FINAL REPORT
     CONTAMINANT BODY BURDENS IN
     MESOPELAGIC FISH (XYCTOPBIDAE)
    COLLECTED NEAR THE 106-MILE SITE
             September 30, 1989
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection
              Washington, DC
    Prepared Under Contract No. 68-C8-0105

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                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This is to acknowledge the participation of the following persons from
Battelle Ocean Sciences in the preparation of this report: D. Shea, C.D.
Hunt, N.S. Young, W.G. Steinhauer, G.S. Durell, and C.S. Peven.

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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                       Page
 1.0    INTRODUCTION	   1
        1.1  Background	   1
        1.2  Objectives and  Scope of Work	   2
        1.3  Selection of Organic Contaminants	...-.   3
        1.4  Selection of Indicator Organism	   5
 2.0    SURVEY DESCRIPTION	   7
        2.1  Station Locations...	   7
        2.2  Sampling Methods	   7
3.0    ANALYTICAL METHODS	  10
        3.1  Sample Preparation	  11
        3.2  Instrumental Analysis	  12
4.0    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION	  13
        4.1  Polychlorinated Biphenyls  (PCB)	  16
        4.2  Pesticides	  25
        4.3  Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)	  27
        4.4  Linear Alkyl Benzenes  (LAB)	  27
        4.5  Physical Oceanographic Data	  29
5.0   CONCLUDING REMARKS	  33
        5.1  Summary and Conclusions	  33
        5.2  Recommendations		  36
6.0   REFERENCES	  37
APPENDIX A. Data Quality Requirements and Quality Control Results	A-l
APPENDIX B. Trawl  Location Logs	 B-l
APPENDIX C. Hydrographic Profiles	 C-l

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                               LIST OF TABLES

                                                                       Page


Table  1      MYCTOPHID SAMPLES  COLLECTED ON SURVEY	  14

Table  2      MYCTOPHID SAMPLES  ANALYZED FOR
             ORGANIC  CONTAMINANTS	  15

Table  3      RESULTS  OF PCB BODY BURDEN ANALYSES	  17

Table  4      MEAN  PCB AND PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS
             IN MYCTOPHID NEAR  THE 106-MILE SITE	   19

Table  5      RESULTS  OF PESTICIDE BODY BURDEN ANALYSES	  26

Table  6      RESULTS  OF PAH AND LAB BODY BURDEN ANALYSES	  28
                              LIST OF FIGURES

                                                                       Page

Figure 1    DRAWING OF MYCTOPHIDAE MYCTOPHUM		   6

Figure 2    LOCATION OF THE 106-MILE SITE AND SAMPLING STATIONS
            FOR JUNE NOAA/EPA MYCTOPHID SURVEY	   8

Figure 3    DISTRIBUTION OF PCB IN MYCTOPHID
            COLLECTED AT THE 106-MILE SITE	  21

Figure 4    DISTRIBUTION OF PCB IN MYCTOPHID COLLECTED
            100 MILES S.W. OF THE 106-MILE SITE	  22

Figure 5    DISTRIBUTION OF PCB IN MYCTOPHID
            COLLECTED IN THE SARGASSO SEA	  23

Figure 6    DISTRIBUTION OF PCB IN MYCTOPHID COLLECTED
            80 MILES N.E. OF THE 106-MILE SITE	    24

Figure 7    SATELLITE THERMAL IMAGERY DATA FROM JUNE 11,  1989...	  30

Figure 8    CURRENT VECTORS FOR 25 AND 100 METERS
            AT THE 106-MILE SITE	  32

Figure 9    PCB AND PESTICIDE DIAGNOSTICS RATIOS IN MYCTOPHID:   TOTAL
            PCB (PCB),  TOTAL PESTICIDE (PEST), AND TOTAL  DDT (DDT)	  35

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                              1.0 INTRODUCTION

                               1.1 BACKGROUND

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the Marine
Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, is responsible for
regulating disposal of sewage sludge in U.S. territorial waters.  This
responsibility includes developing and implementing effective monitoring
programs to assess compliance with permit conditions and to evaluate
potential impacts on the marine environment.  A monitoring program has been
designed for the 106-Mile Deepwater Municipal Sludge Site (106-Mile Site),
which was designated in 1984 for disposal of municipal sludges (  EPA   ,
1992a).  The program is being implemented according to a tiered approach
(   EPA    1992b),  whereby data generated in one tier are used in making
management decisions about continued site designation, awarding of dumping
permits, and the design and implementation of future surveys.
In,March 1989, EPA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA),  and the U.S. Coast .Guard jointly sponsored a workshop to address
management issues on sewage sludge dumping at the 106-Mile Site (EPA, in
press).   Many recommendations were made (EPA, 1989), including a priority
placed on assessing possible impacts on indigenous fish populations at the
site.  Criteria for selection of the fish species included residency at and
near the 106-Mile Site and residence in the near surface water (epipelagic
zone).  The latter criterion is important because contaminants are
concentrated  on the finer-grained particles in the sewage sludge (Boehm,

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 1983), and these particles appear to have a long residence time in the
 epipelagic zone (  EPA   , 1992c).  This could result in long-term exposure
 of indigenous organisms to contaminants in the sludge.  The workshop also
 strongly recommended enhanced cooperation among the government agencies
 interested in sewage-sludge disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

 Prior to the workshop,  NOAA planned  a June 1989 survey of the 106-Mile Site
 and areas up to 100 miles north,  south,  and  east of the 106-Mile Site to
 collect and analyze mesopelagic  fish for mercury content.   In part  because
 of the workshop recommendations,  NOAA increased the number  of metals  to be
 analyzed  from 1 to  13.   NOAA  also offered  EPA  the opportunity to
 participate in  this  survey, and  EPA  responded  by  funding  the  analysis  of
 organic contaminants  in  fish  collected  in  the  survey.   This analysis was
 completed  by  Battelle Ocean Sciences  (Battelle) under  Work Assignment  38
 (WA 38).   NOAA  concurrently performed metal analysis of replicated  fish
 collected  in  the survey.

                      1.2 OBJECTIVES  AND SCOPE  OF WORK
Mesopelagic fish indigenous to the 106-Mile Site were analyzed for organic
contaminants to provide chemical data for an initial assessment of the
impact of sewage-sludge dumping on fish residing at and near the 106-Mile
Site.  Although not originally part of the 106-Mile Site Implementation
Plan (   EPA    1992b), results from this survey can be used to support the
evaluation of long-term effects (Tier 4 of the monitoring program).   This
is made possible by comparing contaminant body burdens in fish resident at

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the 106-Mile Site with those collected upstream and downstream from the
site and with those collected in the Sargasso Sea (control site).  Site  ,
selection and field operations were performed by NOAA aboard the R/V
Delaware II.  Battelle provided assistance in the collection of fish at the
106-Mile Site and conducted whole-body analyses of organic contaminants.

This report provides a description of the NOAA survey, the results of the
organic contaminant analysis, and an interpretive discussion of these data
to evaluate the impact of sewage sludge dumping at the 106-Mile Site on
indigenous fish.  Additional tasks provided under WA38 included assistance
on a second NOAA survey (Atlantis II - Alvin) in September 1989 to collect
benthic and other fish and shellfish species at the 106-Mile Site and a
similar survey in September 1989 conducted by the National Undersea      !
Research Program (NURP) at the University of Connecticut.  Battelle has
received and archived 15 fish tissue samples collected in the Alvin survey
and 15 sediment samples collected in the NURP survey.   Additional sampling
in the NURP survey has been delayed until May or June  of 1990 because of
structural problems with the submersible sphere.  These other surveys are
not discussed further in this report.

                   1.3 SELECTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS
Several studies have been performed to characterize the chemical
composition of sewage sludges originating from the Metropolitan New York
area and dumped at the 106-Mile Site (Boehm,  1983; MacLeod,  1981;
Ecological Analysts, 1983;).  Both organic and inorganic chemical

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 contaminants are enriched in sewage sludge, but their concentrations can be
 highly variable both within and between particular sludge sources.  There
 are considerably more data on the levels of inorganic contaminants (e.g.,
 metals) than there are for individual organic compounds.  Data from recent
 sludge-characterization studies (Boehm, 1983;  MacLeod,  1981;  Ecological
 Analysts, 1983; Eganhouse et al.,  1988) indicate that polychlorinated
 biphenyls (PCB),  chlorinated pesticides including DDT and its  metabolites,
 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons  (PAH),  and linear alkyl  benzenes (LAB)
 are all  enriched  in sewage sludge  (relative to background particles  in  the
 ocean).   These  contaminants  also can  persist for many years in the marine
 environment,  and,  because of their lipophilicity,  can accumulate  in  the
 lipid  tissues of  fish  that reside  in  and  near  the 106-Mile Site.

