in western Oregon. Bureau of Land  Management,
 Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 111
 pages.

 Campbell, A.J., R.C. Sidle, and H.A. Froehlich.
 1982.  Prediction of peak flows for culvert design
 on small watersheds in Oregon. Oregon State
 University, Water Resources Research Institute
 WRRI-74. 98 pages.

 Carr, W.W., and T.M. Ballard. 1980.
 Hydroseeding forest roadsides hi British Columbia
 for erosion control. Journal of Soil and Water
 Conservation. 35(l):33-35.

 Carson, W.W., and D.P. Dykstra. 1978.
Programs for road network planning. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station. General Technical
Report PNW-67. 21 pages.
 Crumrine, J.P. 1977. Best management practices
 for the production of forest products and water
 quality. In: Proceedings of the 208 Symposium on
 Non-Point Sources of Pollution from Forested
 Land. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale,
 Illinois. G.M. Aubertin (ed.). pp.  267-274.

 Dissmeyer, G.E., and G.R. Foster. 1980. A guide
 for predicting sheet and rill erosion on forest.
 land. USDA Forest Service. Technical
 Publication R8-P6. 40 pages.

 Douglass, I.E. 1974. Flood frequencies and
 bridge and culvert sizes for forested mountains in
 North Carolina. USDA Forest Service. General
 Technical Report SE-4. 21 pages.

 Dyrness, C.T.  1970. Stabilization of newly
 constructed road backslppes by mulch and grass
 legume treatments. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
 Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
 Research Note PNW-123. 5 pages.

 Enberg, P. 1963. Design of roadway drainage to
 prevent erosion on forest watersheds. In:
 Symposium on Forest Watershed Management.
 March 25-28, 1963.  Society of American
 Foresters and Oregon State University, pp.
 233-252.

 Furniss, M.J., T.D. Roelofs, arid C.S. Yee.
 1991. Road construction and maintenance, In:
 Influences of forest and rangeland management on
 salmonid fishes and their habitats. Meehan,  W.R..
 (ed.) American Fisheries Society Special
 Publication 19:297-324.

 Gardner, R.B. 1978.  Cost, performance, and
 aesthetic impacts of an experimental forest road in
 Montana. USDA Forest Service.  Research Paper
 INT-203. 28 pages.

 Gardner, R.B. 1967.  Major environmental factors
 that affect the location, design,  and  construction
of stabilized forest  roads. Logger's Handbook.
27:12-13, 170-173. Pacific Logging Congress,
Portland, Oregon.
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Gardner, R.B., W.S. Hartsog, and K.B. Dye.
1978. Road design guidelines for the Idaho
batholith based on the China den road study.
USDA Forest Service. Research Paper INT-204.
20 pages.                                •>

Golden, M.S., C.L. Tuttle, J.S. Kush, and J.M.
Bradley. 1984. Forestry activities and water
quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
practices, and an erosion-classified system.
Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
Station. Bulletin 555.

Haupt, H.F., and WJ. Kidd, Jr. 1965. Good
logging practices reduce sedimentation in central
Idaho. Journal of Forestry. 63 (9): 664-670.

Haussman, R.F., and E.W. Pruett. 1978.
Permanent logging roads for better woodlot
management. USDA Forest Service, Eastern
Region. 45 pages.

Helvey, J.D., and J.N. Kochenderfer.  1988.
Culvert sizes needed for small drainage areas in
the central Appalachians.  Northern Journal of
Applied Forestry. 5(2): 123-127.

Larse, R.W. 1971. Prevention and  control of
erosion and stream sedimentation from forest
roads. In: Proceedings of the Symposium: Forest
Land Uses and the Stream Environment. Oregon
State University, October 19-21, 1970. J.T
Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.). OSU, Corvallis,
Oregon, pp.  76-83.

McCashion, J.D., and R.M. Rice.  1983. Erosion
on logging roads in Northwestern California:
How much is avoidable? Journal of Forestry.
(l):23-26.

McDonald, P.M., and R.V. Whiteley. 1972.
Logging a roadside stand to protect scenic values.
Journal of Forestry. 70:80-82.

 McEvoy, T.J.  1989. Private forests: Common
 sense erosion control. American Forests.
95:32-34,66-67.
Megahan, W.F. 1983. Appendix C: Guidelines
for reducing negative impacts of logging. In:
Tropical -watersheds: Hydrologic and soils
response to major uses or conversions. L.S.
Hamilton and P.M. King (eds.)' Westview Press,
Boulder, Colorado, pp. 143-154.

Megahan, W.F. 1974. Deep-rooted plants for
erosion control on granitic road fills in the Idaho
Batholith. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain
Forest and Range Experiment Station.  Research
Paper INT-161.

Megahan, W.F. 1977. Reducing erosional impacts
of roads: Guidelines for watershed management.
In: FAO Conservation Guide. Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome. pp. 237-261.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,
Division of Forestry. 1989. Water quality in
forest management: Best management practices in
Minnesota. 104 pages.

Mitchell, W.C., and G.R. Trimble, Jr. 1959.
How much land is needed for the logging
transport system?  Journal of Forestry;
57(1): 10-12.

NCASI. 1984. Forestry management practices
and cumulative effects on water quality and
utility. National Council of the Paper Industry for
Air  and Stream Improvement. Technical  Review
Bulletin No. 435.

Noble, E.L., and L.J. Lundeen.  1971. Analysis
of rehabilitation treatment alternatives for
sediment control.  In: Proceedings of the
Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
Environment. Oregon State University, Oct.
 19-21, 1970.  J.T. Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.).
 OSU, Corvallis, Oregon, pp.  86-96.

 Oregon Department of Forestry,  Forest Practices
 Section. 1979. Forest practices notes-Waterbars.
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 Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest Practices
 Section. 1981. Forest practices notes-Road
 maintenance.

 Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest practices -
 section. 1982. Forest practices notes-Ditch relief
 culverts.

 Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest Practices
 Section. 1991. Written plans guidance.

 Ponce, S.L. 1986. Controlling diffuse-source
 pollution associated with forest practices in North
 America. In: Effects of land use on fresh waters:
 agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation,
 urbanization. L.G. Solbe (ed,). Water Research
 Centre, Chichester, England", pp. 432-443.

 Rasmussen, W.O., R.N. Weisz, P.P. Ffolliott,
 and R.D. Carder. 1980. Planning for forest
 roads-A computer-assisted program for selection
 of alternative corridors. Journal of
 Environmental Management.  11:93-104.

 Roby, K., J. Rector, and M.  Furniss. 1991. PSW
 region of the Forest Service about to launch BMP
 evaluation process. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
 Southwest Region. White paper. 2 pages.

 Rothwell, R.L. 1983. Erosion and sediment
 control at road-stream crossings (forestry). The
 Forestry Chronicle. 59(2):62-66.

 Smith, A.C.  1963. Tractor roads and trails
 planning, use and post treatment. In:  Symposium
 on Forest Watershed Management. March 25-28,
 1963.  Society of American Foresters and Oregon
 State University,  pp. 283-290.

 Svinth, J.F. 1963. Revegetation of cut and fill
 Slopes. In: Symposium on Forest Watershed
Management.  March 25-28, 1963.  Society of
 American Foresters and Oregon State University
pp. 253-258.

USDA Forest Service.  1989. Annotated
bibliography on soil erosion and erosion control
 in subarctic and high-latitude regions of North
 America. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
 Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
 General Technical Report PNW-GTR-253.

 Whitman R. 1989. Clean water of multiple use?
 Best management practices for water quality
 control on the national forests.  Ecology Law
 Quarterly. 16(4):909.

 Winkelaar, P. 1971. Forest Road Location and
 Erosion Control on Northern New Hampshire
 Soils. Cooperative Extension Service, University
 of New Hampshire, Extension Publication No. 2.
 19 pages.
 COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BMPs

 Benson, R.E., and MJ. Niccolucci.  1986.
 What does  it cost to protect nontimber
 resources during logging? American Forests.
 92(6):26-28 and 53-54.

 This paper presents an  analysis of the major cost
 components associated  with managing and
 protecting nontimber resources in National
 Forests.  Data from 187 timber sales in the
 northern Rocky Mountains between  1975 and
 1981  were used to test different ways of assigning
 costs  to nontimber resources.  The average cost of
 protecting nontimber resources was $26/1000
 board-feet of timber sold.  Broken down, costs
 were  $12.69 for road construction and
 maintenance, $8.77 for log hauling,  and $4.46 in
 other  activities such as felling trees,  log skidding,
 and slash disposal. These costs cover soilj water.
 habitat, and  other resources.  The opportunity
 costs  and administrative costs associated with
protection on nontimber resources are not
 included.  The authors conclude that determining
 exact  costs associated with protection of natural
resources will not be possible until methods of
estimating opportunity and administrative costs
are developed.
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Burroughs, E.R. Jr., and J.G. King. 1989.
Reduction of soil erosion on fairest roads. USD A
Forest Service, Intermountain Research
Station. General Technical Report INT-264. 21
pages.

This document presents the expected reduction in
surface erosion from selected treatments applied
to forest road traveled ways, cutslopes, fUlslopes,
and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction in
expressed as functions of ground cover, slope
gradient, and soil properties whenever possible.
A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size
for protection of road ditches.

Cook, M J., and J.G. King. 1983. Construction
cost and erosion control effectiveness of filter
windrows on fill slopes. USD A Forest Service,
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment
Station, Ogden, UT. Research Note INT-335. 5
pages.

This paper presents information on the cost and
effectiveness of filter windrows (slash) for
reducing sediment loss from road fill slopes.  The
authors estimated conservatively that the
windrows had a trapping efficiency of 75 to 85
percent based on measurements of windrowed and
non windrpwed fill slopes. The construction cost
was $59/100 feet of windrowed slope. The
authors recommend the use of filter windrows
because they are relatively inexpensive, efficient,
and  can be constructed simultaneous with road
construction for immediate protection of water
resources.                -

Cubbage, F.W., and P. Lickwar.  1990.
Estimating the costs of water quality protection
on private forest lands in Georgia.  Georgia
Forestry  Commission,  Research Division.

The purpose of the information presented in this
paper is to quantify the operational costs of
implementing various forestry best management
practices, with emphasis placed on practices
associated with road construction. This paper
presents very good cost information on the
following: road construction, stream crossings,
broad-based dips, water bars, seed, fertilizer,
mulch. The information is useful because the
costs are based on various physiographic
classifications (i.e.,  coastal plain, piedmont, or
mountain).

Curtis, J.G., D.W. Pelren, D.B. George, V.D.
Adams, and J.B. Layzer. 1990. Effectiveness of
best management practices in preventing   .
degradation of streams caused by sUvicultural
activities in Pickett State Forest, Tennessee.
Center for the Management, Utilization and
Protection of Water Resources, Tennessee
Technological University for the Tennessee
Department of Conservation, Division of
Forestry and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources
Agency. 197 pages.

This study was undertaken to evaluate the
effectiveness of BMPs  applied to timber harvest
operations hi Pickett Forest.  The effects on water
quality, fish production, and macroinvertebrates,
and the presence  of herbicides in streams were
studied.  The BMPs employed were SMZs, road
placement on ridgetops and high elevations, skid
trails kept at least 14 m from streams, harvest
during the driest  season and maximum soil
stability, logging of small, dispersed stands,
seeding and mulching of disturbed areas,
broad-based dips on the haul road, and a period
of 10 years before the  area would be logged
again.  Herbicides were applied to two stands.
Hardwoods 75 mm dbh or less were thin line
sprayed with a mixture of Garlon (active
ingredients triclopyr and 2,4-D), Sidekick, and
diesel fuel. Picloram was injected into all
hardwoods 255 mm dbh or greater.
Concentrations of herbicides hi streams following
the treatments was  low: 2,4-D @  < 0.02-0.081.
Based on available  toxicity data, the levels
detected were not biologically harmful.
However, care is needed during application to
minimize transport to surface waters.  Extensive
data relating to all of the BMPs employed during
the study are presented in the paper .
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  Dissmeyer, G.E., and B.B. Foster. 1987. Some
  economic benefits of protecting water quality.
  In: Managing Southern Forests for Wildlife and
  Fish: A Proceedings. USDA Forest Service,
  Southern Forest Experiment Station. General
  Technical Report SO-65. pp. 6- 11.

  Many of the practices used to protect water
  quality are the same ones used to improve soil
  productivity. Protecting soil productivity has
  economic benefits for the landowner hi terms of
  timber produced..per acre,  and lowered road
  construction and maintenance costs.  Increased
  fisheries production in forest streams is another
  economic benefit of protecting forest soils.  The
  effects of sediment on fish habitats, and the
 principles and economic benefits of soil
 productivity, are reviewed.  Tables present the
 economic returns of implementing various forest
 BMPs. For instance, skid trail rehabilitation
 yielded a real return of from 2.4%to 4T8%. The
 benefit/cost ratio of rehabilitating cut- and-fill
 slopes ranged from 2.4 to 4.4 in studies reviewed.
 Erosion control confers  economic benefits on
 landowners and protects water quality and
 fisheries.

 Dissmeyer, G.E., and E. Frandsen. 1988. The
 economics of silvicultural best management
 practices. In: Nonpoint Source Pollution: 1988 -
 Policy, Economics, Management, and
 Appropriate Technology. Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
 November 6-11,1988.  V. Novotony (ed.).
 American Water Resources Association,
 Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 77-86.

 Matrices were developed to estimate the economic
 benefits of implementing nonpoint BMPs.
 Through three examples, this study illustrates
 incremental cutouts and values of induced goods
 and services to investments in soil and water
 resource management on forestland and
 rangeland.

Duggleby, J. 1980. Drainage structures: The
cost of inadequacy. British Columbia
Lumberman.  64(8):12,15.
 This article summarizes a presentation by Richard
 Kosick of Tahsis on road drainage structures and
 provides reasons for road structure failure.  They
 include improper site selection, improper site
 preparation, improper workmanship, inadequate
 size, inadequate consideration of future activity,
 and inadequate maintenance. Kosick cited
 numerous costs, indirect and direct, of building
 inadequate drainage structures initially.  Direct
 costs include evaluation of damage, moving
 equipment to site, loss of production, and loss of
 work for logging crew.  Indirect costs include
 loss of personnel due to layoffs during repair,
 increased road maintenance, and slower hauling
 speed through the affected area.  Kosick estimated
 that the overall cost of inadequate running surface
 could amount to 5% to  10% of logging costs.
 The costs of inadequately maintained culverts and
 ditches resulting from a single storm are
 tabulated.  The percent increase in cost per
 kilometer of road ranged from 2%  to 34%.

 Ellefson, P.V., and P.D. Miles. 1984.
 Economic implications of managing nonpoint
 forest source of water  pollutants: A midwestern
 perspective. In: Mountain Logging Symposium
 Proceedings. West Virginia University, June
 5-7, 1984. P.A. Peters and J. Luchok (eds.).
 pp. 107-119.

 Economic evaluations  of 6 forest practices
 designed to enhance water quality from 18 timber
 harvesting operations in the Midwest were carried
 out.  Net revenue reductions ranged from  1.2%
 with redesign of landing and skid trail locations to
 26.4% with buffer strip  requirements.  Nine
 operations were profitable with application of all
 six practices. Limited production function
 information hinders such analyses.

 Gardner, R.B. 1978.  Cost, performance, and
aesthetic impacts of an experimental forest road
in Montana. USDA Forest Service. Research
Paper INT-203. 28 pages.

This paper presents the results of a study
conducted to evaluate the costs and environmental
impacts  associated with single-lane forest road
                                             96

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design and construction and compares these costs
with the costs of alternative designs. The paper
presents information on the costs of various road
designs and includes significant data on
construction specifications.

Gardner, R.B. 1971. Forest road standards as
related to economics and the environment.
USD A Forest Service. Research Note HST-145.

This brief note discusses the problems  related to
planning a forest road system. Data needed for
planning an optimum system were not available at
the time, and the author discusses factors that
should be taken into account to plan the best
system possible in the absence of such data and to
protect the quality of the environment. Cost data
(annual road costs per mile for 10,000 vehicles
per annum (VPA) and 20,000 to 40,000 VPA,
and single lane versus double lame for 10,000,
20,000, and 40,000 VPA) are presented in tables.

Groves,  F.D., R.K.  Baughman, M.E. Hundley,
and  R.L. Sherman.  1979. Timber haul road
construction in southern mountains.  Southern
Journal of Applied Forestry. 3(l);68-76.

A discussion of the factors to be considered when
planning and building forest roads.  Road
construction standards (grade, dimensions,
stabilization, cut and fill,  and drainage structures)
applicable to West Virginia and costs of road
construction in the area are presented.  Costs
range from $5,000 to $35,000 per mile of
completed road, depending on steepness and
difficulty of terrain.

Harr, R.D., and R.A. Nichols. 1993.
Stabilizing forest roads to help restore fish
habitats: A northwest Washington example.
Fisheries. 18(4):18-22.

Due to increased landslide risk and sediment
delivery  from 30 to 40-year old forest roads in
the Canyon Creek  watershed, the roads were
decommissioned by stabilizing fills, removing
stream crossings, recontouring slopes, and
reestablishing drainage patterns. The failure rate
of the roads prior to recommissioning was 110
tunes higher than undisturbed forest and 6 times
higher than logged forest.  The average cost of
decommissioning the roads was $3,500 per km
where considerable earthmoving was necessary.
Lower costs were associated with lesser
earthmoving jobs; the highest costs resulted when
fills at stream crossings or landings had to be
removed.  In contrast to unused roads not treated,
decommissioned roads and landings were largely
undamaged by rain on snow runoff that produced
a 50-year flood in November 1989 and sustained
little damage during rain on snow  runoff in
November 1990 that severely damaged main haul
roads in northwest Washington. The authors
concluded that reducing the landslide and failure
rate of roads used in forestry operations would
greatly improve conditions for salmonids.

Kochenderfer, J.N., G.W. Wendel, and H.C.
Smith. 1984. Cost of and soil loss on "minimum
standard" forest truck roads constructed in the
central Appalachians. USDA Forest Service,
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.
Research Paper NE-544. 8 pages.

A "minimum-standard" forest road is described,
and cost data are presented  for eight such roads
constructed in the central Appalachians. The
average cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,
119 (range $5,048 to $14,424).  Soil loss was
measured from several sections of a
minimum-standard road.  Traffic was regulated
the first year and unrestricted the second year.
Losses ranged from 44 tons per acre on
ungraveled road sections to 5 tons per acre on
graveled sections. Soil loss from the graveled
sections on the minimum-standard road was about
the same as that from higher standard graveled
roads.

Koger, J.L. 1978. Factors affecting the
construction and cost of logging roads.
Tennessee Valley Authority, Division of
Forestry, Fisheries and Wildlife  Development
Technical Note B-27. 130  pages.

Factors affecting road construction, construction
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  time, and construction cost are discussed and
  related to the logging operation. A regression
  equation is presented for predicting construction
  times and costs for low-volume logging roads.
  Variables found to affect construction times
  significantly were road length, cleared width,
  earthwork volumes, road slope, and equipment
  horsepower. Equations and tables for road
  construction times and costs are given for varying
  conditions.  Partial contents: (1) general  problem
  description, (2) review of pertinent literature,  (3)
  common road locations, (4) procedures for
  measuring variables, (5) approaches to estimating
  bulldozer production, (6) analysis of production
  data, (7) equipment operating costs and
  replacement policies, (8) application of results,
  (9) drainage, (10) bridges, (11) rock, (12)
 maintenance practices on logging roads, (13)
 planning the road network, and (14)
 environmental guidelines for road construction.
 Numerous cost tables relating to road construction
 and a complete list of references are provided.

 Lickwar, P.M., C.A. Kckman, and F.W.
 Cubbage. 1991. Costs of protecting water
 quality during harvesting on private forestlands
 in the Southeast.  Southern Journal of Applied
 Forestry.

 Data on harvest volumes, topography, and other
 site and area characteristics were obtained from
 22 private forest timber harvests in Alabama,
 Florida, and Georgia.  An economic analysis was
 then used to estimate  the marginal costs of
 implementing each state's recommended BMPs
 and a set of "enhanced" BMPs that offered
 increased water quality protection. Collectively,
 the costs of using the recommended BMPs
 averaged 2.9% of gross timber sale revenue,
 $2.34 per 1000 board feet (MBF) of timber
 harvested, or $12.45 per acre.   The cost of
 implementing enhanced BMPs  averaged 5.1% of
 gross stumpage value, $4.13 per MBF, or $21.94
 per acre.  Seed,  fertilizer, and  mulch;
 broad-based dips; and water bars were the most
 expensive practices on a total cost basis.  Culvert
installation, SMZs, and road relocation were less
expensive for most tracts. A literature review of
 related studies is provided.  Site location maps,
 site characteristics (physiographic, size, harvest
 method) are also given, and the economic analysis
 breaks the sites down by topography and BMPs
 implemented.  This is one of the few studies
 available on forestry BMP implementation costs.

 Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1981.
 Effectiveness of best management practices in
 controlling nonpoint pollution from commercial
 clear-cuts. In: Nonpoint Pollution Control - Tools
 and Techniques for the Future, Proceedings of a
 Technical Symposium, pp. 213-224.

 This paper reports an evaluation of the
 effectiveness of Pennsylvania's BMPs for
 controlling NPS pollution on public and private
 forestlands.  This study was done following  a
 commercial clearcut hi central Pennsylvania. The
 paired watershed method was used to evaluate
 changes in water quality and  quantity.  The
 commercial clearcut produced a water yield
 increase of 5.39 area- inches  the first year
 following cutting.  Stream turbidity on the
 clearcut watershed was generally higher than that
 on the control watershed prior to cutting, and no
 major increase in turbidity occurred as a result of
 cutting.  No serious channel erosion was found on
 the clearcut watershed. Increases in stream
 temperature were generally slight.  The authors
 conclude that the BMPs required in Pennsylvania
 are sufficient to control NPS pollution during and
 following logging.

 Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1990.
 Evaluation of best management practices for
 controlling nonpoint  pollution from silviculture!
 operations. Water Resources Bulletin.
 26(1):41-S2.

 Fifteen years of streamflow and water quality data
 were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of
 BMPs in controlling nonpoint source pollution
 from a 110-acre commercial clearcut located in
 the Ridge and Valley Province of central
Pennsylvania. In general, the BMPs analyzed
effectively reduced water quality impacts
associated with timber harvest. Although some
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increases in water quality constituents were
observed, most were well below the drinking
water standards although they may violate EPAs
antidegradation policy.  The authors suggest that
buffer strips of unharvested timber provided the
most protection to the streams and mat improved
performance may be possible through annual
inspections and increasing the width of buffer
strips if necessary.  The information presented in
mis report demonstrates the potential for
reductions in nonpoint source pollution possible
with various BMPs.

Mussallem,  KJ2., and J.A. Lynch. 1980.
Controlling  nonpoint source pollution from
commercial  clear-cuts.  In: Watershed
Management 1980. C.W. Johnson (ed.).
American Society of Civil Engineers, Irrigation
and Drainage Division, Committee on
Watershed Management, pp. 669-681.

This study was designed to evaluate the
effectiveness of Pennsylvania's BMPs. It
compared measurements' of stream quality at a
control site that was not logged, a site logged
using BMPs, and a site logged without BMPs that
was treated with herbicides to eliminate the effect
of regrowth. The use of BMPs reduced the
impact of logging activities on  stream quality.

Rasmussen, W.O., R.N. Weisz, P.F. Ffolliott,
and R.D. Carder. 1980. Planning for forest
roads-A computer-assisted program for
selection of  alternative corridors.  Journal of
Environmental Management. 11:93-104.

A methodology for incorporating economic and
aesthetic criteria within a recreational forest road
corridor selection process is described. Computer
graphics are used to store, analyze, integrate, and
display information needed for corridor decision-
making.  Economic costs are based on an
accounting of the total dollar costs of each
alternative.  Scenic beauty estimates, based on a
systematic public participation process, are used
to quantify aesthetics. Scenic beauty  is used as an
example of how environmental parameters can be
taken into account in the location of a road
corridor. Other considerations, such as potential
sediment production and visibility, could be taken
into consideration in future versions of the
program.

USDA Forest Service. 1992. Investigating Water
Quality in the Pacific Southwest Region, Best
Management Practices Evaluation Program
(BMPEP): A User's Guide. USDA Forest
Service, Region 5, San Francisco, California.

This document is the result of a continuous loop
of on-site evaluations, BMP prescription
development, implementation, monitoring, and
feedback. The monitoring/evaluation program
described in this user's guide provides the
feedback loop to obtain and document
observations of how well BMPs protect water   •
quality and also helps to identify deficiencies and
their causes and necessary corrective actions.
On-site evaluations were made on the following
activities: streamside management zones, skid
trails, suspended yarding, landings, meadow
protection, special erosion control  and
revegetation, timber administration, road surface,
drainage, slopes protection, stream crossings,
servicing and refueling,  in-channel construction
practices, temporary roads,  rip-rap, snow
removal, protection of roads during wet periods,
pioneer road construction, prescribed fire,
revegetation of surface disturbed areas, and
location of stock facilities hi wilderness. In
addition, assistance in accessing the Best
Management Practices Evaluation Program
database (BMP- DB) is provided.

USDA Forest Service. 1987. Soil and water
resource management: A cost or a benefit?
Approaches to watershed economics through
example. 99 pages.

Analysis procedures for estimating the economic
benefits of soil and water resource management
have been developed.  This report  discusses the
procedures and the data and information required
to employ them.  The analysis procedures focus
on the following management areas: timber,
forage, fish, enhanced water quality, and road
                                             99

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 construction and maintenance.  The procedures
 and economics of soil and water management are
 demonstrated in this document with 16 examples.

 Ellefson, P.V., and P.D. Miles. 1985. Protecting
 water quality in the Midwest: Impact on timber
 harvesting costs.  Northern Journal of Applied
 Forestry, 2:57-61.

 Gardner, R.B. 1979. Some environmental and
 economic effects of alternative forest road
 designs. Transactions of American Society
 Agricultural Engineers. 22(l):63-68.

 Haupt, H.F., H.C. Rickard,  and L.E. Finn.
 1963. Effect of severe rainstorms on insloped and
 outsloped roads. USDA Forest Service. Research
 NoteINT-1. 8 pages.

 Hickman, C.A., and B.D. Jackson. 1979.
 Economic impacts of controlling soil loss from
 silvicultural activities in east  Texas.  Forest
 Science. 25(4):627-640.

 Kochenderfer, J.N., and G.W. Wendel. 1980.
 Costs and environmental impacts of harvesting
 timber in Appalachia with a truck-mounted crane.
 USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest
 Experiment Station. Research Paper NE-456. 9
 pages.

 Lickwar, P.M. 1984. Estimating the costs of
 water quality protection on private forest lands in
 the south. Master's Thesis, University of Georgia.

 Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1989.
 Effectiveness of BMP's in controlling nonpoint
 pollution from silvicultural operations. In:
 Proceedings of the Symposium on Headwaters
Hydrology. American Water Resources
 Association, Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 149-157.

Lynch, J.A., W.E. Sopper, E.S. Corbett, and
D.W. Aurand. 1975.  Effects  of management
practices on water quality and quantity: The Penn
State Experimental Watersheds. In: Municipal
 Watershed Management Symposium Proceedings.
USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report
NE-13. pp. 32-46.

Peters, P.A., and J. Luchok (eds). 1984.
Mountain Logging Symposium Proceedings. West
Virginia University, June 5-7, 1984. 372 pages.

USEPA.  1977. Silvicultural activities and
non-point pollution abatement: A cost-effectiveness
analysis procedure. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. EPA 600/8-77-018. 121
pages.
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                                 5. TIMBER HARVEST
IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY

Amaranthus, M.P., R.M. Rice, N.R. Karr, and
R.R. Ziemer. 1985. Logging and forest roads
related to increased debris slides in
southwestern Oregon. Journal of Forestry.
83(4)^29-233.

This article presents data from a study of mass
erosion in the Siskiyou National Forest in
southwestern Oregon.  The effects of forest
activities on soil mass movement frequency and
volumes and information on the conditions at
landslide sights which might aid in the prediction
of future slides was identified. The slide.
frequency during the study period  was one slide
every 4.3 years per 1000 acres. Erosion from
roads was approximately 100 times those on
undisturbed areas,  while erosion from harvested
areas was 7 times that of undisturbed areas.
About 75%  of slides occurred on slopes steeper
than 70%.

Anderson, B., and D.F. Potts. 1987. Suspended
sediment and turbidity following road
construction and logging in western Montana.
Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
23(4):681-690.

Suspended sediment production and turbidity
following forest management activities are well
documented for areas where soils  are highly
erodible or  where  terrain is unstable. Areas with
stable sediments may require less  stringent forest
practice regulations for logging and road
 construction than areas with unstable soils. This
 study investigated the relationships between
 suspended sediment production, turbidity, and
 discharge hi a watershed characterized by stable
 sediments and the changes in these parameters
 associated with logging and road construction.
 Sediment yields increased 7.7-fold in the first
 year following road construction in a
 second-order  drainage and twofold in the second
 year following logging.  Sediment supply
 limitations  resulted in poor correlations between
 sediment concentrations and discharge.  Turbidity
was much better correlated with discharge and
serves as a better indicator of sediment
concentration.

Anderson, H.W. 1971. Relative contributions
of sediment from source areas, and transport
processes. In: Proceedings of the Symposium:
Forest Land Uses and Stream Environment.
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon,
October 19-21,1970.  T. Krygier and J.D.
Hall, (eds.) pp. 55-63.

This paper reports new findings and summarizes
pertinent results from the literature on the
contribution and movement of sediment from
various timber practices.  Multiple methods of
sediment introduction are discussed, and their
relative impacts on streams are quantified. This
is not a case study for one particular watershed or
stream, but a summary of the expected effects of
timber harvest activities on sediment discharge.
Overall, the author provides a general review of
limited data for sediment transport processes.

Askew, G.R., and T.M. Williams. 1984.
Sediment concentrations from intensively
prepared wetland sites.  Southern Journal of
Applied Forestry. 8(3):152-157.

This study was designed to evaluate the drainage
and conversion process used by a major forest
industry and to determine which aspect of the
conversion process, if any, was a primary source
of sediment. Suspended sediment concentrations
were measured in water draining from a
5,900-acre Carolina bay undergoing conversion to
loblolly pine plantations.  Samples were collected
during the first stonnflow event of each month
between January 1981 and December 1982 from
 subwatersheds involved in some of several phases
 of conversion. Suspended sediment concentration
 in water leaving the bay averaged only 16 mg/1
 for  13  storms. Road erosion and ditch installation
 produced the highest suspended sediment
 concentrations.  Suspended sediment
 concentrations decreased substantially with
 increasing distance from the sediment source.
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Logging and site preparation activities did not
cause an appreciable increase in suspended
sediment when equipment did not operate in the
drainage ditches. This study indicates that main
haul roads and new drainage ditches are the
sources of much of the increased suspended
sediments found in drainage from managed forests
in the lower coastal plain.  The authors conclude
that the impact of these activities can be
minimized by using a drainage system that
contains a length of main channel between
sediment sources and sensitive areas.

Aubertin,  G.M., and J.H. Patric. 1972.
Quality water from clearcut forest land.
Northern Logger and Timber Processor,
20(8):14-15,  22-23.

A study was  conducted on adjacent watersheds,
one clearcut using  "common sense" practices to
reduce water quality impacts and the other left
uncut as a control.  Specific conductance and
nutrient concentrations were monitored for the
first year after harvest.  No significant differences
in specific  conductance or nutrient concentrations
were observed between the two watersheds.  The
authors concluded that harvest techniques that
leave stream buffers  (selectively harvested) and
also allow natural revegetation (no herbicide
treatment of remaining vegetation) prevented
significant water quality impacts.

Aubertin, G.M., and J.H. Patric. 1974. Water
quality after clearcutting a small watershed in
West Virginia.  Journal of Environmental
Quality. 3:243-249.

The water quality impacts resulting from
clearcutting a forested watershed are summarized
in this paper.  The authors found that streamflow
increased significantly the first year after harvest,
but returned to near normal levels by the second
year.  Negligible effects were observed on
nutrient concentrations, water temperature, and
pH. The authors attributed the success to careful
road planning and retention of a forest strip along
the stream. This paper provides 10 years of
preharvest data and 3 years of postharvest data, as
well as data from control (forested) watershed.
 Baker, M.B. 1975. Modeling management of
 ponderosa pine forest resources. In:
 Proceedings of the Watershed Management
 Symposium. Logan, Utah, August 11-13,1975.
 American Society of Civil Engineers, Division
 of Irrigation and Drainage, pp. 478-493.

 In response to water use demands, the Forest
 Service initiated a number of watershed
 management studies to evaluate the effects of
 vegetation changes on water yield, soil, forage,
 wildlife, and recreation.  This paper presents
 preliminary estimates of the expected water yields
 from different basal areas.

 Bauer, S.B. 1985.  Evaluation of nonpoint
 source impacts on  water quality from forest
 practices in Idaho:  Relation to  water quality
 standards. In: Perspectives on Nonpoint Source
 Pollution: Proceedings of a National
 Conference. Kansas City, Missouri, May 19-22,
 1985. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency;
 pp. 455-458.

 The results of an interdisciplinary task force
 appointed to determine the impacts of forest
 operations on water quality are presented.
 Twenty-five forestry sites, operated by  state,
 federal, and private ownership, were reviewed.
 Seven of the sites had major impacts on salmonid
 habitat due to direct delivery of sediment from
 skid trails or roads.  The remaining sites had
 impacts prevented by low geologic hazards,
 streams with no protected uses, or good practices.
 Other task force findings are also presented in the
 paper.

 Beasley, R.S., and A.B.  Granillo. 1988.
 Sediment and water yields from managed
 forests on flat coastal plain sites. Water
 Resources Bulletin. 24(2):361-366.

 Sediment losses and water yields were measured
 for 5 years on nine forested watersheds in the
 Gulf Coastal Plain of Arkansas.  Treatment
 watersheds included clearcut, selective cut, and
 controls.  Sediment  loss and water yields were
similar for the selective and control watersheds
during all years.  Clearcut resulted in significantly
higher sediment losses and water yields compared
                                              102

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to the other watersheds.  The authors present
several tables and figures that demonstrate that the
relatively low sediment losses observed in this
study were attributable to the flat terrain and the
relatively low flow discharge rates that typify
these sites.

Beschta, R.L. 1978. Long-term patterns of
sediment production following road
construction and logging in the Oregon Coast
Range.  Water Resources Research.
This paper presents an analysis of post-harvest
sediment data collected hi the Alsea watershed in
Oregon. Three experimental watersheds were
used, near complete clearcut, 25% patchcut, and
control. Suspended sediment after road
construction, logging, and slash disposal was
significantly increased on the two treatment
watersheds. The erosional losses were greater
during 3 of 8 post-treatment years in the 25%
patchcut watershed, with most loss attributed to
roads.  Surface erosion from a severe slash bum,
was the primary cause of increased sediment
yields for 5 posttreatment years on the  clearcut
watershed.

Bethlahmy, N. 1967. Effect of exposure and
logging on runoff and erosion.  USD A Forest
Service, Intel-mountain  Forest  and Range
Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah. Research -
NoteINT-61.

A study was conducted to investigate the effects
of logging and differences  in exposure on runoff
and erosion under high- intensity simulated
 rainfall.  The author reported erosion to be
 directly related to runoff, and plots with a
 southwest exposure yielded more runoff than plots
 with a  northeast exposure.  The difference in
 erosion by exposure was due to  the reduced
 number of trees found on the slopes with
 southwest exposure.

 Bilby,  R.E., and P.A. Bisson.  1992.
 Allochthonous versus autochthonous organic
 matter contributions to the trophic support of
 fish populations in clear-cut and old-growth
 forested  streams.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries
and Aquatic Science. 49(3):540-551.

Annual organic matter inputs and production of
stocked coho salmon, coastal cutthroat, and
shorthead sculpin from spring to autumn was
monitored for 2 years in two headwater tributaries
of the Deschutes River, Washington. One site
was bordered by old- growth coniferous forest
and the other an area clearcut without buffer
strips 7 years before. Although organic inputs
were nearly twice as high hi the old-growth
stream, the clearcut stream experienced greater
fish production.  The differences hi fish
production were most prevalent during early
summer. The authors hypothesized that fish
populations depended on food derived from
autotrophic pathways during spring and summer
in the presence or absence of forest canopy.

Blackburn, W.H., R.W. Knight, J.C. Wood,
and H.A. Pearson.  1990. Stormflow and
sediment loss from  intensively managed forest
watersheds in east Texas.  Water Resources
Bulletin. 26(3):465- 477.

Several small  watersheds in East Texas were
instrumented to determine the effect of forest
harvesting, mechanical site preparation, and
livestock grazing on Stormflow, peak discharge
rate,  and sediment loss and the results were
compared with pre-  treatment levels.  The
treatments included clearcutting followed by roller
chopping; clearcutting followed by  shearing and
windrowing; clearcutting followed by shearing,
windrowing, and continuous grazing; and
clearcutting followed by shearing, windrowing,
and rotational grazing.  The data indicated
significantly greater Stormflow, peak discharge
rate,  and sediment from clearcut harvesting and
 site preparation compared to undisturbed
 watersheds.  Among the treatments, the sheared/
 windrowed watersheds generally yielded the
 greatest Stormflow and peak discharge rate,
 followed by the chopped watershed. This paper
 presents a significant amount of data on water
 quality impacts of timber harvest and site
 preparation activities.
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Blackburn, W.H., and J.C. Wood. 1990.
Nutrient export in stormflow following forest
harvesting and site-preparation in east Texas.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 19:402-408.

A watershed study was conducted to determine
the effects on stormflow water quality from the
following practices: (1) clearcutting, shearing,
windrowing, and burning; (2) clearcutting, roller
chopping, and burning; and (3) undisturbed
control. The clearcut treatments had higher
nutrient concentrations the first year following
harvest and site preparation.  During the second
and third years, .only the clearcut (shearing)
treatment resulted in higher nutrient
concentrations than the control.  After 5 years, no
significant difference in nutrient  concentrations,
except potassium, were observed among any
treatment.  Although the nutrient concentrations
observed in this study were small, shearing and
windrowing had the greatest impact on nutrient
export. Roller chopping had a minimal impact on
stormflow nutrient concentrations.  The results of
this study indicate the reduction hi water quality
impacts that can be derived from different
management practices.

Blackmon, B.G. (ed). 1985.  Forestry and water
quality: A mid- south symposium. Little Rock,
Arkansas, May 8-9, 1985. Arkansas
Cooperative Extension Service, University of
Arkansas.

This document contains papers from a symposium
on forestry and water quality. Topics addressed
in the symposium include  historical perspectives
on forestry and water quality, legislative trends,
physical and chemical elements of forest
hydrology, education programs,  and results of
original research. Because of the importance of
forest road construction in reducing forestry-
related  water quality problems, a section is also
included on the hydrology of forest roads. The
symposium proceedings contain nearly  20
individual papers addressing these topics.

Bormann, F.H., G.E. Likens, T.G. Siccama,
R.S. Pierce, and J.S. Eaton. 1974. The export
of nutrients and recovery of stable condition
following deforestation at Hubbard Brook.
Ecological Monographs. 44(3):255-277.

The effects of deforestation on the export of
organic and inorganic paniculate matter,
credibility, and the importance of dissolved
substances in exported materials are presented in
this paper.  At the Hubbard Brook Experimental
Forest, a forested watershed was clearcut and left
in place. For the next 3 years, vegetative
regeneration was controlled via the use of
herbicides. Large increases (IS tunes) in
paniculate matter export were observed in the
clearcut watershed, although little difference was
observed the first 2 years and a dramatic
difference was observed during the third year.  In
addition, the average ratio of export of dissolved
substances to paniculate matter was 2.3 for
undisturbed and > 8.0 during the first two years
for clearcut. This paper provides significant
amounts of data comparing deforested and
undisturbed forested watersheds over several
years.  The temporal changes in water quality due
to changes  in vegetative cover provides significant
evidence of the impacts of deforestation on water
quality.

Bormann,  F.H.,  G.E, Likens, D.W. Fisher,
and R.S. Pierce. 1968.  Nutrient loss accelerated
by clear cutting of a forest ecosystem. Science.
159:882-884.

The effect of forest clearcut on nutrient loss was
examined.  The nutrient concentration in runoff
water was compared to concentrations observed in
an undisturbed forested watershed. Data from the
study indicated significantly higher nutrient losses
from the clearcut watershed. The results of this
study suggest the following about nutrient
depletion due to clearcut: reduced transpiration
and increased runoff lead to greater export;
reducing root surfaces reduces uptake and
storage, removal of nutrients in forest products,
and increased mineralization of exposed soils.
This paper provides good data for comparison to
other similar studies conducted within the
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest.
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Brown, G.W. 1972. Logging arid water quality
in the Pacific Northwest. In: Watersheds in
Transition Symposium Proceedings. Urbana,
Illinois. American Water Resources
Association, pp. 330- 334.

This paper summarizes the research findings
describing the impact of logging and road
construction on water quality hi the Pacific
Northwest. The review of logging and road
construction impacts includes information on
sediment, nutrients, water temperature, and
dissolved oxygen.  In addition, the problems
associated with implementation and enforcement
of Oregon's water quality standards on small
headwater streams are described. The water
quality standards are based on deviation from
normal levels, which are difficult to determine for
small streams with highly variable conditions.
The authors suggest controlling the impact of
forestry activities on water quality through
standardization of practices.

Brown, G.W. 1970. Predicting the effect of
clear-cutting on stream temperature.  Journal of
Soil and  Water Conservation.  25:11-13.

This paper presents a methodology for predicting
the effects of clearcutting on stream water
temperature.  The author states that predicting the
effects could be done by estimating maximum
daily changes, rather than hourly changes which
would require experience in micirometeorology
* and additional equipment.  This paper presents a
simple model for estimating the daily maximum
changes assuming the following: the stream
surface is uniformly exposed to direct sunlight,
direct solar radiation dominates the net heat gain
 in small streams, maximum temperature will
 occur during midday hours on  a clear day, and
 predicted solar input can be used to estimate heat
 input. Model equations are also presented in this
 paper. Much of the background to this work was
 published in Brown 1969 and Brown and Kryger
 1970.

 Brown, G.W., A.R. Gahler,  and R.B.
 Mars ton. 1973. Nutrient losses after clear-cut
 logging and slash burning in  the Oregon Coast
 Range.   Water Resources Research.
9:1450-1452.

The impact of two patterns of clearcut logging on
the nutrient losses from two Oregon watersheds
was studied.  With the exception of nitrate-
nitrogen, no nutrient concentrations,increased
after clearcut. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations
significantly increased after clearcut logging and
slash burning. No significant changes in nitrate
concentrations were observed after patch-cut
logging. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations returned
to prelogging levels within 6 years of harvest.

Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1971.
Clear-cut logging and sediment production  in
the Oregon coast range.  Water Resources
Research. 7(5):1189-1198.

The impact of road construction, two patterns of
clear-cut logging, and controlled slash burning on
the suspended sediment yield and concentration
from three small watersheds was studied for 11
years.  Sediment production was doubled after
road construction but before logging hi one
watershed and was tripled after burning and
clearcutting of another watershed.  Felling and
yarding did  not produce statistically significant
changes in sediment concentration.  Variation in
the relation between sediment concentration and
water discharge on small undisturbed streams was
large.  Conclusions about the significance of all
but very large changes in sediment concentrations
are limited because of annual variation for a given
watershed, variation between watersheds, and -
variation with stage at a given point. Tables
present sediment  concentrations in the two altered
watersheds and one control watershed for the
duration of the study.  ,

Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1970. Effects
of clearcutting on stream temperature.  Water
Resources Research. 6(4):1133-1140.

This study examined the effects of three forest
management practices: fully clearcut, patch-cut
with buffer  strips, and unlogged on stream
temperatures. Significant increases in stream
temperature were observed in the clearcut
watershed.  The patch- cut watershed, which had
buffer strips along the stream, did not have
                                               105

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 significantly greater water temperatures than the
 unlogged watershed.  The results presented in this
 paper have been duplicated by many studies
 conducted since.  Evidence suggests that leaving
 streamside buffers strips alleviates much of the
 temperature increase associated with timber
 harvest. Stream production impacts were not
 assessed in this study.

 Burns, R.G., and J.D. Hewlett. 1983. A
 decision model to predict sediment yield from
 forest practices.   Water Resources Bulletin.
The authors propose a sediment hazard index
based on the amount of exposed mineral soil and
its proximity to streams as a means to choose
among BMPs.  Forest managers need to predict
sediment yield to perennial streams following
forestland operations, but the universal soil loss
equation (USLE) is not directly applicable to
forest operations because of the heterogeneous
soil surface conditions left by harvesting, site
preparation, and planting. The model described
includes rainfall erosivity, soil credibility and
average land slope, together with die sediment
hazard index (W).  A paired watershed
experiment in the central Georgia Piedmont was
used to estimate parameters in the model.  The
80-acre experimental basin was clearcut, drum
roller chopped twice, and machine planted. The
standard error of estimate of sediment yield was
computed to be about 50 Ib/ac per 4-month
sampling period.  Use of William's erosivity
index (storm flow times peak flow)  reduced the
standard error to 33 Ib/ac.  A graph of sediment
delivery versus sediment hazard index is
provided, and die index can be used to design and
evaluate forest operations  in advance.  The
authors note that application of the method
presumes the use of streamside management zones
and sensible reading standards.

Campbell, I.C., and TJ. Doeg. 1989. Impact
of timber harvesting and production on
streams: A review.  Australian Journal of
Marine and Freshwater Research. 40(5):519-539.

The various stream impacts associated with timber
harvest activities are reviewed in tiiis paper.
 More than 100 references describing effects on
 stream flow, water quality (sediment, nutrients,
 dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, organic
 matter, light availability, and temperature), and
 stream biota are presented.  Other activities not
 directly part of timber harvest, such as pesticides,
 fertilizers, and fire and fire management, are also
 reviewed.  From the review, die authors
 concluded that the major impacts of forestry
 operations on stream biota occur through sediment
 and debris deposition and alteration of riparian
 vegetation.

 Chatwin, S.C., D.E. Howes, J.W. Schwab, and
 D.N. Swanston. 1991. A guide for management
 of landslide-prone terrain in the Pacific
 Northwest. British Columbia Ministry of
 Forests. Land Management Handbook No. 18.
 212 pages.

 This guide was prepared for personnel operating
 in areas with existing or potential land stability
 problems.  The document was developed for use
 in the Pacific Northwest; however, the principles
 presented may be applicable to other areas.  Four
 topics are addressed: slope movement processes,
 recognition of landslide-prone areas, measures to .
 manage unstable terrain during forestry activities
 (especially road  construction and timber harvest),
 and road deactivation and revegetation on unstable
 terrain. Detailed definitions and techniques for
 determining potential instability and methods for
 preventing landslides from forestry roads are
 included.

 Corbett, E.S., J.A. Lynch, and W.E.  Sopper.
 1978. Timber harvesting practices and water
 quality in the eastern United States. Journal of
 Forestry. 76(8):484-488.

Descriptions of the nature and extent of changes
to water quality from forest harvesting practices
are provided.  Data from several forested
watersheds in the eastern United States are
included to provide examples of water quality
impacts of forestry operations* especially
clearcutting.  Topics discussed and their
implications include nutrient concentrations,
stream water temperature, stream turbidity and
sedimentation, and the use of buffer strips.
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Cornish, P.M., and D. Binns. 1987.
Streamwater quality following logging and
wildfire in a dry sclerophyll forest in
southeastern Australia.  Forest Ecology and
Management. 22:1-28.

A study was conducted to compare the cationic
composition of Streamwater draining two forested
watersheds hi southeast Australia. The cationic
concentrations decreased for the first several years
from small subcatchments subjected to logging
and wildfire, but became greater  than prelogging
and wildfire levels after 34 years.  The authors
suggest that hydrologic changes resulting from a
protracted drought and logging/wildfire may have
influenced  cationic concentrations.  Streamwater
turbidity also increased in the logging/wildfire-
treated subcatchment.

Cromack, K., Jr., F.J. Swanson, and C.C.
Grier. 1978. A comparison of harvesting
methods and their impact on soils and
environment in the Pacific Northwest. In:
Forest Soils and Land Use, Proceedings of the
Fifth North American Forest Soils Conference.
Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
Colorado.  C.T.  Youngberg (ed.). pp. 449-478.

The effects of various harvesting methods on soils
and the environment in the Pacific Northwest are
reviewed in this paper. Topics reviewed include
effects on subsequent vegetation, effects on
nutrient losses, effects of fertilization, effects  on
soil integrity and  erosion, nutrient restitution
following harvesting,  and effects on streams.  An
example of the effects is presented as a case of
study in the Cascade Range of Oregon.  Nearly
70 references are cited in the review.

DeBano, L.F. 1977. Influences of forest
 practices on water yield, channel stability,
 erosion, and sedimentation in the Southwest.
 In:  Proceedings of the Society of American
 Foresters, pp. 74-78.

 This paper presents information  on the climate
 and hydrologically important vegetation types in
 the Southwest, the basin hydrologic processes
 affecting water yield and erosion, and the effect
 of cover manipulations, such as  timber harvesting.
Results are presented suggesting that water yield
is not significantly improved by tree harvest
unless small clearings or strips are created.  In
addition, clearing of trees increases the amount of
erosion if storms of high intensity occur.  The
authors also recommend leaving dead and dying
trees along the stream channel to control erosion
into streams.            •

DeHaft, D.B. 1982. The effects of timber
harvesting on erosion and sedimentation in New
Hampshire. 36 pages. New Hampshire Division
of Forests and Lands,  Department of Resources
and Economic Development.

The results of a survey  of the impacts of forest
harvest practices on soil loss and water quality are
presented in this document. Overall,
commercially clearcut sites had higher erosion
rates and greater water  quality impacts than sites
harvested by other methods.  A glossary of
forestry terms and an explanation of various
forestry best management practices are also
 included in the document.

 DeHaven, M.G., W.H. Blackburn,  R.W.
 Knight, and  A.T. Weichert. 1984. The impact
 of harvesting and site preparation on stormflow
 and water quality in east Texas. Report TR-130.
 Texas Water Resources Institute, Texas A&M
 University. 147 pages.

 Nine small watersheds  in east Texas were used to
 determine the water quality effects of timber
 harvest and site preparation operations. The 3
 treatments included clearcutting followed by
 shearing and windrowing, clearcutting followed
 by roller chopping, and undisturbed control.  The
 roller chopped treatment exposed  16% of the soil
 and the shearing and windrowing exposed 57% of
 the soil.  Higher stormflow and sediment loss was
 observed during the first three years
 post-treatment, although the differences decreased
 after the first year.  During the second year,
 exposed decreased to 20 and 4% on sheared and
 chopped watersheds, respectively.  Nutrient
 concentrations were also highest from the sheared
 treatment.  The authors concluded that temporary
- increases itt nutrient, sediment, and stormflow
 would occur on sheared and chopped watersheds,
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although greater losses would occur from sheared
due to increased duration of soil exposure.  Roller
chopping appeared to cause minor changes
compared to shearing and windrowing.

Douglass, J.E., and W.T. Swank. 1975. Effects
of management practices on water quality and
quantity: Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory,
North Carolina. In: Municipal Watershed
Management Symposium Proceedings. USDA
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station. General Technical Report NE-13. pp.
1-13.

A summary of 40 years of water quality and
quantity data collected  at the Coweeta Hydrologic
Laboratory is provided. Descriptions of the
effects of various timber treatments, including
harvest and conversion, on water yield and water
quality are presented.  Models for predicting
changes in water yields based on basal areas
remaining are also presented.  This paper
provides information on the effects of timber
harvest practices in the southeastern United States
from a continuously monitored watershed.

Dyrness, C.T., and C.T. Youngberg. 1957. The
effect of logging and slash burning on soil
structure.  Soil Science Society of America
Proceedings. 21(4):444-447.

The  effects of logging  and slash burning on soil
structure were investigated in soils in the Coast
Range of western Oregon.  Soil samples were
collected from clearcut and undisturbed forested
areas.  The soil surface after logging and slash
burning were as follows: lightly burned (45%),
severely burned (8%),  unburned (30%), and
undisturbed (17%). Severe burning was the only
treatment that had a significant effect on the soil
structure. The authors concluded that because
logging and slash burning resulted in only 8%
severely burned area, high-lead logging and slash
burning in the fall after rainfall would have no
significant detrimental  effect on soil structure.

Eschner, A.R., and J. Larmoyeaux. 1963.
Logging and trout: Four experimental forest
practices and their effect on water quality.
Progress in Fish Culture. 25:59-67.
Studies were done to determine how four different
timber harvesting practices affect water quality
and streamflow.  The four practices investigated
were a commercial clearcut,  a diameter limit (all
trees over 17 in dbh), extensive selection (selected
trees over 11 hi dbh), and intensive selection
(selected trees over 5 hi dbh).  Five contiguous,
forested watersheds in the Fernow Experimental
Forest west of the Allegheny Front in West
Virginia served as study sites.  Streamflow,
precipitation, and water quality were  studied on
the watersheds for 6 years prior to four of the
five watersheds being logged. Prediction
equations were formulated from the data obtained.
Stream discharge was increased by the treatments,
low flow was significantly augmented, and water
quality was damaged. Growth on remaining trees
and new  cover appeared immediately following
the treatments, and improvements in water quality
and a return to normal flow occurred. Tables
detailing the treatments and their effects on the
four logged watersheds, corresponding to the four
practices studied, are included.

Feller, M.C. 1981. Effects of clearcutting and
slash  burning on stream temperature in
southwestern British Columbia.  Water
Resources Bulletin. 17(5):863-866.

Two watersheds  were studied for the  effect of
logging practices on summer and winter water
temperatures.  One of the watersheds was clearcut
and then planted, and the other was clearcut, slash
burned, and then planted.Tables of watershed
characteristics and duration of temperature effects
are included. Both practices were found to
increase stream temperature,  but slash burning
increased the temperature effect beyond that of
clearcutting alone. This is attributed  to burning
the slash that remains at streamside after
clearcutting.  Clearcutting was found  to increase
minimum and maximum winter stream
temperatures during the second winter following
the cutting.  Slash burning decreased  minimum
and maximum winter stream  temperatures in the
first winter following the burning. The effect on
stream temperature of clearcutting and slash
burning lasted longer (>7 years) than that of
clearcutting alone.
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Ferguson, R.I., and T.A. Stott. 1987. Forestry
effects on suspended sediment and bedload
yields in the Balquhidder catchments, Central
Scotland. Earth Sciences, Transactions of the
Royal Society of Edinburgh. 78:379-384.

Outputs of suspended sediment and bedload from
the 7.7-km2 moorland Monachyle basin and the
6.8-km2, 40%-forested Kirkton basin near
Balquhidder and inputs from tributary streams and
mainstream bank erosion are compared.
Sediment yield is about three times higher in the
forested basin and varies more sensitively with
streamflow, suggesting greater availability of
erodible sediments The output is predominantly
suspended sediment and is derived mainly from
tributary streams.  Initial observations following
partial moorland plowing and forest clearcutting
in 1986 indicate mat erosion 6f timber loading
areas and logging roads is the main sediment
source.

Foggin, G.T., HI, and L.K. Fancier. 1974.
 Cation concentrations in small streams draining
match forested and clearcut watersheds in
 western Montana. Montana State University,
Joint Water Resources Research Center,
 Bozeman, Montana. Res. Report 58. 54 pages.

 The impacts of clearcutting practices on the
 nutrient output of forested ecosystems and the
 effect on stream water quality are examined in
 this study.  Fifteen clearcut basins in western
 Montana were selected and their morphometric
 characteristics determined.  Water samples from
 these watersheds were analyzed for nutrients and
 other water quality parameters.  It was determined
 that the clearcut basin produced higher dissolved
 nutrient loads, as well as increased flow.

 Fowler, W.B., T.D. Anderson, and J.D.
 Helvey. 1988. Changes in water quality and
 climate after forest harvest in central
 Washington State. USDA Forest Service,  Pacific
 Northwest Research Station. Research Paper
 PNW-RP-388. 12 pages.

 This report presents a case history of the changes
 in streamflow quality and temperature as affected
 by timber harvest activities. During three
pretreatment and posttreatment years, only
calcium and sodium concentrations increased
compared to the control.  Mean maximum air
temperatures increased during the posttreatment
period, but stream temperatures were relatively
unaffected.  There was no mention of whether
riparian buffer strips were maintained during
harvest although stream temperatures typically
increase when streamside vegetation is removed.

Fraley, J., T. Weaver, and J. Vashro. 1989.
Cumulative effects of human activities on bull
trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Upper
Flathead Drainage, Montana. In: Proceedings
of the Symposium on Headwaters Hydrology.
American Water Resources Association,
Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 111-120.

The potential cumulative effects of land
management practices, such as timber harvest and
road building in the Flathead Lake watershed, on
the population of the bull trout are summarized.
The authors provide evidence from other
 monitoring studies that suggests that the
 deposition of fine sediments from streamside
 disturbances and forest road construction activities
 have adversely affected  and could continue to
 adversely affect the bull trout. Based on
 information summarized in this paper, the authors
 called for amendments of current management
 standards, including riparian guidelines and
 increased implementation of best management
 practices to reduce sediment delivery.

 Frear, S.T. 1982. Timber harvesting and water
 quality in the Bull Run Municipal Watershed.
 In: Forestry Research West. USDA Forest
 Service, pp. 4-8.

 Timber harvesting and its effects on the Bull Run
 Municipal Watershed are discussed. The
 watershed contains significant silvicultural activity
 and also serves as a large source of drinking
 water for the region. The interaction between the
 two amenities was studied. The study included
 three watersheds: one was a control, and two
 were used for various timber management
 practices including road construction, timber
 harvest, and site preparation. The  author
 concludes that timber harvest activities in this
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 watershed do not cause appreciable degradation in
 water quality.

 Fredriksen, R.L. 1971. Comparative chemical
 water quality-Natural and disturbed streams
 following logging and slash burning. In:
 Proceedings of a Symposium: Forest Land Uses
 and Stream Environment. Oregon State
 University, October 19-21,1970.  J.T. Krygier
 and J.D. Hall (eds.). OSU, Corvallis, Oregon.
 pp. 125- 137.

 The loss of nutrients from an old growth Douglas
 fir forest was measured in streams following
 timber harvest and slash burning.  Nutrient cation
 losses increased 1.6 to 3.0 times the loss of the .
 undisturbed watershed. The surge of nutrients
 following slash burning contained ammonia and
 manganese concentrations greater than  federal
 water quality standards for 12 days after burning.
 The authors conclude that nitrogen losses can be
 minimized by avoiding slash burning when
 possible. This paper presents many figures and
 tables with the data from the study.

 Glasser, S.P. 1989. Summary of water quality
 effects from forest practices in the South. USDA
 Forest Service Southern Region, Atlanta,
 Georgia. 50 pages.

 The results of watershed  studies within 13 Forest
 Service Southern Region states are summarized
 for the reported effects of common forestry
 practices on water quality.  The results indicate
 that sediment yields from poorly conducted
 logging and road  construction activities can be
 100 times higher than those from undisturbed
 forests for brief periods although recovery to pre-
 disturbance levels occurs within 3 years.  Various
 BMPs were reported to minimize water quality
 impacts. Monitoring of nutrient and herbicide
 concentrations in stream water indicate little threat
 from forestry activities. This document is a good
 condensation of the results of forestry water
 quality studies conducted  from the 1960s to the
 1980s.

 Golden,  M.S., C.L. Tuttle, J.S. Kush, and
J.M. Bradley, 1984. Forestry activities and
 water quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
 practices, and an erosion-classified system.
 Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
 Station. Bulletin 555.                        '

 The report was prepared primarily as a source of
 information on the relationship between forestry
 practices and water quality, with orientation
 toward forestry practices prevalent in Alabama.
 Information on stream pollutants such as
 sediment,  nutrients, pesticides, organic material,
 waste and litter, and temperature is provided.
 The review includes over 160 directly cited
 documents on these subjects.  Also included in the
 report are recommendations of principles and
 practices designed to minimize the water quality
 impacts  from Alabama forestry practices.

 Grant, G. 1988.  The RAPID technique: A new
 method for evaluating downstream effects of
 forest practices on riparian zones. USDA Forest
 Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
 Experiment Station. General Technical Report
 PNW-220.

 The RAPID (riparian aerial photographic
 inventory of disturbance) technique is a method
 for using measurements made on aerial
 photographs of patterns of riparian canopy
 disturbance to evaluate changes in channel
 conditions through time and to link such changes
 with their possible upstream causes.  The RAPID
 technique provides resource specialists and
 managers with a relatively quick way of
 identifying stream reaches that are chronically or
 recently disturbed by a variety of channel
 processes,  including increased peak flows and
 sedimentation from point and nonpoint sources.
 With examples from western Oregon, this paper
 describes how to apply the RAPID technique and
 analyze the results to evaluate downstream or
 cumulative effects  of forest practices.

