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     if 2002 if
                           A Message from the Administrator
                           Christine Todd Whitman
                                              I believe water is the biggest environmental
                                              issue we face in the 21st Century in terms of both
                                              quality and quantity. In the 30 years since its
                                              passage, the Clean Water Act has dramatically
                                              increased the number of waterways that are once
                                              again safe for fishing and swimming. Despite this
                                              great progress in reducing water pollution, many
                                              of the nation's waters still do not meet water
                                              quality goals. I challenge you to join President
                                              Bush and me to finish the business of restoring
                                              and protecting our nation's waters for present
                                              and future generations.
Cover: Artwork from The River of Words 2000 art contest

   "River Otter in the Wilderness," Molly J., Age 10, California, Art Finalist (top left)
   "Quick as My Thought," Rachel R., Age 8, California, Art Winner Category II (Grades 3-6) (top center)
   "Submerge in the Wonder," Courtney M., Age 17, Georgia, Art Finalist (top right)
   "Heal the World," Eon H., Age 15, Georgia, Art Winner Category IV (Grades 10-12) (bottom)

             A status report on  the  quality of our waters
             and what you can do to  make a difference
        le all need
        I clean water.
         After all, our
bodies are at least 65
percent water. Fish and
wildlife depend on
clean water to survive.
We need clean water
to grow crops and
to operate factories,
and we need clean
water for drinking,
surfing, fishing
and sailing.
                           Inside this report you'll find out the following:
                              •  What scientists measure in our water
                              •  What percentage of our waters are clean
                              •  Major pollutants in our waters
                              •  Suggestions of what you can do to help
                              •  Projects you can do for school or fun
                              •  A quiz to test your water smarts
                              •  A glossary that defines some common terms


H°tu £ our uaf ers?
Doctors use instruments like thermometers and stetho-
scopes to check on your health. Scientists use instruments
like Secchi (sek'-ee) disks, probes, nets, gauges, and
meters to determine how healthy the water is. They take
measurements of the physical and chemical condition of
the water and the health of the critters that live in it.

Scientists collect water in lots of different ways. They
use boats to go out in the middle of lakes, they wade
into streams wearing rubber boots that go up to their
chests, they drop buckets over the sides of bridges —
they'll do almost anything to get a sample.

Water samples aren't the only things scientists collect.
They take photographs from airplanes and even
satellites. They use their eyes to observe what's
happening along streams, lakes,  and bays to get
an overall sense of the health of the water. They
also collect fish, plants, dirt, and aquatic bugs,
and study what's happening on the land that's next
to the water.
|  TO¥*7  %
                                                               Profecf ion Agency?
                                                                                 ponsible for
                                                               protecting human health and the natural
                                                               environment from pollution. EPA does
                                                               this by conducting research, enforcing
                                                               laws, developing national policies, and
                                                               providing information and technical help to
                                                               states and communities.
                                                               HOU; off en rf
                                                               naf ions loafers?
                   re directed by the
Clean Water Act (CWA) to help protect the
health of our nation's waters. The CWA
gives states the authority and responsibil-
ity to establish water quality standards,
which set minimum requirements for fish
habitat, swimming, and drinking water
sources. States, under Section 305(b) of
CWA, are required to assess the health
of their waters and submit the infor-
mation to EPA every two years. EPA
gathers the information from every    A
state and prepares a report called
the National Water Quality Inven-
tory. To see the latest 305 (b)     -
report or other informa-
tion on the quality of our
nation's waters, visit
on the
Internet. X*w/ien EPA says »state,"
       f      it means states,
          territories, Indian tribes,
           and other jurisdictions.
secchi disk
                                                                              dissolved oxygen probe

dock in a pond on a warm summer day, you might be able to see to the bottom.
That's low turbidity. On the other hand, if you visit the dock after a rain-
storm when all the muck has been stirred up, you won't be able to see
the bottom; that's high turbidity. Scientists use turbidity measure-
ments to calculate the inputs from erosion and nutrients.

Bacteria - Scientists sample for certain types of bacteria that are
found only in the stomachs and intestines of warm-blooded ani-
mals and humans. These bacteria are not necessarily harmful, but
they usually hang out with some bad characters like viruses and
germs that can make  you sick.  Scientists test for bacteria that indi-
cate that those more dangerous organisms might be in the water.

                         surveys - Not all measurements are chem-
                   ical or physical. Scientists take measurements of
                   the landscape surrounding a stream to determine
                   things like the amount of trees and shrubs along
                   a stream, the amount of shade that is created by
                   trees overhanging the stream, and woody debris
                   (sticks and leaves) in the stream. The more veg-
                   etation, tree cover, and woody debris, the more
     colonies of
     (not actual size)
habitat is created for wildlife and fish. Vegetation can even trap
pollutants before they enter the stream. Tree cover also helps
regulate  water temperature, which is important to trout and
other fish that need cold water to survive.

Biological sampling - Scientists determine the health of waters
by taking samples of fish, plants and smaller organisms called
macroinvertebrates (mack-row-in-ver-tuh-bretts). Macroin-
                                vertebrates include things like
                               snails, worms, fly larvae, and
                              crayfish ("crawdads"). You find
                            them under rocks and tree roots
                              in the water. These  critters tell a
                                story about the health of  the
                                  stream. Some of them love to
                                live in water that's dirty, so if
                               scientists find a lot of those in a
                             sample, they know there's a  prob-
                              lem. Other organisms can survive
                                only in water that's very clean,
                                so finding those means the
                                water is probably healthy.
              riffle beetle—
              found in clean water
Raise your ha«4
in a uiaf ershe
  HOU w\any uses for
  loafer can you f hfak of?
Make a list of how water is
used by people, plants and
animals. Here are
a few ideas:
  •  drinking
  •  swimmimg
  •  showering
  •  watering the
  •  homes for fish,  bugs and
  •  irrigating crops
  •  navigation
Scientists group
these uses into
a few overall catego-
ries, like Aquatic Life,
Drinking Water, and Rec-
reation. They then decide
what categories of uses a
waterbody should support
(for example, virtually all
waterbodies should support
aquatic life), and monitor the
waterbody to see  if it sup-
ports its uses.
            f age
of all
arc assessed?
               loney or tech-
nology to sample all the waterbodies
in the U.S. The nation has more
than 3,600,000 miles of rivers and
streams alone! If all the rivers and
streams were placed end-to-end, they
could wrap around the earth 144
times. Each state assesses only a
portion of its waters. Here are the
latest numbers we have for percent-
age of U.S. waters assessed:
HO to is f he qpali-fjT
our loafers
Every state adopts goals or standards that need to be met
for its waters, based on the intended uses of the waterbod-
ies. Different goals are set for different waterbody uses. For
example, if the water is going to be used for cooling machin-
ery in a factory, it doesn't have to be as clean as water used
for drinking. Scientists monitor the waters and give them one
of the following scores:
(GOOD) The waterbody fully supports its intended uses
(IMPAIRED) The waterbody does not support one or more of
its intended uses
   Assessed River
  and Stream Miles
         ?sf he
    our uaf ers?
 Surface waters are waters that
 you can see. These waters
 include rivers and streams,
 lakes, ponds, reservoirs,
 wetlands, coastal waters,
 and estuaries.
 For the U.S. waterbodies
 sampled most recently, about
 45% are rated as impaired.
 The charts here show, by
 the type of waterbody, what
 percentage of the assessed
 waters were rated GOOD and
 what percentage were rated
19% of rivers and streams
43% of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs
36% of estuaries
6% of ocean shorelines
92% of Great Lakes shoreline
Assessed Lake, Pond,
 and Reservoir Acres
                                     Assessed Estuary
                                       Square Miles

