- VfK'h * ^ *ป*J * * 4
               . rv^fjr^^
        ....^
        ^J" "6al&-

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                     PUBLIC ACCESS TO
       THE TOXICS  RELEASE INVENTORY
TRI Reports and Data Products
Product
1996 TRI Public Data Release
(annual report)
1996 State Fact Sheets
1987-1995TRICD-ROM
1996 State Data Files .dbf
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1 996 Federal Facilities .dbf
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Order Information
EPA 745-R-98-005 (Free)
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$15-$25/state or free at http://www.
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Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
Pamphlet
EPA749-R-97-001b
Note: The 1987-1996 CD-ROM, containing the latest available data, will be published January 1999.

Accessing TRI Data Online
        Data from Online Providers
  Internet Address
     Special Notes
  Right to Know Network (RTKNET) -
  Provides public access to TRI and related
  environmental data bases. For more information,
  call (202) 797-7200.
http://www.rtk.net
ftp://ftp.rtknet.org
No charge for Internet access.
Direct access by modem at
parameters to 8,N,1 and log in as
"public." Phone charge may
apply.
  National Library of Medicine (NLM) -
  Offers comprehensive, user friendly searching
  of complete TRI data base. For more
  information, call (301) 496-6531.
http://www.nhn.nih.gov
$ 18-$20 per hour charge.
Password required.
  U.S. EPA Internet Server — Access a variety
  of reports, data files, and TRI information
  from EPA. For more information, call
  TRI-US at (202) 260-1531.
http://www.epa.gov
ftp://ftp.epa.gov
gopher://gopher.epa.gov
http://www.epa.gov/enviro
TRI-specific information
is available at:
http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/tri
http://www.epa.gov/envrro/html/
tris/tris overview.html

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             1996
       Toxics Release
           Inventory
Public Data Release -10 Years of Right-to-Know
         Industry Sector Analyses
        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (7408)
            Washington, DC 20460

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                                CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 —TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA BY INDUSTRY	1

Introduction	•	1
Context for Presentation of Industry Data	2
  Who Reports and What Must Be Reported?	2
    SIC Codes and TRI	3
    Form A Certification Statements	.	•	3
    TRI Releases and Waste Management	3
    Differences between Amounts Reported in Sections 5 and 6 and in Section 8 in Form R	 8
    TRI Chemicals	8
Industry Overview	H
  TRI Data by Industry, 1996	11
    On- and Off-site Releases	11
    Other On-site Waste Management	:	,	•	12
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	12
    Economic Overview, 1996	'•.	•	14
Year-by-Year Comparisons, by Industry	15
  Comparing TRI Data Across Years	15
    1995-1996 Comparisons	15
    Multi-Year Comparisons	,	15
  Year-by-Year Comparisons of TRI Data by Industry	15
    On- and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996	15
    On- and Off-site Releases, 1988 and 1994-1996	16
    Actual and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals  in Waste, 1991-1998	16
    Economic Overview, Multi-Year Comparisons....	•	19

                               CHAPTER 1 —  EXHIBITS

Table 1-1.  TRI Facilities and Forms, by Industry, 1996	11
Table 1-2.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, by Industry, 1996	12
Table 1-3.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, by Industry, 1996	13
Table 1-4.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, by Industry, 1996	13
Table 1-5.  Employees, Value of Shipments, and Total Production-related Waste, by Industry, 1996	14
Table 1-6.  Change in Total TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, by Industry, 1995-1996	16
Table 1-7.  Change in Total On-site and Off-site Releases, by Industry, 1988 and 1994-1996	17
Table 1-8.  Actual and Projected Total Production-related Waste, by Industry,  1996-1998	19
Table 1-9.  Total Production-related Waste, by Industry, 1991 and 1994-1996	20
Table 1-10. Industrial Production Indexes by Industry, 1989-1996	20
Table 1-11. Cumulative Change in Manufacturing Production and in TRI Releases and
           Transfers Off-site to Treatment and Disposal, 1989-1996	21

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         Contents
Figure 1-1.    Information Collected Under TRI	5
Figure 1-2.    Waste Management Hierarchy	17

Box 1-1.      Industry Sectors in the 1996 TRI Public Data Release	1
Box 1-2.      Who Reported Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reports for the 1996
             Reporting Year?	2
Box 1-3.      Who Will Report to TRI Starting in the 1998 Reporting Year?	2
Box 1-4.      What Must Be Reported to TRI?	3
Box 1-5.      An Explanation of SIC Codes and TRI	4
Box 1-6.      An Explanation of On-and Off-site Releases	6
Box 1-7.      An Explanation of On-site Waste Management	,	7
Box 1-8.      An Explanation of Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	7
Box 1-9.      Basis of OSHA Carcinogen Listing for Individual Chemicals	9
Box 1-10.     An Explanation of Waste Management Information	18


CHAPTER 2 — TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGE
                PROCESSING (SIC CODE 20)	23

A Look at the Food and Kindred Products Industry (SIC Code 20)	23
1996 TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing	27
    Multiple Codes within SIC Code 20	30
  On- and Off-site Releases	32
  Other On-site Waste Management	34
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	34
1996 TRI Data by State for Food and Beverage Processing	34
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Food and Beverage Processing	40
  OSHA Carcinogens	40
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Food and Beverage Processing	43
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	45
  Source Reduction Activity	47
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Food and Beverage Processing	47
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing	47
    On-and Off-site Releases	48
    Other On-site Waste Management	48
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	52
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing	52
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Food and Beverage Processing	54
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	70
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Food and Beverage Processing	71
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	74

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                                                                         Contents
                                 CHAPTER 2 — EXHIBITS

Table 2-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Food and Beverage
             Processing, SIC Code 20	..	28
Table 2-2.    Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	30
Table 2-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing,
             SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)	32
Table 2-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
             SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)	35
Table 2-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Food and Beverage
             Processing, SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)	37
Table 2-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing,
             SIC Code 20	39
Table 2-7.    The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)	42
Table 2-8.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,       '  -
             1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)	42
Table 2-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Food and
             Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)	.\	44
Table 2-10.   Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	.;....46
Table 2-11.   Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996:  Food and
             Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	49
Table 2-12.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-Site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	50
Table 2-13.   Comparison of TRI On-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and
             Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	..*..	,	53
Table 2-14.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	56
Table 2-15.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	61
Table 2-16.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	66
Table 2-17.   TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
             SIC Code 20	72

Figure 2-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases,  1996: Food and Beverage
             Processing (SIC Code 20)	ป	•	33
Figure 2-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:          r
             Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	ป:	-33

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         Contents
 Figure 2-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Food and Beverage
             Processing (SIC Code 20)	36
 Figure 2-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	36
 Figure 2-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	38
 Figure 2-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	38
 Figure 2-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	43
 Figure 2-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Food and Beverage
             Processing (SIC Code 20)	45
 Figure 2-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	45
 Figure 2-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	48
 Figure 2-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Food and
             Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	51
 Figure 2-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases,1988-1996: Food and
             Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	54
 Figure 2-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)	73

 Box 2-1.     SIC Code 20, Food and Beverage Processing: Codes and Classifications	24

 Map 2-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases,  1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20	41


 CHAPTER 3 —TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR TOBACCO PRODUCTS
                (SIC CODE 21)	77

 A Look at the Tobacco Products Industry (SIC Code 21)	77
 1996 TRI Data for Tobacco Products	78
  On- and Off-site Releases	79
  Other On-site Waste Management	82
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	82
 1996 TRI Data by State for Tobacco Products	84
 1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Tobacco Products	85
 1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Tobacco Products	87
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	88
  Source Reduction Activity	89
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Tobacco Products	91

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                                                                        Contents
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Tobacco Products	91
    On-and Off-site Releases	.	91
    Other On-site Waste Management	:	91
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	•	91
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Tobacco Products	,	91
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Tobacco Products	93
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	96
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Tobacco Products	99
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	99


                                CHAPTER 3 — EXHIBITS

Table 3-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco Products,
             SIC Code 21	80
Table 3-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21
             (in Rank Order)	-	80
Table 3-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Tobacco Products,
             SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)	82
Table 3-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Tobacco Products,
             SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)	83
Table 3-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	85
Table 3-7.    Chemicals with On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Tobacco Products,
             SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)	f	87
Table 3-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco
             Products, SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)	87
Table 3-10.   Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals hi Waste, 1996-1998:
             Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	89
Table 3-11.   Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Tobacco
             Products, SIC Code 21	90
Table 3-12.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	92
Table 3-13.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	94
Table 3-14.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Tobacco Products,  SIC Code 21	96
Table 3-15.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	97
Table 3-16.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	98

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         Contents
Table 3-17.   TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	100

Figure 3-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Tobacco Products
             (SIC Code 21)	80
Figure 3-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, by SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco Products
             (SIC Code 21)	81
Figure 3-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Tobacco Products
             (SIC Code 21)	82
Figure 3-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, by SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco Products
             (SIC Code 21)	83
Figure 3-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)	84
Figure 3-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, by SIC Code, 1996:
             Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)	84
Figure 3-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Tobacco Products
             (SIC Code 21)	88
Figure 3-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, by SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco Products
             (SIC Code 21)	88
Figure 3-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)	90
Figure 3-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Tobacco
             Products (SIC Code 21)	93
Figure 3-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Tobacco
             Products (SIC Code 21)	95
Figure 3-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)	101

Box 3-1.     SIC Code 21, Tobacco Products: Codes and Classifications	78
Box 3-2.     Data Not Appearing in This Chapter	79

Map 3-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21	86


CHAPTER 4—TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS
               (SIC CODE 22)	103

A Look at the Textile Mill Products Industry (SIC Code 22)	103
1996 TRI Data for Textile Mill Products	106
    Reporting Errors hi 1996 Data for SIC Code 22	108
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 22	109
  On- and Off-site Releases	110
  Other On-site Waste Management	 112

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                                                                          Contents
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	113
1996 TRI Data by State for Textile Mill Products	115
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Textile Mill Products..	117
  OSHA Carcinogens	,	117
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Textile Mill Products	120
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	121
  Source Reduction Activity	122
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Textile Mill Products	125
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Textile Mill Products	125
    On-and Off-site Releases	125
    Other On-site Waste Management	125
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	125
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Textile Mill Products	127
     1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Textile Mill Products	128
  Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	136
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Textile Mill Products	140
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	142


                                  CHAPTER  4 — EXHIBITS

Table 4-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Textile Mill Products,
             SIC Code 22	106
Table 4-2.    Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	109
Table 4-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases,  1996: Textiles, SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)	110
Table 4-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22
             (in Rank Order)	•	112
Table 4-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Textile Mill
             Products,  SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)	114
Table 4-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	116
Table 4-7.    The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)	119
Table 4-8.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:
             Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)	119
Table 4-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Textile Mill
             Products,  SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)	121
Table 4-10.   Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	123
Table 4-11.   Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Textile Mill
             Products, SIC Code 22	124

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         Contents
Table 4-12.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	126
Table 4-13.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	129
Table 4-14.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	131
Table 4-15.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	134
Table 4-16.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988
             and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	137
Table 4-17.   TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996: Textile Mill Products,
             SIC Code 22	141

Figure 4-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Textile Mill Products
             (SIC Code 22)	111
Figure 4-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Textile MiU Products (SIC Code 22)	111
Figure 4-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Textile Mill
             Products (SIC Code 22)	112
Figure 4-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management,  SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)	113
Figure 4-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Textile MiU Products (SIC Code 22)	114
Figure 4-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996:  Textile MiU Products (SIC Code 22)	115
Figure 4-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996:  Textile MiU Products (SIC Code 22)	120
Figure 4-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Textile MiU Products
             (SIC Code 22)	121
Figure 4-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Textile MiU Products (SIC Code 22)	122
Figure 4-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Textile MiU Products (SIC Code 22)	124
Figure 4-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Textile Mill
             Products (SIC Code 22)	127
Figure 4-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Textile Mill
             Products (SIC Code 22)	130
Figure 4-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Textile MiU Products (SIC Code 22)	142

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                                                                        Contents
Box 4-1.      SIC Code 22, Textile Mill Products: Codes and Classifications	104

Map 4-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22	118


CHAPTER 5 — APPAREL AND FABRICATED TEXTILES (SIC CODE 23)..	145

A Look at the Apparel and Fabricated Textiles Industry (SIC Code 23)	145
1996 TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles......	147
  On- and Off-site Releases	„	149
  Other On-site Waste Management	150
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management....	152
1996 TRI Data by State for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	153
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	155
  OSHA Carcinogens	•,	155
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	157
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	159
  Source Reduction Activity	161
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	161
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	161
    On-and Off-site Releases......	162
    Other On-site Waste Management	162
    Transfers Off-site for  Further Waste Management	162
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	164
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	165
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	172
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles	175
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	175


                                 CHAPTER 5 — EXHIBITS

Table 5-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Apparel and
             Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23	148
Table 5-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles,
             SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)	150
Table 5-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles,
             SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)	151
Table 5-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:  Apparel and
             Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)	153
Table 5-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles,
             SIC Code 23	154

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         Contents
 Table 5-7.     The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23 (hi Rank Order)	157
 Table 5-8.     TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)	157
 Table 5-9.     Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Apparel and
              Fabricated Textiles, SIC  Code 23 (in Rank Order)	158
 Table 5-10.    Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23	160
 Table 5-11.    Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Apparel and
              Fabricated Textiles, SIC  Code 23	162
 Table 5-12.    Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
              Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23	163
 Table 5-13.    Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
              Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
              1994-1996:  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23	166
 Table 5-14.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23	168
 Table 5-15.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and
              1994-1996: Apparel and  Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23	170
 Table 5-16.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
              1988 and 1994-1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23	173
 Table 5-17.    TRI Waste Management  Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Apparel and Fabricated
              Textiles, SIC Code 23	176

 Figure 5-1.    Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Apparel and
              Fabricated Textiles (SIC  Code 23)	150
 Figure 5-2.    TRI On-site and Off-site  Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	151
 Figure 5-3.    Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Apparel  and
              Fabricated Textiles (SIC  Code 23)	152
 Figure 5-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management,  SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	152
 Figure 5-5.    Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management,  1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	153
 Figure 5-6.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
              Totals, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	154
Figure 5-7.    TRI On-site and Off-site  Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, by SIC Code, 1996:
              Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	158
Figure 5-8.    Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated
             Textiles (SIC Code 23)	159

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                                                                        Contents
Figure 5-9.    Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	159
Figure 5-10.   Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste,
             1996-1998: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	161
Figure 5-11.   Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:  Apparel and
             Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	164
Figure 5-12.   Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996:  Apparel and
             Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	167
Figure 5-13.   Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996: Apparel
             and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)	177

Box 5-1.      SIC Code 23, Apparel and Other Finished Products Made from Fabrics and
             Similar Materials: Codes and Classifications	146
Box 5-2.      Data Not Appearing in This Chapter	•.	149

Map 5-1.     SIC Code 23, Apparel and Other Finished Products Made from Fabrics and
             Similar Materials: Codes and Classifications	156


CHAPTER 6 —TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR LUMBER AND WOOD
               PRODUCTS (SIC CODE 24)	179

A Look at the Lumber and Wood Products Industry (SIC Code 24)	179
1996 TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products	181
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 24	 184
  On- and Off-site Releases	184
  Other On-site Waste Management	 185
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	186
1996 TRI Data by State for Lumber and Wood Products	187
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Lumber and Wood Products	190
  OSHA Carcinogens	193
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Lumber and Wood Products	194
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	196
  Source Reduction Activity	197
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Lumber and Wood Products	197
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products	197
    On-and Off-site Releases	198
    Other On-site Waste Management	201
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	202
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products	202
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Lumber and Wood Products	204
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	209

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         Contents
   1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Lumber and Wood Products	212
     Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	214


                                CHAPTER 6 — EXHIBITS

Table 6-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Lumber and Wood
             Products, SIC Code 24	182
Table 6-2.    Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	184
Table 6-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Lumber and Wood Products,
             SIC Code 24 (in Rank Order)	185
Table 6-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products,
             SIC Code 24 (in Rank Order)	187
Table 6-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Lumber and Wood
             Products, SIC Code 24  (in Rank Order)	189
Table 6-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products,
             SIC Code 24	191
Table 6-7.    The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24 (in Rank Order)	193
Table 6-8.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24 (in Rank Order)	194
Table 6-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals hi Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Lumber and
             Wood Products, SIC Code 24 (hi Rank Order)	195
Table 6-10.   Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	198
Table 6-11.   Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Lumber and
             Wood Products, SIC Code 24	199
Table 6-12.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	200
Table 6-13.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988
             and 1994-1996:  Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	203
Table 6-14.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	205
Table 6-15.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,  1988 and
             1994-1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	208
Table 6-16.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	..210
Table 6-17.   TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Lumber and Wood
             Products, SIC Code 24	213

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                                                                       Contents
Figure 6-1.    Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Lumber and Wood
             Products (SIC Code 24)	185
Figure 6-2.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	186
Figure 6-3.    Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Lumber and
             Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	•	187
Figure 6-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	188
Figure 6-5.    Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	189
Figure 6-6.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	190
Figure 6-7.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	195
Figure 6-8.    Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Lumber and Wood
             Products (SIC Code 24)	196
Figure 6-9.    Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals,
             1996: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	197
Figure 6-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste,
             1996-1998: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	199
Figure 6-11.  Percentage Change hi On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:  Lumber and
             Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	;	201
Figure 6-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Lumber and
             Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	204
Figure 6-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996: Lumber
             and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)	..215

Box 6-1.      SIC Code 24, Lumber and Wood Products, Except Furniture: Codes and
             Classifications	180

Map 6-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24	192

CHAPTER 7 —TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR FURNITURE
                (SIC CODE 25)	219

A Look at the Furniture and Fixtures Industry (SIC Code 25)	219
1996 TRI Data for Furniture	221
    Multiple SIC Codes in  SIC Code 25	222
   On- and Off-site Releases	223
   Other On-site Waste Management	225
   Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	226
1996 TRI Data by State for Furniture	228

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         Contents
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Furniture	229
  OSHA Carcinogens	232
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Furniture	:	232
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	235
  Source Reduction Activity	237
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Furniture	237
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Furniture	237
    On-and Off-site Releases	238
    Other On-site Waste Management	238
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	238
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Furniture	240
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Furniture	241
    Other On-site Waste Management	243
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	245
  Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	247
    Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	250
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Furniture	250
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	250


                                 CHAPTER 7 — EXHIBITS

Table 7-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Furniture,
             SIC Code 25	222
Table 7-2.    Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Furniture, SIC Code 25	224
Table 7-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
             (in Rank Order)	224
Table 7-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
             (in Rank Order)	226
Table 7-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Furniture,
             SIC Code 25 (in Rank Order)	227
Table 7-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State,  1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25	230
Table 7-7.    The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Furniture, SIC Code 25 (in Rank Order)	232
Table 7-8.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:
             Furniture, SIC Code 25 (in Rank Order)	233
Table 7-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Furniture,
             SIC Code 25 (in Rank Order)	234
Table 7-10.   Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Furniture, SIC Code 25	236
Table 7-11.   Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Furniture,
             SIC Code 25	238

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                                                                           Contents
Table 7-12.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Furniture, SIC Code 25	239
Table 7-13.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25	242
Table 7-14.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Furniture, SIC Code 25	244
Table 7-15.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Furniture, SIC Code 25	246
Table 7-16.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996:  Furniture, SIC Code 25	248
Table 7-17.   TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996:  Furniture, SIC Code 25	251

Figure 7-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)	225
Figure 7-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Furniture (SIC Code 25)	225
Figure 7-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Furniture
             (SIC Code 25)	226
Figure 7-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Furniture (SIC Code 25)	227
Figure 7-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Furniture (SIC Code 25)	228
Figure 7-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996:  Furniture (SIC Code 25)	229
Figure 7-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996:  Furniture (SIC Code  25)	233
Figure 7-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)	234
Figure 7-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Furniture (SIC Code 25)	235
Figure 7-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Furniture (SIC Code 25)	237
Figure 7-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:  Furniture
             (SIC Code 25)	240
Figure 7-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996:  Furniture
             (SIC Code 25)	;	243
Figure 7-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste,  1991-1996:
             Furniture (SIC Code 25)	•	252