 In  addition,  PCB,  PAH,  and pesticides  are potentially toxic, mutagenic,
 carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic to marine  organisms  and, consequently,
 pose a significant  ecological threat at high exposure levels.   The body
 burdens of PCB, PAH, and  pesticides are potential chemical indicators of
 the impact of sewage-sludge dumping on  resident  fish.  LAB do not
 themselves pose a significant ecological problem, but they have been used
 as markers of the hydrocarbon component of  sewage sludge and other domestic
wastes (Eganhouse et al., 1983, 1988).
Although coprostanol is a more common tracer for sewage sludge and has been
measured in *ater and particulate samples in previous surveys at the 106-
Mile Site,  it was not measured in this study because the high level  of
other sterols in the fish was expected to interfere with the analysis.

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Trace-metal contaminants will be measured by NOAA in replicated fish
samples and are not discussed in this report.
                    1.4 SELECTION OF INDICATOR ORGANISM

To evaluate the biological effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the 106-
Mile Site, an appropriate indicator organism is required.  The criteria for
selecting an indicator organism in this study were
  (1)  Full- or part-time residency in epipelagic zone at the 106-Mile Site
       and Sargasso Sea (control site),
  (2)  Sufficient biomass for analysis of metals and organic contaminants,
  (3)  Restricted horizontal migration.

Myctophidae is one of the most abundant families of fish in the Mesopelagic
zone.  Commonly called lanternfish because of the rows of photophores on .
the body and head, they live primarily between 100 and 1000 m.  A drawing
of a myctophid (Myctophum) is presented in Figure 1.  Myctophids do not
migrate horizontally to any great extent, although they will move with the
surrounding water mass.  Myctophids do migrate vertically each night to the
epipelagic zone, where they feed on zooplankton and fish.  Thus, as part-
time residents above the pycnocline, the myctophids meet the three
selection criteria given above.
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                           2.0 SURVEY DESCRIPTION

                            2.1  STATION  LOCATIONS

 During  June  6-18,  1989  NOAA  conducted a survey  of  the  106-Mile  Site,  aboard
 the  R/V Delaware  II,  to collect  mesopelagic  fish at  four  stations:
   Station  1  -  106-Mile  Site
   Station  2  -  100  miles southwest of the  106-Mile  Site                  j
   Station  3  -  Sargasso  Sea
   Station  4-80 miles  northeast of the 106-Mile Site
 The  location of each  station  (Figure 2) was determined by using the LORAN-C
 electronic navigation system  aboard the R/V Delaware II.  Each tow's  start
 and end points and duration,  as well as tow depth,  bottom depth, mean wire
 out, and the approximate number of myctophids per sample were recorded in
 Trawl Location Logs, which are presented in Appendix B.

                           2.2  SAMPLING METHODS
An Isaacs-Kid Mid-Water Trawl was deployed for sample collection.  The net
and cod-end catch bag of the trawl were constructed of polypropylene mesh.
The cod-end catch bag was secured with rope and cable ties.  The trawl was
towed for approximately 1 hour at each station.  The depth of the tow was
dictated by the time of day samples were being collected.   Stations 1 and 2
were sampled-at nighttime, with the tows conducted primarily at <50 m
depths.  Stations 3 and 4 were sampled at daytime, with tows conducted at
depths of 400 to 800 m..             .              '

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         76e      75C
                         74
                                  73
                                     106-MILE SITE
                                      (STATION 1)
                                                             35 N
                                                           70 W
                               LONGITUDE
FIGURE 2. LOCATION OF THE 106-MILE SITE AND SAMPLING STATIONS  FOR JUNE
          NOAA/EPA MYCTOPHID SURVEY.

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Upon retrieval of the trawl, the cod end was hoisted via the boom directly
from the water to a stainless steel collection tray that had been prewashed
with soap and water, distilled water, methanol,  and methylene chloride.
The contents of the trawl were emptied onto the collection tray where the
dominant myctophid and/or other mesopelagic species were sorted,
identified, and split for organic and trace metal subsamples.

The subsamples were transferred to fiberglass trays lined with solvent-
rinsed foil and were taken into the laboratory .for processing.  Teflon
forceps were used to transfer the subsamples from the fiberglass tray into
prewashed (as described above) 500-mL Teflon jars.  Each sample jar was
appropriately labeled from the myctophid sampling log and the label was
secured with clear plastic tape.  Each sample-jar lid was further secured
with tape to ensure sample integrity.  The species and the number of
animals were recorded in the myctophid sampling  log.  Samples were
maintained at - 20C in the vessel's freezer until June 19,  1989, at which
time samples for organic analyses were transferred by truck  to Battelle and
stored at - 20C.  Samples for metal analyses were transferred to the NOAA,
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Sandy Hook, NJ laboratory (Mr.
Vincent Zdanowicz).
At each of the four stations, an attempt was made to collect three
replications, each containing four myctophidae species.  At all four
stations, multiple tows were required to attain sufficient biomass.  Each
organic sample replication corresponds to a unique tow.  However, time
constraints and a lack of species diversity and biomass precluded the

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collection of four myctophidae  species per station as originally proposed
in the Work Plan.

The Isaacs-Kid Mid-Water Trawl  required deployment and retrieval at an
angle.  On one occasion this caused the side arms of the depressor foot to
bend, rendering the trawl inoperable.  The trawl type and the tow duration
(1 hour) often caused severe trauma rendering many of the fish
unidentifiable as to genus and  species.  These samples were identified as
Myctophidae Composites.  The most severely traumatized samples were not
used for organic analysis.

                          3.0   ANALYTICAL METHODS

Tissue samples were prepared and analyzed for PAH, LAB,  and pesticide/PCB
analysis following methods established for the NOAA National Status and
Trends Mussel  Watch Program (Battelle, 1988 ), with minor modifications
made to those methods for the analysis of LAB.  Additional  modifications to
the sample-preparation procedures were necessary because of the unusually
high lipid content of myctophids.  The excess lipid was  removed with an
additional cleanup procedure to minimize potential interferences in the
instrumental analysis.  A brief description of the sample preparation and
analyses, including all modifications to the Mussel Watch Program,  is given
below.
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                           3.1 SAMPLE  PREPARATION

 A 10 -  15 g aliquot of fish  tissue was homogenized with a Tekmar Inc.
 Tissumizer.  The homogenate  was  spiked with the appropriate PAH,  LAB,  and
 pesticide/PCB quantisation  internal  standards.   The compound
 dibromooctafluororobiphenyl  (DBOFB)  was used for the pesticide/PCB  internal
 standard,  a mixture of d8-naphthalene,  dlO-acenaphthene,  d!2-perylene,  and
 d!2-benzo[a]pyrene  (except one batch,  1A) was used  for  the  PAH  internal
 standard,  and the compound 1-phenyl  nonane  was  used  for the LAB  internal
 standard.

 The  spiked  homogenate  was mixed with 40 g sodium sulfate, and extracted for
 5 minutes with methylene chloride.   The mixture was centrifuged, the
methylene chloride was decanted and  reserved, and the extraction was
procedure repeated twice more.  The combined solvent extract was passed
through an  alumina column for lipid removal.  The extract was concentrated
to approximately 1 ml, using Kuderna-Danish techniques.   Additional  cleanup
was necessary because of the high lipid content of the fish and was
performed by  using a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)  gel
permeation technique (Krahn et al., 1988).  Extracts were diluted to 4 mL,
and 1-mL fractions were separately loaded onto a Phenomonex 100 A gel
permeation column and isocraticalTy eluted with methylene chloride.   The
eluted fractions were combined and the volume reduced by gentle nitrogen
gas evaporation to approximately  500 (tL.
                                    11

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Just prior to instrumental analysis, the samples were spiked with PAH/LAB
and pesticide/PCB recovery internal standards, which are used to measure
the recovery of the quantisation internal standards.  The compound
tetrachloro-m-xylene  (TCMX) was used as the recovery internal standard for
pesticide/PCB analysis, and the compound dl2-chrysene was used as the
PAH/LAB recovery internal standard.

Sample dry weight was determined by removing a 1 - 5g aliquot of macerated
tissue and weighing after drying overnight at 105C.  Sample percent
moisture values ranged from 70 - 80 %.