Three Big Pollufanfs
For the waterbodies listed as IMPAIRED in
the National Water Quality Inventory, top
pollutants causing problems are dirt,
bacteria, and nutrients.
                                                          Bacteria are a big water quality
                                                          problem in our nation's waters. Not
                                             all bacteria are harmful (yogurt contains live bac-
                                           teria cultures!), but the presence of some indicator
                                          bacteria is a clue that other germs and viruses that can
                                          make you sick might be in the water too.
           That's right, dirt. Dirt was
           listed as a leading cause of
pollution in our rivers and streams. When
rain washes dirt into streams and rivers,
it smothers the little critters in the stream
and kills any fish eggs clinging to rocks.
Dirt can also clog the gills of fish, suffocat-
ing them. Have you ever walked into a pond
or lake and noticed huge swirls of muck rising
up and clouding your view of the bottom? Well, if
the plants that use the sun to make food (yes, that's
right, photosynthesis) can't get enough sunlight
because the water is murky, they die.
                                         Where do the bacteria come from?
                                        The major sources of bacteria are combined sewers
                                         (which can overflow in a rainstorm and dump untreated
                                         sewage directly into our waters) and runoff of animal
                                          waste (including wild animal droppings!) from farmland
                                           and city streets.
                                             What's being done to control bacteria?
                                               Cities and towns are improving their sewage systems
                                                 to keep untreated sewage from overflowing. Farmers
                                                   are developing better ways  to manage livestock
                                                      manure. Dog owners are picking up after
                                                          their pets (yes, dog  waste
                                                                pollutes too).
Where does all this dirt come from?
Most of the dirt washing into lakes and streams comes from activities
that remove trees and shrubs and leave the earth exposed. This exposed earth
includes fields that have just been plowed, construction sites that have been bull-
dozed, and areas that have been logged or mined. Bare patches in your lawn or
ballfield can also contribute to the problem. Some of the dirt polluting streams
comes from the stream banks. The problem is that fast-moving water erodes
the banks of streams. The water moves faster because the vegetation that
would slow it down has been replaced with pavement and buildings.
                                                                        Nutrients were
                                                                        listed as the number one
                                                                       cause of water quality pol-
                                                                      lution in our lakes, ponds, and
                                                                     reservoirs. They caused impairment
                                                                    in more than 3.8 million acres!
                                                                   (That's more than 2.9 million foot-
                                                                  ball fields!) The two most common
                                                                 nutrients are nitrogen and phosphorus,
                                                               which cause algae to grow and can turn
                                                                 water green.
What's being done to control dirt?
The solution is to stop the dirt from getting into the stream in the first
place by disturbing the land as little as possible. Farmers are using dif-
ferent methods to grow their crops so they leave less earth exposed,
and they plant grasses in fields that aren't being used. Construc-
tion workers are putting up silt fences and hay bales to trap the
dirt and contain it while they build. Developers can design
new home sites that leave more natural areas and less
pavement to reduce the amount of earth                     Where do nutrients come from?
   they disturb                                         T^e  maJ°r sources of nutrients are runoff of fertil-
                                                   izers and animal waste from farms and cities (lawn
                                              fertilizers can wash away in heavy rain), sewage treatment
                                        plants, and failing septic systems.

                    What's being done to control nutrients?
                       Farmers are learning new ways to apply fertilizers and manage livestock. Homeowners
f                        are being educated about maintaining their lawns and septic systems. Cities
|^                              and towns are fixing their sewage treatment plants.

inhere are These Pollufanfs
True or false? Factories are the major source of pollutants in our waters.

False. Thirty years ago that statement was true, but since then we've made a lot of progress cutting
down on pollution from factories and sewage treatment plants. Although these can still pollute in
some areas, today most of the problems in our waters comes from polluted runoff draining into
rivers, lakes, and bays after a rain storm. Rain washing over the landscape carries dirt, oil, fertilizer,
pesticides, animal waste and many other substances off streets and farms and into our waters.
As we pave over natural areas to make parking lots, driveways and roads (known as impervious
surfaces) the rainwater doesn't slowly soak into the ground like it used to. Instead it's channeled
into gutters,  culverts, and storm drains. These tend to be convenient places for people to illegally
                                   dump used motor oil, trash, and yard waste. These pollut-
                                   ants then are whisked directly into our streams, wetlands,
                                   bays, and lakes.
slowly soak i
are describe
Pervious areas i
fields, wooded a,
                                    And there's more. All over the country, streams have been
                                    straightened and physically altered to flow in a certain
                                    direction; some have been lined with concrete. This makes
                                    water rush faster after a rainstorm (increasing erosion)
                                     and makes it difficult or impossible for plants and aquatic

f puf or
a mayfly,
creatures to live and thrive. Wetlands
have been dredged and filled to make
way for houses, golf courses, and shop-
ping malls. Dams constructed to control
the flow of water also prevent migratory
fish, such as salmon, shad and sturgeon,
from swimming upstream to spawn.