Box 7-1.     SIC Code 25, Furniture and Fixtures:  Codes and Classifications	220

Map 7-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25	231

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         Contents
CHAPTER 8 —TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR PRINTING AND
               PUBLISHING (SIC CODE 27)	255

A Look at the Printing and Publishing Industry (SIC Code 27)	255
1996 TRI Data for Printing and Publishing	257
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 27	258
  On- and Off-site Releases	259
  Other On-site Waste Management	260
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	262
1996 TRI Data by State for Printing and Publishing	262
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Printing and Publishing	266
  OSHA Carcinogens	266
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Printing and Publishing	269
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	270
  Source Reduction Activity	271
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Printing and Publishing	274
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Printing and Publishing	274
    On-and Off-site Releases	274
    Other On-site Waste Management	274
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	274
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Printing and Publishing	276
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries hi Printing and Publishing	278
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	284
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Printing and Publishing	286
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	288


                                CHAPTER 8 — EXHIBITS

Table 8-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Printing and
             Publishing, SIC Code 27	258
Table 8-2.    Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	259
Table 8-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27
             (in Rank Order)	260
Table 8-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Printing and Publishing,
             SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)	261
Table 8-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Printing and
             Publishing, SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)	263
Table 8-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996:  Printing and Publishing,
             SIC Code 27	265
Table 8-7.    The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)	268

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                                                                          Contents
Table 8-8.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)	268
Table 8-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Printing and
             Publishing, SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)	270
Table 8-10.   Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	272
Table 8-11.   Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Printing and
             Publishing, SIC Code 27	273
Table 8-12.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	275
Table 8-13.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-
             1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	277
Table 8-14.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	280
Table 8-15.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	282
Table 8-16.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996:  Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	285
Table 8-17.   TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Printing and Publishing,
             SIC Code 27	287

Figure 8-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Printing and
             Publishing (SIC Code 27)	260
Figure 8-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)..:	261
Figure 8-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Printing and
             Publishing (SIC Code 27)	262
Figure 8-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals,  1996:
             Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	263
Figure 8-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	264
Figure 8-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996:  Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	264
Figure 8-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996:  Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	269
Figure 8-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Printing and Publishing
             (SIC Code 27)	270
Figure 8-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	271

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         Contents
 Figure 8-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste,
             1996-1998: Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	273
 Figure 8-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
             Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	276
 Figure 8-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Printing and
             Publishing (SIC Code 27)	278
 Figure 8-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)	289

 Box 8-1.     SIC Code 27, Printing, Publishing, and Allied Industries:  Codes and
             Classifications	256

 Map 8-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27	267


 CHAPTER 9 —TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR RUBBER AND PLASTICS
                PRODUCTS (SIC CODE 30)	291

 A Look at the Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products Industry (SIC Code 30)	291
  Plastics Products	293
  Rubber Products	',	293
 1996 TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products	293
     Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 30	296
  On- and Off-site Releases	296
  Other On-site Waste Management	297
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	300
 1996 TRI Data by State for Rubber and Plastics Products	300
 1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Rubber and Plastics Products	302
  OSHA Carcinogens	305
 1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Rubber and Plastics Products	306
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	309
  Source Reduction Activity	309
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Rubber and Plastics Products	309
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products	309
    On-and Off-site Releases	310
    Other On-site Waste Management	313
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	313
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products	314
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Rubber and Plastics Products	314
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	321
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Rubber and Plastics Products	324
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	324

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                                                                         Contents
                                 CHAPTER 9 — EXHIBITS

Table 9-1.    Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Rubber and Plastics
             Products, SIC Code 30	294
Table 9-2.    Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	297
Table 9-3.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products,
             SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)	;.	298
Table 9-4.    TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products,
             SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)	299
Table 9-5.    TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Rubber and Plastics
             Products, SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)	301
Table 9-6.    Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products,
             SIC Code 30	303
Table 9-7.    The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)	305
Table 9-8.    TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)	306
Table 9-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Rubber and
             Plastics Products, SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)	307
Table 9-10.   Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	310
Table 9-11.   Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Rubber and
             Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	311
Table 9-12.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	312
Table 9-13.   Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	315
Table 9-14.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	317
Table 9-15.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	319
Table 9-16.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988
             and 1994-1996:  Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30	322
Table 9-17.   TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Rubber and Plastics Products,
             SIC Code 30	-	•	325

Figure 9-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Rubber and Plastics
             Products (SIC Code 30)	298
Figure 9-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	299

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         Contents
 Figure 9-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Rubber and
             Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	300
 Figure 9-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	300
 Figure 9-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	301
 Figure 9-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996:  Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	302
 Figure 9-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	307
 Figure 9-8.   Distribution of TRI Production- related Waste, 1996:  Rubber and Plastics
             Products (SIC Code 30)	308
 Figure 9-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	308
 Figure 9-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste,
             1996-1998: Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	',	311
 Figure 9-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Rubber and
             Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	313
 Figure 9-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Rubber and
             Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	:	316
 Figure 9-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996: Rubber
             and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)	326

 Box 9-1.     SIC Code 30, Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products:  Codes and
             Classifications	292

 Map 9-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products,
             SIC Code 30	304


 CHAPTER 10 — TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR LEATHER AND
                 LEATHER PRODUCTS (SIC CODE 31)	329

A Look at the Leather and Leather Products Industry (SIC Code 31)	329
 1996 TRI Data for Leather and Leather Products	331
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 31	332
  On- and Off-site Releases	333
  Other On-site Waste Management	334
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	336
 1996 TRI Data by State for Leather and Leather Products	337
 1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Leather and Leather Products	339
  OSHA Carcinogens	341

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                                                                         Contents
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Leather and Leather Products	342
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals hi Waste	343
  Source Reduction Activity	345
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Leather and Leather Products	347
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Leather and Leather Products	347
    On-and Off-site Releases..	347
    Other On-site Waste Management	347
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	347
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Leather and Leather Products	349
     1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Leather and Leather Products	352
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	355
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Leather and Leather Products	357
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	357


                                 CHAPTER 10 — EXHIBITS

Table 10-1.   Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Leather and Leather
             Products, SIC Code 31....	332
Table 10-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Leather and Leather Products, SIC Code 31	333
Table 10-3.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases,  1996: Leather and Leather Products,
             SIC Code 31 (in Rank Order)	334
Table 10-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Leather and Leather Products,
             SIC Code 31 (in Rank Order)	335
Table 10-5.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Leather and Leather
             Products, SIC Code 31 (in Rank Order)	337
Table 10-6.   Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Leather and Leather Products,
             SIC Code 31	339
Table 10-7.   The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Leather and Leather Products, SIC  Code 31 (in Rank Order)	341
Table 10-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:
             Leather and Leather Products, SIC  Code 31 (hi Rank Order)	341
Table 10-9.    Quantities of TRI Chemicals hi Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Leather and
             Leather Products, SIC Code 31 (in  Rank Order)	343
Table 10-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Leather and Leather Products, SIC  Code 31	345
Table 10-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Leather and
              Leather Products, SIC Code 31	346
Table 10-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
              Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
              Leather and Leather Products, SIC Code 31	348

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         Contents
 Table 10-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
              Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
              1994-1996: Leather and Leather Products, SIC Code 31	350
 Table 10-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
              Leather and Leather Products, SIC Code 31	353
 Table 10-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
              Leather and Leather Products, SIC Code 31	354
 Table 10-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988
              and 1994-1996:  Leather and Leather Products, SIC Code 31	356
 Table 10-17.  TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996:  Leather and Leather Products,
              SIC Code 31	358

 Figure 10-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Leather and Leather
              Products (SIC Code 31)	334
 Figure 10-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
              Leather and Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	335
 Figure 10-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Leather and
              Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	336
 Figure 10-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
              Leather and Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	336
 Figure 10-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
              Leather and Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	337
 Figure 10-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
              Totals, 1996: Leather and Leather Products (SIC  Code 31)	338
 Figure 10-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
              Largest Totals, 1996: Leather and Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	342
Figure 10-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Leather and Leather
              Products (SIC Code 31)	343
Figure 10-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
              Leather and Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	344
Figure 10-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste,
              1996-1998: Leather and Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	346
Figure 10-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Leather and
              Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	349
Figure 10-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Leather and
              Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	351
Figure 10-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
              Leather and Leather Products (SIC Code 31)	359

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                                                                       Contents
Box 10-1.     SIC Code 31, Leather and Leather Products: Codes and Classifications	330

Map 10-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Leather and Leather Products,
             SIC Code 31	340


CHAPTER 11 — TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR STONE, CLAY, GLASS,
                 AND CONCRETE (SIC CODE 32)	„	361

A Look at the Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Industry (SIC Code 32)	361
1996 TRI Data for Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	364
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 32	1	366
  On- and Off-site Releases	367
  Other On-site Waste Management	368
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste  Management....	371
1996 TRI Data by State for Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	373
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Stone,  Clay, Glass, and Concrete	375
  OSHA Carcinogens	377
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	 379
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	,	380
  Source Reduction Activity	383
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	383
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	383
    On-and Off-site Releases	384
    Other On-site Waste Management	,	386
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	387
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	'.	387
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	389
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete	396


                                CHAPTER 11 — EXHIBITS

Table 11-1.   Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Stone, Clay, Glass,
             and Concrete, SIC Code 32	364
Table 11-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32	367
Table 11-3.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete,
             SIC Code 32 (in Rank Order)	368
Table 11-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management,: 1996:  Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete,
             SIC Code 32 (in Rank Order)	370
Table 11-5.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Stone, Clay, Glass,
             and Concrete, SIC Code 32 (in Rank Order)	372

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         Contents
Table 11-6.   Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete,
             SIC Code 32	374
Table 11-7.   The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32 (in Rank Order)	377
Table 11-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32 (in Rank Order)	378
Table 11-9.   Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Stone, Clay,
             Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32 (in Rank Order)	380
Table 11-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32	382
Table 11-11.  Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Stone, Clay,
             Glass, and Concrete,  SIC Code 32	384
Table 11-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32	385
Table 11-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988
             and 1994-1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32	388
Table 11-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32	391
Table 11-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32	394
Table 11-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete, SIC Code 32	397
Table 11-17.  TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and
             Concrete, SIC Code 32	400

Figure 11-1.  Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Stone, Clay, Glass
             and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	368
Figure 11-2.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996: Stone,
             Clay, Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	369
Figure 11-3.  Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Stone, Clay, Glass,
             and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	....371
Figure 11-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	371
Figure 11-5.  Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	372
Figure 11-6.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996:  Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	373
Figure 11-7.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996: Stone, Clay,  Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	379

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                                                                        Contents
Figure 11-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and
             Concrete (SIC Code 32)	380
Figure 11-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	381
Figure 11-10. Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	383
Figure 11-11. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Stone, Clay,
             Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	:	,	386
Figure 11-12. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Stone, Clay,
             Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	;	389
Figure 11-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete (SIC Code 32)	401

Box 11-1.    SIC Code 32, Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete: Codes and Classifications	362

Map 11-1.    Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete,
             SIC Code 32	376


CHAPTER 12 — TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR FABRICATED METALS
                 (SIC CODE 34)	403

A Look at the Fabricated Metal Products Industry (SIC Code 34)	403
1996 TRI Data for Fabricated Metals	406
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 34	;.	407
  On- and Off-site Releases	412
  Other On-site Waste Management	414
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management....	,	415
1996 TRI Data by State for Fabricated Metals	418
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Fabricated Metals	.	;.... 420
  OSHA Carcinogens	420
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Fabricated Metals	422
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	425
  Source Reduction Activity	428
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Fabricated Metals	428
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Fabricated Metals	428
    On-and Off-site Releases	429
    Other On-site Waste Management	431
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management....	432
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Fabricated Metals	432
  1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Fabricated Metals	434
    On-and Off-site Releases	:	434

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           Contents
      Other On-site Waste Management	435
      Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	,	435
      Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	444
    1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Fabricated Metals	449
      Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	449


                                    CHAPTER 12 — EXHIBITS

Table 12-1.   Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Fabricated Metals,
             SIC Code 34	408
Table 12-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	410
Table 12-3.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34
             (in Rank Order)	412
Table 12-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34
             (in Rank Order)	414
Table 12-5.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Fabricated Metals,
             SIC Code 34 (in Rank Order)	417
Table 12-6.   Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996:  Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	419
Table 12-7.   The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34 (in Rank Order)	422
Table 12-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34 (in Rank Order)	423
Table 12-9.   Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Fabricated
             Metals, SIC Code 34 (in Rank Order)	425
Table 12-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	427
Table 12-11.  Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Fabricated
             Metals, SIC Code 34	429
Table 12-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	430
Table 12-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	433
Table 12-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	436
Table 12-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	440

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                                                                              Contents
 Table 12-16.

 Table 12-17.


 Figure 12-1.

 Figure 12-2.

 Figure 12-3.

 Figure 12-4.

 Figure 12-5.

 Figure 12-6.

 Figure 12-7.

 Figure 12-8.

 Figure 12-9.

 Figure 12-10.

 Figure 12-11.

 Figure 12-12.

 Figure 12-13.


 Box 12-1.
 TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
 1988 and 1994-1996: Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34, Continued	,	445
 TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Fabricated Metals,
 SIC Code 34	459

 Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Fabricated Metals
 (SIC Code 34)	.'	413
 TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
 Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	413
 Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Fabricated Metals
 (SIC Code 34)	.....415
 TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
 Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	416
 Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
 Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	418
 TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
 Totals, 1996: Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	418
 TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
 Largest Totals, 1996: Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	424
 Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Fabricated Metals
 (SIC Code 34)	426
 Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
 Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	426
 Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
 Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	428
 Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Fabricated
 Metals (SIC Code 34)	431
 Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Fabricated
Metals (SIC Code 34)	434
Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
Fabricated Metals (SIC Code 34)	451

SIC Code 34, Fabricated Metal Products, Except Machinery and Transportation
Equipment: Codes and Classifications	;	404
Map 12-1.    Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Fabricated Metals, SIC Code 34	421

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t^^jirjfc;
         Contents
 CHAPTER 13 — TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR INDUSTRIAL
                 MACHINERY (SIC CODE 35)	453

 A Look at the Industrial and Commercial Machinery and Computer Equipment Industry
 (SIC Code 35)	453
 1996 TRI Data for Industrial Machinery	457
     Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 35	460
   On-and Off-site Releases	462
   Other On-site Waste Management	463
   Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	464
 1996 TRI Data by State for Industrial Machinery	469
 1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Industrial Machinery	469
   OSHA Carcinogens	472
 1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Industrial Machinery	474
   Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	476
   Source Reduction Activity	479
 Year-to-Year Comparisons for Industrial Machinery	481
   1995-1996 TRI Data for Industrial Machinery	481
     On-and Off-site Releases	481
     Other On-site Waste Management	481
     Transfers Off-site for  Further Waste Management	481
   1988-1996 TRI Data for Industrial Machinery	484
     1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Industrial Machinery	486
     Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	498
   1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Industrial Machinery	504
     Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	.....504


                                  CHAPTER 13 — EXHIBITS

 Table 13-1.   Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Industrial Machinery,
             SIC Code 35	458
 Table 13-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35	461
 Table 13-3.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35
             (in Rank Order)	462
 Table 13-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35
             (in Rank Order)	465
 Table 13-5.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:  Industrial
             Machinery,  SIC Code 35 (in Rank Order)	467
 Table 13-6.   Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35	470

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                                                                             Contents
Table 13-7.   The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35 (in Rank Order)	472
Table 13-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996:  Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35 (in Rank Order)	473
Table 13-9.   Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Industrial
             Machinery, SIC Code 35 (in Rank Order)	475
Table 13-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35	478
Table 13-11.  Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Industrial
             Machinery, SIC Code 35	480
Table 13-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35	482
Table 13-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1994-1996:
             Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35	485
Table 13-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Industrial Machinery, SIC Code"35	490
Table 13-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35	493
Table 13-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996: Industrial Machinery, SIC Code 35	499
Table 13-17.  TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Industrial Machinery,
             SIC Code 35	505

Figure 13-1.  Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Industrial Machinery
             (SIC Code 35)	463
Figure 13-2.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	464
Figure 13-3.  Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Industrial
             Machinery (SIC Code 35)	466
Figure 13-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	466
Figure 13-5.  Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management,  1996:
             Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	,	468
Figure 13-6.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996: Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	468
Figure 13-7.  TRI On-site  and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996: Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	474
Figure 13-8.  Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Industrial Machinery
             (SIC Code 35)	476

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         Contents
Figure 13-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	477
Figure 13-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	479
Figure 13-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Industrial
             Machinery (SIC Code 35)	483
Figure 13-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Industrial
             Machinery (SIC Code 35)	486
Figure 13-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Industrial Machinery (SIC Code 35)	506

Box 13-1.     SIC Code 35, Industrial and Commercial Machinery and Computer Equipment:
             Codes and Classifications	454

Map 13-1.    Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Industrial Machinery Products,
             SIC Code 35	471


CHAPTER 14 — TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR TRANSPORTATION
                 (SIC CODE 37)	509

A Look at the Transportation Equipment Industry (SIC Code 37)	509
  Motor Vehicles and Equipment	509
  Aerospace and Shipbuilding	512
1996 TRI Data for Transportation Equipment	513
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 37	514
  On-and Off-site Releases	514
  Other On-site Waste Management	515
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	516
1996 TRI Data by State for Transportation Equipment	517
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Transportation Equipment	522
  OSHA Carcinogens	522
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Transportation Equipment	525
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	526
  Source Reduction Activity	527
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Transportation Equipment	528
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Transportation Equipment	528
    On-and Off-site Releases	529
    Other On-site Waste Management	530
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	530
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Transportation Equipment	532
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Transportation Equipment;	535

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                                                                           Contents
     Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	538
   1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Transportation Equipment	543
     Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	545

                                  CHAPTER 14 — EXHIBITS

Table 14-1.   Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Transportation
             Equipment, SIC Code 37	512
Table 14-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37	515
Table 14-3.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Transportation Equipment,
             SIC Code 37 (in Rank Order)	,	516
Table 14-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Transportation Equipment,
             SIC Code 37 (in Rank Order)	;	518
Table 14-5.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Transportation
             Equipment, SIC Code 37 (in Rank Order)	519
Table 14-6.  - Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Transportation Equipment,
             SIC Code 37	521
Table 14-7.   The 15 Chemicals  with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37 (in Rank Order)	524
Table 14-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37 (in Rank Order)	524
Table 14-9.   Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Transportation
             Equipment, SIC Code 37 (in Rank Order)	526
Table 14-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37	528
Table 14-11.  Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Transportation
             Equipment, SIC Code 37	,	530
Table 14-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-Site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37.	531
Table 14-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site Releases, Other  On-site Waste Management, and
             Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37	533
Table 14-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37.	536
Table 14-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by  4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37	539
Table 14-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996: Transportation Equipment, SIC Code 37	541
Table 14-17.  TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Transportation Equipment,
             SIC Code 37	544

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         Contents
Figure 14-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Transportation
             Equipment (SIC Code 37)	516
Figure 14-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37)	517
Figure 14-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Transportation
             Equipment (SIC Code 37)	518
Figure 14-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37)	519
Figure 14-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37)	520
Figure 14-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996:  Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37)	520
Figure 14-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
             Largest Totals, 1996: Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37)	525
Figure 14-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Transportation
             Equipment (SIC Code 37)	526
Figure 14-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals,
             1996: Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37)	527
Figure 14-10. Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37).	529
Figure 14-11. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:  Transportation
             Equipment (SIC Code 37)	r	532
Figure 14-12. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Transportation
             Equipment (SIC Code 37)	534
Figure 14-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Transportation Equipment (SIC Code 37)	545

Box 14-1.    SIC Code 37, Transportation Equipment:  Codes and Classifications	510