 Gray,  J.R.A., and J.M. Edington. 1969* Effect
 of woodland clearance on stream temperature.
Journal of the Fisheries  Research Board of
 Canada.  26:399-403.

This paper  presents the results of a study
quantifying the differences in stream temperature
after clearance of the adjacent woods. The
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authors observed significantly greater water
temperatures in the cleared areas than in
undisturbed areas.  The temperatures in the
forested stream were also compared to
temperatures in stream flowing through an open
farm to demonstrate the cooling affect of forests.

Gurtz, M.E., and J.B. Wallace. 1984.
Substrate-mediated response of stream
invertebrates  to disturbance. Ecology.
65(5):1556-1569.

The response of aquatic invertebrates to
clearcutting was examined in a second order
stream in the southern Appalachian mountains.
For 21 months after clearcut, invertebrates were
sampled  in the following substrates: rock face,  .
cobble riffles, pebble riffles, and sand.  In the
clearcut watershed, more taxa increased in rock
substrate, followed by cobble riffles, pebble
riffles, and sand.  The most significant reductions
in taxa was observed  in sand substrate.  The
authors noted, based on differences among
function  groups of insects, that biological stability
was closely linked with physical stability.

Hansmann, E.W., and H.K. Phinney. 1973.
Effects of logging on periphyton in coastal
streams  of Oregon.  Ecology* 54:194-199.

Prelogging and postlogging oxygen levels,
temperature, and .sedimentation loads were
analyzed in a study of small watersheds in
Oregon.   Clearcut logging was applied to one
watershed of 71 hectares, while  a second
watershed was patch-cut leaving a buffer-strip of
vegetation along the stream channel. A third
watershed remained  as a control. The study
showed that a close relationship  exists between
watershed practices and floral characteristics of
the drainage system  and that stream characteristics
 can maintain themselves if adequate protection is
given to stream vegetation.

Harr, R.D., and R.L. Fredriksen. 1988. Water
 quality after logging small watersheds within
 the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon. Water
 Resources Bulletin. 24(5):1103-1111.

 The water quality impacts from  clearcut practices
and slash burning are presented.  Logging
significantly increased nitrate- nitrogen levels for
up to 7 years after harvest; smaller increases were
observed after slash burning.  Suspended sediment
also had a small increase attributed to construction
of a permanent road that crossed streams.  Annual
stream temperatures increased 2-3 °C after
logging but returned to pretreatment levels after 3
years.  This watershed study presents significant
data on the effects of forest harvest and slash
burning on water quality.

Harr, R.D., A. Levno, and  R.  Mersereau.
1982. Streamflow changes after logging
130-year old Douglas fir in two small
watersheds.  Water Resources Research.
18(3):637-644.

This report summarizes a case history of changes
in streamflow observed after  harvesting  in two
small experimental watersheds in western Oregon.
Harvest in the watersheds containing  130-year old
timber increased annual water yield up to 42 cm.
For 4 years after logging, yield increases
averaged 38 cm and 20 cm in the clearcut and
shelterwood harvested watersheds, respectively.
The increased summer flows  were indicated by
much fewer low-flow days after  logging,
particularly in the clearcut watershed. Neither the
size or the timing of peak flows  changed
significantly after logging at either watershed.

Hart man, G., J.C. Scrivener, L.B. Holtby, and
L. Powell. 1987. Some effects of different
streamside treatments on physical conditions
and fish population processes in Carnation
Creek, a coastal rain forest stream in British
Columbia. In: Streamside Management:  Forestry
and Fishery Interactions. E.O. Salo and T.W.
Cundy (eds). University of Washington, College
of Forest Resources, Seattle, Washington, pp.
330-372.

Carnation Creek has been studied continuously   ,
since 1971.  During this time 41% of the
watershed was logged.  Three different  streamside
treatments conducted in the alluvial fioodplain
portion were evaluated: (1) an intensive treatment
of clearcutting, felling of streambank alder, and
 yarding of felled trees and merchantable timber;
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(2) a careful treatment of clearcutting to the
margin of the stream and felling of streambank
alder, with no in-channel activity; and (3) a leave
strip treatment in which a variable width strip of
vegetation was left along the stream.  Stream
temperature increased due to logging.  The
decrease in volume and stability of large debris
was accompanied by streambank erosion and
straightening of the channel. This in turn caused
a change in gravel quality in the lower sections of
the stream.  Coho and chum salmon egg-to-fry
survival was lower following the first major storm
following logging. Trout smolt numbers
decreased, but coho smolts  increased by 76%
between  1976 and 1983.  Afterward they
decreased to prelogging levels.

Hatchell, G.E., C.W. Ralston, and R.R. Foil.
1970. Soil disturbance in logging: Effects on
soil characteristics and growth of loblolly pine
in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Journal of
Forestry. 68:772-775.

The effect of compaction on wet and dry southern
coastal soils was researched.  The density of soils
before and after tractor crossing, the rate of soil
recovery, and the effect of dense soils on seedling
growth were determined. Greatest soil
disturbance occurred during wet weather on sites
with medium- to fine-textured soils. The damage
that results from traversing wet sites can cause
conditions detrimental to tree growth.  The
authors recommend not traversing wet soils and
not traversing dry soils more than once or twice.

Heede, B.H. 1987. Overland flow and sediment
delivery five years after timber harvest in a
mixed conifer forest, Arizona.  Journal of
Hydrology. 91:205-216.

An erosion study outlining the effects of timber
harvesting and subsequent sediment transport is
presented.  The area of study is located in the
White Mountains of eastern Arizona, with mixed
conifer as the predominant vegetation type.
Following statistical analysis, it was determined
that sediment delivery from the disturbed forest
floor did not differ significantly from that of an
undisturbed floor. This paper presents
information on the numerous factors that
influence sediment movement within a watershed.

Heede, B.H. 1991. Response of a stream in
disequilibrium to timber harvest.
Environmental Management. 15(2)^51-255.

The influence of timber harvest on streamflow
was demonstrated in this study. Increases in flow
were observed during and after harvest, resulting
in increases in erosion from the site. Data are
presented from samples collected preharvest,
during harvest, and postharvest.

Heifetz, J., M.L. Murphy,  and K.V. Koski.
1986. Effects of logging on  winter habitat of
juvenile salmonids in Alaskan streams.  North
American Journal of Fisheries Management.
6:52- 58.

This study was conducted in southeastern Alaska
to determine the effects of logging on winter
habitat of juvenile salmonids. The types of
streams studied were located in the following
areas: undisturbed old-growth forest, clearcut
with riparian buffer strips, and clearcut logged
along at least one bank.  The authors found that
most fish species resided in pools, and riffles and
glides were avoided. The types of pools utilized
varied widely during the study. Also, the amount
of woody debris, which caused over 70% of the
pools, was significantly greater in occupied  pools.
Several tables of data quantifying salmonid
numbers for each stream type and pool type are
included.

Hetherington, E.D. 1976. Dennis Creek: A look
at water quality following logging in the
Okanagan Basin. Rac. For. Res.  Cen., Canada
Forest Service. Information Report BX-X-147.
33  pages.

The impact of clearcutting activities (25% of the
watershed)  in the Dennis Creek watershed in
British Columbia on water quality was monitored
during the second year after  clearcut.  The
monitoring data indicated negligible impacts on
water quality parameters, with only slight
increases in potassium, sodium chloride, electrical
conductivity, total organic  carbon, and dissolved
solids observed. Sediment concentrations
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increased, but remained at very low levels.
Because the monitoring was relatively short-term,
the author concluded that increasing the
percentage of watershed cut-over would result in
increased degradation of water quality.

Hewlett, J.D. 1978. Forest wafer quality: An
experiment in harvesting and regenerating a
Piedmont forest. School of Forest Resources,
University of Georgia. 22 pag<3.

Two streams in Putnam County, Georgia, were
selected to determine the effects that harvesting
and regeneration have on water quality and flow
in order to determine appropriate BMPs.
Periodic samples were taken  and flow recorded.
The study indicated that 90% of the undesirable
mass export of sediment resulted from poor
access roads and streamside management.

Hewlett, J.D.,  and J.D. Helvey. 1970. Effects
 of forest clear- felling on the storm
 hydrograph.  Water Resources Research. 6:
 768-782.

 The effects of forest clearcut on the storm
 hydrograph and whether clearcut increases the
 size and frequency of floods was examined.  After
 clearcut, stormflow volume was increased by 11 %
 over pre-clearcut volumes. Peak discharge also
 increased after  felling, although not as much as
 the stormflow volume. This paper substantiates
 many hypotheses regarding increased floodwater
 potential after clearcut of forested watersheds.
 Significant amounts of data are presented,  and
 correlation coefficients relating variables to
 treatment effects are provided.

 Hicks,  B.J., R.L. Beschta, and R.D. Hair.
 1991. Long-term changes in streamflow
 following logging in western Oregon  and
 associated fisheries implications.  Water
 Resources Bulletin. 27(2):217-226.

 The long-term effects of logging on low summer
  streamflow was investigated using data collected
  from 1953-1988. Three watersheds in western
  Oregon were clearcut and burned, unlogged, and.
  25% patch cut and burned.   Monitoring occurred
  for 9-10 years pre-logging arid 21-25  years
post-logging and burning.  August streamflows,
which were the lowest of any month, increased by
159% after clearcutting watershed 1 but the
effects lasted for only eight years.  August
streamflow increased by 59% in watershed three
after 25% patch cut and burning.  This paper
presents important data on the changes in water
yield during periods of summer low flow
conditions.  Some evidence was presented which
suggests that conifer species in the riparian zone
maintain summer water yields better than
hardwoods.                       ,

Holtby, L.B. 1988. Effects of logging on stream
temperatures in Carnation Creek, B.C.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences. 45:502-515.

The objectives of this study were to quantify the
effects of clearcut logging on stream temperatures
 in Carnation Creek and to quantify the effects of
the logging-related component of those
temperature changes  on the coho salmon
 population.  Forty-one percent of the basin of the
 creek was clearcut, increasing stream
 temperatures in all months of the year. As  a
 result, coho salmon emerged earlier and increased
 the length of their summer growing season by up
 to 6 weeks.  Over-winter survival improved as a
 result of increased growth by the fall. Warmer
 spring temperatures were also associated with
 earlier seaward migration of smblts, probably
 resulting in decreased smolt-to-adult survivals.
 For  this  analysis, the author used a linked series
 of models to predict the effects of logging on
 stream temperatures and then the effects of those
 temperatures on critical coho life history events.
 A life history model was used to quantify the
 effects of stream temperature changes related to
 logging on the population size of adult coho
 salmon.  The author concludes: (1) habitat
 perturbations can have quantifiable effects on fish
 populations; (2) habitat alteration can affect more
 than one life stage simultaneously and in opposite
  directions; (3) the effects of perturbations at one
  life stage can persist throughout the remainder of
  the life cycle; and (4)  for anadromous fish
  species, the effects of habitat perturbations during
  freshwater rearing can persist into the marine
  phase.
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 Hoover, M.D. 1952. Water and timber
 management. Journal of Soil and Water
 Conservation 7:75-78.

 This paper presents a historical perspective on the
 proper management of timber stands for water
 yield and water quality and flash flood
 prevention.  The paper presents information on
 forestry impacts on water quality, vegetation
 influences, streamflow increases, soil
 disturbances, and road and trail locations.

 Hornbeck, J.W. 1968. Protecting water quality
 during and after clearcutting. Journal of Soil
 and Water Conservation 23(1):19- 20.

 This  paper provides a follow-up study to
 Hornbeck  and Reinhart (1964).  In this study two
 watersheds were harvested using selection cutting
 and carefully planned logging operations that
 exposed less  than 1% of the watershed's mineral
 soil.  Turbidity levels from this study were lower
 than those reported in 1954.  As with the 1964
 study, skid roads were considered the primary
 source of the turbidity from the watershed.  The
 author concludes that water quality impacts
 associated  with timber harvest activities  can be
 reduced if sound practices are used.

 Hornbeck, J.W., G.E. Likens, R.S. Pierce,
 and F.H. Bormann.  1975. Strip cutting as a
 means of protecting site and streamflow quality
 when clearcutting northern hardwoods. In:
 Forest Soils and Forest Land Management,
 Proceeding of the Fourth North American Forest
 Soils  Conference.  B. Bernier  and C.H. Winget
 (eds.). pp. 209-224.

 The results of a progressive strip cutting (a form
 of clearcutting) experiment in northern hardwoods
 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest are
 presented in this paper.  Various changes to the
 ecosystem, including vegetation response, and
 changes in  water yield and water quality are
 discussed.  The following conclusions are made:
 (1) small increases in water yield were observed
during two succeeding growing  seasons;  (2)
stream temperature,  pH, and turbidity showed
minor changes after strip cutting; and (3) large
increases in nitrate and calcium  were observed
 although the losses were smaller than those
 typical of conventional clearcutting. The paper
 also presents data on other nutrients monitored
 during the experiment.

 Hornbeck, J.W.,  C.W. Martin, and C.T.
 Smith. 1986. Protecting forest streams during
 whole-tree harvesting:  Northern Journal of
 Applied Forestry. 3(3):97-100.

 The effects of whole-tree harvests in the
 Northeast on stream turbidity, temperature, and
 chemistry in three watersheds are presented in this
 paper.  The data indicate that the use of BMPs
 during whole-tree harvest can limit water quality
 impacts to levels typical of bole-only harvest.
 The paper lists eight BMPs that the authors
 suggest to minimize stream damage from all
 forms of tree harvesting: use streamside buffer
 strips of 15 to 30 m;  select logging methods that
 minimize road construction; maximum grade on
 roads of 10% (except for short stretches); install
 cross drains and dips to move water from roads
 and trails; minimize rutting by skidders by
 avoiding repeat trips over the same route; exhibit
 flexibility in planning operations (e.g., build
 roads and trails during dry weather); finish the
 operation as soon as possible; and remove
 temporary bridges and culverts, and revegetate
 problem areas.

 Hornbeck, J.W., and K.G.  Reinhart. 1964.
 Water quality and soil erosion as affected by
 logging in steep terrain. Journal of Soil and
 Water Conservation.  19(l):23-27.

 The effects of four different logging practices on
 water quality and soil erosion from five
 watersheds in West Virginia were studied.  The
 four logging practices were commercial clearcut
 (all merchantable above 6-inch dbh), diameter
 limiting cutting (17-inch dbh and killing of
 unmerchantable trees by poison), extensive
 selection cutting (selected trees above 11-inch dbh
 and unmerchantable trees killed), and intensive
 selection cutting (selected trees above 5-inch dbh
 and unmerchantable trees killed).  No permanent
roads were constructed in the  watersheds; only
skid trails were present.  Turbidity was
significantly greater in the commercial clearcut,
                                              114

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with a maximum value of 56, 000 ppm reported
although all treatments had higher turbidities than
the control watershed. The authors suggest that
the large increase in soil erosion from the
harvested sites was due to the haphazard methods
of logging and lack of controls for the skid trails.

Johnson, M.G., and R.L. Beschta. 1980.
Logging, infiltration capacity, and surface
credibility in western Oregon.  Journal of
Forestry. 78(6)^34-337.

The impact of forestry activities on the infiltration,
capacity and surface erosion in western Oregon
were examined in this study. The harvesting
treatments analyzed included harvest with tractor
skidding, clearcutting with cable yarding,
clearcutting with tractors used for skidding and
windrowing, and undisturbed. The time between
harvest operation and the study varied from 3 to 6
years.  The average infiltration capacities after 6
years were not significantly different than those of
the undisturbed watershed for most watersheds.
 However, the treatment with tractor harvesting,
 windrowing of slash, and burning of slash on
 high-clay-content soils resulted in a reduction of
 nearly  1  inch per hour.  This same treatment also
 had a significantly higher suspended sediment
 concentration than the other treatments.  This
 study indicates that timber harvest practices may
 have a profound effect on infiltration and erosion.
 The data were collected for 6 years after
 treatment, and it is likely that effects would have
 been greater immediately after harvest.

 Johnston, R.S. 1984. Effect of small aspen
 dearcuts on voter yield and water quality.
 USDA Forest Service,  Intermountain Forest
 and Range Experiment Station.Research Paper
 INT-333. 9 pages.

  Mature aspen were removed from a watershed in
  Utah,  with  subsequent monitoring of water quality
  and flow changes from  the effects of this
  disturbance. • The data are effectively presented
  with the use of tables and figures. The lack of
  significant effects from the harvest may be
  attributed to the small size of the area cut and
  other  geomorphologic factors.  The  author
  concludes that anticipated water yield increases
should not be simply extrapolated to the other
areas of harvest due to the complex set of criteria
involved.

Jones, R.C., and B.H. Holmes. 1985. Effects of
land use practices on water resources in
Virginia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute  and
State University, Water Resources Research
Center. VPI-VWRRC-BULL-144.

Tliis report presents a review of forestry,
agriculture, and urban land uses in Virginia and
how they affect water resources. A review of
hydrologic changes and water quality impacts
from forestry operations is included. In addition,
a review of forestry water quality management
programs in the state is presented. This  report
presents generalized information on how a
specific state manages water resources that may  *
be affected by forestry activities.

 King, J.G. 1989. Stream/low Responses to Road
 Building and Harvesting: A Comparison With
 the Equivalent Clearcut Area Procedure. USDA
 Forest Service, Intermountain Research
 Station, Ogden, Utah.  Research Paper
 INT-401.  13 pages.

 Increases in annual streamflow and peak
 streamflows were determined on four small
 watersheds north-central Idaho after road building
 and timber harvest. These measured data were
 than compared to values predicted by the
 equivalent clearcut area procedure (EGA), a
 methodology commonly used to project
 hydrologic changes associated with timber
  management practices.  The increase in average
  annual streamflow following harvesting  and road
  building was much larger than predicted by the
  EGA procedure. The author notes that current
  procedures for estimating the hydrologic
  responses to timber removal of third to fifth order
  streams often ignore what may be hydrologically
  important modifications of low-order streams.
  Potential  modifications to headwater basins should
  be considered when scheduling harvest entries and
  locating harvest units, especially when conditions
  are such that the stream system is likely to be
  sensitive  to streamflow modification.
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Kochenderfer, J.N., and G.M. Aubertin. 1975.
Effects of management practices on water
quality and quantity: Fernow Experimental
Forest, West Virginia. In: Municipal Watershed
Management Symposium Proceedings. USDA
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station. General Technical Report NE-13. pp.
14-24.

The data from 22 years of research into the
influence of forestry practices on the quantity and
tuning of streamflow and on water quality
parameters such as turbidity, temperature, specific
conductance, pH, alkalinity, and nutrient
concentrations are reviewed hi this paper. Water
quality degradation was observed from clear cut
experimental watersheds, whereas minor  changes
in water quality were observed when forestry
practices were well planned and conducted.  The
authors conclude that at the time of this paper,
forests could not be managed for timber products
and water yield and that water quality degradation
could easily be avoided by using  erosion  control
management practices. Data from the research
are presented, although no statistical analysis of
the data is provided.

Krause, H.H. 1982. Effect of forest
management practices on water quality - a
review of Canadian studies.  In: Proceedings of
the Canadian Hydrology Symposium - Associate
Committee on Hydrology. Fredericton, New
Brunswick, June 14-15, 1982. National
Research Council Canada, Canada,  pp. 15-29.

The water quality effects of forest management
practices are reviewed separately for the  British
Columbia Coastal Range, Rocky  Mountains,
Canadian shield, and Appalachian region.
Sedimentation is a problem after  road construction
and occasionally after slash burning.
Temperature increases are problematic at low
altitudes in areas with warm summers. Changes
in dissolved solids depend on the type of
operation, forest cover, soils, and geologic
substrate.

Lawrence,  G.B., R.D. Fuller, and C.T.
Driscoll. 1987. Release of aluminum following
whole-tree harvesting at the Hubbard Brook
Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Journal
of Environmental Quality. 16(4):383-390.

This study investigated aluminum concentrations
before and after timber harvest.  An experimental
watershed in the Hubbard Brook Experimental
Forest was clearcut and stream chemistry was
monitored 1 year prior to, and 2 years after,
harvest.  An initial increase in basic cations and
nitrate concentration was observed, with a
decrease  in pH. The lower pH allowed the
release of potentially toxic levels of inorganic
aluminum.  This work suggests the potential for
severe impact on aquatic communities following
whole-tree harvest where pools of aluminum
exist.

Likens, G.E., F.H. Bormann, N.M. Johnson,
D.W. Fisher, and R.S. Pierce. 1970. Effects of
forest cutting and herbicide treatment on
nutrient  budgets  in the Hubbard Brook
watershed-ecosystem.  Ecological Monographs.
40(l):23-47.

All vegetation on  watershed 2 of the Hubbard
Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire
was cut in November and December 1965.
Vegetation regrowth was inhibited by  periodic .
herbicide applications.  Annual stream flow was
increased above normal values by 39% the first
year and  28% the second year. Large increases
in all major ions except NH/, SO4" and HCO,'
were observed for 5 months after deforestation.
Nitrate concentrations in stream water were 41-
and 56-fold higher during the first and second
years following deforestation, respectively.
Stream temperatures following deforestation were
higher 'than normal and fluctuated 3-4 °C during
the day during summer,  in contrast to normally
constant daytime temperatures. Turbidity
increases were negligible, but paniculate matter
output increased 4-fold.  Overall, the
deforestation experiment resulted in significant
pollution of the drainage stream from  the
ecosystem; this was largely due to the interruption
of the nutrient cycle caused by the loss of
vegetation.
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Lynch, J.A., W.E. Sopper, E.S. Corbeitt, and
D.W. Aurand. 1975. Effects of management
practices on water quality and quantity: The
Penn State Experimental Watersheds. In:
Municipal Watershed Management Symposium
Proceedings. USDA Forest Service.  General
Technical Report NE-13. pp. 32-46.

A three-phase experiment was conducted to
determine the effects of timber harvest treatments
on.water quality and quantity. The different
treatments included lower and middle slope
harvests.  Turbidity and water temperature
measurements indicated a greater impact from
lower slope harvest,  with a maximum turbidity
concentration of 550 ppm and a maximum water
temperature increase of 7 °F.  Water yield was
also greater after lower slope harvest. This paper
presents significant amounts of data concerning
forestry impacts on a Pennsylvania forested
watershed.

Mann, L.K., D.W. Johnson, D.C.  West, D.W.
Cole, J.W. Hornbeck, C.W. Martin, H.
Reikerk, C.T. Smith, W.T. Swank, L.M.
Tritton, and D.H. Van Lear. 1988. Effects of
whole-tree  and stentHinly clearcutting on
 postharvest hydrologic losses, nutrient capital,
 and regrowth.  Forest Science. 34(2):412-428.

 The effects of whole-tree and stem-only
 clearcutting by comparative studies of uncut and
 clearcut stands at eight sites in the major timber
 harvesting areas of the United States was
 examined.  The objectives of the study were to
 (1) estimate probable changes in nutrient capital
 due to direct removal by harvest, (2) estimate
 nutrient removal from harvested stands via
 hydrologic mechanisms, and (3) examine
 subsequent regrowth biomass following harvest.
 A combination of data from the current study and
 data from previously published  studies were used
 in the analysis.  These data indicate potential net
 Iciss of Ca  and K at most sites without harvest and
 net losses of N, P, K,  and Ca with either
 whole-tree or sawlog harvest.  Total stem biomass
 and nutrients were significantly correlated with
 total  above-stump biomass, providing a means for
 estimating  nutrient removals with sawlog or
 whole-tree harvest from commercial forests.
Limited data from harvested stands indicated
greater regrowth biomass with sawlog harvest
than with whole-tree harvest on some sites.  .

Marion, D.A., and S.J. Ursic. Sediment
production in forests of the Coastal Plain,
Piedmont, and Interior Highlands. In:
Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.

This paper presents a discussion of sediment
production from small catchments in various
physiographic regions and provides information
on the magnitude and duration of the changes
associated with silvicultural activities.  Higher
sediment delivery was reported from Coastal
Plain soils than the Piedmont and Interior
Highlands because of the high  erosion potential of
the soils and channelization of flow.  The authors
also reported on the effects of timber harvest
activities on sediment delivery. No long-term
increases (greater than 3 years) in sediment
production were observed in harvested and burned
watersheds.  In contrast, persistent increases in
sediment production can occur when intensive
mechanical site preparation is employed.  Harvest
 activities which minimized ground disturbance
 and protect channel areas were identified as
 practices that would not increase on- site sediment
 production.

 Martin, C.W., D.S. Noel, and C.A. Federer.
 1985. Clearcutting and the biogeochemistry of
 streamwater in New England.  Journal of
 Forestry, pp. 686-689.

 This paper presents the results of a  survey
 conducted in New  England to determine the
 effects of clearcutting on stream chemistry and
 water temperature.  In this survey, clearcutting
 included conventional clearcutting and whole-tree
 harvest. All watersheds included in the survey
 contained skid trails, and.most contained landings
 and truck roads. The results of the survey
 showed that clearcutting may  increase nutrients,
 especially nitrate-nitrogen, calcium, and
 potassium.  Increases in water temperature were
 also noted, with a corresponding increase in some
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 stream insect populations. The survey concluded
 that clearcutting does affect water chemistry
 although the magnitude of the changes is variable.

 Martin, C.W., D.S. Noel, and C.A. Federer.
 1984. Effects of forest clearcutting in New
 England on stream chemistry. Journal of
 Environmental  Quality. 13(2)^04-210.

 Differences in stream chemistry in water samples
 collected from clearcut (6), partially clearcut (32)
 and uncut (18) watersheds are presented. Water
 samples collected from one clearcut watershed
 had significantly greater nutrient concentrations
 than those from a nearby uncut watershed.  Only
 minor changes in stream water chemistry were
 observed in all other watersheds although
 clearcutting less than the entire watershed
 appeared to reduce the magnitude of the changes.

 Martin, C.W.,  R.S. Pierce, G.E. Likens, and
 F.H. Bormann. 1986. Clearcutting affects
 stream chemistry in the  White Mountains of New
 Hampshire. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern
 Forest Experiment Station. Research Paper
 NE-579.

 Stream water samples were collected from
 watersheds that were completely harvested and
 from uncut watersheds.  Differences in stream
 chemistry were monitored over a 4-year period.
 Constituents sampled for included specific
 conductance, pH, nitrate, ammonium, calcium,
 magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and
 chloride.

 McClurkin, D.C., P.D. Duffy, and N.S.
 Nelson. 1987. Changes in forest floor and
 water quality following thinning and
 clearcutting of 20-year-old pine.  Journal of
 Environmental Quality. 16(3):237-241.

 This paper presents the results of a study
 conducted in small plots to determine the
 differences in runoff, sediment transport, and
 chemical quality of infiltrating water from
 clearcut, thinning, and no-cut practices. Sediment
 concentrations leaving the plots were
proportionate to  cutting treatment.  Nutrient
concentrations (N and P) in runoff and percolation
 from all treatments were less than the nutrient
 input from precipitation.

 McClurkin, D.C., P.D. Duffy, S J. Ursic, and
 N.S. Nelson. 1985. Water quality effects of
 clearcutting upper Coastal Plain loblolly pine
 plantations.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
 14(3)^29-332.

 The differences in sediment and nutrient
 concentrations from cut and uncut forested
 experimental plots were examined.  Significantly
 more sediment and sediment-bound N and P were
 removed from the clearcut plots; no significant
 differences in solution-phase N and P
 concentrations were found  between treatments.
 The paper presents the data to support the
 authors' conclusions and offers a meaningful
 comparison of clearcut to uncut in a controlled
 experiment (plots).

 Megahan, W.F. 1982. Channel sediment
 storage behind  obstructions  in forested
 drainage basins draining the granitic bedrock
 of the Idaho batholith. In: Sediment Budgets
 and Routing in  Forested Drainage Basins.  F J.
 Swanson,  R.J. Janda, T. Dunne, and D.N.
 Swanston, (eds.) USDA Forest Service, Pacific
 Northwest Forest and Range Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report PNW-141.
 pp. 114-121.

 This paper presents data from a study conducted
 to quantify sediment trapped behind obstructions
 in forested watersheds in the Idaho batholith
 region.  Logs were the most important type of
 obstruction observed in this study.  Logging of
 the watersheds reduced the  amount of stored
 sediment because many obstructions were
 destroyed by felling and clearing operations.  The
 authors suggest storage behind obstructions is a
 major component of sediment  routing and
 sediment monitoring interpretations should
 account for this.  Guidelines and suggestions for
 minimizing impact to storage ability are
presented.
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Megahan, W.F. 1981. Effects of silvicultural
practices on erosion and sedimentation in the
interior west-A case for sediment budgeting.
In: Interior West Watershed Management
Symposium Proceedings.  D.M. Baumgartner
(ed.). Washington State University,
Cooperative Extension, pp. 169-182.

This paper is a review of research done in the
interior western United States on the effects of
timber removal, road construction, and fire on
erosion and sedimentation.  The author describes
the processes of erosion-sedimentation, surface
erosion, and mass erosion; the role of fire; and
means to control erosion from roads.  The author
concentrates on erosion from roads because they
have been found to be the  greatest source of
sediment discharge. The paper  includes a figure
of a sediment budget in forested watersheds and
tables  comparing the erosion control effectiveness
of various management practices. Suggestions for
future research are also discussed.

Megahan,  W.F.  1987. Increased sedimentation
following helicopter logging and prescribed
burning on granitic soil.  In: Erosion and
Sedimentation in the Pacific Rim, Proceedings of
the CorvaUis Symposium. Oregon State
University, August, 1987. R.L. Beschta (ed.).
IAHS Publication No. 165, CorvaUis, Oregon.
pp. 259-260.

The effects ofhelicopter clearcut logging and
prescribed burning on  sediment yields in central
Idaho are presented. Streamflow and sediment
yield.data were collected for  10 years prior to
 clearcut and for 10 years after clearcut and
prescribed burning. Significant  increases in annual
 sediment yields were observed.  No data from the
 study are presented in  this short paper.

 Megahan, W.F. 1986. Recent  studies on erosion
 and its control on forest lands in the United
 States.

 Recent research on erosion and erosion control
 conducted in the United States Js reviewed.  The
 effects of road construction, forest fire, and
 timber harvest are considered in relation to
 surface and mass erosion.  Surface erosion has
been predicted by using the Universal Soil Loss
Equation (USLE), locally gathered data, and
detailed mathematical models.  The USLE is
useful only when considering areas with gentle
terrain.  Empirical predictions  are commonly used
and mathematical models show promise.  Mass
erosion  hazards are defined using landslide
inventories from specific areas, statistical
approaches, and stability analyses of given sites.
The advantages and disadvantages of these
approaches are discussed.  The management
applications of these approaches are discussed as
well.

Meyer, J.L., and C.M. Tate. 1983. The effects
of watershed disturbance on  dissolved organic
carbon  dynamics of a stream.  Ecology.
64(l):33-44.

Two second-order streams in the Coweeta
Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, were
studied  for annual  dissolved organic carbon
(DOC)  export.  One of the watersheds was
completely clearcut 2  years prior to the beginning
of the study, while the other was left undisturbed.
The document provides excellent analytical data
for DOC transport during baseflow and storm
periods. Lower DOC export from the clearcut
watershed was concluded to be the result of lower
inputs in subsurface water as well as in stream
generation.

Mikalsen, K.T. 1986. Preliminary results of
Georgia nonpoint source impact assessment
study:  Commercial forestry. In Research on the
Effects of Forest Harvesting,  Drainage,
Mechanical Site Preparation, and Prescribed
 Fire on Water Quality.

 Commercial forestry activities adjacent to five
 streams throughout physiographic regions in
 Georgia resulted in varying degrees of water
 quality impact.  Beneficial use was denied in one
 stream, impaired in two streams, and not
 substantially affected  in two streams.  The major
 impairment observed  in the streams was an
 increase in sediment deposition,which altered or
 destroyed  aquatic  habitats.  It was concluded that
 the implementation of BMPs must be continued
 and sampling must also be continued to ensure
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that high water quality standards are maintained.

Miller, EX., R.S. Beasley, and E.R. Lawson.
1988. Forest harvest and site preparation
effects on streamflow and peakflow of
ephemeral streams in the Ouachita Mountains.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 17(2):
212-218.

Soil erosion and sedimentation effects of three
treatments- clearcutting, selective cutting, and no
disturbance (control)- were measured and
compared in watersheds in the Ouachita
Mountains of Arkansas.  After clearcut harvest, a
drum chopper crushed the residual vegetation
prior to burning; stream channels were not
buffered from chopping or burning. The harvest
and site preparation activities'had no specific
BMPs; however, "reasonable care"  was used
while conducting the activities.  Sediment yield
during the first year of the study was significantly
higher in the clearcut treatment, but the
differences between the treatments  decreased the
next 2 years.  Even though the annual sediment
yield was  greater from the clearcut treatment, the
yields were relatively low and appeared to have
little impact on water quality.  The document
provides concise methodology for the
experimental  design and presents significant
amounts of data collected during the experiment.

Miller, J.H.,  and  D.L. Sirois. 1986. Soil
disturbance by skyline yarding vs. skidding in
a loamy hill  forest.  Soil Science Society of
America Journal.  50(6):1579-1583.

Soil disturbance was assessed on harvested units
of mature southern pines  (Pinus spp.), where a
part of each unit was logged with a cable skyline
system and a part with rubber-tired ground
skidders.  The effects of  the two methods of
harvesting were studied by aerial and ground
surveys. Cable yarding required 2% less acreage
in landing than skidding, and yarding corridors
occupied 12% less area than did skid trails.
Physical and  chemical  analyses of surface soils
(upper 15 cm) showed that loam soils with clay
subsoils were most severely affected by the
displacement of topsoil after both methods of
logging. On 8% to 14% of both logged areas,
harvesting activities resulted in significant
reductions in organic matter; available moisture
holding capacity; and available P, Ca, and K.
Silt loam soils were severely compacted by cable
yarding in the  corridors that consistently ran
upslope, creating the greatest erosion potential.
The authors conclude that the carefully planned
use of skyline  cable systems would minimize the
area affected by severe soil disturbance and
should be considered for future harvesting in this
locale.

Murphy, M.L., and J.D. Hall. 1981. Varied
effects of clear-cut logging on predators and
their habitat in small streams of the Cascade
Mountains, Oregon.  Canadian Journal of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 38:137-145.

The differences in predator numbers in a stream
draining a logged and forested area are presented
in this paper.  Stream inventories of the predators
including fishes, salamanders, and certain
invertebrates were conducted. Varied results
were obtained.  Newly  logged areas exposed to
sunlight had greater biomass of predators than did
old growth forest areas. However, second-growth
logged areas reshaded by deciduous forest canopy
had lower biomass than the old growth forest.
This journal article provides a detailed discussion
of the predator-prey interactions that may be
occurring in the old growth and logged forests
and also provides significant data and results.

Murphy, M.L., J. Heifetz, S.W. Johnson,
K.V.  Koski, and J.F.  Thedinga. 1986. Effects
of clear-cut logging with and without buffer
strips on juvenile salmonids in Alaskan
streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences. 43(8):1521-1533.

To assess short-term effects of logging on juvenile
Oncorhynchus  kisutch, Salvelins malma, Salmo
gairdneri, and  Salmo clarld in southeastern
Alaska, the fish density and habitat in summer
and winter were compared in 18  streams in
old-growth forest and in clearcuts with and
without buffer  strips. The study concludes that
clearcutting may increase fry abundance in
summer in some streams by increasing primary
production, but may reduce abundance of parr in
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winter if debris is removed.  Use of buffer strips
maintains or increases debris, protects habitat,
allows increased primary production, and can
increase abundance of fry or pair.  The report
also contains references to more than SO other
papers.

Narver, D.W. 1971. Effects of logging debris
on fish production. In: Proceedings of the
Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
Environment. , 19-21 October, 1970. J.T.
Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.). Oregon State
University, Corvallis, Oregon, pp. 100-111.

Stream salmonids (eight species of Pacific
salmon, trout, and char) are discussed in relation
to their environmental requirements and the
possible impact of logging debris on their
production. The emphasis is on small streams
because of their great importance as nursery and
spawning areas for certain species and because
they may be more susceptible to damage than
larger streams or rivers. Extensive use is made
of pertinent literature.  The author concludes that
accumulations of logging debris in small streams
can have  serious effects on the production Of
salmonid fishes.

NCASI. 1980. Research and field investigation
of the impact of southern forestry management
practices on receiving water quality and utility.
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin
No. 337.

This is an assembly of papers and abstracts of
presentations made at the 1980 NCASI Southern
Regional Meeting.  The papers describe work
underway  at universities, individual company
programs, programs in the South being conducted
 by USDA Forest Service, and aquatic biology.
 Sample titles include: Regional Road
 Project-Management Options to Control Erosion;
 Assessment of NPS Pollution from Intensive
 Forest Practices in the South Central Region,
 Texas; Demonstration of Sensitive Area
. Mechanical Site Preparation; The Use of
 Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream
 Quality Changes; and Report on Ongoing
 Programs and Information Needs Relating to
Southern Forest Practices and Water Quality.

NCASI. 1979. A review of current knowledge
and research on the impact of alternative forest
management practices on receiving water quality.
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin
No. 322.141 pages.

This bulletin reviews research on the impact of
forest management practices on water quality.
Ninety-three projects are reviewed. Separate
chapters briefly discuss forest practice effects on
loadings of sediment, nutrient, and organic
debris, and changes in temperature and water
quality changes due to the use of forest chemicals.
Current knowledge is assessed,  and a reference
list of 410 related papers is provided. Appendices
provide information on the application of the
universal soil loss equation for predicting
* sediment loading, erosion rates, and predictive
equations for stream nutrient concentrations.

Neary, D.G. 1977. Impact of timber harvesting
on nutrient losses in stream flow. New Zealand
Journal of Forestry. 22(l):53-63.

This is a review of studies conducted in the
United States to investigate the  impacts of forest
harvesting on the nutrient concentration of
streamflow. The studies support the concept that
harvest operation occurring with proper planning
 and management produces a relatively small
 increase in nutrient outputs. The paper
 summarizes eight studies conducted by six
 different research groups.

 Nicolson,  J.A. 1988. Alternate strip
 clearcutting in upland black spruce. V. The
 impact of harvesting on the quality of water
 flowing from small basins in shallow-soil boreal
 ecosystems.  The Forestry Chronicle, pp. 52-58.

 This paper presents the results of a study
 comparing the water quality in  streams from the
 following  treatments: unharvested, patch-cut,
 clearcutting, and stripcut.  Greater water yield
 was observed from the harvested basins. The
 author speculates that because infiltration capacity
 remained high, the water  discharged as shallow
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 subsurface flow and that the greater discharge was
 due to eliminated precipitation interception and
 reduced evapotranspiration.  Water quality
 changes after harvest included a small increase in
 pH during several years and a decrease in sulfate
 and nitrate concentrations.

 Nutter, W.L. 1982. Water quality and yield
 from the intensively managed forest. In:
 Proceedings of the Society of American
 Foresters, pp. 89-93.

 A review of the impacts of intensive forest
 management, including timber harvest, site
 preparation,  road  construction, and forest
 fertilization,  on water yield and water quality is
 presented. This short review presents an
 overview of  the impacts of intensive forestry
 operations.

 Patric, J.H. 1980. Effects of wood products
 harvest on forest soil and water relations.
 Journal of Environmental Quality. 9(1):73-80.

 This report presents the results of nearly three
 decades of research on a watershed in the Fernow
 Experimental Forest in north-central West
 Virginia. Selection harvests between 1958 and
 1968 had a negligible effect on water properties.
 A clearcut leaving a buffer strip in 1969-70 had
 no effect on stormflow or stream temperature, but
 increased water yield by 38% the first year after
 cutting.  Concentrations of sediment, nitrate,  Ca,
 Mg, K, and Na in streamflow increased slightly.
 The buffer strip was cut and the stream channel
 cleared in 1972, increasing water yield by 9% and
 raising stream temperature by as much as 7.8  °C.
 Regrowth over the entire watershed reduced all
 effects on water within 2 years after each
 treatment.  Historical data from the studies
 reviewed are presented for parameters such as
 turbidity and  precipitation.

 Patric, J.H.  1978. Harvesting effects on  soil
 and water in the eastern hardwood forest.
 Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
2(3):66-73.

For the eastern United States, there is
overwhelming evidence that neither the
 productivity of forest soil nor the quality of forest
 water are substantially lessened during or after
 responsibly managed harvest of wood products.
 However, careless practices such as dragging logs
 across the forest floor (which disrupts organic
 cover) building more  roads than are necessary,
 operating machinery in streams,  and locating
 roads near streams damage both forest
 productivity and water quality.  Proper
 management of forest roads is the key to
 minimizing the adverse impacts of forest
 activities.  Forest roads cause little adverse effect
 on soil or water given proper location, drainage,
 traffic control, and maintenance. This paper
 provides an overall qualitative analysis of the
 problems associated with'timber  harvesting.

 Patric, J.H. 1984. Some environmental effects
 of cable logging in the eastern hardwoods. In:
 Mountain Logging Symposium Proceedings.
 West Virginia University,  June 5-7, 1984. P.A.
 Peters and J. Luchok (eds.). West Virginia
 University, Morgantown, West Virginia, pp.
 99-106.

 A literature survey related to cabie yarding in
 partially-cut stands indicates that damage to
 residual  trees, understory reproduction, and soil
 and water quality from well-planned cable
 operations is comparable to, or less than, that
 from rubber-tired skidder or tractor logging. In
 even-aged management, damage to small trees
 and the understory is not as critical as in uneven-
 aged management.  Even in uneven-aged
 management, however, the younger trees
 (growing stock) can be adequately protected if
 damage is minimized through careful planning of
 the yarding operation and  proper  training of
 loggers.

 Patton, D.R. 1973. A literature review of timber
 harvesting effects on stream temperatures:
 Research needs for the Southwest. USD A Forest
 Service,  Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
 Experiment Station. Research Note RM-249. 4
 pages.

The paper focuses on the effect of temperature on
fisheries.. Water temperature affects fish by
changing their metabolic rate and  die oxygen
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content of water, and influencing hatching and
development time and migration. Creating a
more open forest in the water-producing zone can
change water temperature hi shallow, low-volume
streams.  The author concludes that research is
needed on how timber harvesting affects water
temperature to produce guidelines to meet:
FWPCA standards for cold-water fish.  Suggested
research topics are identification of perennial
streams with temperature marginally high; the
effect of timber harvesting on water temperature;
determination of temperature ranges of rare and
endangered fish; and the importance of riparian
vegetation hi maintaining aquatic habitat.

Ponce, S.L. 1974. The biochemical  oxygen
demand of finely divided logging debris in
stream  water. Water Resources Research.
10(5): 983-988.

The impact of Douglas fir needles and twigs,
western hemlock needles, and red alder leaves  on
dissolved oxygen and th:   >n the quality of
mountain stream water w ^ examined.  The leaf
material exposed to fluctuating temperature
exerted a 5 day BOD of 4.0, 2.4 and 4.2 times
greater  dian the standard temperature BOD for
Douglas fir needles,  western hemlock needles,and
red alder leaves, respectively.  Oxygen depletion
was more likely to cause aquatic disruptions than
were leachate effects.

Ponce,  S.L.  1986. Controlling diffuse-source
pollution associated with forest practices  in
North America.  In: Effects of land use on fresh
waters: agriculture, forestry, mineral
exploitation, urbanization.  L.G. Solbe (ed.).
Water  Research Centre,  Chichester, England.
 pp. 432^443.

This paper provides an overview of strategies
 used within the United  States to control the
 degradation of water quality from forest practices.
 The document includes information on
 regulations, source impacts, and control
 opportunities.  Several  excellent tables are
 presented with information on silvicultural
 activities and their associated impacts and  control
 practices.
Reinhart, K.G. 1964. Effects of commercial
clearcutting in West Virginia on overland flow
and storm runoff. Journal of Forestry.
62:167-171.

.The effects of clearcutting and construction of
skid roads without water control measures on
overland flow and infiltration were examined hi
this study.  Two watersheds, one clearcut and the
other undisturbed, were gaged to record the
amount of overland flow. Infiltration rates
remained higher than typical storm intensities for
both watersheds.   Overland flow occurred only
from the skid roads and interception from road
cuts. The author concludes that runoff could be
controlled by using water and sediment control
management measures on skid roads during
timber harvest.

Reinhart, K.G. 1973. limber-harvest
clearcutting and nutrients in the north-eastern
 United States. USD A  Forest Service,
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.
Research Note NE-170. 5 pages.

This paper is a summarization of results from
studies conducted to evaluate nutrient losses from
clearcut watersheds. From various studies
 conducted  in the northeastern United States, little
evidence was found to suggest that clearcut
 increased nutrient transport and  loss.  The losses
that did occur were deemed too  low to reduce
 water quality below drinking water standards.

 Rice, R.M., J.S. Rothacher, and W.F.
 Megahan. 1972.  Erosional consequences of
 timber harvesting: An appraisal. In:
 Watersheds in Transition Symposium
 Proceedings. Urbana, Illinois.  American Water
 Resources Association, pp. 321-329.

 This paper summarizes current (1972)
 understanding of the effects of timber harvesting
 on erosion. Rates of erosion on mountain
 watersheds vary widely, but the relative
 importance of different types of erosion and the
 consequences of disturbance remain fairly
 consistent.  The authors suggest that a number of
 conclusions are therefore valid for most
 circumstances.  Among  these conclusions are:
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 sediment production declines rapidly following
 disturbance; cutting of trees does not significantly
 increase erosion, but clearcutting on steep
 unstable slopes may  lead to increased mass
 erosion; accelerated  erosion is a possible
 undesirable side effect of the use of fire in
 conjunction with logging; the road system built
 for timber harvesting far overshadows logging or
 fire as a cause of increased erosion; and
 potentially hazardous areas can be identified hi
 advance of the timber harvest.  Tables comparing
 the amount of soil disturbed by different logging
 practices and the amount of soil eroded from
 logging roads in different logging areas are
 provided.

 Riekerk, H. 1983. Environmental impacts of
 intensive silviculture in Florida (forest soil
 degradation,  water  quality, watersheds). In:
 I.U.F.R.O. Symposium on Forest Site and
 Continuous Productivity. USDA Forest Service,
 Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
 Experiment Station. General Technical Report
 PNW-163. pp. 264-271.

 Runoff and water quality from two different
 timber harvest practices, minimum and maximum
 disturbance, were compared to an undisturbed
 flatwood watershed.  Significantly greater water
 yield was observed for both treatments, with the
 greatest increase in the maximum disturbance
 treatment.  Water yield increases lasted for a
 single year. As with water yield, the greatest
 degradation in water quality was observed from
 the maximum  disturbance treatment although the
 impact was also of short duration.  The author
 concludes that silvicultural activities in flatwoods
 would not result in any long-term degradation of
 water quality.

 Riekerk, H. 1983. Impacts of silviculture on
 flatwoods runoff, water quality, and nutrient
 budgets.  Water Resources Bulletin. 19(1)73-80.

 Runoff and water quality from two different
timber harvest practices, minimum and maximum
disturbance, were compared to an undisturbed
flatwood watershed.  The maximum disturbance
 consisted of machine harvesting, slash burning,
windowing, bedding, and machine planting and
 the minimum disturbance treatment included
 manual harvesting, slash chopping, bedding, and
 machine planting. Significantly greater water
 yield was observed for both treatments, with the
 greatest increase in the maximum disturbance
 treatment.  Water yield increases lasted for a
 single year.  As with water yield, the greatest
 degradation in water quality was observed from
 the maximum disturbance treatment although the
 impact was also of short duration.  The author
 concludes that silvicultural activities hi flatwoods
 would not result in any long-term degradation of
 water quality.

 Riekerk, H. 1989. Influence of silvicultural
 practices on the hydrology of pine flatwoods in
 Florida.  Water Resources Research.
 25(4):713-710.

 A study was  conducted in a pine flatwoods to
 determine the effect of minimum and maximum
 disturbance timber harvest on the hydrology of
 the forest.  The maximum disturbance was
 machine harvesting, slash burning, windrowing,
 bedding, and machine planting and the  minimum
 disturbance treatment was manual harvesting,
 slash chopping, bedding, arid machine planting.
 The results indicated that the maximum
 disturbance harvest had a significant impact on
 the hydrology.  An increase in the water table and
 runoff after timber harvest was observed.  The
 increases were due to decreased
 evapotranspiration after harvest. The changes in
 hydrology could lead to future problems in
 already  poorly drained flatwoods..

 Riekerk, H.  1985. Water quality effects of pine
 flatwoods silviculture. Journal of Soil and
 Water Conservation. 40(3):306- 308.

This study was done to assess the impacts of
 intensive silvicultural management practices on
nonpoint source pollution in Florida's poorly
drained  pine flatwoods.  Three watersheds in the
flatwoods region of north central Florida were
monitored for 6 years. Three treatments were
imposed during the second year: harvest with
minimum disturbance and site preparation, harvest
with maximum disturbance and site preparation,
and an undisturbed control.  The minimum
                                   '
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treatment included manual shortwood harvesting,
slash chopping, soil bedding, and machine
planting. The maximum treatment included
machine tree-length harvesting, slash burning,
windrowing, soil bedding, and machine planting.
There were small but significant increases in pH;
suspended sediment, Ca, and K, proportional to
the degree of disturbance during the treatment
year.  Only K and Ca levels remained significant
during the first posttreatment year. The author
concludes that minimum disturbance practices
with protective stream management zones will
minimise NFS pollution.

Riekerk, H., D.G. Neary, and W J. Swank.
1989. The magnitude of upland silviculture
nonpoint source pollution in the south. In:
Proceedings of the  Symposium on the  Forested
Wetlands of the Southern United States,
Orlando, Florida,  July 12-14, 1988. USDA
Forest  Service, Southeast Forest Experiment
Station. General Technical Report SE-50. pp.
8-18.

Streamflow water quality data from  intensive
silvicultural practices in the southern United
States are summarized and discussed with respect
to regional differences of nonpoint source
pollution, and BMPs. Suspended sediment
production by silviculture was low in the
mountains and lower coastal plain, but  high in  the
Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions.  This
was due to a combination of site preparation
 intensity and topographic relief.  Nutrient exports
 in the Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions
 were, controlled by the degree of soil disturbance
 and by the recovery rate of vegetation.  Nutrient
 exports in the lower coastal plain were not much
 affected by intensive silviculture. Research is
 needed on the effects of silvicultural practices  in
 wetlands and on the actual effectiveness of BMPs.
 Research and analyses of cumulative effects are
 also needed to determine the impacts of multiple
 silvicultural practices on downstream wetlands.
                                            (
 Rishel, G.B., J.A. Lynch, and E.S. Corbett.
 1982. Seasonal stream temperature changes
 following forest harvesting.  Journal of
 Environmental Quality. 11(1):112-116.
The objectives of this study were to document
changes hi water temperature of small headwater
streams following a clearcut- herbicide treatment
and a commercial clearcut harvest. The study
was designed to provide data on the maximum
expected change in stream temperature following
forest cover removal and to evaluate the
effectiveness of a buffer zone on the commercial
clearcut site in  controlling stream temperature
changes.  The average monthly maximum
temperature change in the clearcut-herbicide
treatment stream was 4.4 °C, and the highest
recorded temperature hi the stream was 32 °C,
compared to 22 °C on an adjacent forested
watershed.  On the clearcut watershed with a
buffer strip, only slight changes hi stream
temperature were observed.  The average monthly
maximum stream temperature increase was  < 1
 °C, and the highest temperature recorded was 23
 Rothacher, J., and W. Lopushinsky. 1974. Soil
 stability and water yield, and water quality. In:
 Environmental effects of forest residues
 management in the Pacific Northwest, pp.
 D1-D23.

 The effects of forest harvest activities on soil and
 water resources are reviewed. Over 50 references
 on soil erosion from different practices, water
 yield, and water quality are provided. A summary
 of the overall trends in environmental impact of
 forestry activities is included.

 Ryan, S.E., and G.E. Grant. 1991.
 Downstream effects of timber harvesting on
 channel morphology in Elk River Basin,
 Oregon.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
 20(l):60-72.

 Downstream effects, a type of cumulative
 watershed effect, were identified using changes in
 the width and distribution of open riparian
 canopies  measured from aerial photography taken
 between  1956 and  1979 in Elk River Basin,
 southwest Oregon. A causal link between
 downstream changes in channel morphology and,
 upslope forestry activities was assumed where
 open reaches extended continuously downstream
 from ciearcuts and roads or the timing and pattern
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 of opening downstream varied in direct relation to
 the intensity of upslope forestry activities. Open
 riparian canopies were observed in first- through
 fifth-order channels, though only 11% of open
 reaches in low-order channels were spatially
 connected to open reaches in higher order
 channels. Open canopies hi higher-order channels
 were restricted mainly to wide and low-gradient
 channel reaches. Open canopies in low-order
 tributaries were attributed to landslides and
 surface erosion generated from clearcuts and
 roads.
 Schwab,  J.W., and W J. Watt. 1981. Logging
 and soil disturbance on  steep slopes in the
 Quesnel Highlands, Caribou Forest Region.
 British Columbia, Ministry of Forests,
 Research Branch. No. 88.15 pages.

 A study was undertaken  in the Quesnel Highlands
 to compare soil disturbance associated with
 crawler tractor and running skyline logging
 methods.  Soil disturbance types were recorded at
 point samples along transects within 15 cutblocks.
 Additional detailed road measurements were also
 made. Point samples were categorized into five
 classes: no disturbance, forest floor disturbed but
 no mineral soil exposed, shallow disturbance less
 than 25 cm, deep disturbance greater than 25 cm,
 and a grouping of shallow and deep mineral soil
 disturbances.  The total disturbance on running
 skyline-yarded clearcuts averaged 34.7% and on
 crawler tractor- logged clearcuts averaged 62.6%.
 The effects of soil disturbance on erosion
 susceptibility, regeneration establishment and soil
 productivity are discussed.

 Scrivener, J.C., and B.C. Anderson.  1984.
 Logging impacts and some mechanisms that
 determine the size of spring and summer
 populations of coho salmon fry in Carnation
 Creek, B.C.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences.  41:1097-1105.

The effects of forestry practices on salmonid
resources  in British Columbia are analyzed in this
paper. The Coho fry movement, distribution,and
growth for spring and summer were recorded
over a 2-year period prior to and following
logging.  Interestingly, growth rates tended to be
high following streamside logging. It was found
 that a complex number of factors affect the
 physical parameters of Coho fry and that they are
 not necessarily dependent exclusively on
 silvicultural activity.

 Sidle, R.C. 1980. Impacts of forest practices on
 surface erosion. Pacific Northwest Extension
 Publication PNW 195.15 pages.

 A summary of the impacts of various timber
 harvest activities on surface erosion is presented.
 The summary includes information on basic
 erosion processes and  the impacts of timber
 harvest, road construction, and site preparation.
 No references are included for the conclusions
 made.

 Silsbee, D.G., and G.L. Larson. 1983.  A
 comparison of streams in logged and unlogged
 areas of Great Smoky Mountains National
 Park (Tennessee).  Hydrobiologia.
 102(2):99-111.

 This study compared stream quality in a
 never-logged watershed and  a primitively-logged
 (50 years ago) watershed in the Great Smokey
 Mountains National Park. Water quality, stream
 channel characteristics, and macroinvertebrates
 were evaluated.  The water from the unlogged
 stream was higher in nitrate, sulfate, phosphate,
 and calcium than that of the logged stream. This
 paper provides information on the long-term
 water quality impacts associated with logging.

 Singer, M.J., X. Huang, and C. Epifanio.
 1990. Selective oak  removal does not harm
 water quality. California Agriculture.
 44(2):17-19.

 The effects of selective oak tree removal in the
 Sierra foothills on water quality and  yield in a
 watershed were studied.  The researchers
 conclude that a small amount of carefully
 controlled oak removal has little statistical effect
 on the runoff/rainfall ratio and on the
 concentration of sediments and nutrients in the
streams.  The overall disturbance in the watershed
was small and did not pose a water-quality
hazard.
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Snyder, G.G., HJF. Haupt, and G.H. Belt, Jr.
1975. Clearcutting and bunting slash alter
quality of stream water in northern Idaho.
USDA Forest Service. Research Paper
INT-168. 34 pages.

The effect of logging on water quality in three
watersheds hi Idaho was determined. Water
samples were collected upstream, on- site, and
downstream from clearcut and slash-burned sites.
Buffer strips were left along the streams upstream
and downstream of the harvest site.   Increases hi
cation concentrations were observed, with larger
increases observed at the on-site stations. The
authors suggest the use of stream buffer strips as
a management tool to reduce water quality
impacts.

Sopper, W.E. 1975. Effects x>f timber
harvesting and related management practices
on water quality in forested watersheds.
Journal of Environmental Quality.  4(l):24-29.

The results of selected studies are presented to
provide an overview of the types of water quality
investigations undertaken on forested  watersheds.
Studies from timber harvesting activities,
fertilization, and herbicide use are included.
Many tables of data from the various studies, and
very general conclusions based on the
information, are provided.

Spangenberg, N.E., and R. McLennan. 1983.
Effects of silviculture! practices on water quality
in Northern Wisconsin.  Wisconsin  Water
Resources  Center, Madison, Wisconsin.
Technical Completion Report, WIS/WRC. 24
pages.

This report presents the results of a  study
conducted to determine the effect of clearcutting
and selection cutting on water quality.
Clearcutting was found to increase the erosion
potential but no significant differences in water
quality were observed.  This report presents
significant data  on the differences in water quality
from two harvesting methods.

Stevens, P.A.,  J.K. Adamson, M.A. Anderson,
and M. Hornung. 1988. Effects of clearfelling
on surface water quality and site nutrient
status. In: Ecological Change in the Uplands.
British Ecological Society. Special Publication
Number 7.

Two forest sites were studied hi North Wales,
Great Britain, to determine whether clearcutting
resulted hi increased concentrations of major
nutrients hi streams.  Taking into account
substrate and dilution from unfelled areas, an
insignificant impact on water quality was
measured.
Stone, E. 1973. The impact of timber harvest
on soils and water. In Report of the President's
Advisory Panel on Timber and the Environment.
pp. 427-467.

The impacts of timber harvest and removal on
water quality and soil stability are addressed.
Review topics include soil erosion from timber
harvest, roads,  and slash disposal and burning;
water quality impacts; and hydrologic impacts.
Watershed studies conducted at Hubbard Brook
Experimental Forest  are reviewed. More than
100 references are cited in this comprehensive
review.                          .

Stone, E.L., W.T. Swank, and J.W.
Hornbeck. 1978. Impacts of timber harvest and
regeneration systems on stream flow and soils
in the eastern deciduous region. In: Forest Soils
and Land Use, Proceedings of the Fifth North
American Forest Soils Conference. C.T.
Youngberg (ed.). Colorado State University.
pp. 516-535.

A review of the impacts of forest harvest
activities on soil and water resources is presented.
The review concentrates on the principles
associated with impacts and therefore presents
generalized conclusions from a sampling of the
research  efforts. Topics covered include water
yield, water table changes, low and peak flow,
soil moisture, stream temperature, sedimentation,
and nutrients.
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Swank, W.T., L.F. DeBano, and D. Nelson.
1989. Effects of timber management practices
on soil and water. In: The Scientific Basis for
SUvicultural and Management Decisions in the
National Forest System.  R.M. Burns (ed.).
USDA Forest Service.  General Technical
Report WO-55. pp. 79-106.

This paper presents  a detailed review of the
effects of various forest management practices on
soil and water characteristics. The major topics
reviewed include forest management practices,
general effects on soil and water, and effects on
different forest types.  The section on general
effects on soil and water includes review of water
quantity, water quality, erosion, nutrient
loss/change, fire, and herbicides.  The different
forest types, including western inland conifers,
pacific coast conifers, northeastern conifers,
eastern hardwoods,  and southern conifers, are
reviewed for water yield, streamflow timing,
erosion and sedimentation, water quality and
temperature, and soil and soil nutrients.  This
review cites over 100 references.

Swanson, FJ., and C.T. Dyrness. 1975.
Impact of clearcutting and road  construction
on soil erosion by landslides in the western
Cascade Range, Oregon. Geology.
3(7)393-396.

Susceptibility to erosion by rapid soil movement
differed greatly between two zones of the H.J.
Andrews Experimental Forest.  A  stable zone
occurs where terrain is underlain by lava-flow
bedrock.  Only two  small road-related slides have
occurred there since 1950. An unstable zone
underlain by altered volcaniclastic rock has had
139 slides in the same period.  Slide erosion has
been 30 times greater along road rights-of-way
than on forested sites in the unstable zone.

Swanson, FJ., and G.W. Lienkaemper. 1978.
Physical consequences of large organic debris in
Pacific Northwest streams. USDA Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station. General Technical Report
PNW-69.