What's being done?
We all need to work together to reduce
and prevent polluted runoff. For exam-
ple, the federal government works to
ensure that lands belonging to the gov-
ernment are properly managed to cut
down on soil erosion. Farmers are learn-
ing how to manage their land, crops,
and animals to keep them from affecting
nearby waters. Your city, town or county
has local laws controlling what can be
built where, and how construction sites
should be managed to keep rainwater
from washing bare dirt away. You can
play an important role by practicing
water conservation and by changing cer-
tain everyday habits (see What Can I
Do??? on p. 11).

As for all those straightened and chan-
neled streams and impervious surfaces,
prevention is the key. Once a stream has
been altered or an area has been paved
over, it's very difficult (and it costs a lot
of money) to undo the damage. Some
communities are beginning to realize the
value of clustering new buildings where
roads and paved areas already exist,
and leaving open spaces like woods
and farmland alone. Laws that make it
illegal to drain or fill a wetland are
being enforced. And many streams that
were altered in the past are now being
restored to flow in a more natural way.

                            are  u>
             Wetlands are a very important
           part of the environment. They
         help slow down and clean up
        polluted runoff from the land and
      provide habitat for animals. You will
find wetlands in areas where water covers
the soil or is present at or near the ground
surface for part or all of the year. Some-
times a wetland will actually appear dry at
certain times of the year! You can often tell
if something is a wetland by the types of
plants that are growing in it. Most of these
plants, like cattails and swamp roses, are
adapted to living in the water and can't live
in dry soil for very long.
       are u
            nf for our
                      Over one-third of all the threatened and endangered
                      species live in wetlands, and nearly half use wetlands at
                      some time in their lives.
Wetlands as sponges
Have you ever poured water onto a damp sponge? The sponge will hold a
lot of water before it slowly starts to leak. The same happens in a wetland.
A wetland will trap runoff water that flows into it during a rainstorm and
will slowly release the water later. This helps to prevent flooding.
Wetlands as filters
After being trapped by the wetland sponge, polluted runoff water moves
slowly through a wetland, finding its way around plants and through
small spaces in the soil. While it moves, the nutrients are absorbed by
the plant roots that poke through the soil spaces. Some spaces are very
small and pollutants get trapped. Sometimes the  pollutants just stick to
the soil. By the time the water leaves the wetland it is much cleaner than
it was when it entered. This is why many people think of wetlands as
nature's filter system.
                                                                            Other names
                                                                            for wetlands
                                                                           include swamps,
Wetlands as habitat
Wetlands are home to many types of macroinvertebrates,
fish, amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles.
These animals rely on the plentiful food, water,
and shelter that the wetland offers. While
some animals spend their whole lives
in a wetland, many use it only for
a particular time in their lives,
such as for hatching eggs and
raising young.
                                                          Back in
                                                         the early
                                                      1970s the
                                                   United States
                                                was losing over
                                             450,000 acres
                                          every year to develop-
                                        ment. Since then we've
                                     tried harder to protec
                                  wetland areas. But, today
                               are still losing over 58,000 acr
                            of wetlands EVERY YEAR.
                         That is an area equal to
                      about 44,000 football field:
                    Wetlands are  being destroyed
                 to make way for farmland, hig
              ways, houses, and development
           of commercial sites like malls.
        We need to try harder to contro"
      changes in our water-
   sheds so we  can stop
losing wetlands.

                                is  Ground
                 Ground water is the water
                that is found beneath the
              earth's surface. Have you ever
            driven on a road cut along the
           side of a hill and seen what looked
         like layers inside the earth? If we
could see the ground beneath us, it would look
very similar. The top layer of earth is dirt, but
as you get deeper, the dirt changes into layers
of solid rock. Believe it or  not, each of these
layers has many small spaces and cracks filled
with water. Ground water moves slowly as it
finds its way from space to space in the rock.
is Ground i/Oaf er
                                     nf ?
Ground water is an important water source
for all of us. The United States uses about
77,500 million gallons of ground water each
day for all sorts of uses like drinking water,
washing clothes, watering crops, and making
food products.  Over half of the people in the
U.S. rely on ground water for drinking.

Is our Ground i/oafer clean?
States report that their ground water quality
is good overall. Unfortunately, many states do
have areas with polluted ground water. The
most commonly cited pollutants in ground
water include manufactured compunds (like
gasoline products) and nitrates.
        causes Ground i/>)af er
States report that most pollution is caused by
gasoline and other fuels that leak from tanks
buried underground. Gas stations aren't the
only places with buried tanks. People who
use oil for heat in the winter often have tanks
buried in their backyards. Other potential pol-
lution sources that you can't see include leaky
septic systems and leaky landfills.
Ground water pollution can also begin above
ground. If man-made ponds that are used to
treat wastewater are not properly installed and
maintained, they can leak polluted water into
the ground. Pollution such as chemicals spilled
on the ground, bacteria and nutrients from live-
stock areas, and pesticides and nutrients from
farmland can also seep down to the ground water.

can i^e fix f he Problems?       I
Sometimes ground water pollution is caused by
different types of sources that slowly leak a little
pollution. Because the sources are spread out,
environmental managers have a difficult time
finding and controlling the pollution. In other
cases, one pollution source (such as a buried fuel
tank) can leak a large amount of pollution into
the ground water. Once this pollution is discovered,
environmental managers can often pinpoint the
source and stop the pollution. However, even if a
source is pinpointed and removed, the pollution
already in the ground water is difficult to dean up.
Therefore, the best way to fix ground water pollution
is to keep it from happening in the first place.

       caw I  do f o Prof ecf My
                                        First of all, become informed. A great place to
                                        start is EPA's ground water and drinking water
                                        homepage at www.epa.gov/ogwdw. Does your
                                        drinking water come from ground water? How
                                        often is it tested? What products in use around
                                        your house (paints, cleaners, lawn chemicals)
                                        could pollute your ground water if they were
                                        poured down the drain or dumped outside?
                                        What activities on the land might affect your
                                        ground water quality? Next, do something
                                        with what you've learned. Encourage your family
                                        to switch to environmentally safe products. Help
                                        others learn about the importance of ground
                                        water through a class project or a booth at a
                                        fair. Visit the Ground Water Foundation's web
                                        site at www.groundwater.org for more ideas and
                                        information on the annual Children's Ground
                                        Water Festival and Ground Water University.

        hese problems didn't happen overnight, so it's going
        to take time to clean them up. People in your state
        and county are doing lots of things to keep waters
healthy, but they can't do it all. Do you think someone is
watching how much fertilizer your mom puts on her garden
or whether you pick up after your pup? Everyone's actions
every day can make the difference. Here are 12 ideas to get
you started, but don't stop there!
1. Survey your home. Before
we can come up with solutions,
we have to know the problems.
Use the survey at the end of
this booklet to see how you and
your family rate and how you
can help be part of the solution
instead of part of the problem.