Map 14-1.    Total On- and Off-site Releases,  1996:  Transportation Equipment,
             SIC Code 37	523


CHAPTER  15 — INSTRUMENTS AND PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT (SIC CODE 38)	549

A Look at the Instruments and Photographic Equipment Industry (SIC Code 38)	549
1996 TRI Data for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	552
     Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 38	554
  On-and Off-site Releases	554
  Other On-site Waste Management	556
  Transfers  Off-site for Further Waste Management	557
1996 TRI Data by State for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	558

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                                                                           Contents
 1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	563
   OSHA Carcinogens	,	564
 1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	564
   Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	567
   Source Reduction Activity	569
 Year-to-Year Comparisons for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	569
   1995-1996 TRI Data for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	569
    On-and Off-site Releases	570
    Other On-site Waste Management	570
    Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	572
   1988-1996 TRI Data for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	573
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Instruments and Photographic Equipment	575
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	581
   1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Instruments and Photographic Equipment	;	584
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	584

                                 CHAPTER 15 — EXHIBITS

 Table 15-1.   Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Instruments and
             Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38	552
 Table 15-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Instruments and Photographic Equipment,
             SIC Code 38	554
 Table 15-3.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Instruments and Photographic
             Equipment, SIC Code 38	;	555
 Table 15-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management,  1996: Instruments and Photographic
             Equipment, SIC Code 38 (in Rank Order)	557
 Table 15-5.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:  Instruments and
             Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38 (in Rank Order)	559
 Table 15-6.   Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Instruments and Photographic
             Equipment, SIC Code 38	561
 Table 15-7.   The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38 (in Rank Order)	563
Table 15-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38 (in Rank Order)	565
Table 15-9.   Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Instruments
             and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38 (in Rank Order)	566
Table 15-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38	568
Table 15-11.  Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Instruments and
             Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38..;	570

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         Contents
 Table 15-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
              Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38	571
 Table 15-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
              Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
              1994-1996: Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38	574
 Table 15-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38	577
 Table 15-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38	579
 Table 15-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
              1988 and 1994-1996: Instruments and Photographic Equipment, SIC Code 38	582
 Table 15-17.  TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996:  Instruments and Photographic
              Equipment, SIC Code 38	585

 Figure 15-1.   Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Instruments and
              Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	555
 Figure 15-2.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	556
 Figure 15-3.   Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Instruments and
              Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	557
 Figure 15-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	558
 Figure 15-5.   Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	559
 Figure 15-6.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
              Totals, 1996: Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	560
 Figure 15-7.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with Largest
              Totals, 1996: Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	565
 Figure 15-8.   Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste, 1996: Instruments and Photographic
              Equipment (SIC Code 38)	566
 Figure 15-9.   Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	567
 Figure 15-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
              Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	569
Figure 15-11.  Percentage Change hi On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Instruments and
              Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	572
Figure 15-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Instruments and
             Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	575
Figure 15-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
             Instruments and Photographic Equipment (SIC Code 38)	586

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                                                                         Contents
Box 15-1.     SIC Code 38, Measuring, Analyzing, and Controlling Instruments; Photographic,
             Medical, and Optical Goods; Watches and Clocks: Codes and Classifications	550

Map 15-1.     Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Instruments and Photographic Equipment,
             SIC Code 38	562


CHAPTER 16 — TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY DATA FOR MISCELLANEOUS
                MANUFACTURING (SIC CODE 39)	,...589

A Look at the Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries (SIC Code 39)	589
1996 TRI Data for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	591
    Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 39	.	592
  On- and Off-site Releases	593
  Other On-site Waste Management	595
  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management	596
1996 TRI Data by State for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	598
1996 TRI Data by Chemical for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	603
  OSHA Carcinogens	:	:	604
1996 TRI Chemicals in Waste for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	605
  Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste	607
  Source Reduction Activity	609
Year-to-Year Comparisons for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	610
  1995-1996 TRI Data for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	610
    On-and Off-site Releases	,	v	610
    Other On-site Waste Management	612
  1988-1996 TRI Data for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	612
    1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in Miscellaneous Manufacturing	615
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996	621
  1991-1996 Waste Management Data for Miscellaneous Manufacturing	624
    Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996	626

                                 CHAPTER 16 — EXHIBITS

Table 16-1.   Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Miscellaneous
             Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	592
Table 16-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	594
Table 16-3.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases,  1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing,
             SIC Code 39 (in Rank Order)	594
Table 16-4.   TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing,
             SIC Code 39 (in Rank Order)	597

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         Contents
Table 16-5.   TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Miscellaneous
             Manufacturing, SIC Code 39 (in Rank Order)	599
Table 16-6.   Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing,
             SIC Code 39	601
Table 16-7.   The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39 (in Rank Order)	603
Table 16-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39 (in Rank Order)	604
Table 16-9.   Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Miscellaneous
             Manufacturing, SIC Code 39 (in Rank Order)	606
Table 16-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	608
Table 16-11.  Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity,  1996: Miscellaneous
             Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	610
Table 16-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	611
Table 16-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste
             Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1988 and
             1994-1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	614
Table 16-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing,  SIC Code 39	617
Table 16-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and  1994-1996:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	619
Table 16-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code,
             1988 and 1994-1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	622
Table 16-17.  TRI Waste Management Data, 1991, 1994-1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing,
             SIC Code 39	625

Figure 16-1.  Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996;  Miscellaneous
             Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	595
Figure 16-2.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest Releases, 1996:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	596
Figure 16-3.  Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Miscellaneous
             Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	597
Figure 16-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	598
Figure 16-5.  Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:
             Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	599
Figure 16-6.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
             Totals, 1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	600

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Figure 16-7.

Figure 16-8.

Figure 16-9.

Figure 16-10.

Figure 16-11.

Figure 16-12.

Figure 16-13.


Box 16-1.

Map 16-1.
                                                                          Contents
TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
Largest Totals, 1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	605
Distribution of TRI Production- related Waste, 1996: Miscellaneous
Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	606
Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	607
Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	609
Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996: Miscellaneous
Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	613
Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996: Miscellaneous
Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	615
Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
Miscellaneous Manufacturing (SIC Code 39)	627

SIC Code 39, Miscellaneous Manufacturing: Codes and Classifications	590
                                  !
Total On- and Off-site Releases, 1996: Miscellaneous Manufacturing, SIC Code 39	602
                                       APPENDICES

APPENDIX A — EPA REGIONAL OFFICE AND STATE TRI CONTACTS	A-1

EPA Regional Section 313 Coordinators	A-1
State TRI Public Contacts	A-3

APPENDIX B — TRI FORM R AND FORM A FOR 1996	B-1

FormR	B-1
Form A Certification Statement	B-1

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                                     Chapter 1
                Toxics Release Inventory Data
                                   by Industry
Introduction

In May 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency published the 1996 Toxics Release
Inventory Public Data Release, summarizing the
1996 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data
nationwide and presenting more detailed analyses
by state and by chemical. The document also
compared the 1996 data to earlier reporting years. It
supplied background information on TRI reporting,
described past and future changes in the TRI
program, and provided information that TRI users
need to consider in examining and analyzing these
data. Expanding on previous data release reports,
the release in May of the 1996 TRI Public Data
Release provided a more comprehensive view of
industry data and examined more closely TRI
reporting in five priority industrial sectors  and
federal facilities.

This volume presents the data for the remaining 15
industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently
required to report to TRI. Similar to the May
release, these chapters set the TRI data in context
of economic, regulatory, and technological
developments that influence industry-wide releases
and other waste management. They also analyze
reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit
SIC code level.

Industry sectors covered in the two publications
appear in Box 1-1.
Box 1-1. Industry Sectors in the 1996 TRI Public Data
Release
         First Release, Spring 1998

  26  Pulp and Paper
  28  Chemical Manufacturing
  29  Petroleum Refining
  33  Primary Metals
  36  Electrical Equipment


         Second Release, Fall 1998

  20  Food and Beverage Processing
  21  Tobacco Products
  22  Textile Mill Products
  23  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
  24  Lumber and Wood Products
  25  Furniture
  27  Printing and Publishing
  30  Rubber and Plastics Products
  31  Leather and Leather Products
  32  Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete
  34  Fabricated Metals
  35  Industrial Machinery
  37  Transportation Equipment
  38  Instruments and Photographic Equipment
  39  Miscellaneous Manufacturing

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          Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
 Context for  Presentation

 of Industry Data

 The 1996 TRI Public Data Release published hi
 May 1998 provides an overview of the information
 collected through TRI. It describes the benefits and
 limitations of the data, explains key terms, and
 discusses factors such as toxicity and exposure that
 should be considered when reviewing TRI data.
 This section presents selected summary information
 from the May 1998 document to facilitate the
 understanding of the industry-specific analyses in
 the chapters that follow. This includes
 characteristics of TRI data, key concepts, and
 supplemental economic information that are
 specifically referred to throughout this volume.
 Readers are encouraged to consult the earlier
 publication for additional mformation.

 Who Reports and What Must Be
 Reported?

 Manufacturing facilities with the equivalent of 10
 or more full-time employees that meet the
 established thresholds must report their releases,
 transfers, and waste management quantities to TRI.
 Thresholds for manufacturing and processing are
 currently 25,000 pounds for each listed chemical,
 while the threshold for "otherwise using" is 10,000
 pounds per chemical. Manufacturing facilities
 include those in SIC codes 20 to 39 (listed in Box
 1-1). Box 1-2 summarizes reporting criteria for
 facilities that must report to TRI. In July 1999 (for
reporting year 1998),  another seven industrial
sectors will report to TRI for the first time; these
appear in Box 1-3.
Box 1-2. Who Reported Toxic Chemical Release
Inventory Reports for the 1996 Reporting Year?
   Who Reported Toxic Chemical Release
        Inventory Reports for the 1996
               Reporting Year?

  A facility must report to TRI if it:

  •  Conducts manufacturing operations within Standard
     Industrial Classification (SIC) codes 20 through 39
     (or is a federal facility in any SIC code),

  •  Has 10 or more full-time equivalent employees, and

  •  Manufactures or processes more than 25,000 pounds
     or otherwise uses more than 10,000 pounds of any
     listed chemical during the calendar year.
Box 1-3. Who Will Report to TRI Starting in the 1998
Reporting Year?
       Who Will Report to TRI Starting
         in the 1998 Reporting Year?

     Metal mining (SIC code 10 except for SIC codes
     1011, 1081, and 1094)

     Coal mining (SIC code 12 except for extraction
     activities)

     Electrical utilities that combust coal and/or oil (SIC
     codes 493 land 4939)

     Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
     Subtitle C hazardous waste treatment and disposal
     facilities (SIC code 4953)

     Chemicals and  allied products wholesale distributors
     (SIC code 5169)

     Petroleum bulk plants and terminals (SIC code
     5171)

     Solvent recovery services (SIC code 7389)

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                                         Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industt
Box 1-4 summarizes the kinds of information
facilities must report. Since its inception under the
Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), TRI has
collected data on the amounts of chemicals that
facilities release to the environment on-site and
transfer off-site to other locations for waste
management. Passage of the federal Pollution
Prevention Act in 1990 expanded the information
that TRI collects. The additional data on waste
management include quantities recycled, burned for
energy recovery, treated, and released on-site or
off-site.

Box 1-4. What Must Be Reported to TRI?
           What Must Be Reported?

   Information reported by facilities includes:

  •   Basic information identifying the facility;
  •   Name and telephone number of a contact person;

  •   Environmental permits held;
  •   Amounts of each listed chemical released to the
      environment at the facility;
  •   Amounts of each chemical shipped from the facility
      to other locations for recycling, energy recovery,
      treatment, or disposal;
  •   Amounts of each chemical recycled, burned for
      energy recovery, or treated at the facility;
  •   Maximum amount of chemical present on-site at the
      facility during the year;
  •   Types of activities conducted at the facility
      involving the toxic chemical; and
  •   Source reduction activities.
 SIC Codes and TRI

 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes are
 used throughout the federal government to classify
 economic activity by industry. Industry analyses in
 TRI rely on the SIC codes that facilities report on
 their TRI submissions to identify their business
 operations. Many facilities conduct manufacturing
 activity in more than one SIC code. Box 1-5
 explains how SIC codes are used in preparing
 industry analyses in this book and how data on TRI
 forms with more than one SIC code are treated.

 Form A Certification Statements

 Facilities whose total annual reportable amount of a
 listed toxic chemical does not exceed 500 pounds
 can apply a higher activity threshold in determining
 their reporting obligations. The total annual
: reportable amount is defined as the sum of the
 waste management categories that would be
 reported to TRI: quantities released (including
 disposal), recovered as a result of on-site recycling
 operations, combusted on-site for energy recovery,
 and treated at the facility, plus amounts transferred
 off-site for recycling, energy recovery, treatment,
 and disposal. These amounts correspond to total
 production-related waste in this report.

 If the facility does not exceed the 500-pound annual
 reportable amount (total production-related waste)
 and does not manufacture, process, or otherwise
 use more than 1 million pounds of the listed
 chemical, the facility can submit a certification
 statement (Form A) instead of the complete TRI
 reporting form (Form R). Form A certifies that the
 facility met the conditions outlined above for the
 listed chemical, but does not require reporting of
; any amounts of the toxic chemical released or
 otherwise managed as waste.

 TRI Releases and Waste Management

 Figure 1-1 illustrates on-site and off-site releases,
 on-site waste management activities, and transfers
 off-site for further waste management, as reportable
 to TRI. Box  1-6 describes reportable releases that
[ may occur on-site at the facility or as a result of
: transferring chemicals off-site for disposal, and
 identifies types of activities that may contribute
 releases to various media. Box  1-7 lists on-site
 waste management activities that are reportable to
 TRI. Box 1-8 describes transfers off-site for further
 waste management.

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            Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Box 1-5. An Explanation of SIC Codes and TRI
                                   An Explanation of SIC Codes and TRI

   On TRI Form Rs and certification statements, Form As, facilities report the four-digit Standard Industrial Classification
   (SIC) codes that define their operations. A facility might report, for example, SIC code 3714, motor vehicle parts and
   accessories. These industries are grouped into broader categories at the three-digit and two-digit SIC code levels. For
   example, motor vehicle parts and accessories falls into the motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment group at the three-
   digit level (SIC code 371) and the transportation equipment major group (SIC code 37). Tables in this chapter present data
   aggregated at the two-digit level.

   TRI facilities may report up to six four-digit SIC codes that describe their operations. They submit one Form R or Form A
   certification statement for each chemical they are reporting. If all the processes or operations that are associated with a
   facility's releases or other waste management of a TRI chemical can be described by one SIC code, then only one SIC code
   is reported on the form. If several economic activities, designated by different SIC codes, describe the specific operations at a
   facility that are associated with releases or other waste management of a TRI chemical, then the facility will report those SIC
   codes (up to six) on the form it submits for that chemical.

   Industrial facilities often conduct inter-related operations. They may, for example, manufacture distinct products using
   common or related feedstocks. Such products may be classified in similar but separate categories in the SIC system. Thus,
   many forms submitted to TRI contain more than one industrial classification. When TRI data are analyzed by industry—that
   is, by SIC code—forms that report more than one SIC code must be categorized separately because they  do not fall into the
   individual industry groups. This affects analyses at the four-digit level, as presented in Chapters 2 through 16, and it affects
   analyses when data are aggregated at the two-digit level, as in this chapter.

   Four-digit Multiple SIC Codes: Forms that report multiple SIC codes within the same two-digit SIC codes are categorized
   as "multiple codes" in the analyses of TRI data in Chapters 2 through 16. A facility that makes vehicle bodies for both cars
   and trucks will report both SIC code 3711 (motor vehicles and passenger car bodies) and SIC code 3713  (truck and bus
   bodies). In the analyses in Chapter 14 of TRI reporting in the transportation equipment sector (SIC code  37), data from these
   forms are included in the "multiple-codes" category. In some industrial sectors, such as chemical manufacturing (SIC code
   28, analyzed in Chapter 6 of the May 1996 TRI Public Data Release), the majority of TRI reporting occurs on forms with
   multiple SIC codes at the four-digit level.

   Two-digit Multiple SIC Codes: In this chapter,  the "multiple codes" category represents forms that report in more than one
   two-digit SIC code. For example, a facility may manufacture motor vehicle parts (in SIC code 37) and also fabricate other
   metal products (in SIC code 34); it will report SIC codes in both of these sectors on its TRI forms (such as SIC codes 3714
   (motor vehicle parts and accessories) and 3465 (automotive stampings). Data from these forms are classified in the "multiple
  codes" category in this chapter, where the tables analyze the TRI data at the two-digit level. In this chapter, TRI forms from
  the facility that manufactures vehicle bodies for both cars and trucks would be included in SIC code 37, because both of its
  four-digit SIC codes (SIC code 3711 and SIC code 3713) fall within SIC code 37.

  On forms with more than one SIC code, any SIC code that is not within manufacturing (that is, not within the SIC code range
  20 to 39) is ignored when assigning a form to an industry category. For example, a form with the SIC code 3241
  (manufacture of hydraulic cement) and SIC code 4953 (refuse systems) would be included in SIC code 3241 in Chapter 11
  and in SIC code 32 in this chapter. (In this example, the facility would be a waste incinerator that collects and burns refuse to
  fuel a cement kiln.)

  Federal Facilities: Federal facilities report the SIC codes  that describe their activity; these may or may not fall within the
  manufacturing categories, SIC codes 20 to 39, that have reported to TRI since its inception. (As explained earlier in this
  chapter, additional industries will begin reporting with the 1998 reporting year.) Tables in this chapter  incorporate amounts
  submitted by federal facilities in the SIC codes they reported, just as is done for private sector facilities. In each table, a
  separate summary of federal facilities' data is presented as well, following the totals.

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                           Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industi
       Releases
                             On-sSte
                         Waste Management
   Air
Water
Recycling
 Energy
Recovery
Underground
  Injection
Land
                                                   Treatment
        Releases
                             Off-site
                         Waste Management
       I
         Disposal
                                           Energy
                                          Recovery
                                          Treatment

                   Figure 1-1. Information Collected Under TRI
                                          POTWs

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            Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Box 1-6. An Explanation of On- and Off-site Releases
                               An Explanation of On- and Off-site Releases

   A release is a discharge of a toxic chemical to the environment. On-site releases include emissions to the air, discharges to
   bodies of water, releases at the facility to land, as well as into underground injection wells. Releases are reported to TRI by
   media type. Chemicals in waste transferred off-site for disposal are also released to the environment. On- and off-site
   releases thus include releases to the environment at the facility (reported in Section 5 for Form R) plus off-site transfers to
   disposal (reported in Section 6 of Form R).

   Air Emissions. Releases to air are reported either as point source or fugitive emissions. Point source emissions, also referred
   to as stack emissions, occur through confined air streams, such as stacks, vents, ducts, or pipes. Fugitive emissions are all
   releases to air that are not released through a confined air stream. Fugitive emissions include equipment leaks, evaporative
   losses from surface impoundments and spills, and releases from building ventilation systems.

   Surface Water Discharges. Releases to water include discharges to streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, and other bodies of water.
   This includes releases from contained sources, such as industrial process outflow pipes or open trenches. Releases due to
   runoff, including stormwater runoff, are also reportable to TRI.

   Underground Injection. Underground injection is the subsurface emplacement of fluids through wells. TRI chemicals
   associated with manufacturing, the petroleum industry, mining, commercial and service industries, and Federal and
   municipal government related activities may be injected into Class I, II, m, IV or V wells, if they do not endanger
   underground sources of drinking water (USDW), public health or the environment. The different types of authorized
   injection activities are described below:
     •  Class I industrial,  municipal and manufacturing wells inject fluids into deep, confined and isolated formations below
        potable water supplies.
     •  Class II oil and gas related wells which re-inject produced fluids for disposal, enhanced recovery of oil, or hydrocarbon
        storage.
     •  Class ffl wells are associated with the solution mining of minerals.
     •  Class IV wells may inject hazardous  or radioactive fluids directly or indirectly into USDW, only if the injection is part
        of an authorized CERCLA/RCRA clean up operation.
     •  Class V wells, which include all types of injection wells which do not fall under I - IV, may inject only if they do not
        endanger USDW,  public health or the environment. Class V wells are, generally, shallow drainage wells, such as floor
        drains connected to dry wells or drain fields.
   Beginning with the 1996 reporting year, facilities separately report amounts injected into Class I wells and into all other
   wells.