This paper presents  a general overview of the
physical characteristics, history, and effects of
natural organic debris in streams.  A case study
showing the characteristics of potential
management impacts of the movement of stream
debris is presented.  Evidence of increased
frequency of debris torrents after clearcutting and
road construction was observed. In two western
Oregon watersheds, increases in debris torrents of
about 4 and 9 times for clearcut and 40 to 130
times for road rights- of-way relative to the
frequency in forested areas were observed.

Swift, L.W., Jr. 1982. Duration of stream
temperature increases following forest cutting
in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Water
Resources Bulletin. 18(6)373-275.

The effect of clearcutting riparian areas on water
temperature was  examined at the Coweeta
Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina. During
the first two summers of the study, stream
temperatures at the downstream edge of clearcut
was increased by an average of 3.3 °C.  The
increase declined the next three summers to 1.2
°C. In addition, the daily range of water
temperatures (maximum minus minimum)
increased for all  5 years after  clearcut.  The
authors also used a method by Brown (1970) to
estimate water temperature changes and found that
the method significantly overestimated the actual
increase.

Thedinga, J.F.,  M.L. Murphy, J. Heifetz,
K.V. Koski, and S.W. Johnson.  1989. Effects
of logging on size and age composition of
juvenile coho salmon and density of pre-smolts
in southeast Alaska streams.  Canadian Journal
of Fisheries and Aquatic  Science. 46:1383-1391.

Short-term effects of logging on age composition
and size of juvenile coho salmon (Onchrhynchus
JdsutcK) were studied in 18 streams in southeast
Alaska in 1982 and 1983.  Studies were in
old-growth forests where stream reaches had been
clearcut widi or without buffer strips. The
number of fry in summer  and  winter was
proportionately higher in clearcut and buffered
reaches than in undisturbed reaches. A  higher
percentage of large (^75 mm) fry remained in
buffered reaches  than in clearcut and undisturbed
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reaches.  Therefore, the density of fry that were
potentially large enough to become smolts the
next spring was greater in buffered reaches.  The
larger fry in the buffered and clearcut reaches
compared with undisturbed reaches were probably
the result of earlier fry emergence resulting from
increased water temperature.  This paper presents
partial results of a larger study. The companion
paper is Murphy, Heifetz, Johnson, Koski and
Thedinga, 1986.

Trettin,  C.C., and PJ. Sheets. Impacts of
forest drainage on water quality. Center for
Intensive Forestry in Northern Regions,  pp.
231-239.

The effects of a prescription-type forest drainage
system on water quality in the upper peninsula of
Michigan were evaluated. No significant
differences in calcium, total nitrogen, pH,
suspended sediment, or water temperature  were
observed between drainage water and river
samples.  Iron and magnesium concentrations
were slightly higher in the drainage water. The
drainage system appeared to serve its purpose by
draining the  high water table and not causing
appreciable water quality impacts.  The authors
suggest following some basic best management
practices, such as not driving across ditches and
properly  installing ditches, to prevent water
quality impacts.

Troendle, C.A., and R.M. King. 1985. The
effect of timber harvest on  the Fool Creek
watershed, 30 years later.  Water Resources
Research. 21(12):1915-1922.

The Fool Creek watershed at the Fraser
 Experimental Forest, Colorado, was harvested
 using a pattern of alternating clearcut and  forested
 strips in 1956. After 30 years of postharvest
 record, subtle impacts on the hydrology of the
 watershed were detected that had not been
 significant in the past.

 Tschaplinski, PJ., and G.F. Hartman,  1983.
 Winter distribution of juvenile coho salmon
 (Oncorhynchus kisutch) before and after
 logging in Carnation Creek, British Columbia,
 and some implications for overwinter survival.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences.  40:452-461.

Carnation Creek on the west coast of Vancouver
Island was studied for the movement of coho fry
prior to and after logging activities.  In the areas
of streambank damage, the coho fry moved to
more sheltered settings during the winter season.
Management practices, such as leaving
streambank vegetation, were confirmed to prevent
the influx of undesirable silviculture!  materials
from entering the spawning areas of salmon and
cutthroat trout.  Tables and figures presented
demonstrate that logging the SMZ neither reduces
the number of coho wintering in Carnation Creek
nor reduces the number leaving in the spring.

Ursic, S J.  1976. Water quality and southern
forests...Where we presently stand. Forest
Farmer. 36:17-35.

This short paper presents general information on
the impacts of forestry on water yield,
sedimentation, mechanical soil disturbance, and
the status of water quality research,

Ursic, S J. 1977. Water quality impacts of
harvesting and regeneration practices. In:   .
Proceedings of the "208" Symposium, Nonpoint
Sources of Pollution from  Forested Land.
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale,
Illinois, pp. 223-232.

A synopsis of water  quality impacts from forest
management activities such as harvesting,
regeneration activities, and sediment contributions
from channels is presented.  A region- specific
approach is utilized, and data from selected case
studies are used. The figures cited in the paper
are slightly dated and rely heavily on averaging.
This paper provides  a good summary of the
 impacts of forestry on water quality.
                                               129

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Van Lear, D.H., J.E. Douglass, S.K. Cox, and
M.K. Augspurger. 1985. Sediment and nutrient
export in runoff from burned and harvested
pine watersheds in the South Carolina
piedmont. Journal of Environmental Quality.
14(2):169-174.

Soil and nutrient export in ephemeral flow was
studied over a three year period after clearcut
logging. Two pre-harvest prescribed fires had no
significant effect on water quality or flow.
Harvesting occurred after the third prescribed
burn and resulted in increased sediment
concentrations, although the losses were less than
values typical of mechanical site preparation.
Nutrient concentrations were variable among
watersheds, although no effect of timber harvest
was observed.

Verry, E.S. 1972. Effect of an aspen
clearcutting on water yield and quality in'
northern Minnesota. In: Watersheds in
Transition Symposium Proceedings. Urbana,
Illinois. American Water Resources
Association, pp. 276-284.

A study was initiated to determine the effects of
clearcutting an aspen stand on water quality and
water yield. This paper presents the results of the
first year of sampling.  The data from the clearcut
watershed indicated no change in the water
quality.  However, total streamflow during the
period of snowmelt was several days earlier and
had nearly twice the peak. For the year, the
streamflow increased by 31 %. Only general
conclusions can be made based on the single year
of data presented in this paper.

Verry, E.S. 1986. Forest harvesting  and water:
The Lake states experience.  Water Resources
Bulletin. 22(6):1039-1047.

This a summary of forest harvest and water
quality in the Lakes states is separated into
wetlands and uplands.  Harvesting of timber from
natural peatlands will not adversely affect
streamflow and water quality if conducted on
frozen ground; however, increased water table
fluctuations will result.  In uplands, streamflow
increases upon clearcut and returns to preharvest
levels within 15 years. Water quality impairment
and habitat destruction can be minimized if stream
channels are avoided.  More than 30 references to
studies conducted in the Lake states are included.

Whitman R. 1989. Clean water of multiple
use?  Best management practices for water
quality control on the national  forests. Ecology
Law Quarterly. 16(4):909.

This article summarizes the nature and extent of
the environmental problems around which
conflicts revolve, and shows how state and federal
laws, including NEPA, CWA and the National
Forest Management Act, (interact to protect water
quality through forest planning.  The paper also
assesses the success of BMPs in  protecting water
quality, explains why BMPs are  not always
implemented even when legally prescribed, and
identifies those settings where, even if fully
implemented, BMPs fail.  Finally, the author
proposes some administrative and institutional
reforms designed to correct these shortcomings.
The article contains a review of the water quality
problems associated with timber  harvesting; the
various statutes relating to forest practices; the
roles of EPA, the states, and  the Forest Service hi
water quality protection; and the effectiveness of
BMPs.  The suggested reforms include
restructuring incentives to protect environmentally
sensitive areas and restructuring state water
quality standards for forestry-related NPS
pollution.

Wood, J.C., W.H. Blackburn,  H.A. Pearson,
and T. Hunter. 1989. Infiltration and runoff
water quality response to silvicultural and
grazing treatments on a longleaf pine forest.
Journal of Range Management. 42(5)378.

This study  was conducted to assess the impact of
intensive and extensive silvicultural practices and
livestock grazing on runoff water quality in the
Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana.
Infiltration was greater and interrill erosion, total
soluble nitrogen, and phosphorus were less under
extensive management with no livestock grazing
than under  intensive management with grazing.
The paper presents significant data comparing
various levels of forestry management and
                                             130

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 provides evidence of how impacts can be reduced
 by improved management practices.

 Wright, K.A., K.H. Sendek, R.M. Rice, and
 R.B. Thomas. 1990. Logging effects on
 streamflow: Storm runoff at Casper Creek on
 Northwestern California.  Water Resources
 Research. 26(7):1657-1667.

 The effects of road building and selective tractor
 harvesting on storm runoff were assessed for a
 small (424-ha) coastal watershed  in northern
 California. Lag time (the time required for 50%
 of the input into the watershed to produce 50% of
 the output) and peak flows were analyzed.  After
 road building and logging, lag time was decreased
 approximately 1.5 hours, and very small storm
 volumes and peak flows increased 132% and
 111%,'respectively.  Storm volumes and peaks of
 large storms were not significantly increased  by
 roads or logging. The authors conclude that in a
 rain-dominated hydrologic environment logging
 and forest road construction are not likely to
 change the flow regime of a stream adversely.
 These results conflict with others reported  (Harr
 et al., 1975). The authors of this study compared
 the results of the  two studies and speculated that
 the lack of large storm flows in the Harr study
 may account for the conflicting results.

 Wu, A.Y.K., M.P. Papworth,  and D.W.
 Flynn. 1984. The effects of some forest
 practices on water quality and  yield in the
 Reefton Experimental Area, Victoria. In:
 Reefton Experimental Area Pretreatment
 ' Compilation Report, Volume /.

 The aim of this study was to assess the effects on
 both water yield and water quality of some forest
 .practices commonly used in the management of
 mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria,
 Australia.  This  initial part of the report describes
 the area and preparations for collecting the data.
 The experimental area contains 6 catchments
 ranging in size from 70.4 to 521.2 ha.  The
 larger catchments have perennial streams,  whereas
 streamflow tends to be ephemeral in two of the
 catchments.  Soils, topography, vegetation,
 rainfall patterns,  and annual temperature ranges
- for the area are described, followed by a
description of instrumentation used hi the
catchments to measure meteorological conditions,
streamflow, and water quality and bedload.
Catchment hydrology and calibration are also
discussed, as well as the treatments to be used hi
the experiment.  It was proposed that one
catchment would receive a fuel reduction burn, a
second would receive a rehabilitation treatment,
and a third would be roaded at an intensity similar
to that of the second, allowing the effects of
reading and logging on water yield to be
separated.  A fourth catchment would serve as  a
control.

Yoho, N.S. 1980, Forest management and
sediment production in the south-A review.
Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(1):27-
36.                    '-...-.

The author reviews sediment yields from various
forestry activities, finding that forest practices
commonly result in small short-term increases and
that significant increases are limited to practices
conducted with heavy machinery.  Yields from
similar sites receiving the same type of
disturbance vary by several hundred percent, and
sediment yields are reduced when channel
disturbance is avoided.  Careful planning, design,
construction, use, and maintenance of forest roads
and skid trails achieve the greatest reductions.
The author provides comparative soil loss data for
a variety of land uses: less than 0.1 ton/acre/yr
(undisturbed mixed forest,  forest thinning); 0.1-
 1.0 ton/acre/yr (carefully clearcut forest,
abandoned fields);  1.0 - 10.0 tons/acre/yr
(annually burned forest, mechanical site
preparation); 10 - 100 tons/acre/yr (carelessly
cultivated or steep sloped fields); and  100 or more
tons/acre/yr (active construction, gullies).

Adams,  P.W., and W.R. Stack. 1989.
Stream-water quality after logging in southwest
 Oregon. USDA Forest Service, Project
 Completion Report (Suppl. no. PNW 87-400).

 Adams, T.E., and R.M. Rice.  1989. Erosion and
 sedimentation concerns related  to hardwood
 management in California.  Western Journal of
 Applied Forestry. 4(1):31-33.
                                               131

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Anderson, H.W., M.D. Hoover, and K.G.
Reinhart. 1976.  Forests and-water: Effects of
forest management on floods,  sedimentation, and
water supply. USDA Forest Service. General
Technical Report PSW-18. 115 pages.

Anderson, H.W., and J.R. Wallis.  1965. Some
interpretations of sediment sources  and causes,
Pacific Coast basin in Oregon and California. In:
Proceedings of the Federal Inter-Agency
Sedimentation Conference, pp. 22-30.

Andrus, C.W., B.A. Long, and H.A. Froehlich.
1988. Woody debris and its contribution to pool
formation in a coastal stream 50 years after
logging.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences. 45:2080-2086.

Baumgartner, D.M. (ed). 1981.  Interior west
watershed management: Proceedings of a
symposium. Spokane, Washington,  April 8-10,
1980. Washington State University, Cooperative
Extension Service. 288 pages.

Black, P.E. 1963. Timber and water resource
management.  Forest Science. 9(2): 137-145.

Brazier, J.R., and G.W. Brown. 1973.  Buffer
strips for stream temperature control. Oregon
State University, School of Forestry, Forest
Research Laboratory. Research Paper 15.

Brown, G.W. 1985. Controlling nonpoint source
pollution from silvicultural operations: What we
know and don't know.  In: Perspectives  on
Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a
National Conference. Kansas  City, Missouri, May
 19-22, 1985. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency.

Brown, G.W. 1974. Fish habitat.  USDA Forest
Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station, General Technical Report
PNW-24. pp. E1-E15.

Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1967. Changing
water temperatures in small mountain streams.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation.
22:242-244,

Brozka, R.J., G.L. Rolfe, and L.E. Arnold.
1982. First-year effects of clear-cutting an
oak-hickory watershed on water yield. Water
Resources Bulletin. 18(1): 139-145.

Burns, J.W. 1972. Some effects of logging and
associated road  construction on northern
California streams.  Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society.  101(1): 1-17.

Chamberlin, T.W., R.D.  Harr, and F.H. Everest.
1991. Timber harvesting, silviculture, and
watershed processes. In: Influences afforest and
rangeland management on salmonid fishes and
their habitats.  W.R. Meehan (ed.). American
Fisheries Special Publication 19:181-206.

Clayton, J.L., and D.A. Kennedy. 1985. Nutrient
losses from timber harvest in the Idaho batholith.
Soil Science Society of America Journal.
49:1041-1049.
Cleland, H.F. 1910. The effects of deforestation
in New England. Science. 32:82-83.

Cole, D.W., W.J.B.  Crane, and C.C. Grier.
1973. The effect of forest management practices
on water chemistry in a second growth Douglas
fir ecosystem. In: Forest Soils and Forest Land
Management, Proceedings of the Fourth North
American  Forest Soils Conference. Laval
University, Quebec, pp.  195-207.

Craul, P.J. Impacts of logging, Part 2 - Effect on
soils. Northern Logger and Timber Processor.
pp. 8, 34.

Dickerson, B.P. 1968. Logging disturbance on
erosive sites in  north Mississippi. USDA Forest
Service, South .Forest Experiment Station.
Research Note SO-72. 4 pages.

Dickerson, B.P. 1975.  Stormflows and erosion
after tree-length skidding on coastal plains soils.
Transactions of the ASAE. 18: 867-868,872.
                                              132

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Dissmeyer, G.E., and B.B. Foster. 1986. Some
economic benefits of protecting water quality. In:
Society of American Foresters National
Convention, pp.  138-143.

Dissmeyer, G.E., and R.F. Stump. 1978.
Predicted erosion rates for forest management
activities in the Southeast. 26 pages. USD A
Forest Service.

Duerr, W.A., and J.C. Jones. 1976. Forestry
practices and water quality enhancement. In:
Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Forestry and
Wildlife Forum. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, pp. 73-81.

Dunford, E.G. 1962. Logging methods in relation
to stream flow and erosion. 5th World Forestry
Congress, 1960 Proceedings. 3: 1703-1708.

Dyrness, C.T. 1965. Soil surface condition
following tractor and high-lead logging in the
Oregon Cascades. Journal of Forestry.
63(4):272-275.

Dyrness, C.T. 1972. Soil surface conditions
following balloon logging. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment
Station. Research Note PNW-182. 7 pages.

Eckerberg, K. 1985. Environmental
considerations in Swedish forestry: A study of the
administrative process.  Environmental
Management. 9(1): 19-26.

Everest, F.H., and W.R. Meehan. 1981. Forest
management and anadromous fish habitat
productivity. In: Transactions of the 46th North
American Wildlife and Natural Resources
 Conference. Wildlife Management Institute,
Washington, DC. pp. 521-530.

 Ewel, K.C. 1985. Effects of harvesting cypress
 swamps on water quality and quantity. Water
 Resources Research Center, University of
 Florida, Department of Forestry. Publication No.
 87. 49 pages.
 Farrington, R.L., and M.E. Savina. 1977.
 Off-site effects of roads and clearcut units on
 slope stability and stream channels: Fox planning
 unit. Unpublished report. USDA Forest Service,
 Six Rivers National Forest. 76 pages.

 Fowler, J.M., E.O. Heady, and D.A.
 Christensen.  1983. Interface of forest and
 agriculture in nonpoint pollution control. Center
 for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa
 State University, Ames, Iowa. CARD Report
 117. 131 pages.

 Fredriksen, R.L., and R.N. Ross.  1974. Timber
 production and water quality - Progress in
 planning for  the Bull Run,  Portland, Oregon's
 Municipal Watershed. In: Proceedings of the
 Society of American Foresters, pp. 168-186.

 Froehlich, H.A. 1971. Logging debris - managing
 a problem. In:  Proceedings of a Symposium:
 Forest Land  Uses and Stream Environment.
 Oregon State University, October 19-21, 1970.
 J.T. Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.).  OSU,
 Corvallis, Oregon,  pp. 112-117.

 Gonsior,  M.J., and R.B. Gardner. 1971.
 Investigation of slope failures in Idaho Batholith.
 Research Paper INT-97. USDA Forest Service,
 Intermountain  Forest and Range Experiment
 Station, Ogden, Utah.

 Gray, D.H.  1970. Effects  of forest clearcutting on
 the stability  of natural slopes. Bulletin of the
 Association of Engineering Geologists. 7:45-66.

 Hatchell,  G.E., and C.W.  Ralston. 1971. Natural
 recovery of  surface soils disturbed in logging.
 Tree Planting  Notes. 22:5-9.

 Haupt, H.F. 1960. Variation in areal disturbance
 produced  by harvesting methods in ponderosa
' pine. Journal of Forestry. 58(8):634-639.

 Haupt, H.F., and W.J. Kidd, Jr. 1965. Good
 logging practices reduce sedimentation in central
 Idaho. Journal of Forestry. 63(9):664-670.
                                              133

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 Heede, B.H. 1985. Application of
 geomorphological concepts to evaluate timber
 harvest influences on a stream channel-A case
 study. Annals of Geomorphology, Supplement 55,
 Fluvial Geomorphology.  H. Bremer (ed.).
 Gebruder Bomtraeger, Berlin, pp. 121-130.

 Heede, B.H. 1985. Interactions between
 streamside vegetation and stream dynamics. In:
 Conference on Riparian Ecosystems and their
 Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses.
 Tuscon, Arizona, April 16-18, 1985. pp. 54-58.

 Helvey, J.D., and W.B. Fowler. 1979. Grass
 seeding and soil erosion in a steep logged area in
 northeastern Oregon. USDA Forest Service,
 Pacific Northwest Forest and "Range Experiment
 Station. Research Note PNW-343.  11 pages.

 Hesser, R., R. Hoopes, C.B. Weirich, J. Selcher,
 B. Hollender, and R. Snyder. 1975. Chapter 2:
 The aquatic biota. In: Oearcutting in
 Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University,
 School of Forestry Resources, University Park,
 Pennsylvania, pp. 9-20.

 Hollis, C.A., R.F. Fisher, and W.L. Pritchett.
 1978. Effects of some silvicultural practices on
 soil site properties in the lower coastal plain. In:
 Forest Soils and Land Use, Proceedings of the
 Fifth North American Forest Soils Conference.
 Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
 Colorado.  C.T. Youngberg (ed.). pp. 585-606.

 Hornbeck, J.W.  1967. Clear cutting and the
 erosion hazard. Northern Logger and Timber
 Processor.  16:14-15,38-39,48.

 Hornbeck, J.W., R.S. Pierce, and C.A. Federer.
 1970. Streamflow changes after forest clearing in
 New England. Water Resources Research.
 6:1124-1132.

Johnson, H.J., H.F. Cerezke, F. Endean,  G.R.
Hillman, A.D. Kill, J.C. Lees, A.A. Loman, and
J.M. Powell. 1971. Some implications of
large-scale clearcutting in Albena: A literature
 review. Canadian Forest Service, Northern
 Research Centre. Information Report NOR-X-6.
 pp.  114.

 Johnson, S.W., J. Heifetz, and K.V. Koski.
 1986. Effects of logging on the abundance and
 seasonal distribution of juvenile steelhead in some
 southeastern Alaska streams.  North American
 Journal of Fisheries Management. 6:532-537.

 Kochenderfer, J.N., and G.W. Wendel. 1980.
 Costs and environmental impacts of harvesting
 timber in Appalachia with a truck-mounted crane.
 USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest
 Experiment Station. Research Paper NE-456. 9
 pages.

 Koski, K.V., and M.L. Murphy.  1989. Summary
 ofNMFS Auke Bay Laboratory research on
 streamside management issues.

 Krygier, J.T., and R.D. Harr. 1972.  Changes in
 storm hydrographs due to road building and
 clearcut logging on coastal watersheds in Oregon.
 Water Resources Research Institute, Oregon State
 University, Corvallis, Oregon. 59 pages.

 Kunkle, S.H. 1974. Water: Its quality often
 depends on the forester.  Unasylva. 26:10-16.

 Leaf, C.F. 1975. Watershed management in the
 central and southern Rocky Mountains: A
 summary of status of our knowledge by vegetation
 type. USDA Forest  Service, Rocky Mountain
 Forest and Range Experiment Station. Research
 Paper RM-142. 28 pages.

 Leaf, C.F. 1975. Watershed management in the
 Rocky Mountain  subalpine zone: The status of our
 knowledge. USDA Forest Service, Rocky
 Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
 Research Paper RM-137.  31 pages.

 Love, L.D., and B.C. Goodell. 1960. Watershed
 research on the Fraser Experimental Forest.
Journal of Forestry.  58:272-275.
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Mace, A.C., Jr.  1970. Soil compaction due to
tree length and full-tree skidding with rubber-tired
sfddder. University of Minnesota, Agricultural
Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 214. 4
pages.

Marks, P.L., and F.H. Bormann. 1972,
Revegetation following forest cutting:
Mechanisms for return to steady state nutrient
cycling.  Science. 176(4037):914-915.

Meehan, W.R., W.A. Fair, D.M. Bishop, and
J.H. Patric.  1969. Some effects of clearcutting on
salmon habitat of two southwest Alaska streams.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest
and Range Experiment Station. Research Paper
PNW-82.

Megahan, W.F.  1983. Appendix C: Guidelines
for reducing negative impacts of logging. In:
Tropical watersheds: Hydrologic and soils
response to major uses or conversions.  L.S.
Hamilton and P.N. King (eds.). Westview Press,
Boulder, Colorado, pp.  143-154.

Megahan, W.F.  1972. Logging, erosion,
sedimentation-Are they dirt words? Journal of
Forestry.  70(7):403^K)7.

Megahan, W.F.  1980. Nonpoint source pollution
from forestry activities in the western United
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needs. In: U.S. Forestry and Water Quality: What
Course in the 80s? .  Richmond, VA, June 19-20,
1980. Water Pollution Control Federation and
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Mersereau, R.C., and C.T. Dyrness. 1972.
Accelerated mass wasting after logging and slash
burning in western Oregon.  Journal of Soil and
Water Conservation. 27:112-114.

Miller, E.L. 1984. Sediment yield and storm flow
response to  clear-cut harvest and site preparation
in the Ouachita Mountains. Water Resources
Research. 20(4):471-475.

Minore, D., and R.T. Graham. 1989.
Regeneration establishment and development in
the silvicultural system: A western perspective.
In: Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of the
1989 Society of American Foresters National
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Moehring, D.M., and I.W. Rawls. 1970.
Detrimental effects of wet weather logging.
Journal of Forestry. 68(3): 166-167.

NCASI.  1984. Forestry management practices
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utility. National Council of the Paper Industry for
Air and Stream Improvement. Technical Review
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NCASI.  1991.  The New Alsea Watershed study.
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
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602.

Nicolson, J.A., N.W. Foster, and.I.K. Morrison.
1982. Forest harvesting effects on water quality
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In: Proceedings of the  Canadian Symposium on
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O'Leary, J. 1963. The high-lead system. In:
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Pardo, R. 1980. What is forestry's contribution to
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Patric, J.H. 1976. Soil erosion in the eastern
forest.  Journal of Forestry. 74(10):671-677.
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Patric, J.H. 1980. Some environmental effects of
cable logging in Appalachian forests. General
Technical Report NE-55. USDA Forest Service,
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Patric, J.H., and J.L. Gorman. 1978. Soil
disturbance cause by skyline cable logging on
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Patric, J.H., and D.W. Smith. 1975. Forest
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Patton, D.R.  1980.  The effect of streamside forest
harvesting on stream temperature in the Georgia
mountains. Master's Thesis, University of
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Pearce, R. 1987. Casper. Creek: Discovering how
watersheds respond to logging. USDA Forest
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Pyles, M.R., and H.A. Froehlich. 1986.
Discussion and  reply: Rates of landsliding as
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Riekerk, J.,  A.C. Mace, D.G. Neary, and B.F.
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Rothacher, J. 1971. Regimes  of streamflow and
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the Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
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OSU, Corvallis,  Oregon, pp.  40-54.

Ruth, R,H. 1967. Silvicultural effects of skyline
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Henderson. 1980. Timber harvest water yields in
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Sheridan, W.L.,  and W.J. McNeil. 1968.  Some
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Shortreed, K.S.,  and J.G. Stockner. 1983.
Periphyton biomass and species composition in a
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Sciences. 40:1887-1895. ,

Sidle, R.C. 1989. Cumulative effects of forest
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Society of American Foresters National
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Sidle, R.C.  1989, Overview of cumulative effects
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Sidle, R.C., and D.M. Drlica. 1981. Soil
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Sidle, R.C., and A.N. Sharpley.  1991.
Cumulative effects of land management on soil
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Smith, D.M. 1978. Implications for silvicultural
management in the impacts of regeneration
systems on soils and environment. In: Forest Soils
and Land Use, Proceedings of the Fifth North
American Forest Soils Conference. Colorado State
University, Fort Collins, Colorado. C.T.
Youngberg (ed.). pp. 536-545.

Smith, W., F.H. Bormann,  and G.E. Likens.
196.8. Response of chemoautotrophic nitrifiers to
forest,cutting. Soil Science.  106:471-473.

Sullivan, K. 1985. Long-term patterns  of water
quality in a managed watershed in Oregon: 1.
Suspended sediment.  Water Resources Bulletin.
21(6): 977-9 87.

Swank, W.T., L.W. Swift, Jr., and J.E.
Douglass. .1988.  Chapter 22: Streamflow changes
associated with forest cutting, species conversions
and natural disturbances. In: Proceedings of
Symposium: Forest Hydrology and Ecology at
Coweeta. Athens, Georgia,  October, 1984. W.T.
Swank and D.A. Crossleyjr.  (eds.).
Springer-Verlag, New York. pp. 297-312.

Swanston, D.N.  1974. Slope stability problems
associated with timber harvesting in mountainous
regions of the western United States. USD A
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station. General Technical
Report PNW-21. 14 pages.

Swift, L.W.,  Jr., and J.B. Messer.  1971. Forest
cuttings raise temperatures of small streams in the
southern Appalachians. Journal of Soil and
Water Conservation.  26:111-116.

Swindel, B.F., C.J. Lassiter, and H. Riekerk.
1983. Effects of different harvesting and site
preparation operations on the peak flows of
streams in Pinus elliotii flatwoods forests. Forest
Ecology and Management. 5:77-86.

Swindel, B.F., C.J. Lassiter, and H. Riekerk.
1983. Effects of clearcutting and site preparation
on stormflow volumes of streams in Pinus elliotii
flatwoods forests. Forest Ecology and
Management. 5:245-253.

Switzer, G.L., D.M.  Moehring, and T.A. Terry.
1978. Clearcutting vs. alternative harvesting-stand
regeneration systems: Effects on soils and
environment of the south. In: Forest Soils and
Land Use, Proceedings of the Fifth North
American Forest Soils Conference. Colorado State
University. C.T. Youngberg, (ed.) pp.  477-515.

Tripp, D.B.,  and V.A. Poulin. 1986. The effects
of logging and mass wasting on salmonid
spawning habitat in stream on the Queen
Charlotte Islands. British Columbia Ministry of
Forests and Lands, Research Branch. 29 pages.

Troendle, CA.,  and R.M. King. 1987.  The effect
of partial and clearcutting on streamflow at
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Deadhorse Creek, Colorado.  Journal of
Hydrology. 90:145-157.

Ursic, S.J. 1991. Hydrologic effects of two
methods of harvesting mature southern pine.
Water Resources Bulletin. 27(2):303-315.

Ursic, S.J., and F.E. Dendy. 1963. Sediment
yields from small watersheds under various land
uses and forest covers. In: Proceedings of the
Federal Inter-Agency Sedimentation Conference.
USDA Miscellaneous Publication 970. pp. 47-52.

Vitousek,  P.M., and J.M. Melillo. 1979.  Nutrient
losses from disturbed forests: Patterns and
mechanisms. Forest Science. 25(4):605-619.

Wallis, J.R. 1963. Logging for water quality in
northern California. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment
Station. Research Note PSW-N23.  7 pages.

Wooldridge, D.D. 1960. Watershed disturbance
from tractor and skyline crane logging.  Journal
of Forestry. 58(5):369-372.

Ziemer, R.R. 1981. Storm flow response to road
building and partial cutting in small streams of
northern California. Water Resources Research.
17(4):907-917.
BMPs AND SPECIFICATIONS

Binkley, V. 1963. Factors to consider when
selecting skyline yarding systems for site
protection. In: Symposium on Forest Watershed
Management. March 25-28, 1963.  Society of
American Foresters and Oregon State
University, pp. 259-270.

Different types of skyline systems (Skagit,
Wyssen) are described.  The physical
requirements, rigging requirements, supports,
cutting unit layout, and economic requirements of
skyline systems, and factors affecting cost and
soil disturbances are discussed.  A brief summary
of the advantages and disadvantages of skyline
logging systems is presented. This is a general
paper intended to introduce skyline systems.

Bradshaw, G. 1979.  Preplanned skid trails and
winching versus conventional harvesting on a
partial cut. Research Note 62. Oregon State
University, School of Forestry, Forest Research
Lab, 4 pages.

A study was conducted to compare the economic
and soil disturbance performance of two partial
cut units, one with preplanned skid trails and
winching and the other with conventional
skidding. The conventional harvest produced
11 % more and cost per volume harvested was
29% less than  the preplanned.  However,  the
preplanned treatment resulted in only 4%  of its
area in skid trails, compared to 22% for the
conventional harvest.  Tables of data for cost and
soil disturbance are provided.

Bramhall, J.W. 1989. Riparian systems and
forest management- changes in harvesting
techniques and their  effects on decomposed
granitic  soils. In: Proceedings of the California
Riparian Systems Conference. Davis, California,
September 22-24, 1988.  USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station. General Technical Report
PSW-110. pp. 176-179.

In the 1950s, timber on steep granitic terrain in
Trinity County, California, was harvested  by
using the logging techniques of the time.   After
Trinity Dam was built in the 1960s, it became
evident diese techniques were not suited to quality
riparian habitat and healthy anadromous fisheries.
Since adoption of die Z'berg-Nejedly Forest
Practice Act in 1973, efforts have been expended
to repair  damages to riparian vegetation and to
find forest practices compatible with granitic
soils. This article lists BMPs developed for
timber harvesting on granitic soils in 1986,
focusing  on protection of the riparian zone.  No
effectiveness information is given.
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Burton, T,M., and G.E. Likens. 1973. The
effect of strip-cutting on stream temperatures
in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest,
New Hampshire.  BioScience. 23:433-435.  "

A small watershed in the Hubbard Brook
Experimental Forest, a northern hardwood
forested ecosystem, was divided into horizontal
strips each 25 m wide, and every third strip was
logged commercially to determine the effects of
strip-cutting on stream temperature.  Stream
temperature rose rapidly by 4-5 °C  in the cut
strips and subsequently cooled in the uncut strips.
Stream temperature was fairly constant prior to
cutting. Algal blooms were a result of increased
solar radiation in cut strips. The role of
temperature as a water quality factor is discussed,
and other papers on stream temperature studies
are briefly reviewed. Buffer strips are suggested
as a means to mitigate the effect of cutting on
stream temperature fluctuations.

Campbell, R.G.,  J.R. Willis, and J.T. May.
1973. Soil disturbance by logging with
rubber-tired  skidders. Journal of Soil and
 Water Conservation.  29(5):218-220.

This study was conducted to determine the effects
of rubber-tired harvesting on Piedmont soils in
Georgia.  In the Piedmont region,  rolling uplands
have deep, well-drained soils with sandy loam to
 clay loam surface  horizons and clay subsoils.  A
 survey of logging  damage  by rubber-tired
 skidders indicated that 23% of Piedmont logging
 chances are disturbed.  Soil physical conditions
 (bulk density, moisture retention, soil strength,
 chemical  properties) indicated that 5-10% of an
 area has changes that could restrict tree growth.
 Survival and  height growth of pine seedlings on
 noneroded skid trails were not affected by
 harvesting practices.

 Carvell,  K.L. 1984. A silvicultural evaluation
 of cable  yarding  for partial cuts. In: Mountain
 Logging  Symposium Proceedings. West Virginia
 University, June 5-7. P.A. Fetters and J.
 Luchok (eds.). pp. 133-141.
A literature survey related to cable yarding in
partially-cut stands indicates that damage to
residual trees, understory reproduction, soil and
water quality from well-planned cable operations
is comparable to, or less than that from
rubber-tired skidder or tractor logging.  In
even-aged management, damage to small trees
and the understory is not as critical as in uneven-
aged management.  Even in uneven-aged
management, however, the younger trees
(growing stock) can be adequately protected if
damage is minimized through careful planning of
the yarding operation and proper training of
loggers.

Chatwin, S.C., D.E. Howes, J.W. Schwab, and
D.N. Swans ton. 1991. A guide for management
of landslide-prone terrain in the Pacific
Northwest. British Columbia Ministry of
Forests. Land Management Handbook No. 18.
212 pages.

This guide was prepared for personnel operating
 in areas with existing or potential land stability
problems.  The document was developed for use
 in the Pacific Northwest; however, the principles
presented may be applicable to other areas.  Four
topics are addressed: slope movement processes,
 recognition of landslide-prone areas, measures to
 manage unstable terrain  during forestry activities
 (especially road construction and timber harvest),
 and road deactivation and revegetation on unstable
 terrain.  Detailed definitions and techniques for
 determining potential instability and methods for
 preventing landslides from forestry roads  are
 included.

 Clayton, J.L. 1981.  Soil disturbance  caused by
 clearcutting and helicopter yarding in  the Idaho
 batholith. USDA Forest Service Research Note
 INT-305.  7 pages.

 Disturbance to soil from helicopter logging and
 broadcast  burning  of slash from a large
 commercial clear cut in the Idaho batholith was
 evaluated  in this study.  Clayton reported only
" 2% soil disturbance associated with the helicopter
 yarding. Slash burning increased soil disturbance
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 by 14%. The disturbance from helicopter yarding
 was lower than values reported for other yarding
 techniques. Data from this study can be used to
 compare traditional skidding practices known to
 disturb soil surfaces to a progressive system of
 yarding.

 Cordero, W.G.  1982.  The second generation of
 the mini-skidder DH4 used as a prebunching
 machine. Master's Thesis, University of Idaho,
 76 pages.

 A synopsis of mini-skidder harvest performance
 and soil compaction compared to standard skidder
 performance and soil compaction at a logging site
 is described. The mini-skidder resulted in
 significantly less  compaction of soil than the
 conventional skidder (7% and 44% increase,
 respectively).  Information is also provided on
 skidder harvest performance and operation costs
 using both skidders. The author found that using
 the mini-skidder for time-consuming tasks
 (bunching) and using the conventional skidder for
 the skidding operation was the most cost-effective
 method hi this study. The author also
 recommends experimentation with different
 configurations and options for the machinery to
 determine the optimal setup for specific sites.

 Crumrine, J.P. 1977. Best management
 practices for the production of forest products
 and water quality. In: Proceedings of the 208
 Symposium on Non-Point Sources of Pollution
from Forested Land. Southern Illinois
 University, Carbondale, Illinois.  G.M.
 Aubertin (ed.). pp. 267-274.

 Written shortly after passage of the Clean Water
 Act (1972), this article discusses the concept and
 use of BMPs hi forestry generally.  The author
 stresses the important contribution of NFS
 pollution to water quality problems. A distinction
 between preventative and mitigative controls for
 the enhancement and protection of water quality is
 made and discussed, with reference to forestry
 BMPs that fall under each category. A general
 discussion of the concept of BMPs, this is a
 transcript^>f a talk that was originally
 accompanied by slides.

 Cubbage, F.W., and C.E. Deforest. 1991.
 BMPs and harvesting regulations in the South.
 In: Forestry and the Environment...Engineering
 Solutions. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 4-6,
 1991, American Society of Agricultural
 Engineers.

 This paper provides an overview of best
 management practices that apply to forestry
 practices, including road construction, timber
 harvest,  stream crossing, streamside management
 zones, and maintenance and retiring of structures.
 This paper presents basic information about the
 types of BMPs that may be used. The paper
 introduces regulatory trends in the states of
 Florida,  North Carolina, West Virginia, and
 Maryland, as well as regulatory trends in forested
 wetlands.

 DeHart, D.B. 1982. The effects of timber
 harvesting on erosion and sedimentation in New
 Hampshire. 36 pages. New Hampshire Division
 of Forests and Lands, Department of Resources
 and Economic Development.

 The results of a survey of the impacts of forest
 harvest practices on soil loss and water quality are
 presented in this document.  Overall,
 commercially clearcut sites had higher erosion
 rates and greater water quality impacts than sites
 harvested by other methods.   A glossary of
 forestry terms  and an explanation of various
 forestry best management practices are also
 included  in the document.

Dunford, E.G. 1962. Logging methods in
relation to stream flow and erosion. Sth World
Forestry  Congress, 1960 Proceedings. 3:1703-
1708.

This paper provides a general description of
logging operations and discusses the effects of
logging on soil properties (compaction  and
erosion) and the importance of the area disturbed.
The effects of logging on streams, including
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 temperature changes, increased sediment loads,
 and alteration of general hydraulic characteristics,
 are discussed. Remedial measures (prelogging
 plans, proper location and maintenance of logging
 roads, and providing proper dispersion of surface
 runoff) are seen as essential to proper
 environmental forest protection.

 Eschner, A.R., and J. Larmoyeaux. 1963.
 Logging and trout: Four experimental forest
 practices and their effect on water quality.
 Progress in Fish Culture. 25:59-67.

 Studies were done to determine how four different
 timber harvesting practices affect water quality
 and streamflow.  The four practices investigated
 were a commercial clearcut, a diameter limit (all
 trees over 17 in dbh), extensive selection (selected
 trees over 11 in dbh), and intensive, selection
 (selected trees over 5 in dbh). Five contiguous,
 forested watersheds in the Fernow Experimental
 Forest west of the Allegheny Front in West
 Virginia served as study sites. Streamflow,
 precipitation, and water quality were studied on
 the watersheds for 6 years prior  to four of the
 five watersheds being logged. Prediction
 equations were formulated from  the data  obtained.
 Stream discharge was increased by the treatments,
 low flow was significantly augmented, and water
 quality was damaged. Growth on remaining trees
 and new cover appeared immediately following
, the treatments, and improvements in water quality
 and a return to normal flow occurred.  Tables
 detailing the treatments and their effects on the
 four logged watersheds, corresponding to the four
 practices studied, are included.            -.

 Froehlich, H.A. 1973. Natural and man-caused
 slash in headwater streams.  Loggers
 Handbook. Vol. XXXIII. Pacific Logging
 Congress.

 Froehlich observed the amount of debris in
 Oregon headwater streams. He  found that debris
 occurs there naturally as well as being placed
 there by logging activities.  After following 17
 logging projects, he discovered that (1)
 conventional freefalling techniques cause large
increases in stream debris; (2) in sharp contrast,
cable-assisted directional falling causes small
increases in stream debris; and (3) stream buffer
strips decrease the amount of debris reaching the
stream with increasing size (range was 20 to 130
feet wide). The author recommends using
directional felling to prevent debris from entering
the stream over clearing the streams or using
buffer strips.

Graham, R.T. 1989. Importance of integrating
harvesting, site preparation, and regeneration:
The silvicultural system. In: Forestry on the
Frontier,  Proceedings of the 1989 Society of
American Foresters National Convention.
Spokane, Washington, pp. 217-218.

The author describes a silvicultural system as a
planned program of silvicultural treatment during
the whole life of a stand.  The successful
implementation of silvicultural systems is essential
to good forestry practice.  A  prescription, or a
successfully coordinated plan that integrates a
sequence of treatments, is important to the
implementation of a silvicultural system. The
prescription should include the desired future
condition of the stand, timber harvesting      -;
schedules and methods, site preparation after
harvesting, and maintenance  activities to ensure
seedling survival.  The integration of harvesting,
site preparation, and regeneration is essential to
productivity but is often not accomplished because
forestry activities are split among divisions of
industry or government. Lack of communication
among the divisions undermines the
implementation of good silvicultural systems.
This article contains no data  or case studies and is
limited to theoretical discussion.
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 Hartman, G., J.C. Scrivener, L.B. Holtby, and
 L. Powell. 1987. Some effects of different
 streamside treatments on physical conditions
 and fish population processes in Carnation
 Creek, a coastal rain forest stream in British
 Columbia. In: Streamside Management: Forestry
 and Fishery Interactions. E.O. Salo and T.W.
 Cundy (eds). University of Washington, College
 of Forest Resources, Seattle, Washington, pp.
 330-372.

 Carnation Creek has been studied continuously
 since 1971.  During this time 41 % of the
 watershed was logged.  Three different streamside
 treatments conducted hi the alluvial fioodplain
 portion were evaluated: (1) an intensive treatment
 of clearcutting, felling of streambank alder, and
 yarding of felled trees  and merchantable timber;
 (2) a careful treatment of clearcutting to the
 margin of the stream and felling of streambank
 alder, with no in-channel activity; and (3) a leave
 strip treatment in which a variable width strip of
 vegetation was left along the stream. Stream
 temperature increased due to logging.  The
 decrease in volume and stability of large debris
 was accompanied by streambank erosion and
 straightening of the channel. This in turn caused
 a change hi gravel quality in the lower sections of
 the stream.  Coho and  chum salmon egg-to-fry
 survival was lower following the first major storm
 following logging.  Trout smolt numbers
 decreased, but coho smolts increased by 76%
 between  1976 and 1983.  Afterward they
 decreased to prelogging levels.

 Hartung, R.E., and J.M. Kress. 1977.
 Woodlands of the Northeast: Erosion and
 sediment control guides. USDA Soil
 Conservation Service, Northeast Technical
 Service Center and Forest Service, Northeast
 Area S and PF. 26 pages.

 This is a guidance manual for forestry activities in
 the northeastern United States.   Extensive
 measures for erosion and sediment control are
described, and structural design criteria are
provided.  Water control  on  roads, seeding of
roadbanks, building of logging road bridges,  and
 the need for adequate filter strips are described.

 Hornbeck, J.W. 1968. Protecting water quality
 during and after clearcutting.  Journal of Soil
 and Water Conservation. 23(1):19- 20.

 This paper provides a follow-up study to
 Hornbeck  and Reinhart (1964).  In this study two
 watersheds were harvested using selection cutting
 and carefully planned logging operations that
 exposed less than 1% of the watershed's mineral
 soil. Turbidity levels from this study were lower
 than those reported hi 1964.  As with die 1964
 study, skid roads were considered the primary
 source of the turbidity from the watershed. The
 audior concludes that water quality impacts
 associated  widi timber harvest activities  can be
 reduced  if sound practices are used.

 Hornbeck, J.W., G.E. Likens, R.S. Pierce,
 and F.H. Bormann. 1975. Strip cutting as a
 means of protecting site and streamflow quality
 when clearcutting northern  hardwoods. In:
 Forest Soils and Forest Land Management,
 Proceeding of the Fourth North American Forest
 Soils Conference.  B. Bernier and C.H. Winget
 (eds.). pp.  209-224.

 The results of a progressive strip cutting (a form
 of clearcutting) experiment in northern hardwoods
 at die Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest are
 presented in this paper.  Various changes to the
 ecosystem, including vegetation response, and
 changes in  water yield and water quality are
 discussed.  The following conclusions are made:
 (1)  small increases in water yield were observed
 during two succeeding growing seasons;  (2)
 stream temperature,  pH, and turbidity showed
 minor changes after  strip cutting; and (3) large
 increases in nitrate and calcium were observed
 altiiough  die losses were smaller dian those
typical of conventional clearcutting.  The paper
also presents data on other nutrients monitored
during the experiment.
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Hornbeck, J.W., C.W. Martin, and C.T.
Smith. 1986. Protecting forest streams during
whole-tree harvesting.  Northern Journal of
Applied Forestry. 3(3):97-100.

The effects of whole-tree harvests in the
Northeast on stream turbidity, temperature, and
chemistry hi three watersheds are presented in this
paper. The data indicate that the use of BMPs
during whole-tree harvest can limit water quality
impacts to levels typical of bole-only harvest.
The paper lists eight BMPs that the authors
suggest to minimize stream damage from all
forms of tree harvesting: use streamside buffer
strips of 15 to 30 m; select logging methods that
minimize road construction; maximum grade on
roads of 10% (except for short "stretches); install
cross drains and dips to move water from roads
and trails; minimize rutting by skidders by
avoiding repeat trips over the same route; exhibit
flexibility in planning operations (e.g., build
roads and trails during dry weather); finish the
operation as soon as possible; and remove
temporary bridges and culverts, and revegetate
problem areas.

Huff, J.L., and E.L. Deal. 1982. Forestry and
 water quality in North Carolina: A voluntary
program for the control of nonpoint sources of   ,
pollution from logging and silvicultural
 activities. North Carolina Agricultural
 Extension Service and North Carolina State
 University. 8 pages.

 This extension service publication discusses BMPs
 for forest road construction  to control erosion.
 General headings include planning logging roads,
 constructing logging roads,  harvesting,
 maintenance of logging roads, maintenance of
 logging roads after logging, and regenerating a
 new stand. BMPs are listed and briefly discussed
 under each heading.

 Jones, R.C., and B.H.  Holmes. 1985. Effects of
 land use practices on water resources in
  Virginia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
 State University,  Water Resources Research
Center. VPI-VWRRC- BULL-144.

This report presents a review of forestry,
agriculture, and urban land uses in Virginia and
how they affect water resources.  A review of
hydrologic changes and water quality impacts
from forestry operations is included.  In addition,
a review of forestry water quality management
programs  in the state is presented. This report
presents generalized  information on how a
specific state manages water resources that may
be affected by forestry activities.

Kochenderfer, J.N., and  G.W.  Wendel. 1978.
Skyline harvesting in Appalachia. USDA Forest
Service, Northeastern  Forest Experiment
Station. Forest Research  Paper NE-400.

A skyline logging system called the URUS was
tested during a partial cutting of forest in West
Virginia.  The document describes the advantages
and disadvantages of skyline harvesting and
provides recommendations for the equipment as
well as for topographical sitings. The article
concludes by stating that the more sophisticated
yarding systems used in the West are not
economically feasible or implementable for
 eastern forests.

 Lantz, R.L. 1971.  Guidelines for stream
protection in logging operations, Oregon State
 Game Commission, Portland, Oregon. 29
 pages.

 This report reviews why certain  logging practices
 in the West Coast Douglas fir  region are,more
 desirable than others for protecting fish habitat
 and water quality.  Streams  can be protected to  a
 large extent by (1) keeping streamside vegetation
 intact and (2)  taking precautions to eliminate or
 minimize soil  disturbance and  erosion,
 particularly that resulting from roads. The report
 emphasizes the need to change or eliminate some
 traditional logging practices due to the resource
 conflicts between and interdependence of fisheries
 and timber production. The report addresses the
 freshwater requirements  of salmon and trout, the
  importance of protecting stream habitat, and
                                                143

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forestry practices that can be used to protect fish
habitat.  The author discusses streamside
management areas and road location,
construction, and maintenance practices.

Lynch, J.A.,  E.S. Corbett, and K. Mussallem.
1985. Best management practices for
controlling nonpoint-source pollution on
forested watersheds.  Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation. 41(1):164-167.

The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Resources, Bureau of Forestry, developed a set of
best management practices (BMPs) to limit and/or
control nonpoint source pollution from
silvicultural activities.  Nonpoint source pollution
in a forested watershed is characterized by
changes in stream temperature, turbidity/
sediment levels, and nutrient concentrations and
export. A watershed study conducted on the
Leading Ridge Experimental Watersheds in
central Pennsylvania suggested that the BMPs
were effective hi  controlling nonpoint source
pollution from a 44.5- hectare commercial
clearcut.  Slight increases in stream temperature,
turbidity, and nitrate and potassium concentrations
were observed, but these increases did not exceed
drinking water standards.

Lysons, H.H., and R.H. Twito. f973. Skyline
logging: An economical means of reducing
environmental impact of logging. Journal of
Forestry.  71(9):S80-S83.

The basic tight, slack, and running skyline
yarding systems are reviewed,  and the desired
characteristics of a logging system are identified
to help select the most suitable means of yarding.
Figures of the systems are provided.  The
physical, economic, and environmental
characteristics of each of the systems are listed
and discussed.  Several misconceptions
concerning skyline logging are clarified.  One is
that skyline logging is more costly man high-lead
logging; skyline logging is economically feasible
and is less sensitive to yarding distance than are
other logging systems.  Another is that the span
length greatly decreases the load-carrying ability;
 for any given deflection, the load- carrying ability
 decreases only by the added weight of the line for
 the longer span.  Also, a highly mobile cable
 system is probably the best way to harvest partial
 cuts and thinnings, contrary to popular beliefs.

 McClimans, RJ. 1980. Best management
 practices for forestry activities. In: Watershed
 Management. Boise, Idaho, July 21-23,1980.
 C.W. Johnson (ed.). American Society of Civil
 Engineers, Irrigation and Drainage Division,
 Committee on Watershed Management,  pp.
 694-705.

 This paper defines critical combinations of site
 conditions for which BMPs are needed to
 minimize adverse impacts on soil and water
 resources. The document also includes
 assessment methodologies, as well as charts and
 graphs for the selection and  application of
 appropriate BMPs.  Forest practices are grouped
 according to  their capacity to cause water
 pollution, the nature of the more commonly
 applied BMPs to control pollution, and site
 considerations.  Guides, based on slope of land
 and distance  from water, are provided to
 determine whether a particular BMP is necessary
 for the particular group of activities.  Graphs
 developed to  determine BMP applicability  are
 presented, and the selected BMPs are discussed
 for each  group of forest activities. Specifications
 for some BMPs are also presented.

 Miller, J.H., and D.L. Sirois. 1986. Soil
 disturbance by skyline yarding vs. skidding in
 a loamy  hill  forest.  Soil Science Society of
America  Journal. 50(6):1579-1583.

 Soil disturbance was assessed on harvested units
of mature soudiern pines  (Pinus spp.), where a
part of each unit was logged with a cable skyline
system and a  part with rubber-tired ground
skidders.  The effects of the two methods of
harvesting were studied by aerial and ground
surveys.  Cable yarding required 2%  less acreage
in landing than skidding,  and yarding corridors
occupied 12% less area than did skid trails.
Physical  and chemical analyses of surface soils
                                              144

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 (upper 15 cm) showed that loam soils with clay
 subsoils were most severely affected by die
 displacement of topsoil after both methods of
 logging.  On 8% to 14% of both logged areas,
 harvesting activities resulted in significant
 reductions in organic matter; available moisture
 holding capacity; and available P, Ca,  and K.
 Silt loam soils were severely compacted by cable
 yarding in the  corridors that consistently ran
 upslope, creating the greatest erosion potential.
The authors conclude that the carefully planned
 use of skyline  cable systems would minimize the
 area affected by severe soil disturbance and
 should be considered for future harvesting in this
 locale.       • „    •

 Mumma, J.W., and J.S. Tixier. 1988. Soil and
 wafer conservation practices handbook. USD A
Forest Service R-l Missoula, Montana and R-4,
Ogden, Utah.  Handbook 2509.22.

The primary purpose of this document  is-to
present BMPs for use in minimizing adverse
impacts from forestry practices.  It describes the
application, monitoring, evaluation, and
adjustment of these practices. Examples of BMPs
that have been  field-tested and are known to
provide protection under specific circumstances
are also presented.  This general forestry BMP
document includes definitions and the purposes
for each practice.

Murphy,  M.L., J. Heifetz, S.W. Johnson,
K.V. Koski, and J.F. Thedinga. 1986. Effects
of clear-cut logging with and without buffer
strips on juvenile salmonids in Alaskan
streams.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences. 43(8):1521-1533.

To  assess  short-term effects of logging  on juvenile
Oncorhynchus kisutch, Salvelins malma, Salmo
gairdneri, and Salmo clarki in southeastern
Alaska, the fish density  and habitat in summer
and winter were compared in  18 streams in
old-growth forest and in ciearcuts with  and
without buffer strips. .The study concludes that
clearcutting may increase fry abundance in
summer in some streams by increasing primary
  production, but may reduce abundance of parr in
  winter if debris is removed.  Use of buffer strips
  maintains or increases debris, protects habitat,
  allows increased primary production, and can
  increase abundance of fry or parr. The report
.  also contains references to more than 50 other
  papers.

  Neuman, L. 1987. Silviculture and best
  management practices. In: Erosion  Control:
  You're Gambling Without it. International
  Erosion Control Association, pp. 145-155.

  This report presents information on the types of
  impairments typical of forestry activities and
  provides information on management techniques
  that may be used to minimize the impacts.  The
  practices presented in this paper include timber
  harvesting, site preparation,  and road construction
  and drainage.  Erodibility factors, assigned to
  Florida soils by the SCS, and slope determine a
  site's sensitivity to erosion, and the paper presents
  site sensitivity classes for Florida soils.  This
  classification is related to suggested BMP usage
  and implementation. Many useful tables of
  specifications for when and how to construct the
  practices are presented.

  Patric, J.H., and G. Aubertin. Long-term
  effects of repeated logging on an Appalachian
  stream.  Journal of Forestry. 75(8): 492-494.

 The effect of BMPs on the turbidity of streams
  running off the Elk Lick Run Logging site was
  examined.  After two well-planned loggings in
  1910 and the 1930s, a 1957 logging with poorly
 planned and managed roads caused significant
 amounts of turbidity.  A 1972 logging that
 followed  BMPs did not affect turbidity.
                                              145

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 Ponce, S.L. 1986. Controlling diffuse-source
 pollution associated with forest practices in
 North America. In: Effects of land use on fresh
 waters: agriculture, forestry, mineral
 exploitation, urbanization.  L.G. Solbe (ed.).
 Water Research Centre, Chichester, England.
 pp. 432-443.

 This paper provides an overview of strategies
 used within the United States to control  the
 degradation of water quality from forest practices.
 The document includes information on
 regulations, source impacts, and control
 opportunities.  Several excellent tables are
 presented with information on silvicultural
 activities and their associated impacts and control
 practices.

 Pope,  P.E. 1978. Forestry and water quality:
 Pollution control practices. Forestry and
 Natural Resources. Purdue University
 Cooperative Extension Services. FNR 88. 6
 pages.

 Best management practices (BMPs) for forestry
 activities are presented, stressing that feasible
 BMPs  must depend on site- specific,  case-by-case
 information such as management objectives and
 natural conditions.  Information on the
 effectiveness of BMPs is not provided.  The
 principal types of erosion control practices and
 qualitative positive and negative features, based
 on EPA Technical Report 37 (1977) are included.

 Riekerk, H., D.G. Neary, and W J. Swank.
 1989. The magnitude of upland silviculture
 nonpoint source pollution in the south. In:
 Proceedings of the Symposium on the Forested
 Wetlands of the Southern United States.
 Orlando,  Florida, July 12-14,  1988. USDA
 Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report SE-50. pp.
 8-18.

Streamflow water quality data from intensive
silvicultural practices in the southern  United
States are  summarized  and discussed with respect
to regional differences  of nonpoint source
 pollution, and BMPs.  Suspended sediment
 produ9tion by silviculture was low in the
 mountains and lower coastal plain, but high hi the
 Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions. This
 was due to a combination of site preparation
 intensity and topographic relief.  Nutrient exports
 hi the Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions
 were controlled by the degree of soil disturbance
 and by the recovery rate of vegetation. Nutrient
 exports in the lower coastal plain were not much
 affected by intensive silviculture.  Research is
 needed on the effects of silvicultural practices hi
 wetlands and on the actual effectiveness of BMPs.
 Research and analyses  of cumulative effects are
 also needed to determine the impacts of multiple
 silvicultural practices on downstream wetlands.

 Rothwell, R.L.  1971.  Watershed management
 guidelines for logging and road construction.
 Canadian Forestry Service, Department of
 Fisheries and Forestry, Forest Research
 Laboratory,  Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
 Information  Report A-X-42. 78 pages.

 This guidance document was prepared to
 minimize the impacts to water quality resulting
 from silviculture in North America. The
 document covers virtually all activities from start
 to finish  of a logging event.  These activities
 include road construction and maintenance.
 Appropriate best management practices are
 graphically described.

 Rothwell, R.L. 1978.  Watershed management
guidelines for logging  and road construction in
Alberta.  Canadian Forest Service,  Northern
Forest Research Center. Information Report
NOR-X-208.  43 pages.

This document presents information on general
guidelines to follow when constructing and
maintaining a forest road.  Information provided
in the document includes the following: road
gradient, road width, aspect, stream  protection,
stream crossings, cuts and fills, drainage,  and
retirement. This paper presents specifications for
many of the best management practices suggested.
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Triansoky, P. 1991. BMPs: A must if we are to
survive.  Forest Farmer. 28:13-15.

This general article discusses the concept of using
BMPs in forestry, the benefits of employing
BMPs, and the disadvantages for the forest farmer
of not using them.  Economic incentives for using
BMPs are also discussed from the point of view
that not using them will eventually cost the forest
farmer as much or more than the original cost of
the BMP.

USDA Forest Service.  1992. Investigating Water
Quality in the Pacific Southwest Region, Best
Management Practices  Evaluation Program
(BMPEP): A User's Guide. USDA Forest
Service, Region 5, San Francisco, California.

This document is the result of a continuous loop
of on-site evaluations, BMP prescription
development, implementation, monitoring, and
feedback. The monitoring/evaluation program
described in this user's  guide provides the
feedback loop to obtain and document
observations of how well BMPs protect  water
quality and  also helps to identify deficiencies and
their causes and necessary corrective  actions.
On-site evaluations were made on the following
activities: streamside management zones, skid
trails, suspended yarding, landings, meadow
protection, special erosion control and
revegetation, timber administration, road surface,
drainage, slopes protection, stream crossings,
 servicing and refueling, in-channel construction
 practices, temporary  roads, rip-rap, snow
 removal, protection of roads during wet periods,
 pioneer  road construction, prescribed fire,
 revegetation of surface disturbed  areas,  and
 location of stock facilities in wilderness. In
 addition, assistance in accessing the Best
 Management Practices  Evaluation Program
 database (BMP- DB) is provided.

 Yoho, N.S. 1980. Forest management and
 sediment production in the south-A review.
 Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 4(1):27-
 36.
The author reviews sediment yields from various
forestry activities, finding that forest practices
commonly result in small short-term increases and
that significant increases are limited to practices
conducted with heavy machinery. Yields from
similar sites receiving the same type of
disturbance vary by several hundred percent, and
sediment yields are reduced  when channel
disturbance is avoided.  Careful planning, design,
construction, use, and maintenance of forest roads
and skid trails achieve the greatest reductions.
The author provides comparative soil loss data for
a variety of land uses: less than 0.1 ton/acre/yr
(undisturbed mixed forest, forest thinning); 0.1 -
1.0 tbn/acre/yr (carefully clearcut forest,
abandoned fields); 1.0 - 10.0 tons/acre/yr
(annually burned forest, mechanical site
preparation); 10 - 100 tons/acre/yr (carelessly
cultivated or steep sloped fields); and 100 or more
tons/acre/yr (active construction, gullies).