2. Conserve water—inside and
out. By conserving the amount
of water we use, we reduce the
amount that needs to be treated.
 • Check to see if your toilets
   are leaking. Squirt a couple
   drops of food dye into the
   top of the tank and wait a
   few minutes to see if the dye
   shows up in the toilet bowl. If
   it does, you've got a leak.
 • Help your family install low-
   flow devices for your showers
   and toilets that reduce the
   amount of water used.
 • Water the  lawn early in the
   morning or in the evening
   to reduce evaporation and
   increase the amount the
   plants drink. Make sure the
   sprinkler isn't also watering
   the driveway or sidewalk.

3. Love your lawn—naturally.
Ask your parents to convert
some of the grassed areas in
your yard into natural areas.
This eliminates the need for
fertilizers, provides habitat for
birds and animals, and frees
up your time from mowing the
lawn. Where you do have to
mow, leave the grass clippings
on the lawn to provide natural
fertilizer to the grass, and let the
grass grow to at least 3 inches
before you cut it.

4. Build a com-
post pile. Com-
posting yard and
food wastes is a
great way to make
your own organic
fertilizer and reduce
waste that goes into
landfills. Be sure to
keep meat and dairy
products out of your
compost pile—they
can attract rodents.
Call 1-888-LANDCARE
for more information on back-
yard conservation or go to
www.nrcs.usda.gov and click on
"Backyard Conservation."

5. Take a day off each week
from using cars. Many of the
metals and pollutants that wash
into streams come from our
cars—copper from brake pads,
cadmium from tires, oil from
the crankcase. Get your whole
family involved. Ride bikes,
walk, or take public transporta-
tion at least one day a week.
Convince your parents to treat
to you to a movie with all the
money they save in gas.
6. Stop storm drain pollution.
Those hollow drains along your
curb are meant to carry storm
water off the street during heavy
rains. Chances are that what-
ever goes into a storm drain
winds up in your local stream.
Storm drain stenciling is a good
way to let others know not to
dump anything down there such
as oil, leaves, pet waste, grass
clippings, or cigarette butts.
Produce and distribute a door
hanger or flyer for local house-
holds to make them aware of
your stenciling
                project and
 remind them that storm
drains dump directly to
the local waterbody. Visit
www. earthwater-stencils. com
for more information on how
to do a storm drain stenciling

7. Dispose of hazardous
waste properly. We're not
talking about drums of nuclear
waste. We're talking car bat-
teries, solvents, pesticides and
cans of oil-based paint. Contact
         your local waste
                                9. Participate in the Interna-    ate (1995-1997) Robert Haas,
                                tional Coastal Cleanup. The     the River of Words Poetry and
                                annual event is sponsored by       Art Contest seeks to foster
                                the Ocean Conservancy every      responsibility, imagination and
                                September. For more information   action in young people and
                                call 1-800-CMC-BEACH or visit    to publicly acknowledge their
                                                                creativity and concerns. Visit
                                                                www.riverofwords.org, send an
                                                                email to info@riverofwords.org,
                                                                or call (510) 548-POEM.
                    www. oceanconservancy. org.
collection facility
to find out how to handle
these materials. Many facilities
have free collection days when   it treated? Get a copy of your
you can bring in these materi-    state's water quality report
                                10. Get informed. Knowledge
                                                 is one of the
                                                 most powerful
                                                tools around.
                                                Find out all
                                               you can about
                                               your water-
                                               shed. What
                                              are the bound-
                                              aries? Where
                                              does your
                                             drinking water
                                        come from? How is
als for disposal.

8. Adopt a stream. Find out if
there is a volunteer monitor-
ing organization or watershed
group in your community—and
join it. If not, start one as part
of your science class or other
local organization. Check out
EPA's web site (www.epa.gov/
adopt) for a list of watershed
groups in your community.
Read EPA's brochure Getting
Started in Volunteer Monitoring
at www.epa.gov/owow/
                                (visit www.epa.gov/305b~) to
                                find out the major water qual-
                                ity issues in your area. A good
                                starting place is EPA's Water-
                                shed Information Network at
                                www. epa.gov/win.
                                11. Enter the River of Words
                                Poetry and Art Contest.  Co-
                                sponsored by the Library of
                                Congress and United
                                States Poet Laure-

                                                There's a
                                                     12. Spread the word. Once
                                                     you've learned about your
                                                     watershed and its major water
                                                     quality issues, tell others. Make
                                                     a presentation in your school.
                                                     Write an article for your school
                                                     or community newspaper.
                                                     Organize an environmental
                                                     fair at your school. Contact the
                                                     Water Environment Federation
                                                     at public_education@wef.org for
                                                     a guide on hosting a watershed
                                                     festival. The Groundwater Foun-
                                                     dation (1-800-858-4844) also
                                                     has several guides on hosting
                                                     water festivals, including Making
                                                     More Waves: Ideas from Across
                                                     the U.S. and Canada for Orga-
                                                     nizing Your Watershed
                                      How to  use the scientific method
                       The following pages contain ideas for projects that you can do for school or for fun. Before
                       starting any of them, check with your parent or teacher first. These projects are designed
                       to increase your awareness and concern for the environment. Make sure you share what you
                       learn with your family and friends.
                       Scientists use the scientific method to solve problems. For each of the projects listed in this
Describe a
problem and
formulate a
question to
                       report follow the same steps:
                                                            ©        @
                         State your hypoth-
                         esis. A hypothesis is
                         a statement that pre-
                         dicts what you think
                         will happen.
Conduct the
Make observa-
tions about what
is happening.
                                                             Analyze the
State your conclusion. Was
your hypothesis incorrect?
What have you learned,
based on the information
you collected?