   On-site Land Releases.  On-site releases to  land occur within the boundaries of the reporting facility. Releases to land
   include disposal of toxic chemicals in landfills (in which wastes are buried), land treatment/application farming (in which a
   waste containing a listed chemical is applied to or incorporated into soil), surface impoundments (which are uncovered
   holding areas used to volatilize and/or settle waste materials), and other land disposal methods (such as waste piles) or
  releases to land (such as spills or leaks). Beginning with the 1996 reporting year, facilities separately report amounts released
   to RCRA Subtitle C landfills from amounts released to other on-site landfills.

  Transfers Off-site to Disposal Toxic chemicals in waste that are transferred to a facility for disposal generally are either
  released to land at an off-site facility or are injected underground.

-------
                                                Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Indus
Box 1-7. An Explanation of On-site Waste Management
                              An Explanation of On-site Waste Management

   On-site waste management activities are reported in Section 8 of Form R. These amounts do not include one-time events such
   as accidental releases or remediation (clean-up).

   Recycled On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical recovered at the facility and made available for further use. It is
   not the quantity that entered an on-site recycling or recovery operation.

   Used for Energy Recovery On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical that was combusted in some form of energy
   recovery device, such as a  furnace (including kilns) or boiler. The toxic chemical should have a heating value high enough to
   sustain combustion. To avoid double-counting, the amount reported represents the amount destroyed in the combustion
   process, not the amount that entered the energy recovery unit. For example, 100,000 pounds of toluene entered a boiler that,
   on average, combusted 98% of the toluene. Any remaining toluene was discharged to air. A total of 98,000 pounds is reported
   as combusted for energy recovery (the remaining 2,000 pounds is reported  as released).

   Treatment On-site. This is  the quantity of the toxic chemical destroyed in on-site waste treatment operations, not the amount that
   entered  any treatment operation. For example, if 100,000 pounds of benzene  were combusted in an incinerator that destroyed
   99% of the benzene, the facility would report 99,000 pounds as treated on-site (the remaining 1,000 pounds would be reported as
   released).
Box 1-8. An Explanation of Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
                An Explanation of Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

  An off-site transfer, reported in Section 6 of Form R, is the transfer of toxic chemicals in waste to a facility that is geographically
  or physically separate from the facility reporting under TRI. Chemicals reported to TRI as transferred are sent to off-site facilities
  for the purposes of recycling, energy recovery, treatment, or disposal. The quantities reported represent a movement of the
  chemical away from the reporting facility. Except for off-site transfers to disposal, these quantities do not necessarily represent
  entry of the chemical into the environment. Transfers to disposal represent an off-site release (see Box 1-6).

  Transfers Off-site to Recycling. Toxic chemicals in waste that are sent off-site for the purposes of recycling are generally
  recovered by a variety of recycling methods, including solvent recovery and metals recovery. The choice of the recycling
  method depends on the toxic chemical being sent for recycling. Once they have been recycled, these chemicals may be
  returned to the originating facility for further processing or made available for use in commerce.

  Transfers Off-site to Energy Recovery. Toxic chemicals in waste sent off-site for purposes of energy recovery are combusted
  off-site in industrial furnaces (including kilns) or boilers that-feBerate heat or energy for use at that location. Treatment of a
  chemical by incineration is not considered to be energy recovery.

  Transfers Off-site to Treatment. Toxic chemicals in waste that are transferred off-site may be treated through a variety of
  methods, including biological treatment, neutralization, incineration, and physical separation. These methods typically result
  in varying degrees of destruction of the toxic chemical. In some cases (such as stabilization or solidification), the chemical is
  not destroyed but is prepared for further waste management, such as contained disposal.

  Transfers to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs). A POTW is a wastewater treatment facility that is owned by a
  state or municipality. Wastewaters from facilities reporting under TRI are transferred through pipes or sewers to a POTW.
  Treatment or removal of a chemical from the wastewater depends upon the nature of the chemical, as well as the treatment
  methods present at the POTW. In general, chemicals that are easily utilized as nutrients by microorganisms, or have a low
  solubility in water, are likely to be removed to some extent. Chemicals that are volatile and have a low solubility in water may
  evaporate into the atmosphere. Not all TRI chemicals can be treated or removed by a POTW. Some chemicals, such as metals,
  may be removed, but are not destroyed and may be disposed of in landfills or discharged to receiving waters.

  Other Off-site Transfers. In this report, toxic chemicals in waste that were reported as transferred off-site but for which the
  off-site activity (i.e., treatment, disposal, energy recovery, or recycling) was not specified or was not an accepted code have
  been classified as "other off-site transfers."

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         Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Differences between Amounts Reported in
Sections 5 and 6 and in Section 8 in Form R

Generally, the total of the on-site releases that a
facility reports in Section 5, plus transfers off-site
to disposal that it reports in Section 6 (designated
off-site releases in this publication), should equal
the quantity released on- and off-site that it reports
in Section 8.1. Further, transfers to recycling,
energy recovery, and treatment (including POTWs)
reported in Section 6 should correspond to
reporting of off-site recycling, energy recovery, and
treatment in Section 8.

Differences  arise for several reasons. Reporting in
Sections 5 and 6 includes releases and transfers
resulting from remedial actions or other one-tune
events; these are reported separately in Section 8. A
release or transfer of less than 1,000 pounds of a
chemical may be reported as a range rather than an
exact amount in Sections 5 and 6. Furthermore,
facilities can round off the quantities they report in
Section 8 to two significant digits. In addition,
some facilities may not understand that certain
amounts or totals that a facility reports  in Sections
5 and 6 should correspond to amounts reported in
the current-year column of Section 8, as described
above.

TRI Chemicals

In 1994, for the 1995 reporting year, EPA added
nearly  300 chemicals and chemical categories to
TRI. This expansion nearly doubled the TRI
chemical list. Specifically, EPA added more than
150 pesticides, certain Clean Air Act chemicals,
certain Clean Water Act Priority Pollutants, and
certain Safe Drinking Water Act chemicals. These
included carcinogens, reproductive toxicants, and
developmental toxicants. The 1996 data release
covers  the second year in which facilities have
reported on these chemicals.
OSHA Carcinogens

Some chemicals are listed in TRI because they are
either known human carcinogens or suspect
carcinogens. Known human carcinogens are those
that have been shown to cause cancer in humans.
Suspect carcinogens are those that have been
shown to cause cancer in animals. TRI thresholds
for reporting known and suspect carcinogens in
mixtures are lower than for other substances.

When a TRI chemical occurs in a mixture, it is
reportable only if the concentration of the chemical
in the mixture is above a specified percentage. For
non-carcinogenic TRI chemicals, this concentration
is 1.0%. In establishing reporting requirements for
substances designated as carcinogens, EPA adopted
the limitation set by the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard
Communication Standards (29 CFR 1910.1200)
because much of the information that industry
would have relating to chemicals in a mixture
would be from the material safety data sheet
(MSDS).

Under OSHA standards, the "de minimis"
concentration for substances designated as
carcinogens is 0.1%. At a concentration of 0.1% or
more, a TRI chemical that is an OSHA carcinogen
must be included in facilities' calculations of
threshold and release amounts. The OSHA
limitation applies if the chemical is a known or
suspect carcinogen by virtue of appearing in one of
three sources:

    1.  National Toxicology Program (NTP),
       "Annual Report on Carcinogens" (Latest
       Edition);
    2.  International Agency for Research on
       Cancer (IARC) "Monographs" (Latest
       Editions); or
    3.  29 CFR 1910, Subpart Z, Toxic and
       Hazardous Substances, Occupational Safety
       and Health Administration.

Box 1-9 lists the OSHA carcinogens and the bases
for their designation.

-------
                                                     Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Indus,
Box 1-9.  Basis of OSHA Carcinogen Listing for Individual Chemicals
 Chemical
IARC   NTP    OSHA   Chemical
IARC   NTP  OSHA
 Acetaldehyde                              2B      P       —
 Acetamide                                2B      —       —
 2-Acetylaminofluorene                     —      P       Z
 Acrylamide                               2A      P       —
 Acrylonitrile                              2A      P       Z
 2-Aminoanthraquinone                     —      P       —
 4-Aminoazobenzene                        2B      —       —
 4-Aminobiphenyl                          1       K       Z
 l-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone             —      P       —
 Amitrole                                  2B      P
 o-Anisidine                               2B      —       —
 o-Anisidine hydrochloride                  —      P       —
 Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds     1       Kf       Z
 Asbestos (friable)                          1       K       Z
 Atrazine                                  2B      —       —
 Benzene                                  1       K       Z
 Benzidine                                 1       K       Z
 Benzoic trichloride                         2B      P       —
 Beryllium and beryllium compounds         1       Pf       —
 Bis(chloromethyl)ether                     1       K       Z
 1,3-Butadiene                             2A      P       —
 C.I. Acid Red 114                          2B               —
 C.I. Direct Black 38                        2A      P       —
 C.I. Direct Blue 6                          2A      P       —
 C.I. Direct Brown 95                       2A      —       —
 C.I. Food Red 5                            2B      —       —
 C.I. Solvent Yellow 34 (Auramine)           2B      —       —
 Cadmium and cadmium compounds          1       Pt       —
 Carbon tetrachloride                        2B      P       —
 Chlordane                                2B      —       —
 Chlorendic acid                            2B      P       —
 p-Chloroaniline                            2B      —       —
 Chloroform                               2B      P       •—
 Chloromethyl methyl ether                  1       K       Z
 3-Chloro-2-methyl-l-propene               —      P       —
 Chlorophenols                             2B      —       —
 p-Chloro-o-toluidine                        2B      —       —
 Chromium (VI) compounds                 IK       —
 Cobalt and cobalt compounds               2B      —       —
 Creosote                                  2A      —       —
 p-Cresidine                               2B      P       —
 Cupferron                                 —      P       —
 2,4-0$                                    2B      —       —•
 2,4-D butoxyethyl esterf                    2B      —       —
 2,4-D butyl ester$                          2B      —       —
                          2,4-D chlorocrotyl ester!
                          2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester!
                          2,4-D 2-ethyl-4methylpentyl ester!
                          2,4-Diaminoanisole
                          2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate
                          4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether
                          2,4-Diaminotoluene
                          Diaminotoluene (mixed isomers)
                          1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
                          1,2-Dibromoethane
                          1,4-Dichlorobenzene
                          Dichlorobenzene (mixed isomers)
                          3,3 '-Dichlorobenzidine
                          3,3'-Dichlorobenzidinedihydrochloride
                          3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine sulfate
                          1,2-Dichloroethane
                          Dichloromethane
                          trans-1,3-Dichloropropene
                          1,3-Dichloropropyene
                          Dichlorvos
                          Diepoxybutane
                          Di-(2-ethyIhexyl)phthalate
                          Diethyl sulfate
                          Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
                          Dihydrosafrole
                          3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine
                          3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride
                          3,3 '-Dimethoxybenzidine hydrochloride
                          4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
                          3,3 '-Dimethylbenzidine
                          3,3 '-Dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride
                          3,3 '-Dimethylbenzidine dihydrofluoride
                          Dimethylcarbamyl chloride
                          N,N-Dimethylformamide
                          1,1 -Dimethylhydrazine
                          Dimethyl sulfate
                          1,4-Dioxane
                          1,2-Diphenylhydrazine
                          2,4-D isopropyl ester!
                          2,4-DP!
                          2,4-D propylene glycol butyl ether ester!
                          2,4-D sodium salt!
                          Epichlorohydrin
                          Ethyl acrylate
                          Ethyleneimine
2B      —
2B      —
2B      —
2B      —
—      P
2B      —
2B      P
2B
2B
2A
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2A
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2A
2B
2B
2A
2B
  2B
  2B
  2B
  2B
  2A
  2B
          P      —
          P       Z
          P      —
          P      —
          P      —
          P       Z
          P      —
          P      —
          p      	
          P      —

          P      —

          P      —
          P      —
          P      —
          P      —

          P      —
          p      	
          P      —
          P       Z
          p      	
          p      	
          p      	
          p      —

          p      —
          p      	
          p      —
          p      —
        p
        p
  —     —      Z
Note:  The list of TRI chemicals meeting the OSHA carcinogen standard and, therefore, reported when in a mixture at a concentration level below the de minimis
       level of 0.1 %, has been updated, and this list reflects the update.
IARC:  1-The chemical is carcinogenic to humans; 2A-The chemical is probably carcinogenic to humans; 2B-The chemical is possibly carcinogenic to humans.
NTP:   K-The chemical is known to be carcinogenic; P-The chemical may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogenic.
OSHA: Z-The chemical appears at 29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart Z.              '
t      Certain compounds.
$      Chlorophenoxy herbicides (IARC 2B).

-------
             Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Box 1-9. Basis of OSHA Carcinogen Listing for Individual Chemicals, Continued
Chemical
Ethylene oxide
Ethylcnc thiourea
Formaldehyde
Hcptachlor
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexamethylphosphoramide
Hydrazine
Hydrazine sulfate
Lead and inorganic lead compounds
Lindnne
Mecopropf
Methoxonetj:
Methoxone sodium saltt
4,4-Methylenebis (2-chloroaniline)
4,4'-Me(hylenehis (N,N-dimethyl)
benzeneamine
4,4'-Methylenedianiline
Michler's ketone
Mustard gas
alpha-Naphthylamine
beta-Naphthylamine
Nickel
Nickel compounds
Nitrilotriacetic acid
4-Nitrobiphenyl
Nitrofen
Nitrogen mustard
2-Nitropropane
N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine
N-Nitrosodiethylamine
N-Nitrosodimethylamine
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea
N-Nilroso-N-methylurea
N-Nitrosomethylvinylamlne
N-Nitrosomorpholine
N-Nitrosonomicotine
N-N5trosopiperidine
Pentachlorophenol
Phenytoin
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs):
Benz(a)anthracene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
IARC
1
2B
2A
2B
2B
2B
2B
—
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2A
2B

2B
• —
1
—
1
2B
1
—
—
2B
2A
2B
2B
2A
2A
2B
2A
2A
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2A

2A
2B
NTP OSHA
P Z
P —
P Z
— —
P —
P —
P —
P —
— Z
P —
— —
— —
— —
P 	
P —

P Z
P —
K —
— Z
K Z
P —
Pt —
P —
^^ Z
P —
— —
P —
P 	
P —
P Z
P 	
P —
P —
P —
P 	
P —
P —
— —
P —
P —
P —

P —
P 	
Chemical
Benzo(j)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Benzo(rst)pentaphene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Dibenz(a,h)acridine
Dibenz(a,j)acridine
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole
Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene
Dibei^zo(a,h)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene
7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene
Indeno[l ,2,3-cd]pyrene
5-Methylchrysene
1-Nitropyrene
Potassium bromate
Propane sultone
beta-Propiolactone
Propyleneimine
Propylene oxide
Saccharin (manufacturing)
Safrole
Sodium o-phenylphenoxide
Styrene
Styrene oxide
Tetrachloroethylene
Thioacetamide
4,4'-Thiodianiline
Thiourea
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate
Toluene-2,6-diisocyanate
Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers)
o-Toluidine
o-Toluidine hydrochloride
Toxaphene
Trichloroethylene
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
1 ,2,3-Trichloropropane
Tris(2,3-dibromoprophyl)phosphate
Trypan blue
Urethane
Vinyl acetate
Vinyl bromide
Vinyl chloride
2,6-Xylidine
IARC
2B
2B
2B
2A
2A
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2A
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
—
2B
2A
2B
2A
2A
2B
2B
2B
2A
1
2B
NTP
P
—
—
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
—
P
P
—
—
P
P
P
P
P
P
—
—
—
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
—
P
—
P
—
P
—
—
K
	
OSHA
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Z
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Z
	
Note:  The list of TRI chemicals meeting the OSHA carcinogen standard and, therefore, reported when in a mixture at a concentration level below the de minims
       level of 0.1 %, has been updated, and this list reflects the update.
IARC:  1-The chemical is carcinogenic to humans; 2A-The chemical is probably carcinogenic to humans; 2B-The chemical is possibly carcinogenic to humans.
NTP:   K-The chemical is known to be carcinogenic; P-The chemical may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogenic.
OSHA: Z-Thc chemical appears at 29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart Z.
t      Certain compounds.
|      Chlorophenoxy herbicides (IARC 2B)
 10

-------
                                         Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Indui
Table 1-1. TRI Facilities and Forms, by Industry, 1996
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39




Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Stone/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
Measure./Photo.
Miscellaneous
Multiple Codes 20-39
No Codes 20-39
Total
Federal Facilities
Total
Facilities
Number
1,993
29
307
25
765
453
491
241
3,855
401
1,824
89
640
1,902
2,883
1,087
1,233
1,248
291
362
1,271
236
21,626
133
Total
Forms
Number
3,541
61
657
51
1,926
1,250
2,363
483
21,098
3,231
3,747
223
1,716
6,603
7,416
2,791
3,121
4,331
707
766
4,520
779
71,381
378
FormRs
Number
2,545
61
622
49
1,446
1,224
2,250
475
18,288
2,990
3,404
209
1,517
6,138
6,895
2,619
3,031
4,117
661
710
4,195
701
64,147
350
.Form As
Number
996
0
35
2
480
26
113
8
2,810
241
343
14
199
465
521
172
90
214
46
56
325
78
7,234
28
Note: Facilities/forms that reported more than one 2-digit SIC code within the range 20 to 39 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Facilities/forms with no 2-
digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "no codes 20-39" category.
 Industry Overview

 TRI Data by Industry, 1996

 In 1996, a total of 21,626 facilities submitted
 71,381 forms to TRI, as shown in Table 1-1.
 About one-tenth of these were Form A
 certifications. (Facilities submit one Form R or
 one Form A certification statement, explained
 above, for each chemical.)
On- and Off-site Releases

As shown in Table 1-2, on- and off-site releases by
all industry sectors totaled 2.43 billion pounds in
1996. This included 1.45 billion pounds of air
emissions (355.3 million pounds from fugitive
sources and 1.10 billion pounds from stack or point
sources). Discharges to surface water totaled 173.3
million pounds.