Adams, P.W., and H.A. Froehlich. 1981.
Compaction afforest spils. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Range and Experiment Station.
PNW-216. ,13 pages.

Anderson, H.W., M.D. Hoover, and K.G.
Reinhart. 1976.  Forests and water: Effects of
forest management on floods, sedimentation, and
water supply. USDA Forest Service. General
Technical Report PSW-18.  115 pages.

 Baumgartner, D.M. (ed). 1981. Interior west
 watershed management: Proceedings of a
 symposium. Spokane, Washington,  April 8-10,
 1980. Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service. 288 pages.

 Binkley,  V.W.  1965. Economics and design of a
 radio-controlled skyline yarding system. USDA
 Forest Service,  Pacific Northwest Forest and
 Range Experiment Station.  Research Paper
 PNW-25. 30 pages.

 Blinn, C.R.,  and P.C.  Bates. 1989. Integration of
 harvesting methods and silvicultural practices: An
 eastern perspective. In: Forestry on the Frontier:
 Proceedings of the 1989 Society of American
                                               147

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Foresters National Convention. Spokane,
Washington, pp. 203-207.

Burke, D. 1975. Running skylines reduce access
road needs, minimize harvest site impact.  Forest
Industries, pp. 46-48.

Cromack, K., Jr., F.J. Swanson, and C.C. Grier.
1978. A comparison of harvesting methods and
their impact on soils and environment in the
Pacific Northwest. In: Forest Soils and Land Use,
Proceedings of the Fifth North American Forest
Soils Conference.'Colorado State University, Fort
Collins, Colorado.  C.T.  Youngberg (ed.). pp.
449-478.

Cullen, J.B. 1991.  Best management practices
for erosion control on timber harvesting
operations in New Hampshire resource manual.
New Hampshire Department of Resources and
Economic Development, Division of Porests and
Lands.

Dissmeyer, G.E., and G.R. Foster. 1980. A guide
for predicting sheet and rill erosion on forest
land. USDA Forest Service. Technical
Publication R8-P6. 40 pages.

Everest,  F.H., and W.R.  Meehan. 1981. Forest
management and anadromous fish habitat
productivity. In: Transactions of the 46th North
American Wildlife and Natural Resources
Conference. Wildlife Management Institute,
Washington, DC. pp. 521-530.

Golden,  M.S., C.L. Turtle, J.S. Kush, and J.M.
Bradley. 1984. Forestry activities and water
quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
practices, and an erosion-classified system.
Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
Station. Bulletin 555.

Helvey, J.D., and W.B.  Fowler. 1979. Grass
seeding and soil erosion  in a steep logged area in
northeastern Oregon. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Forest  and Range Experiment
Station. Research Note PNW-343. 11 pages.
 Leaf, C.F. 1975. Watershed management in the
 central and southern Rocky Mountains: A
 summary of status of Our knowledge by vegetation
 type. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain
 Forest and Range Experiment Station. Research
 Paper RM-142. 28 pages.

 Leaf, C.F. 1975. Watershed management in the
 Rocky Mountain subalpine zone: The status of our
 knowledge. USDA Forest Service, Rocky
 Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
 Research Paper RM-137. 31  pages.

 McEvoy,  T.J. 1989. Private forests: Common
 sense erosion control. American Forests.
 95:32-34,66-67.

 Megahan, W.F. 1983. Appendix C: Guidelines
 for reducing negative impacts  of logging. In:
 Tropical watersheds: Hydrologic and soils
 response to major uses or conversions.  L.S.
 Hamilton  and P.N. King (eds.). Westview Press,
 Boulder, Colorado, pp.  143-154.

 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,
 Division of Forestry. 1989. Water quality in
forest management: Best management practices in
 Minnesota. 104 pages.

 NCASI. 1984. Forestry management practices
 and cumulative effects on water quality and
 utility. National Council  of the Paper Industry for
 Air and Stream Improvement. Technical Review
 Bulletin No. 435.

 O'Leary, J. 1963. The high-lead system. In:
 Symposium on Forest Watershed Management.
 March 25-28,  1963. Society of American
 Foresters and Oregon State University, pp.
 271-276.

 Peters, P.A.,  and J. Luchok (eds). 1984.
 Mountain  Logging Symposium Proceedings. West
 Virginia University, June 5-7, 1984. 372 pages.

 Roby, K., J. Rector, and M. Furniss. 1991. PSW
 region of the Forest Service about to launch BMP
                                             148

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evaluation process. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
Southwest Region. White paper. 2 pages.

Sopper, W.E. 1975. Effects of timber harvesting
and related management practices on water quality
in forested watersheds.  Journal of Environmental
Quality. 4(l):24-29.

Svinth, J.F.  1963. Revegetation of cut and fill
•Slopes. In: Symposium on Forest Watershed
Management. March 25-28, 1963. Society of
 American Foresters and Oregon State University.
 pp. 253-258.

 Thomas, J.W., D.A. Leckenby, LJ, Lyon, L.L.
 Hicks  and C.L. Marcum. 1988. Integrated ,
 management of timber-elk-cattle: Interior forests
 of western North America. USDA Forest Service,
 Pacific Northwest Research Station. General
 Technical Report PNW- GTR-225. 12 pages.

 USDA Forest Service. 1989. Annotated
 bibliography on soil erosion and erosion control
  in subarctic and high-latitude regions of North
 America. USDA Forest Service, Pacific
  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station.
  General Technical Report PNW-GTR-253.

  Whitman R. 1989. Clean water of multiple use?
  Best management practices for water quality
  control on the national forests. Ecology Law
  Quarterly. 16(4):909.


   COSTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BMPs

   Benson, R.E., and M J. Niccolucci. 1986.
   What does it cost to protect nontimber
   resources during logging? American Forests.
   92(6):26-28 and 53-54.

    This paper presents an analysis of the major cost
    components associated with managing and
    protecting nontimber resources in National
    Forests.  Data from  187 timber sales in the
    northern Rocky Mountains between  1975 and
    1981 were used to test different ways of assigning
costs to nontimber resources.  The average cost of
protecting npntimber resources was $26/1000
board-feet of timber sold. Broken down, costs
were $12.69 for road construction and
maintenance, $8.77 for log hauling, and $4.46 in
other activities such as felling trees, log skidding,
and slash disposal. These costs cover soil, water,
habitat, and other resources.  The opportunity
costs and administrative costs associated with
protection on nontimber resources are not
included. The authors conclude that  determining
exact costs associated with protection of natural
resources will not be possible until methods of
 estimating opportunity and administrative costs
 are developed.

 Binkley, V. 1963. Factors to consider when
 selecting skyline yarding systems for site
 protection.  In: Symposium on Forest Watershed
 Management. March 25-28, 1963.  Society of
 American Foresters and Oregon State
 University, pp. 259-270.

 Different types of skyline systems (Sfcagit,
 Wyssen) are described. The physical
  requirements, rigging requirements, supports,
  cutting unit layout, and economic requirements of
  skyline systems,  and factors affecting cost and
  soil disturbances are discussed.  A brief summary
  of the advantages and disadvantages of skyline
  logging systems  is presented.  This  is a general
  paper intended to introduce skyline systems.

  Bradshaw, G. 1979. Preplanned  skid trails and
  winching versus conventional harvesting on a
  partial cut. Research Note 62. Oregon State
  University, School of Forestry, Forest Research
  Lab, 4 pages.

   A  study was conducted to compare the economic
   and soil disturbance performance of two partial
   cut units, one with preplanned skid trails and
   winching and the other with  conventional   ;
    skidding.  The conventional harvest produced
    11% more and  cost per volume harvested was
    29%  less than the preplanned.  However, the
    preplanned treatment resulted in only 4% of its
    area in skid trails, compared to 22% for the
                                                 149

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conventional harvest. Tables of data for cost and
soil disturbance are provided.

Cordero, W.G. 1982.  The second generation of
the mini-skidder DH4 used as a prebunching
machine. Master's Thesis, University of Idaho,
76 pages.

A synopsis of mini-skidder harvest performance
and soil compaction compared to standard skidder
performance and soil compaction at a logging site
is described. The mini-skidder resulted in
significantly less compaction of soil than the
conventional skidder (7% and  44%  increase,
respectively). Information is also provided on
skidder harvest performance and operation costs
using both skidders. The author found that using
the mini-skidder for time-consuming tasks
(bunching) and using the conventional skidder for
the skidding operation was the most cost-effective
method in this study. The author also
recommends experimentation with different
configurations and options for  the machinery to
determine the optimal setup for specific sites.

Cubbage, F.W. 1987. Costs of forest water
quality protection. In: Forestry and Water
Quality: A Policy  Workshop for State Foresters.
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July 6-9, 1987.

This paper presents a review of the costs of
forestry NFS controls,  including agency
administrative costs, direct costs to landowners or
timber operators (e.g.,  plan preparation), and
indirect costs on timber supplies. Forest practice
costs are reviewed for California, Massachusetts,
Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
The various approaches used by these states and
their effect on implementation  cost are analyzed
as well.  The approach used by forestry and other
agencies for implementing the  voluntary or
required practice rules greatly  affects the various
costs of program implementation, as well as who
bears the costs.  Criteria  used to select the means
of controlling NFS pollution must include BMP
effectiveness, political and social acceptability,
and economic efficiency.
Cubbage, F.W., and P. Lickwar. 1990.
Estimating the costs of water quality protection
on private forest lands in Georgia. Georgia
Forestry Commission, Research Division.

The purpose of the information presented in this
paper is to quantify the operational costs of
implementing various forestry best management
practices, with emphasis placed on practices
associated with road construction.  This paper
presents very good cost information on the
following: road construction, stream crossings,
broad-based dips, water bars, seed, fertilizer,
mulch.  The information is useful because the
costs are based on various physiographic
classifications (i.e., coastal plain, piedmont, or
mountain).

Curtis, J.G., D.W. Pelren, D.B. George, V.D.
Adams, and J.B.  Layzer. 1990. Effectiveness  of
best management practices in preventing
degradation of streams caused by silvicultural
activities in Pickett State Forest, Tennessee.
Center for the Management, Utilization and
Protection of Water Resources, Tennessee
Technological University for the Tennessee
Department of Conservation, Division of
Forestry and the Tennessee  Wildlife Resources
Agency. 197 pages.
   /          '
This study was undertaken to evaluate the
effectiveness of BMPs applied to timber harvest
operations in Pickett Forest.  The effects on water
quality, fish production, and macroinvertebrates,
and the presence of herbicides in streams  were
studied.  The BMPs employed were SMZs, road
placement on ridgetops and high elevations, skid
trails kept at least 14 m from  streams, harvest
during the driest season and maximum soil
stability, logging of small, dispersed stands,
seeding and  mulching of disturbed areas,
broad-based dips on the haul road, and a period
of 10 years before  the area would be logged
again.  Herbicides  were applied to two stands.
Hardwoods 75 mm dbh or less were thin line
sprayed with a mixture of Garlon (active
ingredients triclopyr and 2,4-D), Sidekick, and
diesel fuel.  Picloram was injected into all
                                              150

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 hardwoods 255 mm dbh or greater.
 Concentrations of nerbicides in streams following
 the treatments was low: 2,4-D © <0.024).081.
 Based on available toxicity data, the levels
 detected were not biologically harmful.
 However, care is needed during application to
 minimize transport to surface waters.  Extensive
 data relating to all of the BMPs employed during
 the study are presented in the paper .

 Dissmeyer, G.E. 1986. Economic impacts of
 erosion control in forests. In: Proceedings of
 the Southern Forestry Symposium. Atlanta,
 Georgia, November 19-21, 1985.  S. Carpenter
 (ed.). Oklahoma State University, Agricultural
 Conference Series, pp. 262-287.

 A review of the literature is coupled with data to
 provide the reader with information on the
 potential economic returns to the landowner from
 erosion control practices.  The paper references
. over 30 citations.  Information on soil
 compaction, nutrient cycling, soil productivity,
 and growth and yields  is included.

 Dissmeyer, G.E., and B.B.  Foster.  1990.
 Economics of forest soil resource management.
 In: Sustained Productivity of Forest Soils,
  Proceedings of the 7th National North American
  Forest Soils Conference,  pp. 515-525.

  This paper summarizes a national effort by the
  USDA Forest Service  to develop methods to
  quantify the economic benefits of soil and water
  resource management  and to demonstrate these
  methods through example. The costs of soil
  resource management  are accounted for and
  compared with benefits to compute benefit/  cost
  ratios, net present values, -and internal rates of
  return.

  Dissmeyer, G.E., and B.B. Foster. 1987. Some
  economic benefits of protecting water quality.
  In: Managing Southern Forests for Wildlife and
  Fish: A Proceedings. USDA Forest Service,
  Southern Forest Experiment Station. General
  Technical Report SO-65. pp. 6-11.
Many of the practices used to protect water
quality are the same ones used to improve soil
productivity. Protecting soil productivity has
economic  benefits for the landowner in terms of
timber produced per acre, and lowered road
construction and maintenance costs. Increased
fisheries production in forest streams is another
economic  benefit of protecting forest soils. The
effects of sediment on fish habitats, and the
principles and economic benefits of soil
productivity, are reviewed. Tables present the
economic returns of implementing various forest
BMPs. For instance, skid trail rehabilitation
yielded a  real return of from 2.4% to 4.8%.  The
benefit/cost ratio of rehabilitating cut-and-fill
slopes ranged from 2.4 to 4.4 in studies reviewed.
Erosion control confers economic benefits on
landowners and protects water quality and
fisheries.

Duerr, W.A., and J.C. Jones. 1976. Forestry
practices and water quality enhancement.  In:
Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Forestry and
 Wildlife Forum. Virginia Polytechnic Institute
 and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, pp.
 73-81.

 This paper discusses the various economic aspects
 of forest  practice controls. The benefits of forest
 practices are seen as potential in that they accrue
 only if regulatory programs work  as intended.
 The benefits are enhanced quality  of the
 watershed, increased aesthetic values, and
 improved growing and harvesting. The costs of
 the regulatory controls are fines that are real and
 immediate.  A general cost of regulations is the
 loss of freedom to do as  one wishes on one's own
 land.  The authors investigate whether the costs
 justify the benefits.   Few data were available to
 determine this although some costs were found to
 be reduced by the use of forest practices.
 However, the costs of forest practices vary
 greatly from site to site and from  state to state
 due to the disparity among forest  practice laws.
 The authors conclude that the costs of forest
 practices legislation are borne by  the timber
 owner in the form of reduced stumpage prices.
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Dykstra, D.P., and H.A. Froehlich. 1976.
Costs of stream protection during timber
harvest. Journal of Forestry. 74(10): 684-687.

This article analyzes the cost of three stream
protection alternatives: conventional felling with
channel cleanup; cable- assisted directional
felling; and use of buffer strips.  The study was
conducted along 10 deeply incised headwater
stream channels in western Oregon.  None of the
three alternatives was clearly preferable on a
majority of the study areas. The least- cost
alternative on four of the areas was a
55-foot-wide buffer strip ($20.02 to $27.77 per
MBF).  On three of the remaining areas,
conventional felling was the least expensive
($20.83 to $23.97 per MBF),' and on the other
three, cable-assisted directional felling was the
least expensive ($18.79 to $26.30 per MBF).

Dykstra, D.P., and H.A.  Froehlich. 1976.
Stream protection: What  does it cost?  Loggers
Handbook. Pacific Logging Congress, Portland,
Oregon.

A procedure for evaluating the costs of alternative
stream protection measures is presented. The
costs associated with various practices, including
tree felling, stream cleaning, and yarding are
compared. The paper includes many data tables
that present the comparisons of the stream
protection costs.  The authors warn that the cost
of stream cleaning is a function of the debris
volume to be removed and that this procedure
does not estimate debris loading.

Ellefson, P.V., and P.D. Miles. 1984.
Economic implications of managing nonpoint
forest source of water pollutants: A midwestern
perspective. In:  Mountain Logging Symposium
Proceedings. West Virginia University, June
5-7, 1984.  P.A. Peters and J.  Luchok (eds.).
pp. 107-119.

Economic evaluations of 6 forest practices
designed to enhance water quality from 18 timber
harvesting operations in the Midwest were carried
out.  Net revenue reductions ranged from 1.2%
with redesign of landing and skid trail locations to
26.4% with buffer strip requirements.  Nine
operations were profitable with application of all
six practices. Limited production function
information hinders such analyses.

Ellefson, P.V., and R.E. Weible. 1980.
Economic impact of prescribing forest practices
to improve water quality: A Minnesota case
study. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes.

A study in southeastern Minnesota was designed
to determine the marginal cost of implementing
management practices considered important to the
reduction of nonpoint forest sources of water
pollutants.  In addition, the impact of requiring
additional pollution-abating forest practices on  a
timber purchaser's net revenue was analyzed.
The practices analyzed included filter strips,
buffer strips, seeding landings and trails, and skid
trail design. The analyses focused on a cost
structure representative of state-owned forestland
and  considered costs only, not benefits.  Overall,
it appeared that pollution abatement costs may  be
very difficult to  absorb by small-volume timber
operations operating close to economic breakeven
before controls.  The authors recommended
further research  to determine economic benefits
from many forestry BMPs.

Froehlich, H.A., D.E. Aulerich, and R. Curtis.
1981. Designing skid trail systems to reduce soil
impacts from tractive logging machines. Oregon
State University, School of Forestry, Forest
Research Lab. Research Paper 44. 15 pages.

The results of a  study conducted to determine the
feasibility of two skidding systems, conventional
and  designated trails, are presented.  The study
was conducted to determine the differences in soil
disturbance between the two systems. Skid trails
covered 20% of the ground surface in the
conventional harvest and 11%, 7%, and 4% in
the designated trails 100,  150, and 250 feet apart, •
respectively. The paper presents several tables of
data on skid trail specifications, regression
equations for skid cycle times, and productivity of
the two systems.
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 Gibson, H.C., and C J. Biller. 1975. A second
 look at cable logging in the Appalachians.
Journal of Forestry. 73(10):649» 653.

 Cable logging, once used extensively in the
 Appalachians, is being reexamined to determine
 whether smaller, more mobile systems can help
 solve some of the timber management problems
 on steep slopes.  A small Austrian skyline was
 tested in West Virginia to determine its feasibility
 for harvesting eastern hardwoods. The short-term
 test included both selection and dearcut
 harvesting. Costs were higher for the clear cut
 system although the authors believe costs for
 selective harvesting would normally be higher,

 Hall, E. 1982. The benefits and costs of
 alternative  logging systems. In: Forest Access
 Symposium. University of Idaho, College of
 Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences,
 November 12-13, 1982. Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
 pp. 23-25.

 The costs and benefits of aerial logging practices
 are presented. Several types of aerial logging
 techniques are described and equipment and
 operating, costs are provided for each. This is a
 short but informative paper on alternative logging
- methods.

 Hickman, C.A. 1980. Cost-effectiveness of
 forestry nonpoint source pollution control
 measures. In:  U.S. Forestry and Water Quality:
  What Course in the 80's? Richmond, Virginia,
 June 19-20, 1980. Water Pollution Control
 Federation and Virginia Water Pollution
  Control Association, pp. 162-182.

 This paper  addresses two analytical techniques,
  benefit-cost analysis and cost-effectiveness
  analysis, for determining the feasibility  of
  pollution control measures.  These two  methods
  are described in detail, and  the strengths and
  limitations  of each are presented.  No
  recommendations for use are made.

  Hickman,  C.A., and B.D. Jackson. 1978.
  Economic impacts of controlling soil loss from
silviculture activities: A case study of Cherokee
County, Texas. Texas A&M University, Texas
Water Resources Institute. Technical Report
No. 91.116 pages.

The economic impacts of restricting soil loss from
timber harvest activities were evaluated in this
study. The following four control possibilities
were  considered: a countywide limit on allowable
soil loss, a per-acre limit on allowable soil loss, a
tax on excess soil loss, and a subsidy for reduced
soil loss.  The authors conclude that the four
possible controls would probably not be
economically justified based on the assumption
used  in this analysis.

Kemper,  R.E., and L.S. Davis. 1976. Costs of
environmental constraints on timber harvesting
and regeneration.  Journal of Forestry.
74(1):754-761.

This  paper presents a methodology for measuring
the cost of aesthetic and environmental constraints
on timber harvesting and regeneration.  The
methodology was empirically quantified for two
western national forests. The authors concluded
from these case studies that the costs of increasing
environmental care are substantial enough to
warrant detailed quantification and consideration
in public  timber policy deliberation.

Kochenderfer, J.N., and G.W. Wendel. 1978.
Skyline harvesting in Appalachia. USDA Forest
Service,  Northeastern Forest Experiment
 Station. Forest Research Paper NE-400.

 A skyline logging system called the URUS was
 tested during a partial  cutting of forest in West
 Virginia.  The document describes the advantages
 and disadvantages of skyline harvesting and
 provides  recommendations for the equipment as
 well as for topographical sitings. The article
 concludes by stating mat the more sophisticated
 yarding systems used in the West are not
 economically feasible or implementable for
 eastern forests.
                                                153

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LeDoux, C.B. 1987. Estimating yarding costs
for the Geanvater cable yonder. USDA Forest
Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station. Research Paper NE-RP-609. 4 pages.

Six cable yarding systems were compared to the
Clearwater yarder developed by the USDA.  For
this study, detailed tune and motion data from
field studies, labor and fuel costs, and the THIN
yarding simulation model were used to develop a
general equation for estimating yarding costs in
eastern hardwoods.  The authors report that the
limited capacity of the Clearwater yarding system
prevented reducing the cost per unit produced.
Tables with costs of yarding and stand data are
presented.

LeDoux, C.B. 1985. When is hardwood cable
logging economical? Journal of Forestry.
83(5):285-298.

The effect on total production costs and revenues
of alternate cable yarders, average slope yarding
distances, size of material, tree species and
market price, and silvicultural treatment is
evaluated using a simple simulation model. This
information is intended to aid forest managers in
determining the feasibility of cable logging.  The
 article contains several tables of cost data for
 different yarding systems.

 Lickwar, P.M., C.A. Hickman, and F.W.
 Cubbage. 1991. Costs of protecting water
 quality during harvesting on private forestlands
 in the Southeast.  Southern Journal of Applied
 Forestry.

 Data on harvest volumes, topography, and other
 site and area characteristics were obtained from
 22 private forest timber harvests in Alabama,
 Florida, and Georgia. An economic analysis was
 then used to estimate the marginal costs of
 implementing each state's recommended BMPs
 and a set of "enhanced" BMPs that offered
 increased water quality protection.  Collectively,
 the costs of using the recommended BMPs
 averaged 2.9% of gross timber sale revenue,
 $2.34 per 1000 board feet (MBF) of timber
harvested, or $12.45 per acre.  The cost of
implementing enhanced BMPs averaged 5.1% of
gross stumpage value, $4.13 per MBF, or $21.94
per acre.  Seed, fertilizer, and mulch;
broad-based dips; and water bars were the-most
expensive practices on a total cost basis. Culvert
installation, SMZs, and road relocation were less
expensive for most tracts.  A literature review of
related studies is provided.  Site location maps,
site characteristics (physiographic, size, harvest
method) are also given, and the economic analysis
breaks the sites down by topography and BMPs
implemented.  This is one of the few studies
available on forestry BMP implementation costs.

Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1981.
Effectiveness of best management practices in
controlling nonpoint pollution from commercial
clearcuts. In: Nonpoint Pollution Control - Tools
and Techniques for the Future, Proceedings of a
Technical Symposium, pp. 213-224.

This paper reports an evaluation of the
effectiveness of Pennsylvania's BMPs for
controlling NPS  pollution on public and private
forestlands. This study was done following a
commercial clearcut in central Pennsylvania. The
paired watershed method was used to evaluate
changes in water quality and quantity. The
commercial clearcut produced a water yield
increase, of 5.39 area- inches the first year
following cutting. Stream turbidity on the
clearcut watershed was generally higher than that
on the control watershed prior to cutting, and no
major increase in turbidity occurred as a result of
cutting.  No serious channel erosion was found on
the clearcut watershed. Increases in stream
temperature were generally slight.  The authors
conclude  that the BMPs required in Pennsylvania
are sufficient to  control NPS pollution during and
following logging.
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Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1989.
Effectiveness of BMP's in controlling noripoint
pollution from silvicultural operations. In:
Proceedings of the Symposium on Headwaters
Hydrology. American Water Resources
Association, Bethesda, Maryland, pp.  149-157.

Streamflow and water quality data were evaluated
to determine the effectiveness of best management
practices used to control nonpoint source pollution
from a commercial clearcut. Tables of data on
water quality constituent concentrations over a
10-year period are included in the paper.

Lynch, J.A.,  and E.S. Corbett. 1990.
Evaluation of best management practices for
controlling nonpoint pollution from silvicultural
operations.   Water Resources Bulletin.
26(l):41-52.

Fifteen years of streamflow' and water quality data
were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of
BMPs in controlling  nonpoint source pollution
from a 110-acre commercial clearcut located in
the Ridge and Valley Province of central
Pennsylvania. In general, the BMPs analyzed
effectively reduced water quality impacts
associated with timber harvest. Although some
increases in water quality constituents were _
observed, most were well  below the drinking
water standards although they  may violate EPAs
•antidegradation policy. The authors suggest mat
buffer strips of unharvested timber provided the
most protection to the streams and that improved
performance may be possible through annual
inspections and increasing the width of buffer
strips if necessary.  The information presented in
this report demonstrates the potential for
reductions in nonpoint source pollution possible
with various BMPs.

Lysons, H.H., and  R.H. Twito. 1973. Skyline
logging: An economical means of reducing
environmental impact of logging. Journal of
Forestry.  71(9):580-583.

The basic tight, slack, and running skyline
yarding systems are  reviewed, and the desired
characteristics of a logging system are identified
to help select the most suitable means of yarding. .
Figures of the systems are provided.  The
physical, economic, and environmental
characteristics of each of the systems are listed
and discussed.  Several misconceptions
concerning skyline logging are clarified. One is
that skyline logging is more costly than high-lead
logging; skyline logging is economically feasible
and is less sensitive to yarding distance than are
other logging systems. Another is that the span
length greatly decreases the load-carrying ability;
for any given deflection, the load- carrying ability
decreases  only by the added weight of the line for
the longer span. Also, a highly mobile cable
system is  probably the best way to harvest partial
cuts  and thinnings, contrary to popular beliefs.

Mussallem, K.E., and J.A. Lynch. 1980.
Controlling nonpoint source pollution from
commercial clearcuts. In: Watershed
Management 1980.  C.W. Johnson (ed.).
American Society of Civil Engineers, Irrigation
and  Drainage Division, Committee on
Watershed Management, pp.  669-681.

This study was designed to evaluate the
effectiveness of Pennsylvania's BMPs.  It
compared measurements of stream quality at a
control site that was not logged, a site logged
using BMPs, and a site logged without BMPs that
was  treated with herbicides to eliminate the effect
of regrowth.  The use of BMPs reduced the
impact of logging activities on stream quality.

Olsen,  E.D.,  D.S.  Keough, and D.K.
LaCourse. 1987. Economic impact of proposed
Oregon Forest Practices Rules on industrial
forest lands in the Oregon Coast Range: A case
study. Oregon State University; College of
Forestry, Forest Research Laboratory.
Research Bulletin 61. 15 pages.

A case study was performed to determine the
harvesting and transportation requirements of
three alternative prescriptions for riparian
management areas.  The three prescribed
scenarios included buffer strips of 35, 50 and 70
                                              15-5

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feet, with various timber harvest percentages from
the strips allowed. Timber-related practices were
modeled, and the associated costs were estimated
for each scenario to demonstrate the economic
impact of changing the buffer width and length
and increasing harvesting constraints.  The results
indicate that landowner costs would be
significantly higher than present if more
restrictive scenarios are used. Cost increases
ranged from $75 to $653 per acre in this study.
Numerous tables of harvest information and data
are presented.

USDA Forest Service. 1992. Investigating Water
Quality in the Pacific Southwest Region, Best
Management Practices Evaluation Program
(BMPEP): A User's Guide. USDA Forest
Service, Region 5, San Francisco, California.

This document is the result of a continuous loop
of on-site evaluations, BMP prescription
development, implementation, monitoring, and
feedback. The monitoring/evaluation program
described in this user's guide provides the
feedback loop to obtain and document
observations of how well BMPs protect water
quality and also helps to identify deficiencies and
their causes and necessary  corrective actions.
On-site  evaluations were made on the following
activities: streamside management zones, skid
trails, suspended yarding, landings, meadow
protection, special erosion  control and
revegetation, timber administration, road surface,
drainage, slopes protection, stream crossings,
servicing and refueling,  in-channel construction
practices, temporary roads, rip-rap, snow
removal, protection of roads during wet periods,
pioneer  road construction,  prescribed fire,
revegetation of surface disturbed areas, and
location of stock facilities in wilderness.  In
addition, assistance in accessing the Best
Management Practices Evaluation Program
database (BMP- DB) is provided.

USDA Forest Service. 1987. Soil and water
resource management: A cost or a benefit?
Approaches to watershed economics through
example. 99 pages.
Analysis procedures for estimating the economic
benefits of soil and water resource management
have been developed. This report discusses the
procedures and the data and information required
to employ them.  The analysis procedures focus
on the following management areas: timber,
forage, fish, enhanced water quality, and road
construction and maintenance.  The procedures
and economics of soil and water management are
demonstrated in this document with 16 examples.

Binkley,  V.W. 1965.  Economics  and design of a
radio-controlled sly line yarding system. USDA
Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
Range Experiment Station. Research Paper
PNW-25. 30 pages.

Brooks, K.N., H.M. Gregersen, E.R. Berglund,
and M. Tayaa. 1982. Economic evaluation of
watershed projects-an overview methodology and
application. Water Resources Bulletin.
18(2):245-250.

Ellefson, P.V., and P.D. Miles. 1985. Protecting
water quality in the Midwest: Impact on timber
harvesting costs.  Northern Journal of Applied
Forestry. 2:57-61.

Fight, R.D. 1989. Western forests in transition:
National  forests. In: Forestry on the Frontier,
Proceedings of the 1989 Society of American
Foresters National Convention. Spokane,
Washington, pp. 257-259.

Hickman, C.A., and B.D. Jackson. 1979.
Economic impacts  of controlling soil loss from
silvicultural activities in east Texas. Forest
Science. 25(4):627-640.

Klock, G.O. 1976. Estimating two indirect
logging costs caused by accelerated erosion.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest
and Range Experiment Station. General  Technical
Report PNW-44. 9 pages.

Kochenderfer,  J.N., and G.W. Wendel.  1980.
Costs and environmental impacts of harvesting
                                             156

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timber in Appalachia with a truck-mounted crane.
USD A Forest Service, Northeastern Forest
Experiment Station. Research Paper NE-456. 9
pages.

Lickwar, P.M. 1984. Estimating the costs of
water quality protection on private forest lands in
the south. Master's Thesis, University of Georgia.

Lynch, J.A., W.E. Sopper, E.S. Corbett, and
D.W. Aurand. 1975, Effects of management
practices on water quality and quantity: The Perm
State Experimental Watersheds. In: Municipal
Watershed Management Symposium Proceedings.
USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report
NE-13. pp. 32-46.

NCASI.  1988. Procedures for assessing the
effectiveness of Best Managements Practices in
protecting water and stream quality associated
with managed forests.  National Council of the
Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement.
Technical Bulletin No. 538. 23 pages.

Peters, P.A., and J. Luchok (eds). 1984.
Mountain Logging Symposium Proceedings. West
Virginia  University, June 5-7, 1984. 372 pages,

USEPA. 1977. Silvicultural activities and
non-point pollution abatement: A cost-effectiveness
analysis procedure. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. EPA 600/8-77-018.  121
pages.
                                             157

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                  6. SITE PREPARATION AND REGENERATION
IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY

Askew, G.R., and T.M. Williams. 1984.
Sediment concentrations from intensively
prepared wetland sites.  Southern Journal of
Applied Forestry. 8(3):152-157.

This study was designed to evaluate the drainage
and conversion process used by a major forest
industry and to determine which aspect of the
conversion process, if any, was a primary source
of sediment.  Suspended sediment concentrations
were measured in water draining from a
5,900-acre Carolina bay undergoing conversion to
loblolly pine plantations.  Samples were collected
during the first stormflow event of each month
between January 1981 and December 1982 from
subwatersheds involved in some of several phases
of conversion.  Suspended sediment concentration
in water leaving the bay averaged only 16 mg/1
for 13  storms.  Road erosion and ditch installation
produced the highest suspended sediment
concentrations. Suspended sediment
concentrations decreased substantially with
increasing distance from the sediment source.
Logging and site preparation activities did not
cause an appreciable increase in suspended
sediment when equipment did not operate in the
drainage ditches. This study indicates that main
haul roads and new drainage ditches are the
sources of much of the increased suspended
sediments found in drainage from managed forests
in the lower coastal plain.   The authors conclude
that the impact of these activities can be
minimized by using a drainage system that
contains a length of main channel between
sediment sources and sensitive areas.

Baker, M.B., Jr.  1990. Hydrologic and water
quality effects of fire. USDA Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment
Station.  General Technical Report RM-191. pp.
31-42.

This paper provides a review of studies conducted
to determine the effects of prescribed burning on
forest and rangelands of the Southwest. It
provides a qualitative analysis on the types of
water quality effects observed after prescribed
burning; no substantial quantitative results are
presented. The paper includes citations for nearly
70 articles related to water quality effects from
prescribed burning.

Beasley, R.S. 1979. Intensive site preparation
and sediment loss on steep watersheds in the
Gulf Coastal plain.  SoU Science Society of
America Journal. 43(3):412-416.
  ,                    j
The hydrologic effects of three methods of
intensive site preparation (brush  chopping,
shearing and windrowing, and bedding on
contour) were measured during the 1976 and 1977
water-years on three small watersheds on steep
terrain in northern Mississippi. The first year
sediment losses were 12.5, 12.8, 14.2, and 0.6
metric tons/ha for the chopped, sheared, bedded,
and control treatments, respectively. These losses
corresponded to the percent soil  disturbance for
each treatment. Soil losses were significantly
lower during the second year for all treatments.
This paper presents information on the erosion
potential associated with forestry practices
conducted on highly erodible sites.

Beasley, R.S., A.B. Granillo, and V. Zillmer.
1986. Sediment losses from forest management:
Mechanical  vs. chemical site preparation after
clearcutting.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
15(4):413-416.

The comparative effects of mechanical and
chemical site preparation on water yields and
sediment losses following forest  clearcutting were
evaluated over a 4-year period hi the Athens
Plateau area of southwestern Arkansas.  Sediment
loss from the mechanically prepared watersheds
was significantly higher than that from
chemically-prepared sites or the control.
Chemical site preparation did not significantly
change the sediment loss compared to the control.
This paper provides valuable information
comparing the differences in the sediment losses
observed from two very different site preparation
                                              158

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methods used in Coastal Plain areas.

Beasley, R.S., and A.B. Granillo. 1985. Water
yields and sediment losses from chemical and
mechanical site preparation. Forestry and Water
Quality - A Mid-South Symposium. Little Rock,
Arkansas, May 8-9, 1985.  E.G. Blackmon
(ed.). Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Arkansas, pp. 106-116.

Sediment losses after clearcut and mechanical site
preparation were compared to treatments of
selective harvest and no harvest. Selectively cut
and uncut treatments did not have significantly
different sediment and water yields; clear cutting
with mechanical site preparation resulted in
significantly greater sediment and water yields.
The study and results are displayed in several data
tables and figures.

Blackburn, W.H.,  M.G. DeHaven, and R.W.
Knight. 1982. Forest site preparation and
water quality  in Texas. In: Proceedings of the
Specialty Conference on Environmentally Sound
Water and Soil Management. Orlando, Florida,
July 20-23, 1982.   E.G. Kruse, C.R. Burdick,
C.R. and Y.A. Yousef (eds.). American Society
of Civil Engineers, pp. 57-66.

The effects of site preparation practices on water
quality and yield in  nine small watersheds in the
Coastal Plain of Texas are presented. The
treatments consisted of shearing and windrowing,
roller chopping, and undisturbed. The shearing
and windrowing treatment had significantly higher
water yield and greater nutrient concentrations
than did the other two treatments. This study
provides a comparison of the water quality effects
associated with two  types of site preparation
practices.  The authors provide several tables of
statistically analyzed data.

Blackburn, W.H.,  R.W. Knight, J.C. Wood,
and H.A. Pearson. 1990. Stormflow and
sediment loss  from intensively managed forest
watersheds in east Texas.   Water Resources
Bulletin. 26(3):465- 477.

Several small watersheds in East Texas were
instrumented to determine the effect of forest
harvesting, mechanical site preparation, and
livestock grazing on stormflow, peak discharge
rate, and sediment loss and the results were
compared with pre- treatment levels. The
treatments included clearcutting followed by roller
chopping; clearcutting followed by shearing and
windrowing; clearcutting followed by shearing,
windrowing, and continuous grazing; and
clearcutting followed by shearing, windrowing,
and rotational grazing. The data indicated
significantly greater stormflow, peak discharge
rate, and sediment from clearcut harvesting and
site preparation compared to undisturbed
watersheds.  Among the treatments, the sheared/
windrowed watersheds generally yielded the
greatest stormflow and peak discharge rate,
followed by the chopped  watershed. This paper
presents a significant amount of data on water
quality impacts of timber harvest and site
preparation activities.

Blackburn, W.H., and J.C. Wood. 1990.
Nutrient export in stormflow following forest
harvesting and site-preparation in east Texas.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 19:402-408.

A watershed study was conducted to determine
the effects on stormflow water quality from the .
following practices: (1) clearcutting, shearing,
windrowing, and burning; (2) clearcutting, roller
chopping, and burning; and (3) undisturbed
control.  The clearcut treatments had higher
nutrient concentrations the first year following
harvest and  site preparation. During the second
and third years, only the  clearcut (shearing)
treatment resulted in higher nutrient
concentrations than the control. After 5 years, no
significant difference in nutrient concentrations,
except potassium, were observed among any
treatment.  Although the nutrient concentrations
observed in  this study were small, shearing and
windrowing had the greatest impact on nutrient
export.  Roller chopping had a minimal impact on
stormflow nutrient concentrations.  The results  of
this study indicate the reduction in water quality
impacts that can be derived from different
management, practices.
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Brown, G.W., A.R. Gahler, and R.B.
Marston. 1973. Nutrient losses after clear-cut
logging and slash burning in the Oregon Coast
Range.  Water Resources Research.
9:1450-1452.

The impact of two patterns of clearcut logging on
the nutrient losses from two Oregon watersheds
was studied.  With the exception of
nitrate-nitrogen, no nutrient concentrations
increased after clearcut.  Nitrate-nitrogen
concentrations significantly increased after
clearcut logging and slash burning. No significant
changes hi nitrate concentrations were observed
after patch-cut logging.  Nitrate-nitrogen
concentrations returned to prelogging levels
within 6 years of harvest.

Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1971.
Clear-cut logging and sediment production in
the Oregon coast range.  Water Resources'
Research. 7(5):1189-1198.

The impact of road construction, two patterns of
clear-cut logging, and controlled slash burning on
the suspended sediment yield and concentration
from three small watersheds was studied for 11
years.  Sediment production was doubled after
road construction but before logging hi one
watershed and was tripled after burning and
clearcutting of another watershed.  Felling and
yarding did not produce statistically significant
changes in sediment concentration.  Variation in
the relation between sediment concentration and
water discharge on small undisturbed streams was
large.  Conclusions about the significance of all
but very large changes in sediment concentrations
are limited because of annual variation for a given
watershed, variation between watersheds, and
variation with stage at a given point. Tables
present sediment concentrations in the two .altered
watersheds and one control watershed for the
duration of the study.

Chamberlin, T.W., R.D. Harr,  and F.H.
Everest. 1991. Timber  harvesting, silviculture,
and watershed processes. In: Influences of
forest and rangeland management on salmonid
fishes  and their habitats.  W.R. Meehan (ed.).
American Fisheries Special Publication
19:181-206.

This chapter examines the effects of timber
management activities on stream ecosystems,
particularly streams with anadromous salmonids.
Timber management practices discussed include
felling and yarding of trees, site preparation by
burning or scarification, fire hazard reduction,
forest regeneration by planting or seeding,
reduction of competition by brush removal and
tree thinning before commercial harvest, and
some effects of road building on the hydrologic
and sediment systems. Chapter contents:
hydrologic effects; effects of harvests on erosion
and sedimentation; effects of harvests on channel
forms and geomorphic processes; cumulative
effects of forest harvesting; and conclusions and
management options.

DeHaven, M.G., W.H. Blackburn, R.W.
Knight, and A.T. Weichert. 1984. The impact
of harvesting and site preparation  on stormflow
and  water quality in east Texas. Report TR-130.
Texas  Water Resources Institute, Texas A&M
University. 147 pages.

Nine small watersheds in east Texas were used to
determine the water quality effects of timber
harvest and site preparation operations. The 3
treatments included clearcutting followed by
shearing and windrowing, clearcutting followed
by roller chopping, and  undisturbed control.  The
roller chopped treatment exposed 16% of the soil
and the shearing and windrowing exposed 57% of
the soil.  Higher stormflow and sediment loss was
observed during the first three years
post-treatment,  although the differences decreased
after the first year.  During the second year,
exposed decreased to 20 and 4% on sheared and
chopped watersheds, respectively.  Nutrient
concentrations were also highest from the sheared
treatment. The authors  concluded that temporary
increases in nutrient, sediment,  and stormflow
would  occur on sheared  and chopped watersheds,
although greater losses would occur from sheared
due to increased duration of soil exposure. Roller
chopping appeared to cause minor changes
compared  to shearing and windrowing.
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 Douglass, J.E., and O.C. Goodwin. 1980.
 Runoff and soil erosion from forest site
 preparation practices. In: U.S. Forestry and
 Water Quality: What Course in the 80's?
 Richmond, Virginia, June 19-20,1980. Water
 Pollution Control Federation and Virginia
 Water Pollution Control Association, pp. 50*73.

 Soil losses and runoff were measured for 3 years
 after three types of mechanical site preparation
 treatments were applied on 16 small  watersheds in
 the North Carolina Piedmont. The site
 preparation treatments included the following: (1)
 shearing, windrowing, and burning;  (2) #1 plus
 disking; and (3) #2 plus fertilization  and planting
 grass cover crop.  The runoff and sediment data
 from these treatments were compared to data
 collected from a control watershed.  The soil loss
 was greatest from the shearing, windrowing,
 burning, and disking site preparation method.
 This was due to greater soil disturbance in this
. treatment.  This paper presents data  on the value
 of ground cover for preventing soil loss from
 forested sites.

 Douglass, J.E., and D.H. Van Lear. 1983.
 Prescribed burning and water quality of
 ephemeral streams in the piedmont of South
 Carolina.  Forest Science. 29(1):181-189.

 Two prescribed burns in Piedmont pine stands
 resulted in no significant increases in storm
 runoff, sediment export, or nutrient
 concentrations. The paper provides several tables
 of water quality data from preburn and postburn.
 These results are very site-specific and vary  wiui
 the intensity of precipitation events.

 Dyrness, C.T., and C,T. Youegberg. 1957. The
 effect of logging and slash burning on soil
 structure.  Soil Science Society of America
 Proceedings. 21(4):444-447.

 The effects of logging and slash burning on soil
 structure were investigated in soils in the Coast
 Range of western Oregon.  Soil samples were
 collected from clearcut and undisturbed forested
 areas. The soil surface after logging and slash
 burning were as follows: lightly burned (45%),
 severely burned (8%), unburned (30%), and
undisturbed (17%).  Severe burning was the only
treatment that had a significant effect on the soil
structure.  The authors concluded that because
logging and slash burning resulted in only 8%
severely burned area, high-lead logging and slash
burning in the fall after rainfall would have no
significant detrimental effect on soil structure.

Feller, M.C. 1981. Effects of clearcutting and
slash burning on stream temperature in
southwestern British Columbia. Water
Resources Bulletin. 17(5):863-866.

Two watersheds were studied for the effect of
logging practices on summer and winter water
temperatures.  One of the watersheds was clearcut
and then planted, and the other was clearcut, slash
burned, and then planted.Tables of watershed
characteristics and duration of temperature effects
are included. Both practices were found to
increase stream temperature, but slash burning
increased the temperature effect beyond that of
clearcutting alone. This  is attributed to burning
the slash that remains at streamside after
clearcutting.  Clearcutting was found to increase
minimum and maximum  winter stream
temperatures during die second winter following
the cutting.  Slash burning decreased minimum
and maximum whiter stream temperatures  hi the
first winter following the burning.   The effect on
stream temperature of clearcutting and  slash
burning lasted longer (> 7 years) than that of  .
clearcutting alone,

Fredriksen, R.L. 1971.  Comparative chemical
water quality-Natural and disturbed  streams
following logging and slash burning.  In:
Proceedings of a Symposium: Forest Land Uses
and Stream Environment.  Oregon State
University, October 19-21, 1970.  J.T. Krygier
and J.D. Hall (eds.). OSU, Corvallis, Oregon.
 pp. 125- 137.

The loss of nutrients from an old growth Douglas
fir forest was measured in streams following
timber harvest and slash  burning.  Nutrient cation
 losses increased 1.6 to 3.0 times the loss of the
 undisturbed watershed.  The surge of nutrients
 following slash burning contained ammonia and
 manganese concentrations greater than federal
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water quality standards for 12 days after burning.
The authors conclude that nitrogen losses can be
minimized by avoiding slash burning when
possible.  This paper presents many figures and
tables with the data from the study.

Golden, M.S., C.L. Tuttle, J.S. Rush, and
J.M. Bradley.  1984. Forestry activities and
water quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
practices, and an erosion-classified system.
Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
Station. Bulletin 555.

The report was prepared primarily as a source of
information on the relationship between forestry
practices and water quality, with orientation
toward forestry practices prevalent in Alabama.
Information on stream pollutants such as
sediment, nutrients, pesticides, organic material,
waste and litter, and temperature is provided.
The review  includes over 160 directiy cited
documents on these subjects.  Also included in the
report are recommendations of principles and
practices designed to minimize the water quality
impacts from Alabama forestry practices.

Gottfried, GJ., and L.F. DeBano. 1990.
Streamflow and water quality responses to
preharvest prescribed burning in an undisturbed
ponderosa pine  watershed. USDA Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. General Technical Report
RM-191. pp. 222-228.

The impacts of prescribed burning on streamflow
and water quality were evaluated following a
prescribed burn.  Prefire and postfire levels of
nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, phosphates,
calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium were
used as indicators of stream water quality. No
significant changes in streamflow were observed
after the burn; significant, but small, changes in
nutrient levels were observed.  Because only 43%
of the watershed was burned, the water quality
and stream flow values do not represent total
loads of nutrients from the watershed or the total
water yield.  Also, data were presented only for
water samples collected for 1 year after burning.
Harr, R.D., and R.L. Fredriksen. 1988. Water
quality after logging small watersheds within
the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon. Water
Resources Bulletin. 24(5):1103-1111.

The water quality impacts from clearcut practices
and slash burning are presented.  Logging
significantly increased nitrate- nitrogen levels for
up to 7 years after harvest; smaller increases were
observed after slash burning.  Suspended sediment
also had a small increase attributed to construction
of a permanent road that crossed  streams.  Annual
stream temperatures increased 2-3 °C after
logging but returned to pretreatment levels after  3
years.  This watershed study presents significant
data on the effects of forest harvest and slash
burning on water  quality.

Hewlett, J.D. 1978. Forest water quality: An
experiment in harvesting and regenerating a
Piedmont forest. School of Forest Resources,
University of Georgia. 22 pages.

Two streams in Putnam County, Georgia, were
selected to determine the effects that harvesting
and regeneration have on water quality and flow
in order to determine appropriate BMPs.
^eriodic samples were taken and  flow recorded.
' :>e study indicated that 90% of the undesirable
mass export of sediment resulted  from poor
access  roads and streamside management.

Krause, H.H. 1982. Effect of forest
management practices on water quality - a
review of Canadian studies. In: Proceedings of
the Canadian Hydrology Symposium - Associate
Committee on Hydrology. Fredericton, New
Brunswick, June 14-15, 1982. National
Research Council Canada, Canada, pp. 15-29.

The water quality effects of forest management
practices are reviewed separately  for the British
Columbia Coastal Range, Rocky Mountains,
Canadian shield, and Appalachian region.
Sedimentation is a problem after road construction
and occasionally after slash burning. Temperature
increases are problematic at low altitudes in areas
with warm summers.  Changes in dissolved solids
depend on the type of operation, forest cover,
soils, and geologic substrate.
                                              162

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Maxwell, J.R., and D.G. Neary. 1991.
Vegetation management effects on sediment
yields. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency
Sedimentation Conference, Vol. 2. Las Vegas,
Nevada, March 18-21, 1991. Interagency
Committee on Water Data, Subcommittee on
Sedimentation, pp  55-63, Section 12.

This paper presents the results of a regional
analysis of the cumulative effects of vegetation
management (fire, mechanical, herbicide;;,
manual, biological) on sediment yield. Three
Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) were
prepared for three physiographic regions in the
south and erosion was modeled for each region on
a variety of landtypes and watersheds. In
general, the results  indicated greater sediment
yields from road systems and cropland. In
addition, greater sediment yields were typically
observed from private lands.  The data from the
modeling indicated  sediment yields could  be
reduced by favoring herbicide and low-intensity
prescribed fire as a means of site preparation over
mechanical and severe fire methods.

Megahan, W.F. 1987. Increased sedimentation
following helicopter .logging and prescribed
burning on granitic soil. In: Erosion and
Sedimentation in the Pacific Rim, Proceedings of
the Corvallis Symposium. Oregon State
University, August, 1987.  R.L. Beschta (ed.).
IAHS Publication  No. 165,  Corvallis, Oregon.
pp. 259-260.

The effects of helicopter clearcut logging and
prescribed burning on sediment yields in  central
Idaho are presented.  Streamflow and sediment
 yield data were collected for 10 years prior to
 clearcut and for 10 years after clearcut and
 prescribed burning. Significant increases  in annual
 sediment yields were observed.  No data  from the
 study are presented in this short paper.

 Miller, E.L., R.S. Beasley, and E.R. Lawson.
 1988. Forest harvest and site preparation
 effects on streamflow and  peakflow of
 ephemeral streams in the Ouachita Mountains.
 Journal of Environmental Quality. 17(2):
 212-218.
Soil erosion and sedimentation effects of three
treatments- clearcutting, selective cutting,  and no
disturbance (control)- were measured and
compared in watersheds in the Ouachita
Mountains of Arkansas. After clearcut harvest, a
drum chopper crushed the residual vegetation
prior to burning; stream channels were not
buffered from chopping or burning.  The harvest
and site preparation activities had no specific
BMPs; however, "reasonable care" was used
while conducting the activities.  Sediment yield
during the first year of the study was significantly
higher in the clearcut treatment, but the
differences between the treatments decreased the
next 2 years.  Even though the annual sediment
yield was greater from the clearcut treatment, the
yields were relatively low and appeared to have
little impact on water quality.  The document
provides concise methodology for the
experimental design and presents significant
amounts of data collected  during the experiment.

Neary, D.G., P.B. Bush, and M.A.  Grant.
1986. Water quality of ephemeral forest
streams after site preparation with the
herbicide hexazinone.  Forest Ecology and
Management. 14(1) 23- 40.

Four small watersheds (1  ha) in the upper
Piedmont of north Georgia were treated with 1.68
kg/ha active ingredient of hexazinone  pellets.
Residues in stormflow peaked in the first storm at
442 mg/m3, declined rapidly thereafter, and
disappeared within 7 months.  Loss of hexazinone
in  stormflow averaged 0.53% of the applied
herbicide. Total sediment yields were increased
by a factor of 2.5  due to increased runoff
associated with site preparation using  herbicide
and salvage logging. Hexazinone treatment
produced a large increase in NO3-N
concentrations (peak = 5328 mg/m3), but NO3-N
levels returned to normal  within 2 years.
Hexazinone may have produced some stimulation
of nitrifying bacteria.  Overall, water  quality
 changes were small  and short-lived.
                                               163

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 Neary, D.G., and J.B. Currier. 1982. Impact
 of wildfire and watershed restoration on water
 quality on South Carolina's Blue Ridge
 Mountains.  Southern Journal of Applied
 Forestry. 6(2):81-90.

 Neary and Currier studied the change in water
 quality caused by a large wildfire hi South
 Carolina's Blue Ridge Mountains.  Five
 watersheds contained five different conditions,
 including undisturbed; burned only; burned and
 fertilized; and burned, fertilized and covered with
 fire retardant.  Concentrations of NO3-N
 increased the most (peak of 0.394 mg/1) as a
 result of fertilizer applications during restoration
 operations.  Nitrate-N, NH4-N, PO4-P levels were
 elevated on the burned and fertilized watersheds
 mainly during storm events.  Sodium, K, Ca, and
 Mg concentrations were 12-82% above
 background levels during most of the monitoring
 period. Suspended solid concentrations showed
 no  relationship to watershed condition. Changes
 in water quality were of no biological significance
 to aquatic ecosystems and did not affect use of the
 watersheds as sources of drinking water.  Based
 on the results of this intensive study, the authors
 concluded that the wildfire did not adversely
 affect the water quality for ecosystems or
 drinking.

 Neary, D.G., and J.L. Michael. 1989. Effect of
 sulfometuron methyl on ground water and
 stream quality in coastal plain forest
 watersheds.  Water Resources Bulletin.
 25(3):617-623.

 The stream concentration of sulfometuron methyl
 was determined after spraying for site preparation
 in a Coastal plain flatwood. Sulfometuron methyl
 was applied at a maximum labeled rate of 0.42
 kg/ha a.i. to a 4-ha coastal plain flatwoods
 watershed as site preparation for tree planting.
 Herbicide residues were detected in  stream flow
 for  only 7 days after treatment and did not exceed
 7 mg/m3. Sulfometuron methyl was not detected
 in any  storm flow and was not found in any
sediment (both bedload and suspended).
Sampling of a shallow ground water aquifer,
 < 1.5 m below ground surface, did not detect any
sulfometuron methyl residues for 203 days after
 herbicide application.  Lack of herbicide residue
 movement was attributed to low application rates,
 rapid hydrolysis in acidic soils and water,  and
 dilution hi stream flow.  This paper presents very
 important information on the potential for  water
 contamination when spraying herbicides hi
 forested areas. The information presented is
 useful for comparison of similarly applied
 ground-based pesticide applications under
 conditions similar to those found during the study.

 Nutter, W.L. 1982. Water quality and yield
 from the intensively managed forest. In:
 Proceedings of the Society of American
 Foresters, pp. 89-93.

 A review of the impacts of intensive forest
 management, including timber harvest, site
 preparation, road construction, and forest
 fertilization, on water yield and water quality is
 presented. This short review presents an
 overview of the impacts of intensive forestry
 operations.

 Richter, D.D., C.W. Ralston, and W.R.
 Harms. 1982. Prescribed Tire: Effects on water
 quality and forest nutrient cycling. Science.
 215:661-663.

 This paper describes the possible effects of
 prescribed fires on hydrologic fluxes of nitrogen,
 phosphorus, sulfur, and other basic cations. The
 authors conclude, based on literature data,  that
 periodic prescribed fires would not have an
 appreciable effect on water quality.  This paper
 provides a conclusion that should be used with
 caution because it was based on a limited
 literature review.

 Riekerk, H.  1983. Impacts of silviculture on
 flatwoods runoff, water quality, and nutrient
 budgets.  Water Resources Bulletin. 19(1)73-80.

 Runoff and water quality from two different
timber harvest practices, minimum and maximum
disturbance, were compared to an undisturbed
flatwood watershed. The maximum disturbance
 consisted of machine harvesting, slash burning,
windrowing, bedding, and machine planting and
the minimum disturbance treatment included
                                              164

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manual harvesting, slash chopping, bedding, and
machine planting.  Significantly greater water
yield was observed for both treatments, with the
greatest increase in the maximum disturbance
treatment.  Water yield increases lasted for a
single year. As with water yield, the greatest
degradation in water quality was observed from
the maximum disturbance treatment although the
impact was also of short duration. The author
concludes that silvicultural activities in flatwoods
would not result in any long-term degradation of
water quality.

Riekerk, H. 1989. Influence of silvicultural
practices on the hydrology of pine flatwoods in
Florida.  Water Resources Research.
25(4):713-710.

A study was conducted in a pine flatwoods to
determine the  effect of minimum and maximum
disturbance timber harvest on the hydrology of
the forest.  The maximum disturbance was
machine harvesting, slash burning, windrowing,
bedding, and machine .planting and the minimum
disturbance treatment was manual harvesting,
slash chopping, bedding, and machine planting.
The results indicated that the maximum
disturbance harvest had a significant impact on
the hydrology. An increase in the water table and
runoff after timber harvest was observed.  The
increases were due to decreased
evapotranspiration after harvest. The changes in
hydrology could lead to future problems in
already poorly drained flatwoods.

 Skille, J. 1990. Stream and lake nutrient loading
from burning logging slash. Idaho Department
 of Health and Welfare, Division of
 Environmental Quality, Water Quality Bureau.
 Water Quality Summary Report No. 26.

 The nutrient concentration changes in surface
 water caused  by slash pile burning in riparian
 areas of Idaho were measured.  Total phosphorus,
 nitrogen, flow, and other water quality parameters
 were recorded prior to and following runoff
 events, including rain and snowmelt.  Background
 conditions were not established, but the author
 concludes that slash burning near streams has
 serious negative impacts on water quality and
adds to the already serious NFS pollution
concerns.  Proposed regulations to prevent further
impacts are addressed.

Snyder, G.G., H.F. Haupt, and G.H. Belt, Jr.
1975. Gearcutting and burning slash alter
quality of stream water in northern Idaho.
USDA Forest Service. Research Paper
INT-168. 34 pages.

The effect of logging on water quality in three
watersheds in Idaho was determined. Water
samples were collected upstream, on- site, and
downstream from clearcut and slash-burned sites.
Buffer strips were left along the streams upstream
and downstream of the harvest site.  Increases in
cation concentrations were observed, with larger
increases observed at the on-site stations. The
authors suggest the use of stream buffer strips as
a management tool to reduce water quality
impacts.

Stednick, J.D., L.N. Tripp, and R J.
McDonald. 1982. Slash burning effects on soil
and water chemistry in southeastern Alaska.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation.
37(2):126-128.

This paper presents information on the short-term
effects of slash burning after timber harvesting on
the soil and water resources of an Alaskan coastal
forest.  Slash burning resulted in higher total
phosphorus and potassium concentrations in
streamflow.  Suspended sediment concentrations
were significantly higher below the burn area
 although no sample exceeded the water quality
standard.  The authors conclude that the small
 changes observed after slash burning would not
 result in significant impacts on water quality.

 Stone, E.L., W.T.  Swank, and J.W.
 Hornbeck. 1978. Impacts of timber harvest and
 regeneration systems  on stream flow and soils
 in the eastern deciduous region. In: Forest Soils
 and Land Use, Proceedings of the fifth North
 American Forest Soils Conference. C.T.
 Youngberg  (ed.). Colorado  State University.
 pp. 516-535.

 A review of the impacts of forest harvest
                                               165

-------
 activities on soil and water resources is presented.
 The review concentrates on the principles
 associated with impacts and therefore presents
 generalized conclusions from a sampling of the
 research efforts. Topics covered include water
 yield, water table changes, low and peak flow,
 soil moisture, stream temperature, sedimentation,
 and nutrients.

 Van Lear, D.H., J.E. Douglass, S.K. Cox, and
 M.K. Augspurger. 1985. Sediment  and nutrient
 export in runoff from burned and harvested
 pine watersheds in the South Carolina
 piedmont.  Journal of Environmental Quality.
 14(2):169-174.

 Soil and nutrient export in ephemeral flow was
 studied over a three year period after clearcut
 logging. Two pre-harvest prescribed fires had no
 significant effect on water quality or flow.
 Harvesting occurred after the third prescribed
 burn and resulted in increased sediment
 concentrations, although the losses were less than
 values typical of mechanical site preparation.
 Nutrient concentrations were variable among
 watersheds, although no effect of timber harvest
 was observed. .

 Williams, T.M. 1989. Site preparation on
 forested wetlands of the southeastern coastal
 plain. In: Proceedings of the Symposium  on the
 Forested Wetlands of the Southern United States.
 Orlando, Florida, July 12-14, 1988. USDA
 Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment
 Station.  General Technical Report SE-50. pp.
 67-71.

 A general discussion of site preparation objectives
 and site preparation techniques for pine and
 hardwood forests in the Southeastern United
 States is presented.  Only a qualitative review of
 some of the impacts from different treatments is
 provided.