                         3.2 INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS

Sample extracts were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with mass
spectrometry (GC/MS) for PAH and LAB contamination.  GC/MS analysis
conditions for LAB were derived from those of E
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Tissue extracts were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electron
capture detection (GC/ECD) for pesticide/PCB content.  Any pesticide or PCB
identified in the samples were quantified by using the method of internal
standards.  Results are reported in ng/g of tissue, on a dry-weight basis.

Data quality requirements and objectives and the results of quality control
sample analyses are given in the Appendix A.

                        4.0  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The mesopelagic species collected during the NOAA June 1989 survey are
listed in Table 1.  Although, 35 samples were obtained for organic
analysis, available funds allowed the analyses of only 12 samples.  The
criteria used to select samples for analysis were
  (1)  Station and species commonality with NOAA selections
  (2)  Adequate spatial coverage and control  samples
  (3)  Replicated samples (where available).
Based on these criteria, 14 samples were initially identified for analysis.
However, upon close inspection of the samples, it was found that the second
replication for myctophidae composite for Stations 2 and 4 was highly
traumatized as a result of the trawl and only unidentifiable tissue pieces
remained.  Organic analysis was not performed on the two,highly traumatized
samples because of the loss of sample integrity.  All other samples
remained sufficiently intact and whole-body organic analysis was performed.
A list of the 12 samples analyzed is given in Table 2.  Results of the

                                     13.

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TABLE 2.  MYCTOPHID SAMPLES ANALYZED FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS.
Species
Identification
Hygophum hygomi
Benthosema glacials
Benthosema glaciale
Myctophidae Composite
Myctophidae Composite
Myctophidae Composite
Hygophum hygomi
Hygophum hygomi
Myctophidae Composite
Benthosema glaciale
Benthosema glaciale
Myctophidae Composite
Station-
Replicate-
Species Codea
1-1-HH
1-2-BG
1-3-BG
l-3-MC(l)
l-3-MC(2)
2-1-MC
2-2-HH
2-3-HH
3-1,4-MC
4-1-BG
4-2-BG
4-2-MC
Depth
(m)
600
362
29
29
29
step
40
35
step
600
800 '
800
Date
(M/D/Y)
6/13/89
6/13/89
6/13/89
6/13/89
6/13/89
6/12/89
6/12/89
6/12/89
6/12/89
6/14/89
6/14/89
6/14/89
Sample
Identification
AAL092A2 "
AAL093A2 \
AAL094A2
AAL094A4
AAL094A5
AAL088A2
AAL089A2
AAL090A2
AAL091A2
AAL095A2
AAL096A2
AAL096A4
a)    Code definition: Station number-Replicate number-First letter of genus
     and species.  Number in parenthesis indicates replication within a
     single trawl.
                                    15

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 analyses  for organic contaminants  in  the  12  myctophid  samples collected
 during  the  June 1989 survey are presented and  discussed below.

                     4.1  POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS  (PCB)
Worldwide  usage  of  PCB  has  decreased dramatically in recent years, but the
input  of PCB  into the marine environment continues because of its
resistance to chemical  and  biological degradation and its numerous
transport  mechanisms, including ocean dumping of sewage sludge.  Also,
marine organisms, such  as myctophids, are slow to metabolize PCB and they
can accumulate these contaminants in lipid tissues.  Thus, PCB body burdens
in myctophids can provide a useful indicator of PCB exposure.
The results of 12 analyses  for PCB in myctophids are given in Table 3.  The
data are for individual  congeners, level of chlorination,  and total PCB.
The individual isomer determinations and level of chlorinatipn allow
molecular distributions  of  PCB to be plotted for each sample.
Compositional  variations between the samples can reveal  possible sources of
PCB at each sampling site and,  therefore,  are useful  in  assessing the
impact of a particular source (e.g.,  sewage sludge)  at each site.
Comparison of these data to Aroclor formulations is presented below,  but is
not necessarily justified for fish because of the probability of selective
uptake and metabolism of PCB congeners (favoring the  accumulation of  highly
chlorinated PCB).  In addition,  the sample stations are  located far from
their original source,  allowing weathering and partitioning processes to
become a significant factor in the PCB distributions. Although laboratory
experiments on the uptake and metabolism of PCB in myctophids have not been

                                     16

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 reported, it is likely that these processes are consistent within the
 myctophidae family.  Thus, the relative abundance of PCB congeners may not
 be indicative of exposure to particular Aroclors, but differences in the
 distribution patterns between stations are indicative of different sources
 of PCB.

 The mean total  PCB concentrations at each  station are listed  in  Table 4.
 The intrastation variability was  very low  at  all  sites,  and the  range of
 mean values  between stations was  small.  There  is no  statistical  difference
 between  the  mean total  PCB concentrations  at  Stations  1  and 2.   However,
 Station  4 (upstream),  had  PCB body burdens  significantly  higher  (a factor
 of  2) than those of Stations 1  and 2,  with  PCB  concentrations at  Station 3
 falling  within  this range.   This  is  particularly  interesting because
 Station  4 was chosen  to represent  a  possible  "reference"  site that  is  not
 impacted  by  sewage-sludge  dumping  at  the 106-Mile Site.
The mean PCB and pesticide body burdens for 21 mesopelagic fish collected
from 20 different sites (all east of latitude 50W) in the North Atlantic
in 1972 (Harvey et al. 1974) are listed in Table 4.  These data represent
several different species, including Benthosema glaciale,  Myctophum
punctatum,  Protomyctophum articulum, Ceratoscopelus warmingi,
Ceratoscopelus maderenisis, and Hygophum hygomi.  Comparison of these
earlier data with those reported here indicates that there has been no
statistically significant change in the PCB body burdens over the last 17
years, assuming that the fish collected near the 106-Mile Site can be
compared to those collected throughout the North Atlantic.  In addition,  it

                                     18

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ABLE 4.   MEAN PCB AND PESTICIDE  CONCENTRATIONS  (DRY WEIGHT)  IN MYCTOPHID COLLECTED NEAR
          THE 106-MILE SITE.1

CB (Total)
esticide (Total)
iDT (Total)3
Station 1
(ng/g)
26.38.6
50.5*18.5
26.1*11.2
Station 2
(ng/g)
27.1*6.3
31.1*3.3
16.4*3.2
Station 3
(ng/g)
40.6
12.5
8.7
Station 4
(ng/g)
60.7*1.2
16632
74.79.6
Atlantic2
(ng/g)
57*49 .
NA 
8.06.3
Mean valve  plus  or minus standard  deviation.      ^  	,
Data from Harvey et al,. (1974).  NA:   Data not 'a,van!alb-TV;
               -DBE-,<:p,,p' -ODD.,  and p.-p'-DDT only.    ._:., ,  .
^
                                                                              ...--;.,-- -,,.,..'

                                                                             ,*0'J%i*
                                                19

-------
 is apparent  from  these  data  that  mesopelagic  fish residing at the 106-Mile
 Site  are  not accumulating  PCB  to  any  greater  extent than those fish from
 the other stations  or elsewhere in the Atlantic.  In all samples analyzed
 from  this survey, the total  PCB concentrations were low relative to PCB
 levels found in coastal  fish near urban harbors, 0.5 to 300 ug/g (Weaver,
 1984), and the current  FDA action limit, 2 ug/g.

 The level of chlorination in each sample is plotted in Figures 3 - 6 as a
 function  of  the percentage of  total PCB.  The tetrachlorobiphenyl dominates
 the molecular distribution of  samples collected at the 106-Mile Site
 (Figure 3),  but there is a significant contribution from the penta-, hexa-,
 and hepta-chlorobiphenyls.  This corresponds to a mixture of Aroclors, with
 1248  and  1254 containing the tetra- and penta-chlorobiphenyls and Aroclor
 1260  and  possibly 1262 contributing the hexa- and hepta-chlorobiphenyls.
Aroclors  1254 and 1260 are the most abundant PCB formulations in the sewage
sludge dumped at the 106-Mile Site (Ecological Analysts,  1983).   A more
distinct  bimodal distribution  is found for samples collected  at  Station 2,
 100 miles southwest (downstream) of the 106-Mile Site (Figure 4),  but  it is
shifted toward higher chlorination (Figure 4).  This indicates possible
enrichment of Aroclor 1260 in these samples.   The distribution of PCB  in
the Sargasso  Sea sample  (Station 3)  is enriched in the hepta- and octa-
chlorobiphenyls as shown in Figure 5.   This pattern  is unique among  the
samples collected in this survey and indicates exposure of  myctophids  to
only  highly  chlorinated PCB (e.g., Aroclor 1262).   At Station 4,  80  miles
northeast (upstream) of the 106-Mile Site,  a bimodal  distribution exists
                                    20

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(Figure 6); the pattern is similar to that found for Station 1.  Station 4
also contained the highest absolute concentrations of PCB (Table 4).