Reporting year 1996 was the first year in which
facilities distinguished their releases to underground
injection by type of well (Class I and Class n-V
wells) and identified their releases to RCRA subtitle
C landfills as a separate category among on-site
                                                                                                 11

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           Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Table 1-2. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, by Industry, 1996




SIC
Cede

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
33
39









Industry

Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apptrel
Lumber
Furniture
Pip*
Printing
Chc.-icals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Sune/day/Olass
Primary Metals
FHwicaied Meals
Machinery
Ekcuicsl Equip.
TnuiiporutKHi Equip.
MciSurcjPhoto,
Mireellaneous
Multiple Codes 20-39
No Codes 20-39
Total
Federal Facilities



Fugitive or
Nonpoint Air
Emissions
Pounds
21,810,437
61,394
3,217,057
130,287
4,636,576
4,813,779
18,227,534
13,782,537
93,363,107
27,968,469
27,540,757
747,962
1,870,677
38,722,723
23,613,262
6,665,652
6,351,489
28,283,393
2,698,043
1,929,982
26,982,381
1,854,254
355.271,752
2,463,277

Air

Stack or
Point Air
Emissions
Pounds
47,255,169
3,453,344
13,125,828
1,663,532
23,856,213
30,910,342
185,722,017
14,579,092
299,070,993
24,132,610
77,774,998
1,906,965
28,158,910
105,958,141
45,578,614
12,373,145
17,401,668
74,410,242
10,503,368
7,478,283
66,599,536
4,905,200
1,096,818,210
1,831,564

On-site Releases




On-site Releases to Land

Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
8,983,229
179,701
348,877
7,320
76,874
43
16,008,715
1,670
90,420,803
10,567,225
27,815
53,526
45,443
31,988,843
351,080
34,089
1,462,615
224,148
1,297,561
2,364
10,964,363
241,905
173,288,209
384,602


Underground Injection
Class I Q
Wells
Pounds
1,010
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
200,317,453
2,310,233
750
0
500
930,779
563
0
22
0
0
0
11,400
0
203,572,710
0
assH-V
Wells
Pounds
29,548
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
197,441
8,664
0
0
500
0
7
0
5
0
0
0
10
520,224
756,399
505,541

RCRA.
Subtitle C
Landfills
Pounds
28,506
0
0
0
6,039
0
602,265
0
2,689,697
5,685
48,918
0
105,977
22,192,029
204,331
7,144
210,430
86,685
0
11,957
180,840
74,466
26,454,969
23,516

Other
On-site Land
Releases
Pounds
4,438,103
0
173,620
534
9,807
26,641
4,160,489
13,650
68,276,606
1,236,941
398,367
6,611
2,416,616
193,591,686
572,609
121,101
225,890
618,616
2,531
8,189
5,680,956
628,674
282,608,237
681,351

Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
82,546,002
3,694,439
16,865,382
1,801,673
28,585,509
35,750,805
224,721,020
28,376,949
754,336,100
66,229,827
105,791,605
2,715,064
32,598,623
393,384,201
70,320,466
19,201,131
25,652,119
103,623,084
14,501,503
9,430,775
110,419,486
8,224,723
2,138,770,486
5,889,851
Off-site
Releases

Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
757,393
458,133
462,148
63,177
7,657,171
125,858
2,842,352
89,070
30,842,063
2,657,431
10,617,686
1,526,825
6,141,803
171,150,982
19,933,901
2,859,589
16,113,258
7,729,685
848,568
839,283
10,359,532
660,188
294,736,096
612,797


Total
On-and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
83,303,395
4,152,572
17,327,530
1,864,850
36,242,680
35,876,663
227,563,372
28,466,019
785,178,163
68,887,258
116,409,291
4,241,889
38,740,426
564,535,183
90,254,367
22,060,720
41,765,377
111,352,769
15,350,071
10,270,058
120,779,018
8,884,911
2,433,506,582
6,502,648
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms that reported more than
one 2-Uigit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms with no 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are
assigned to the "no codes 20-39" category.
 land releases. (These are explained in Box 1-6.)
 Underground injection in 1996 totaled 204.3
 million pounds and 99.6% of the total was reported
 as injected into Class I wells. Land releases were
 309.1 million pounds, including 26.5 million
 pounds released to RCRA subtitle C landfills.

 Off-site releases (transfers to disposal) totaled
 294.7 million pounds in 1996.

 Other On-site Waste Management

 A total of 17.74 billion pounds was reported in
 other on-site waste management in 1996, as shown
 in Table 1-3. The largest amount was reported in
 recycling, with 7.84 billion pounds, followed by
treatment, with 7.14 billion pounds. Energy
recovery amounted to 2.76 billion pounds.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

TRI facilities reported a total of 3.16 billion pounds
in transfers off-site for further waste management
in 1996. The largest amount reported was in
transfers to recycling, with 2.15 billion pounds. The
amount reported as transferred to energy recovery
was 477.1 million pounds. Transfers to treatment
were 290.1 million pounds, and those to POTWs
were 235.8 million pounds. These data appear in
Table 1-4.
 12

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                                                      Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by /ndu
Table 1-3.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, by Industry, 1996
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39




Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Stone/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
MeasureTPhoto.
Miscellaneous
Multiple Codes 20-39
No Codes 20-39
Total
Federal Facilities
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
216,405,632
9,753
13,085,659
190,976
50,544,925
2,841,917
104,481,896
168,501,410
3,731,246,814
153,400,536
162,062,640
604,322
149,823,758
2,092,485,352
148,030,876
49,613,047
148,298,966
16,523,234
3,960,735
16,533,257
609,928,425
4,021,012
7,842,595,142
12,169,917
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
411,710
0
5,326,659
600
1,538,386
37,467
184,352,318
203,536
1,348,429,666
603,601,392
19,598,143
0
445,258,980
49,768,460
20,976,980
130,702
11,424,647
1,458,959
938,685
3,362,337
40,337,718
24,582,100
2,761,739,445
i 7,700
Treated
On-site
Pounds
75,715,014
1,329,064
23,627,782
1,049,762
23,482,107
1,181,030
1,022,099,101
61,721,672
3,254,527,247
1,305,533,526
39,036,343
3,620,694
22,702,838
625,844,126
113,727,254
9,438,553
78,313,464
29,517,152
37,645,252
4,770,453
388,721,568
16,257,919
7,139,861,921
9,650,204
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
292,532,356
1,338,817
42,040,100
1,241,338
75,565,418
4,060,414
1,310,933,315
230,426,618
8,334,203,727
2,062,535,454
220,697,126
4,225,016
617,785,576
2,768,097,938
282,735,110
59,182,302
238,037,077
47,499,345
42,544,672
24,666,047
1,038,987,711
44,861,031
17,744,196,508
21,827,821
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms that reported more than one 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are
assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms with" no 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "no codes 20-39" category.

Table 1-4. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, by Industry, 1996
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39



Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Stone/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
Measure./Photo.
Miscellaneous
Multiple Codes 20-39
No Codes 20-39
Total
Federal Facilities
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
1,816,235
165,113
1,013,876
1,440
515,208
6,453,880
2,180,119
3,642,455
256,639,247
18,553,327
11,817,283
337,555
3,672,150
796,078,608
303,449,098
64,012,061
345,621,345
164,986,403
12,245,918
17,835,260
135,247,125
4,310,288
2,150,593,994
18,553,503
Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
267,672
0
1,926,069
139,653
2,299,252
5,612,741
7,495,656
3,670,369
378,369,918
657,071
6,750,688
167,073
2,865,219
5,643,584
13,729,060
2,530,890
8,084,043
13,944,925
2,366,341
2,479,411
15,615,643
2,441,292
477,056,570
304,101
Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
1;286,750
56,491
523,939
535
491,157
601,162
9,983,082
382,262
154,280,145
2,150,251
3,169,307
29,024
2,987,594
66,153,726
12,677,769
1,316,961
7,294,538
8,676,026
2,480,361
516,301
14,128,226
911,221
290,096,828
590,337
Transfers
toPOTWs
Pounds
20,311,887
267,349
2,287,565
255
32,799
383,502
40,311,407
242,411
109,463,055
4,788,134
2,890,863
1,290,230
1,019,855
7,859,057
6,597,522
4,168,245
10,998,130
5,577,802
930,896
635,395
15,248,528
508,621
235,813,508
71,893
Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
750
0
0
0
12,036
6,295
0
0
104,516
1
24,575
0
16,497
263,705
88,546
2,025,681
694,794
8,146
44,588
0
15,500
750
3,306,380
0
Total Transfers
Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
23,683,294
488,953
5,751,449
141,883
3,350,452
13,057,580
59,970,264
7,937,497
898,856,881
26,148,784
24,652,716
1,823,882
10,561,315
875,998,680
336,541,995
74,053,838
372,692,850
193,193,302
18,068,104
21,466,367
180,255,022
8,172,172
3,156,867,280
19,519,834
 Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms that reported more than
 one 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20-39 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms with no 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned
 to the "no codes 20-39" category. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code.
                                                                                                                                13

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           Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Table 1-5. Employees, Value of Shipments, and Total Production-related Waste, by Industry, 1996
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Employees
Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
StoixJeiay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
Measure ./Photo.
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
1,516,600
31,400
576,400
864,900
738,700
514,500
630,600
1,515,000
824,400
106,000
1,017,900
77,200
520,400
687,400
1,483,000
1,980,500
1,556,500
1,466,900
820,700
397,300
17,326,300
Percent
8.8
0.2
3.3
5.0
4.3
3.0
3.6
8.7
4.8
0.6
5.9
0.4
3.0
4.0
8.6
11.4
9.0
8.5
4.7
2.3
100.0
Value or Shipments
($000)
461,324,200
34,481,700
80,242,000
77,628,100
106,518,100
55,696,700
160,661,000
195,435,200
367,441,800
174,284,600
150,467,500
9,308,500
82,441,300
178,297,800
214,006,300
381,793,700
320,614,700
465,172,200
151,015,900
48,596,800
3,715,428,100
Percent
12.4
0.9
2.2
2.1
2.9
1.5
4.3
5.3
9.9
4.7
4.0
0.3 .
2.2
4.8
5.8
10.3
8.6
12.5
4.1
1.3
100.0
TRI Total Production-related Waste
Pounds
397,557,868
5,921,753
64,609,067
3,273,589
1 10,972,285
57,823,940
1,599,797,509
266,207,152
10,032,390,027
2,155,301,359
369,790,262
10,168,880
668,768,984
4,184,091,672
716,239,652
169,485,752
679,402,239
355,169,310
76,477,512
57,640,501
21,981,089,313
Percent
1.8
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.5
0.3
7.3
1.2
45.6
9.8
1.7
0.0
3.0
19.0
3.3
0.8
3.1
1.6
0.3
0.3
100.0
Production-related
Waste per Value
of Shipments
Pounds Per Million
Dollar-Value
862
172
805
42
1,042
1,038
9,958
1,362
27,303
12,367
2,458
1,092
8,112
23,467
3,347
444
2,119
764
506
1,186
5,916
Note: Employees and Value of Shipments from U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. Total Production-related Waste from Section 8
(total of 8.1 through 8.7, Column B) of TRI Form R for 1996. Total Production-related Waste does not include forms reporting more than one 2-digit SIC code
and forms reporting SIC codes outside the 20-39 range.
 Economic Overview, 1996

 One limitation of TRI data is that, taken alone, they
 do not distinguish industry-specific factors that
 influence the chemicals, amounts, and types of
 releases and waste management facilities report.
 Each industry chapter in the two 1996 TRI Public
 Data Release volumes offers some economic,
 technological, and regulatory information for that
 sector as a context for the data reported to TRI.

 For each two-digit SIC code, Table 1-5 presents
 value of shipments and employment for 1996.
 These basic economic data suggest the relative size
 of the industrial sectors that now report to TRI.
 Economic analyses make use of value of shipments
 data as one way to indicate the size of industrial
 sectors, because no direct comparison can be drawn
 among products of those sectors. The dollar value
 of shipments provides a rough common measure
 between, for example, production of 10,000 pairs of
 shoes and production of 500,000 loaves of bread.
 Table 1-5 also includes total production-related
 waste reported to TRI for 1996 to allow
approximate comparison with the economic activity
of the sectors. Percentages indicate the relative
contribution of each sector to total employment and
production (measured by the dollar-value of
shipments) and to the total quantity of TRI
chemicals in production-related waste reported to
TRI. The ratio of total production-related waste to
shipments, in the last column, compares the
reported TRI quantities in each two-digit sector
with that sector's production level for 1996. Many
factors influence the differences in TRI reporting
among industrial sectors. Relating TRI quantities to
the dollar value of each sector's products takes into
account one measure of the differences among
sectors in their level of production in 1996.

TRI data are reported as absolute amounts each
year, not as changes in relation to production levels
or other factors, such as source reduction activity,
that might influence these amounts from year to
year. The industry chapters presented here,
however, take a very basic look at changes in
production as they may relate to increases  and
 14

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                                      Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Indus
decreases in releases and other waste management
of TRI chemicals.

Year-by-Year

Comparisons,  by Industry

Comparing TRI  Data Across Years

Comparisons of TRI data across reporting years are
made on the basis of "core" chemicals that were
reportable in all years with the same reporting
definitions. This assures that apparent increases or
decreases from one year to another are not the
result of changes in the list of TRI chemicals.

EPA has the authority to add chemicals to the
reporting list if they meet the statutory toxicity
criteria and to delete chemicals from the list if EPA
determines that they do not meet the toxicity
criteria. Since 1987, EPA has deleted a number of
chemicals from the list, added others, and modified
the reporting requirements for others. The largest
expansion has been the chemicals added beginning
with the 1995 reporting year.

Year-to-year comparisons must be based on a
consistent set of chemicals to assure that  any
changes in releases or other waste management do
not simply reflect the addition, deletion, or change
in definition of reportable chemicals from one year
to another. Data in tables comparing TRI
information across multiple years represent facility
reporting only for the "core" chemicals for the
years being compared. The set of "core" chemicals
differs depending on  which years are represented in
the tables in this book.

 1995-1996 Comparisons

Tables comparing data for  1995 and 1996 include
all chemicals currently reportable to TRI; there was
no change in TRI's chemical  coverage  between
these two years. Thus,  these  tables include  the
nearly 300 chemicals added to TRI beginning with
reporting year 1995.  Because the chemical list has
not changed, 1996 totals in tables that present data
for both years will be the same as in tables that
present only the 1996 data.

Multi-Year Comparisons

Tables for 1988 to 1996 include only chemicals that
were reportable in all years from 1988 through
1996. These tables do not include, for example,
chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, or 1995.
Also, for 1989, non-fibrous forms of aluminum
oxide were removed from the list. Because of this
modification, aluminum oxide is not included in
any year-to-year comparison that includes the year
1988. Reporting definitions for ammonia,
hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid have also
changed, and they are therefore also not included in
multi-year comparisons.

Similarly, tables that compare data for 1991 to 1996
do not include chemicals added in 1994 or 1995.
These tables analyze TRI data only for the
chemicals that were on the TRI list, in the same
form, for all years 1991-1996.

Because of this normalization process, done to
assure accurate year-to-year comparisons, totals for
1996 in the multi-year tables differ from the 1996
totals in tables that present only 1996 data or
1995-1996 data.

None of the tables include any chemical deleted
from the TRI list, regardless of the year it was
deleted.

Year-by-Year Comparisons of TRI
Data by Industry

On- and Off-site Releases. 1995-1996

Table 1-6 summarizes on- and off-site releases by
industry for 1995 and 1996. The net change for the
period was a decrease of 97.3 million pounds, or
3.8%. Seven of the 20 industry groups (two-digit
SIC codes), however, showed increases from 1995
to 1996.
                                                                                          15

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           Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Table 1-6.  Change in Total TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, by Industry, 1995-1996
Total On- and Off-site Releases
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39




Change 1995-1996
Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Priming
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plashes
Leather
Stonc/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
Measure ./Photo.
Miscellaneous
Multiple Codes 20-39
No Codes 20-39
Total
Federal Facilities
1995
Pounds
86,466,520
2,034,129
18,501,494
1,287,024
34,834,946
41,779,889
238,316,638
31,156,331
844,232,213
64,140,915
127,167,993
4,475,689
32,323,553
524,040,619
97,038,621
26,202,906
40,455,697
121,154,521
17,858,774
13,868,918
152,530,504
10,918,043
2,530,785,937
7,801,971
1996
Pounds
83,303,395
4,152,572
17,327,530
1,864,850
36,242,680
35,876,663
227,563,372
28,466,019
785,178,163
68,887,258
1 16,409,291
4,241,889
38,740,426
564,535,183
90,254,367
22,060,720
41,765,377
111,352,769
15,350,071
10,270,058
120,779,018
8,884,911
2,433,506,582
6,502,648
Pounds
-3,163,125
2,118,443
-1,173,964
577,826
1,407,734
-5,903,226
-10,753,266
-2,690,312
-59,054,050
4,746,343
-10,758,702
-233,800
6,416,873
40,494,564
-6,784,254
-4,142,186
1,309,680
-9,801,752
-2,508,703
-3,598,860
-31,751,486
-2,033,132
-97,279,355
-1,299,323
Percent
-3.7
104.1
-6.3
44.9
4.0
-14.1
-4.5
-8.6
-7.0
7.4
-8.5
-5.2
19.9
7.7
-7.0
-15.8
3.2
-8.1
-14.0
-25.9
-20.8
-18.6
-3.8
-16.7
Note: On-sltc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms that reported more than
one 2-digit code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms with no 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to
the "no codes 20-39" category.
 On- and Off-site Releases, 1988 and
 1994-1996

 From 1988 to 1996, on- and off-site releases
 decreased from 3.35 billion pounds to 1.82 billion
 pounds, as shown in Table 1-7, which summarizes
 release data for all sectors. (Federal facilities were
 not required to report before the 1994 reporting
 year.) This amounted to a reduction of 1.53 billion
 pounds, or 45.6%. From 1988 to 1996, on- and off-
 site releases decreased for all but one of the sectors.
Actual and Projected Quantities of TRI
Chemicals in Waste,  1991-1998

Source reduction was nationally established by the
Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) of 1990 as the
preferred approach to managing toxic chemicals in
waste. Source reduction means preventing waste
from being generated. TRI also collects information
on source reduction activities at the facility during
the year; these are activities undertaken to reduce
the amount of toxic chemicals that enter a waste
stream or are otherwise released to the
environment. The PPA also established a hierarchy
of waste management options as national policy for
situations where source reduction is not feasible
(see  Figure  1-2).
 16

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                                              Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industi

Table 1-7. Change in Total On-site and Off-site Releases, by Industry, 1988 and 1994-1996
Total On- and Off-site Releases
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39




Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Stone/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
Measure./Photo.
Miscellaneous
Multiple Codes 20-39
No Codes 20-39
Total
Federal Facilities
1988
Pounds
8,377,717
341,927
35,798,377
1,025,697
32,981,807
62,363,120
207,603,004
61,187,518
1,047,782,223
72,780,821
158,313,799
13,023,617
40,539,364
629,353,951
160,369,759
69,747,296
132,719,036
208,391,846
58,084,824
32,592,710
308,351,079
11,229,042
3,352,958,534
NA
1994
Pounds
6,013,560
134,771
16,346,332
1,380,947
32,986,266
52,134,945
185,334,196
34,386,679
537,482,685
46,877,100
125,462,108
5,104,391
17,359,182
433,885,649
99,572,056
27,120,215
36,671,754
128,139,353
14,328,227
15,350,168
149,011,079
17,704,243
1,982,785,906
7,920,210
1995
Pounds
5,120,357
95,226
15,655,607
: 1,259,986
30,434,637
,41,530,300
178,774,984
30,895,852
539,600,255
42,593,318
114,765,358
4,026,421
19,053,390
455,029,353
190,440,941
22,851,633
31,457,129
114,746,256
12,955,213
13,285,855
122,436,826
8,281,275
1,895,290,172
5,907,355
1996
Pounds
5,120,503
73,415
15,280,411
1,741,831
27,116,641
35,651,541
172,799,131
28,269,786
513,043,111
43,076,652
105,358,191
3,813,502
23,263,716
496,662,641
77,610,533
19,162,054
33,753,037
105,231,558
10,358,619
9,843,403
91,157,789
5,376,979
1,823,765,044
4,091,563
Change 1988
Pounds
-3,257,214
-268,512
-20,517,966
716,134
-5,865,166
-26,711,579
-34,803,873
-32,917,732
-534,739,112
-29,704,169
-52,955,608
-9,210,115
-17,275,648
-132,691,310
-82,759,226
-50,585,242
-98,965,999
-103,160,288
-47,726,205
-22,749,307
-217,193,290
-5,852,063
-1,529,193,490
NA
-1996
Percent
-38.9
-78.5
-57.3
69.8
-17.8
-42.8
-16.8
-53.8
-51.0
-40.8
-33.4
-70.7
-42.6
-21.1
-51.6
-72.5
-74.6
-49.5
-82.2
-69.8
-70.4
-52.1
-45.6
NA
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. On-
site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms that reported more than one 2-digit
SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms with no 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "no
codes 20-39" category. NA: Federal facilities not required to report before 1994.
            Waste Management Hierarchy
                                       Disposal

        Figure 1-2. Waste Management Hierarchy
Box 1-10 provides a breakdown of the waste
management information added to TRI with
passage of the PPA. This includes recycling, energy
recovery, and treatment both at the facility and
elsewhere. It also includes the quantity released on-
and off-site. Tables in the TRI data release identify
the sum of these quantities as total
production-related waste. Facilities report actual
waste management quantities for the current and
prior years and project expected quantities for the
next two years.