 Wu, A.Y.K., M.P. Papworth, and D.W.
 Flynn. 1984. The effects of some forest
 practices on water quality and yield in the
Reefton Experimental Area, Victoria. In:
Reefion Experimental Area Pretreatment
 Compilation Report,  Volume  I.
 The aim of this study was to assess the effects on
 both water yield and water quality of some forest
 practices commonly used in the management of
 mixed species eucalypt forest in Victoria,
 Australia.  This initial part of the report describes
 the area and preparations for collecting the data.
 The experimental area contains 6  catchments
 ranging in size from 70.4 to 521.2 ha.  The
 larger catchments have perennial streams, whereas
 streamflow tends to be ephemeral in two of the
 catchments. SoDs, topography, vegetation,
 rainfall patterns, and annual temperature ranges
 for the area are described, followed by a
 description of instrumentation used in the
 catchments to  measure meteorological conditions,
 streamflow, and water quality and bedload.
 Catchment hydrology and calibration are also
 discussed, as well as the treatments to be used in
 the experiment. It was proposed that one
 catchment would receive a fuel reduction burn, a
 second would  receive a rehabilitation treatment,
 and a third would be roaded at an intensity similar
 to that of the second,  allowing the effects of
 reading and logging on water yield to be
 separated.  A fourth catchment would serve as a
 control.

 Adams, T.E.,  and R.M. Rice.  1989.  Erosion and
 sedimentation  concerns related to hardwood
 management in California.  Western Journal of
 Applied Forestry. 4(l):31-33.

 Askew, G.R.,  and T.M. Williams. 1986. Water
 quality changes due to site conversion in coastal
 South Carolina. Southern Journal of Applied
 Forestry. 10(3): 134-136.,

 Biswell, H.H., and A.M. Schultz. 1957. Surface
 runoff and erosion as related to prescribed
 burning. Journal of Forestry. 55:372- 374.
 Blackburn, W.H., J.C. Wood,  and M.G.
 DeHaven. 1986. Storm flow and sediment losses
 from site-prepared forestland hi east Texas. Water
Resources Research. 22(5):776-784.

 Blackmon, E.G. (ed).  1985. Forestry and water
quality: A mid- south symposium. Little Rock,
 Arkansas, May 8-9, 1985. Arkansas Cooperative
Extension Service, University of Arkansas.
                                             166

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Clinnick, P.P. 1985. Buffer strip management in
forest operations: a review. Australian Forestry.
48(l):34-45.

Cole, D.W., W.J.B. Crane, and C.C. Grier,
1973. The effect of forest management practices
on water chemistry in a second growth Douglas
fir ecosystem. In: Forest Soils and Forest Land
Management, Proceedings of the Fourth North
American Forest Soils Conference. Laval
University, Quebec, pp.  195-207.

Cushwa, C.T., M. Hopkins, and B.S.  McGinnis.
1971.  Soil movement in established gullies after a
single prescribed burn in the South Carolina
Piedmont. USDA Forest Service, Southeast Forest
Experiment Station. Research Note SE-153. 4
pages.

Dyrness, C.T.  1963. Effects of Burning on Soil.
In: Symposium on Forest Watershed Management.
March 25-28, 1963. Society of American
Foresters and Oregon State University, pp.
291-304.

Hicks, B.J., R.L. Beschta, and R'.D. Harr. 1991.
Long-term changes in streamflow following
logging in  western Oregon and associated
fisheries implications.  Water Resources Bulletin.
27(2):217-226.     .              '   .

Hollis, C.A., R.F.  Fisher, and W.L. Pritchett.
 1978. Effects of some silvicultural practices on
soil site properties in the lower coastal plain. In:
Forest Soils and Land Use, Proceedings of the
Fifth North American Forest Soils Conference.
Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
Colorado.  C.T. Youngberg (eel.), pp: 585-606.

Larson, A.G., and D.D. Wooldridge.  1980.    •
Effects of slash burial on stream water quality.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 9(1):  18-20.  -

Levno, A., and J.  Rothacher.  1969. Increases in
m'aximum stream temperatures after slash and
 burning in a 'small experimental watershed.
 USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest
and Range Experiment Station. Research Note
PNW-110. 7 pages.

Megahan, W.F.  1986. Recent studies on erosion
and its control on forest lands in the United
States.

Mersereau, R.C., and C.T. Dyrness. 1972.
Accelerated  mass wasting after logging and slash
burning in western Oregon.  Journal of Soil and
Water Conservation. 27:112-114.

Miller, E.L. 1984. Sediment yield and storm flow
response to  clear-cut harvest and site preparation
in the Ouachita Mountains. Water Resources
Research. 20(4):471-475.

Morris, L.A., W.L. Pritchett, and B.F. Swindel.
1983. Displacement of nutrients into windrows
during site preparation of a flatwood forest. Soil
Science Society of America Journal.
47(3):591-594.

NCASI. 1984. Forestry management practices
and cumulative effects on water quality and
utility. National Council of the Paper Industry, for
Air and Stream Improvement. Technical Review
Bulletin No. 435.

Pase, C.P., and A.W. Lindenmuth, Jr. 1971.
.Effects of prescribed fire - on vegetation and
sediment in oak-mountain mahogany chaparral.
Journal of Forestry. 69:800-805.

Red, J.T., and W.L. Nutter. 1986. Wastewater
renovation in a slash pine plantation subjected to
prescribed burning.  Journal of Environmental
 Quality. 15(4):351-356.

Riekerk, J., A.C. Mace, D.G. Neary, and B.F.
Swindel. 1986. Hydrologic responses to forest
management in pine flatwoods and Florida's
 water. In: Proceedings-Soil and Crop Science
Society of Florida. 45:163-169.

 Sidle, R.C. 1980. Impacts of forest practices on
 surface erosion. Pacific Northwest Extension  ,
                                              167

-------
 Publication PNW 195. 15 pages.

 Swindel, B.F., C.J. Lassiter, and H. Riekerk.
 1983. Effects of different harvesting and site
 preparation operations on the peak flows of
 streams hi Pinus elliotii flatwoods forests.  Forest
 Ecology and Management. 5:77-86. ,

 Swindel, B.F., CJ. Lassiter, and H. Riekerk.
 1983. Effects of clearcutting and site preparation
 on stormflow volumes of streams in Pinus elliotii
 flatwoods forests.  Forest Ecology and
 Management. 5:245-253.

 Switzer, G.L., D.M. Moehring, and T.A. Terry.
 1978. Clearcutting vs. alternative harvesting-stand
 regeneration systems: Effects on soils and
 environment of the south. In: Forest Soils and
 Land Use, Proceedings of the Fifth North
 American  Forest Soils Conference. Colorado State
 University. C.T. Youngberg, (ed.) pp. 477-515.

 Trimble, S.W., and F.H. Weirich. 1987.
 Reforestation reduces streamflow in the
 southeastern United States.  Journal of Soil and
 Water Conservation. 42(4):274-276.

 Wright, H.A., P.M.  Churchill,  and W.C.
 Stevens. 1982. Soil loss, runoff, and water quality
 of seeded  and unseeded steep watersheds
 following  prescribed burning. Journal of Range
 Management. 35(3):382-385.
BMPs AND SPECIFICATIONS

Bacon, C.G. 1989. Riparian silviculture: Active
riparian  management for multiple resources.
In: Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of the
1989 Society of American Foresters National
Convention. Spokane, Washington, pp. 99-102.

This paper presents an overview of riparian
silviculture and its potential impacts on water
quality, fisheries, and wildlife. It provides a
general review of national perspectives on
  riparian silviculture and give specific examples of
  regional management and research efforts.

  Bramhall, J.W. 1989. Riparian systems and
  forest management- changes in harvesting
  techniques and their effects on decomposed
  granitic soils. In: Proceedings of the California
.  Riparian Systems Conference. Davis, California,
  September 22-24,1988. USDA Forest Service,
  Pacific Southwest Forest and Range
  Experiment Station. General Technical Report
  PSW-110. pp. 176- 179.

  In the 1950s, timber on steep granitic terrain in
  Trinity County, California,  was harvested by
  using the logging techniques of the time.  After
  Trinity Dam was built in the 1960s,  it became
  evident these techniques were not suited to quality
  riparian habitat and healthy anadromous fisheries.
  Since adoption of the Z'berg-Nejedly Forest
  Practice Act in 1973, efforts have been expended
  to repair damages to riparian vegetation and to
  find forest practices compatible with granitic
  soils.   This article lists  BMPs developed for
  timber harvesting on granitic soils in 1986,
  focusing on protection of the riparian zone. No
  effectiveness information is  given.

  Corbett, E.S., and J.A. Lynch. 1985.
 Management of streamside zones on municipal
 watersheds. In: Conference on Riparian
 Ecosystems and their Management:  Reconciling
 Conflicting Uses. Tucson, Arizona, April 16-18.
 pp. 187-190.                /

 This paper focuses on the management practices,
 such as maintenance of buffer zones  on the edges
 of reservoirs, that may be used to maintain the
 quality of municipal watersheds. This generic
 paper  on the role and impact of buffer zones as a
 best management practice includes references to
 over 20 articles.
                                             168

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Cubbage, F.W., and C.E. DeForest. 1991.
BMPs and harvesting regulations in the South.
In: Forestry and the Environment...Engineering
Solutions. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 4-6,
1991. American Society of Agricultural
Engineers.

This paper provides an overview of best
management practices that apply to forestry
practices, including road construction, timber
harvest, stream crossing, streamside management
zones, and maintenance and retiring of structures.
This paper presents basic information about the ,
types of BMPs that may be used.  The paper
introduces regulatory trends in the states of
Florida, North Carolina, West Virginia, and
Maryland, as well  as regulatory trends in forested
wetlands.

Garland, J.J. 1987. Aspects of practical
management in the streamside zone. In:
Streamside Management:  Forestry and Fishery
Interactions. University of Washington, College
of Forest Resources, Seattle, Washington.
E.G. Salo and T.W. Cundy (eds.). pp.
277-288.

Management decisions in the  streamside zone may
profoundly affect practices in adjacent areas
(reaching to the ridge top and beyond).   Issues of
technical, economic, and institutional
(administrative) feasibility are associated with all
management practices. Harvesting systems and
site conditions (terrain, timber type, etc.) must be
matched  to be feasible. Decision arenas for
resolution of conflicts involving facts arid values
are identified.                     ,

Heede, B.H. 1985. Interactions between
streamside vegetation and stream dynamics. In:
Conference on Riparian Ecosystems and their
Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses.
Tuscon,  Arizona,  April 16-18, 1985. pp. 54-58.

This paper investigates the interrelationship
between  vegetation and stream system hydraulics
in a- broad sense that considers water, sediment,
geomorphology, riparian vegetation, and
streamside ecosystems. A 5-year study was
conducted to test a hypothesis that log steps
formed by downed trees replace gravel bars to
reduce bedload movement.  Log steps were
removed from the stream to see whether they
would be replaced by gravel bars.  Seventy-four
percent were replaced by gravel bars.  Fallen logs
were found to dissipate flow energy, maintain
channel  stability, decrease bedload movement,
and increase water quality. The study stream was
located in a mixed conifer forest  of the Arizona
White Mountains at a 2700-m elevation.

Heede, B.H. 1990. Vegetation strips control
erosion in watersheds. Research Note RM-499.
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station.

An analysis was conducted on data collected to
determine the effects of vegetation strips on
erosion control.  The data was collected from
southwestern ponderosa pine forests,  pinyon-
juniper, and chaparral. In the ponderosa pine,  61
times more sediment was delivered when buffer
strips were missing.  This factor  was 18 and 277
for pinyon-juniper and chaparral, respectively.
Overland flow was also diminished from areas
with buffer strips.  No statistical analysis was
conducted on the data.

Lantz, R.L. 1971. Guidelines for stream
protection in logging operations. Oregon State
Game Commission, Portland, Oregon. 29
pages.

This report reviews why certain logging practices
in the West Coast Douglas fir region are more
desirable than others for protecting fish habitat
and water quality.  Streams can be protected to a
large extent by (1) keeping streamside vegetation
intact and (2) taking precautions to eliminate or
minimize soil disturbance and erosion,
particularly that resulting from roads. The report
emphasizes the need to change or eliminate some.
traditional logging practices due to the resource
conflicts between and interdependence of fisheries
and timber production. The report addresses the
freshwater requirements of salmon and trout, the
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 importance of protecting stream habitat, and
 forestry practices that can be used to protect fish
 habitat.  The author discusses streamside
 management areas and road location,
 construction, and maintenance practices.

 Lowrance, R., R. Leonard, and J. Sheridan.
 1985. Managing riparian ecosystems to control
 nonpoint pollution. Journal of Soil and Water
 Conservation. 40(1):87-91.

 This article provides a general discussion of
 riparian zones and factors affecting their ability to
 control NFS pollution. Hydrological and
 vegetative factors affecting pollutant removal are
 discussed, and a case study of an NFS control
 using a riparian zone buffer is presented.
 Riparian  zone management is related to regional
 differences in land use and vegetative
 characteristics.

 McCIimans, R.J. 1980. Best management
 practices for forestry activities. In: Watershed
 Management. Boise, Idaho, July 21-23,  1980.
 C.W. Johnson (ed.). American Society of Civil
 Engineers, Irrigation and Drainage Division,
 Committee on Watershed Management, pp.
 694-705.

 This paper defines critical combinations of site
 conditions for which BMPs are needed to
 minimize adverse impacts on soil and water
 resources. The document also includes
 assessment methodologies, as well as charts  and
 graphs for the selection and application of
 appropriate BMPs. Forest practices are grouped
 according to their capacity to cause water
 pollution, the nature of the more commonly
 applied BMPs to  control pollution, and site
 considerations. Guides, based on slope of land
 and distance from water, are provided to
 determine whether a particular BMP is necessary
 for the particular group of activities.  Graphs
 developed to  determine BMP applicability are
presented, and the selected BMPs are discussed
for each group of forest activities. Specifications
for some BMPs are also presented.
 Miller, E. 1987. Effects of forest practices on
 relationships between riparian area and aquatic
 ecosystems, In: Managing Southern Forest for
 Wildlife and Fish: A Proceedings. General
 Technical Report SO-65. USDA Forest Service,
 Southern Forest Experiment  Station, pp. 40-47.

 This paper presents an outline  of the relationship
 between riparian and stream communities to help
 foresters better understand the  objectives
 underlying streamside management designs.
 Topics reviewed in this paper include food
 energy, large organic debris, stream temperature,
 streambank and bed stability, terrestrial/aquatic
 buffer, and streamflow.  These topics are
 discussed both as they relate to management of
 the riparian forest and riparian vegetation and the
 stream environment.  Over 40  references are cited
 in this paper.

 Neuman, L. 1987. Silviculture and best
 management practices.  In: Erosion Control:
 You're Gambling Without it.  International
 Erosion Control Association,  pp. 145-155.

 This report presents information on the types of
 impairments typical of forestry  activities and
 provides information on management techniques
 that may be used to minimize the impacts.  The
 practices presented hi this paper include timber
 harvesting, site preparation, and road construction
 and drainage.  Erodibility factors, assigned to
 Florida soils by the SCS, and slope determine a
 site's sensitivity to erosion, and the paper presents
 site sensitivity classes  for Florida soils.  This
 classification is related to suggested BMP usage
 and implementation. Many useful tables of
 specifications for when and how to construct the
 practices are presented.

 New York State Department of Environmental
 Conservation, Division of Water. 1986. Stream
 corridor management: A basic  reference manual.

 Chapter 6 (Best Management Practices) provides
an in depth discussion of BMPs  relating to stream
corridor management.  This document discusses
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numerous BMPs not directly related to forestry,
but the information is generally useful for forestry.
applications.  Many standard forestry stream
BMPs, such as crossings and culverts, are
discussed also. Contents include: Stream
Problems, Techniques for Assessing Land Use
Impacts on Water Quantity and Quality, Steps for
Solving the Problem (A Planning and
Problem-solving Framework),  Stream
Conservation Options and Choices for Local
Government, Best Management Practices, and .
Implementing a Program hi Your Community.

Nieswand  G.H., R.M. Hordon, T.B. Shelton,
and B. Chavooshian.  1990. Buffer strips to
protect water supply reservoirs: A model and
recommendations. Water Resources Bulletin.
26(6):959-966.

This paper discusses the development of a
parameter-based model for buffer strip width
determination for use in New Jersey, as part of a
comprehensive watershed management project.
The model is primarily intended for application to
all watersheds above water supply intakes or
reservoirs.  Input requirements for the model
include a combination  of slope, width, and time
of travel. Development of the model and its
application to a watershed in New Jersey are
discussed.  The application results in a
recommended buffer strip width that ranges from
50 to 300 feet, depending on a number of
 assumptions, and from 6-13% of the watershed
 area above the protected waterbody (reservoir)
 being  occupied by the buffer.

 Steinblums, I., H.A.  Froehlich, and J.K.
 Lyons.  1984. Designing stable buffer strips for
 stream  protection. Journal  of Forestry.
 82(l):49-52.

 Failure  of buffer strips due to blowdowns,
 disease, and logging is a recurring problem and
 can cause  stream channels to  load with debris,
 leading to sediment storage or erosion.  This
 article reports a study of environmental factors
 that affect buffer strip stability and stream
 shading.  On 40 streamside buffer strips in the
Cascade Mountains of western Oregon, buffer
strip stability was found to be a function of one
vegetation and six topographic equation variables,
and shading was related to three characteristics of
buffer strips and one of adjacent clearcuts.
Topographic maps and aerial photographs were
used to supplement field observations.  Stability
and shading effectiveness of proposed buffer
strips can be evaluated using the equations
presented in the paper and data collected through
site reconnaissance and topographic maps.

Trimble, G.R., and R.S. Sartz.  1957. How far
from a stream should a logging road be
located? Journal, of Forestry. 55(5)339-341.

Observations were made along a forest road that
traverses a well- stocked northern hardwood
forest of somewhat uneven age in the Hubbard
Brook Experimental Forest in the White
Mountains of New Hampshire.  Data are plotted
as a relationship between degree of slope and
distance sediment is carried by storm runoff,
yielding recommended widths of filter strips for
various conditions. A rule of thumb is a filter
strip 25  feet wide on level ground with a 2-foot
increase in width for each 1 % increase in slope of
the land between road and stream.

Whitman R. 1989. Clean water of multiple
use? Best management practices for water
 quality control on the national forests. Ecology
Law Quarterly. 16(4):909.                   ;   •

This article summarizes the nature and extent of
 the environmejital problems around which
 conflicts revolve, and  shows  how state and federal
 laws, including NEPA, CWA and the National
 Forest Management  Act, interact to protect water
 quality through forest  planning.  The paper also
 assesses the success of BMPs in protecting water
 quality, explains why BMPs  are not always
 implemented even when legally prescribed, and
 identifies those settings where, even if fully
 implemented, BMPs fail. Finally, the author
 proposes some administrative and institutional
 reforms designed to correct these shortcomings.
 The article contains a review of the water quality
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 problems associated with timber harvesting; the
 various statutes relating to forest practices; the
 roles of EPA, the states, and the Forest Service in
 water quality protection; and the effectiveness of
 BMPs. The suggested reforms include
 restructuring incentives to protect environmentally
 sensitive areas and restructuring state water
 quality standards for forestry-related NPS
 pollution.

 Anderson, H.W., M.D. Hoover, and K.G.
 Reinhart. 1976. Forests and water: Effects of
forest management on floods, sedimentation, and
 water supply. USDA Forest Service. General
 Technical Report PSW-18. 115 pages.

 Andrus, C., and H.A. Froehlich. 1988.  Riparian'
 forest development after logging or fire  in the
 Oregon Coast Range: Wildlife habitat and timber
 value. In:: Streamside Management: Riparian
 Wildlife and Forestry Interactions. University of
 Washington.  Institute of Forest Resources. No.
 59. pp. 139-151.

 Baumgartner, D.M.  (ed). 1981.  Interior west
 watershed management: Proceedings of a
 symposium. Spokane, Washington, April 8-10,
 1980. Washington State University, Cooperative
 Extension Service. 288 pages.

 Belt, G.H., J. O'Laughlin, and T.  Merril. 1992.
Design of forest riparian buffer strips for the
protection of water quality: Analysis of scientific
literature. University of Idaho, Wildlife  and
Range Policy Analysis Group Report No. 8. 35
pages.

Borg, H., A. Hordacre, and  F. Batini. 1988.
Effects of logging in stream and river buffers on
watercourses  and  water quality in the southern
forest of Western Australia.  Australian Forestry
51 (98-105).

Brazier, J.R., and G.W. Brown.  1973.  Buffer
strips for stream temperature control. Oregon
State University, School of Forestry,  Forest
Research Laboratory. Research Paper 15.
 Curtis, W.R. 1966. Forest zone helps minimize
 flooding in the Driftless Area. Journal of Soil
 and Water Conservation. 21:101-102.

 Ice, G.G.  1989. Guidelines and approaches for
 forest riparian management: State forest practice
 rules. In: Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of
 the 1989 Society of American Foresters National
 Convention. Spokane, Washington, pp. 94-98.

 Megahan,  W.F. 1983. Appendix C: Guidelines
 for reducing negative impacts  of logging. In:
 Tropical watersheds: Hydrologic and soils
 response to major uses or conversions.  L.S.
 Hamilton and P.N. King (eds.). Westview Press,
 Boulder, Colorado, pp. 143-154.

 Mumper, D., D.R. Gibbons, L. Wilson, and
 M.J. Golde. 1987. Best management practices in
 the streamside zone. In: Streamside Management:
 Forestry and Fishery Interactions. University of
 Washington.  E.G. Salo and T.W Cundy (eds.).
 Inst. of Forest Resources. No. 57. pp. 441-457.

 NCASI. 1984. Forestry management practices
 and cumulative effects on water quality and
 utility. National Council of the Paper Industry for
 Air and Stream Improvement.  Technical Review
 Bulletin No. 435.

 NCASI.  1987. Managing Oregon's riparian zone
for timber, fish and wildlife. National Council of
 the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
 Improvement. Technical Bulletin No. 514.

 Payne; N.J., J.C. Feng, and P.E. Reynolds.
 1990. Off-target deposits and buffer zones
 required  around water for aerial glyphosate
 applications. Pesticide Science. 30(2): 183-198.

 Payne, N.J., B.V.  Kelson, K.M.S. Sundaram,
 and R.A. Fleming. 1988. Estimating buffer zone
 widths for pesticide applications.  Pesticide
 Science. 24(2): 147-161.

 Robison, E.G., and R.L. Beschta. 1990.
 Identifying trees in riparian areas that can provide
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coarse woody debris to streams.  Forest Science.
36(3):790-801.

Salp, E.G., and T.W. Cundy (eds.). 1987.
Streamside management forestry and fishery
interactions. College  of Forest Resources,
University of Washington. 471  pages.

Swank, G.W. 1985. Streamside management units
in the Pacific Northwest. In: Conference on
Riparian Ecosystems  and Their Management:
Reconciling Conflicting Uses. USDA Forest
Service, April  16-18. pp.   435-438.

USDA Forest Service.  1991. Riparian forest
buffers: Function and design for protection and
enhancement of water resources.

USDA Forest Service and  USEPA. 1978.
.Streamside management zone statutes and
ordinances, criteria and institutional
arrangements serving water quality objectives on
state and private forest lands, pp. 10-22.

Wong, S.L., and R.H. McCuen.  1981.  The
design of vegetative buffer strips for runoff and
sediment control. University of Maryland,
Department of Civil Engineering.
COSTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BMPs

Cubbage, F.W. 1987. Costs of forest water
quality protection. In: Forestry  and Water
Quality: A Policy Workshop for  State Foresters.
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July 6-9,  1987.
              ff
This paper presents a review of the costs of
forestry NFS controls, including  agency
administrative costs, direct costs  to landowners or
timber .operators (e.g., plan preparation), and
indirect costs on timber supplies.  Forest practice
costs are reviewed for California, Massachusetts,
Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Oregon,  and Washington.
The various approaches used by these states and
their effect on implementation cost are analyzed
as well.  The approach used by forestry and other
agencies for implementing the voluntary or
required practice rules greatly affects the various
costs of program implementation, as well as who
bears the costs. Criteria used to select the means
of controlling NPS pollution must include BMP
effectiveness, political and social acceptability,
and economic efficiency.

Cubbage, F.W., and P.  Lickwar. 1990.
Estimating the costs of water quality protection
on private forest lands in Georgia. Georgia
Forestry Commission, Research Division.

The purpose of the information presented in this
paper is to quantify the operational costs of
implementing various forestry best management
practices, with emphasis placed on practices
associated with road construction. This paper
presents very good cost information on the
following: road construction, stream crossings,
broad-based dips, water bars, seed, fertilizer,
mulch. The information is useful because the
costs are based on various physiographic
classifications (i.e., coastal plain, piedmont, or
mountain).

Curtis, J.G., D.W. Pelren, D.B. George,  V.D.
Adams, and J.B. Layzer. 1990. Effectiveness of
best management practices in preventing
degradation of streams caused by silvicultural
activities in Pickett State  Forest, Tennessee.
Center for the Management, Utilization and
Protection of Water Resources, Tennessee
Technological University for the Tennessee
Department of Conservation, Division of
Forestry and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources
Agency. 197 pages.

This study was undertaken to evaluate the
effectiveness of BMPs applied to timber harvest
operations in Pickett Forest. The effects on water
quality, fish production, and macroinvertebrates,
and the presence of herbicides in streams were
studied.  The BMPs employed were SMZs, road
placement on ridgetops and high elevations, skid
trails kept at least 14 m from streams, harvest
during the driest season and maximum soil
stability, logging of small, dispersed stands,
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seeding and mulching of disturbed areas,
broad-based dips on the haul road, and a period
of 10 years before the area would be logged
again. Herbicides were applied to two stands.
Hardwoods 75 mm dbh or less were thin line
sprayed with a mixture of Garlon (active
ingredients triclopyr and 2,4-D), Sidekick, and
diesel fuel.  Picloram was injected into all
hardwoods 255 mm dbh or greater.
Concentrations of herbicides in streams following
the treatments was low: 2,4-D @ < 0.02-0.081.
Based on available toxicity data, the levels
detected were riot biologically harmful.
However, care is needed during application to
minimize transport to surface waters.  Extensive
data relating to all of the BMPs employed during
the study are presented in the paper .

Dykstra, D.P., and H.A. Froehlich. 1976.
Costs of stream protection during timber
harvest. Journal of Forestry. 74(10): 684-687.

This article analyzes the cost of three stream
protection alternatives:  conventional felling with
channel cleanup; cable- assisted directional
felling;  and use of buffer strips.  The study was
conducted along 10 deeply incised headwater
stream channels in western Oregon.  None of the
three alternatives was clearly preferable on a
majority of the study areas.  The least- cost
alternative on four of the areas was a
55-foot-wide buffer strip ($20.02 to $27.77  per
MBF).  On three of the remaining areas,
conventional felling was the least expensive
($20.83 to $23.97 per MBF), and on the other
three, cable-assisted directional felling was the
least expensive ($18.79 to $26.30 per  MBF).

Ellefson, P.V., and P.O.  Miles. 1984.
Economic implications of managing nonpoint
forest source of water pollutants:  A mid western
perspective. In: Mountain Logging Symposium
Proceedings. West Virginia University, June
5-7, 1984.  P.A. Peters and J.  Luchok (eds.).
pp. 107-119.

Economic evaluations of 6 forest practices
designed to enhance water quality from 18 timber
harvesting operations in the Midwest were carried
out. Net revenue reductions ranged from 1.2%
with redesign of landing and skid trail locations to
26.4% with buffer strip requirements.  Nine
operations were profitable with application of all
six practices. Limited production function
information hinders such analyses.

Heede, B.H. 1990. Vegetation strips control
erosion in watersheds. Research Note RM-499.
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station.

An analysis was  conducted on data collected to
determine the effects of vegetation strips on
erosion control.  The data was collected from
southwestern ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-
juniper, and chaparral. In the ponderosa pine, 61
times more sediment was delivered when buffer
strips were missing.  This factor was 18 and 277
for pinyon-juniper and chaparral, respectively.
Overland flow was also diminished from areas
with buffer strips.  No statistical analysis was
conducted on the data.

House, R., and  V. Crispen.  1990.  Economic
analyses of the value of large woody debris as
salmonid habitat in coastal Oregon streams.
Technical Note OR'-7:6512. USDI, Bureau of
Land Management, Portland OR.  11 pages.

Three woody debris loading levels that result
from different riparian management practices
were analyzed in two stream reaches  in the upper
Nestucca River drainage, Oregon. The analysis
included estimating summer juvenile populations
of coho salmon, steelhead, and cutthroat trout and
estimating die value of conifers in riparian zones
for anadromous fish were compared  to maximum
timber harvest to determine the benefits of
maintaining riparian vegetation to supply high
levels of woody debris.  The benefits of
maintaining 2 km of stream at high levels (11.0
pieces per 100 m of stream) would be 11% higher
within 20 years and 59% higher (an  increase of
over $100,000 in present value) after 94 years
over conifer stumpage in the riparian zone.
Long-term, economic benefits were found to be
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substantially higher for streams managed with
high levels of woody debris. .

Lickwar, P.M., C.A. Hickman, and F.W.
Cubbage. 1991. Costs of protecting water
quality during harvesting on private forestlands
in the Southeast.  Southern Journal of Applied
Forestry.

Data on harvest volumes, topography, and other
site and area  characteristics were obtained from
22 private forest timber harvests in Alabama,
Florida, and Georgia. An economic analysis was
then used to estimate the marginal costs of
implementing each state's recommended BMPs
and a set of "enhanced" BMPs that offered
increased water quality protection.  Collectively,
the costs of using the recommended BMPs
averaged 2.9% of gross timber sale revenue,
$2.34 per 1000 board feet (MBF) of timber
harvested, or $12.45 per acre.  The cost of
implementing enhanced BMPs averaged 5.1% of
gross stumpage value, $4.13 per MBF, or $21.94
per acre.  Seed, fertilizer, and mulch;
broad-based dips; and water bars were the most
expensive practices on & total cost basis.  Culvert
installation, SMZs, and road relocation were less
expensive for most tracts.  A literature review of
related studies is provided.  Site location maps,
site characteristics (physiographic, size, harvest
method) are also given, and the economic analysis
breaks the sites dpwn by topography and BMPs
implemented.  This is one of the few  studies
available on forestry  BMP implementation costs.

Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1981.
Effectiveness of best management practices in
controlling nonpoint pollution from commercial
clearcuts. In: Nonpoint Pollution  Control - Tools
and Techniques for the Future, Proceedings of a
Technical Symposium, pp.  213-224.

This paper reports an evaluation of the
effectiveness  of Pennsylvania's BMPs for
controlling NPS pollution on public and private
forestlands.  This study was done following a
commercial clearcut'in  central Pennsylvania. The
paired watershed  method  was used  to evaluate
changes in water quality and quantity. The
commercial clearcut produced a water yield
increase of 5.39 area- inches the first year
following cutting. Stream turbidity on the
clearcut watershed was generally higher than that
on the control watershed prior to cutting, and no
major increase in turbidity occurred as a result of
cutting.   No serious channel erosion was found on
the clearcut watershed. Increases in stream
temperature were generally slight.  The authors
conclude that the BMPs required in Pennsylvania
are sufficient to control NPS pollution during and
following logging'.

Lynch, J.A., and E.S. 'Corbett. 1990.
Evaluation of best management practices for
controlling nonpoint pollution from silvicultural
operations.  Water Resources Bulletin.
26(l):41-52.

Fifteen years of streamflow and water quality data
were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of
BMPs in controlling nonpoint source pollution
from a 110-acre commercial clearcut located  hi
the Ridge and Valley Province of central
Pennsylvania.  In general, the BMPs analyzed
effectively reduced water quality impacts
associated with timber harvest. Although some
increases in water quality constituents were
observed, most were well below the drinking
water standards although they may violate EPAs
antidegradation policy.  The authors suggest that
buffer strips of unharvested timber provided the
most protection to the streams and that improved
performance may be  possible through annual
inspections and increasing the width of buffer
strips if necessary. The information presented in
this report demonstrates the potential for
reductions in nonpoint source pollution possible
with various BMPs.

Mormon, D. 1993. Riparian rules effectiveness
study. Forest Practices Program, Oregon
Department of Forestry. 198 pages  +
appendices.

The purpose of this report is to present the Forest
Practices Program's Riparian Rule effectiveness
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study. The report describes the data collected for
the study and provides an evaluation of the data.
The study surveyed the pre- and post- operation
stream and riparian conditions of Class I and II
stream within or adjacent to 33 typical harvest
units throughout Oregon. The primary focus of
the data collection was to measure the resource
protection provided on Class I streams through
application of the rules, and to provide
information on the costs and benefits of the
program. The major conclusions presented in the
report are as follows: 1) Class II streams
experienced greater shade reduction as a result of
harvesting than Class I streams;  2) existing
quantities of aquatic coarse woody debris were
not affected by harvesting, however, in western
Oregon the future supply of Woody debris was
significantly reduced through the harvest of
streamside trees; 3) harvesting resulted in minor
reductions in snag density; 4) the projected net
volume of timber retained annually on Oregons
private and local government lands to meet Class
I stream protection equals slightly more than  1 %
of annual harvest on those lands; 5) the
application of riparian rules  generally resulted in
Class I stream protection that maintained
pre-operation vegetative  condition; and 6) timber
retained after harvest in riparian management
areas tends to be trees having lower volume and
value.

Phillips, J. 1989. Nonpoint source pollution
control effectiveness of riparian forests along a
coastal plain river.  Journal of Hydrology.
110:221-237.

The purpose  of this research was to evaluate the
NFS pollution control effectiveness of riparian
environments in the lower Tar River basin, North
Carolina.  Soil  map units, representing specific
combinations of soil, topography, and vegetation
characteristics,  are compared in terms of their
relative ability to filter nitrate in agricultural
runoff.  A typical riparian forest provides
significant water quality protection, but there  is
wide variation in buffer effectiveness.  A range of
15-80 m  is  appropriate for the
soil-landform-vegetation  complexes found in the
 study area riparian zones, and buffer widths of 60
 m, and often much less, are generally adequate on
 the soils likely to be used for agricultural
 production.  The author analyzes the effectiveness
 of buffer widths using a detention-time model and
 explains the model's development and application.

 Clinnick, P.P. 1985. Buffer strip management in
 forest operations: a review. Australian Forestry.
 48(1):3
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 Improvement. Technical Bulletin No. 514.

 NCASI. 1988. Procedures for assessing the
 effectiveness of Best Managements Practices in
 protecting water and stream quality associated
, with managed forests. National Council of the
 Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement.
 Technical Bulletin No. 538. 23 pages.

 Olsen, E.D., D.S. Keough, and D.K. LaCourse.
 1987. Economic impact of proposed Oregon
 Forest Practices Rules on industrial forest lands
 in the Oregon Coast Range: A case study. Oregon
 State University, College of Forestry, Forest
 Research Laboratory. Research Bulletin 61.  15
 pages.
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                              7. FORESTRY CHEMICALS
IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY

Allen, H.L. 1987. Forest fertilizers: Nutrient
amendment, stand productivity, and
environmental impact.  Journal of Forestry. 85:
37-46.

The benefits and impacts of forest fertilization
practices are discussed. The discussion topics
range from timber response to potential water
quality alterations. This is a general information
paper that uses literature data as the basis for its
findings.

Aubertin, G.M., D.W. Smith, and J.H. Patric.
1973. Quantity and quality of streamflow after
urea fertilization on a forested watershed: First
year results. In: Forest Fertilization Symposium
Proceedings. USDA Forest Service,  Northeast
Experiment Station, Upper Darby,
Pennsylvania. General Technical Report  NE-3.
pp. 88- 100.

The quantity and quality of streamflow from a
fertilized watershed were quantified in this  paper.
A 74-acre calibrated watershed was fertilize with
an average of 500 pounds of urea per acre  (range
400-600) in May.  An initial period of no rain led
to the loss of some N through ammonification.
Light rains through the summer caused
streamflow to decrease to a trickle. Ammonium-
N and nitrate-N returned to prefertilization levels
in 2 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively. Fall rains
raised the ammonium-N concentration to 0.2 ppm
and the nitrate-N concentration to 5.5 ppm. High
streamflow during this period resulted in a
substantial loss of N from the watershed in fall
and winter. This study was conducted on a
highly calibrated watershed witii significant
amounts of baseline data.  However, the
watershed is not typical of commercial forestry in
that a dense stand of lush vegetation was present
because the watershed had been clearcut 13 years
earlier.

Burroughs, E.R., and H.A. Froehlich. 1972.
Effects of forest fertilization on water quality
 in two small watersheds.  ELM Technical Note.
 Bureau of Land Management, 17 pages.

 A study was undertaken to determine nitrate and
 nitrite concentrations in streams following forest
 fertilization. Several thousand acres of Douglas
 fir forest  in western Oregon were fertilized in
 1970 and 1971. Dry urea pellets were applied at
 the rate of 440 pounds per acre (200 Ib N per
 acre). Peak N levels in the two treated streams
 were 8.6  and 44.4 ppm, but the peaks were
 short-lived. Concentrations returned to
 pretreatment levels within 3-4 days.  The
 fertilization did not cause levels of N to exceed
 those recommended for drinking water standards
 (10 ppm) near public water supply areas. Peak
 concentrations were probably caused by fertilizer
 that fell directly into streams,  and such direct
 application should be avoided  in future
 applications. Care should be taken not to apply
 fertilizers where sufficient dilution from
 downstream tributaries could contribute to
 contamination of municipal water supplies.

 Chamberlin, T.W., R.D. Harr, and F.H.
 Everest.  1991. Timber harvesting, silviculture,
 and watershed processes. In: Influences of
 forest and rangeland management on salmonid
 fishes and their habitats.  W.R. Meehan (ed.).
 American Fisheries Special Publication
 19:181-206.

' This chapter examines the effects of timber
 management activities on stream ecosystems,
 particularly streams with anadromous salmonids.
 Timber management practices discussed include
 felling and yarding of trees, site preparation by
 burning or scarification, fire hazard reduction,
 forest regeneration by planting or seeding,
 reduction of competition by brush removal and
 tree thinning before commercial harvest, and
 some effects of road building on die hydrologic
 and sediment systems. Chapter contents:
 hydrologic effects;  effects on erosion and
 sedimentation;  effects on channel forms and
 geomorphic processes; effects of forest
 harvesting; and conclusions/management options.
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Corbett, E.S., and J.M. Heilman. 1975. Effect
of management practices on water quality and
quantity: The Newark,  New Jersey municipal
watersheds. In: Municipal Watershed
Management Symposium Proceedings.  USDA
Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station.  General  Technical Report NE-13. pp.
47-57.                ,

The effects of best management practices on
water quality in the Pequannock watershed basin
of northern New Jersey is examined.  The basin
serves as the main source of drinking water for
the inhabitants of Newark, NJ. A drought
occurring in the mid 1960s  reduced the  available
water to  critical levels. This resulted in the
treatment of vegetation with herbicides to increase
forest water yields. Major  water quality
parameters studied to determine the effects of
defoliation include flow, temperature, pH, and
turbidity. A large amount of data is presented.
The herbicide treatment resulted in augmentation
of low flows. During the 5 years following the
first treatment, the number  of low-flow  days was
reduced from an average  of 81 days per year to
35 days per year.  Peak flow was increased by
17,3% during the growing season in watershed 3.
Average summer  maximum stream temperature
increased 6°F over control  in the watershed.
Herbicide treatment of all trees 1 inch or larger
within 20 ft of the stream channel watershed  1 did
not statistically significantly increase water yield.
The conclusions drawn from the study indicate
that, under certain circumstances, water yield can
be increased by decreasing  the amount of
vegetation in a watershed.

Curtis, J.G., D.W. Pelren, D.B.  George, V.D.
Adams, and J.B. Layzer.  1990. Effectiveness of
best management practices in preventing
degradation of streams caused by silvicidtural
activities in Pickett State Forest, Tennessee.
Center for  the Management, Utilization and
Protection of Water Resources, Tennessee
Technological University for  the Tennessee
Department of Conservation, Division of
Forestry and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources
Agency. 197 pages.

This study was undertaken  to evaluate the
effectiveness of BMPs applied to timber harvest
operations in Pickett Forest.  The effects on water
quality, fish production, and macro invertebrates,
and the presence of herbicides in streams were
studied.  The BMPs employed were SMZs, road
placement on ridgetops'and high elevations, skid
trails kept at least 14 m from streams, harvest
during; the driest season and maximum soil
stability, logging of small, dispersed stands,  ,
seeding and mulching of disturbed areas,
broad-based dips on the haul road, and a period
of 10 years before the area would be  logged
again.  Herbicides were applied to two stands.
Hardwoods 75 mm dbh or less were thin line
sprayed with a mixture of Garlon (active
ingredients triclopyr and 2,4-D), Sidekick, and
diesel fuel. Picloram was injected into all
hardwoods 255 mm dbh or greater.
Concentrations of herbicides in streams following
the treatments was low: 2,4-D @ < 0.02-0.081.
Based on available toxicity data, the levels
detected were not biologically harmful.
However, care is needed  during application to
minimize transport to surface waters. Extensive
data relating to all of the  BMPs employed during
the study are presented in the paper.

Feller,  M.C. 1989. Effects of forest herbicide
applications on streamwater chemistry in
southwestern British  Columbia.  Water
Resources Bulletin. 25(3):607-616.

The herbicide glyphosate was applied to portions
of two watersheds in southwestern British
Columbia to kill vegetation that was competing
with Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)
plantations. This application had little significant
effect on streamwater  chemistry (K+, Na2+,
Mg2+, Ca2+, Cr, NO/, NH4+,  POA SO;, and
SiO2 concentrations, electrical conductivity, and
pH) when vegetation cover in a watershed was
reduced by 4%, but had significant effects, which
lasted for at least 5 years, when cover was
reduced by 43 %. The greatest percentage
increases were observed for NO3", which
increased from typical pretreatment levels of
 <0.5 mg/1 to  a maximum of 4.6 mg/1 during the
first posttreatment water  year.   Nitrate levels,
usually the most impacted by forestry activities,
stayed below those recommended for drinking
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 water (44 mg/1).  This study presents the type of
 long-term data needed to analyze trends in water
 quality due to chemical applications.

 Folmar, L.C., H.O. Sanders, and A.M. Julin.
 1979. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and
 several of its formulations to fish and aquatic
 invertebrates.  Archives of Environmental
 Contamination and Toxicology. 8:269-278.

 Studies were conducted of the herbicide's toxicity
 to aquatic invertebrates (scuds, midge larvae,
 mayfly nymphs, and daphnids) and fish (Rainbow
 trout, fathead minnows,  channel catfish, and
 bluegills).  Acute toxicities for Roundup ranged
 from 2.3 mg/L to 43 mg/L.  Technical glyphosate
 was considerably less toxic than Roundup.
 Roundup was more toxic to rainbow trout and
 bluegills at higher temperatures and at pH 7.5
 than pH 6.5.  Eyed eggs were the least sensitive
 life stage, but toxicity increased markedly as the
 fish entered the sac fry and early swim-up stages.
 Application of Roundup  at recommended rates
 along ditchbank areas of irrigation canals should
 not adversely affect resident populations of fish or
 invertebrates.  However, spring applications in
 lentic situation, where dissolved oxygen levels are
 low or temperatures are elevated, could be
 hazardous to young-of-the-year fishes.  Toxicity
 tables listing the LC50 or EC50 concentrations
 used  and confidence limits are provided.

 Fredriksen, R.L., D.G. Moore, and L.A.
 Norris. 1973. The impact of timber harvest,
 fertilization, and herbicide treatment on
 streamwater quality  in western Oregon and
 Washington. In: Forest Soils and Forest Land
 Management, Proceedings of the Fourth North
 American Forest Soils Conference. B.  Bernier
 and C.H. Winget (eds.). pp. 283-313.

 This paper describes the  impacts of forest
 management practices on stream water quality in
 the Douglas fir region.  The conceptual base for
 understanding the processes of soil erosion and
 stream sedimentation and the outflow of native
 nutrients, fertilizers, and herbicides in streams  is
presented in this study.  Research findings from
studies in Cascade and Coast Range watersheds
 illustrate these concepts.  The methodology
 commonly used in watershed studies is explained,
 and water quality effects of forestry activities are
 reviewed in detail. This is an excellent review of
 water quality effects, with data presented from
 numerous studies conducted in the region.  The
 authors present five conclusions based on the
 review.  Sedimentation of forest streams after
 timber harvest increases with increasing angle of
 slope, and forest roads that cross steeply inclined
 streams rather than roads  on ridge tops.  Clearcut
 forests and  roads hi steep country require more
 recovery tune. Sedimentation can be decreased
 by careful planning.  Nutrients are lost after
 clearcutting, but loss  decreases rapidly with
 revegetation. Nitrogen concentrations in streams
 does not increase beyond accepted drinking water
 standards.  The biological effects of forest
 fertilization on N transformations and movements
 in forest soils should  be investigated.  Long-term
 consequences of repeated forest fertilization on
 water quality must be determined. The drift or
 direct application of spray materials to surface
 waters is the principal route of herbicide entry
 into streams.

 Gibbs, K.E., T.M. Mingo, and D.L.
 Courtemanch. 1984. Persistence of carbaryl
 (Sevin-4-oil) in woodland ponds and its effects
 on pond macroinvertebrates following forest
 spraying.  Canadian  Entomologist. 116:203-213.

 The water quality impact of an aerial spraying of
 the insecticide carbaryl is presented. Carbaryl
 (Sevin-4-oil) was applied to woodland ponds in
 northern Maine at the rate of 840 g A.I./ha.
 Maximum residue levels found were 254 ug/1 in
 the water and 53, 793 kg (dry wt) in the
 sediment.  Residues of the carbaryl were
 detectable in the water samples for 14 months and
 in the sediment for 16 months after spraying.
 The study presents significant amounts of data on
 the levels of the carbaryl residues and  on the
 number of aquatic organisms present prior to and
 after spraying. The amphipods Hyallela azteca
 and Crangonyx richmondensis were reduced to
 near zero levels after the applications and failed to
 recolonize ponds for 30 months after treatment.
The concentrations observed may be somewhat
higher than typical because the sprayed ponds had
no vegetative buffer to intercept any of the spray.
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Golden, M.S., C.L. Tuttle, J.S. Kush, and
J.M. Bradley. 1984; Forestry activities and
water quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
practices,  and an erosion-classified system.
Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
Station. Bulletin 555.

The report was prepared primarily as a source of
information on the relationship between forestry
practices and water quality, with orientation
toward forestry practices prevalent in Alabama.
Information on stream pollutants such as
sediment,  nutrients, pesticides, organic material,
waste and litter, and temperature is provided.
The review includes over  160  directly cited
documents on these subjects.   Also included in the
report are recommendations of principles and
practices designed  to minimize the water quality
impacts from Alabama forestry practices.

Groman,  W.A. 1972. Forest fertilization: A
state-of-the-art review and description of
environmental effects. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Natural Environmental
Research Center,  Corvallis, Oregon.
Environmental Protection Technical Series.
EPA-R2-72-016.

Information on the concepts, scope, and methods
of forest fertilization in various nations
(European, New Zealand, Australia, Japan and
Canada) and regions of the United States (Pacific
Northwest, southern pine) is reported in this
review. Results of completed  forest fertilization
water quality studies are summarized and
evaluated, the status of current water quality
studies  is described, and the water quality  effects
of forest fertilization are discussed.  The social,
economic, and technological trends and
developments affecting the practice of forest
fertilization are discussed.  Recommendations for
further  research are presented.

Helvey, J.D., J.N. Kochenderfer, and P.J.
Edwards.  1989. Effects of forest fertilization on
selected ion concentrations in central
Appalachian streams.  In: Seventh Central
Hardwood Forest  Conference. Carbondale,
Illinois, March 5-8. USDA Forest Service. GTR
NC-132. pp. 278-282.
Two, small forest watersheds in West Virginia
were fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus to
determine effects on streamflow chemistry.
Fertilizer application rates were 336 kg/ha N as
ammonium nitrate and 224 kg/ha P2O5 as triple
superphosphate.  Concentrations of nitrate-N
increased on both watersheds 5 months after
fertilization.  Maximum monthly concentrations
were 8.5 and 7.3 mg/1 (background levels were a
maximum 1-2 mg/1). Elevated levels  of nitrate-N
were observed for 3 years following treatment.
Phosphate-phosphorus concentrations did not
change appreciably.

Hetherington, E.D. 1976. Dennis Creek: A look
at -water quality following logging in  the
Okanagan Basin. Rac. For. Res. Cen., Canada
Forest Service. Information Report  BX-X-147.
33 pages.

Water quality was monitored in the Lens Creek
watershed on southern Vancouver  Island to
determine nitrogen loss following fall  application
of 224 kg N/ha urea fertilizer on a second-
growth Douglas fir forest.  Peak N concentrations
were 14  mg/1 as urea, 1.9 mg/1 as ammonia, and
9.3 mg/1 as nitrate.  For the first 14 months,
estimated N outputs in excess of background
amounts were 5.9% and  14.5% of the total
applied N for the two subsidiary watersheds with
46% and 80% of their drainage areas  fertilized.
These losses were considerably higher than
amounts of less than 1 % previously reported for
, western  North America.  The results of this study
were compared to other studies and found to
differ  significantly, indicating the extent to which
site-specific conditions affect losses.

Hetherington, E.D. 1985. Streamflow nitrogen
loss following forest fertilization  in a southern
Vancouver Island watershed.  Canadian
Journal of Forestry Research.  15(1):34-41.

Water quality was monitored in the Lens Creek
watershed on southern Vancouver  Island to
determine nitrogen loss following fall  application
of 224 kg N/ha urea fertilizer on a second-
growth Douglas fir forest.  The results of this
study were compared to other studies  and found
to differ significantly, indicating the extent to
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which site-specific conditions affect losses.

lEldebrand, L.D., D.S. Sullivan, and T.P.
Sullivan. 1980. Effects of Roundup herbicide
on populations of Daphnia magna in a forest
pond.  Bulletin of Environmental Contamination
and Toxicology. 25:353-357.

Roundup herbicide is a nonselective
postemergence defoliant. Its effects were tested
on Daphnia magna, an indiscriminate filter
feeder.  Treatment levels were control, field dose,
lOx field dose, and lOOx field dose.  Populations
were sampled 2, 4, and 8 days after treatment.
Control and experimental treatment populations
did not show any significant variation in survival.
Food web and bioaccumulation studies were not a
part of this study.

IDlmon, J.B., and J.E. Douglass. 1968.
Potential impact of forest fertilization on range,
•wildlife, and watershed management. In: Forest
Fertilization: Practice and Theory. Tennessee
Valley Authority, pp. 197-202.

This is a review of the potential impacts of
fertilization on forage,  wildlife, and water
resources.  Results of studies carried out in
Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina are
presented.  Plots received different rates of
fertilization, and the nutrient quality of forage for
livestock was measured.  A similar study was
carried out on plots managed for both timber  and
forage production. The authors briefly discuss
the effects of fertilization on the nutrient value of
wildlife forage, and, in greater detail, the water
quality and  yield effects of fertilization.

Hiltibran, R.C. 1967. Effects of some
herbicides on fertilized fish eggs and fry.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
96:414-416.

The toxicity of amitrole, dalapon, endothall,
dichlobenil, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-D, isooctyl
ester of 2,4-DP, propionic acid, and potassium
salt of silvex at various concentrations was
examined in a laboratory study.  At the
concentrations used, no reduction in the survival
period of any of the fry was observed. Other
herbicides did reduce the survival period at some
of the concentrations used.  Endothall, because of
its low toxicity to fish, low toxicity to eggs or.
fry, and rates of aquatic use, appears to be one of
the safest herbicides to use during the spawning
season.  Fry were more susceptible to the toxicity
of herbicides than were fertilized eggs.  Granular
formations of some herbicides proved to be less
toxic than liquid formulations.

Lichy, C.T. 1980. Impact of forest chemicals
on water pollution. In: U.S. Forestry and Water
Quality: What Course in the 80's? Richmond,
Virginia, June  19-20, 1980. Water Pollution
Control Federation and Virginia Water
Pollution Control Association, pp. 152-161.

This paper is a general discussion of herbicides
used in forestry and their potential to cause
adverse environmental impacts. Herbicides are
used for various phases of forestry,  including site
preparation and tree release. Timing and mode of
application are discussed with respect to the
herbicide reaching the intended target.  The
persistence of herbicides in the environment and
the potential impacts in streams are discussed.
The author concludes  that herbicides and other
chemicals, if used properly, do not pose a threat
to the forest environment.  -

Likens, G.E., F.H. Hermann, N.M. Johnson,
D.W. Fisher, and R.S. Pierce. 1970. Effects of
forest cutting and herbicide treatment on
nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook
watershed- ecosystem. Ecological  Monographs.
40(l):23-47,

All vegetation on watershed 2 of the Hubbard
Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire
was cut in November  and December 1965.
Vegetation regrowth was inhibited by periodic
herbicide applications. Annual stream flow was
increased above normal values by 39% the first
year and 28% the second year.  Large increases
in all major  ions except NH4+, SO<2' and HCGy
were observed for 5 months after  deforestation.
Nitrate concentrations in stream water were 41-
and 56-fold higher during the first and second
years following deforestation, respectively.
Stream temperatures following deforestation were
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higher than normal and fluctuated 3-4 °C during
the day  during summer, in contrast to normally
constant daytime temperatures.  Turbidity
increases were negligible, but particulate matter
output increased 4-fold.  Overall, the
deforestation experiment resulted in significant
pollution of the drainage stream from the
ecosystem; this was largely due to the interruption
of the nutrient cycle caused by the loss of
vegetation.

Mayack, D.T., P.B.  Bush, D.G. Neary, and
J.E. Douglass. 1982. Impact of hexazinone on
invertebrates after application  to forested
watersheds. Archives of Environmental
Contamination and Toxicology,, 11:209-217.

The herbicide hexazinone was applied to a
forested watershed in the Piedmont region of
Georgia.  Aquatic macrophytes and terrestrial
invertebrates were monitored and sampled for
residue levels of the chemical.  Residue levels in
terrestrial invertebrates were a maximum of two
orders of magnitude greater than comparable
levels (0.01 to 0.18 ppm) found in forest floor
material.  Hexazinone and its metabolites were
generally not detected (<0.1 ppm) in aquatic
invertebrates and macrophytes.  No community
changes, alteration in species, or population
densities were recorded as a result of this
application.  No data on forestry activities and
impacts are included.

McCall, M. 1970. The effects of aerial forest
fertilization on water quality for two streams in
the Capitol Forest, Washington State E>NR,
 Olympia, Washington.

 The studies of two streams  in the fall and winter
 of 1969/1970 indicated that aerial application of a
 urea fertilizer to the forested areas  in the
 watersheds resulted in a rapid increase  in urea
 concentration in the water.  This was likely due to
 the direct application to feeder streams. Further
 sampling showed that urea concentration, fell to
 background levels  within 1  month. After a month,
 the nitrogen lost was apparently in the nitrate
 form only.  The overall effect on the water
 quality was to significantly change the nitrogen
 levels, although the change was of short duration.
Megahan, W.F. 1980. Nonpoint source
pollution from forestry activities in the western
United States: Results of recent  research and
research needs. In: U.S.  Forestry and Water
Quality: What Course in the 80s? . Richmond,
VA, June 19-20, 1980. Water Pollution Control
Federation and Virginia Water Pollution
Control Association, pp. 92-151.

This paper reviews NFS pollution issues hi
forestry in general.  A  section on introduced
forest chemicals reviews chemicals and their use
in forestry, and their potential impacts.
Comparison data from  many studies on the
presence of forest chemicals in streams are
presented in tables. The information on the
various types of chemicals used in forestry is
helpful as a guide to chemical use and contains
data on application rates, intended uses, and
persistence.

Miller, J.H., and A.C. Bace, Jr. 1980.
Streamwater contamination after aerial
application of a pelletized herbicide. USD A
Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment
Station. Research Note SO- 255.

Loblolly pine seed coated with arasan (a bird .
repellent), and endrin (an animal  repellent) were
applied at 0.8 kg/ha (3/4 lb/ acre) to a recently
harvested Piedmont watershed, followed
immediately  by an application of 1.6 Ib/acre of
hexazinone.  Concentrations of hexazinone and its
metabolites were monitored for the 8 months
following. Concentrations were highest (2.4
ppm) 30 minutes after application and declined to
 1.1 ppm at 1 hour after application, then to half
that (0.49 ppm) at 2 hours after application.
 Stream contamination was primarily the result of
 some, chemical falling  directly onto the water
 surface. However, in estimating the
 environmental hazard of the application, the
 authors note that sustained exposure is more
 harmful than peak exposures. The sustained
 concentration for the first 96 hours was about 0.1
 ppm.  Levels of hexazinone injurious to
 commonly occurring fish species and humans are
 not likely to be attained in normal forestry
 practice.       '
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NCASI. 1979. A review of current knowledge
and research on the impact of alternative forest
management practices on receiving water quality.
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin
No. 322.141 pages.

This bulletin reviews research on the impact of
forest management practices on water quality.
Ninety-three projects are reviewed. Separate
chapters briefly discuss forest practice effects on
loadings of sediment, nutrient, and organic
debris, and changes in temperature and water
quality changes due to the use of forest chemicals.
Current knowledge is assessed, and a reference
list of 410 related papers is provided. Appendices
provide information on the application of the
universal soil loss equation for predicting
sediment loading, erosion rates, and predictive
equations for stream nutrient concentrations.

Neary,  D.G. 1988. Chapter 24: Effects of
pesticide applications on forested watersheds.
In: Forest Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta.
W.T. Swank and D.A. Crossley, Jr. (eds.).
Springer- Verlag, New York. pp. 325-337.

This is a review of literature on the effects  of  ...
forest pesticides,  including paraquat, atrazine,  .
2,4-D, picloram, and hexazinone.  Data from
many references are used to present conclusions
about the potential for forestry chemicals to
contaminate water and soil  resources.

Neary,  D.G. 1985. Fate of pesticides in
Florida's forests: An  overview of potential
impacts in water quality.  In: Proceedings - Soil
and Crop Science Society of Florida, Volume 44.
pp. 18-24.

The operational hazards of pesticide use on
loblolly forests of northern Florida and the effects
of pesticides on surface and ground water are
examined.  Data on the fate and movement of
forest pesticides in other southern forests are used
to assess the potential  impact on the quality of
Florida surface and ground water.  The pesticides
hexazinone, picloram, bromacil, and carbofuran
are examined. The authors draw five
conclusions: (1) the majority of pesticide use in
intensive forestry involves low- toxicity herbicides
applied infrequently over extensive land areas;
(2) intensive (yearly) toxic pesticide use is
concentrated on seed orchards and nurseries
occupying small areas of the slash-loblolly
ecosystem; (3) current pesticide technology and
application methods minimize the movement of
pesticides into sensitive surface waters; (4) at
currently registered herbicide application rates,
some short-duration, low-level pulses of residues
could enter surface, unconfined aquifers, although
water quality standards are not likely to be
exceeded; and (5) the greatest hazard to surface
and ground water quality arises from mishandling
of concentrates during transportation, storage,
mixing-loading, equipment cleaning, and
container disposal. The authors found that the
highest risk of ground water contamination arises
from the possible mishandling and disposal  of
pesticides.

Neary, D.G., P.B. Bush, and J.L. Michael.
1986. Herbicides in  southern forestry-
Improving water quality. In: 39th Proceedings -
Southern  Weed Science Society, pp. 335-341.

This paper provides a brief overview of the water
quality implications associated with herbicide use
in southern forestry.  It provides data from other
studies in an attempt to determine whether water
quality is improved, maintained, or degraded by
using herbicides, especially when compared to
mechanical site preparation methods.

Neary, D.G., P.B. Bush, J.E. Douglass, and
R.L. Todd. 1985. Picloram movement in  an
Appalachian hardwood  forest watershed.
Journal of Environmental Quality.
14(4):585-591.
            j            •
The  herbicide picloram was applied at a rate of
5.0 kg/ha to 4 ha of a 28-ha watershed in western
North  Carolina. The herbicide was broadcast
manually as a pellet formulation in May, with the
intention of removing a poor-quality mixed oak
overstory and rhododendron-laurel understory
prior to planting white pine. Picloram residues in
soil samples peaked in concentration in the upper
0.07 m at 11.58 mg/kg, had a half life of about 4
weeks, and declined to near detection limits 28
                                              184

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weeks after application. Residues were detected in
soil solution 1.2 m into the soil.  Only sporadic,
low-level residues were detected in stream flow
during a 70-week period.  Use of piclpram did
not affect the quality of stream flow from the
watershed for domestic or agricultural purposes.

Neary, D.G., P.B. Bush, and M.A.  Grant.
1986. Water quality of ephemeral forest
streams after site  preparation with the
herbicide hexazinone. Forest Ecology and
Management. 14(1):23- 40.