                               4.2 PESTICIDES

The results of 12 analyses for pesticides in myctophids are given in Table
5.  The majority of the values are very low, but pesticides were detected
in all samples and aldrin was the only compound not detected.  The mean
total pesticide values for each station are listed in Table 4.  Within-
station variability was low, but there are significant differences among
the pesticide body burdens at the stations.  The pesticide levels in the
fish from the Sargasso Sea (Station 3) were significantly lower than those
at the other stations.  A gradient was found along Stations 1, 2 and 4;
with concentrations decreasing from north to south.  The pesticide body
burdens were 4 times higher at the 106-Mile Site (Station 1)  than the
Sargasso Sea (Station 3),  2.5 times higher downstream (Station 2), and more
than an order of magnitude higher upstream (Station 4).  The enrichment of
pesticides in the tissues of mesopelagic fish upstream from the 106-Mile
Site is consistent with, but more dramatic than, that seen for PCB body
burdens.  Harvey et al. (1974) measured total DDT (PPDDE, PPDDD, and PPDDT)
in North Atlantic myctophids  (20 different sites) and the mean value is
comparable to that of Station 3 (Table 4).
                                     25

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                4.3 POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH)

The PAH body burden data for the myctophids are given in Table 6.  Most of
the data are below the detection limit, and all of the measured values are
trace levels.  The few elevated naphthalene values are probably the result
of laboratory contamination.  These low values are consistent with previous
studies of PAH body burdens in fish tissue.  PAH levels in fish tissue are
usually very low or not detectable even in heavily polluted waters because
PAH are easily metabolized by most fish.  Assessing the exposure of fish to
PAH would require analysis of the PAH metabolites.

                      4.4 LINEAR ALKYL BENZENES (LAB)
The LAB are a group of phenyl alkanes having a benzene ring with a straight
alky! chain of between 9 and 15 carbons.  LAB are precursors used in the
production of linear alkyl benzenesulphonate surfactants (LAS), which are
common in domestic detergents.  Unreacted LAB remain in the detergent
product as impurities; they may also result from desulfonation of LAS.
Eventually LAB can appear in domestic wastes and sewage sludge.  Although
the initial concentrations of LAS are higher than those of LAB, LAS are
easily oxidized (both photochemical1y and microbially); therefore they do
not. persist in the environment.  Conversely, LAB are more resistent to
oxidation than are LAS and may be preserved in sediments for decades
(Eganhouse et al., 1988).  This stability has led to the use of LAB as a
geochronological marker and as a chemical tracer for domestic wastes and

                                     27

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sewage sludge.  Although there are several reports of LAB measurements in
sediments and particulate matter, very little work has been reported on
measuring LAB in tissues of organisms that have been exposed to sewage.
Murray et al. (1987) found LAB in a single mussel sample collected near
Port Phillip Bay (Australia) sediments enriched in LAB, and some studies
have been performed on the microbial oxidation of LAB in cultures (Bayona
et al., 1986).  This study provides the first field evaluation of LAB as a
chemical indicator of biological exposure to sewage sludge at the 106-Mile
Site.

Results obtained from the LAB body-burden analyses are listed in Table 6,
with essentially all of the data near or below the detection limit.
Extremely low levels of LAB in fish tissue could result from either limited
exposure to sludge particles or rapid metabolism of the.aliphatic chains.
In addition, laboratory and/or field contamination from detergents
(containing high levels of LAB) could introduce measurable LAB to the
sample, and may account for the high n-tetradecyl-benzene values.  All  of
the LAB compounds were detected in the sample from the Sargasso Sea
(Station 3), giving further indication of contamination.

                     4.5  PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA
The satellite thermal- imagery data for June 11, 1989 is shown in Figure 7.
These data were prepared by Margaret Sano of the Marine Climatology
Investigation of the National Marine Fisheries Service.  This low-
resolution analysis provides a composite view of the Gulf Stream position,

                                     29

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JUNE  11, 1989  NOAA-11 AVHRR IMAGE AND  MYCTOPHID  TRAWL STATIONS
                                         5 "I-* '8
1530
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f iodRL "7. "SATELLITE THERMAL IMAGERY  DATA FROM JUNE 11,  1989.
                                30

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 the location of the shelf water/slope  water front,  and  the  positions  of
 warm-core and cold-core eddies  formed  by  Gulf  Stream meanders.   However,
 surface warming reduces the  thermal  contrast between these  water masses
 during  the summer.   The data show  that during  the sampling  period Station 3
 was in  the Sargasso Sea,  about  20  miles southeast of the Gulf Stream.
 Station 2 was located  in  slope  water,  but was  very  close to the  Gulf
 Stream.   Stations 1  and 4 were  located in slope water, over 10 miles north
 of  the  Gulf  Stream,  these data alone  are not  sufficient to attempt
 correlations  between water masses  and contaminant body burdens.

 Near-surface  current velocity and  direction at the  106-Mile Site were
 monitored with  the moored current meters in place at 25 m and 100 m depths.
 Vector  profiles for the time period 15 May to  18 June,. 1989 are shown in
 Figure 8.  For  the three weeks prior to sampling,  current velocities were
moderately weak (<30 cm/s) and the prevailing current direction was toward
the northeast.  Around 8 June, 1989 the current direction shifted toward
the south and remained that way throughout the survey.   The maximum current
velocity was about 40 cm/s.  There is no evidence  of water movement (or
contaminant transport)  from Station 1 (106-Mile Site)  toward Station 4 over
this 1 month period.

Hydrographic profiles of temperature, salinity  and  sigma-t  are  given in
Appendix C.                                                      '
                                    31

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                          5.0   CONCLUDING REMARKS

                        5.1  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The objectives of this work assignment were to conduct an initial
assessment of the impact of sewage-sludge disposal on indigenous fish in
the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site and evaluate the feasibility of
monitoring the bioaccumulation of sludge-related contaminants in
mesopelagic fish.  Myctophids were collected at four stations: the 106-Mile
Site, 100 miles southwest and 80 miles northeast of the 106-Mile Site, and
the Sargasso Sea.

Contaminant body burdens in these fish provided a good indication of low
level exposure to PCB and pesticides at all four stations, but the data
were not sufficient to determine the source of the contaminants.
Concentrations of almost all PAH and LAB were near or below the detection
limit for all of the samples.  Both PAH and LAB are readily metabolized by
fish, so the low levels reported here are not necessarily a result of low
exposure.
Trace levels of PCB and pesticides were found in fish at all stations.  The
highest concentrations were found at Station 4,  80 miles northeast of the
106-Mile Site.  Very little difference was found in the levels of PCB and
pesticide at Stations 1 and 2 and only small differences were found in the
distribution of PCB in fish at Stations 1, 2, and 4.  However, Station 3
exhibited a unique PCB distribution (higher level of chlorination),

                                    33                              .

-------
 indicating either a unique source of PCB or the PCB was  more  weathered.
 There  were no apparent interspecies differences in  the amount or
 distribution  of PCB and pesticides in myctophids.