   Science Project - The  Wonders of Wetlands
   Build a Working Wetland Model

Materials:   D   2 large aluminum roasting pans        D  Carpet
            D   Sand                              D  Ground pepper
            D   Modeling clay                       D  Twigs, branches
Background: Wetlands are amazing natural areas that are in between deep open water
            and dry land. Sometimes it is easy to see the water in a wetland. At
            other times the wetness lies just below the surface of the soil, where
            the plant roots grow. Maybe you think of wetlands as swamps, bogs, or
            marshes—muddy places that smell like rotten eggs, are full of mosquitos
            and leave your sneakers caked in muck. Maybe you think of them as cool
            places full of turtles, frogs, and birds.
            Wetlands provide more benefits than most people realize. First, wetlands
            provide nurseries and homes for birds, fish, reptiles, insects, amphibians,
            and mammals. Wetlands also can filter out pollutants before they reach
            the stream. Wetlands can slow down the flow of waters to reduce the
            chances of flooding and protect areas from erosion. Finally, wetlands
            provide opportunities for recreational activities such as canoeing and
            birdwatching. When you finish this experiment, you will be better able to
            understand how wetlands are beneficial to our environment.
Hypothesis:  State a hypothesis about the ability of a wetland to filter pollutants and
            soak up excess water. Give reasons for your hypothesis.
Experiment: In the first roasting pan make a model of a wetland. Build the wetland
            using materials such as sand, clay, carpeting,  and twigs (hey, be creative).
            Leave the other pan empty. Raise both pans at one end approximately 2
            inches. Measure equal amounts of water. Pour the water over the wetland
            pan and into the empty pan. Observe and record what you see. How long
            did it take the water to settle in the end of the pans? How much water
            was in the lower end of both pans?
            Repeat the experiment several times. Each time, add more and different
            materials to the empty pan. Observe and record how long it takes the
            water to travel to the ends of the pans. Which materials soaked up the
            most water?
            Repeat the experiment with your wetland pan adding pepper to the water.
            Observe and record how much pepper ends up at the end of the pan.
            What happened to the remaining pepper?
Conclusion:  What conclusions can you draw from this project? In what
            ways are wetlands beneficial to an ecosystem?

    Science  Project -  From  the  Rain to the Drain
    Measure changes in pH as water goes from your house to a stream

Materials:    D  4 clean containers to collect water samples (cut the tops off empty
                plastic ^-gallon milk containers)
             D  pH testing kit (ask your science teacher where you can get a kit)
             D  Graph paper
             D  Measuring tape
Background: As rainwater falls and moves across your yard, down the driveway, and
            into a storm drain, it picks up pollutants. These pollutants come from
            many sources such as the exhaust from our cars, fertilizers on our lawns,
            dirt from bare patches, and wastes from our pets. These pollutants can
            affect the pH of the water, making it more acidic. pH is the measure of
            how acidic or basic a solution is. Changes in pH can affect how chemicals
            dissolve in the water and whether organisms can use these chemicals to
            grow. Most aquatic organisms prefer a pH  range of 6.5-8.0
Hypothesis: State a hypothesis about how the pH readings of your water samples will
            change as the water flows from your yard down to a storm drain. Record
            your hypothesis.
Experiment: Identify four sampling locations starting at the highest point (hopefully
            near your house) and ending in a storm drain. Measure the distance
            between your sampling locations, and space the locations at least 30 feet
            apart (or measure 30 paces  with your feet). Leave the first container
            outside your door to collect rainwater. Laying each container on its side,
            collect the runoff from the other three locations. Test the pH of each
            container and record your findings. Repeat the sampling two more times on
            different days. Each time record the number of days since the last rain
            event before you sampled.
            Plot your measurements on a graph with the pH concentration on one axis
            and the sampling location (distance from your house) on another axis.
Conclusion:  Does the pH in the water samples increase, decrease, or stay the same?
            What conclusions can you make about the changes in the pH from your
            house to the storm drain? How do you think these changes affect the
            pH level of the river water? Did the pH level change from one rain event
            to another? What do think are the major sources of pollutants in the

   Science Project - Watershed Awareness  Campaign

Background:  Clean, healthy watersheds depend on an "informed public" to make choices
            that help the environment. Hundreds of thousands of dollars are poured
            into education campaigns each year to make communities aware of the
            sources of water pollution in their watershed and what can be done
            to prevent these problems. Marketing firms conduct research  on their
            markets before they develop an ad campaign. They identify their markets,
            find out what messages appeal to them, and then develop ways to get
            the messages out.
            Conduct your own research to gauge the awareness of your community on
            watershed issues, and design a marketing campaign to  improve awareness
            of the issues.
Hypothesis:  State a hypothesis about the current understanding of watershed issues
            in your community. Predict which audiences are the most informed and
            which messages you think will appeal to which audiences.
Materials:   Interview forms
            List of questions
Experiment:  Identify at least three different audiences from which to gather
            information on watershed issues (for example, students in grades 6-9,
            homeowners, local elected officials). Develop a 1- or 2-page interview form
            to ask questions that will help you determine their level of knowledge on
            various issues. (For example, do they know what a watershed is? Where
            does their drinking water come from?) [Hint: Use some of the questions
            on the Test Your Water Smarts  in this report to get you started.]
            Determine how you will get the information. (During lunch period?
            Stopping people at the grocery store? After a board of supervisors
            meeting?) After you collect and analyze the information, develop a
            campaign to address the  major gaps of knowledge in your community and
            outline strategies to fill in these gaps (a watershed fair, articles in the
            local newspaper, etc.). Show examples of materials you would use to get
            the message out.
Conclusions:  What audiences were the most informed about watershed issues? Which
            messages appealed to the different audiences? How did the different
            audiences get their information on watershed issues?

This is just a starting point. There's a ton of information out there about the water
quality in your state and who's doing what to protect it. Thanks to the cyber world,
much  of this information is only a mouse click away. Dig in to find out
what the water quality is like in your local watershed and what you can
do to make a difference.