Table 1-8 presents total production-related waste by
industry for 1996 and the change in total
production-related waste the industries projected
through 1998. Production-related waste, which
totaled 23.42 billion pounds in 1996, was projected
to increase by 3.2% to 24.17 billion pounds in
1998.
                                                                                                           17

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            Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Box 1-10. An Explanation of Waste Management Information
                          An Explanation of Waste Management Information

   Information about facilities management of TRI chemicals in waste is reported in Section 8 of Form R.

   Recycled On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical recovered at the facility and made available for further use. It is
   not the quantity that entered an on-site recycling or recovery operation.

   Recycled Off-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical that left the facility boundary for recycling, not the amount
   recovered at the off-site location. This quantity includes the amount(s) reported in Section 6 of Form R as transferred off-site
   for recycling, less any amount(s) associated with non-routine events.

   Used for Energy Recovery On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical that was combusted in some form of energy
   recovery device, such as a furnace (including kilns) or boiler. The toxic chemical should have a heating value high enough to
   sustain combustion. To avoid double-counting, the amount reported represents the amount destroyed in the combustion
   process, not the amount that entered the energy recovery unit. For example, 100,000 pounds of toluene entered a boiler that, on
   average, combusted 98% of the toluene. Any remaining toluene was discharged to air. A total of 98,000 pounds is reported as
   combusted for energy recovery (the remaining 2,000 pounds is reported as released).

   Used for Energy Recovery Off-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical that left the facility boundary for energy
   recovery, not the amount combusted at the off-site location. The toxic chemical must have a significant heating value, and the
   off-site location must have some form of energy recovery unit in place. This quantity includes the amount(s) reported in
   Section 6 of Form R as transferred off-site for energy recovery, less any amount(s) associated with non-routine events.

   Treated On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical destroyed in on-site waste  treatment operations, not the amount that
   entered any treatment operation. For example, if 100,000 pounds of benzene were combusted in an incinerator that destroyed
   99% of the benzene, the facility would report 99,000 pounds as treated on-site (the remaining 1,000 pounds would be reported
   as released).

   Treated Off-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical that left the facility boundary and was sent to POTWs or other off-
   site locations for treatment, not the amount that was destroyed at the off-site location(s). This quantity  includes the amount(s)
   reported in Section 6 of Form R as transferred to POTWs or other off-site locations for treatment, less  any amount(s)
   associated with non-routine events.

   Released On- and Off-site. This is the total quantity of the toxic chemical that was released to the environment or disposed of
   at the facility (directly discharged to air, land, and water, and injected underground) or sent off-site for disposal. This quantity
   is the sum of the amounts reported in Sections 5 and 6 of Form R (releases plus transfers to disposal only) less any amount(s)
   associated with non-routine events.

  Released to the Environment Due to One-time Events. This amount is referred to as  non-production-related waste and is the
   quantity released to the environment or sent off-site for recycling,  energy recovery, treatment, or disposal due to one-time
   events not associated with routine production practices. Such events include catastrophic events, such as accidental releases, as
   well as remedial actions (clean up). This quantity is separated from the quantities recycled, used for energy recovery, treated,
   and released, to distinguish between quantities that are routinely associated with production operations and are more amenable
   to source reduction and those that are not routinely associated with production processes and are not so amenable to source
  reduction because they are not readily anticipated. This separation is important in assessing progress in source reduction at
  facilities.
 18

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                                          Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Indus
 Table 1-8. Actual and Projected Total Production-related Waste, by Industry, 1996-1998
Total Production-related Waste
Projected
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39




Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Stone/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
Measute./Photo.
Miscellaneous
Multiple codes 20-39
No codes 20-39
Total
Federal Facilities
Current Year
1996
Pounds
397,557,868
5,921,753
64,609,067
3,273,589
110,972,285
57,823,940
1,599,797,509
266,207,152
10,032,390,027
2,155,301,359
369,790,262
10,168,880
668,768,984
4,184,091,672
716,239,652
169,485,752
679,402,239
355,169,310
76,477,512
57,640,501
1,344,788,998
90,462,402
23,416,340,713
47,591,818
1997
Pounds
653,060,717
6,058,749
63,000,446
2,670,153
112,364,213
55,286,126
1,607,516,198
271,986,787
10,353,025,860
2,149,256,710
317,102,112
9,620,096
655,757,904
4,157,446,855
686,697,161
154,171,333
688,507,504
349,768,654
75,297,949
57,076,721
2,035,461,325
83,350,294
24,544,483,867
43,616,949
1998
Pounds
727,957,465
6,208,774
59,903,878
2,341,081
105,247,446
55,415,684
1,592,387,416
273,386,005
10,711,018,548
2,154,256,626
279,769,639
9,379,954
661,882,280
4,098,770,311
685,478,273
139,198,996
709,503,469
352,591,138
75,531,810
57,369,703
1,328,724,148
86,893,334
24,173,215,978
155,744,502
Change
1996-1997
Percent
64.3
2.3
-2.5
-18.4
1.3
-4.4
0.5
2.2
3.2
-0.3
-14.2
-5.4
-1.9
-0.6
-4.1
-9.0
1.3
-1.5
-1.5
-1.0
51.4
-7.9
4.8
-8.4
1996-1998
Percent
83.1
4.8
-7.3
-28.5
-5.2
-4.2
-0.5
2.7
6.8
-0.0
-24.3
-7.8
-1.0
-2.0
-4.3
-17.9
4.4
-0.7
-1.2
-0.5
-1.2
-3.9
3.2
227.3
Note: Data from Section 8 (Total of 8.1 through 8.7) of Form R for 1996. Prior year is Column A, current year is Column B, 1997 is Column C and 1998 is
Column D. Forms that reported more than one 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms with no 2-digit SIC
code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "no codes 20-39" category.
 Table 1-9 summarizes total production-related
 waste data by industry for 1991, the first year such
 data were collected, and for the three most recent
 years (1994-1996). Over that period,
 production-related waste rose from 18.65 billion
 .pounds in 1991 to 19.01 billion pounds in 1996, a
 net increase of 1.9%.

 Economic Overview, Multi-Year Comparisons

 1996 was the sixth year in a relatively long period
 of moderate expansion in the United States
 economy. The economy as a whole grew at a rate
 of 2.8% for the year, as measured by real gross
 domestic product (Economic Report of the
 President, February 1998). Manufacturing output
 grew at a rate of 1.0% for the year, somewhat
 slower than in the previous several years.
Table 1-10 presents production indexes for each
industrial sector from 1989 to 1996. These indexes
measure real output (unlike the value of shipments
data). As shown in the table, production increased
17.6% from 1989 to 1996 for U.S. manufacturing
overall. Table 1-11 compares the change in
manufacturing production since 1989 with the
change in TRI on- and off-site releases and
transfers off-site for treatment. As shown in
Table 1-11, reported amounts of these TRI releases
and transfers have steadily decreased since 1989,
even as manufacturing production recovered from
small decreases hi the early years of the period and
expanded through 1996. Overall, while
manufacturing production increased 17.6% from
1989 to 1996, TRI on- and off-site releases and
transfers off-site for treatment decreased 39.0%.
                                                                                                   19

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              Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
Table 1-9. Total Production-related Waste, by Industry, 1991 and 1994-1996
Total Production-related Waste
SIC
Code
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39




Change
Industry
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Apparel
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Stone/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip..
MeMureJPhoto.
Miscellaneous
Multiple Codes 20-39
No Codes 20-39
Total
federal Facilities
1991
Pounds
63,066,268
51,405,093
51,580,594
2,340,880
68,482,868
62,158,973
1,401,164,200
259,904,658
7,588,654,698
1,171,406,294
457,662,674
18,010,356
945,494,178
2^06,289,254
639,270,669
220,732,830
663,918,802
382,686,549
114,962,999
59,754,379
1,948,479,575
167,790,586
18,645,217,377
NA
1994
Pounds
72,118,666
238,686
49,696,040
2,450,405
62,445,982
69,100,903
1,390,873,031
238,262,543
7,960,775,406
1,272,138,197
511,959,880
8,750,968
1,003,550,335
3,125,155,465
802,980,329
168,142,108
547,072,102
413,901,849
73,269,084
62,368,995
1,243,934,543
216,475,822
19,295,661,339
36,195,048
1995
Pounds
71,156,494
150,596
46,439,252
2,081,936
117,713,741
64,657,002
1,317,034,610
291,227,127
7,945,305,210
1,006,857,742
498,365,536
7,542,055
835,143,656
3,201,648,708
676,733,941
154,403,423
592,043,373
377,430,033
73,757,533
55,563,414
1,344,098,604
89,307,448
18,768,661,434
77,626,788
1996
Pounds
70,151,157
107,615
46,960,548
2,983,859
108,000,702
57,110,926
1,305,706,645
265,137,838
7,944,446,007
1,812,421,303
338,869,255
6,287,054
642,733,737
3,247,781,282
676,808,105
159,614,838
612,154,741
334,876,290
67,302,183
55,967,458
1,175,283,275
78,091,387
19,008,796,205
46,040,436
1995-1996
Percent
-1.4
-28.5
1.1
43.3
-8.3
-11.7
-0.9
-9.0
-0.0
80.0
-32.0
-16.6
-23.0
1.4
0.0
3.4
3.4
-11.3
-8.8
0.7
-12.6
-12.6
1.3
-40.7
1991-1996
Percent
11.2
-99.8
-9.0
27.5
57.7
-8.1
-6.8
2.0
4.7
54.7
-26.0
-65.1
-32.0
40.8
5.9
-27.7
-7.8
-12.5
-41.5
-6.3
-39.7
-53.5
1.9
NA
Note: Docs not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, and ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 (Total of
8.1 through 8.7, Column B) of Form R of year indicated. Forms that reported more than one 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the
"multiple" category. Forms with no 2-digit SIC code within the range of 20 to 39 are assigned to the "no codes 20-39" category. NA: Federal facilities not
required to report before 1994

Table 1-10.  Industrial Production Indexes by Industry, 1989-1996
SIC
Code
Total
Industry
Index
Manufacturing
20
21
22
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
Food
Tobacco
Textiles
Lumber
Furniture
Paper
Printing
Chemicals
Petroleum
Plastics
Leather
Stone/Clay/Glass
Primary Metals
Fabricated Metals
Machinery
Electrical Equip.
Transportation Equip.
MeasureTPhoto.
1989
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1990
99.9
99.5
101.1
100.0
96.6
97.4
98.5
100.6
99.6
102.3
101.0
101.1
96.3
97.8
99.1
96.6
97.2
102.2
97.3
100.2
1991
97.9
97.2
102.6
93.8
96.1
90.6
92.6
101.5
95.7
101.4
99.8
99.5
87.9
90.5
92.2
91.8
92.6
104.4
91.8
101.6
1992
101.0
101.0
104.3
94.9
103.6
95.9
97.7
104.8
96.6
105.2
100.7
109.6
89.4
93.1
95.3
95.4
97.1
116.6
95.1
101.8
1993
104.4
104.7
106.5
79.7
109.3
96.7
102.2
109.0
97.4
106.2
103.6
117.1
90.3
95.1
100.6
99.6
106.7
128.2
98.7
102.4
1994
109.7
110.5
108.1
98.4
114.8
101.5
105.4
113.6
97.1
109.5
103.7
127.3
83.6
100.5
107.7
106.9
121.7
147.2
102.2
101.7
1995
113.2
114.3
110.2
100.8
113.9
101.8
106.1
115.2
96.4
112.0
105.2
130.4
76.6
101.6
110.3
110.4
137.3
172.7
99.9
102.2
1996
116.4
117.6
110.9
100.2
110.6
105.3
106.3
113.2
95.2
114.4
107.3
132.2
71.5
103.4
111.6
113.2
151.8
190.3
101.0
104.7
Note: 1989=100. Beginning 1990, data for production indexes based on 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), earlier years based on 1997 SIC.  Data not
provided for apparel industry (SIC coded 23).
From: / 997 Statistical Abstract of the United States. No. 1227. Industrial Production Indexes, by Industry: 1980 to 1996 (Source: Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System), Federal Reserve Bulletin Monthly, and Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization, Statistical Release G. 17, monthly).
 20

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                                                      Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Indusft
Table 1-11. Cumulative Change in Manufacturing Production and in TRI Releases and Transfers Off-site to Treatment and
Disposal, 1989-1996

Manufacturing Production
TRI Releases and Transfers Off-site
to Treatment and Disposal
1989-1990
-0.5
-5.7
1989-1991
-2.8
-19.7
1989-1992
1.0
-23.9
1989-1993
4.7
-30.1 .
1989-1994
10.5
-34.8
1989-1995
14.3
-37.0
1989-1996
17.6
-39.0
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
Cumulative change hi manufacturing production based on 1997 Statistical Abstract of the United States.  No. 1227. Industrial Production Indexes, by Industry:
1980 to 1996 (Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Federal Reserve Bulletin Monthly and Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization,
Statistical Release G. 17, monthly). TRI Releases from Section 5 and Transfers Off-site to Treatment and Disposal from Section 6 of TRI Form R (excludes
transfers to recycling and energy recovery reported 1991 through 1996).
                                                                                                                                21

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          Chapter 1 — Toxics Release Inventory Data by Industry
22

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                                Chapter 2
             Toxics Release Inventory Data
         for Food and Beverage Processing
                            (SIC Code 20)
A  Look at the  Food and

Kindred Products

Industry (SIC Code 20)

Manufacturers in the food and kindred products
industry (SIC code 20) produce food for people,
pets, and livestock. They also make beer, wine,
liquor, and soft drinks. Food and beverage
processing is one of the country's most diverse
manufacturing sectors, with 51 industry
classifications in the system of Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes. Box 2-1 lists the SIC
codes and their designations for this sector. In
TRI, SIC codes are given as reported by the
facilities; these may differ from information in
economic and other data collections.

Food and beverage processing is one of the
country's largest manufacturing sectors. The
United States is one of the world's largest sources
of processed foods and beverages, accounting for
about one-quarter of the industrialized world's
production of these goods. In 1996, facilities in
this sector shipped products valued at $461.32
billion, up from $446.87 billion in 1995 (both in
current dollars). Employment in the production of
food and beverages was more than 1.5 million in
both years. Production in SIC code 20 increased
steadily in the 1990s, rising 10.9% since 1989.
Although this growth is less rapid than the
national average of 17.6% for all industry sectors,
food and beverage production is one of few
sectors to expand production every year from
1989 to 1996 (see Chapter 1, Table 1-10).
Employment also steadily increased throughout
this period. Despite year-to-year changes in
agricultural conditions (such as weather) and
economic factors (ranging from grain prices to
demand for exports), the food products sector has
been one of the most stable manufacturing sectors
in terms of production volume over time.

Food and beverage sector production can be
divided into two groups, based on the value added
to raw materials in their production. Lower
value-added industries manufacture bulk
foodstuff, including animal feed, which receives
relatively little processing. Lower value-added
products—especially those from extraction and
milling operations (fats and oils, SIC code 207,
and grain mill products, SIC code 204)—
contribute much of the sector's reported TRI
                                                                               23

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             Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Box 2-1.  SIC Code 20, Food and Beverage Processing:  Codes and Classifications
  SIC Code
Industry Description
  201  Meat Products

       2011    Meat Packing Plants



       2013    Sausages and Other Prepared Meat Products


       2015    Poultry Slaughtering and Processing



 202   Dairy Products

       2021    Creamery Butter

       2022    Natural, Processed, and Imitation Cheese


       2023    Dry, Condensed, and Evaporated Dairy Products



       2024    Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts

       2026    Fluid Milk

 203   Canned, Frozen, and Preserved Fruits, Vegetables, and
       Food Specialties

       2032    Canned Specialties


       2033    Canned Fruits, Vegetables, Preserves, Jams, and Jellies
       2034   Dried and Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, and Soup
               Mixes

       2035   Pickled Fruits and Vegetables, Vegetable Sauces
               and Seasonings, and Salad Dressings

       2037   Frozen Fruits, Frozen Juices, and Vegetables
       2038   Frozen Specialties, nee*

 204   Grain Mill Products

       2041   Flour and Other Grain Mill Products

       2043   Cereal Breakfast Foods

       2044   Rice Milling

       2045   Prepared Flour Mixes and Doughs

       2046   Wet Com Milling



       2047   Dog and Cat Food


       2048   Prepared Feeds and Feed Ingredients for Animals
               and Fowls, Except Dogs and Cats, nee*
Slaughter of cattle, hogs, sheep, lambs, and calves for meat to be sold or used on
the same premises in canning, cooking, curing, and freezing and in making
sausage lard, and other products.  Slaughter of horses for human consumption.

Manufacture of sausages and cured, smoked, canned, frozen, and other prepared
meats and meat specialties, from purchased carcasses and other materials.

Slaughter, dressing, packaging, freezing, and canning of poultry, rabbits, and
small game. Manufacture of products from such meats. Drying, freezing, and
breaking of eggs.
Manufacture of creamery butter.

Manufacture of natural and processed cheese as well as cheese foods, spreads,
and imitations and substitutes.

Manufacture of dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy products. Includes
manufacture of mixes for preparing frozen ice cream and ice milk and dairy and
nondairy base cream substitutes and dietary supplements.

Manufacture of ice cream and other frozen desserts.

Processing of fluid milk, cream, and related products, including cottage cheese,
non-frozen yogurt, and odier fermented milk.
Canning of baby foods, nationality specialty foods, soups (except seafood), and
other specialty products.

Canning of fruits, vegetables, and juices. Manufacture of ketchup, tomato
sauces, and natural or imitation preserves, jams and jellies.

Sun drying or artificial dehydration of fruits and vegetables. Manufacture of
packaged soup mixes from dehydrated ingredients.

Pickling and brining of fruits and vegetables. Manufacture of salad dressings,
vegetable relishes, sauces, and seasonings.

Freezing of fruits, fruit juices, and vegetables. (Includes production of fresh or
dried citrus pulp).

Manufacture of frozen food specialties such as frozen dinners and pizzas.
Milling of flour or meal from grain, except rice.

Manufacture of cereal breakfast foods and related preparations, except breakfast bars.

Cleaning and polishing of rice. Manufacture of rice flour or meal.

Preparation of flour mixes or doughs from purchased flour.

Wet milling of corn or sorghum grain. Production of starch, syrup, oil, sugar,
and byproducts such as gluten feed and meal.  Manufacture of starch from other
vegetable sources, such as potatoes or wheat.

Manufacture of dog and cat food (canned, frozen, or dry) from cereal, meat, and
other ingredients.