 To gain  more  insight into  possible PCB and  pesticide sources,  diagnostic
 ratios of  total  pesticide/total  PCB,  total  DDT/total PCB, total  DDT/total
 pesticide  are plotted  in Figure  9.   These diagnostic ratios show a clear
 similarity between  Stations  1  and  4,  while  Station  3 again exhibits a
 unique pattern.   Diagnostic  ratios  for Station  2 fall within  this range and
 are closest to those of Stations 1  and  4.   Pesticide/PCB ratios  found in
 this study  are simialr to  those of  fish collected in areas without direct
 contamination  (Amico et al., 1979), whereas much lower ratios have been
 found for marine  organisms in  areas with more direct contaminant inputs
 (Albaiges et  al., 1987, Contardi et al., 1979,  Fossato and Craboledda,
 1980).
Based on these data, it appears that mesopelagic fish at the 106-Mile Site
have organic-contaminant body burdens less than or similar to those found
in fish from other continental slope waters and much less than fish of
coastal waters.  Sewage-sludge disposal  at the 106-Mile Site is only one of
several sources of PCB and pesticides and has not caused greater
contaminant body burdens in resident fish than those found at reference
stations.  McVicar et al. (1988)  recently found a similar no-effects
relationship between sewage-sludge dumping in the North Sea and the
prevalence of fish diseases.  More definitive, conclusions on the biological
impact of sewage-sludge disposal  at the  106-Mile Site might be made after

                                     34

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 the  complimentary  trace-metal  data  become  available  and after additional
 surveys  are  conducted.
                            5.2  RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the  results of this study, myctophids appear to be good indicators
of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and, therefore, myctophids should
be considered as potential biomarkers of long-term biological affects
resulting from sludge dumping at the 106-Mile Site..  However, before
myctophids can be used to assess the effects of sewage-sludge dumping at
the 106-Mile Site, more information is needed on the body burdens in fish
not impacted by dumping at the 106-Mile Site.  This requires a more
thorough understanding of the distribution of contaminant body burdens in
waters outside the influence of the 106-Mile Site (i.e., background body
burdens) and the identification of contaminant gradients.  These background
data would also provide critical information on the long-range transport
and fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in open ocean waters.   Several
recommendations are listed below regarding future studies of myctophids as
indicators of organic-contaminant exposure and effects.

      The use of myctophids as an indicator of long-term biological
       effects of sewage-sludge dumping should be included  in any future
       monitoring plan for the 106-Mile Site.
      Any future field collections of myctophids should have complimentary
       contaminant distribution data from whole water,  particulate,
       microlayer, and plankton samples.  The additional information  would
       enhance our ability to relate contaminant body burdens to
       contaminant transport and fate,  and routes of exposure to the
       organism.
                                     36

-------
         The list of organic contaminants should include PCB and chlorinated
           pesticides, and possibly PAH metabolites.   Consideration should  be
           given to PCB/pesticide analysis by negative ion GC/MS,  a method  that
           would increase sensitivity over conventional  GC/ECD analyses,  and
           would also provide positive identification  of these analytes.

         The distribution of contaminant body burdens  should be  determined  in
           myctophids collected at several sites beyond  the influence of  the
           106-Mile Site as determined from physical oceanographic data.
           Sampling design should include a transect(s)  from coastal  waters to
           establish the existence of gradients.

         The background data should be used  to estimate the body burdens  that
           would be expected in myctophids at  the 106-Mile Site in the absence
           of  sewage-sludge dumping.   The background body burdens  can be  used
           to  establish  null  hypotheses  regarding the  effects of sewage-sludge
           dumping  at the 106-Mile Site.

         Future field  activity should  be guided by advice from recognized
           experts  in the behavior and collection of myctophids  to ensure
           sampling  success.   The trauma  of the  fish could  be minimized by
           reducing  the  tow duration  (<20  min.)  and speed  (2-4 knots),  and
           conducting more frequent trawls.

   The June 1989 myctophid  survey was joint NOAA/EPA monitoring effort.
   Cooperation  between  NOAA  and  EPA  will  continue to yield  comprehensive and
   cost effective monitoring  programs.
                                6.0.  REFERENCES

Albaiges,J., A. Farran, M. Solar, A. Gallifa and P. Martin.  1987.
      Accumulation and distribution of biogenic and pollutant
      hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in tissues of western Mediterranean
      fishes.  Marine Environ. Res. 22:1-18.

Amico, V., G. Impellizzeri, G. Oriente, M. Piattelli, S. Scinto and C.
      Tringali. 1979.  Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine
      animals from the central Mediterranean.  Mar. Pollut. Bull.
      10:282-284.

Battelle.  1988.  Phase 4 Work/Quality Assurance Project Plan for the
      National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program.  Prepared for
      NOAA by Battelle Ocean Sciences.  Contract No. 50-DGNC-5-00263.

Bayona, J.M., J. Albaiges, A.M. Solanas, and M. GrifolT.  1986.
      Selective aerobic degradation of linear alkyl benzenes by pure
      microbial cultures.  Chemoshere 15:595-598.

Boehm, P.D.  1983.  Coupling of particulate organic pollutants between
                                      37

-------
       the  estuary and  continental  shelf and the sediments  and water
       column  in  the New York Bight region.   Can.  J.  Fish.  Aquat.  Sci
       40:262-276.

Contardi,  V.,  R.  Capelli,  T.  Pellocani  and  6.  Zanicchi   1979.   PCBs and
       chlorinated pesticides  in  organisms from the  Ligurian  Sea.   Mar.
       Pollut.  Bull.  10:307-311.

Ecological Analysts.   1983.   Special  Permit Application  for  the Sewage
       Sludge  from Twelve New York  City  Water Pollution Control  Plants at
       the  12-Mile Site.  A report  prepared  for the  New York  City
       Department  of Environmental  Protection.

EPA.   1989.   Proceedings of  the  Ocean Dumping  Workshop 106-Mile Site EPA
       Report  503/9-89/009.

EPA.   1992a.   Final  Draft  Monitoring  Plan for  the 106-Mile Deepwater
       Municipal Sludge  Site.   Environmental  Protection Agency.  EPA 842-
       S-92-009.

EPA.   1992b.   Final  Draft  Implementation Plan  for the 106-Mile  Deepwater
       Municipal Sludge  Site Monitoring  Program.  Environmental
       Protection Agency.   EPA  842-S-92-010.

EPA.   1992c.   Final  Report for Near-field Monitoring of Sludge Plumes at
       the  106-Mile Deepwater Municipal  Sludge  Site: Results of  a Survey
       Conducted August 31  through September  5,  1987.  Environmental
       Protection Agency.   EPA  842-S-92-004.

Eganhouse,  R.P., D.P. Olanguer, B.R. Gould,   and C.S. Phinnely.  1988.
       Use of molecular markers for the  detection of sewage sludge at
       sea.   Marine Environ. Res.  25:1-22.

Eganhouse,  R.P., E.G. Ruth, and I.R. Kaplan.   1983.  Determination of
       long-chain alky!benzenes in environmental samples by argentation
      thin-layer chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry and
       gas chromatography/mass  spectrometry.   Anal. Chem.  55:2120-2126.

Fossato, V.U.  and L. Craboledda.   1980.   Chlorinated hydrocarbons in
       organisms from the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea.
       Ves.  Journees Etud. Pollutions,  CIESM,  169-174.

Harvey, G.R.,  H.P. Miklas,  V.T. Bowen, and W.G. Steinhauer.  1974.
       Observations on the Distribution of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in
      Atlantic Ocean Organisms.  J. Marine Res. 32:103-118.

Krahn, M.M., L.K. Moore, C.A. Wigren, S. Chan,  and D.W.  Brown.  1988.
      High performance liquid chromatographic method for isolating
      organic contaminants  from tissue and sediment extracts.  J.
      Chromat. 437:161-175.
                                      38

-------
MacLeod, W.D., L.S. Ramos, A.J. Friedman, D.6. Burrows, P.6. Prohaska,
      D.L. Fisher, and D.W. Brown.  1981.  Analysis of residual
      chlorinated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and related
      compounds in selected sources, sinks and biota of New York Bight.
      NOAA Tech. Memo.  OMPA-6.  NOAA Office of Marine Pollution
      Assessment, Boulder, CO. 128p.

McVicar, A.M., D.W. Bruno, and C.O. Fraser.  1988.  Fish diseases in the
      North Sea in relation to sewage sludge dumping.  Marine Pollution
      Bull.

Murray, A.P. and C.F. Gibbs.  1987.  Linear alky! benzenes (LABs) in
      Sediments of Port Phillip Bay (Australia).  Marine Environ. Res.
      23:65-76.

Moyle, P.B. and J.J. Cech.  1987.  Fishes: An Introduction to
      Ichthyology.  Prentice Hall.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ. p. 266.

Weaver, G.  1984.  PCB Contamination in and around New Bedford, Mass.
      Environ. Sci. Techno!.  18:22A-27A.
                                      39

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-------
     APPENDIX A.  DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS AND QUALITY CONTROL RESULTS

Accuracy of the chemical data and assessment of the quality of the chemical!
data set are guided by quality control (QC) procedures described in
Battelle standard operating procedures (SOPs) listed in the Work Plan for
WA 38.  Accuracy is ensured by the analysis of procedural blanks and
matrix spike samples.  Laboratory extraction efficiencies were monitored by
tracking the recovery of internal standard and surrogate compounds.
Precision was determined by analysis of duplicate extractions.