                              engage in hands-on activities,
                              making science applicable and
                              relevant to their lives. To get
                              more information on activi-
                              ties you can do in your state/
                              community go to www.adopt-
                              and click on your state. You
                              can also  call (530) 628-5334
                              for a list of contacts for your
                              Coastal Cleanups (www.ocean
                              conservancy.org). Visit this site
                              or call the Ocean Conservancy
                              at 1-800-CMC-Beach for infor-
                              mation about beach cleanups
                              or to participate in the annual
                              International Coastal Cleanup.
                              Earth Force (G.R.E.E.N)
                              Earth Force is youth driven.
                              Through Earth Force, kids
                              discover and implement last-
                              ing solutions to environmental
                              issues in their community. In
                              the process they develop life-
                              long habits of active citizenship
A                                                and envi-
                                             ship. For
                                             more infor-
                                   mation, call (703) 299-
                              9400 or visit the web site at

                              Earthwater Stencils. Their
                              mission is to foster public
                              awareness of, involvement in,
Use the government pages of
your telephone book to locate
addresses and phone numbers
of local agencies in your com-
munity or state. The following
list includes some of the orga-
nizations that may be  helpful
to you:

  Cooperative Extension

  Department of Agriculture
  Department of Health

  Department of Natural

  Environmental Quality

  Soil and Water
  Conservation District

  Waste Water Departments

1-800-RECYCLE. You  can
call anytime to get infor-
mation on how and what
to recycle.
Adopt-A-Watershed uses a
local watershed as a living
laboratory in which students
and support
for stormwater
pollution prevention. This is
accomplished through commu-
nity-based storm drain stencil-
ing and related programs in
local watersheds. For more
information,  call (360) 956-
3774 or visit www.earthwater-

EPA Safe Drinking Water Act
Hotline (1-800-426-4791).
You can call this number to
report problems or to get infor-
mation on safe drinking water

EPA Wetlands Helpline
(1-800-832-7828). You can
obtain free fact sheets, coloring
books, and other useful materi-
als on wetlands.
Global Learning and Obser-
vations to Benefit the
Environment (GLOBE) is a
worldwide network of stu-
dents, teachers, and scientists
working together to study and
understand the global environ-
ment. GLOBE students make
environmental observations
at or near their schools and
report their data through the
Internet. For more information
on getting involved, call 1-800-
858-9947 or  visit GLOBE's web
site at www.globe.gov.

Izaak Walton League of
America's Save Our Streams
program provides educational
material on stream and wetland
monitoring. Visit www.iwla.org/
sos or call 1-800-BUG-IWLA.

National Wildlife Feder-
ation's Backyard Wildlife
Habitat program shows you
how to help save a place for
wildlife in your own backyard.
Visit www.nwf.org/
Project WET is a
nonprofit water
education pro-
gram for educators and young
people, grades K-12, located on
the Montana State University
campus in Bozeman, Montana.
The goal of Project WET is to
facilitate and promote aware-
ness, appreciation, knowledge,
and stewardship of water
resources. At project WET's
homepage (www.montana.edu/
wwwwet) you can get more
information from the contact in
your state (see the State Project
WET Program Coordinator list)
or call  (406) 994-5392.

River of Words Poetry and
Art Contest. The River of
Words  Contest is a national
poetry  and  poster contest for
grades  K-12 that invites chil-
dren to explore their own
watershed,  discover its impor-
tance in their lives, and express
what they learned, felt and
saw in  words or images. For
more information on entering
the next River of Words contest,
visit www.riverofwords.org,
email info@riverofwords.org,
or call  (510) 848-1155.
River Network keeps a direc-
tory of river and watershed
conservation groups. Visit

The Groundwater Founda-
tion is a nonprofit organiza-
tion dedicated to educating
the public about ground water.
Visit www.groundwater.org or
call 1-800-858-4844.
       The Water Environ-
       ment Federation is
       an international tech-
      nical and educational
  services organization. Visit
www.wef.org for hands-on
water environment activities
for kids K-12.
50 Simple Things Kids Can
Do to Save the Earth by
Earthworks Group. This book
shows kids how specific ele-
ments of their environment
(like a light switch or a toilet)
are connected to the rest of the
world. The book provides prac-
tical  tips to kids on how they
can conserve energy, recycle
waste, and take on important
environmental projects. Avail-
able  in bookstores.
Backyard Conservation.
Whether you have acres in the
country, an average-
sized suburban yard, or
a tiny plot in the city,
this booklet can show
you things you can do
to the land around your
home to help protect the
environment and add
beauty and interest to your
surroundings. Tip sheets and
this colorful 28-page booklet
on Backyard Conservation are
available free by calling 1-888-
LANDCARE (single copies
only). You can also visit the
web site at www.nrcs.usda.gov.

Earth Book for Kids: Activ-
ities to Help Heal the Envi-
ronment by Linda Schwartz,
Beverly Armstrong (Illustrator).
This book contains arts and
crafts projects, experiments,
and experiences that encourage
children to enjoy and heal the
environment. The book covers
acid rain, endangered wildlife,
pesticides, energy, recycling,
pollution, landfills, rain forests,
water conservation, and related
topics. Available in bookstores.

Getting Started in Volunteer
Monitoring. A brochure intro-
ducing volunteer monitoring and
how to get involved. Visit the
EPA web site at www.epa.gov/

Watershed Patch Project.
The purpose of this project is
to encourage kids to make a
difference in their communities
by becoming watershed stew-
ards. For more information or
to obtain a copy of the book-
let, call the National Service
Center for Environmental
Publications (NSCEP) at 1-800-
490-9198 or visit the web site
        at www.epa.gov/
        Don't forget to give
        them the EPA docu-

ment number when ordering

Give Water a Hand Activity
Guide (www.uwex.edu/erc).
This guide provides informa-
tion for youth about water-
sheds and ways to protect and
improve them.

National Water Quality
Inventory: Report to Con-
gress.  This report includes
information about the condition
of our nation's waters. Visit
www.epa.gov/305b or contact
the National Service Center for
Environmental Publications
(NSCEP) at 1-800-490-9198.
Splash (CD-ROM). This inter-
active tool provides information
on nonpoint source pollution. For
more information, contact the
Conservation Technology Informa-
tion Center at (765) 494-9555.
Turning the Tide on
Trash: A Learning Guide
on Marine Debris. Call
the National Service Center
for Environmental Publica-
tions (NSCEP) at 1-800-490-
9198 or visit the web  site at
Marine/contents.html. EPA
document number

Waters to the Sea:  Rivers
of the Upper Mississippi
(CD-ROM). This interactive
tool presents fundamental
concepts of ecology, the water
cycle, and watershed hydrology.
The cost is $39.95 plus ship-
ping and handling. For more
information, contact the Center
for Global Environmental Edu-
cation at (651) 523-2480.
 ideb Srf es
This web site contains informa-
tion on environmental issues,
where to get free environ-
mental materials (CDs and
posters), kids' stuff (fun and
games), clip art, environmental
news, online environmental
mapping, and other links to
environmental issues.

Hey Kids, Its Time to Take
Action. All types of recycling
programs and information for
kids from the American Forest
and Paper Association. One
feature of the site lists 20 ways
to reuse a paper grocery bag.