Four small watersheds (1 ha) hi the upper
Piedmont of north  Georgia were treated with 1.68
kg/ha active ingredient of hexazinone  pellets.
Residues in stormflow peaked in the first storm at
442 mg/m3, declined rapidly thereafter, and
disappeared within 7 months". Loss of hexazinone
in stormflow  averaged 0.53% of the applied
herbicide.  Total sediment yields were increased
by a factor of 2.5 due to increased runoff
associated widi site preparation using herbicide
and salvage logging.  Hexazinone treatment
produced a large increase in NO3-N
concentrations (peak = 5328 mg/m3),  but NO3-N
levels returned to normal within 2 years.
Hexazinone may have produced, some stimulation
of nitrifying bacteria. Overall, water  quality
changes were small and short-lived.

Neary,  D.G., and J.B. Currier.  1982. Impact
of wildfire and watershed restoration on water
quality  on South Carolina's Blue Ridge
Mountains.  Southern Journal of Applied
Forestry. 6(2):81-  90.

Neary and Currier studied the change in water,
quality caused by a large wildfire in South
Carolina's Blue Ridge Mountains.  Five
watersheds contained five different conditions,
including undisturbed; burned only; burned  and
fertilized; and burned, fertilized and covered with
fire retardant. Concentrations of NO3-N
increased the most (peak of 0.394 mg/1) as  a
result of fertilizer applications during  restoration
operations.  Nitrate-N, NH,-N, PO^-P levels were
elevated on the burned and fertilized watersheds
mainly during storm events.  Sodium, K, Ca, and
Mg concentrations were  12-82% above
background levels during most of the monitoring
period.  Suspended solid concentrations showed
no relationship to watershed condition. Changes
in water quality were of no biological significance
to aquatic ecosystems and did not affect use of the
watersheds as sources of drinking water.  Based
on the results of this intensive study, the authors
concluded that the wildfire did not adversely
affect the water quality for ecosystems or
drinking.

Neary,  D.G., and J.L. Michael. 1989. Effect of
sulfometuron methyl on ground water and
stream  quality in coastal plain forest
watersheds.  Water Resources Bulletin.
25(3):617-623.

The stream concentration of sulfometuron methyl
was determined after spraying for site preparation
in a Coastal plain flatwood.  Sulfometuron methyl
was applied at a maximum labeled rate of 0.42
kg/ha a.i. to  a 4-ha coastal plain flatwoods
watershed as site preparation for tree planting.
Herbicide residues were detected in stream flow
for  only 7 days after treatment and did not exceed
7 mg/m3.  Sulfometuron methyl was not detected
in any storm flow and was not found in any
sediment (both bedload  and suspended).
Sampling of a shallow ground water aquifer,
< 1.5 m below ground surface, did  not detect any
sulfometuron methyl residues for 203  days after
herbicide application. Lack of herbicide residue
movement  was attributed to  low application rates,
rapid hydrolysis in acidic soils and water, and
dilution in  stream flow.  This paper presents very
important information on the potential for water
contamination when  spraying herbicides in
forested areas. The information presented is
useful for comparison of similarly applied
ground-based pesticide applications  under
conditions similar to those found during the study.

Norris, L.A. 1970. Degradation of herbicides in
the forest floor. In: Tree Growth and Forest
Soils. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis,
Oregon.  C.T. Ypungberg  and C.B. Davey
(eds.).  pp. 397-411.

This paper is a review of research on  the
persistence, degradation, and impact of herbicides
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in forests.  Past research on the degradation of
2,4-D, amitrole, and picloram in forest soils is
reviewed, with emphasis on the influence of
factors such as litter type, the chemical
formulation of the herbicide, and the presence of
other chemicals.  The methodologies and the
results of more current research are then
reviewed. The herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T,
amitrole, and picloram are degraded but at
different rates. The degradation of 2,4-D differs
slightly hi litter from different vegetation types.
2,4,5-T approaches 90% degradation after 4
months, making it somewhat more persistent than
2,4-D.  Amitrole has an initial rate of degradation
exceeding that of 2,4-D and is rapidly lost in the
forest floor, but its  degradation is not completely
biological. Picloram is more resistent to
degradation than the other herbicides, but it is
biodegradable.

Norris, L.A., H.W. Lorz, and S.V. Gregory.
1991. Forest chemicals. In: Influences of Forest
and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes
and Their Habitats. W.R. Meehan (ed.).

This paper contains a comprehensive discussion of
forest chemicals. Tables provide information on
application rates; toxicity; concentrations of
chemicals in soils, lakes, and streams; and
chemical compositions of numerous forest
chemicals. Chapter contents: Use of Chemicals in
the Forest; Relation of Chemical Use to Salmonid
Habitats; Direct Chemical Effects; Behavior and
Toxicity of Commonly Used Forest Chemicals
(2,4-D, picloram, hexazinone, atrazine, triclopyr,
MSMA, fosamine ammonium, glyphosate,
dalapon, dinoseb, malathion,  carbaryl,
azinphos-methyl, carbofuran, acephate, Bacillus
thuringiensis, nuclear polyhedrosis virus,
fertilizers, fire retardants); Risk Assessment;
Indirect Effects of Forest chemicals;,Research
Needs; and Conclusions.

Norris, L.A., and  D.G. Moore. 1971. The
entry and fate of forest chemicals in streams.
In: Proceedings of the Symposium: Forest Land
 Uses and Stream Environment. Oregon State
University, October 19-21, 1970. J.T. Krygier
and J.D. Hall (eds.). OSU,  Corvallis, Oregon.
pp. 138-158.
This article reviews the initial distribution of
aerially applied forest chemicals, as well as
mechanisms of their entry into, and their fate in,
the aquatic environment.  The movement  of
pesticides from the air to vegetation and the forest
floor and soil to streams-and directly from the air
to streams-is explained. The movement of
fertilizers is similarly tracked. The authors draw
conclusions based on a review of available data
and information.  Concentrations of the herbicides
2,4-D, picloram, 2,4,5-T, and amitrole above 0.1
ppm will rarely be found in streams if applied
properly.  Similarly, the insecticides reviewed
(carbamate, pyrethrum insecticides, malathion,
and DDT and  its metabolites) will rarely endanger
aquatic life. There are limited data on fertilizers,
but the concentrations encountered in streams are
well below those of public water'supplies.

Norris, L.A., and D.G. Moore. 1981.
Introduced chemicals and water quality. In:
Proceedings of the Symposium: Interior West
Watershed Management.  Spokane, WA, April
8-10, 1980. D.M.  Baumgartner (ed.).
Washington State University,  Cooperative
Extension Service, pp. 203-220.

The use of chemicals in forestry and their
environmental effects are reviewed.  Results from
selected research are presented  in tables and
figures to demonstrate general principles of forest
chemical use.  The authors arrive at the following
conclusions: (1) direct application or drift to
surface water  is the principal mechanism  by
which aerially applied chemicals enter forest
streams; (2) with the  exception of nitrate-N as  a
transformation product of urea fertilizer or
ammonia-based fertilizers or fire retardants, the
long-term entry of chemicals via leaching to
streams does not seem to occur at measurable
levels;  (3) the concentrations and persistence of
chemicals found in these streams does not appear
to represent a substantive hazard to aquatic
organisms or downstream water users; and
(4) forest managers and chemical applicators can
markedly influence the amount of chemical that
enters streams by careful attention to the
orientation of treated areas to streams and the
conditions of application.
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Nutter, W.L. 1982. Water quality and yield
from the intensively managed forest. In:
Proceedings of the Society of American
Foresters, pp. 89-93.

A review of the impacts of intensive forest
management, including timber harvest, site
preparation, road construction, and forest
fertilization, on water yield and water quality is
presented.  This short review presents an
overview of the impacts of intensive forestry
operations.

Oregon Department of Forestry. 1992. Forest
herbicide application: Water sampling study.
Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest
Practices Program.

The purpose of this report is-to present the  results
of a water monitoring study conducted by the
Forest Practices Program  to determine the
. effectiveness of forest chemical rules in
preventing stream contamination from herbicide
applications. The study was not conducted using
the rigorous QA/QC protocols typical of field
research studies but was conducted to provide
general insight into forest chemical  rule
effectiveness.

Phillippi, M.A., and G.B. Coltharp. 1990.
Post-treatment effects of forest fertilization on
the  predominant benthic community of a
headwater stream in eastern Kentucky.
 Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of
Science. 51(l/2):18-25.

Biological sampling was conducted from 1978 to
 1981.  Higher concentrations of nitrate-N were
present in the affected stream compared to  two
 unaffected streams.  Standing-crop biomass of
 invertebrates and the number of individuals were
 not  significantly different between the treated
 stream and one untreated  stream.  The number of
 taxa and the species diversity were significantly
 higher in the unaffected stream in the unfertilized
 watershed.  The authors conclude that the benthic
 fauna is unaffected by the forest fertilization.
 Graphs of species abundance and number of
 individuals of different taxa accompany the text.
Riekerk, H. 1989. Forest fertilizer and
runoff-water quality. In: Proceedings - Soil and
Crop Science Society of Florida. Vol. 48, pp.
99-102.

Runoff water quality was monitored from three
replications of annually fertilized and nonfertilized
young  slash pine (Pinus elliotti) plantations in
north central Florida during 4 years.  The results
showed some increase in NH4-N during the first
year, but an increase in K did not occur until
after the second year.  Increases in NH4-N, K and
orthophosphate occurred during the last year, and
they appeared to be associated with more rainfall.
These  findings support current recommendations
for forest fertilization in the southeastern United
States.  These recommefldations are not discussed
in the  paper.  The research indicated the need for
additional ground water monitoring to explain
changes in runoff water quality.

Sopper, W.E. 1975. Effects of timber
harvesting and related management practices
on water quality in forested watersheds.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 4(l):24-29.

The results of selected studies are presented  to
provide an overview of the types of water quality
investigations undertaken on forested  watersheds.
Studies from timber harvesting activities,
fertilization, and herbicide use are included.
Many  tables of data from the various studies, and
very general conclusions based on the
information,  are provided. ,

Tiedemann, A.R., T.M. Quigley, and T.D.
Anderson. 1988. Effects of timber harvest on
stream chemistry and dissolved nutrient losses
in northeast Oregon.  Forest Science.
34(2):344-358.

An upper slope conifer forest in eastern Oregon
and Washington was studied.  Three harvested
watersheds (41% clearcut and 17% selection
harvest) were compared to a control watershed.
 Nitrate-N concentrations in stream flow increased
 in response to both clearcutting treatments.  The
 maximum level observed (0.52 mg/1) was,
 however, far below maximum allowable levels for
 drinking water standards (10 mg/1).  Small but
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significant increases in cation concentrations were
observed with both clearcutting treatments.
Comparisons of chemical characteristics and
constituents among the four watersheds under
study revealed enormous variability.  However,
this study supported other studies from the Pacific
Northwest that indicated that forest harvest
activities have no adverse  impact on water quality
for drinking purposes.  The dissolved nutrient
concentrations and variations are provided and
discussed hi detail.

USDA Forest Service.  1987. Soil and water
resource management: A  cost or a benefit?
Approaches to watershed  economics through
example. 99  pages.

Analysis procedures for estimating the economic
benefits of soil and water resource management
have been developed.  This report discusses the
procedures and the data and information required
to employ them.  The analysis procedures focus
on the following management areas: timber,
forage, fish,  enhanced water quality, and road
construction and maintenance.  The procedures
and economics of soil and water management are
demonstrated in this document with 16 examples.

Walker, W.W. 1976.  Chemical and
microbiological degradation of malathion and
parathion  in an estuarine environment.
Journal  of Environmental Quality. 5(2):210-215.

Malathion was essentially completely degraded
during 18 days of incubation in sterile and
nonsterile water,  while respective parathion losses
ranged from  16% to 23%  after 40 days.
Malathion abatement was  in direct proportion to
increasing salinity, while parathion was quite
persistent,  even in high-salinity (25 ppt) water.
Microorganisms capable of degrading malathion
and parathion were isolated from
insecticide-enriched sediment.  Four bacteria
isolated from malathion-enriched sediment readily
degraded malathion, one to malathion half-ester
and another to malathion dicarboxylic acid
through the half-ester intermediate; three bacteria
isolated from parathion-enriched sediment were
efficient in paradiion metabolism.  One bacterium
isolated from parathion-enriched sediment was
capable of degrading malathion to the diacid
through the half-ester intermediate.

Baumgartner, D.M. (ed). 1981. Interior west
watershed management: Proceedings of a
symposium. Spokane, Washington, April 8-10,
1980. Washington State University, Cooperative
Extension Service. 288 pages.

Beasley, R.S., and A.B. Granillo. 1985.  Water
yields and sediment losses from chemical and
mechanical site preparation. Forestry and Water
Quality - A Mid-South Symposium. Little Rock,
Arkansas, May 8-9, 1985. E.G. Blackmon (ed.).
Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Arkansas, pp. 106-116.

Bengtson, G.W.  1972. Forest fertilization:
Promises and problems. In: Proceedings of the
Society of American Foresters. Hot Springs,
Arkansas, October 1-5, 1972. pp. 231-261.

Bengtson, G.W.  1979. Forest fertilization in the
United States: Progress and outlook.  Journal of
Forestry. 77:222-229.

Brown, G.W. 1985. Controlling nonpoint source
pollution from silvicultural operations: What we
know and don't know. In: Perspectives on
Nonpoint Source Pollution: Proceedings of a
National Conference. Kansas City, Missouri, May
19-22, 1985, U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency.

Burdick, G.E., H.I. Dean, and E.J. Harris. 1960.
The effect of Sevin upon the aquatic environment.
New York Fish and Game Journal. 7:14-25.

Davis, E.A., and P.A. Ingebo.  1970. Fenuron
contamination of stream water from  a chaparral
watershed in Arizona. In Research Progress
Report of the Western Society of Weed Science.
pp. 22- 23.

Gessel, S.P.  1969. Introduction to forest
fertilization in North America.  Forest Industry.
96(10):26-28.

Greene, C.S. 1988. Water quality, timber and
herbicides. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual
                                              188

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Forest Vegetation Management Conference.
Redding, California, November 3-5, 1987. pp.
17-33.

Hornbeck, J.W., and R.S. Pierce. 1973. Potential
impact of forest fertilization on streamflow. In:
Forest Fertilization Symposium Proceedings,
Northeastern Forest Soils Conference. SUNY
College of Environmental Science and Forestry.
USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report
NE-3. pp. 79-87.

Hurlbert, S.H., M.S. Mulla, and H.R. Willson.
1972. Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide
on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and insect
populations of fresh-water ponds.  Ecological
Monographs. 42(3):269-299.    .

Johnson, P.L., and W.T. Swank.  1973. Studies
of cation budgets in the Southern Appalachians on
four experimental watersheds with contrasting
vegetation. Ecology. 54:70-80.

Malueg, K.W., C.F. Powers, and D.F.
Krawczyk. 1972. Effects of aerial forest
fertilization with urea pellets on nitrogen levels in
a mountain stream.  Northwest Science. 46:52-58.

McKellar, R.L., O.E. Schubert, B.C. Byrd, L.P.
Stevens, and E.J. Norton. 1982. Aerial
application of GARLON 3A herbicide to a West
Virginia watershed.  Down to Earth. 38(2): 15-19.

Michael. J.L., D.G. Neary,  and M.J.M. Wells.
 1989. Picloram movement in soil  solution and
streamflow from a, coastal plain forest.  Journal of
Environmental Quality. 18(l):89-95.

 Moore, D.G.  1975. Effects of forest fertilization
 with urea on stream water quality-Quilcene
Ranger District, Washington. USDA Forest
 Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station,-Research Note PNW-241..9
 pages.       ••-•'-.

 Moore, D.G.  1971. Fertilization and water
 quality.' In: Western Reforestation, Proceedings of
the Annual Meeting of the Western Reforestation
Coordination Committee. Western Forest
Conservation Association, pp. 28-31.

Moore, D.G. 1975. Impacts of forest fertilization
on water quality in the Douglas fir region-A
summary of monitoring studies. In: Proceedings
of the 1974 National Convention of the Society of
American Foresters. New York, September
22-26, 1974. pp. 209-219.  ;

NCASI.  1984. A guide to monitoring streamwater
quality following forestry herbicide  concentration.
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin No.
430. 40 pages.

Neary, D.G. 1983. Monitoring herbicide residues
in springflow after an operational application of
hexazinone.  Southern Journal of Applied
Forestry. 17(4):217-223.

Norris, L.A. 1976. Forests and rangelands as
sources of chemical pollutants. In: Non-Point
Sources of Water Pollution. Oregon State
University, Water Resources Research Center.
pp. 17-36.

Norris, L.A. 1968. Stream contamination by
herbicides after fall rains on forest land. Western
Society of Weed Scientists. Research Progress
Report, pp. 33-34.

Norris, L.A.,,M.L. Montgomery, L.E. Warren.
and W.D. Mosher. 1982. Brush control with
herbicides on hill pasture sites in southern
Oregon. Journal of Range Management.
35:75-80.

Payne, N.J., J.C.  Feng,  and P.E. Reynolds.
 1990.  Off-target deposits and buffer zones
required around water for aerial glyphosate
applications. Pesticide Science. 30(2): 183-198.

Payne, N.J., B.V.  Kelson, K.M.S.  Sundaram,
and R.A. Fleming. 1988. Estimating buffer zone
widths for pesticide applications. Pesticide
                                              189

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Science. 24(2): 147-161.

Pionke, H.B., and G. Chesters. 1973. Pesticide-
sediment-water interactions.  Journal of
Environmental Quality. 2(l):29-45.

Rydelius, J.A. 1985. Forest chemicals and water
quality. Journal of Forestry.  83(10):610.

Thut, R.N., and E.P. Haydu. 1971. Effects of
forest chemicals on aquatic life. In: Proceedings
of the Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
Environment. Oregon State University, October
19-21, 1970. J.T. Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.).
OSU, Corvallis,  Oregon, pp.  159-171.

Tiedemann, A.R., J.D. Helvey, and T.D.
Anderson.  1978. Stream chemistry and watershed
nutrient economy following wildfire and
fertilization in eastern Washington.  Journal of
Environmental Quality. 7(4):580-588.
BMPs AND SPECIFICATIONS

Collman, S J. 1989. Integrated pest
management: A Seattle street tree case study.
In: Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of the
1989 Society of American Foresters National
Convention. Spokane, Washington, pp.
416-420.

This is a case study of the application of
integrated pest management (IPM) to an urban
forestry problem.  An infestation of oystershell
scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) was reportedly causing
the decline of ash cultivars along Seattle's streets.
Examination of the declining trees found that
59.7% had only light or no scale infestation.
Many healthy trees had heavy infestations.  Data
on aspects of the life history of the scales during
the infestation demonstrated that literature
information on hatching times was incorrect,
which would have had an effect on the timing of
insecticide applications.  The author concludes
that there was a 70% chance that the declining in
some trees was due to less-than- optimum site
conditions rather than the scale insects. A
thorough examination of the problem should
precede any textbook treatment application.

McCIimans, RJ. 1980. Best management
practices for forestry activities. In: Watershed
Management. Boise, Idaho, July 21-23,  1980.
C.W. Johnson  (ed.). American Society of Civil
Engineers, Irrigation and Drainage Division,
Committee on Watershed Management, pp.
694-705.

This paper defines critical combinations of site
conditions for which BMPs are needed to
minimize adverse impacts on soil and water
resources.  The document also includes      .
assessment methodologies, as well as charts and
graphs for the selection and application of
appropriate BMPs.  Forest practices are grouped
according to their capacity to cause water
pollution, the nature of the more commonly
applied BMPs to control pollution, and site
considerations.  Guides, based on slope of land
and distance from water, are provided to
determine whether a particular BMP is necessary
for the particular group of activities.  Graphs
developed to determine BMP applicability are
presented, and the selected BMPs are discussed
for each group of forest activities. Specifications
for some BMPs are  also presented.

Neuman, L. 1987.  Silviculture and best
management practices. In: Erosion Control:
You're Gambling Without it. International
Erosion Control Association, pp. 145-155.

This report presents information on the types of
impairments typical  of forestry activities and
provides information on management techniques
that may be used to  minimize the impacts.  The
practices presented in this paper include timber
harvesting, site  preparation, and road construction
and drainage. Erodibility factors, assigned to
Florida soils by the  SCS, and slope determine a
site's sensitivity to erosion, and the paper presents
site sensitivity classes for Florida soils. This
classification is  related to suggested BMP usage
and implementation. Many useful tables of
                                              190

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 specifications for when and how to construct the
 practices are .presented.

 Pope, P.E. 1978. Forestry and water quality:
 Pollution control practices. Forestry and
 Natural Resources. Purdue University
, Cooperative Extension Services. FNR 88. 6
 pages.

 Best management practices (BMPs) for forestry
 activities are presented, stressing that feasible
 BMPs must depend on site- specific, case-by-case
 information such as management objectives and
 natural conditions. Information on the
 effectiveness of BMPs is not provided. The
 principal types of erosion control practices and
 qualitative positive and negative features, based
 on EPA Technical Report 37 (1977) are  included.

 Bengtson, G.W. 1972. Forest fertilization:
 Promises and  problems. In: Proceedings of the
 Society of American Foresters. Rot Springs,
 Arkansas, October 1-5, 1972. pp. 231-261.

 Golden,  M.S., C.L. Turtle, J.S. Kush, and J.M.
 Bradley. 1984. Forestry activities and water
 quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
 practices, and an erosion-classified system.
 Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
 Station.  Bulletin 555.

 Greene, C.S.  1988. Water quality, timber and
 herbicides.  In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual
 Forest Vegetation Management Conference.
 Redding, California, November 3-5, 1987. pp.
  17-33.

  Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,
  Division of Forestry. 1989. Water quality in
 forest management: Best management practices ip
  Minnesota. 104 pages.
  COSTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BMPs

  Allen, H.L.  Economics of forest fertilization.
  pp. 161-169.
Allen analyzes the costs and benefits of forest
fertilization as an investment strategy for
southeastern loblolly pine forests.  A return on
investment (the interest rate that results in a net
present value of zero) is used for the analysis.
The impact of taxes on the decision to fertilize is
examined, as are four other factors important in
determining the profitability of fertilization:
product mix, stumpage prices, fertilizer
application costs, and response. Based on these
factors, the author examines preplant phosphorus
and established stand examples. The analysis
concludes that fertilization is an attractive
investment, that will become even more attractive
in the future with improved technology and
methodologies.

Corbett, E.S., and J.M. Heilman. 1975. Effect
of management practices on water quality  and
quantity: The Newark, New Jersey municipal
watersheds. In: Municipal Watershed
Management Symposium Proceedings. USDA
Forest Service,  Northeastern Forest Experiment
Station. General Technical Report NE-13. pp.
47-57.

The effects  of best management practices on
water quality in  the Pequannock watershed basin
of northern New Jersey  is examined.  The basin
serves as the main source of drinking water for
the inhabitants of Newark, NJ.  A drought
occurring in the mid 1960s reduced the available
water to critical levels.  This resulted in the
treatment of vegetation with herbicides to increase
forest water yields.  Major water quality
parameters  studied to determine the effects of
defoliation include flow, temperature, pH, and
turbidity.  A large amount of data is presented.
 The herbicide treatment resulted in augmentation
 of low flows. During the 5 years following the
 first treatment, the number of low-flow days was
 reduced from an average of 81 days per year to
 35 days per year.  Peak  flow was increased by
 17.3% during the growing season in watershed 3.
 Average summer maximum stream temperature
 increased 6°F over control in the watershed.
 Herbicide treatment of all trees 1 inch or larger
 within 20 ft of the stream channel watershed 1 did
                                                191

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not statistically significantly increase water yield.
The conclusions drawn from the study indicate
that, under certain circumstances, water yield can
be increased by decreasing the amount of
vegetation in a watershed.

USDA Forest Service. 1987. Soil and water
resource management: A cost or a benefit?
Approaches to watershed economics through
example. 99 pages.

Analysis procedures for estimating the economic
benefits of soil and water resource management
have been developed.  This report discusses the
procedures and the data and information required
to employ them. The analysis procedures focus
on the following management areas: timber,
forage, fish, enhanced water quality, and road
construction and maintenance.  The procedures
and economics of soil and water management are
demonstrated hi this document with 16 examples.

Bengtson, G.W. 1979. Forest fertilization in the
United States: Progress and outlook. Journal of
Forestry. 77:222-229.
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                      8. STREAMSIDE MANAGEMENT AREAS
 IMPACTS ON WATER QUAIJTY

 Adams, M.B. Movement of sediment and
 nutrients  through riparian areas. In:
 Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
 Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 and USDA Forest Service.

 A review  of the literature examining the role of
 riparian vegetation in moderating the movement
 of sediment and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems in
 the eastern U.S. is presented.  Data from several
 watershed studies that present the effect of
 riparian zones on sedimentation reduction are
 included.  Future research, including a better
N understanding of the filtering capacity of buffer
 strips containing various tree species, is
 recommended.

 Adams, P.W., R.L. Beschta, and H.A.
 Froehlich. Mountain logging  near streams:
 Opportunities and challenges. In: Proceedings
 of International Mountain Logging and Pacific
 Northwest Skyline Symposium. Oregon State
 University, December, 1988.  OSU, Corvallis,
 Oregon,  pp. 153-162.

 This is a  review of the values of streamside  areas
 for timber, wildlife, fish, water quality, forage,
 aesthetics, and recreation.  Topics reviewed
 include the nature and function of streamside
 areas, the potential  effects of logging near
 streams, and the opportunities  and challenges in
 logging near streams.  A brief conclusion of the
 reviewed  information is also presented.

 Andrus,  C.W., B.A. Long, and H.A.
 Froehlich. 1988. Woody debris and its
 contribution to pool formation in a coastal
 stream 50 years after logging.  Canadian
 Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.
 45:2080-2086.

 The objective of this study was to determine how
 young stands of timber might be managed so that
 they supply adequate amounts  of woody debris to
fish-bearing streams.  The amount of woody
debris is, in part, a product of the surrounding
forest.  The amount of woody debris in coastal
Oregon streams has been altered over the past 80
years as a result of logging, road building, and
the conversion of forested land to other uses.  In
this study, a watershed that had not been logged
since a wildfire swept through the area 50 years
earlier  was sampled for age of debris and pool
depth and volume.  Debris from the current stand
of trees along the stream accounted for only 14%
of debris volume in the stream and only 8% of
the debris responsible for creating pools. Study
results  indicate that riparian trees must be left to
grow longer than 50 years  to ensure that an
adequate, long-term supply of woody debris is
available to stream channels.  Debris from
previous  stands plays a crucial role in the interim
and should not be removed from stream channels.

Bacon, C.G. 1989. Riparian silviculture: Active
riparian management  for multiple resources.
In: Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of the
1989 Society of American  Foresters National
Convention. Spokane,  Washington, pp. 99-102.

This paper presents an overview of riparian
silviculture and its potential impacts on water
quality, fisheries, and wildlife. It provides a
general review of national perspectives on
riparian silviculture and give specific examples of
regional management and research efforts.

Bilby,  R.E. 1984. Removal of woody debris
may affect stream channel stability. Journal of
Forestry. 82:609-613.

This paper reports on an investigation of the
effect of removing large woody debris (LWD)
from a small stream after logging, as is  mandated
by several western states.  Large changes in
channel structure were observed during  the first
high flow after cleaning. The location of debris
left in the stream and stream sediment were
substantially altered.  The degree of channel
rearrangement was greater than that in a
comparable undisturbed stream.   The loss in
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channel stability due to indiscriminate removal of
LWD may have adverse effects on fish
populations. LWD influencing channel
morphology should be left in place during
cleaning. Post-logging cleaning guidelines are
provided in the form of a dichotomous key,
though the author stresses that these guidelines are
applicable only to streams similar to Salmon
Creek in the Coast Range of Washington, where
the study was conducted. The author found that
the degree to which the debris is buried, its length
and diameter, and whether it is braced by
boulders, bedrock outcrops, or other stable pieces
of debris determine whether it should be removed
or left in place.

Bilby, R.E., and G.E. Likens. 1980.
Importance of organic debris dams in the
structure and function of stream ecosystems.
Ecology. 61(5):1107-1113.

Small headwater streams in forested areas are
heavily dependent on the input of organic material
from the surrounding terrestrial system as an
energy source.  Debris dams act as retention
mechanisms that allow organic matter to be
processed in the stream ecosystem rather than
transported downstream in coarse particulate
form.  In this study, all organic debris was
removed from a 175-m stretch of a second-order
stream in New  Hampshire. A dramatic increase
in organic carbon export (dissolved  = 18%; fine
particulate  = 632%; coarse particulate = 138%)
from the system resulted.  Organic debris dams
are extremely important components of small
stream ecosystems.  In first-order streams, the
dams contain nearly 75% of the standing stock of
organic matter.  In second-order streams, this
proportion drops to 58%, and in third-order
streams it is 20%.

Borg, H.,  A. Hordacre, and F. Batini. 1988.
Effects of logging in stream and river buffers
on watercourses and water quality in the
southern forest of Western Australia.
Australian Forestry. 51: 98-105.

A study was performed in Western Australia to
determine the effects of river and stream buffer
size on water quality.  River buffers in Australia
are normally 200 m wide, and stream buffers are
100 m wide.  On five of the six test sites, buffers
were reduced in size by half (to 100 m for rivers
and to SO m for streams), and on the sixth site the
buffer was completely removed.  Complete
removal of the buffer led to logging debris
entering the channel and minor changes in the
stream channel profile and algal blooms.
Suspended sediment concentrations at the sixth
site did not increase. Stream and river buffers in
the southern forest of Western Australia can be
reduced to half their usual width without
detrimental effects on watercourses as long as
logging  is confined to the dry season.
                       I     • •      .
Brazier, J.R., and G.W. Brown. 1973.  Buffer
strips for stream temperature control. Oregon
State University, School of Forestry, Forest
Research Laboratory. Research Paper 15.

This experiment explored the different
characteristics of buffer strips that may  be
important in regulating stream temperature.
These characte';stics included commercial timber
volume, width  ji the buffer strips, and  canopy
density along the path of the sunlight.
Commercial timber volume alone was found not
to be an important criterion for temperature
control; nor is the  width of the buffer strip an
important criterion. For the small streams
studied, the maximum shading ability.of the
average buffer strip was reached within a width of
80 feet.  Standard  100- to 200-foot buffer strips
will generally include more timber than
necessary. Angular canopy density is the only
single criterion a forester can use that will ensure
adequate stream temperature control without
overdesigning the buffer strip.

Brown, G.W.  1969. Predicting temperatures of
small streams.  Water Resources Research.
5:68-75.

Sections of three small streams in western
Oregon, typical of streams in the forested regions
of the Oregon Cascade and Coast Ranges, were
studied to determine whether stream temperature
could be accurately predicted.  One section was
heavily  shaded  and had  a graved bottom,  and the
otiier sections were exposed to direct sunlight.
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One exposed section had a rock bottom and the
other had a gravel bottom.  The author found that
hourly temperatures of small streams can be
accurately predicted using an energy balance.  On
the three study streams, hourly temperature
changes of 0-16°F were predicted to within 1 °F
more than 90% of the time.  On unshaded
stretches, net radiation is the predominant energy
source, while evaporation and convection account
for less than 10% of the total energy exchange.
Conduction of heat into the stream bottom is an
important energy balance component on shallow
streams having a bedrock bottom, where up to
25% of the energy absorbed by the stream may be
transferred into the bed.  Using this technique,
foresters can control water temperature through
manipulation of streamside vegetation.

Brown, G.W. 1970. Predicting the effect of
clearcutting on stream temperature. Journal of
Soil and Water Conservation. 25:11-13.

This paper presents a methodology for predicting
the effects of clearcutting on stream water
temperature.  The author states that predicting the
 effects could be done by estimating maximum
 daily changes, rather than hourly changes which
 would require experience in rnicrometeorology  .
 and additional equipment. This paper presents a
 simple model for estimating the daily  maximum
 changes assuming the following: the stream
 surface is uniformly exposed to direct sunlight,
 direct solar radiation dominates the net heat gain
 in small streams,  maximum temperature will
 occur during midday hours on a clear day, and
 predicted solar input can be used to estimate  heat
 input.  Model equations are also presented in this
 paper. Much of the background to this work was
 published in Brown 1969 and Brown  and Kryger
  1970.

 Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier. 1970. Effects
 of clearcutting on stream temperature. Water
 Resources Research. 6(4): 1133-1140.

 This study examined the effects of three forest
  management practices: fully clearcut, patch-cut
  with buffer strips, and unlogged  on stream
  temperatures.  Significant increases in stream
  temperature were observed in the clearcut
watershed.  The patch- cut watershed, which had
buffer strips along the stream, did not have
significantly greater water temperatures than the
unlogged watershed. The results presented in this
paper have been duplicated by many studies
conducted since.   Evidence suggests that leaving
streamside buffers strips alleviates much of the
temperature increase associated with timber
harvest.  Stream production impacts were not
assessed in this study.

Curtis, J.G., D.W. Pelren, D.B. George, V.D.
Adams, and J.B. Layzer. 1990. Effectiveness of
best management practices in preventing
degradation of streams caused by sUvicuUurdl
activities in Pickett State Forest, Tennessee.
Center for the Management, Utilization and
Protection of Water Resources, Tennessee
Technological University for the Tennessee
Department of Conservation, Division of
Forestry and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources
Agency. 197 pages.

This study was undertaken to evaluate the
 effectiveness of BMPs applied to timber harvest
 operations in Pickett Forest.  The effects on water
 quality, fish production^  and macroinvertebrates,
 and the presence of herbicides in streams were
 studied. The BMPs employed were SMZs, road
 placement on ridgetops and high elevations, skid
 trails kept at least 14 m from streams,  harvest
 during the driest season and maximum soil
 stability, logging of small, dispersed stands,  v
 seeding and mulching of disturbed areas,
 broad-based dips on the haul road,  and a period
 of 10 years before the area would be logged
 again.. Herbicides were  applied to two stands.
 Hardwoods 75 mm dbh or less were thin line
 sprayed with a mixture of Garlon (active
 ingredients triclopyr and 2,4-D), Sidekick, and
 diesel fuel. Picloram was injected into all
 hardwoods 255 mm dbh or greater.
 Concentrations of herbicides in streams following
 the treatments was low:  2,4-D ©  < 0.02-0.081.
 Based on  available toxicity data, the levels
 detected were not biologically harmful.
 However,  care is needed during application to
 minimize transport to surface waters.  Extensive
 data relating to,all of the BMPs employed  during
 the study are presented in the paper.
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DeBano, L.F. 1977. Influences of forest
practices on water yield, channel stability,
erosion, and sedimentation in the Southwest.
In: Proceedings of the Society of American
Foresters,  pp. 74-78.

This paper presents information on the climate
and hydrologically important vegetation types in
the Southwest, the basin hydrologic processes
affecting water yield and erosion, and the effect
of cover manipulations, such as timber harvesting.
Results are presented suggesting that water yield
is not significantly improved by tree harvest
unless small clearings or strips are created.  In
addition, clearing of trees increases the amount of
erosion if storms of high intensity occur.  The
authors also recommend leaving dead and dying
trees along the stream channel to control erosion
into streams.

Erman, D.C., J.D. Newbold, and K.B. Roby.
1977. Evaluation ofstreamside buffer strips for
protecting aquatic organisms. California Water
Resources  Center,  University of California,
Davis, California. 48 pages.

Sixty-two northern California streams were
studied to evaluate the impact on invertebrate
communities of logging with and without
streamside  buffer strips.  Logging without buffer
strips causes a significant change in benthic
invertebrates compared to unlogged streams.
Populations of Chironomidae,  Baetis, and
Nemoura increase, but overall  invertebrate
diversity is reduced in logged streams.  Streams
with buffer strips at least 30 m wide have
invertebrate populations and physical
characteristics indistinguishable from those of
unlogged streams.  Streams with buffer strips  less
than 30 m wide generally show the same impacts
as streams without protective measures.  Streams
logged without protective measures at least 10
years prior to  1975  still had invertebrate
diversities significantly lower than unlogged
streams. The indices of taxonomic diversity and
ecological distance were used.   Numerous data
tables and a full discussion of methods are
provided.
Everest, F.H., R.L. Beschta, J.C. Scrivener,
K.V. Koski, J.R. Sedell, and C J. Cedarholm.
1987. Fine sediment and salmonid production:
A paradox. In: Streamside Management:
Forestry and Fishery Interactions. University of
Washington.  E.G. Salo, and T.W. Cundy,
(eds.) Institute of Forest Resources No. 57.
Chapter 4, pp.  98-142.

The purpose of this chapter is to examine
state-of-the-art knowledge of the effects of
sediment on salmonids The topics reviewed
include forest management and sediment
production, sediment processing by forest
streams, forest management and sedimentation,
variability of fine sediments in streambeds,  effects
of sedimentation on salmonids, natural mitigation
of the effects of fine sediment in streams,
sediment as a  factor limiting salmonid
populations, cumulative effects of sedimentation
and fishing, and streamside management
guidelines and sediment.  Over  120 references are
cited in this review.

Golden, M.S., C.L. Tuttle, J.S. Kush, and
J.M. Bradley. 1984. Forestry activities and
water quality in Alabama: Effects, recommended
practices, and an erosion-classified system.
Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment
Station. Bulletin 555.

The report was prepared primarily as a source of
information on the relationship between forestry
practices and  water quality, with orientation
toward forestry practices prevalent in Alabama.
Information on stream pollutants such as
sediment, nutrients, pesticides, organic material,
waste and litter,  and temperature is provided.
The review includes over 160 directly cited
documents on  these subjects.  Also included in the
report are recommendations of principles and
practices designed to minimize the water quality
impacts from  Alabama forestry practices.
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 Grant, G. 1988. The RAPID technique: A new
 method for evaluating downstream effects of
 forest practices on riparian zones. USDA Forest
 Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
 Experiment Station. General Technical Report
 PNW-220.

 The RAPID (riparian aerial photographic
 inventory of disturbance) technique is a method
 for using measurements made on aerial
 photographs of patterns of riparian canopy
 disturbance to evaluate changes in channel
 conditions through time and to link such changes
 with their possible upstream causes.  The RAPID
 technique provides resource specialists and
 managers with a relatively quick way of
 identifying stream reaches that are chronically or -•
 recently disturbed by a variety of channel
 processes, including increased peak flows and
 sedimentation from point and nonppint sources.
 With examples from western Oregon, this paper
 describes how to apply the RAPID technique  and
 analyze the  results to evaluate downstream or
 cumulative  effects of forest practices.

 Grant, G.  1988. The RAPID technique: Anew
 method for evaluating downstream effects of
 forest practices on riparian zones. USDA Forest
 Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
 General Technical Report PNW-GTR-220.  36
 pages.

 The riparian aerial photographic inventory of
 disturbance (RAPID) techniques is a method for
1 using measurements made on aerial photographs
 of patterns of riparian canopy disturbance to
 evaluate changes in channel conditions and
 relating them to their possible upstream causes.
 This document uses examples from western
 Oregon to describe an application of the technique ,•
 to evaluate  downstream or cumulative effects  of
 forest practices.  Information is provided on
 background and theory, collecting data, analyzing
 and interpreting results, and conclusions.

 Grant, J.W., J. Englert, and B.F. Bietz. 1986.
 Application of a method for assessing the
 impact of watershed practices: Effects of
 logging on  salmonid standing crops.  North
 American Journal of Fisheries Management.
6:24-31.

Total salmonid biomass is used as an indicator of
stream habitat quality for salmonids and to assess
the impacts of logging disturbances,  including
stream crossings, clearcuts, and bank
modification, on the salmonid populations of 10
streams in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
Salmonid biomass decreased significantly
downstream of two stream crossings, probably
due to  increased siltation, while seven clearcuts
and one bank modification along the other eight
streams had no significant effect on salmonid
biomass. Removal of the canopy cover was
associated with increases in the fork length or
weight at age, or both, of juvenile Atlantic
salmon but had no consistent effect on the size at
age of brook trout.  The authors discuss the
negative (increased sediment load) and positive
(increased productivity) consequences of canopy
cover removal, and emphasize that site- specific
circumstances should be taken into account when
determining how to manage streams.

Gregory, S.V.,  F.J. Swanson, W.A. McKee,
and  K.W.  Cummins. 1991. An ecosystem
perspective of riparian  zones.  Bioscience.
41(8):  540-551.

This paper  presents a conceptual model of
riparian zones that integrates the physical
processes that shape valley floor landscapes, the
succession of terrestrial plant communities, the
formation of habitat, and the production of
nutritional resources for aquatic ecosystems.
Topics reviewed include geomorphology,
structure of valley-floor landforms, riparian
vegetation, riparian interactions (link between
forest and stream), and ecosystem perspectives of
riparian zones. Over 70 references are cited in
the review.
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Hart man, G., J.C. Scrivener, L.B. Holtby, and
L. Powell. 1987. Some effects of different
streams! de treatments on physical conditions
and fish population processes in Carnation
Creek, a coastal rain forest stream in British
Columbia. In: Streamside Management: Forestry
and Fishery Interactions.  E.O.  Salo and T.W.
Cundy (eds). University of Washington, College
of Forest Resources, Seattle, Washington, pp.
330-372.

Carnation Creek has been studied continuously
since  1971.  During this time 41% of the
watershed was logged.  Three different streamside
treatments conducted in the alluvial floodplain
portion were evaluated: (1) an intensive treatment
of clearcutting, felling of streambank alder, and
yarding of felled trees and merchantable  timber;
(2) a careful treatment of clearcutting to  the
margin of the stream and felling of streambank
alder, with no in-channel activity; and (3) a leave
strip treatment in which  a variable width strip of
vegetation was left along the stream.  Stream
temperature increased due  to logging.  The
decrease in volume and stability of large debris
was accompanied by streambank erosion and
straightening of the chaiinel. This in turn caused
a change in gravel  quality  in the  lower sections of
the stream.  Coho and chum salmon egg-to-fry
survival was lower following the first major storm
following logging.  Trout smolt numbers
decreased, but coho smolts increased by  76%
between 1976 and  1983.  Afterward they
decreased to prelogging  levels.

Hawkins, C.P., M.L. Murphy, and N.H.
Anderson. 1982. Effects of canopy, substrate
composition, and gradient on the structure of
macroinvertebrate communities in Cascade
Range streams of Oregon. Ecology,
63:1840-1856.

The relationship between stream  community
structure and abundance and the density  and type
of riparian vegetation present is examined. Six
streams in the western Cascade Mountains were
studied  between  1978 and  1979,  and it was
determined that neither the canopy nor the
substrate strongly influenced the  number of taxa.
This paper presents limited data addressing the
complexity of streamside forests and focuses
almost exclusively oh community structure.
Numerous tables on community structure for the
Western Cascades are provided.

Heede, B.H. 1985. Interactions between
streamside vegetation and stream dynamics. In:
Conference on Riparian Ecosystems and their
Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses.
Tuscon, Arizona, April 16-18, 1985. pp. 54-58.

This paper investigates the interrelationship
between vegetation and stream system hydraulics
in a broad sense that considers water, sediment,
geomorphology, riparian vegetation, and
streamside ecosystems.   A 5-year study was
conducted to test a hypothesis that log steps
formed by downed trees replace gravel bars to
reduce bedload movement.  Log steps were
removed from the stream to see whether they
would be replaced by gravel bars.  Seventy-four
percent were replaced by gravel bars.  Fallen logs
were found to dissipate flow energy, maintain
channel stability, decrease  bedload movement,
and increase water quality.  The study stream was
located in a mixed conifer  forest of die Arizona
White Mountains at a 2700-m elevation.

Holtby, L.B. 1988. Effects of logging on stream
temperatures in Carnation Creek, B.C.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences.  45:502-515.

The  objectives of this study were to quantify the
effects of clearcut logging on stream temperatures
in Carnation Creek and to  quantify, the effects of
die logging-related component  of those
temperature changes on the coho salmon
population.  Forty-one percent  of the basin of the
creek was clearcut, increasing stream
temperatures  in all months of the year.  As a
result, coho salmon emerged earlier and increased
the length of their summer growing season by up
to 6  weeks.  Over-winter survival improved as a
result of increased growth by the fall.  Wanner
spring temperatures were also associated witii
earlier seaward  migration of smolts, probably
resulting in decreased smolt-to-adult survivals.
For this analysis, the author used a linked series
of models to predict the effects of logging on
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 stream temperatures and then the effects of those
 temperatures on critical coho life history events.
 A life history model was used to quantify the
 effects of stream temperature changes related to
 logging on the population size of adult coho
 salmon.  The author concludes:  (1) habitat
 perturbations can have quantifiable effects on fish
 populations; (2) habitat alteration can affect more
 than one life stage simultaneously and in opposite
 directions; (3) the effects of perturbations at one
 life stage can persist throughout the remainder of
 the life cycle; and (4) for anaclromous fish
 species, the effects of habitat perturbations during
 freshwater rearing can persist into the marine
 phase.

 Koski, K.V. Riparian zone functions  and
 interactions with sediment. In: Proceedings of
 Technical Workshop on Sediments. Corvallis,
 Oregon, February 3-7, 1992. U.S.
 Environmental Protection Agency and USDA
 Forest Service.

 This paper presents information on how riparian
, zones can serve as a management measure to
 minimize sediment pollution and maintain
 high-quality aquatic habitat through the following
 functions: filter strip, woody debris, and
 streambank and stream channel  stability.  The
 focus of this paper is on Alaska and the Pacific
 Northwest.  Information on the linkage between
 the riparian zone and the stream ecosystem is
 presented.  A detailed review of nearly 70
 references is included.

 Kundt, J.F. 1988. Streamside forests: The vital,
 beneficial resource, U.S.  Fish  and Wildlife
 Service and University of Maryland,
 Cooperative Extension Service.

 This cooperative Extension Service publication
 discusses the benefits of streamside forests,
 including improving water quality, maintaining
 wildlife  and fish populations, and providing
 recreational and commercial uses.  The paper
 briefly discusses how the public can become
 involved in the protection of streamside forests.
 Numerous photographs demonstrate the points
 raised, and simple graphics explain how
 streamside forests help to  remove sediment,
nitrogen, and phosphorus from runoff.

Lantz, R.L. 1971. Guidelines for stream
protection in logging operations. Oregon State
Game Commission, Portland, Oregon. 29
pages.

This report reviews why certain logging practices
in the West  Coast Douglas fir region are more
desirable than others for protecting fish habitat
and water quality. Streams can be protected to a
large extent by (1) keeping streamside vegetation
intact and (2) taking precautions to eliminate or
minimize soil disturbance and erosion,
particularly  that resulting from roads. The report
emphasizes the need to change or eliminate some
traditional logging practices due to the resource
conflicts between and interdependence of fisheries
and timber production. The report addresses the
freshwater requirements of salmon and trout, the
importance of protecting stream habitat, and
forestry practices that can be used-to protect fish
habitat.  The author discusses streamside
management areas and road location,
construction, and maintenance practices.

Lowrance,  R., R. Leonard,  and J. Sheridan.
1985. Managing riparian ecosystems to control
nonpoint pollution. Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation.  40(1):87-91.

This  article provides a general discussion of
riparian zones and factors affecting their ability to
control NPS pollution.  Hydrological and
vegetative factors affecting pollutant removal iare
discussed, and a case study of an NPS  control
using^a riparian zone buffer is presented.
Riparian zone management is related to regional
differences in land use and vegetative
characteristics.

Maser, C., R.F. Tarrant, J.M. Trappe, and
J.F.  Franklin (tech. eds.). 1988. From the forest
to the sea: A story of fallen  trees. General
Technical Report PNW-GTR-229. USDA Forest
Service and USDI Bureau of Land
Management. 153 pages.

This document presents a synthesis of existing
research information on the impact of fallen trees
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in various stages on ecological diversity and
offers some hypotheses and conclusions. The
information presented is intended to help resource
managers make decisions on the loss of woody
debris on habitat diversity and ecological
processes.  The following chapters are included:
coarse woody debris in forests and plantations of
coastal Oregon; what is known about large trees
that fall to the forest floor and into streams and
rivers, estuaries, the sea, and coastal beaches; and
options for public lands.  Nearly 350 references
are cited in  this document.

McGurk, BJ. 1989. Predicting stream
temperature after riparian vegetation removal.
In: Proceedings of the California Riparian
Systems  Conference. Davis, California,
September  22-24, 1988. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Station.
pp.  157-164.

This paper reports on field work at two streams in
California that evaluates Brown's stream
temperature change prediction technique (Brown
1970) and an empirical equation developed in
Oregon.  One of the sites was a clearcut site and
the other was a mature fir forest.  Larger diurnal
temperature fluctuations were observed  in the
water flowing through the clearcut site than in the
undisturbed  area above the clearcut site. The
mature fir forest also had a large diurnal water
temperature variation.  A 5.6 °C temperature rise
was observed through a 380-m clearcut that
exposed the stream channel, and Brown's
equation predicted a change of 6.1  °C.  Brown's
exposed surface area model may be a good choice
for land managers because it requires a minimum
of field data that are relatively simple to obtain.
A technique that includes the effect of shade
recovery after timber harvest is suggested for use
during long-range harvest planning.

Meehan, W.R. 1970. Some effects of shade
cover on stream temperature in southeast Alaska.
Research Note PNW-113. USDA Forest
Service,  Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station.

This study was done to determine the role of
streamside vegetation under the cool, moist
conditions of southeast Alaska. Study objectives
were (1) to develop a practical method for
measuring the effects of shade on stream
temperature and (2) to conduct exploratory studies
of the relationship between stream cover and
water temperature.  The study was conducted in
small streams in the northern part of southeast
Alaska.  Measurements of stream temperature
were taken on sunny and completely overcast
days and along unshaded and shaded stretches of
the streams. Weather information for sampling
days and temperature data are tabulated.
Temperature measurements demonstrated that
streamside vegetation plays a definite role in
maintaining cool stream  temperatures.  The author
notes that temperature increases in streams after
clearcutting in southeast Alaska do not approach
levels lethal to fish. The precise role of
streamside vegetation in the aquatic environment
needs further research in order for fisheries and
land managers to prescribe clearcutting for
optimum timber and fisheries production.

Meehan, W.R., F.J. Swanson, and J,R. Sedell.
1977. Influences of riparian vegetation on
aquatic ecosystems with particular reference to
salmonid fishes and their food supply, In:
Importance, Preservation and  Management of
Riparian Habitat: A Symposium. USDA Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. General Technical Report
RM-43. pp. 137-145.

This paper presents a review of the role of
riparian vegetation on streamwater quality and
salmonid habitat.  Topics included the benefits of
riparian zones, such as stream shade, channel and
bank stability, source of woody debris.  Temporal
and spatial changes in the riparian zone, the
indirect influences of riparian vegetation on
salmonids, and the effects of man's activities are
also discussed.

Megahan, W.F., and P.N. King. 1985.
Identification of critical areas of forest lands
for control of nonpoint  sources of pollution.
Environmental Management. 9(1):7-18.

The authors present a critical areas approach to
controlling NFS pollution from forestlands.
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Critical areas include sites with high mass and
surface erosion hazards, overland flow areas, and
the riparian zone. Most NFS pollution problems
on forestlands can be controlled by identifying
these critical areas and carefully planning their
management. The discussion of these three critical
areas is accompanied by guidelines for identifying
them and examples of land use constraints that
might be applied; for instance, limiting activities
causing severe soil disturbance and road
construction requiring large cutslopes where
surface erosion hazards are high.

Miller, E. 19VI. Effects of forest practices on
relationships between riparian area and aquatic
ecosystems, In:  Managing Southern Forest for
Wildlife and Fish:  A Proceedings. General
Technical Report SO-65. USDA Forest Service,
Southern Forest Experiment Station, pp. 40-47.

This paper presents an outline of die relationship
between riparian and stream communities to help
foresters better understand the objectives
underlying streamside management designs.
Topics reviewed in this paper include food
energy, large organic debris, stream temperature,
streambank and  bed stability, terrestrial/aquatic
buffer, and streamflow.  These topics are
discussed both as they relate to management of
the  riparian forest and riparian vegetation and the
stream environment.  Over 40 references are cited
in this paper.

Murphy, M.L., J. Heifetz, S.W. Johnson,
K.V. Koski, and J.F. Thedinga. 1986. Effects
 of clear-cut logging with and without  buffer
 strips on juvenile salmonids in Alaskan
 streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
 Aquatic Sciences. 43(8):1521-1533.

 To  assess short-term effects of logging on juvenile
 Oncorhynchus kisutch, Salvelins malma, Salmo
 gairdneri, and Salmo clarki in southeastern
 Alaska, the fish density and habitat in summer
 and winter were compared in 18  streams in
 old-growth forest and in elearcuts with  and
 without buffer strips.  The study concludes that
 clearcutting may increase fry abundance in
 summer in  some streams by increasing primary
 production,  but may  reduce abundance of parr in
winter if debris is removed.  Use of buffer strips
maintains or increases debris, protects habitat,
allows increased primary production,  and can
increase abundance of fry or parr.  The report
also contains references to more than SO other
papers.

Murphy, M.L., and K.V. Koski. 1989. Input
and depletion of woody debris in Alaska
streams and implications for streamside
management.  North American Journal of
Fisheries Management. 9(4):427-436.

Natural rates of input and  depletion of large
woody debris (LWD) in southeast Alaska streams
were  studied to provide a basis for managing
streamside zones to maintain LWD for fish habitat
after timber harvest.  Input and depletion rates
were  inversely proportional to LWD  diameter and
ranged from 1%/year for large LWD in all stream
types to 3%/year for small LWD in large, high-
energy, bedrock-controlled streams.  A model
indicated that 90 years after clear-cut logging
without a stream-side buffer strip large LWD
would be reduced by 70% and recovery to
prelogging levels would take more than 250
years. Because nearly all LWD  is derived from
within 30 m of the stream, the use of a 30-m
wide, unlogged buffer strip along both sides of
the stream during timber harvest should maintain
LWD.

Murphy, M.L., K.V. Koski, J. Heifetz, S.W.
Johnson, D. Kirchhofer, and J.F. Thedinga.
 1984. Role of large organic debris  as winter
 habitat for juvenile salmonids in Alaska
 streams. In:  Western Proceedings of the  64th
Annual Conference of the Western  Association
 of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Victoria,  British
 Columbia, July 16-19, 1984. pp. 251-262.

 To assess short-term effects of logging on juvenile
 Oncorhynchus kisutch, Salvelins malma, Salmo
 gairdneri, and Salmo clarki in southeastern
.Alaska, the fish density and habitat in summer
 and winter were compared in 18 streams in
 old-growth forest and in clearcuts with and
 without buffer strips.  Buffered reaches did not
 consistently differ from old-growth reaches;
 clearcut reaches had more periphyton, lower
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channel stability, and less canopy, pool volume,
large woody debris, and undercut banks than old-
growth reaches.  Fry abundance was related to the
amount of large woody debris. Clearcutting may
increase fry abundance in summer in some
streams by increasing primary production, but
may reduce abundance of parr in winter if debris
is removed. Use of buffer strips maintains or
increases debris, protects habitat, allows increased
primary production, and can increase abundance
of fry and parr.  This paper presents partial
results of a larger study; the companion paper is
Thedinga, Murphy, Heifetz,  Koski, and Johnson,
1989.  This report presents significant  amounts of
data and conclusions and contains references to
more than 50 other papers.

Narver, D.W. 1971. Effects of logging debris
on fish  production. In: Proceedings of the
Symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream
Environment. , 19-21 October, 1970. J.T.
Krygier and J.D. Hall (eds.). Oregon State
University, Corvallis, Oregon, pp.  100-111.

Stream salmonids (eight species of Pacific
salmon, trout, and  char) are discussed  in relation
to their environmental requirements and the
possible impact of logging debris on their
production. The emphasis is on small  streams
because of their great importance as nursery and
spawning areas for certain species and  because
they may be more susceptible to damage than
larger streams or rivers. Extensive use is made
of pertinent literature. The author concludes that
accumulations of logging debris in small streams
can have serious effects on the production of
salmonid fishes.

Neary, D.G., N.B. Comerford,  and L.W.
Swift. Land and riparian interactions with
sediment in the southern United States. In:
Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
and  USDA Forest Service.

This paper presents a review of the literature and
includes the following: a synthesis of research
results  in current literature on buffer zones,
determining the utilitv of buffer zones  in
protecting forested wetlands and surface waters
from the sediment nonpoint source pollution
impacts of silvicultural operations, and identifying
information gaps and research needs. Some
review information from studies on the protection
afforded by buffer strips is presented.

New York State Department of Environmental
Conservation, Division of Water. 1986. Stream
corridor management: A basic reference manual.

Chapter 6 (Best Management Practices) provides
an in depth discussion of BMPs relating to stream
corridor management.  This document discusses
numerous BMPs not directly related to forestry,
but the information is generally useful for forestry
applications.  Many standard forestry stream
BMPs, such as crossings and culverts, are
discussed also.  Contents include: Stream
Problems, Techniques for  Assessing Land Use
Impacts on Water Quantity and Quality, Steps for
Solving the Problem (A Planning and
Problem-solving Framework), Stream
Conservation Options and  Choices for Local
Government, Best Management Practices, and
Implementing a Program in Your  Community.

Newbold, J.D., D.C. Erman, and K.B. Roby.
1980. Effects of logging on macroinvertebrates
in streams with and without buffer strips.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences. 37: 1076-1085.

The impact of logging with and without buffer
strip protection on stream macroinvertebrates was
examined through comparisons of community
structure in commercially logged and control
watersheds throughout northern California.  A
nonparametric test of community dissimilarities
within matched blocks of two control and one or
two treated stations showed significant logging
effects oh unprotected streams using certain
indices but not using others.  Shannon diversity in
unprotected streams was lower than in control
streams.  Densities of total rnacroinvertebrate
fauna were higher in unprotected streams than in
controls. Diversity in wide-buffered streams was
greater than in streams without buffers, indicating
effective protection from logging effects.  The
data indicate a clear association between buffer
                                             202

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strip width and effectiveness and suggest that
most or all of the impact on the benthos was
prevented by buffer strips of 30 m or wider.
These findings are compared to those of other
studies on buffer strip width and effectiveness,
with possible explanations of discrepancies.

Palfrey, R., and E. Bradley. Natural buffer
areas study. Maryland Department of Natural
Resources, Tidewater Administration, Coastal
Resources Division. 30  pages.

This report reviews the potentially detrimental
impacts of land uses adjacent to watercourses and
describes how buffer areas  can mitigate these
impacts. Environmental  factors (e.g., type of
vegetation, width of buffer  area, slope, and height
of vegetation) that determine-how effectively
buffer areas function are discussed.
Recommendations regarding the establishment of
buffer areas in the State of Maryland are
presented; for example,  buffer strip widths of 100
feet.  Subtopics covered in the report include the
use of buffer areas for sediment control, storm
water runoff control, nutrient filters, and
temperature moderators, and their value as food
sources and transition zones.

Patric, J.H. 1980. Effects of wood products
harvest on forest soil and water relations.
Journal of Environmental Quality. 9(1):73-80.

This report presents the results of nearly three
decades of research  on a watershed in the Fernow
Experimental Forest in north-central West
Virginia.  Selection harvests between  1958 and
. 1968 had a negligible effect on water properties.
A clearcut leaving a buffer strip in  1969-70 had
no effect on stormflow or stream temperature, but
 increased  water yield by 38% 'the first year after
 cutting.  Concentrations of sediment,  nitrate, Ca,
 Mg, K, and Na in streamflow increased, slightly.
The buffer strip was cut and the stream channel
 cleared, in 1972,  increasing water yield by  9% and
 raising stream temperature by as much as 7.8  °C.
 Regrowth over the entire watershed reduced all
 effects on water within 2 years after each
 treatment.  Historical data  from the studies
 reviewed  are presented  for parameters such as
 turbidity and precipitation.
Patton, D.R. 1973. A literature review of timber
harvesting effects on stream temperatures:
Research needs for the Southwest. USDA Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. Research Note RM-249. 4
pages.

The paper focuses on the effect of temperature on
fisheries.  Water temperature affects fish by
changing their metabolic rate and the oxygen
content of water, and influencing hatching and
development time and migration.  Creating a
more open forest in the water-producing zone can
change water temperature in shallow, low-volume
streams. The author concludes that research is
needed on how timber harvesting affects water
temperature to produce guidelines to meet
FWPCA standards for cold-water fish. Suggested
research topics are identification of perennial
streams with temperature marginally high; the
effect of timber harvesting on water temperature;
determination of temperature ranges of rare and
endangered  fish; and the importance of riparian
vegetation in maintaining aquatic habitat.

Platts, W.S., and R.L. Nelson. 1989. Stream
canopy and its relationship  to salmonid
biomass in  the intermountain West. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management.
9:446-457.