Matrix spike and matrix.spike duplicate extraction recoveries and
procedural blanks are listed in Tables A-l and A-2.  Surrogate recoveries
are listed in Tables A-3 and A-4.

-------

-------
   TABLE A-l.    RESULTS OF PROCEDURAL BLANKS (PB), MATRIX SPIKES (MS), AND MATRIX SPIKE
                DUPLICATES (MSD) FOR PCB AND PESTICIDES.
PCB/Pesticide
CL2(08)
HCB
LINDANE
CL3(18)
CL3(28)
HEPTACHLOR
CL4(52)
ALDRIN
CL4(44)
HEPTACHLOREPOXID
CL4(66)
OPDDE
CL5(101)
A CH
TRANSNONACHLOR
DIELDRIN
PPDDE
OPDDD
CL5(118)
. PPDDD
OPDDT
CL6(153)
CL5(105)
PPDDT
CL6(138)
CL7(187)
CL6(128)
CL7(180)
MIREX
CL7(170)
CL8(195)
CL9(206)
CL10(209)
HV01 PB
(ng)
ND
0.039
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.309
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
HV04 PB
(ng)
ND
ND
0.055
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.752
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.048
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
11.818
ND
ND
RECOVERY (%)
HV05-MS HV06-MSD
467.81b
19.06b
108.29,
131. 54b
115.59.
120. 34D
118.73.
127. 96b
115.45,
122. 04b
83.72
96.04
77.76
92.26
106.32
89.97,
123. 84b
100.95
92.71.
154. 79b
128. 51b
73.20
87.11
50.84
68.91
66.17
71.15
51.50
49.06
88.27
43.29
24.97
25.54
285. 15b
9.63b
98.33
no. 07
95.61
101.30
102.41.
121. 98b
95.88
103.28
' 72.03
77.66
61.50
72.65
83.07
107.12
100.34
85.45
77.06
92.88
105.29
64.06
74.81
34.08
55.67
52.31
56.84
36.61
39.81
92.61
34.69
21.24
21.42
MEAN
376
14
103
121
106
111
111
125
106
113
78
87
70
82
95
99
112
93
85
124
117
69
81
42
62
59
64
44
44
90
39
23
23
%RPDa
49'
66 %
10
18
19
17
* * 4.
15
5
19
17
15
21
23
24
25
' 17 
21
17
18
50
20
13
15
39
21
23
22
34
21
5
+J
22
16
18
 RPD = 2 *  (MS  - MSD)/(MS + MSD))  *  100.

'alue is outside acceptable recovery  range  (20-120%).
                                         A-2

-------

-------
TABLE A
,-2. RESULTS OF  PROCEDURAL BLANKS (PB).  MATRIX SPIKES (MS),  AND MATRIX SPIKE
    DUPLICATE  (MSD)  RECOVERY VALUES FOR PAH AND LAB.a'b
PAH/LAB
naphthalene
2-methyl naphthalene
1-methylnaphthalene
biphenyl
2, 6-dimethyl naphthalene
acenaphthylene
acenaphthene
2,3 , 5-trimethyl naphtha! ene
fluorene
phenanthrene
anthracene
.-methyl phenanthrene
fluoranthene
jyrene
>enz[a]anthracene
:hrysene
>enzo [b] f 1 uoranthene
)enzo[k] fluoranthene
>enzo(e)pyrene
)enzo(a)pyrene
Derylene
indeno[l,2,3-c,d]pyrene
I ibenz [a, h] anthracene
)enzo[g,h,i]perylene
1 -phenyl decane
-phenyl undecane
-phenyl dodecane
-phenyl tridecane
-tetradecyl benzene
8-naphthalene
10-acenaphthene
12-perylene
-phenyl nonane
HV01PB
(ng)
11.90
5.47
4.33
NO
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
3.46
ND
5.01
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
21.95
ND
5.88
25.60
110.47




Recovery (%)
HV04PB HV05 MS
(ng)
18.21
6.62
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.9
ND
ND
5.61
5.26
ND
5.54
4.96
2.69
3.25
2.49
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.89
34.69




92
103
101
101
103
101
81
78
78
54
42
61
54
49
299a
279a
Oa
Oa
132a
52
88
Oa
Oa
162a
104
96
79
87
78
394a
494a
32
439a
HV06 MSD MEAN
95
109
108
106
109
106
84
81
79
55
79
61
51
46
388a
363a
46
0
137a
95
90
0
0
172a
105
95
76
86
77
281a
360a
23
334a
93
106
104
104
106
103
83
80
79
54
61
61
52
48
344
321
23
0
135
74
89
0
0
167
105
96
77
87
78
337
427
27
38
%RPD
3
6
7
5 '
6 %
4
4
3
2
1
61
1
5
6
26
26
100
o
4
59
2
0
n
\s
6
1
1
4 .
1
2
33
31
34
27
 value  is  outside acceptable recovery range (20-120%).
 %RPD =  2 *  (MS  - MSD)/(MS + MS.D))  * 100
                                         A-3

-------
TABLE A-3.  SURROGATE  (DBOFB) RECOVERIES FOR PCB/PESTICIDE ANALYSIS
                    Sample ID
Recovery (%)
HV01 PB
HV04 PB
AAL088A2
AAL089A2
AAL091A2
AAL090A2
AAL092A2
AAL093A2
AAL094A5
AAL094A2 .
AAL094A4
AAL095A2
AAL096A2
AAL096A4
105.35
67.45
116.86
101.97
96.91
119.96
82.82
17.593
82.91
86.04
91.40
23.11
23.08
57.83
       aVa!ue  is outside  acceptable  recovery  range  (20-
       120%).
                              A-4

-------
          TABLE A-4.  SURROGATE RECOVERIES  (%) FOR PAH AND LABab'c.
Sample ID
HV01 PB
AAL088A2
AAL089A2
AAL090A2
AAL091A2
AAL092A2
AAL093A2
AAL094A5
HV04 PB
AAL094A2
AAL094A4
AAL095A2
AAL096A2
AAL096A4
Sample Dry
Weight (g)
1.000
1.141
3.572
3.507
1.582
2.820
4.575
3.681
1.000
2.868
2.585
2.837
2.659
2.523
d8-N
91
86
83.
320b
77h
285b
35.
457b
61
89
97K
247b
228b
194b
dlO-A
93
93
94K
414b
83.
400b
38K
629b
74h
134b
142b
305b
288b
242b
d!2-B(a)P
96
92
79
32
85
28.
3b
Ob
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
d!2-P
99
92
76
26
84
21.
4b
104
94
34
39
32
34
28
1-PN
101
104
102,.
i*
525b
93L
I*
464b
50 .
578b
64
117L
l
126b
107
120L
!*
122b
ad8-N = d8-naphthalene
 dlO-A = dlO-acenaphthene
 d!2-B(a)P = d!2-benzo(a)pyrene
 d!2-P = d!2-perylene
.1-PN = 1-phenyl nonane
Rvalue is outside acceptable range (20-120%).
 NS = the surrogate was not spiked in the sample,
                                   A-5

-------

-------
APPENDIX B.  TRAWL LOCATION LOGS

-------

-------
                             BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                               Work Assignment 38
                                     G3811
                               Trawl Location Log
TATION IDENTIFICATION

      Station Number   I
                      (X or X--XXX)
                                        Date 11   oc*,  &(
                                             DD  MM  YY
U1PLING LOCATION   Q)

       Start of Tow
U*\ 5-7.0      TD2 4-2153.4.     Lat
(xxxxx.x)        (xxxxx.x)         DD   MM.MM
                                                           Lon  "72
                                                                DDD  MM.MM
       End of Tow

          TDl  -2.4,11^.0    TD2
       (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)

                Bottom Depth


               Tow Depth
                          . 3  Lat  ag,  4.5 __j__.N  Lon  -g   2J.
                                   DD  MM. MM
                         (xxx)
                     ( XXX )
                                                               DDD  MM. MM

                                              Mean Wire Out   -
                                                             (xxx)
                                            No.  of Myctophids   13 Kfc*jfc
                                                               ( XXX ) F=ot2.
        Start  Time  ,^4. : o^ (24 Hour  clock)   End Time  OE>  : 2^ ( 2 4  Hour clock
                    HH  MM                             HH  MM
yPLING LOCATION  2
Start of Tow

TDl
           KJ
                        o

                        TD2
            (XXXXX.X

       End  of  Tow

        TDl
                 (XXXXX.X)