At this site, you can find
reports on the quality of our
nation's waters, including sum-
maries for your state.

EPA's Explorer's Kids Club. Pro-
vides information and activities
for kids to become familiar with
the environment and what they
can do to make a difference.

EPAs Volunteer Monitoring
Homepage. At this web site
you'll find information on vol-
unteer monitoring, including a
directory of U.S. programs and
documents on how to monitor.

Locate Your Watershed. Using
the Watershed Information
Network, you can check out
local water conditions, find
out about watershed training
opportunities, identify volun-
teer monitoring and watershed
programs to get involved in, or
connect with federal and state
This web site is loaded with
information for kids of all ages,
including projects, experi-
ments, educational materials
and games.
Watershed Information Net-
work. You can get information
on your watershed from this
web site.
MSNBC's Earth Dog. Check out
this web site to learn more
about environmental issues
from this canine crusader. This
web site includes articles on
various environmental prob-
lems throughout the world
and offers tips on how you can
improve our world's natural

Test Your Water Smarts

Take this quiz (don't worry, you won't get graded) to test your water smarts. Then give the
quiz to your family and friends to test their knowledge on water quality. We can't solve all
these problems if people don't know they exist. Be the ball . . .
 1.   True or false. Watersheds are
     located mainly in mountainous regions
     with high rainfall.

 2.   Circle the correct answer. Most of
     the pollutants entering our waters
     come from the following sources:
         A. Wastewater treatment plants
         B. Runoff from fields and
         C. Factories along rivers

 3.   True or false. Students can join
     organizations to help  monitor their

 4.   True or false. Dirt, bacteria, and
     nutrients are the most common
     pollutants in our waters.

 5.   True or false. Leaves should be
     raked down a storm drain so they can
     decompose in the stream and provide
     food for the fish.

 6.   True or false. To test if your toilet
     is leaking, you can squirt a couple
     drops of food dye in the top of the
     tank and wait a few minutes to see if
     the dye shows up in the toilet  bowl.
          7.  Circle the correct answer. The
              following organizations monitor the
              quality of our waters:
                  A. Volunteer organizations,
                     including kids like you
                  B. State, local and tribal agencies
                  C. The federal government
                  D. All of the above

          8.  Circle the correct answer. Nutrients
              that enter our waters come from
              the following sources:
                  A. Leaking septic systems
                  B. Excess fertilizers washing off
                  C. Pet waste
                  D. All of the above

          9.  What percentage of rivers and
              streams assessed in the  most recent
              national water quality report scored
              a (SOOD rating, meaning  the waters
              fully supported their designated uses?
                  A. 10%
                  B. 32%
                  C. 65%
                  D. 93%
 How do you rate?

 More than five wrong: Uh oh. Better read this report again!

 3 to 5 wrong: You've gotta do better than that if you're going to make a difference. Check
 out some of the web sites listed on page 18.

 1 to 3 wrong: Pretty good. Find the correct answers and start spreading the word.

 0 wrong: Excellent! You've got the smarts to be an environmental champion. Now, go out
 there and make a difference!
'0 '6 'Q '8 'Q '
 :j_ -^  :j_ •£  :g
                                                                 D ui

To improve your home's environmental friendliness, you need to know where you and your family
stand on the environmentally-friendly meter. Please answer the questions below and then calculate
your score. If some questions don't apply to you, try answering them anyway, using good oP
common sense (lots of us don't have yards, garages, or dogs!).
   1.  Your family runs the dishwasher and washing machine
          a. Only when they're full
          b. When they are about half full
          c. When they have only a few items in them

   2.  Your house has low-flow devices (which use less water than standard devices) in the
           Bathroom sink (number	)
           Shower (number	)
           Toilets (number	)

   3.  Take a look at all of the faucets in your house. How many leak?	
   4.  Your family recycles
          a. Glass
          b. Plastic
          c. Newspapers
          d. Metal

   5.  When you look into your garage or shed, you see
          a. No cans of paint, fertilizer, yard chemicals, or car batteries. Your family recycles
             them at the local hazardous waste facility.
                  Bonus: Where is the facility located?	
          b. One can of paint, but your family is redecorating and it will be used
          c. Plenty of cans of paint, fertilizers, chemicals, and old car batteries.
          d. No cans of paint or old car batteries. Your family threw them away in the regular

   6.  When you look at the floor of your garage and/or driveway, you see
          a. No oil or chemical stains
          b. A few drops of oil or chemicals
          c. A lovely collage of chemical stains and leaked oil

7.   If you have a family dog, whoever walks it
       a. Always picks up after the pooch
       b. Sometimes picks up after the pooch
       c. Never picks up after the pooch, except when someone steps in it

8.   Describe how your family deals with your lawn
       a. Constantly fertilizes, spreads chemicals for weed and bug control,
          and waters it like crazy. Your parents pay more attention
          to the lawn than to you!
       b. Hires a lawn care company to do everything in choice "a"
       c. Fertilizes infrequently, uses little or no chemicals for weed and bug
          control, and waters occasionally in the early morning or late afternoon
       d. Your "lawn" only has native grasses and plants (native means that the plants grow
          naturally in your area of the country and usually don't require any watering or
          fertilizers), and your family removes the weeds by hand (really)

9.   Your yard is mostly:
       a. Patches of dirt and/or a patio
       b. Grass, shrubs, flowers, trees, and pervious (water absorbing) surfaces

10. Your family disposes of yard waste (leaves and grass clippings) by
       a. Throwing it into the nearby pond or stream
       b. Raking it into the storm drain
       c. Collecting it to be recycled by the town or county public works department
       d. Composting it and using it in the garden or planting beds

11. If you have a stream or pond in your yard or neighborhood, you see
       a. A healthy watercourse with lots of fish and with vegetation, like overhanging
          trees and shrubs, along the edge
       b. No sign of fish and has mowed grass or impervious surfaces right along the edge
       c. No water because that's where you dump your trash

12. If you have a septic system
       a. When was the last time that it was pumped?	
       b. By whom?	

So, hou*4M you score?
Mom Nature thinks that you're pretty cool for doing this survey. Give yourself 5 points
to start out.
1.  To be most efficient with water and energy, the dishwasher and washing machine
    should only be run when they're full.
       a. add 3  points
       b. subtract 1 point
       c. subtract 3 points

2.  Low-flow devices can save lots of water, plus there will be less water to
    clean at the water treatment plant.
       * add 1 point for every low-flow device in your house