Manufacture of prepared feeds and feed ingredients for animals and fowls,
except dogs and cats. (Includes poultry and livestock feed and feed ingredients,
supplements, concentrates, and pre-mixes.) Slaughter of animals for animal feed.
*nec: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
24

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                                                  Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 Box 2-1.  SIC Code 20, Food and Beverage Processing: Codes and Classifications, Continued
  SIC Code
                                                                  Industry Description
   205  Bakery Products

        2051   Bread and Other Bakery Products, Except Cookies
               and Crackers
        2052   Cookies and Crackers
        2053   Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
   206  Sugar and Confectionary Products
        2061   Cane Sugar, Except Refining
        2062   Cane Sugar Refining
        2063   Beet Sugar
        2064   Candy and Other Confectionery Products

        2066   Chocolate and Cocoa Products
        2067   Chewing Gum
        2068   Salted and Roasted Nuts and Seeds

  207  Fats and Oils
        2074   Cottonseed Oil Mills

        2075   Soybean Oil Mills

        2076   Vegetable Oil Mills, Except Com, Cottonseed,
               and Soybean

        2077   Animal and Marine Fats and Oils
        2079   Shortening, Table Oils, Margarine, and Other Edible
               Fats and Oils, nee*
  208  Beverages

        2082   Malt Beverages

        2083   Malt

        2084   Wines, Brandy, and Brandy Spirits

        2085   Distilled and Blended Liquors


        2086   Bottled and Canned Soft Drinks and Carbonated
               Waters

        2087   Flavoring Extracts and Flavoring Syrups, nee*
  209  Miscellaneous Food Preparations and Kindred Products
       2091   Canned and Cured Fish and Seafoods

       2092   Prepared Fresh or Frozen Fish and Seafoods
 Manufacture of fresh or frozen bread and bread-type rolls and fresh cakes, pies,
 pastries, and similar "perishable" bakery products.

 Manufacture of fresh cookies, crackers, pretzels, and similar "dry" bakery products.

 Manufacture of frozen bakery products, except bread and bread-type rolls.


 Manufacture of raw sugar, syrup, or finished cane sugar from sugarcane.

 Refining of purchased raw cane sugar and sugar syrup.

 Manufacture of sugar from sugar beets.

 Manufacture of candy, including chocolate candy, other confections, and related
 products.

 Shelling, roasting, and grinding of cacao beans to make chocolate liquor and
 thence cocoa powder and cocoa butter. Manufacture of chocolate bars, coatings,
 and related products.

 Manufacture of chewing gum or chewing gum base.

 Manufacture of salted, roasted, dried, cooked, or canned nuts. Processing of
 grains and seeds for snack purposes.
Manufacture of cottonseed oil, cake, meal, and linters.  Processing of purchased
cottonseed oil other than into edible cooking oils.

Manufacture of soybean oil, cake, meal, and soybean oil isolates and concentrates.
Processing of purchased soybean oil other than into edible cooking oils.

Manufacture of vegetable oils, cake, meal other than those derived from corn,
cottonseed, or soybean. Processing similar purchased oils other than into edible
cooking oils.

Manufacture of animals oils and meals, including fish and other marine animals.
Rendering of inedible stearin, grease, and tallow from animal fat, bones, and
meat scraps.

Manufacture of shortening, table oils, margarine, and other miscellaneous edible
fats and oils.
Manufacture of malt beverages.

Manufacture of malt or malt byproducts from barley or other grains.

Manufacture of wines, brandy, and brandy spirits. Blending of wines (by bonded
wine cellars).

Manufacture of alcoholic liquors by distillation. Manufacture of blended or
mixed cordials and cocktails.

Manufacture of soft drinks and carbonated waters.
Manufacture of miscellaneous flavoring extracts, syrups, powders, and related
products for soda fountain use or for the manufacture of soft drinks.
Manufacture of colors for bakers' and confectioners' use.
Cooking and canning offish, shrimp, oysters, and other seafoods, including
soups.  Curing (smoking, salting, drying) fish and other seafoods for the trade.
Preparation of fresh, raw, or cooked frozen fish and other seafoods including
soups, stews, chowders, and seafood cakes.  Shucking and packing of fresh
oysters in nonsealed containers.
*nec: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
                                                                                                                                     25

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          Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Box 2-1.  SIC Code 20, Food and Beverage Processing: Codes and Classifications, Continued
  SIC Code
Industry Description
  209  Miscellaneous Food Preparations and Kindred Products

      2095   Roasted Coffee

      2096   Potato Chips, Corn Chips, and Similar Snacks
      2097   Manufactured Ice
      2098   Macaroni, Spaghetti, Vermicelli, and Noodles
      2099   Food Preparations, nee*
Roasting of coffee. Manufacture of coffee concentrates and extracts in
powdered, liquid, or frozen form, including freeze-dried.
Manufacture of potato chips, corn chips, and similar snacks.
Manufacture of ice for sale.
Manufacture of dry macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli, and noodles.
Manufacture of miscellaneous prepared foods and food specialties, such as
baking powder, yeast, peanut butter, packaged tea, ground spices, vinegar, and
cider. Manufacture of dry preparations of pasta, rice, and similar products
(excluding flour mixes), which are packaged to be prepared and cooked by the
*ncc: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
amounts of certain chemicals such as n-hexane,
used in extraction. Solvents are essential to most
extraction operations. Products of these mills do
not include edible cooking oils. Other soybean oil
mill products are protein isolates and concentrates
used primarily in animal feed, but also in textured
protein substances used to replace or extend meat
in some food products.

Higher value-added industries produce packaged,
consumer-brand goods that are ready for retail
markets. These represent the output of
sophisticated manufacturing processes. Longer
shelf-life enhances the suitability for export of
many higher value-added products—for example,
canned fruits and vegetables (SIC code 2033), or
dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy products
(SIC code 2023). Most U.S. food exports are sent
to Canada, Mexico, Japan, and the European
Community. However, growth in export demand
     increases in part from expanding middle-class
     populations in developing countries and
     expanding markets in countries of the former
     Soviet Union.

     Fundamental to the manufacture of most food
     products is processing to stabilize the food by
     heating, cooling, dehydration, freezing, or other
     means. Although the many types of food products
     require different types of processing, many
     include some form of preservation. Food
     processors cure, wash, fumigate, acidify,
     pasteurize, freeze, dehydrate, esterify, or apply
     other physical, chemical or mechanical techniques
     to preserve foods from microbes, enzymes,
     chemical deterioration, or mechanical damage.

     Chemicals may be used in food processing as
     additives, when approved for these uses by the
     Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additives
                                                 Sources

   Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
       Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
   U.S. Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRI/McGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
       International Trade Administration, 1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and
       industrial processes for selected industries.
   U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures: Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
       February 1998 : value of shipments and employment.
       Supplemental data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
   Food Industries Manual, 22nd ed, 1988: industry processes and technologies, environmental practices
   McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., 1997: industry processes and technologies.
26

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                                  Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
include antioxidants, colorants, emulsifiers and
surfactants, enzymes, flavors and flavor
enhancers, leavening agents and baking aids, pH
control agents, preservatives, propellants,
refrigerants, solvents, stabilizers and thickeners,
and others. Nitrites and nitrates, for example, are
used as preservatives in curing meat; sodium
nitrate produces the characteristic cured-meat
color and aids microbiological stability in low
heat treatment.

In the food and beverage processing sector, air
emissions may result from boiler and furnace
emissions and exhausts. Discharges from
extraction systems are a common wastestream in
certain industries in this sector. Except for oils,
solvents, and sludges, most wastes in food and
beverage processing are aqueous. Food
manufacturers typically remove large solid
particles, trap oil and fat, use holding tanks to
buffer discharge volumes, and remove finer
particles by settling.

1996  TRI  Data  for  Food

and Beverage

Processing

Table 2-1 summarizes TRI reporting by the food
and beverage processing sector for 1996. More
than 3,500 forms were submitted in this sector,
and almost 1,000 of these were Form A
certification statements, certifying that a facility's
total annual reportable amount of a TRI chemical
was less than 500 pounds for the year and that the
facility did not manufacture, process, or otherwise
use more than 1 million pounds. The percentage
of Form A certifications in this  sector (28.1%) is
much larger than in most industries (11.3% for all
sectors). (The Form A certification statement is
explained in Chapter 1.)

Nearly one quarter (824 forms)  of all forms in the
food and beverage processing sector were
submitted in the miscellaneous prepared feeds
industry (SIC code 2048), which produces feed
and related products for animals (except dogs and
cats) and poultry. This industry also submitted
two-thirds of the Form As in this sector (606
forms). Another 427 forms were submitted by
facilities that used more than one SIC code to
describe their industrial activities; these "multiple
code" submissions are discussed below.
Manufacturers of bottled and canned soft drinks
(SIC code 2086) filed the third-largest number of
forms (253).

The industry with the largest amounts of total on-
and off-site releases and total production-related
waste submitted relatively few forms. This was
soybean oil milling (SIC code 2075), with 90
forms. This industry reported 30.2 million pounds
of total releases, almost all of it on-site, and 171.0
million pounds of production-related waste, with
most of that in other on-site waste management,
as shown in Table 2-1.

The natural and processed cheese industry (SIC
code 2022) reported the largest off-site releases
rqported in the food and beverage processing
sector, with 164,000 pounds. Wet corn milling
(SIC code 2046) reported the largest transfers off-
site for further waste management, with 7.9
million pounds.

Some facilities in this sector engage in production
of more than one food product, as designated in
the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
system. A facility may produce both dehydrated
fruits and vegetables (SIC code 2034) and frozen
fruits and vegetables (SIC code 2037). A mill
might produce flour and other grain mill products
(SIC code 2041) and also produce miscellaneous
vegetable oils (SIC code 2076). These facilities
may report multiple SIC codes on their TRI
forms, to identify their line of business. (Box 1-5
in Chapter 1 further explains reporting of multiple
SIC codes and its affect on the analyses presented
in the TRI data release.)
                                                                                           27

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             Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-1.  Summary of TRI Information by4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20
Total Total
On- and Production-
Off-site related
Releases Waste
Rank Rank
12
10
9
46
6
20
21
33
26
36
24
45
8
19
25
37
34
44
7
28
5
43
15
31
16
48
4
49
47
39
3
1
11
27
18
13
42
30
22
40
14
41
35
50
38
29
23
17
2
32

8
12
13
24
5
10
29
16
21
35
20
40
11
30
33
45
42
50
4
28
3
48
25
41
23
27
7
31
37
46
9
1
17
19
22
15
44
18
36
32
6
47
43
49
34
39
38
14
2
26

SIC
Code
2011
2013
2015
2021
2022
2023
2024
2026
2032
2033
2034
2035
2037
2038
2041
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2051
2052
2053
2061
2062
2063
2064
2066
2068
2074
2075
2076
2077
2079
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2091
2092
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099



Industry
Meat Packing Plants
Sausages & Other Prepared Meats
Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Creamery Butter
Cheese, Natural & Processed
Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products
Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts
Fluid Milk
Canned Specialties
Canned Fruits & Vegetables
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings
Frozen Fruits & Vegetables
Frozen Specialties, nee*
Flour & Other Grain Mill Products
Cereal Breakfast Foods
Rice Milling
Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs
Wet Com Milling
Dog & Cat Food
Prepared Feeds, nee*
Bread, Cake, & Related Products
Cookies & Crackers
Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
Raw Cane Sugar
Cane Sugar Refining
Beet Sugar
Candy & Other Confectionery Products
Chocolate & Cocoa Products
Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds
Cottonseed Oil Mills
Soybean Oil Mills
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*
Animal & Marine Fats & Oils
Edible Fats & Oils, nee*
Malt Beverages
Malt
Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits
Distilled & Blended Liquors
Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*
Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods
Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish
Roasted Coffee
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Manufactured Ice
Macaroni & Spaghetti
Food Preparations, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 20
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20
Total for SIC Code 20
Total
Facilities
Number
49
43
126
6
103
48
39
98
15
20
13
12
60
20
53
7
4
3
27
43
329
2
21
-7
7
4
31
3
5
1
25
60
10
32
22
36
2
20
10
205
35
4
8
3
18
12
9
55
214
14
1,993
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
78
55
194
12
242
94
55
139
28
26
21
13
96
31
68
9
4
3
93
51
824
2
21
7
17
9
39
6
7
1
27
90
15
39
51
77
2
25
24
253
54
4
10
3
27
12
9
119
427
28
3,541
6
6
18
0
7
8
3
9
3
5
1
1
5
0
24
1
0
0
20
17
606
0
0
0
4
4
6
1
0
0
1
5
2
1
3
3
0
3
12
124
14
3
3
0
6
1
0
14
40
6
996
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1,600 ,163
1,728,872
1,810,879
500
2,527,811
296,936
255,016
92,312
166,821
53,863
168,776
518
2,028,391
523,443
167,979
43,960
93,400
3,505
2,287,144
144,510
4,146,131
8,500
1,089,243
107,517
737,415
176
6,472,165
5
273
25,875
8,084,252
30,243,022
1,636,259
116,311
495,046
1,169,822
9,800
135,493
169,805
14,655
1,018,948
10,500
73,658
5
24,757
135,592
169,049
527,703
11,837,850
91,376
82,546,002
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
3,260
0
0
0
164,012
18,110
0
6,200
0
0
0
243
86,163
0
0
0
0
0
94,899
4,610
44,212
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
431
255
45,920
29,599
2,617
0
0
0
0
82,515
0
0
0
4,835
0
0
24,027
130,485
15,000
757,393
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
1,603,423
1,728,872
1,810,879
500
2,691,823
315,046
255,016
98,512
166,821
53,863
168,776
761
2,114,554
523,443
167,979
43,960
93,400
3,505
2,382,043
149,120
4,190,343
8,500
1,089,243
107,517
737,415
176
6,472,165
5
273
25,875
8,084,252
30,243,453
1,636,514
162,231
524,645
1,172,439
9,800
135,493
169,805
14,655
1,101,463
10,500
73,658
5
29,592
135,592
169,049
551,730
11,968,335
106,376
83,303,395
Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-
site to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
Total Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic
incidents). Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 28

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                                              Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-1. Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2011
2013
2015
2021
2022
2023
2024
2026
2032
2033
2034
2035
2037
2038
2041
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2051
2052
2053
2061
2062
2063
2064
2066
2068
2074
2075
2076
2077
2079
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2091
2092
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099



Industry
Meat Packing Plants
Sausages & Other Prepared Meats
Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Creamery Butter
Cheese, Natural & Processed
Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products
Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts
Fluid Milk
Canned Specialties
Canned Fruits & Vegetables
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings
Frozen Fruits & Vegetables
Frozen Specialties, nee*
Flour & Other Grain Mill Products
Cereal Breakfast Foods
Rice Milling
Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs
Wet Corn Milling
Dog & Cat Food
Prepared Feeds, nee*
Bread, Cake, & Related Products
Cookies & Crackers
Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
Raw Cane Sugar
Cane Sugar Refining
Beet Sugar
Candy & Other Confectionery Products
Chocolate & Cocoa Products
Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds
Cottonseed Oil Mills
Soybean Oil Mills
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*
Animal & Marine Fats & Oils
Edible Fats & Oils, nee*
Malt Beverages
Malt
Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits
Distilled & Blended Liquors
Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*
Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods
Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish
Roasted Coffee
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Manufactured Ice
Macaroni & Spaghetti
Food Preparations, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 20
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20
Total for SIC Code 20
Total Other :
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
5,544,021
2,837,128
1,651,221
1,079,840
11,080,420
5,041,487
314,638
1,679,662
1,151,949
83,631 ,
1,102,937 :
65,623
2,620,144
. 141,923
52,293
27,325
0
0
10,382,669
132,417
43,672,789
0
0 •
0
430,000
831,845
2,994,744
0
31,000
0
0
140,591,931
992,180
1,032,978
127,397
2,095,971
49,162
1,912,775
0
226,186
10,525,432 ,
0
0
6,344 '
180,501
9,999
0
1,821,322
39,462,745
547,727
292,532,356
Total Transfers
Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
728,483
110,829
280,555
34,554
3,057,130
1,589,738
200,211
1,205,914
73,144
40,850
409,010
69,658
212,492
125,499
25,468
17,225
0
250
7,947,158
541,250
223,283
3,910
0
17,469
0
0
8,798
240,889
131,838
0
16,384
201,995
34,149
413,063
482,875
126,464
15,000
1,828
0
133,810
326,436
0
3,451
109
76,282
0
0
1,326,166
2,898,315
331,362
23,683,294
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
7,906,578
4,559,616
3,956,050
1,115,257
15,423,603
6,928,233
786,212
2,944,107
1,372,135
176,602
1,684,486
133,511
4,817,686
767,354
260,168
64,896
93,750
3,500
20,961,272
816,580
48,014,983
10,455
1,089,493
128,095
1,167,585
832,021
9,581,845
564,312
162,865
25,875
7,681,397
171,028,043
2,687,793
1,744,336
1,194,463
3,376,090
73,962
2,061,939
169,805
372,180
11,944,773
10,500
83,542
6,459
242,108
148,891
150,374
3,722,320
53,541,628
968,140
397,557,868
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
15,125
42,785
76,445
11,580
3,860
7,466
350
6,895
0
610
18,015
0
16,493
14,689
14,740
0
0
0
0
0
15,326
0
0
8,328
0
0
0
0
0
0
131,000
800
8,000
11
2,393
8,223
0
5,561
0
310
7,000
0
6,246
0
0
5,750
18,675
17,697
98,828
24,041
587,242
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-
site to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
Total Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic
incidents). Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                           29

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          Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 This multiple codes group—forms that reported
 more than one four-digit SIC code within SIC
 code 20—ranked second among all food and
 beverage processing industries for on-site
 releases, off-site releases, and total on- and off-
 site releases (nearly 12.0 million pounds total).
 This group also ranked third for other on-site
 waste management (39.5 million pounds) and for
 transfers off-site for further waste management
 (2.9 million pounds). For total production-related
 waste, it ranked second (53.5 million pounds).

 The two industrial groups with the largest release
 and waste management amounts—soybean oil
 mills (SIC code 2075) and the multiple-codes
 group—together accounted for more than half of
 the total on- and off-site releases (50.7%) and half
 of the total production-related waste (56.5%)
 reported in this sector.
Multiple Codes within SIC Code 20

Table 2-2 further examines reporting on the forms
submitted with multiple SIC codes. The most
frequent combination was natural and processed
cheese (SIC code 2022) and dry-condensed, and
evaporated dairy products (SIC code 2023). There
were 63 forms submitted with these two SIC codes.
The second largest pairing of SIC codes (by number
of forms) was meat packing plants (SIC code 2011)
and animal and marine fats and oils (SIC code 2077);
35 forms reported this combination.