               K|t=-T   is
                                                 i"
Lat	N    Lon 	  	 	W
    DD  MM.MM         DDD  MM.MM
             TD2
              xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)

                       Bottom  Depth
                                   Lat 	  	 	N  Lon 	  	 	W
                                       DD  MM.MM       DDD  MM.MM

                                   m   Mean Wire Out
                                     (xxx)
                      Tow Depth	m
                                 (xxx)
                                                  (xxx)

                                 No.  of Myctophids    Q
                                                    ( xxx )

         Start Time 0(0  ' 4n  ( 24Hour clock)  End Time 	:	
                    HH   MM                            ' HH   MM
                                                    24-Hour clock)
RECORDER
         Name
                                                ID  Number 32.11.
      : White- DAT[A MGR
               Yellow-  PROQgktt MANAGER

                          B-2
                                                pink-  FIELD PARTY;

-------

-------
                            BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                              Work Assignment 38
                                    G3811
                              Trawl Location Log
'ATION  IDENTIFICATION

     Station  Number   I
                     (X or X-XXX)
                                                 Date
                                                      DD   MM  YY
J1PLING  LOCATION  3
       Start  of Tow
                       TD2
    (XXXXX.X)

End of Tow

   TD1
                           (xxxxx.x)
                                      DD  MM. MM
                                                          Lon  12
                                                              ODD  MM. MM
                         TD2
              (xxxxx.x)      (xxxxx.x)

                      Bottom Depth tSo4-im   Mean Wire  Out
                                                         Lon
                                            DD  MM. MM        ODD  MM. MM
                     Tow Depth
                                    (xxx)

                                    m
                                                           (xxx)
                                ( xxx )
                                    No. of Myctophids   Q
                                                       (xxx)
                         S3U. .  u
  Start  Time  oq_: ifj_(24 Hour clock)  End Time _H_ :_>_( 2 4  Hour clock
             HH  MM                           HH  MM
                                 NQ
^MPLING LOCATION
            XXXXX.X

       End of Tow

        TD1
            (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.

                      Bottom  Depth


                      Tow  Depth  	
                                         Lat	 	N   Lon 	  	 	_W
                                             DD   MM.MM    .    DDD  MM.MM
                                         Lat 	  __ 	N  Lon 	  	 	W
                                             DD  MM.MM       DDD  MM.MM
                                             Mean Wire Out  .
        Start Time
                    HH   MM
                                (xxx )

                           (24-Hour clock)  End Time
                                                     (xxx )

                                               tophids   Q
                                                       (xxx)
                                                      (24Hour clock)
                                                     HH  MM
RECORDER
        Name
                                                         ID Number 37-U . IQ
White- DA'JA MGR
                'J
                          Yeli'ow- PROGRAM MANAGER

                                    B-3
                                                     Pink-  FIELD  PARTY)

-------
                              BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                                Work Assignment 38
                                      G3811
                                Trawl Location Log
STATION  IDENTIFICATION

       Station Number  I  (
                       (X or X-XXX)
                                                    Date  >S  Q
                                                         DD  MM  YY
SAMPLING  LOCATION
Start of Tow

TD1
                         TD2
    (xxxxx.x)

End of Tow

   TD1 Z
                             (xxxxx.x)
                           TD2
        (XXXXX.X)
                               (XXXXX.X)
                        Bottom Depth 2,5^.7  1
                                      (xxx)

                       Tow Depth    55 2^  Lon
              (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)         DD  MM.MM        DDD  MM.MM
                                      I2.&O PM "^"If
                        Bottom Depth 2^3-f mfc-q^>lean Wire Out   "
                                      (xxx)                   (xxx)
                        Tow Depth  34,2. m
                                   (xxx)
                                             No. of Myctophids   30
                                                                (xxx)
          Start  Time  zg> ;  i (24-Hour clock)   End  Time  2J  :  IS. ( 24-Hour clock
                	  HH  MM                            HH   MM
,  RECORDER
          Name
                                                            ID Number 32.11. I
        White-  DATA MGR
                            fellow- PROGRAM MANAGER     Pink- FIELD PARTY]

                                      B-4

-------
                            BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                              Work Assignment 38
                                    G3811
                              Trawl Location Log
ATION  IDENTIFICATION

     Station  Number  i
                     (X or X-XXXr
                                                 Date  is  ofe  PA
                                                      DD  MM  YY
MPLING LOCATION

      Start  of Tow

      TDl
                       TD2
           (xxxxx.x)

      End  of  Tow
                           (xxxxx.x)
Lat 3&  52
    DD  MM. MM
                                    ODD  MM. MM
                         TD2
                                            35  55 2&N  Lon  iz
                                            DD  MM. MM       ODD  MM. MM
              (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)

                      Bottom Depth  I3eo*m   Mean Wire Out
                     Tow Depth
                                   (xxx)
                                2fT-M~*t
                                4*5 ^m '^
                                                           (xxx)
                               Cxxx)
                 No.  of Myctophids  3e>o
                                   (xxx)
        Start Time "2.1 : 4> ( 24 Hour clock)  End Time Z2.  ' 4-d, ( 2 4  Hour  clock
                   HH  MM             '              HH  MM
JMPLING LOCATION
       Start of Tow

       TDl
           (XXXXX.X

       End of Tow

        TDl
                       TD2
                       TD2
            (XXXXX.X
                           (XXXXX.X
                           (XXXXX.X)
                      Bottom Depth
               Lat	N   Lon 	  	   W
                   DD  MM.MM       ' DDD  MM.MM
               Lat 		N  Lon	W
                   DD  MM.MM       DDD  MM.MM

               m   Mean Wire Out
                     Tow Depth
                                    (xxx)
                                    m
                                                           (xxx
                 No. of Myctophids
        Start Time
                               (xxx)

                          (24Hour  clock)  End Time
                                    (xxx )

                                  (24-Hour  clock)
                   HH  MM
                                                     HH   MM
RECORDER
                                                         ID Number 32.11
     i White- DAT  MGR
                ^
Yellow- PROGRAM MANAGER    Pink-  FIELD  PARTY!

          8-5

-------
                              BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                                Work  Assignment 38
                                       G3811
                                Trawl Location Log
STATION  IDENTIFICATION

       Station  Number
              (X  or  X-XX
                                          OF=
                                           Date j
                                                         DD   MM  YY
SAMPLING  LOCATION
         Start  of Tow

         TDI  2.kS2.^.0    TD2  4-l=na.7_     Lat 31  3Q  g^    Lon 15   Jg, _!$
             (xxxxx.x)        (xxxxx.x)         DD  MM.MM         DDD  MM.MM
         End  of Tow
  TDI
      ( xxxxx. x)
                     1 . s   TD2
                                ( xxxxx.
                        Bottom  Depth  yj	
                                      (xxx)

                       _       . , "asTfcP
                       Tow Depth TOW   m
                                  (xxx
                                           Lat 37   30 ^pN   Lon 	
                                               DD  MM.MM        DDD  MM.MM

                                               Mean Wire Out    -
                                                    (xxx)

                                   No.  of  Myctophids TbTAi-21
                                                      (xxx)

Start Time  12. : 4.1 (24 Hour clock)   End Time Z3 =43 (24 Hour  clock
            HIT MM                            HH  MM
SAMPLING  LOCATION
         Start of Tow
                         TD2
                                 Lat
                              ( XXXXX . X )
                                      DD  MM . MM
                                                             Lon  -^3  14  3 W
                                                                 DDD  MM. MM.
    (XXXXX.X)

End of Tow

 TDl 2-^ST.fo.l     TD2  IS4-13.4       Lat  _  5^ gaN  Lon  -73    2A
     (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)         DD  MM.MM       DDD   MM.MM

                Bottom Depth ic^oo4..im    Mean Wire Out   -
                             (xxx)                   (xxx)
                       Tow  Depth  4-Q  m
                                  (xxx)
                                    No.  of Myctophids
                                                       (xxx
                      24
          Start Time  ^  ; 03 (24-Hour clock)  End  Time  O1  : pc, (24-Hour clock)
                      HH~  MM                            HH  MM
 RECORDER
                                                            ID Number
        White- DATA MGR^Yellow- PROGRAM MANAGER    Pink- FIELD PARTY;

                                      B-6

-------
                            BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                              Work Assignment 38
                                    G3811
                              Trawl Location Log
TATION IDENTIFICATION

      Station Number  7
                                                 Date  1
                     (X or X-XXX)
                                                       DD  MM  YY
AMPLING LOCATION