Several riparian habitat components,  including
canopy density, light intensity, unobstructed sun,
arc, and average potential daily thermal input in
grazed and ungrazed portions of representative
streams in the northern Rocky Mountains and the
Great Basin of the western United  States, were
measured.  The objectives were to assess
prevailing stream canopy conditions and to
determine to what extent these habitat components
were correlated with salmonid biomass.
Unobstructed sun arc was significantly correlated
with thermal input and was the best overall
predictor of salmonid biomass per unit volume.
Thermal input was  a better predictor of salmonid
biomass per unit volume in the Great Basin than
 in the Rocky Mountains.  Mean estimates of fish
biomass per unit volume were better related to
 stream canopy attributes than to biomass estimates
 based on stream surface area.
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 Rishel, G.B., J.A. Lynch, and E.S. Corbett.
 1982. Seasonal stream temperature changes
 following forest harvesting. Journal of
 Environmental  Quality. 11(1):112-116.

 The objectives of this study were to document
 changes in water temperature of small headwater
 streams following  a clearcut- herbicide treatment
 and a commercial  clearcut harvest.  The study
 was designed to provide data on the maximum
 expected change in stream temperature following
 forest cover removal and to evaluate the
 effectiveness of a buffer zone on the commercial
 clearcut site in controlling stream temperature
 changes.  The average monthly maximum
 temperature change in the clearcut-herbicide
 treatment stream was 4.4 °C, and the highest
 recorded temperature in the stream was 32 °C,
 compared to  22 °C on an adjacent forested
 watershed. On the clearcut watershed with a
 buffer strip, only slight changes in stream
 temperature were observed. The average monthly
 maximum temperature increase was  < 1  °C, and
 the highest temperature recorded was 23 °C.

 Robison, E.G., and R.L. Beschta. 1990.
 Identifying trees in riparian areas  that can
 provide coarse woody debris  to streams.  Forest
 Science. 36(3):790-801.

 This paper presents a method for determining the
 probability that a tree, upon falling,  will provide
 coarse woody debris to a stream and relates this
 probability to the basal area factor (BAF) obtained
 by a wedge device or prism so that specific leave
 trees can be easily and consistently selected in the
 field.  The prediction method developed assumes
 (1)  a tree has an equal chance of falling in any •
 direction; (2) there are equal numbers of trees
 both larger and smaller than a tree of "average"
 diameter; (3) the potential of a tree to provide
 debris is evaluated for the time it is evaluated,
 ignoring future growth;  and  (4) the entire tree,
 with rootwad and bole, will  fall (breakage is not
 considered).  Formulas and computations  are fully
 explained, and Douglas fir is used to illustrate the
 application.

Salo, E.G., and T.W. Cundy (eds.).  1987.
Streamside management forestry and fishery
 interactions. College of Forest Resources,
 University of Washington. 471 pages.

 The results of a symposium held to synthesize
 technical information on forestry and fisheries
 interactions and to discuss regulatory changes
 governing forest management practices are
 presented.  Contents include:  Variables Related to
 Fish Habitat (e.g., sediment, woody debris,
 temperature); Forest Management of the
 Streamside Zone; Case Studies - Effects of
 Timber Harvest on Fishery Resources; and Panel
 Discussions.  The presented papers focus for the
 most part on the Pacific Northwest. The panel
 discussions concern economics and social
 considerations, Streamside management zone
 BMPs, and policy perspectives. This collection
 of papers provides complete discussion of the
 interdependence of forestry and fisheries
 resources.

 Sedell, J.R., P.A. Bisson, F.J. Swanson, and
 S.V. Gregory. 1988. What we know about large
 trees that fall into streams and rivers, In: From
 the forest to the sea: A story of fallen trees.
 USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest
 and Range Experiment Station. General
 Technical Report PNW-229. pp. 47-81.

 The physical and biological characteristics of
 forested streams in the Northeast are discussed at
 length.  The history of logging activities,  riparian
 management, and ecosystem structure are
 compared; the effects of removed and downed
 timber on habitat are emphasized.  Physical
 variables and stream debris frequency were
 studied for their effects on fish species and habitat
 development. The data indicate that complete
removal of timber from any stream has an
adverse impact on fish-dependent food  chains and
sediment capture.  Overall, this article  addresses
stream debris dynamics and the effects  on
indigenous species. The document contains
numerous figures and tables.
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Steinblums, I., H.A. Froehlich, and J.K.
Lyons. 1984. Designing stable buffer strips for
stream protection.  Journal of Forestry.
82(l):49-52.

Failure of buffer strips due to blowdowhs,
disease, and logging is a recurring problem and   >
can cause stream channels to load with debris,
leading to sediment storage or erosion.  This
article reports a study of environmental factors
that affect buffer strip stability and stream
shading.  On 40 streamside buffer strips in the
Cascade Mountains of western Oregon, buffer
strip stability was found to be a function of one
vegetation and six topographic equation variables,
and shading was related to three characteristics of
buffer strips and one of adjacent clearcuts.
Topographic maps and aerial photographs were
used to supplement field observations.  Stability
and shading effectiveness of proposed buffer
strips can be evaluated using die equations
presented in the paper and data collected through
site reconnaissance and topographic maps.

Swanson, F.J., S.V.  Gregory, J.R. Sedell, and
A.G. Campbell. 1982. Land-water interactions:
The  riparian zone, In: Analysis of coniferous
forest ecosystems in the  western United States.
Edmonds,  R.L., (ed.) US/IBP Synthesis Series
14:267-291.

This chapter presents a general review and
synthesis of concepts regarding the riparian zone,
with emphasis placed on conditions observed in
mountain streams and small rivers.  Topics
discussed include the structure and composition of
riparian vegetation, functions of the riparian zone,
spatial variation of terrestrial/ aquatic interfaces,
temporal variation in the riparian zone,  and  a
summary of these concepts.

Swift, L.W., Jr. 1982. Duration of stream
temperature increases following forest cutting
in the southern Appalachian Mountains.   Water
Resources Bulletin. 18(6):273-275.

The  effect of clearcutting riparian areas on water
temperature was examined at the Coweeta
Hydrologic Laboratory, North  Carolina. During
the first two summers of the study, stream
temperatures at the downstream edge of .clearcut
was increased by an average of 3.3 °C.  The
increase declined the next three summers to 1.2
°C. In addition, the daily range of water
temperatures (maximum minus minimum)
increased for all 5 years after clearcut.  The
authors also used a method by Brown (1970) to
estimate water temperature changes and found that
the method significantly overestimated the actual
increase.

Thedinga, J.F., M.L. Murphy, J. Heifetz,
K.V. Koski, and S.W. Johnson. 1989. Effects
of logging on size and age composition of
juvenile coho salmon and density of pre-smolts
in southeast Alaska streams. Canadian Journal
of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 46:1383-1391.

Short-term effects of logging on age composition
and size of juvenile coho salmon (Onchrhynchus
Idsutch) were studied in 18 streams in southeast
Alaska in 1982 and 1983. Studies were in
old-growth forests where stream reaches had been
clearcut with or without buffer strips. The
number of fry in summer and winter was
proportionately higher in clearcut and buffered
reaches than in undisturbed reaches.  A higher
percentage of large (^75 mm) fry remained in
buffered reaches than in clearcut and undisturbed
reaches. Therefore, the density of fry that were
potentially large enough to become smolts the
next spring was greater in buffered reaches.  The
larger fry in the buffered and clearcut reaches
compared with undisturbed reaches were probably
the result of earlier fry emergence resulting from
increased water temperature.  This paper presents
partial results of a larger study. The companion
paper is Murphy, Heifetz, Johnson, Koski and
Thedinga, 1986.

USDA Forest Service. 1987. Soil and water
resource management: A cost or a benefit?
Approaches to watershed economics  through
example. 99 pages.

Analysis procedures for estimating the economic
benefits of soil and water resource management
have been developed.  This report discusses the
procedures and the data and  information required
to employ them.  The analysis procedures focus
                                             205

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 on the following management areas: timber,
 forage, fish, enhanced water quality, and road
 construction and maintenance.  The procedures
 and economics of soil and water management are
 demonstrated in this document with 16 examples.

 Anderson, H.W., M.D. Hoover, and K.G.
 Reinhart. 1976.  Forests and water: Effects of
forest management on floods, sedimentation, and
 water supply. USDA Forest Service. General
 Technical Report PSW-18. 115 pages.

 Andrus, C., and H.A. Froehlich. 1988. Riparian
 forest development after logging or fire in the
 Oregon Coast Range: Wildlife habitat and timber
 value.  In:: Streamside Management: Riparian
 Wildlife and Forestry Interactions. University of
 Washington. Institute of Forest Resources. No.
 59. pp. 139-151.

 Berry, J.D. 1975. Modeling the impact of logging
 debris  in streams. In: Proceedings of the
 Watershed Management Symposium. Logan, Utah,
 August 11-13, 1975. American Society of Civil
 Engineers, Division of Irrigation and Drainage.
 pp.  676-680.

 Beschta, R.L.  1979. Debris removal and its
 effects on sedimentation in an Ore^rn Coast
 Range  stream. Northwest Science. 53:71-77.

 Beschta, R.L., and J. Weatherred. 1984.
 TEMP-84: A computer model for predicting
 stream temperatures resulting from the
 management of streamside vegetation. U.S.
 Department of Agriculture, Watershed  Systems
 Development Group, Fort Collins, Colorado.
 WSDG-AD-00009.

 Bilby,  R.E. 1981. Role of organic debris dams in
 regulating the export of dissolved and paniculate
 matter  from a forested watershed.  Ecology.
 62(5): 1234-1243.

 Brown, G.W., and J.T. Krygier.  1967.  Changing
 water temperatures in small mountain streams.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation.
 22:242-244.

 Burton, T.M., and G.E. Likens. 1973. The effect
 of strip-cutting on stream temperatures in the
 Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New
 Hampshire. BioScience. 23:433-435.

 Corbett, E.S., J.A. Lynch, and W.E. Sopper.
 1978. Timber harvesting practices and water
 quality in the eastern United States.  Journal of
 Forestry.  76(8):484-488.

 Curtis, W.R. 1966. Forest zone helps minimize
 flooding in the Driftless Area. Journal of Soil
 and Water Conservation. 21:101- 102.

 Gregory,  S.V., G.A. Lamberti, D.C. Erman,
 K.V. Koski, M.L. Murphy, and J.R. Sedell.
 1987. Influence of forest practices on aquatic
 production. In: Streamside Management: Forestry
 and Fishery Interactions. University of
 Washington.  E.G. Salo, and T.W. Cundy, (eds.)
 Institute of Forest Resources No. 57. Chapter 7,
 pp. 233-255.

 Hewlett, J.D., and J.C. Fortson. 1982. Stream
 temperature under an inadequate buffer strip in
 the Southeast Piedmont.  Water Resources
 Bulletin. 18(6):983-988.

 Koski, K.V., and M.L. Murphy. 1989. Summary
 ofNMFS Auke Bay Laboratory research on
 streamside management issues.

 Megahan, W.F. 1983.  Appendix C:  Guidelines
 for reducing negative impacts of logging. In:
 Tropical watersheds: Hydrologic and soils
 response to major uses or conversions.  L.S.
 Hamilton  and P.N. King (eds.). Westview Press,
 Boulder, Colorado, pp.  143-154.

 NCASI. 1987. Managing Oregon's riparian zone
for timber, fish and wildlife. National Council of
 the Paper  Industry for Air and Stream
 Improvement. Technical Bulletin No. 514.

 Patton, D.R.  1980. The effect of streamside forest
 harvesting on stream temperature in  the Georgia
 mountains. Master's Thesis, University of
 Georgia, School of Forest  Resources, Athens,
 Georgia. 49 pages.
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 Payne, N.J., J.C. Feng, and P.E. Reynolds.
 1990. Off-target deposits and buffer zones
 required around water for aerial glyphosate
 applications. Pesticide Science. 30(2): 183-198.

 Payne, N.J., B.V. Kelson, K.M.S.  Sundaram,
 and R.A. Fleming. 1988. Estimating buffer zone
 widths for pesticide applications. Pesticide
 Science.  24(2): 147-161.

 Potts, D.F., and E.K.M. Anderson. 1990.
 Org'anic debris and the management of small
 stream channels. -Western Journal of Applied
 Forestry. 5(l):25-28.

 Rood, S.B., and J.M.  Mahoney. 1990. Collapse
 of riparian poplar forests dowiistream from dams
 in western prairies: Probable causes and prospects
 for mitigation.  Environmental Management.
 14(4): 451-464.

 Salo, E.G., and T.W.  Cundy (eds.). 1987.
.Streamside management forestry and fishery
 interactions. College of Forest Resources,
 University of Washington. 471 pages.

 Sedell, J.R., et al. 1982. Importance of
 Streamside forests to large rivers: The isolation of
 the Willamette River, Oregon, USA from its
 floodplain by snagging and Streamside forest
 removal.  Internationle Vereingung far
 theoretische und angewandte Limnolgia
 Verhanlungen.  22:lS2S-l%34.

 Snyder, G.G.,  H.F. Haupt, and G.H. Belt, Jr.
 1975.  Clear cutting and burning slash alter quality
 of stream water'in northern Idaho. USDA Forest
 Service. Research Paper INT-168. 34 pages.

 Swank. G.W. 1985. Streamside management units
 in the Pacific Northwest. In: Conference on
. Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management:  •
 Reconciling Conflicting Uses. USDA Forest '
 Service. April  16-18. pp.'  435-438.

 Swanson, F.J.; and G._W. Lienkaemper.  1978.
 Physical consequences  of large organic debris in
 Pacific Northwest streams. USDA Forest Service,
 Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report PNW-69.

 Swift, L.W., Jr., and J.B. Messer. 1971. Forest
 cuttings raise temperatures of small streams in the
 southern Appalachians.  Journal of Soil and
 Water Conservation. 26:111-116.

 USDA Forest Service.  1991. Riparian forest
 buffers:  Function and design for protection and
 enhancement of water resources.

 USEPA and USDA Forest Service.  Proceedings
 of Technical Workshop on Sediments. Corvallis,
 Oregon,  February 3-7,  1992. U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency  and  USDA Forest Service.

 Wong, S.L.,  and R.H.  McCuen. 1981.  The
 design of vegetative buffer strips for runoff and
 sediment control. University of Maryland,
 Department of Civil Engineering.
BMPs AND SPECIFICATIONS

Bacon, C.G. 1989. Riparian silviculture: Active
riparian  management for multiple resources.
In: Forestry on the Frontier,  Proceedings of the
1989 Society of American Foresters National
Convention. Spokane, Washington, pp. 99-102.

This paper presents an overview of riparian
silviculture and its potential impacts on water
quality, fisheries, and wildlife. It provides a
general review of national perspectives on
riparian silviculture and give specific examples of
regional management and research efforts.
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Bramhall, J.W. 1989. Riparian systems and
forest management- changes in harvesting
techniques and their effects on decomposed
granitic soils. In: Proceedings of the California
Riparian System Conference. Davis, California,
September 22-24, 1988. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station.  General Technical Report
PSW-110. pp. 176- 179.

In the 1950s, timber on steep granitic terrain in
Trinity County, California,  was harvested by
using the logging techniques of the time.  After
Trinity Dam was built in the 1960s, it became
evident these techniques were not suited to quality
riparian habitat and healthy anadromous fisheries.
Since adoption of the Z'berg'-Nejedly Forest
Practice Act in 1973,  efforts have been expended
to repair damages to riparian vegetation and to
find forest practices compatible with granitic
soils.  This article lists BMPs developed  for
timber harvesting on granitic soils in 1986,
focusing on protection of the riparian zone.  No
effectiveness information is given.

Corbett, E.S., and J.A. Lynch. 1985.
Management of streamside zones  on municipal
watersheds. In: Conference on Riparian
Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling
Conflicting Uses. Tucson, Arizona, April 16-18.
pp. 187-190.

This paper focuses on the management practices,
such as maintenance of buffer zones on the edges
of reservoirs, that may be used to maintain the
quality of municipal watersheds.  This generic
paper on the role and impact of buffer zones as a
best management practice includes references to
over 20 articles.

Cubbage, F.W., and C.E. DeForest. 1991.
BMPs and harvesting regulations  in the South.
In: Forestry and the Environment...Engineering
Solutions. New Orleans, Louisiana, June 4-6,
1991. American Society of Agricultural
Engineers.
 This paper provides an overview of best
 management practices that apply to forestry
 practices, including road construction, timber
 harvest, stream crossing, streamside management
 zones, and maintenance and retiring of structures.
 This paper presents basic information about the
 types of BMPs that may be used.  The paper
 introduces regulatory trends in the states of
 Florida, North Carolina, West Virginia,  and
 Maryland, as well as regulatory trends in forested
 wetlands.

 Garland, J.J. 1987. Aspects of practical
 management in the streamside zone. In:
 Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery
 Interactions. University of Washington, College
 of Forest Resources,  Seattle, Washington.
 E.G. Salo and T.W.  Cundy (eds.). pp.
 277-288.

 Management decisions in the streamside  zone may
 profoundly affect practices in adjacent areas
 (reaching to the ridge  top and beyond).  Issues of
 technical, economic, and institutional
 (administrative) feasibility are associated  with all
 management practices. Harvesting systems and
 site conditions (terrain, timber type, etc.) must be
 matched to be feasible.  Decision arenas  for
 resolution of conflicts  involving facts and values
 are identified.

 Heede,  B.H. 1985. Interactions between
 streamside vegetation and  stream dynamics. In:
 Conference on Riparian Ecosystems and their
 Management:  Reconciling Conflicting Uses.
 Tuscon, Arizona, April 16-18, 1985. pp. 54-58.

 This paper investigates the interrelationship
 between vegetation and stream system hydraulics
 in a broad sense that considers water, sediment,
 geomorphology, riparian vegetation, and
 streamside ecosystems. A 5-year study was
 conducted to test a hypothesis that log steps
 formed by downed trees replace gravel bars to
 reduce bedload movement.   Log steps were
 removed from  the stream to see whether they
 would b? replaced by gravel bars.  Seventy-four
percent  were replaced  by gravel bars. Fallen logs
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were found to dissipate flow energy, maintain
channel stability, decrease bedload movement,
and increase water quality. The study stream was
located in a mixed conifer forest of the Arizona
White  Mountains at a 2700-m elevation.

Heede, B.H. 1990. Vegetation strips control
erosion in watersheds. Research Note RM-499.
USD A Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station.
                                       •-,
An analysis was conducted on data collected to
determine the erfects of vegetation strips on  '
erosion control.  The data was collected from
southwestern ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-
juniper, and chaparral. In the ponderosa pine,  61
times more sediment was delivered when buffer
strips were missing.  This factor was 18 and 277
for pinyon-juniper and chaparral, respectively.
Overland  flow was also diminished from areas
with buffer strips.  No statistical analysis was
conducted on the data. .

Lantz, R.L.  1971. Guidelines for stream
protection in logging operations. .Oregon  State
Game  Commission, Portland, Oregon. 29
pages.

This report reviews why certain logging practices
in the West Coast Douglas fir region are more  •
desirable than others for protecting fish habitat
and water quality.  Streams can be protected to a
large extent by (1) keeping streamside vegetation
intact and (2) taking  precautions to eliminate or
minimize  soil disturbance  and erosion,
particularly that resulting from roads. The  report
emphasizes the need  to change or eliminate some
traditional logging practices due to the resource
conflicts between and interdependence of fisheries
and timber production. The report addresses the
freshwater requirements of salmon and trout, the
importance of protecting stream habitat, and
forestry practices that can  be used to protect fish
habitat. The author discusses streamside '
management areas and road location,
construction, and maintenance practices.
Lowrance, R., R. Leonard, and J. Sheridan.
1985. Managing riparian ecosystems to control
nohpoint pollution.  Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation. 40(1):87-91.

This article provides a general discussion of
riparian zones and factors affecting their ability to
control NFS pollution. Hydrological and
vegetative factors affecting pollutant removal are
discussed, and a case study of an NFS control
using a riparian zone buffer is presented.
Riparian zone management is related to regional
differences in land use and vegetative
characteristics.

McClimans, R.J. 1980.  Best management
practices for forestry activities. In: Watershed
Management. Boise, Idaho, July 21-23,1980.
C.W. Johnson (ed.). American Society of Civil
Engineers, Irrigation and Drainage Division,
Committee on Watershed Management, pp.
694-705.

This paper defines critical combinations of site
conditions for which BMPs are needed to
minimize adverse impacts on soil and water
resources.  The document also includes
assessment methodologies, as well as charts and
graphs for the selection and application of
appropriate BMPs.  Forest practices are  grouped
according to their capacity to cause  water
pollution, the nature of the more commonly
applied BMPs to control pollution, and site
considerations. Guides, based on slope of land
and distance from water,  are provided to
determine whether a particular BMP is necessary
for the particular group of activities. Graphs
developed to determine BMP applicability are
presented, and the selected BMPs are discussed
for each group  of forest activities. Specifications
for some BMPs are also presented.
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 Miller, E. 1987. Effects of forest practices on
 relationships between riparian area and aquatic
 ecosystems, In; Managing Southern Forest for
 Wildlife and Fish: A Proceedings.  General
 Technical Report SO-65.  USDA Forest Service,
 Southern Forest Experiment Station, pp. 40-47.

 This paper presents an outline of the relationship
 between riparian and stream communities to help
 foresters better understand the objectives
 underlying streamside management designs.
 Topics reviewed hi this paper include food
 energy, large organic debris, stream temperature,
 streambank and bed stability, terrestrial/aquatic
 buffer, and streamflow.  These topics are
 discussed both as they relate,to management of
 the riparian forest and riparian vegetation and the
 stream environment.  Over 40 references are cited
 in this paper.

 Neuman, L. 1987. Silviculture and best
 management practices. In: Erosion Control:
 You're Gambling Without  it.  International
 Erosion Control Association, pp. 145-155.

 This report presents information on the types of
 impairments typical of forestry activities"and
 provides information on management techniques
 that may be used to minimize the impacts. The
 practices presented in this paper include timber
 harvesting, site preparation, and road construction
 and drainage.  Erodibility factors, assigned to
 Florida soils by the SCS, and slope determine a
 site's sensitivity to erosion, and the paper presents
 site sensitivity classes for Florida soils. This
 classification is related to suggested BMP usage
 and implementation.  Many useful tables of
 specifications for when and how to construct the
 practices are presented.

 New York State Department of Environmental
 Conservation, Division of Water. 1986. Stream
 corridor management: A basic reference manual.

 Chapter 6  (Best Management Practices) provides
an in depth discussion of BMPs  relating to stream
corridor management. This document discusses
 numerous BMPs not directly related to forestry,
 but the information is generally useful for forestry
 applications.  Many standard forestry stream
 BMPs, such as crossings and culverts, are
 discussed also.  Contents include: Stream
 Problems, Techniques for Assessing Land Use
 Impacts on Water Quantity and Quality, Steps for
 Solving the Problem (A Planning and
 Problem-solving Framework), Stream
 Conservation Options and Choices for Local
 Government,  Best Management Practices, and
 Implementing a Program in Your Community.

 Nieswand G.H., R.M. Hordon, T.B. Shelton,
 and B. Chavooshian. 1990. Buffer strips  to
 protect water supply reservoirs: A model and
 recommendations.  Water Resources  Bulletin.
 26(6):959-966.

 This paper discusses the development of a
 parameter-based model for buffer strip width
 determination for use in New Jersey, as part of a
 comprehensive watershed management project.
 The model is  primarily intended for application to
 all watersheds above water supply intakes or
 reservoirs.  Input requirements  for the  model
 include a combination of slope, width,  and time
 of travel. Development of the model and its
 application to  a  watershed in New Jersey are
 discussed. The  application results in a
 recommended buffer strip width that ranges from
 50 to 300 feet, depending on a number of
 assumptions, and from 6-13% of the watershed
 area above the protected waterbody (reservoir)
 being occupied by the buffer.

 Steinblums, I.,  H.A. Froehlich, and J.K.
 Lyons. 1984.  Designing stable buffer  strips for
 stream protection.  Journal of Forestry.
 82(l):49-52.

 Failure of buffer strips due to blowdowns,
 disease, and logging is a recurring problem and
 can cause stream channels to load with debris,
 leading to sediment  storage or erosion.  This
article  reports  a study of environmental factors
that affect buffer strip stability and stream
shading.  On 40  streamside buffer strips in the
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 Cascade Mountains of western Oregon, buffer
 strip stability was found to be a function of one
 vegetation and six topographic equation variables,
 and shading was related to three characteristics of
 buffer strips and one of adjacent clearcuts.
 Topographic maps and  aerial photographs were
 used to supplement field observations. Stability
 and shading effectiveness of proposed buffer
 strips can be evaluated  using the equations
 presented in the paper and data collected through
 site reconnaissance and topographic maps.

 Trimble, G.R., and R.S. Sartz. 1957. How far
 from a stream should  a logging road be
 located?  Journal of Forestry. 55(5):339-341.

 Observations were made along a forest road that
 traverses a well- stocked northern hardwood
 forest of somewhat uneven age in the Hubbard
 Brook Experimental  Forest in the White
 Mountains of New Hampshire.  Data are plotted
 as a relationship between degree of slope and
 distance sediment is carried by storm runoff,
 yielding recommended widths of filter strips for
 various conditions. A rule of thumb is a filter
 strip 25 feet  wide on level ground with a 2-foot
 increase, in width for each 1 % increase in slope of
 the land between road and stream.

 Whitman R. 1989. Clean water of multiple
 use? Best management practices for water
 quality control on the national forests.  Ecology
 Lav,< Quarterly. 16(4):909.

 This article summarizes the nature and extent of
 the environmental problems around which
 conflicts revolve, and shows how state and federal
 laws, including NEPA,  CWA and the National
 Forest Management Act, interact to protect water
 quality through forest planning.  The paper also
 assesses, the success of BMPs in protecting water
 quality, explains why BMPs are not always
 implemented  even when legally prescribed, and
 identifies those settings where, even if fully
 implemented. BMPs fail.  Finally, the author
 proposes some administrative and institutional
 reforms designed  to correct these shortcomings.
The  article contains a  review of the water quality
 problems associated with timber harvesting; the
 various statutes relating to forest practices; the
 roles of EPA, the states, and the Forest Service in
 water quality protection; and the effectiveness of
 BMPs. The suggested reforms include
 restructuring incentives to protect environmentally
 sensitive areas and restructuring state water
 quality standards for forestry-related NFS
 pollution.

 Anderson, H.W., M.D. Hoover, and K.G.
 Reinhart. 1976.  Forests and water: Effects of
forest management on floods, sedimentation, and
 water supply. USDA Forest Service. General
 Technical Report PSW-18. 115 pages.

 Andrus, C., and H.A.. Froehlich. 1988. Riparian
 forest development after logging or fire in the
 Oregon Coast Range: Wildlife habitat and timber
 value. In:: Streamside Management: Riparian
 Wildlife and Forestry Interactions. University of
 Washington.  Institute of Forest Resources.  No
 59. pp. 139-151.

 Baumgartner, D.M. (ed).  1981.  Interior west
 watershed management: Proceedings of a
symposium. Spokane, Washington, April 8-10,
 1980.  Washington State University, Cooperative
Extension Service. 288  pages!

Belt, G.H., J. O'Laughlin, and T. Merril. 1992.
Design of forest riparian buffer strips for the
protection of water quality: Analysis of scientific
literature. University of Idaho, Wildlife and
Range Policy Analysis Group Report No. 8. 35
pages.

Borg, H., A. Hordacre, and F. Batini.  1988.
Effects of logging in stream and river buffers on
watercourses and water  quality in the southern
forest of Western Australia.  Australian Forestry
51(98-105).

Brazier, J.R., and G.W. Brown. 1973. Buffer
strips for stream temperature control. Oregon
State University, School of Forestry, Forest
Research Laboratory. Research Paper 15.
                                              211  -

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 Curtis, W.R.  1966. Forest zone helps minimize
 flooding in the Drift!ess Area. Journal of Soil
 and Water Conservation. 21:101- 102.

 Ice, G.G. 1989. Guidelines and approaches for
 forest riparian management:  State forest practice
 rules. In: Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of
 the 1989 Society of American Foresters National
 Convention. Spokane, Washington, pp.  94-98.

 Megahan, W.F. 1983. Appendix C: Guidelines
 for reducing negative  impacts of logging. In:
 Tropical watersheds: Hydrologic and soils
 response to major uses or conversions.  L.S.
 Hamilton and P.N. King (eds.). Westview Press,
 Boulder, Colorado, pp. 143-154.

 Mumper, D.,  D.R. Gibbons, L. Wilson, and
 M.J. Golde. 1987. Best management practices in
 the streamside zone. In: Streamside Management-
 Forestry and Fishery Interactions. University of
 Washington.  E.G. Salo and T.W Cundy (eds.).
 Institute of Forest Resources. No. 57. pp.
 441-457.

 NCASI. 1984. Forestry management practices
 and cumulative effects on water quality and
 utility. National Council of the Paper Industry for
 Air and Stream Improvement. Technical Review
 Bulletin No. 435.

 NCASI. 1987. Managing Oregon's riparian zone
for timber, fish and wildlife.  National Council of
 the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
 Improvement. Technical Bulletin No. 514.

 Payne, N.J., J.C. Feng, and  P.E.  Reynolds.
 1990. Off-target deposits and buffer zones
 required around water for aerial glyphosate
 applications.  Pesticide Science. 30(2): 183-198.

 Payne,  N.J., B.V, Kelson, K.M.S. Sundaram,
 and R.A. Fleming. 1988. Estimating buffer zone
 widths for pesticide applications.  Pesticide
 Science. 24(2): 147-161.

 Robison, E.G., and R.L. Beschta. 1990.
 Identifying trees in riparian areas that can provide
 coarse woody debris to streams.  Forest Science.
 36(3):790-801.                   t

 Salo, E.OV and f .W. Cundy (eds.). 1987.
 Streamside management forestry and fishery
 interactions. College of Forest Resources,
 University of Washington. 471 pages.

 Swank, G.W. 1985. Streamside management units
 in the Pacific Northwest. In: Conference on
 Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management:
 Reconciling Conflicting Uses. USDA Forest
 Service, April 16-18. pp.  435-438.

 USDA Forest Service.  1991. Riparian forest
 buffers: Function and design for protection and
 enhancement of water resources.

 USDA Forest Service and USEPA. 1978.
 Streamside management zone statutes and
 ordinances, criteria and institutional
 arrangements serving water quality objectives on
 state and private forest lands, pp.  10-22.

 Wong, S.L., and R.H.  McCuen.  1981.  The
 design of vegetative buffer strips for runoff and
 sediment control. University of Maryland,
 Department of Civil Engineering.
COSTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BMPs

Cubbage, F.W. 1987. Costs of forest water
quality protection. In: Forestry and Water
Quality: A Policy Workshop for State Foresters.
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July 6-9, 1987.

This paper presents a review of the costs of
forestry NPS controls, including agency
administrative costs, direct costs to landowners or
timber operators (e.g., plan preparation),  and
indirect costs on timber supplies.  Forest practice
costs are reviewed for California, Massachusetts,
Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
The various approaches used by these states and
their effect on implementation cost are analyzed
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as well.  The approach used by forestry and other
agencies for implementing the voluntary or
required practice rules greatly affects the various
costs of program implementation, as well as who
bears the costs.  Criteria used to  select the means
of controlling NFS pollution must include BMP
effectiveness, political and social acceptability,
and economic efficiency.

Cubbage, F.W., and P. Lickwar. 1990.
Estimating the  costs of -water quality protection
on private forest lands in Georgia. Georgia
Forestry Commission,  Research Division.

The purpose of the information presented in this
paper is to  quantify the operational costs of
implementing various forestry best management
practices, with emphasis placed on practices
associated with road  construction. This paper
presents very good cost information on the
following: road construction, stream crossings,
broad-based dips, water bars,'seed, fertilizer,
mulch. The information is useful because the
costs are based  on various physiographic.
classifications (i.e., coastal plain, piedmont, or
mountain).

Curtis, J.G., D.W.  Pelren, D.B. George, V.D.
Adams,  and J.B. Layzer. JL990. Effectiveness of
best management practices in preventing
degradation of streams caused by silvicultural
activities in Pickett State Forest,  Tennessee.
Center for the Management, Utilization and
Protection of Water Resources,  Tennessee
Technological University for the Tennessee
Department of Conservation, Division of
Forestry and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources
Agency. 197 pages.

This study  was  undertaken to evaluate the
effectiveness of BMPs applied to timber harvest
operations in Pickett Forest.  The effects on water
quality, fish production, and macro invertebrates,
and the presence of herbicides in streams  were
studied.  The BMPs employed were SMZs, road
placement on ridgetops and high elevations, skid
trails kept at least 14 m from streams, harvest
during the driest season and maximum soil
stability, logging of small, dispersed stands,
seeding and mulching of disturbed areas,
broad-based dips on the haul road, and a period
of 10 years before the area would be logged
again. Herbicides were applied to two stands.
Hardwoods 75 mm dbh or less were thin line
sprayed with a mixture of Garlon (active
ingredients triclopyr and 2,4-D), Sidekick, and
diesel fuel.  Picloram was injected into all
hardwoods 255 mm dbh or greater.
Concentrations of herbicides in streams following
the treatments was low: 2,4-D @ < 0.02-0.081.
Based on available toxicity data, the levels
detected were not biologically harmful.
However, care is needed during application to
minimize transport to surface waters.  Extensive
data relating to  all of the BMPs employed during
the study are presented in the paper .

Dykstra, D.P., and H.A. Froehlich.  1976.
Costs of stream protection during timber
harvest. Journal of Forestry. 74(10): 684-687.

This article analyzes the cost of three stream
protection alternatives: conventional felling with
channel cleanup; cable- assisted directional
felling; and use of buffer strips.  The study was
conducted along 10  deeply incised headwater
stream channels  in western Oregon. None of the
three alternatives was clearly preferable on a
majority of the study areas.  The least- cost
alternative on four of the areas was a
55-foot-wide buffer  strip ($20.02 to $27.77 per
MBF).  On three of the remaining areas,
conventional felling was the least expensive
($20.83 to $23.97 per MBF), and on the other
three, cable-assisted directional felling was the
least expensive  ($18.79 to $26.30 per  MBF).

EHefson, P.V., and P.D. Miles. 1984.
Economic implications of managing nonpoint
forest source of water pollutants: A midwestern
perspective.  In: Mountain Logging Symposium
Proceedings. West Virginia University, June
5-7,  1984. P.A. Peters and J. Luchok (eds.).
pp. 107-119.

Economic evaluations of 6 forest practices
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designed to enhance water quality from 18 timber
harvesting operations in the Midwest were carried
out. Net revenue reductions ranged from 1.2%
with redesign of landing and skid trail locations to
26.4% with buffer'strip requirements. Nine
operations were profitable with application of all
six practices.  Limited production function
information hinders such analyses.

Heede, B.H. 1990. Vegetation strips control
erosion in watersheds. Research Note RM-499.
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station.

An analysis was conducted on data collected to
determine the effects of vegetation strips on
erosion control. The data was collected
fromsouthwestern ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-
juniper, and chaparral.  In the ponderosa pine, 61
times more sediment was delivered when.buffer
strips were missing. This factor  was 18 and 277
for pinyon-juniper and chaparral, respectively.
Overland flow was also diminished from areas
with buffer strips.  No statistical  analysis was
conducted on the data.  .

House, R., and V. Crispen. 1990. Economic
analyses of the value of large woody debris as
salmonid habitat in coastal Oregon streams.
Technical Note OR-7:6512. USDI, Bureau of
Land Management, Portland OR. 11 pages.

Three woody debris loading levels that result
from different riparian management practices
were analyzed in two stream reaches in the upper
Nestucca River drainage, Oregon. The analysis
included estimating  summer juvenile populations
of coho salmon, steelhead, and cutthroat trout and
estimating the value of conifers in riparian zones
for anadromous fish were compared to maximum
timber harvest to determine the benefits of
maintaining riparian vegetation to supply high
levels of woody debris.  The benefits  of
maintaining 2 km of stream at high levels  (11.0
pieces per 100 m of stream) would be 11% higher
within 20  years and 59% higher (an increase of
over SI00.000 in present value) after  94 years
over conifer stumpage in the riparian  zone..
Long-term, economic benefits were found to be
substantially higher for streams managed with
high levels of woody debris.

Lickwar, P.M., C.A. Hickman, and F.W.
Cubbage. 1991. Costs of protecting water
quality during harvesting on private forestlands
in the Southeast.  Southern Journal of Applied
Forestry.

Data on harvest volum.es, topography, and other
site and area characteristics were obtained from
22 private forest timber harvests  in Alabama,
Florida, and Georgia. An economic analysis was
then used to estimate the marginal costs of
implementing  each state's  recommended BMPs
and a set of "enhanced" BMPs that offered
increased water quality protection.  Collectively,
the costs of using the recommended BMPs
averaged 2.9% of gross timber sale revenue,
$2.34 per 1000 board feet (MBF) of timber
harvested, or $12.45 per acre.  The cost of
implementing  enhanced BMPs averaged 5.1% of
gross stumpage value, $4.13 per  MBF, or $21.94
per acre.  Seed, fertilizer,  and mulch;
broad-based dips; and water bars were the most
expensive practices on a total cost basis.  Culvert
installation, SMZs, and road relocation were less
expensive for  most tracts.  A literature review of
related studies is provided. Site location maps,
site characteristics (physiographic, size, harvest
method) are also given, and the economic analysis
breaks the sites down by topography and BMPs
implemented.  This is one  of the  few studies
available on forestry BMP implementation costs.

Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1981.
Effectiveness of best management practices in
controlling nonpoint pollution from commercial
ciearcuts. In:  Nonpoint Pollution Control - Tools
and Techniques for the Future,  Proceedings of a
Technical Symposium, pp. 213-224.

This paper reports an evaluation of the
effectiveness of Pennsylvania's BMPs for
controlling NFS pollution on public and private
forestlands.  This study was done following a
commercial clearcut in central Pennsylvania.  The
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 paired watershed method was used to evaluate
 changes in water quality and quantity. The
 commercial clearcut produced a water yield
 increase of 5.39 area- inches the first year
 following cutting. Stream turbidity on the
 clearcut watershed was generally higher than that
 on the control watershed prior to cutting,  and no
 major increase in turbidity occurred as a result of
 cutting.  No serious channel  erosion was found on
 the clearcut watershed.  Increases in stream
 temperature were generally slight. The authors
 conclude that the BMPs required in Pennsylvania
 are sufficient to  control NFS pollution during and
 following logging.

 Lynch, J.A.,  and E.S. Corbett. 1990.
 Evaluation of best managefnerit practices for
 controlling nonpoint pollution  from silvicultural
 operations.  Water Resources Bulletin.
 26(l):41-52.

 Fifteen years of streamflow  and water quality data
 were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of
 BMPs in controlling nonpoint source .pollution
 from a 110-acre commercial  clearcut located  in
 the Ridge and Valley Province of central
 Pennsylvania. In general, the BMPs analyzed
 effectively reduced water quality impacts
 associated with timber harvest. Although some
 increases in water quality constituents were
 observed, most were well below the drinking
 water standards  although they may violate EPAs
 antidegradation policy.  The  authors suggest that
 buffer strips of unharvested timber provided the
 most protection  to the streams ajid that improved
' performance may be possible through annual
 inspections and increasing the width of buffer
 strips if necessary.  The information presented in
 this report demonstrates the potential for
 reductions in nonpoint source pollution possible
 with various BMPs.

 Mormon, D.  1993. Riparian rules effectiveness
 study. Forest  Practices Program, Oregon
 Department of  Forestry. 198 pages  +
 appendices.

 The purpose of this report is to present the Forest
Practices Program's Riparian Rule effectiveness
study. The report describes the data collected for
the study and provides an evaluation of the data.
The study surveyed the pre- and post- operation
stream and riparian conditions of Class I and n
stream within or adjacent to 33 typical harvest
units throughout Oregon. The primary focus of
the data collection was to measure the resource
protection provided on Class I streams through
application of the rules, and to provide
information oh the costs and benefits of the
program.  The major conclusions presented in the
report are as follows: 1) Class II streams
experienced greater shade reduction as a result of
harvesting than Class I streams; 2) existing '
quantities of aquatic coarse woody debris were
not affected by harvesting, however, in western
Oregon the future supply of woody debris was
significantly reduced through the harvest of
streamside trees;  3) harvesting resulted in minor
reductions in snag density; 4) the projected net
volume of timber retained annually on Oregons
private and local government lands to meet Class
I stream protection equals slightly more than 1%
of annual harvest on those lands;  5) the
application of riparian rules generally resulted in
Class I stream protection that maintained
pfe-operation vegetative condition; and 6) timber
retained after harvest in riparian management
areas  tends to be trees having lower volume and
value.    "s                                 :

Phillips, J.  1989. Nonpoint source pollution
control effectiveness of riparian forests along a
coastal plain river.  Journal of Hydrology.
110:221-237.

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the  .
NPS pollution control effectiveness of riparian
environments in the lower Tar River basin, North
Carolina.  Soil map units, representing specific
combinations of soil, topography, and vegetation
characteristics, are compared in terms of their
relative ability to  filter nitrate in agricultural
runoff.  A typical riparian forest provides
significant water quality protection, but there is
wide variation in  buffer effectiveness.  A range of
15-80 m is appropriate for the soil-landform-
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 vegetation complexes found in the study area
 riparian zones, and buffer widths of 60 m, and
 often much less, are generally adequate on the
 soils likely to be used for agricultural production.
 The author analyzes the effectiveness of buffer
 widths using a detention-time model and explains
 the model's development and application.

 Clinnick, P.P. 1985. Buffer strip management in
 forest operations: a review. Australian Forestry.
 Dykstra, D.P., and H.A. Froehlich. 1976. Stream
 protection: What does it cost? Loggers
 Handbook. Pacific Logging Congress,  Portland,
 Oregon.

 Ellefson. P.V., and P.D. Miles. 1985. Protecting
 water quality in the Midwest: Impact on timber
 harvesting costs.  Northern Journal of Applied
 Forestry. 2:57-61.

 Erman, D.C., J.D. Newbold, and K.B. Roby.
 1977. Evaluation of streamside buffer strips for
protecting aquatic organisms. California Water
 Resources Center, University of California,
 Davis, California. 48 pages.

 Irland, L.C. Streamside protective corridors:
 Techniques for weighing costs and benefits. Paper
presented a: IUFRO World Forestry Research
 Congress: Draft.  Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, 1986. 28
 pages.

 Lickwar. P.M. 1984. Estimating the costs of
 water quality protection on private forest lands in
 the south. Master's Thesis, University of Georgia.

 Lynch, J.A., and E.S. Corbett. 1989.
 Effectiveness of BMP's  in controlling nonpoint
 pollution from silvicultural operations.  In:
 Proceedings of the Symposium on Headwaters
 Hydrology. American Water Resources  -
 Association, Bethesda, Maryland, pp.  149-157.

 N'CASI. 1987. Managing Oregon's riparian zone
for timber, fish and wildlife. National Council of
the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
Improvement. Technical Bulletin No. 514.

NCASI.  1988. Procedures for assessing the
effectiveness of Best Managements Practices in
protecting water and stream quality associated
with managed forests. National Council of the
Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement.
Technical Bulletin No. 538.  23 pages.

Olsen, E.D., D.S. Keough,  and D.K. LaCourse.
1987. Economic impact of proposed Oregon
Forest Practices Rules on industrial forest lands
in the Oregon Coast Range: A case study. Oregon
State University, College of Forestry, Forest
Research Laboratory. Research Bulletin 61. 15
pages.
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                                      9. WETLANDS
IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY

Askew, G.R., and T.M. Williams. 1984.
Sediment concentrations from intensively
prepared wetland sites.  Southern Journal of
Applied Forestry. 8(3):152-157.

This study was designed to evaluate the drainage
and conversion process used by a major forest
industry and to determine which aspect of the
conversion process, if any, was a primary source
of sediment.  Suspended sediment concentrations
were measured in water draining from a
5,900-acre Carolina bay undejgoing conversion to
loblolly pine plantations.  Samples were collected
during the first stormflow event of each month
between January 1981 and December 1982 from
sub watersheds involved in some of several phases
of conversion.  Suspended sediment concentration .
in water  leaving the bay averaged only 16 mg/1
for 13 storms.  Road erosion and ditch installation
produced the highest suspended sediment
concentrations.  Suspended sediment
concentrations decreased substantially with
increasing distance from the sediment source.
Logging and  site preparation activities did not
cause an appreciable increase in suspended
sediment when equipment did not operate in the
drainage ditches. This study indicates that main
haul roads and new drainage ditches are the
sources of much of the increased suspended
sediments found in drainage from managed forests
in the lower coastal plain. The authors conclude
that the impact of these activities can be .
minimized by using a drainage system that
contains  a length of main channel between
sediment sources and sensitive areas.

Askew, G.R., and  T.M. Williams. 1986. Water
quality changes due to site conversion in coastal
South Carolina. Southern Journal of Applied
Forestry. 10(3):134-136.

A study was  conducted to evaluate the effects of
the drainage and conversion process on water
quality.  Dissolved oxygen and pH concentrations
were higher in the converted watershed drainage
than in the hardwood drainage; nitrate, total
phosphorus, and potassium concentrations did not
differ significantly.  The authors concluded that
rapid installation of drainage ditches is the most
important aspect of conversion to avoid water
quality degradation.

Bartuska, A.M. 1993. USDA Forest Service
wetlands research. Journal of Forestry
91(5):25-28.

This article reviews current wetlands research
efforts of the USFS by region.  The importance
of wetland and riparian areas as habitat for
salmonids (Intermountain Region), watershed
studies and hydrologic budgets (Northeast
Region), riparian habitat restoration (Pacific
Northwest Region), and buffer strips (Southern
Region) are examples of current research efforts.
Future efforts in forest wetlands research are
expected to focus on filling the gaps in
understanding wetland structure and function,
ecosystem processes, restoration and
rehabilitation, wetland management, quantifying
the socioeconomic value of wetlands, and the
landscape role of wetlands.   These are briefly
discussed as well.

Howard, R.J., and J.A. Alien. 1989.
Streamside habitats in southern forested
wetlands: Their role and implications for
management. In: Proceedings  of the
Symposium: Forested Wetlands of the Southern
United States. Orlando, Florida, July 12-14,
1988. USDA Forest Service. General Technical
Report SE-50. pp. 97-106.

This paper summarizes recent literature
concerning the value of streamside forested
wetlands of the Southern United States as fish and
wildlife habitat.  The role of wetlands in
providing fish spawning and nursery habitat
during inundation, protecting water quality, and
supplying cover and food to channel-dwelling fish
is described.   Habitat edge and vegetation
composition and structural complexity for wildlife
are examined, as well as the effects  of soil
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moisture and proximity of permanent surface
water on wildlife species distribution.  Lastly,
management practices and recommended widths
for forested streamside buffer zones are also
presented.

Neary, D.G., N.B. Comerford, and L.W.
Swift. Land  and riparian interactions with
sediment in the southern United States. In:
Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.

This paper presents a review of the literature and
includes the following: a synthesis of research
results in current literature on buffer zones,
determining the utility of buffer zones in
protecting forested wetlands and surface waters
from the sediment nonpoint source pollution
impacts of silvicultural operations, and identifying
information gaps and research needs. Some
review information from studies on the protection
afforded  by buffer strips is presented.

Riekerk, H.  1983. Environmental impacts of
intensive silviculture in Florida (forest soil
degradation, water quality, watersheds). In:
LU.F.R.O. Symposium on Forest Site and
Continuous Productivity. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Forest and Range
Experiment Station. General Technical Report
PNW-163. pp. 264-271.

Runoff and water quality from two different
timber harvest practices, minimum and maximum
disturbance, were compared to an undisturbed
flatwood watershed.  Significantly greater water
yield was observed for both treatments, with the
greatest increase in the maximum  disturbance
treatment.  Water yield increases lasted for a
single year,  As with water yield,  the greatest
degradation in water quality was observed from
the maximum disturbance treatment although the
impact was also  of short duration. The author
concludes that silvicultural activities in flatwoods
would not result in any long-term  degradation of
water quality.
Riekerk, H. 19S3. Impacts of silviculture on
flatwoods runoff, water quality, and nutrient
budgets.  Water Resources Bulletin. 19(1)73-80.

Runoff and water quality from two different
timber harvest practices, minimum and maximum
disturbance, were compared to an undisturbed
flatwood watershed.  The maximum disturbance
consisted of machine harvesting, slash burning,
windrowing, bedding, and machine planting and
the minimum disturbance treatment included
manual harvesting, slash chopping, bedding, and
machine planting.  Significantly greater water
yield was observed for both treatments, with the
greatest increase in the maximum disturbance
treatment.  Water yield increases lasted for a
single year. As with water yield, the greatest
degradation in water quality was observed from
the maximum disturbance treatment although the
impact was also of short duration.  The author
concludes that silvicultural activities in flatwoods
would  not result in any long-term degradation of
water quality.

Riekerk, H. 1989. Influence of silvicultural
practices on the hydrology of pine flatwoods in
Florida. Water Resources Research.
25(4):713-710.

This paper  reports the results of a study of
different intensities of silvicultural practices on
the hydrologic processes and water balances of
pine flatwoods in Florida. Slash pine flatwoods
in diked watersheds were harvested and
regenerated with high and low levels of
disturbance.  One watershed received machine
harvesting, slash burning, windrowing, bedding,
and machine planting, which cause high
disturbance; a second watershed received manual
harvesting, slash chopping, bedding, and machine
planting, which cause low disturbance.  Water
regimes of  these watersheds were compared with
an undisturbed control watershed. Water table
levels were higher after harvest because of
reduced evapotranspiration. The differences in
water table levels due to treatment were more
pronounced at deeper soil depths. Daily runoff
during the first year increased somewhat in
proportion to the area clearcut in each watershed.
Runoff from the high-disturbance watershed was
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predicted to return to normal after 11 years.  A
severe drought that occurred during the study on
the low-disturbance watershed caused a very slow
recovery of the hydrologic regime.  It took a full
year of normal rainfall to restore runoff patterns.
High-disturbance site preparation resulted in  many
windrows oriented toward the drainages, less
resistance to surface runoff, and some compaction
of normally wet soils, resulting in less infiltration
and more storm flow.  The study demonstrates
that silvicultural practices in coastal zone pine
flatwoods significantly affect the hydrology.

Riekerk, H. 1985. Water quality effects  of pine
flatwoods silviculture. Journal of Soil and
Water Conservation. 40(3):306- 308.

This study was done to assess the impacts  of
intensive silvicultural management practices on
nonpoint source pollution in Florida's poorly
drained pine flatwoods. Three watersheds in the
flatwoods region of north central Florida were
monitored for 6 years.  Three treatments were
, imposed during the second year: harvest with
minimum disturbance and site preparation, harvest
with maximum disturbance and site preparation,
and an undisturbed control.  The minimum
treatment included manual shortwood harvesting,
slash chopping,  soil bedding, and machine
planting. The maximum treatment included
machine tree-length harvesting, slash burning,
windrowing, soil bedding, and machine planting.
There were small but significant increases  in pH,
suspended sediment, Ca, and K, proportional to
the degree of disturbance during the treatment
year.  Only K and Ca levels remained significant
during the first posttreatment year.  The author
concludes that minimum disturbance practices
with protective stream management zones will
minimize NFS pollution.

Riekerk, H., D.G. Neary, and W.J. Swank.
 1989. The magnitude of upland silviculture
nonpoint source pollution in the south. In:
Proceedings of the Symposium on the Forested
 Wetlands of the Southern United States.
Orlando, Florida, July 12-14, 1988. USDA
 Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment
 Station. General Technical  Report SE-50.  pp.
 8-18.
Streamflow water quality data from intensive
silvicultural practices in the southern United
States are summarized and discussed with respect
to regional differences of nonpoint source
pollution; and BMPs.  Suspended sediment
production by silviculture was low in the
mountains and lower coastal plain, but high in the
Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions.  This
was due to a  combination of site preparation
intensity and  topographic relief.  Nutrient exports
in the Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions
were controlled by the degree of soil disturbance
and by the recovery rate of vegetation.  Nutrient
exports in the lower coastal plain were not much
affected by intensive silviculture. Research is
needed on the effects of silvicultural practices in
wetlands and on the actual effectiveness of BMPs.
Research and analyses of cumulative effects are
also needed to determine the impacts of multiple
silvicultural practices on downstream wetlands.

USDA, Forest  Service. 1989.  Proceedings of
the symposium: The forested wetlands of the
southern United States. Orlando, Florida, July
12-14, 1988. USDA Forest Service, Southeast
Forest Experiment Station. General Technical
Report SE-50. 168 pages.

The proceedings report  contains 25 papers
presented at the symposium, which concern
nonpoint source pollution, and the protection and
management  of forested wetlands.  The following
five general categories are covered: (1) nonpoint
sources of pollution and the functions and values
of wetlands,  (2) BMPs for forested wetlands, (3)
streamside management strategies, (4) sensitive
areas management,  and  (5) balancing BMPs and  •
water quality standards for feasibility, economic,
and functional effectiveness. The papers
presented at the symposium provide extremely
useful information for managers and regulatory
personnel on a  variety of forested wetland issues.

Verry, E.S.  1986.  Forest harvesting and water:
The Lake states experience.  Water Resources
Bulletin. 22(6):1039-1047.

This a summary of forest harvest and water
quality in the Lakes states is separated into
wetlands and uplands.  Harvesting of timber from
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 natural peatlands will not adversely affect
 streamflow and water quality if conducted on
 frozen ground; however, increased water table
 fluctuations will result.  In uplands, streamflow
 increases upon clearcut and returns to preharvest
 levels within 15 years. Water quality impairment
 and habitat destruction can be minimized if stream
 channels are avoided. More than 30 references to
 studies conducted hi the Lake states are included.

 Walbridge, M.R. 1993. Functions and values of
 forested wetlands in the southern United States.
 Journal of Forestry. 91(5):15-19.

 This article quantifies the values of southern
 forested wetlands. The abundance and distribution
 of southern forested wetlands are described (e.g.,
 67% are along narrow stream" margins, 8% are in
 deepwater swamps, 11 % are in floodplain forests
 along major rivers).  Based on area, an important
 component of southern forested wetlands lines
 narrow stream margins and small drainage ways.
 The pollution  control benefits of these areas must
 be understood as development continues in the
 South.  The ability of southern forested wetlands
 to improve the quality of surface, subsurface, and
 ground waters is one of their  most important
 values.  Through a review of published studies,
 the nutrient removal function  of southern forested
 wetlands is discussed, with additional reference to
 their hydrologic and biogeochemical functions.
 Based on this  information, the author suggests
 that southern forested wetlands have an important
 place in forest management, and management
 practices should minimize damage to the functions
 they perform.

 Williams, T.M. 1989. Site preparation on
 forested wetlands of the southeastern coastal
 plain. In: Proceedings of the Symposium  on the
 Forested Wetlands of the Southern  United States.
 Orlando, Florida, July 12-14, 1988. USDA
 Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment
 Station. General Technical Report SE-50. pp.
 67-71.

 A  general discussion of site preparation objectives
and site preparation techniques for pine and
hardwood forests in the Southeastern United
States is presented. Only a qualitative review of
 some of the impacts from different treatments is
 provided.

 Williams, T.M., and G.R. Askew. 1988.
 Impact of drainage and site conversion of
 pocosin lands on water quality. In: The Ecology
 and Management of Wetlands,  Volume 2:
 Management, Use and Value of Wetlands.
 Hook et al. (eds.). pp. 213-218.

 This  study was conducted to determine whether
 drainage, or logging and site preparation, of
 forested wetlands would result in increases hi
 nutrient and suspended sediment. The authors
 found increases in suspended sediment and nitrate
 concentrations; however, the increases were not
 statistically significant. This paper presents the
 effects of drainage on water quality, but only
 limited data are presented and no real conclusions
 are offered.

 Allen, H.L., and R.G. Campbell. 1988. Wet site
 pine management in the southeastern United
 States. In:  The Ecology and Management of
 Wetlands, Volume 2: Management, Use and Value
 of Wetlands. Hook et al., ((eds)). Timber Press,
 Portland, Oregon,  pp. 173-184.

 Ewel, K.C. 1985. Effects of harvesting cypress
 swamps on water quality and quantity. Water
 Resources Research Center, University of
 Florida, Department of Forestry. Publication No.
 87. 49 pages.

 Gregory, J.D. 1988. Hydrologic impacts of forest
 water management. In: The Ecology and
Management of Wetlands,  Volume 2:
Management, Use and Value of Wetlands.  Hook
et al.  (eds.). Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp.
 137-147.

Kuenzler, E.J. 1989. Value of forested wetlands
as filters for sediments and nutrients. In:
Proceedings of the Symposium on the Forested
Wetlands of the Southern United  States. Orlando,
Florida, July 12-14, 1988. USDA Forest Service,
Southeast Forest Experiment Station. General
Technical Report SE-50. pp. 85-96.
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 McGarity, R.W. 1979. Ten year results of
 thinning and clearcutting in a muck swamp timber
 type.  Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
 3:64-67.

 Riekerk, J., A.C. Mace, D.G. Neary, and B.F,
 Swindel.  1986. Hydrologic responses to forest
 management in pine flatwoods and Florida's
 water. In: Proceedings-Soil and Crop Science
 Society of Florida. 45:163-169.

 Swindel,  B.F., C.J. Lassiter, and H. Riekerk.
 1983. Effects of different harvesting and site
 preparation operations on the peak flows of
 streams in Pinus elliotii flatwoods forests. Forest
 Ecology and Management. 5:77-86.

 Swindel,  B.F., C.J. Lassiter, and H. Riekerk.
 .1983. Effects of clearcutting and site preparation
 on stormflow volumes of streams in  Pinus elliotii
 flatwoods forests.  Forest Ecology and
 Management. 5:245-253.
 BMPs AND SPECIFICATIONS

 NCASI. 1990. Best management practices for
 forest wetlands: Concerns,  assessment,
 regulations, and research.  National Council of
 the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
 Improvement. Technical Review Bulletin No.
 583.

 NCASI has established a forest wetland research
 program designed to identify forest management
 practices compatible with other wetland 'functions.
.* This technical bulletin is a collection of papers
 that address concerns about forest  wetland
 management, assessment techniques to evaluate
 wetland functions and values, industry programs
 designed to address wetland function protection,
 and opportunities for cooperative research.
 Sample paper titles include: The NCASI Forested
 Wetlands Environmental Research Program; EPA
 Region 4 Guidance on Agricultural and
 Silvicultural Exemptions; Integrating the North
 American Waterfowl Management Plan into
Forest Management; EPA's Environmental
Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP);
Determining the Cumulative Effects of Forested
Wetlands: EPA's Research Program, and Choices
for Research and Monitoring Designs; Wetlands
Harvesting; Opportunities for Cooperative
Research on Forest Management and Wejtland
Function; Forested Wetlands Research  in the
Forest Service and Coordination with Other
Researchers.

Riekerk, H., D.G. Neary, and WJ. Swank.
1989. The magnitude of upland silviculture
nonpoint source pollution in the south. In:
Proceedings of the Symposium on the Forested
Wetlands of the Southern  United States.
Orlando, Florida, July 12-14, 1988. USDA
Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment
Station. General  Technical Report SE-50. pp.
8-18.

Streamflow water quality data from intensive
silvicultural practices in the southern United
States are summarized and discussed with respect
to regional differences of nonpoint source
pollution, and BMPs.  Suspended sediment
production by silviculture was low in the
mountains and lower coastal plain, but high in the
Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions.  This
was  due to a combination of site preparation
intensity and topographic relief.  Nutrient exports
in the Piedmont and upper coastal plain regions
were controlled by the degree of soil disturbance
and by the recovery rate of vegetation.  Nutrient
exports in the lower coastal plain were not much
affected by intensive silviculture. Research is
needed on the effects of silvicultural practices in
wetlands and on the actual effectiveness of BMPs.
Research and analyses of cumulative effects are
also needed to determine the impacts of multiple
silvicultural practices on downstream wetlands.
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USDA, Forest Service. 1989. Proceedings of
the symposium: The forested wetlands of the
southern United States. Orlando, Florida, July
12-14, 1988. USDA Forest Service, Southeast
Forest Experiment Station. General Technical
Report SE-50. 168 pages.

The proceedings report contains 25 papers
presented at the symposium, which concern
nonpoint source pollution, and the protection and
management of forested wetlands. The following
five general categories are covered: (1) nonpoint
sources of pollution and the functions and values
of wetlands, (2) BMPs for forested wetlands, (3)
streamside  management strategies, (4) sensitive
areas management, and (5) balancing BMPs and
water quality standards for feasibility, economic,
and functional effectiveness. The papers
presented at the symposium provide extremely
useful information for managers and regulatory
personnel on a variety of forested wetland issues.

Windsor, C.L. 1989. Recommended
management practices for  forested wetlands
road construction.  In: Proceedings of the
Symposium on the Forested Wetlands of the
Southern United States. Orlando, Florida, July
12-14, 1988. USDA Forest Service, Southeast
Forest Experiment Station. General Technical
Report SE-50. pp.  51-53.