3.  Water conservation is always environmentally friendly. Leaking water faucets
    waste precious water.
       * subtract 2 points for each leaky faucet

4.  Recycling is good for the environment. Recycling materials into useful
    products uses less energy and water than using new natural resources.
       a. add 2  points
       b. add 2  points
       c. add 2  points
       d. add 2  points

5.  Cans of oil-based paint and old car batteries should never be put into the regular
    trash. They are a hazardous waste and should be recycled by a special facility.
       a. add 5  points
          BONUS add 10 points (good for you!)
       b. add 5  points
       c. subtract 3 points
       d. subtract 5 points
6.  When it rains or you hose down the garage, oils and other gunk on the floor
    of the garage or driveway will be washed into a storm drain that leads into
    a stream. That's bad news for the fish and other critters living in the stream.
       a. add 5  points
       b. add no points
       c. subtract 5 points (A collage of oils and  chemicals is certainly NOT art!)
7.  Pet waste should always be picked up  and put into the trash or flushed down the
    toilet. If left on the ground, it can wash into a storm drain or directly into a stream.
       a. add 5  points
       b. add 1  point
       c. subtract 5 points (Ewwwww! That's gross!)

8.  Lawns should be fertilized sparingly, and weed and bug chemicals applied only
    when absolutely necessary. Native plants need little care and often provide
    improved habitat for animals. If the lawn is fertilized too much, the excess

    fertilizer will just wash into a storm drain or directly into a stream.
       a. subtract 3 points
       b. subtract 5 points
       c. add 3 points
       d. add 5 points
9.   When it rains, the runoff picks up dirt from bare patches in the yard and
    washes it into a storm drain or directly into a stream. Dirt can clog fish
    gills, smother stream critters, and change the flow of water in the stream.
    A yard with lots of bare patches and impervious surfaces is bad news!
       a. subtract 5 points
       b. add 5 points
10. Composting or recycling leaves and grass clippings creates new topsoil. Yard waste should
    never be thrown into the regular trash or any other sensitive area such as a wetland
    or stream. Too many leaves and grass clippings can clog up those sensitive areas and
    add too many nutrients. Yard waste clogs storm drains and ends  up in our waterways.
       a. subtract 5 points
       b. subtract 5 points
       c. add 5 points
       d. add 5 points
11. A "buffer area" is an area with many plants along a streambed. A buffer area filters
    pollutants such as phosphorus  and dirt out of rainwater before it enters the stream
    or pond. A buffer area also shades the water to keep it cool for the critters in
    the summer. And as we learned, cool water holds more oxygen than warm water.
       a. add 5 points
       b. add no points
       c. subtract 5 points (Try using a trash can!)
12. Septic systems require maintenance, such as regular pumping of the tank every few years.
       a. add 5 points if it was within the past three years
          subtract 5 points if it was over 5 years ago
       b. add 5 points if it was by a certified contractor
          subtract 5 points if it was by your Uncle Bob                    ,	
                         fhfoks of your score...
50 points or more
   You and your family are environmentally friendly! Mom Nature is really proud of you! Keep
   up the good work!
20 to 50 points
   You and your family are really close to environmentally friendly. Mom Nature is pleased, but
   she would like you to do a bit better.
negative points to 20 (eek!)
   Mom Nature is pretty upset and wants you and your family to go to your rooms and reread
   this report until you learn more about protecting the environment!

Technically Speakfog - Glossary of Tewjs
Algal bloom: A sudden, excessive growth of
algae in a waterbody.
Clarity: A measure of the amount of particles
suspended in water; determined by using a
secchi disk or turbidity test.

Combined sewers: Pipes that carry both storm
water and household sewage to sewage treat-
ment plants. During a big storm, thay may over-
flow and dump untreated sewage into streams,
lakes and coastal waters. These overflows are
called combined sewer overflows or CSOs.

Designated use: The desired use a waterbody
should support (like fishing or swimming).

Dissolved oxygen (DO): The amount of
oxygen dissolved in water. The amount is usu-
ally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or mil-
ligrams per liter (mg/L).

Estuary: The area where the fresh water of a
river meets and mixes with the salt water of the
Ground water: The supply of fresh water that
is found under the earth's surface in under-
ground rock formations or soil.

Impervious surface: A paved or other hard
surface that does not allow water to penetrate.
Livestock operation: A facility that raises ani-
mals such as cows, sheep, or hogs. Bacteria are
present in livestock waste.

Macroinvertebrate: Organism that lacks a
backbone and is large enough to be seen with
the naked eye.
Meandering stream: One that follows its natu-
ral course creating winding curves.
National Water Quality Inventory: A report
EPA prepares every 2 years summarizing infor-
mation from states about the quality of the
nation's waters.
Nitrogen: A nutrient that is essential to plants
and animals.
Nutrients: Substances necessary for the growth
of all living things, such as nitrogen, carbon,
potassium, and phosphorus. Too many nutrients
in waterbodies can contribute to algal blooms.
Particulates: Small pieces of material (such as
sand) floating in the water.

Pervious surface: A surface which allows water
to soak into it.

pH: A symbol for expressing the degree to
which a solution is acidic or basic. It is based
on a scale from 0 (very acid) to 14 (very basic).
Pure water has a pH of 7.
Phosphorus: A nutrient that is essential to
plants and animals.
Photosynthesis: The conversion of light energy
to chemical energy. At night, this process
reverses: plants and algae suck oxygen out of
the water.
Runoff: Water from rain, snowmelt, or irriga-
tion that flows over the ground  and returns
to streams. It can collect pollutants from air
or land and carry them to streams and other

Secchi disk: A black-and-white disk used to
measure the clarity of water. The disk is low-
ered into the water until it cannot be seen and
then the depth of the disk is measured.

Septic system: A system that treats and disposes
of household wastewater under the ground.

Turbidity: A measure of the degree of clarity of
a solution. For cloudy water, turbidity would be
high; for clear water, turbidity would be low.

Watershed: The area of land that  drains into a
specific waterbody.
Wetland: An area where water covers the soil
or is present either at or near the surface of
the soil all year (or at least for periods of time
during the year).

                           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                  Office of Water (4503T)
                                  Washington, DC 20460

                                    EPA 841-F-02-002
                                        July 2002

                           Previously published as EPA 841-F-00-005

    This document is available online at www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring/nationswaters/
or by contacting the National Service Center for Environmental Publications, 1-800-490-9198.