       Start of Tow

       TD1
                       TD2
    (xxxxx.x)

End of Tow

   TD1
                            (xxxxx.x)
                                             37   30
                                             DD   MM. MM
                                                         Lon  -73,
                                                              DDD  MM. MM
                     .    TD2  l&3^-T.ft    Lat 3^  jfc j^N  Lon  -73
              (xxxxx.x)      (xxxxx.x)      DD  MM. MM        DDD   MM. MM
                      Bottom Depth
                                         m   Mean Wire Out
                     Tow Depth _25__m
                               (xxx)
                                    (xxx)                   (xxx)

                                           No.  of Myctophids
                                                             (xxx)
        Start Time p\ : 33, (24 Hour clock)  End Time  62, ' 3X (24  Hour  clock
                   HH  MM                            HH   MM
 IPLING LOCATION
            (xxxxx.x)
                             XXXXX.X
                                        Lat	N    Lon 	  	   W
                                            DD  MM.MM        DDD  MM.MM
                                         Lat	N  Lon	W
                                             DD  MM.MM       DDD  MM.MM
                      Bottom Depth
                                         m
                                                  Wire .Out
                     Tow Depth
                                    (xxx)
                                     m
                                                           (xxx)
                                (xxx)
        Start Time
                   HH  MM
                                           No. of Mycto>hids
                           (24Hour clock)  End Time
                                                     HH  MM
                                                             (xxx)

                                                            (24-H>tr  clock)
RECORDER
        Name
                                                         ID Number
     (White- DATA MGR     Yellow^  PROGRAM  MANAGER    Pink- FIELD PARTY)
                                   B-7

-------
                               BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                                 Work Assignment 38
                                       G3811
                                 Trawl .Location Log
STATION  IDENTIFICATION

       Station Number  3" SAESrAsso SEA              Date  12  C4.  &9_
                        (X or X-iXXX)                       DD  MM  YY
SAMPLING LOCATION   I
         Start of Tow
         TDl  2-gio4-. 1     TD2  14-8^4-,2.      Lat g&  44. 4QN   Lon "7{   Ol
              (xxxxxlx)         (XXXXX.X)         DD  MM.MM        DDD  MM.MM

         End  of Tow
                            TD2  4-1 ~7 c. =..-?    Lat 3^  43 s$N  Lon  T|
                 (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)       DD  MM.MM       DDD   MM.MM

                       '  Bottom  Depth 	m   Mean Wire Out
                                       (xxx)                   (xxx)

                        Tow Depth  _-CL_m     No.  of  Myctophids   5
                                   (xxx)                           (xxx)

          Start  Time -J-5-:_^e^24 Hour clock)  End Time |fe ; c^  (24  Hour clock
                      HH~ MM"                            HH  MM
SAMPLING LOCATION 	L_

         Start  of Tow
         TD1   2Jbq l I . o    TD2  411^7..S      Lat  3^  47. Sc-N   Lon  ~il	
              (xxxxx.x)        (xxxxx.x)         DD  MM.MM         DDD  MM.MM

         End  of Tow

                    3.3   TD2  4-l-?e>d..5     Lat  ^  ^ epN  Lon  ~7|   fj7
               (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)         DD  MM.MM        DDD  MM.MM

                          Bottom Depth 	m    Mean Wire Out  	
j                                        lx^x]                    ^xxx!,

j                         Tow Depth ^r&-f m      No.  of Myctophids
j            ^        i      ,,         (xxx)  		(,xxx)

I           Start Time  Il_:jb3_( 24-Hour  clock)   End Time  | c\  ; \e^( 24-Hour clock)
j                       HH  MM                            HH   MM
I                 	        '   ,.    ,.		;	,
  RECORDER                                             '

           Name   ~yf.	^ ~w\   ^^~^             	 ID Number ^n.ic
        			       i         -  --t j     "T"]-"                          	

         White- DATA.MGR    Yellow-  PROGRAM MANAGER     Pink- FIELD PARTY)

                                        B-8

-------
                            BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                              Work Assignment  38
                                    G3811
                              Trawl Location Log
ATION IDENTIFICATION

     Station Number
                     (X or X-
                                            Date  iZ
                                                  DD   MM  YY
MPLING LOCATION  g
      Start  of  Tow

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      End  of Tow

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                               ( xxx )
                              _m     No. of Myctophids   g
                                                        (xxx)
        Start  Time _2o_:j_(24 Hour clock)   End  Time  '-j\ : \et (24 Hour clock
                   HH  MM                            HH  MM
WPLING LOCATION

      Start  of  Tow

      TD1  2.5 & faa. t     TD2	
           (xxxxx.x)        (xxxxx.x)
 End  of  Tow

   TD1
                       TD2
            (xxxxx.x)      (xxxxx.x)

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                                    (xxx)
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                                ( xxx )
                                            20.
                                        DD   MM.MM
                                                          Lon
                                                              DDD  MM.MM
                                                         Lon  -70
                                             DD  MM.MM       DDD  MM.MM

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                                                           (xxx)
                                      No.  of Myctophids   |
                                                        (xxx)

   Start Time 2JT  : ^2. (24-Hour  clock)   End Time 2.3 ; e,;. (24Hour  clock)
              Iffi  MM                            HH  MM
RECORDER
        Name
                                                    ID Number 32.U.IQ
(White- DATA MGR
                            . 1 ow// PROGRAM MANAGER

                                    B-9
                                                     pink-  FIELD  PARTY;

-------
                              BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                                Work Assignment 38
                                      G3811
                                Trawl Location Log
STATION IDENTIFICATION

       Station  Number 4- ( AQNJI K]ET
                       (X or X-XXX)
                                                    Date 14.
                                                         DD  MM  YY
SAMPLING LOCATION  (T)

        Start  of Tow

        TD1
                         TD2
             (XXXXX.X)

        End  of  Tow

           TD1
                             (XXXXX.X)
Lat sg  n 4-oN    Lon  ~JO   42
    DD  MM.MM         ODD  MM.MM
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                ( xxxxx. x)       ( xxxxx. x)       DD   MM. MM       DDD  MM. MM
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                                  (xxx)
                                             No.  of Myctophids
                                                               ( xxx )
         Start  Time  05 ; 55 (24 Hour clock)   End Time 01 :2.& (24 Hour  clock
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SAMPLING LOCATION
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        TD1
    (XXXXX.X)

End of Tow

 TD1
                         TD2
                         TD2
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                              XXXXX . X )
                  Lon   
      .
    ' CD ...... MM . MM"
                                                                        -
                                                                DDD  MM . MM
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                                               DD  MM.MM       DDD  MM.MM
                       Tow Depth
                                  ( xxx )
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                                      (xxx)                   (xxx
                                             No.  of Myctophids   24
                                                               (xxx)
          Start Time oq :01 (24Hour  clock)   End Time  10 ;QI (24Hour clock)
                     HH  MM                      -      HH  MM
 RECORDER
          Name
                                     L/l
                 ID  Number 32.11.10
       White-  DATA MGR
                           Yellow-  PROGRAM MANAGER

                                     B-10
             Pink-  FIELD PARTY)

-------
                            BATTELLE OCEAN SCIENCES
                              Work Assignment 38
                                    G3811
                              Trawl Location Log
ATION  IDENTIFICATION

     Station  Number
                     A. (OIAI IJE
                     (X or X-XXX
                          Date  J4
                               DD  MM  YY
U1PLING LOCATION

       Start of Tow

       TD1
TD2
           (XXXXX.X)

       End of Tow

          TD1 z
                           (XXXXX.X)
                     DD  MM. MM
                                                         Lon  -fo  4
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  TD2
              ( xxxxx. x)
      '(xxxxx.x)
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                                (xxx)
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                                      ( xxx )
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kMPLING LOCATION
       Start of Tow

       TD1
TD2
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       End of Tow

        TDl
                        TD2
                  Lat  _  __ N  Lon _  _ _ W
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             (xxxxx.x)       (xxxxx.x)

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                      Tow Depth
              m
                                                           (xxx)

                                           No.  of Myctophids
                                 xxx
         Start Time
     24-Hour clock)  Ertd Time
                                                             ( xxx )

                                                             24Hour clock)
                    HH  MM
                                                     HH  MM
 RECORDER
         Name
                                                         ID Number 37//,
      .White- DATA MGR    Yellow- PROGRAM MANAGER    Pink- FIELD  PARTY

-------

-------
APPENDIX C.  HYDROGRAPHIC PROFILES

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