This paper  reviews  15 provisions of section 404
of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  The
provisions must be met for construction of forest
roads  in wetlands without a  permit. BMPs
developed by the states of Georgia, Florida, and
South Carolina that  relate to wetland road
construction are also reviewed.  An example of
road construction and the BMPs used during the
construction is discussed. Three management
practices that should be avoided include (1)
pushing fill material into small streams, thinking
that it will be removed during the next wet season
after logging has been completed; (2) inadequate
size or wrong placement of  culverts; and  (3) use
of a long fill with an inadequate number of
culverts or  culverts placed at the wrong height.
Grading roads flat and leaving the berm along the
outside edges of the road should be avoided.  A
suggestion is given for preventing beavers from
stopping up  culverts (a common problem in the
south).

Allen, H.L., and R.G. Campbell. 1988. Wet site
pine management in the southeastern United
States. In: The Ecology and Management of
Wetlands, Volume 2: Management,  Use and Value
of Wetlands. Hook et al. (eds). Timber Press,
Portland, Oregon, pp. 173-184.

Lea, R. 1988. Management of eastern United
States bottomland hardwood forests. In: The
Ecology and Management of Wetlands, Volume 2:
Management, Use and Value of Wetlands. Hook
et al. (eds.). Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp.
185-194.

McGarity, R.W. 1979. Ten year  results of
thinning and clearcutting in a muck swamp timber
type. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry.
3:64-67.

Terwilliger,  V.J., and K.C. Ewel. 1986.
Regeneration and growth after logging Florida
pond cypress domes.  Forest Science. 32(2):
493-506.
COSTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BMPs

Cubbage, F.W., M.A. Elfner, and T.G.
Harris, Jr. 1991. Economic values of forested
wetlands. In: Southern Forest Economics
Workers Meeting. Washington, DC, February
20-22, 1991. 14 pages.

The economic value of forested wetlands was
calculated through market analysis and a
cost-benefit analysis to determine whether a
policy of protecting wetlands from destruction is
warranted. This unbiased approach to the
wetland issue bridges the gap between
conservationists and timber harvesters by
assigning monetary values to the market
evaluation of wetland forest products. Despite
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these calculations, the author concludes that
overall wetland protection will be determined by
political, not economic, criteria.

NCASI. 1990. Best management practices for
forest wetlands: Concerns,  assessment,
regulations, and research.  National Council of
the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
Improvement. Technical Review Bulletin No.
583.

NCASI has  established a forest wetland research
program designed to identify forest management
practices compatible with other wetland functions.
This technical bulletin is  a collection of papers
that address concerns about forest wetland
management, assessment techniques to evaluate
wetland functions and values, industry programs
designed to  address wetland function protection,
and opportunities for cooperative research.
Sample paper titles include: The NCASI Forested
Wetlands Environmental  Research Program; EPA
Region 4 Guidance on Agricultural and
Silvicultural Exemptions; Integrating the North
American Waterfowl Management Plan into
Forest Management; EPA's Environmental
Monitoring  and Assessment,Program (EMAP);
Determining the Cumulative Effects of Forested
Wetlands: EPA's Research Program, and Choices
for Research and Monitoring Designs; Wetlands
Harvesting; Opportunities for Cooperative
Research on Forest Management and Wetland
Function; Forested Wetlands Research  in the
Forest Service and Coordination with Other
Researchers.

 Neary, D.G., N.B.  Comerford, and L.W.
 Swift. Land and riparian interactions with
sediment in the southern  United States. In:
 Proceedings of Technical  Workshop on
 Sediments.  CorvalHs, Oregon, February 3-7,
 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 and USD A Forest Service.

 This paper  presents  a review of the literature and
 includes the following: a synthesis of research
 results in current literature on buffer zones,  '
 determining the utility of buffer zones in
protecting forested wetlands and surface waters
from the sediment nonpoint source pollution
impacts of silvicultural operations, and identifying
information gaps and research needs.  Some
review information from studies on the protection
afforded by buffer strips is presented.
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                                     10. MODELING
MODELING WATER QUALITY IMPACTS

Basak, N., and JJ.C. Picot. 1984. Lagrangian
simulation of forest pesticide spray dispersion
and deposition. In: Proceedings of Symposium
on the Future Role of Aviation in Agriculture.
P.W. Voisey (ed).

A Monte Carlo technique using Lagrangian
trajectory calculation for the motion of suspended
droplets in the atmosphere was used to calculate
aerial spray droplet dispersion in the atmosphere
and subsequent deposition on foliage and the
ground.  This is a highly technical paper
describing the physics  of deposition and
dispersion of aerially-applied pesticides.

Beasley, D.B., and D.L. Thomas. 1989.
Application of water quality models for
agricultural and forested watersheds. University
of Georgia, Agricultural Engineering
Department. Southern Cooperative Series
Bulletin No. 338. 116 pages.

The information presented in this report covers
three main objectives of the initial research: (1) to
evaluate, compare, and test existing
hydrologic/water quality models for use in
simulating the effects of forestry and agricultural
practices on the quality, quantity, and utilization
of surface and subsurface  waters; (2) to modify,
develop,  and/or adapt process models of water,
sediment, and chemical transport for surface and
subsurface flow; and (3) to assemble selected
water quality and quantity data from existing
facilities for use in model  evaluation and
comparison. This is a  summary paper on the
strengths, limitations, and past uses of several
well-known models.

Berry, J.D. 1975. Modeling the impact of
logging debris in streams. In: Proceedings of
the Watershed Management Symposium. Logan,
Utah, August 11-13, 1975. American Society of
Civil Engineers, Division of Irrigation and
Drainage, pp. 676-680.
This paper describes a dissolved oxygen balance
model that would enable foresters to predict the
on-site and downstream impact of debris loading
and to locate areas where residue removal is
necessary or alternate harvest techniques should
be used.

Bilanin, A J., M.E. Teske, J.W. Barry, and
R.B. Ekblad.  1989. AGDISP: The aircraft
spray dispersion model, code development, and
experimental validation.  Transactions of the
American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
32(l):327-334.

The USDA FS and the DOD Atmospheric
Sciences Laboratory have continued the
development of the AGDISP (AGricultural
DISPersal) computer code which predicts the
deposition of material released from helicopters or
fixed-wing aircraft.  The features of the code are
reviewed and the predictive capability of the code
is assessed by comparison with field test data.
Code applications and  limitations are also
discussed.

Bilanin, A.J., M.E. Teske, J.W.  Barry, and
R.B.  Ekblad.  1990. USDA Forest Service aerial
spray dispersion models AGDISP and FSCBG.
I. Model validation. In: Pesticides in the Next
Decade: The Challenges Ahead, Proceedings of
the 3rd  Nat'I Research Conference on Pesticides.
November 8-9, 1990. D.L Weigmann (ed.).

The idealized flow field models that form the
basis for the USDA FS aerial spray dispersion
models AGDISP  and FSCBG are reviewed. This
is a technical paper that presents the equations
that form the basis of the model.
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Bilanin, A.J., M.E. Teske, J.W. Barry, and
R.B. Ekblad. 1990. USDA Forest Service aerial
spray dispersion models AGDISP and FSCBG.
II. Model validation. In: Pesticides in the Next
Decade: The Challenges Ahead,  Proceedings of
the 3rd Nat'l Research Conference on Pesticides.
November 8-9, 1990. D.L. Weigmann (ed.).

The suite of field measurements that form the
basis for the USDA FS aerial spray dispersion
models AGDISP and FSCBG are reviewed. This
model comparison perspective summarizes the
current model validation efforts undertaken by the
USDA FS in the-areas of data collection and
comparison with existing models, and
improvements to the models.

Bruce, R.R., L.A. Harper,- R.A. Leonard,
W.M. Snyder, and A.W. Thomas. 1975. A
model for runoff of pesticides from small
upland watersheds. Journal of Environmental
Quality. 4(4):541-548.

A mathematical model was developed describing
the rate and quantity of runoff water from
separate rainfall events on a watershed and the
rate and quantity of sediment and pesticides
transported.  Excellent simulations were obtained.

Bush, P.B.,  D.G. Neary, J.W. Taylor, and
J.G.  Dowd.  1991. Use of computer models to
evaluate potential herbicide runoff from
silvicultural operations. In: Proceedings of the
Sixth  Biennial Southern Silvicultural  Research
Conference.  , October 30 - November 1, 1990.
USDA Forest Service, Southeast Forest
Experiment  Station, General Technical Report
SE-70-650-6581

The increased use of herbicides in forestry
throughout the South  in the past decade has
generated a need for tools to assess the
 environmental fate and impacts of these chemicals
 in forested watersheds.  A variety of
 environmental simulation models, ranging from
 simple empirical models to coniplex process
 models are presented.  These models are very
 useful in selecting among  alternative herbicides
 based on environmental considerations and in
 guiding the development of monitoring plans.
Cline, R., G. Cole, W. Megahan, R. Patten,
and J. Potyondy. 1981. Guide for predicting
sediment yields from forested watersheds. USDA
Forest Service, Northern Region and
Intermountain Region.

A sediment yield prediction procedure was
developed by a work group composed of soil
scientists, hydrologists, and watershed specialists
of the Forest Service Northern Region,
Intermountain Region, and the Intermountain
Forest and Range Experiment Station (R1/R4).
This is a detailed document that contains basic
information which has been used extensively in
sediment transport model development.

Dissmeyer, G.E., and G.R. Foster. Modifying
the universal soil loss equation for forest land.

The subfactor approach to the Universal Soil Loss
Equation (USLE) was used  to develop a
procedure for estimating cover-management (C)
factor values for eastern forest conditions.  The
subfactor approach allows one to estimate erosion
systematically for new situations where no data
are available, based on an evaluation of
site-specific conditions. The major subfactors
operating in many forests are (1) amount of bare
soil, (2) canopy, (3) soil reconsolidation, (4) high
organic matter content, (5)  fine roots, (6) residual
binding effect, (7) onsite storage, (8) steps,  and
(9) contour tillage.  Each of these is discussed in
this chapter. The approach  for the adaption of the
USLE to eastern forest conditions is summarized;
The method should be useful for adaptation of the
USLE to other situations.

Falletti, D.A. 1977. Sediment  prediction in
wildland environments: A review. In:
Proceedings of National Conference on Soil
Erosion. Purdue University, West Lafayette,
IN, May 24-26, 1976. pp.  183-192.

This paper presents a  review of sediment
. prediction tools assessed by the Forest Service.
The sediment prediction tools were reviewed
based on their relation to forest and rangeland
 applications. The review information suggested
that the models used by field scientists lagged
behind those used by research and academic
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communities.  The author listed the following
characteristics that predictive sediment models
should contain: modular in structure within a
comprehensive framework; predict sediment
loadings from all stream orders, but particularly
first order; facilitate comparative evaluation of
alternatives; represent time and probability
variables; represent spatial variability of
conditions and activities within a diverse
landscape; utilize available or readily obtainable
data; and be available for use by field-level
scientists and be compatible with the
decision-making process.

Fausch, K.D., C.L. Hawkes, and M.G.
Parsons. 1988. Models that predict standing crop
of stream fish from habitat variables: 1950-1985.
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest
Research Station. General Technical Report
PNW-GTR-213. 52 pages.

The document presents a comprehensive review
of a diverse array of models that predict standing
crop of stream fish from measurable
characteristics of the environment.  The purpose
of the review was to organize the models diversity
by the types of habitat (independent) variables
found significant, the mathematical structure, the
size of the data sets used to develop the models,
and how well the models fit these data.  The
authors have highlighted investigations they felt
used sound approaches to model development,
testing, and interpretation so that others might
follow that lead.

Hammond, C., D. Hall, S. Miller, and P.
Swetik. 1992. Level I Stability Analysis (LISA)
documentation for version 2.0. USDA Forest
Service, Intermountain Research  Station,
Ogden, Utah. General Technical Report
INT-285.

The LISA computer program is a tool to help
estimate the relative stability of natural slopes or
landforms. LISA results are intended to support
management decisions at the multiproject or
resource allocation level of planning. The
primary use of the results is to make qualitative,
relative comparisons between the stability of
landforms and to identify areas that should be
targeted for additional analysis. LISA can also be
used to estimate the relative decrease in stability
of a landform after timber harvest due to a
potential reduction in estimated tree root strength
and an increase in ground water levels. It can
also be used for risk analysis, such as an expected
monetary value decision analysis.  This report
provides comprehensive information required  to
use LISA.

Haskins, D.M. 1987. A management model for
evaluating cumulative watershed effects. In:
Proceedings of the California Watershed
Management Conference. Sacramento,
California, November 18-20,1986. University
of California, Wildland Resources Center.
Report No. 11. pp.  125-130.

This paper addresses the project-level application
of a model for evaluating cumulative watershed
effects. Forest-planning-level application parallels
it but at a broader scale.  The model and its
development are described, and examples of its
application to project-level work are given.

Hillman, G.R., and J.P. Verschuren. 1988.
Simulation of the effects of forest cover,  and its
removal, on surface water.  Water Resources
Research. 24(2): 305-314.

A distributed, physically based mathematical
model was developed to simulate the effects of
forestry operations on  both soil water and
streamflow. The  model's primary usefulness rests
in  its  capacity to simulate soil water movement
and redistribution, on a distributed basis, in
response to the processes of infiltration,
evaporation, and transpiration.
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Hornbeck, J.W., C.A. Federer, and R.S.
Pierce. 1987. Effects of whole-tree clearcutting
on streamflow can be adequately estimated by
simulation. In: Forest Hydrology and Watershed
Management, Proceedings of an International
Symposium of the General Assembly of the
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
at Vancouver, B.C.,  Canada. Vancouver, Britsh
Columbia, August, 1987. R.H. Swanson et al.
(eds.). IAHS-AISH Publication  No. 167,
Canada, pp. 565-573.

A range of values was assigned to parameters of
the BROOK hydrologic model to simulate
streamflow for fast, medium, and slow regrowth
on whole-tree clearcut basins in Maine, New
Hampshire, and Connecticut. Data are presented
to show how the simulated results compare with
measured data.

Ketcheson, G.L. 1986. Sediment rating
equations: An evaluation for streams in the
Idaho batholith. General Technical Report INT-
213. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain
Research Station. 12 pages.

 Sediment data from streams  in the Idaho batholith
 were used to develop suspended, bedloacl, and
 total sediment rating equations. The equations are
 discussed in terms of statistical significance and
 their usefulness~for documenting management
 impacts.  Sediment yields were estimated using
 the rating equation and streamflow data. These
 yields were compared with those estimated from a
 time-integration method. Rating equation and
 time- integration estimates were  significantly
 different in the Silver Creek research area.
 Time-integration estimates more closely matched
 those from sediment dams.

 Maxwell, J.R., and D.G. Neary. 1991.
 Vegetation management effects on sediment
 yields. In: Proceedings  of the Fifth Interagency
 Sedimentation Conference, Vol. 2. Las Vegas,
 Nevada, March 18-21,  1991. Interagency
 Committee on Water Data, Subcommittee on
 Sedimentation, pp 55-63, Section 12.

 This paper presents the results of a regional
 analysis of the cumulative effects of vegetation
 management (fire, mechanical, herbicides,
 manual, biological) on sediment yield.  Three
 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) were
 prepared for three physiographic regions in the
 south and erosion was modeled for each region on
 a variety of landtypes and watersheds.  In
 general, the results indicated greater sediment
 yields from road systems and cropland. In
 addition, greater sediment yields were typically
 observed from private lands. The data from the
 modeling indicated sediment yields could  be
' reduced by favoring herbicide and low-intensity
 prescribed fire as a means of site preparation over
 mechanical and severe fire methods.

 McGurk,  B.J. 1989.  Predicting stream
 temperature after riparian vegetation removal.
 In: Proceedings of the California Riparian
 Systems Conference.  Davis, California,
 September 22-24, 1988. USDA Forest Service,
 Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Station.
 pp.  157-164.

 This paper reports on field work at two streams in
 California that evaluates Brown's stream
 temperature change prediction technique  (Brown
  1970) and an empirical equation developed in
 Oregon. One of the sites was a clearcut  site and
 the other was a mature fir forest. Larger diurnal
 temperature fluctuations were observed in the
 water flowing through the clearcut site than  in the
 undisturbed area above the clearcut site.  The
  mature fir forest also had a large diurnal water
 temperature variation. A 5.6 °C temperature rise
  was observed through a 380-m clearcut that
  exposed the stream channel, and Brown's
  equation predicted a change of 6.1 °C. Brown's
  exposed surface area  model may be a good choice
  for land managers because it requires a minimum
  of field data that are relatively simple to  obtain.
  A technique that includes the effect of shade
  recovery after timber harvest is suggested for use
  during long-range harvest planning.
                                              227

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Potyondy, J.P., G.F. Cole, and W.F.
Megahan. 1991. A procedure for estimating
sediment yield from forested watersheds. In:
Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency
Sedimentation Conference, Vol. 2. Las Vegas,
Nevada, March 18-21,1991. Interagency
Committee on Water Data, Subcommittee on
Sedimentation. Section 12, pp 46-54.

The operational sediment yield model used by the
Boise National Forest is described. The model is
a local adaptation of the model developed by the
U.S. Forest Service for application in the Idaho
Batholith.  The model is commonly used in the
preparation of environmental assessments  and
impact statements as a tool to evaluate the effects
of alternative timber harvest activities, road
location and design, and the" application of erosion
mitigation practices.  The model estimates on-site
erosion, modifies the amount of erosion according
to general land unit characteristics, delivers the
eroded material to the stream system, and routes
the eroded material to downstream sites where its
effects are interpreted.

Reinig, L., R.L. Beveridge, and J.P.  Potyondy.
1991. BOISED user's guide and program
documentation. USDA Forest Service. 27 pages.

This document includes a user guide and program
documentation for a sediment prediction model
used in the Boise and Payette National Forests.
Program analysis steps, execution,  and output are
described in detail.

Ryan, J.A., I.G. Morison, and J.S. Bethel.
1974. Ecosystem modeling of a forested river
basin.  Water Resources Bulletin. 10:703-709.

This paper describes the efforts of researchers at
the College of Forest Resources, University of
Washington, to model the forest ecosystem of the
Snohomish River Basin in the Cascade Mountains
of western Washington.  They used a general
system model with submodels of product
conversion processes, forest production processes,
recreation supply processes, wildlife and fisheries
supply processes, and the interactions of these
processes with water and the atmosphere.  The
model emphasized the monitoring of NFS  as well
as point source impacts rather than predicting
short- term hydrographs. The significance of
impacts varied with land use patterns and the
goals of the modeler.  The model was able to
predict hydrologic conditions for both large and
small scales. The water subsystem model
responded to management decisions by
interpreting the effects of management options
selected by the modeler for 40-acre cells within
the Basin.  The model then determined which
streams were immediately affected, defined the
watersheds contributing to these streams,  and
extracted from a resource data bank the
information needed to define model parameters.
Mean flow discharge on a monthly and annual
basis was then calculated for the impacted
subwatersheds as well as 21 major Basin
watersheds. Water quality responses predicted for
these watersheds include suspended sediment
concentration, temperature increases due to stream
exposure, dissolved oxygen concentrations, the
effects of fertilization on nitrogen content, biocide
and herbicide effects,  and residues from product
conversion processes.

Sullivan, K., J. Tooley, K. Doughty, J.E.
Caldwell, and P. Knudsen. 1990. Evaluation of
prediction models and characterization of stream
temperature regimes in  Washington. Washington
Department of Natural Resources, Olympia,
Washington. Timber/FishAVildlife Report No.
TFW-WQ3-90-006.

A temperature study was conducted in 1988 to
develop a method to address temperature
sensitivity on a site and basin scale.  Data were
collected from forest streams extensively (92
sites) throughout the state to develop a
temperature screening method and intensively at a
smaller number of sites (33) to evaluate the
predictive capabilities  of existing reach and basin
temperature models.  This report presents the
results of the temperature study and provides a
preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of
riparian management regulations based primarily
on temperature modeling.
                                             228

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USDA Forest Service. Undated. Forest
hydrology: Hydrologic effects of vegetative
manipulation, Part II.

This document is concerned with the manipulation
of vegetation and the subsequent effects that may
be expected from water yield. The techniques,
procedures, and guidelines contained in the
document are designed for use by field foresters
to assess past, present, and future vegetation
manipulation practices on the v/ater and watershed
resource.  The guidelines are intended to aid in
the optimum management of the forest resource
while maintaining values placed on it by
silvicultural, social, economic, and ecological
constraints.

USDA Forest Service. 1993. SHADOW. Stream
Temperature Management Program  User's
Manual, Version 2.3. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Region. 20 pages.

The microcomputer program SHADOW was
developed as a "front end" to Brown's
temperature prediction equations.  A key element
in Brown's equations is the amount of unshaded
stream, which the user must estimate
qualitatively.  However, users often fail to take
into account stream orientation, terrain  slope, and
vegetation characteristics.  The SHADOW
program aids the user in estimating the amount of
unshaded stream and maximum stream
temperature.  It is a physically based model
designed to be used within the time constraints of
most project planning efforts, and it can be used
for individual stream reaches or for basins.  The
User's Manual fully describes the use, data
requirements, and application of the program.
Numerous figures illustrate how to accurately
estimate values for required variables.  The
program requires a PC AT (386 or 486), Lotus
 1-2-3 version 2.01 or higher, and a printer.
Copies of the program and documentation are
available from the Regional Watershed  Staff of
the Pacific Northwest Region in Portland,
Oregon.

USDA Forest Service. 1-991. Water and sediment
yields (WATSED). USDA Forest Service,
Northern Region, Missoula Montana.
WATSED is a water and sediment yield
prediction model developed by the USDA Forest
Service.  The model was designed to simulate the
effects of water and sediment from watersheds
with intermingled ownership. This document is
the user's guide for the model.

USEPA. 1980. An approach to water resources
evaluation of non- point silvicultural sources (a
procedural handbook). U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Athens 6A.

This useful handbook provides an analysis
methodology that can be used to describe and
evaluate changes in water resources  resulting from
nonpoint silvicultural activities. It covers only the
pollutant generation and transport processes and
does not consider the economic, social, and
political aspects of pollution control. The
document contains significant amounts of data to
aid with the selection of BMPs.         ,

USEPA. 1992. Compendium of watershed-scale
models for TMDL development. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
Water, Washington, DC. EPA/841/R-92-002.

This document identifies the most widely used
watershed-scale models that can facilitate the
TMDL process.   It is intended to help water
quality managers  and other potential users decide
which model best suits their needs and available
resources.  This is a summary document that
provides the strengths and limitations of various
watershed models.

Van Sickle, J., and S.V.  Gregory. 1990.
Modeling inputs of large woody debris to
streams  from falling trees. Canadian Journal
of Forest Research. 20(10):1593-1601.

This paper presents a generalized model  for
estimating the amount of large woody debris
delivered to streams from stands of mixed tree
heights and species composition. The estimates
of debris input were based on the density
(trees/area), tree size distribution, and tree-fall
probability of the riparian stand adjacent to the
stream.  The model was applied to an old-growth
coniferous stand in Oregon's Cascade Mountains.
                                              229

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Debris pieces in the stream were generally shorter
than predicted by the model, probably because of
bole breakage during tree fall.  The authors
discuss the coupling of the model to a stream
dynamics model to give land managers a tool to
explore the long-term consequences of
management alternatives for woody debris inputs
to streams and floodplains..

Adams, T.N., and K. Sullivan.  1988.  The
physics afforest stream heating: A simple model.
Weyerhaeuser Technical Report.

Barber, B.S.  1982. Application and evaluation of
the Gospel-Hump SNOWSED model on a small
forested watershed in north-central Idaho.
University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.  135 pages.

Belt,  G.H. 1980. Predicting stream/low changes
caused by forest practices using the Equivalent
Clearcut Area Model. Bulletin 32. University of
Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment
Station.

Beschta, R.L. 1987.  Conceptual models of
sediment transport in streams, sediment transport
in gravel-bed rivers. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.,
New  York. pp.  387-419.

Beschta, R.L., and J. Weatherred. 1984.
TEMP-84: A computer model for predicting
stream temperatures resulting from the
management ofstreamside vegetation. U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Watershed Systems
Development Group, Fort Collins, Colorado.
WSDG-AD-00009.

Burns, R.G. 1978. An improved sediment
delivery model for piedmont forests. Master's
Thesis, University of Georgia, School of Forest
Resources, 72 pages.

Burns, R.G., and J.D. Hewlett.  1983. A decision
model to predict sediment yield from  forest
practices.  Water Resources Bulletin.  19(1):9-14.

Burton, T.A., and J.P. Potyondy. 1992.
Guidelines for the use of the BOISED sediment
yield  model and the fisheries habitat condition
index in forest plan implementation on the Boise
National Forest. Boise National Forest Report.
USDA Forest Service.

Dumbauld, R.K. 1984. Modeling of aerial spray
drift and canopy penetration. In: Chemical and
Biological Controls in Forestry. Washington,
D.C. W.Y. Garner and J. Harvey (eds.). ACS
Symposium Series 238.

Foster, G.R., L.D. Meyer, and C.A. Onstad.
1977. A runoff erosivity factor and variable slope
length exponent for soil loss estimates.
Transactions of the ASAE. 20(4):683-687.

Gerhardt, N. 1992. Comparison of measured and
modeled sediment yields on selected streams of
the Nez Perce National Forest. In: Abstracts of
the Second Annual Nonpoint Source Water
Quality Monitoring Results Workshop. Boise State
University, January  14- 16, 1992. Sponsored by:
Idaho Department of Health and Welfare,
Department of Environmental Quality, pp. 11.

Heller, D.A., J.R. Maxwell, and M. Parsons.
1983. Modeling the effects of forest management
on salmonid habitat. USDA Forest Service,
Pacific Northwest Region. 63 pages.

James, D.E., and  M.J.  Hewitt. Modeling
nonpoint source pollution in the Blackfoot river
drainage. In: Proceedings of Technical Workshop
on Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and
USDA Forest Service.

Lane, L-J-, and M.A. Nearing (eds). 1989.  USDA
erosion prediction projects: Hillslope profile
model documentation. USDA ARS National Soil
Erosion Laboratory, West Lafayette, Indiana.
NSERL Report No. 2.

Megahan, W.F. 1974. Erosion over time on
severely disturbed granitic soils: A model. USDA
Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station. Research Paper INT-156.

Morse, W.L. 1970. Stream temperature
prediction model.  Water Resources Research.
6(1):290-302.
                                             230

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Nutter, W.L., T.T. Kacs, P.B. Bush, and D.G.
Neary. 1984. Simulation of herbicide
concentrations in stormflow from forested
watersheds.  Water Resources Bulletin. 20(6):
851-858.

Prellwitz, R.W. 1988. SSrs and
SCHFS-Preliminary slope stability analyses with
the HP41 programmable calculator. USD A Forest
Service, Intermountain Research Station,
Missoula, Montana.

Simons, D.B., R.M; Li, T.J. Ward, and L.Y.
Shiao. 1982. Modeling of water and sediment
yields from  forested drainage basins. In:
Workshop on sediment budgets and routing in
forested drainage basins: Proceedings.  F.J.
Swanson (ed.). USDA Forest Service, Pacific
Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,
Portland, Oregon. General Technical Report
PNW-141. pp. 24-38.

Van Sickle, J., and R.L. Beschta. Supply-based
models of suspended sediment transport in
 streams.  Water Resources Research.
 19(3):768-778.                   •        '  '    :

 Willis, R.,  D.R. Anderson, and J.A. Dracup.
 1975. Steady-state water quality modeling in
 streams.  Journal of the Environmental
 Engineering Division. 101(EE2):245-258.
 American Society of Civil Engineers.

 Wischmeier, W.H. 1976. Use and misuse of the
 Universal Soil Loss Equation.  Journal of Soil
 and  Water  Conservation. 31:5-9.

 Ziemer, R.R., J. Lewis,  R.M. Rice, and T.E.
 Lisle. 1991. Modeling the cumulative watershed
 effects of forest management strategies. Journal of
 Environmental Quality. 20:36-42.
  MODELING EFFECTS OF BMPs

  Bauer, S.B., G.W. Harvey, and T.A. Burton.
  Idaho 319 Nonpoint source program summary:
Forest roads inventory and stabilization report.
In: Proceedings of Technical Workshop on
Sediments. Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and USDA Forest Service.

An inventory of forest road stability was
conducted in the Idaho Clearwater basin.  Roads
causing the greatest impact on stream water
quality were identified and priority stream
segments and roads were selected based on the
results of an empirical sedimentation model.  The
model simulated sediment yields using the
following mitigation measures: full vegetation of
fill slopes; full vegetation of cut slopes; cut slope
gradient decreased 10 percent; cut slope gradient
decreased 20 percent; road tread graveled; and
road tread paved.  In general, rehabilitation of cut
slopes and relocation away from streams were the
most effective measures for reducing sediment. .

Beasley, D.B., and D.L. Thomas. 1989.
Application of water quality models for
agricultural and forested watersheds. University
 of Georgia, Agricultural Engineering
 Department. Southern Cooperative Series
 Bulletin No. 338. 116 pages.

 The information presented in this report .covers
 three main objectives of the initial research:  (1) to
 evaluate, compare, and test existing
 hydrologic/water quality models for use in
 simulating the effects of forestry and agricultural
 practices on the quality, quantity, and utilization
 of surface and subsurface waters; (2) to modify.
 develop, and/or adapt process models of water,
 sediment, and chemical transport for surface and
 subsurface flow; and (3) to assemble selected
 water quality and quantity data from existing
 facilities for use in model evaluation and
 comparison. This is a summary paper on the
 strengths, limitations, and past uses of several
 well-known models.
                                               231

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 Burns, R.G., and J.D. Hewlett.  1983. A
 decision model to predict sediment yield from
 forest practices.  Wafer Resources Bulletin.
 The authors propose a sediment hazard index
 based on the amount of exposed mineral soil and
 its proximity to streams as a means to choose
 among BMPs.  Forest managers need to predict
 sediment yield to perennial streams following
 forestland operations, but the universal soil loss
 equation (USLE) is not directly applicable to
 forest operations because of the heterogeneous
 soil surface conditions left by harvesting, site
 preparation, and planting.  The model described
 includes rainfall erosivity, soil credibility and
 average  land slope, together with the sediment
 hazard index (W).  A paired watershed
 experiment  in the central Georgia Piedmont was
 used to estimate parameters in the model.  The
 80-acre experimental basin was clearcut, drum
 roller  chopped  twice,  and  machine planted. The
 standard error of estimate of sediment yield was
 computed to be about 50 Ib/ac per 4-month
 sampling period.  Use of William's erosivity
 index  (storm flow times peak flow)  reduced the
 standard error to  33 Ib/ac.  A graph of sediment
 delivery  versus sediment hazard index is
 provided, and the index can be used to design and
 evaluate  forest  operations in advance.  The
 authors note that application of the method
 presumes the use of streamside management zones
 and sensible reading standards.

 Cline, R., G. Cole, W. Megahan,  R. Patten,
 and J. Potyondy. 1981. Guide for predicting
 sediment yields from forested watersheds. USDA
 Forest Service, Northern Region and
 Intermountain Region.

 A sediment yield prediction procedure was
 developed by a work group composed of soil
 scientists, hydrologists, and watershed specialists
 of the  Forest Service Northern Region,
 Intermountain Region, and the Intermountain
 Forest  and Range Experiment Station (R1/R4).
This is a  detailed document that contains basic
 information which has been used extensively in
 sediment transport model development.

 Dissmeyer, G.E. 1980. Predicted erosion rates
 for forest management activities and conditions
 in the southeast. In: U.S. Forestry and Water
 Quality: What Course in the 80's? Richmond,
 Virginia, June 19-20, 1980. Water Pollution
 Control Federation and Virginia Water
 Pollution Control Association, pp. 42-49.

 Erosion prediction has improved for forestland
 during the past 3 years.  The new procedure has
 been validated, with the predicted rates comparing
 well with measured rates.  The new procedure is
 a modification of the cover-management (C)
 factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Using
 this modification, representative rates are
 presented to compare erosion between various
 forest management activities and conditions, and
 to show the recovery trends in erosion  for various
 disturbances.

 Fight, R.D., L.D. Garrett, and D.L.
 Weyermann (eds.). 1990. SAMM: A prototype
 southeast Alaska multiresource  model. USDA
 Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research
 Station. General Technical Report
 PNW-GTR-255. 109 pages.

 An environmental assessment method was used by
 an interdisciplinary team of forest specialists to
 gain an  understanding of resource interactions and
 tradeoffs resulting from forest management
 activities in southeast Alaska. A forest
 multiresource projection model (Southest Alaska
 Multiresource  Model (SAMM))  was developed in
 the process. The model was proclaimed to be
 capable  of characterizing and displaying
 interactions of four major resources over a
 150-year rotation: timber, wildlife, hydrology,
 and fisheries.  At the time the document was
published, full use of the model  for quantitative
analysis was not available; only qualitative
planning assessment were recommended.
                                             232

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Gregory, R., E. Niemi, and R. Mendelsohn.
1989. A model for evaluating the impacts of
forest management regulations.  Journal of
Environmental Management. 29:129-144.

This paper addresses the need of
forest-management agencies to anticipate the
impacts of regulations governing forest practices
arid outlines a model for evaluating the economic
impacts of proposed changes in the forest
environment. The approach described is based on
two premises.  First, the primary  effect of
changes of forest management rules is on the
environment and therefore linkages between the
rule changes, environmental impacts, and then
economic values must be developed. Second, both
market and nonmarket effects must be evaluated.

Hornbeck,  J.W., C.A. Federer, arid R.S.
Pierce. 1987. Effects of whole-tree clearcutting
on streamflow can be adequately estimated  by
simulation. In: Forest Hydrology and Watershed
Management,  Proceedings of an  International
Symposium of the General Assembly of the
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
at Vancouver,  B.C., Canada. Vancouver, Britsh
Columbia,  August, 1987. R.H.  Swanson et al.
(eds.). IAHS-AISH Publication No. 167,
Canada, pp. 565-573.

A range of values was assigned to parameters of
the BROOK hydrologic model to  simulate
streamflow  for fast, medium, and slow regrowth
on whole-tree clearcut basins in Maine, New
Hampshire, and Connecticut. Data are presented
to show how the simulated results compare with
measured data.

Hornberger, G.M., K.J. Beven, B.J. Cosby,
and D.E. Sappington. 1985. Shenandoah
watershed study: Calibration of a topography-
based, variable contributing area hydrological
model to a small  forested catchment.  Water
Resources Research. 21(12):1841-1850.

This paper reports on work done to calibrate
TOPMODEL;  a model devised by Beven and
Kirkby (1979), for White Oak Run in the
Shenandoah National Park.  This research is part
of the Shenandoah Watershed Study, which began
in 1979 and aims to assess the impact of acid
precipitation on soils and streams in the Park.
TOPMODEL is a topography-based, variable-
contributing-area model of catchment hydrology.
It was adapted for continuous simulation and
extended to take account of observed processes in
White Oak Run. Automatic calibration of the
model was attempted using eight different
objective functions.  All objective functions were
indifferent to many of the model parameters, and
thus parameter estimation could  not be done
reliably.  On the basis of results from a
regionalized sensitivity analysis, the original
model structure was greatly simplified.  The
parameters of the simplified model, which
produced fits to the measured data nearly as well
as did the more complex model, were estimated
well using a sum of squared errors criterion. The
authors discuss how TOPMODEL was calibrated
for this application and difficulties encountered in
doing so.

Lewis, J., and R.M. Rice. 1990. Estimating
erosion risk on forest lands using improved
methods of discriminant analysis.  Water
Resources Research. 26(8):1721-1733.

This study developed a method for estimating the
risk that logging or road construction will produce
a critical  erosion site.  A critical, site is defined as
any 2-acre square  area enclosing more than 200
yd3 of erosional voids.  In this study, a population.
of 638 timber harvest areas in northwestern
California was sampled for data  related to the
occurrence of critical amounts of erosion.
Separate analyses were done for forest roads and
logged areas. Three-variable equations were
developed that can be used to compute the
probability that logging or road construction on a
given site in northwestern California will cause
severe erosion.  Three important site conditions
relate to erosion risk: the force of gravity, the
convergence of subsurface water, and the strength
of materials. This work suggests that models can
provide satisfactory estimates for the risk of large
                                             233

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 erosion events.  The variables in the equations
 should be easy for foresters to estimate in the
 field.  The authors provide a glossary and
 explanation of terms and variables related to the
 equations developed in the paper.

 Nieswand G.H., R.M. Hordon,  T.B. Shelton,
 and B. Chavooshian. 1990. Buffer strips to
 protect water supply reservoirs: A model and
 recommendations.  Water Resources Bulletin.
 26(6):959-966.
 _                                    \
 This paper discusses the development of a
 parameter-based model for buffer strip width
 determination for use in New Jersey, as part of a
 comprehensive watershed management project.
 The model is primarily intended for application to
 all watersheds above water supply intakes or
 reservoirs.  Input requirements for the model
 include a combination of slope, width, and time
 of travel. Development of the model and  its
 application to a watershed in New Jersey  are
 discussed.  The application results in a
 recommended buffer strip width that ranges from
 50 to 300 feet, depending on a number of
 assumptions, and from 6-13% of the watershed
 area above the protected waterbody  (reservoir)
 being occupied by the buffer.

 Potyondy, J.P., G.F. Cole, and  W.F.
 Megahan. 1991. A procedure for estimating
 sediment yield from  forested watersheds. In:
 Proceedings of the Fifth Interagency
 Sedimentation Conference,  Vol. 2.  Las Vegas,
 Nevada, March 18-21, 1991. Interagency
 Committee on Water Data, Subcommittee  on
 Sedimentation. Section 12, pp 46-54.

 The  operational sediment yield model used by the
 Boise National Forest is described.  The model is
 a local adaptation of the model developed by the
 U.S. Forest Service for  application in the Idaho
 Batholith. The model is commonly used in the
preparation of environmental assessments  and
 impact statements as a tool to evaluate the effects
of alternative timber harvest activities, road
location and design, and the application of erosion
mitigation practices.  The  model estimates on-site
 erosion, modifies the amount of erosion according
 to general land unit characteristics, delivers the
 eroded material to the stream system, and routes
 the eroded material to downstream sites where its
 effects are interpretated.
      1
 Steinblums, I., H.A. Froehlich, and J.K.
 Lyons. 1984. Designing stable buffer strips for
 stream protection. Journal of Forestry.
 82(1):49-S2.

 Failure of buffer strips due to blowdowns,
 disease, and logging is a recurring problem and
 can cause stream channels to load with debris,
 leading to sediment storage or erosion.  This
 article reports a study of environmental factors
 that affect buffer strip stability and stream
 shading.  On 40 streamside buffer strips in the
 Cascade Mountains of western Oregon, buffer
 strip stability was found to be a function of one
 vegetation and six topographic equation variables,
 and shading was related to three characteristics of
 buffer strips and one of adjacent clearcuts.
 Topographic maps and aerial photographs were
 used to supplement field observations.  Stability
 and shading effectiveness of proposed buffer
 strips can be evaluated using the equations
 presented in the paper and data collected through
 site reconnaissance and topographic maps.

 Sullivan, K., J. Tooley, K. Doughty, J.E.
 Caldwell, and P. Knudsen. 1990. Evaluation of
prediction models and characterization of stream
 temperature regimes in Washington. Washington
 Department  of Natural Resources, Olympia,
 Washington. Timber/Fish/Wildlife Report No.
 TFW-WQ3-90-006.  .

 A temperature study was conducted in 1988 to
 develop a method to address temperature
 sensitivity on a site and basin scale.  Data were
 collected from forest streams extensively (92
 sites)  throughout the state to  develop a
temperature screening method and intensively  at a
 smaller number of sites (33)  to evaluate the
predictive capabilities of existing reach and basin
temperature models.  This report presents the
results of the temperature study and provides a
                                             234

-------
preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of
riparian management regulations based primarily
on temperature modeling.

Burton, T.A.,  and J.P. Potyondy.  1992.
Guidelines for the use  of the BOISED sediment
yield model and the fisheries habitat condition
index in forest plan implementation on the Boise
National Forest. Boise National Forest Report.
USDA Forest Service.
              i
James, D.E., and M.J. Hewitt. Modeling
nonpoint source pollution in the Blackfoot river
drainage. In: Proceedings of Technical Workshop
on Sediments.  Corvallis, Oregon, February 3-7,
•1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and
USDA Forest Service.

Prellwitz,  R.W. 1988. SSIS and
SCHFS-Preliminary slope stability analyses with
the HP41 programmable calculator. USDA Forest
Service, Intermountain Research Station,
Missoula,  Montana.

Rasmussen, W.O., R.N. Weisz, P.F. Ffolliott,
and R.D.  Carder. 1980. Planning for forest
roads-A computer-assisted program for selection
of alternative corridors.  Journal of
Environmental Management. 11:93-104.

USDA Forest Service.  1991. Water and sediment
yields (WATSED).  USDA Forest Service,
Northern Region, Missoula Montana.  '

USEPA. 1980. An approach to water resources
evaluation of non- point silvicultural sources (a
procedural handbook). U.S. Environmental  ,
Protection Agency, Athens GA.  .

Ziemer, R.R., J. Lewis, R.M. Rice, and T.E.
Lisle. 1991. Modeling the cumulative watershed
..effects of  forest management strategies. Journal of
Environmental Quality. 20:36-42.
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                         11. WATER QUALITY MONITORING
 METHODS AND PROCEDURES

 Corner, R., J. Bassman, B.C. Moore, and B.
 Zamora. 1992. The application of on-site
 characterizations of vegetation and soils for
 regulating water quality impacts from forestry
 practices. North American Lake Management
 Society Journal.

 Water quality and vegetation and soil parameters
 were measured trver a  1-year period on three sites
 subjected to clearcut harvesting and scarification
 site preparation.  The paper includes information
 on the potential application of on-site vegetation
 and soil standards for regulating nonpoint water
 pollution from forestry activities, including
 advantages and disadvantages in comparison with
 water quality standards.

 Cullen, P. 1990. Biomonitoring and
 environmental management.  Environmental
 Monitoring and Assessment. 14:107-114.

 The role of biomonitoring data in determining the
 health of aquatic systems is reviewed.
 Information on the objectives, pressures,
 principles, and tools for biotic monitoring are
 discussed  in this general review.

 Dissmeyer, G.E. 1993.  Methods for evaluating
 the effectiveness of forestry best management
 practices in meeting water quality goals or
 standards: Second Draft. 189 pages.

 The focus of this document is monitoring BMP
 effectiveness in protecting the water quality of
 small order streams. The objectives are to insure
 monitoring projects  consider all  factors
 influencing NFS pollution; to design monitoring
 projects that sort out real impacts of BMPs; to
 review parameters to consider when monitoring
 BMP effectiveness; to summarize representative
 monitoring methods appropriate  for NPS
variables; and to provide examples of BMP
effectiveness monitoring and decisions.
Monitoring methods discussed included on-slope.
chemical and physical, channel geomorphology,
 habitat, biological, and aquatic vegetation and
 zooplankton.

 Hankin, D.G. 1984. Multistage sampling
 designs in fisheries research: Application in
 small streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries
 and Aquatic Sciences.  41:1575-1561.

 This paper argues that the usual practice of
 selecting stream sections of equal length for
 estimating the total number of fish in a stream is
 ill-advised on both biological and statistical
 grounds, and that a preferable practice is to allow
 stream sections to vary in size according to
 natural habitat units.  The latter method allows
 for alternative two-stage sampling designs to take
 advantage of the probable strong correlation
 between habitat unit sizes and fish numbers.
 Relative performances of four alternative
 two-stage designs  are contrasted in terms  of
 precision, relative cost, and overall
 cost-effectiveness. Choice among alternative
 designs depends primarily on the correlation
 between fish numbers and habitat unit sizes, on
 the total number of stream sections, and on
 sample size.  The  author recommends choices
 among the design alternatives based on these
 criteria.

 Hankin, D.G.  1986. Sampling designs for
 estimating the total number offish  in small
 streams. Research Paper PNW-360. USDA
 Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and
 Range Experiment Station.

 This report reviews the sources of error in
 estimating the total number of fish in small
 streams. Error of estimation arises from two
 sources: (1) extrapolation from the small number
 of sampled stream  sections to the entire stream
 and (2)  errors of estimation of fish numbers
 within sampled sections. This report shows that
 errors arising from the first source will usually be
 far larger than those arising from the second
 source.  Total errors  of estimation can be reduced
 by making sampled sections equivalent to natural
habitat units.  Entire pools or riffles should be
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sampled rather than fixed-length sections of
streams.  The relative performances of three
alternative sampling designs, which can .be used
when sampled sections are equivalent to natural
habitat units, are contrasted in terms of accuracy
and cost- effectiveness.  Accuracy of estimation
can be dramatically improved if sampling designs
account for the usually strong, positive correlation
between fish numbers and habitat unit sizes. The
report presents information on basic sampling
theory concepts, traditional two-stage sampling
design, and three alternative two-stage sampling
designs.

Hoffman, R.J. 1986. A horizontal intragravel
pipe for sampling water quality in salmonid
spawning gravel.  North American Journal o/
Fisheries Management.  6:445-448.

A sampler, the horizontal intragravel pipe, was
developed for collecting samples of intragravel
water in salmonid spawning gravel.  The paper
provides good information on the advantages
associated with this method.

Kunkle, S., W.S.  Johnson, and M. Flora.
1987. Monitoring stream water for land-use
impacts: A training manual for natural resource
management specialists. National Park Service,
Water Resources Division, Ft. Collins, CO.

The purpose of this document is to suggest
strategies for designing and  implementing simple,
cost-effective surveys of water quality impacts
resulting from land use in and around National
Park Service areas.  Specifically, monitoring
strategies presented in the document address
forestry, agricultural, urbanization, recreation,
mining, and oil and gas development practices.
This handbook provides a strategy for designing a
problem-oriented water quality monitoring plan,
identifying sources of suspected water pollution
caused by different land uses, and recognizing
when additional study of a water quality problem
may  be required.

Leister, R.L.  1985. Monitoring silvicultural
activities for water quality. In: Proceedings of
Forestry and Water Quality: A Mid- South
Symposium. University of Arkansas, May 8-9,
 1985.   E.G. Blackmon (ed.). University of
 Arkansas, Department of Forestry Resources,
 Little Rock, Arkansas, pp.  177-183.

 In this talk, Mr. Leister discusses the training and
 monitoring activities of the Arkansas Forestry
 Commission (AFC) that were initiated in 1982.
 Goals were set for all county foresters, including
 monitoring at least two sites per county per month
 on privately-owned and industrial forests.
 Training to select and monitor sites, to apply and
 evaluate BMPs, and to recognize potential water
 quality problems was well underway within 6
 months.  The first few years of monitoring were
 conducted statewide on a variety of types of forest
 sites in an attempt to build a base on the impacts
 of various practices on forestland sites and on
 streams and rivers.  In the first 3 years of the
 program, the AFC monitored 1,666 sites totaling
 143,595 acres.  Monitoring began immediately
 following the silvicultural activity and continued
 for 4 years.  Ownership of forestlands in
 Arkansas is summarized according to U.S. Forest
 Service Survey data.

 MacDonald, L.H , A.W. Smart, and R.C.
 Wissmar. 1991. Monitoring guidelines to
 evaluate the effects of forestry activities on
 streams in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska.
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle,
 Washington. FJA/910/9-91-001.

 This document provides significant guidance for
 designing water quality monitoring projects and
 selecting monitoring parameters.  Although the
 focus is on forest management and streams in the
 Pacific .Northwest and Alaska, a broader
 perspective is taken, and much of the information
 is widely available.

 NCASI. 1980. Research and field investigation
 of the impact of southern forestry management
practices on receiving water quality and utility.
 National Council of the Paper Industry for Air
 and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin
 No. 337.

 This is an assembly of papers and abstracts of
 presentations made at the 1980 NCASI Southern
 Regional Meeting.  The papers describe work
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under way at universities, individual company
programs, programs in the South being conducted
by USDA Forest Service, and aquatic biology.
Sample titles include: Regional Road
Project-Management Options to Control Erosion;
Assessment of NFS Pollution from Intensive
Forest Practices in the South Central Region,
Texas; Demonstration of Sensitive Area
Mechanical Site Preparation; The  Use of
Macroinvertebrates as Indicators of Stream
Quality Changes; and Report on Ongoing
Programs and Information Needs Relating to
Southern Forest Practices and Water Quality.

Oregon Department of Forestry. 1992. Forest
herbicide application: Water sampling  study.
Oregon Department of Forestry, Forest
Practices Program.

The purpose of this report is to present  the results
of a water monitoring study  conducted by the
Forest Practices Program to  determine the
effectiveness of forest chemical  rules in
preventing stream contamination from herbicide
applications. The study was not conducted using
the rigorous QA/QC protocols typical of field
research studies but was conducted to provide
general insight into forest chemical rule
effectiveness.

Ponce, S.L. 1980. Statistical methods commonly
used in water quality data analysis. USDA
Forest Service,  Fort Collins, CO. Technical
Paper WSDG-TP-00001.

The purpose of this handbook is to review several
selected statistical methods commonly used in
water quality data analysis. It is intended to be
used by forest hydrologists in conjunction with FS
Technical Paper WSDG-TP-00002.

Ponce, S.L. 1980.  Water quality monitoring
programs. USDA Forest Service, Ft. Collins,
CO. Technical Paper WSDG-TP-00002.

The purpose of this paper is  to summarize the
various types of water quality monitoring
commonly carried out on National Forest System
lands, and to provide a series of guidelines to aid
the forest  hydrologist with problem definition,
establishing study objectives, locating past work,
data analysis, locating sampling stations, selecting
water quality constituents, determining sampling
frequency, and collecting and handling samples.

Schultz, B. 1992. Montana forestry best
management practices implementation
monitoring: The 1992 forestry BMP audits final
report. Montana Department of State Lands,
Forestry Division, Missoula, Montana. 32
pages.

This report summarizes the findings of Montana's
1992 forestry BMP audits. The audits evaluate
whether BMPs are being applied and whether they
are effectively limiting NPS pollution. Three
audit teams evaluated up to 58 practices on 46
sites for a total of 2,029 practices rated for BMP
application. Eight-seven percent of the practices
rated on all sites met BMP requirements. Nine
high-risk BMPs, the most important for protecting
watersheds, were evaluated separately, and 72%
of these met application requirements.  Most
sites-40 of 46-had at least one minor departure
from BMP application; 20 of 46 sites had at least
one major departure.  On 21  of 46 sites, audit
teams noted that a change in stream crossing
would have prevented  or reduced sediment
discharge.  The wider  SMZs were,  the fewer
were the impacts in the SMZ from harvest
practices. The greatest departure from BMPs, as
well as the most impacts,  was associated with
road drainage. Application and effectiveness of
BMPs were highest on state lands, followed by
federal and industrial sites and nonindustrial
private sites.  The study recommends that the
audits be continued; education programs be
continued; site owners and logging contractors
attend the audits; landowners and contractors
develop remedies for the problems noted; and the
audit process be instituted for other land uses,
including mining, livestock grazing, agriculture,
and subdivision development.
)r
\
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Solomon, R.M., and P.E. Avers. 1987. A water
quality monitoring framework to satisfy legal
requirements. American Water Resources
Association. Technical Publication Series TPS
87-2. pp. 231-242.

The paper discusses the development of water
quality monitoring requirements as they relate to
the Forest Service.  A monitoring framework that
will meet legal requirements is suggested.  The
framework includes three types of monitoring:
(1) implementation, or determining whether
monitoring plans were implemented as designed;
(2) effectiveness, or determining whether the
prescribed practices meet their objectives;  and
(3) validation, or investigating whether
coefficients, models, and standards are valid to
meet policy, laws, and regulations.  Examples of
each type of monitoring  are given, and the
usefulness of monitoring as a feedback mechanism
for management decision-making is discussed.

USEPA. 1988. Effectiveness of agricultural and
silvicultural nonpoint source controls: Final
report. U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency,
Region  10, Seattle, Washington.

This document presents an analysis of specific
monitoring methods and  monitoring programs for
nonpoint source controls associated with
silvicultural and agricultural practices. From the
analysis, information is provided to aid in
determining base guidelines for monitoring the
effectiveness of NFS control programs.

USEPA. 1989. Rapid bioassessment protocols for
use in streams and rivers: Benthic
macroinvertebrates and fish. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
Water,  Washington DC. EPA/444/4-89-  001.

The primary purpose of this document is to
provide states with a practical technical reference
for conducting cost-effective biological
assessments of lotic systems.   The scope of the
document is applicable to priority setting, point
and nonpoint source evaluations, use attainability
analyses, trend monitoring, arid initial screening.
USEPA. 1987. Surface water monitoring: A
framework for change. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Office of Water, OPPE,
Washington, DC.

This report presents the findings and
recommendations of a major EPA study on
surface water monitoring activities conducted by
the Agency. The results are based on more than
ISO structured interviews with key state and
federal managers, and numerous less formal
discussions with EPA and state scientific and
technical staff.  The report presents the findings
on where surface water monitoring is today, why
the present state/EPA program is not adequate to
meet emerging  needs, and where and how
changes should be made.

USEPA. 1991. Watershed monitoring and
reporting for section 319 national monitoring
program projects. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency.

Section 319 of the Clean Water Act requires that
EPA develop both a national framework and
monitoring guidelines for the National Monitoring
Program. Key aspects of the national  framework
have been developed and are summarized in this
document.  This document also provides
monitoring and reporting guidelines.

Weller, C.G. 1990. Monitoring engineering
activities. In: Proceedings of the National
Workshop on Monitoring Forest Plan
Implementation. Minneapolis, Minnesota, May
14-17.  USDA  Forest Service, pp. 75-79.    L

This is a series  of four tables that list monitoring
requirements for engineering activities within the
Forest Service and other .land management
agencies.  Table 1 lists the requirements of 36
CFR 219.  Additional requirements for
monitoring transportation systems, found hi 36
CFR 212, 23 CFR 650 and 1230, and  P.L. 88-
657, are listed in Table 2. Requirements for
monitoring drinking water, for water pollution
control, and for solid waste disposal, recovery,
and resource conservation and recovery are listed
in Table 3.  Table 4 contains a more
comprehensive  listing of engineering activity
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 monitoring standards and guides, with references
 to federal regulations.  Specifically, Table 4 lists
 items to monitor, project standards, and
 requirements for implementation, effectiveness
 and validation monitoring.

 Blackmon, E.G. (ed). 1985. Forestry and water
 quality: A mid- south symposium. Little Rock,
 Arkansas, May 8-9, 1985. Arkansas Cooperative
 Extension Service, University of Arkansas.

 Clark, W.H. 1990. Coordinated nonpoint source
 water quality monitoring program for Idaho.
 Idaho Department of Health and Welfare,
 Division of Environmental Quality, Boise, Idaho.
 139 pages.

 Dissmeyer, G.E.  1991. Monitoring BMP
 compliance, identifying implementation problems,
 and implementation vs. other types of monitoring.
 In: Southern Group of State Foresters Workshop
 on Implementation Monitoring of Forestry Best
 Management Practices. Atlanta, Georgia, January
 23-25, 1990. USDA Forest Service, Southern
 Region, pp. 80-84.

 Hankin, D.G., and G.H. Reeves. 1988.
 Estimating total fish abundance and total habitat
 area in small streams based on visual estimating
 methods.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
 Aquatic Sciences. 45:834-844.

 Hirsch, R.M. 1988. Statistical methods and
 sampling design for estimating step trends in
 surface-water quality. Water Resources Bulletin.
 24(3):493-503.

 Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc. 1973. A method
for regulating timber harvest and road
 construction activity for water quality protection
 in northern California, Volume I: Procedures and
 methods. California State Water Resources
 Control Board.

 Lenat, D.R. 1988. Water quality assessment of
 streams using a qualitative collection method for
 benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North
American Benthological Society. 7:222-233.
 Miller, D.L., P.M. Leonard, R.M. Hughes, J.R.
 Karr, P.B. Moyle, L.H. Schrader, B.A.
 Thompson, R.A. Daniels, K.D. Fausch, G.A.
 Fitzhugh, J.R. Gammon, D.B. Halliwell, P.L.
 Angermeier,  and D.J. Orth. 1988. Regional
 applications of an index of biotic integrity for use
 in water  resources management.  Fisheries.
 13(5): 12-20.

 NCASI.  1984. A guide to monitoring stream-water
 quality following forestry herbicide concentration.
 National  Council of the Paper Industry for Air
 and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin No.
 430. 40 pages.

 NCASI.  1988. Procedures for assessing the
 effectiveness of Best Managements Practices in
protecting water and stream quality associated
 with managed forests. National Council of the
 Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement.
 Technical Bulletin No. 538.  23 pages.

 Neary, D.G.  1983. Monitoring herbicide residues
 in springflow after an operational  application of
 hexazinone. Southern Journal of Applied
 Forestry.  17(4):217-223.

 Neary, D.G., P.B. Bush, and J.L. Michael. 1986.
 Herbicides in southern forestry-Improving water
 quality. In: 39th Proceedings - Southern Weed
 Science Society,  pp. 335-341.

 Thomas,  R.B. 1985. Measuring suspended
 sediment in small mountain streams. USDA
 Forest Service. General Technical Report
 PSW-83. 9 pages.
DATA ANALYSIS AND STUDY DESIGN

Aumen, N.G., T.J. Grizzard, and R.H.
Hawkins. 1989.  Water quality monitoring in the
Bull Run watershed, Oregon. Bureau of Water
Works Task Force Final Report to City of
Portland, Oregon. 108 pages.

This report presents the findings of a task force
commissioned  to address concerns over the
adequacy of a monitoring program in the Bull
Run watershed in Portland, OR. The task force
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 was specifically charged with assessing the
 adequacy of the existing program to determine
 compliance with water quality standards and the
 adequacy of the existing monitoring program to
 assess the effects of land management practices
 such as forestry operations.

 Dissmeyer, GJE. 1993.  Methods for evaluating
 the effectiveness of forestry best management
 practices in meeting water quality goals or
 standards: Second Draft. 189 pages.

 The focus of this document is monitoring BMP
 effectiveness in protecting the water quality of
 small order streams.  The objectives are to insure
 monitoring projects consider all factors
 influencing NFS pollution; to design monitoring
 projects that sort out real impacts of BMPs; to
 review parameters to consider when monitoring
• BMP effectiveness; to summarize representative
 monitoring methods appropriate for NPS
 variables; and to provide examples of BMP
 effectiveness monitoring and decisions.
 Monitoring methods discussed included on-slope.
 chemical and physical, channel  geomorphology,
 habitat, biological,  and aquatic vegetation and
 zooplankton.

 Ice, G.G. 1989. The effectiveness of
 silvicultural nonpoint source control programs
 for several southern states. In: Proceedings of
 the Symposium Forested Wetlands in the
 Southern United States. Orlando, Florida, July
 12-14, 1988.  USDA, Forest Service. USDA
 Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment
 Station, pp.  163-168.      '

 This article identifies and summarizes studies
 evaluating the effectiveness of BMPs in
 minimizing deleterious impacts to  stream quality.
 Assessment techniques include water quality
 monitoring, site inspections, questionnaires, and
 modeling.

 Martin, C.W., R.S. Pierce, G.E. Likens, and
 F.H. Bormann. 1986. Clearcutting affects
 stream  chemistry in the White Mountains of New
Hampshire. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern
Forest Experiment Station. Research Paper
NE-579.

Stream water samples were collected from
watersheds that were completely harvested and
from uncut watersheds. Differences in stream    .
chemistry were monitored over a 4-year period.
Constituents sampled for included specific
conductance, pH, nitrate, ammonium, calcium,   •
magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and
chloride.

Troendle, C.A., and R.M. King. 1985. The
effect of timber harvest on the Fool Creek
watershed, 30 years later. Water Resources
Research. 21(12):1915-1922.

The Fool Creek watershed at the Fraser
Experimental Forest, Colorado, was harvested
using a pattern of alternating clearcut and forested
strips in 1956.  After 30 years of postharvest
record, subtle impacts oh the hydrology of the
watershed were detected that had not been
significant in the past.

Gerhardt, N.  1992.  Comparison of measured and
modeled sediment yields on selected streams of
the Nez Perce National Forest. In: Abstracts of
the Second Annual Nonpoint Source Water
Quality Monitoring Results Workshop. Boise State
University, January 14- 16, 1992. Sponsored by:
Idaho Department of Health and Welfare,
Department of Environmental Quality, pp. 11.

Moore, D.G. 1975. Impacts of forest fertilization
on water quality in the Douglas fir region-A
summary of monitoring studies. In: Proceedings
of the 1974 National Convention of the Society of
American Foresters. New York, September
22-26, 1974. pp. 209-219.

Solomon, R.M., and P.E.  Avers. 1987. A water
quality monitoring framework to satisfy legal
requirements. American Water Resources
Association. Technical Publication Series TPS
87-2. pp. 231-242.
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