Although just 15 forms reported the combination of
meat packing plants (SIC code 2011) and sausages
and other prepared meats (SIC code 2013), these
forms reported on- and off-site releases totaling 3.6
million pounds. This was the largest amount of
releases submitted on multiple-code forms in SIC
code 20, as shown in Table 2-2. One form that was
submitted with SIC code 2041 (flour and other grain
mill products) and SIC code 2079 (miscellaneous
edible fats and oils) reported 20.9 million pounds of
total production-related waste.
Table 2-2. Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20
SIC Codes
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2013
2013
2015
2015
2015
2015
2015
2020
2020
2021
2021
2021
2013
2013
2013
2013
2013
2022
2023
2048
2077
2077
2099
2026
2048
2048
2048
2077
2022
2023
2022
2022
2022

2015
2038
2048
2077






2037 2086 2099

2077
2079

2023 2024


2023
2023 2024 2026
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
15
1
1
1
7
3
1
3
35
3
2
1
7
5
6
29
2
1
3
10
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
3
4
3
0
0
2
0
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
3,591,258
4
1
33,460
76,455
0
0
9,210
2,589,366
3,912
29,000
0
33,322
64,041
500,154
580,853
0
0
0
20
0
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
5,751
0
0
0
5,710
0
0
0
63,660
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Total Transfers
On- and Total Other Off -site for
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
3,597,009
4
1
33,460
82,165
0
0
9,210
2,653,026
3,912
29,000
0
33,322
64,041
500,154
580,853
0
0
0
20
0
448,519
0
0
0
349,000
48,558
18,743
52,110
1,690,700
556,000
26,000
3,371
232,247
138,000
0
2,375,368
149,523
32,693
0
541,177
124,496
88,135
0
0
340,263
55,900
28,166
0
0
357,920
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,236
0
0
0
36,922
0
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
4,137,059
16,923
56
373,723
486,944
76,724
18,743
61,320
4,579,971
559,920
55,000
3,371
276,517
202,041
500,154
2,913,823
149,523
32,693
0
602,543
124,496
5,709
0
0
0
490
0
0
0
1,011
2
160
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases are transfers off-site to disposal
from Section 6 of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 of Form R. Total Production-related Waste sums
Section 8 of Form R. except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
30

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                                               Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing


Table 2-2.  Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC Codes
2021
2021
2021
2022
2022
2022
2022
2022
2022
2022
2023
2023
2023
2023
2023
2024
2024
2024
2024
2024
2024
2026
2033
2033
2034
2035
2035
2035
2037
2038
2038
2038
2038
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2041
2045
2046
2047
2047
2048
2048
2048
2048
2048
2048
2051
2061
2064
2074
2075
2082
2084
2086
2087
2096
2023
2023
2023
2023
2023
2023
2024
2024
2026
2035
2023
2024
2026
2045
2066
2026
2026
2026
2026
2038
2080
2086
2037
2086
2037
2064
2079
2099
2038
2045
2051
2053
2092
.2045
2046
2047
2048
2076
2079
2096
2048
2048
2048
2051
2061
2075
2077
2079
2099
2052
2062
2066
2075
2079
2083
2086
2087
2077
2099

2024
2026

2024
2098

2026

2098
2032


2087


2051 2052 2053
2051 2052 2086 2099
2086






2079


2092






2048




2085 2099

2091






2053


2076 2077 2079




2099

Total for SIC Code 20
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
21
2
9
63
3
2
2
2
3
2
1
2
17
1
1
31
3
3
2
1
1
2
12
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2





9
3
9
6
2
4
9
2
6
2
5
5
2
8
3
1
1
1
4
427
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
2
3
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
4
40
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
160,435
0
0
131,500
0
10,340
0
0
250
0
0
0
51,385
0
0
117,050
25,610
0
0
5,000
0
0
43,700
0
21,000
0
14,000
0
5
0
30,433
250
0
16,096
0
0
11,045
12,637
58,300
20,000
1,032,814
15
20,400
1,432
0
262,000
136,662
250
343,877
6,433
235,250
18
0
1,556,250
1,800
255
0
302
0
11,837,850
Total
Off -site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
: 0
0
0
0
0
23,609
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
30,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
• 0
1,500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
130,485
Total
On- and
Off -site
Releases
Pounds
160,435
0
0
131,500
0
10,340
0
23,609
250
0
0
0
51,385
0
0
117,050
25,610
0
0
5,000
0
0
43,700
0
51,000
0
14,000
0
5
0
30,433
250
0
16,096
5
0
11,045
12,637
58,300
20,000
1,032,814
1,515
20,400
1,432
0
262,000
136,662
250
343,877
6,433
235,250
268
0
1,556,250
1,800
255
0
302
0
11,968,335
Total Transfers
Total Other Off-site for
On-site Waste Further Waste
Management Management
Pounds Pounds
1,198,210
52,279
194,143
3,096,996
52,520
208,601
103,000
17,407
61,249
24,933
31,837
0
360,911
259
49,000
356,068
0
0
0
0
4,200
16,377
88,100
42,300
0
0
0
0
0
18,216
0
0
16
0
22
0
0
0
20,807,700
0
2,366,590
0
813,000
0
0
0
1,307,100
94,082
130,085
0
1,068,988
13,051
0
0
99,000
0
0
0
0
39,462,745
0
0
235,135
645,307
0
0
0
70,353
0
0
8,547
37,259
179,518
0
0
158,345
143,012
0
0
0
750
0
18,100
2,040
45,000
0
0
0
57,500
0
0
0
0
0
2,382
0
0
3,617
0
0
0
0
64,843
0
0
.0
0
13,013
3,537
0
0
153,600
12,786
86,654
41,000
0
0
475
0
2,898,315
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
1,200,209
52,279
429,178
3,514,977
52,520
218,941
103,000
111,369
61,249
24,933
31,943 .
37,259
590,839
259
49,000
632,770
167,000
0
0
5,000
5,100
16,377
150,900
44,240
96,000
0
14,000
0
0
18,216
0
0
16
16,093
2,444
0
11,045
5,861
20,866,000
20,000
3,399,404
255
895,643
1,432
0
260,000
1,443,762
107,121
477,499
6,433
1,304,084
166,832
12,566
1,644,332
100,800
300
0
604
0
53,541,628
0
0
0
4,260
0
0
0
0
595
0
0
0
0
0
0
478
0
0
0
0
0
0
320
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
24,000
400
0
0
0
0
0
10,393
10,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
41,000
0
0
0
0
98,828
Note:  On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases are transfers off-site to disposal
from Section 6 of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 of Form R. Total Production-related Waste sums
Section 8 of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
                                                                                                                         31

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           Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing

Table 2-3. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2075

2074
2053
2043
2022
2046
2037
2015
2013
2076
2011
2082
2087
2052
2061
2099
2079
2038
2023
2024
2065
2093
2034
2041
2032
2077
2047
2097
2084
2053

2026
2044
2092
2033
2043
2096
2063
20S6
2091
2033
2051
2045
2035
2021
2066
2062
2064
2095

Industry
Soybean Oil Mills
Multiple within SIC Code 20
Cottonseed Oil Mills
Beet Sugar
Prepared Feed*, nee*
Cheese, Natural & Processed
Wซ Corn Milling
Frozen Fruits & Vegetables
Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Sausages & Oilier Prepared Meats
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*
Mcnt Packing Plants
Mak Beverages
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, ncc*
Cookies & Crackers
Raw Cane Sugar
Food Preparations, ncc*
Edible Fats & Oils, ncc*
Frozen Specialties, ncc*
Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products
Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts
Distilled & Blended Liquors
Macaroni & Spaghetti
Dehydrated Fruits, Vcgctabks, Soups
Flour & Other Grain Mill Products
Canned Specialties
Animal & Marine Fats & Oils
Dog&CatFood
Manufactured Ice
Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits
Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20
Fluid Milk
Rice Milling
Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish
Canned Fruits & Vegetables
Cereal Breakfast Foods
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Sated & Roasted Nuts & Seeds
Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks
Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods
Milt
Bread, Cake, & Related Products
Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs
Pkkles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings
Creamery Butter
ChCK.-ol.iw & Cocoa Products
Cane Sugar Refining
Candy & Other Confectionery Products
Rotsted Coffee
Total for SIC Code 20
Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
30,239,410
5,155,931
8,026,247
5,973,257
4,060,551
70,205
2,252,060
502,318
1,513,048
1,551,344
1,636,259
1,383,918
1,158,155
985,311
1,089,243
303
445,255
462,792
501,193
137,231
255,016
129,818
169,049
147,521
167,979
163,232
109,885
3,985
135,592
50,741
107,517
77,998
90,912
93,400
67,159
9,247
43,960
24,757
25,875
14,405
10,500
9,800
8,500
3,505
263
500
273
176
5
5
69,065,606
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
2,790
6,081,523
56,000
418,992
410
858,152
26,503
1,003,593
50,967
177,278
0
59,574
11,667
0
0
0
7,790
1,370
250
5
0
39,987
0
21,250
0
250
6,426
139,325
0
0
0
12,378
0
0
6,499
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,983,229
Underground Injection
Class I Class II-V
Wells Wells
Pounds Pounds
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
1,010
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29,548
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29,548
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds
0
250
0
0
15,206
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13,050
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
28,506
822
599,396
2,005
79,916
69,964
1,599,454
8,581
522,470
246,864
250
0
156,671
0
33,637
0
737,112
74,658
17,834
22,000
159,700
0
0
0
5
0
3,339
0
1,200
0
84,752
0
1,000
1,400
0
0
15,068
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
4,438,103
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
30,243,022
11,837,850
8,084,252
6,472,165
4,146,131
2,527,811
2,287,144
2,028,391
1,810,879
1,728,872
1,636,259
1,600,163
1,169,822
1,018,948
1,089,243
737,415
527,703
495,046
523,443
296,936
255,016
, 169,805
169,049
168,776
167,979
166,821
116,311
144,510
135,592
135,493
107,517
91,376
92,312
93,400
73,658
53,863
43,960
24,757
25,875
14,655
10,500
9,800
8,500
3,505
518
500
273
176
5
5
82,546,002
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
431
130,485
0
0
44,212
164,012
94,899
86,163
0
0
255
3,260
2,617
82,515
0
0
24,027
29,599
0
18,110
0
0
0
0
0
0
45,920
4,610
0
0
0
15,000
6,200
0
0
0
0
4,835
0
0
0
0
0
0
243
0
0
0
0
0
757,393
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
30,243,453
11,968,335
8,084,252
6,472,165
4,190,343
2,691,823
2,382,043
2,114,554
1,810,879
1,728,872
1,636,514
1,603,423
1,172,439
1,101,463
1,089,243
737,415
551,730
524,645
523,443
315,046
255,016
169,805
169,049
168,776
167,979
166,821
162,231
149,120
135,592
135,493
107,517
106,376
98,512
93,400
73,658
53,863
43,960
29,592
25,875
14,655
10,500
9,800
8,500
3,505
761
500
273
176
5
5
83,303,395
Note: On-sHe Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 On- and Off-site Releases

 Table 2-3 and Figure 2-1 show the significance of
 air emissions in the releases reported in the food
 and beverage processing sector. Air emissions in
 this sector were 69.1 million pounds in 1996,
82.9% of the sector's total releases. Discharges to
surface water were 9.0 million pounds, or 10.8% of
the total, and releases to land other than RCRA
subtitle C landfills were 4.4 million pounds, or
5.3%. The sector reported much smaller amounts of
releases to RCRA subtitle C landfills and in both
 32

-------
                                         Chapter 2 — TR1 Data for Food and Beverage Processin.
       Other On-site
       Land Releases
          5.3%
Transfers Off-site
  to Disposal
    0.9%
   Surface
   Water
   10.8%
                        Underground Injection < 0.1%
                        RCRA Subtitle C Landfills < 0.1%

     Figure 2-1. Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
     Releases, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing
                    (SIC Code 20)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
categories of underground injection. Altogether,
on-site releases were 99.1% of the sector's total
releases in 1996. Off-site releases (transfers to
disposal) were 757,000 pounds.

Soybean oil mills (SIC code 2075) reported 30.2
million pounds of air emissions, which was 43.8%
of the air emissions reported by food and beverage
processors. Almost all of the air emissions reported
by soybean oil mills were for n-hexane (30.1
million pounds), commonly used in the extraction
process. Additional information on this chemical„
and its use in extraction appears in "1996  TRI Data
by Chemical for Food and Beverage Processing,"
later in this chapter.

The industry with the second-largest releases to air
was cottonseed oil milling (SIC code 2074), with
8.0 million pounds (11.6%). The multiple-codes
; group reported two-thirds (67.7%) of the surface
water discharges, with 6.1 million pounds. Figure
2-2 shows the distribution of on- and off-site
35,000,000 -
30,000,000 -

25,000,000 -

20,000,000-
•s
1
EL
15,000,000-
10,000,000-
5,000,000 -
0-

ra







:'$&4



j






1
1

-------
          Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 releases for the industries (four-digit SIC code)
 with the sector's largest releases.

 Other On-site Waste Management

 As shown in Table 2-4, soybean oil mills (SIC code
 2075) reported 137.6 million pounds of on-site
 recycling in 1996, which was nearly half (47.0%)
 of all other on-site waste management reported in
 the food and beverage processing sector. Figure 2-3
 illustrates the significant role of on-site recycling in
 the total other on-site waste management reported
 by this sector—nearly three-quarters (74.0%) of the
 total. A single facility, a soybean oil mill in
 Michigan, reported the great majority of the on-site
 recycling. This one facility reported 137.0 million
 pounds of n-hexane as being recycled on-site.
 Nearly all of the remaining on-site waste
 management consisted of treatment (25.9% of the
 total). Twelve industries in this sector reported no
 on-site waste management (see Table 2-4).

 Soybean oil mills had the largest reported amounts
 for other on-site waste management, 140.6 million
 pounds. Processors of miscellaneous prepared
 animal feeds (SIC code 2048) had the
 second-largest total, 43.7 million pounds, followed
 by forms reporting multiple SIC codes, with 39.5
 million pounds. These three groups represented
 three-quarters (76.5%) of other on-site waste
 management reported in this sector. Figure 2-4
 illustrates the distribution of on-site waste
 management reported by the top industries.

 Transfers  Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 Food and beverage processing industries sent most
 of their transfers off-site for further waste
 management to POTWs. Transfers to POTWs were
 20.3 million pounds in 1996, out of 23.7 million
 pounds of all transfers off-site for further waste
 management. This was 85.8% of the transfers,
 compared to 7.5% across all industries. More than
 one quarter (29.1%) of the POTW transfers (5.9
 million pounds) consisted of ethylene glycol
 reported by one wet corn miller (SIC code 2046,
 see "Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
 in Waste Management, 1991-1996," below). The
 second- and third-largest types of transfers reported
 by food and beverage processors were those to
 recycling (1.8 million pounds) and to treatment (1.3
 million pounds). Table 2-5 and Figure 2-5 show the
 off-site transfers for further waste management of
 this sector.

 Wet corn mills (SIC code 2046) reported the largest
 transfers off^site for further waste management.
 This industry reported 7.9 million pounds of
 transfers for further waste management, primarily
 in transfers to POTWs. Natural and processed
 cheese (SIC code 2022) ranked second with 3.1
 million pounds, again principally to POTWs.
 Figure 2-6 illustrates the distribution of such
 transfers for the top industries.


 1996 TRI  Data by  State for

 Food and  Beverage

 Processing

Food processors tend to locate in food-growing
regions. In each of five states, more than 150 TRI
forms were submitted in food and beverage
processing, and all are centers of agricultural
production: California, Iowa, Wisconsin, Texas,
and Illinois.
34

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                                             Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processini


Table 2-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2075
2048

2022
2087
2046
2011
2023
2063
2013
2037
2082
2084
2099
2026
2015
2032
2034
2021
2077
2076
2062

2061
2024
2086
2096
2038
2047
2079
2033
2035
2041
2083
2066
2043
2097
2095
2044
2045
2051
2052
2053
2064
2068
2074
2085
2091
2092
2098

Industry
Soybean Oil Mills
Prepared Feeds, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 20
Cheese, Natural & Processed
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*
Wet Corn Milling
Meat Packing Plants
Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products
Beet Sugar
Sausages & Other Prepared Meats
Frozen Fruits & Vegetables
Malt Beverages
Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits
Food Preparations, nee*
Fluid Milk
Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Canned Specialties
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups
Creamery Butter
Animal & Marine Fats & Oils
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*
Cane Sugar Refining
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20
Raw Cane Sugar
Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts
Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Frozen Specialties, nee*
Dog & Cat Food
Edible Fats & Oils, nee*
Canned Fruits & Vegetables
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings
Flour & Other Grain Mill Products
Malt
Chocolate & Cocoa Products
Cereal Breakfast Foods
Manufactured Ice
Roasted Coffee
Rice Milling
Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs
Bread, Cake, & Related Products
Cookies & Crackers
Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
Candy & Other Confectionery Products
Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds
Cottonseed Oil Mills
Distilled & Blended Liquors
Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods
Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish
Macaroni & Spaghetti
Total for SIC Code 20
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
137,589,184
41,910,760
24,324,154
757,275
9,592,302
868,148
10,146
639,415
0
1,750
14,462
0
0
397,844
32,921
0
: 0
0
300
1 0
3,482
: 0
246,450
0
0
10,700
0
0
6,139
0
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
, 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
216,405;632
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
38,000
260,000
0
0
45,691
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6,351
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9,600
0
0
0
0
0
0
52,068
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
411,710
Treated
On-site
Pounds
3,002,747
1,724,029
14,878,591
, 10,323,145
933,130
9,468,830
5,533,875
4,402,072
2,994,744
2,835,378
2,605,682
2,095,971
1,912,775
1,423,478
1,646,741
1,651,221
1,145,598
1,102,937
1,079,540
1,032,978
988,698
831,845
301,277
430,000
314,638
205,886
180,501
141,923
126,278
127,397
83,631
65,423
225
49,162
31,000
27,325
9,999
6,344
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
75,715,014
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
140,591,931
43,672,789
39,462,745
. 11,080,420
10,525,432
10,382,669
5,544,021
5,041,487
2,994,744
2,837,128
2,620,144
2,095,971
1,912,775
1,821,322
1,679,662
1,651,221
1,151,949
1,102,937
1,079,840
1,032,978
992,180
831,845
547,727
430,000
314,638
226,186
180,501
141,923
132,417
127,397
83,631
65,623
52,293
49,162
31,000
27,325
9,999
6,344
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
292,532,356
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the
"multiple" category.                                              :
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                 35

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          Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
   Treated
   On-slte
   25.9%
Recycled
 On-site
 74.0%
                                   Energy Recovery
                                   On-site = 0.1%
    Figure 2-3. Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
   Management, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing
                    (SIC Code 20)
Note: Dtta from Section 8 of Form R.
As shown in Table 2-6, Illinois contributed the
largest share of total on- and off-site releases in the
food and beverage processing sector (14.0 million
pounds) in 1996. Iowa was second with 8.8 million
pounds, and Texas was third with 4.0 million
pounds.
Nebraska reported 141,000 pounds of off-site
releases (transfers to disposal), the largest of any
state or territory. Wisconsin was second with
130,000 pounds, and Texas ranked third with
97,000 pounds. Together they accounted for half
(48.5%) of off-site releases reported in the food and
beverage processing sector.

Michigan was the state with the largest other
on-site waste management, with 143.2 million
pounds. This was nearly half (49.0%)  of the total
for all states. As noted above, one Michigan
facility, a soybean oil mill (SIC code 2075),
              160,000,000
              140,000,000
              120,000,000
              100,000,000
               80,000,000
               60,000,000
               40,000,000
               20,000,000-
                                   n Treated
                                   • Energy Recovery
                                   H Recycled
                        2075
                               2048
                                       Mult.
                                             2022
                                                    2087
                                                           2046
                                                                  2011
                                                                         2023
                                                                                2063
                                                                                       2013
              Figure 2-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
                     Totals, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: Other On-slte Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the
"multiple" category.
36

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                                                Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processitit
 Table 2-5.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20 (in
 Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2046
2022

2023
2099
2026
2011
2047
2079
2077
2034

2087
2015
2064
2048
2037
2075
2024
2086
2066
2082
2038
2013
2096
2032
2035
2033
2021
2076
2041
2053
2043
2074
2083
2063
2051
2092
2084
2045
2095
2044
2052
2061
2062
2068
2085
2091
2097
2098

Industry
Wet Corn Milling
Cheese, Natural & Processed
Multiple within SIC Code 20
Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products
Food Preparations, nee*
Fluid Milk
Meat Packing Plants
Dog & Cat Food
Edible Fats & Oils, nee*
Animal & Marine Fats & Oils
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*
Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Candy & Other Confectionery Products
Prepared Feeds, nee*
Frozen Fruits & Vegetables
Soybean Oil Mills
Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts
Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks
Chocolate & Cocoa Products
Malt Beverages
Frozen Specialties, nee*
Sausages & Other Prepared Meats
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Canned Specialties
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings
Canned Fruits & Vegetables
Creamery Butter
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*
Flour & Other Grain Mill Products
Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
Cereal Breakfast Foods
Cottonseed Oil Mills
Malt
Beet Sugar
Bread, Cake, & Related Products
Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish
Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits
Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs
Roasted Coffee
Rice Milling
Cookies & Crackers
Raw Cane Sugar
Cane Sugar Refining
Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds
Distilled & Blended Liquors
Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods
Manufactured Ice
Macaroni & Spaghetti
Total for SIC Code 20
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
58,041
0
109,953
0
31,300
31,064
10,248
540,000
449,006
9,000
270,005
0
58,000
8,594
1,933
0
21,834
172,675
250
2,255
0
122
0
14,423
0
0
0
0
0
26,132
0
1,400
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,816,235
Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
0
0
64,843
45,000
1
0
5,204
0
0
0
250
0
136,174
16,200
0
0
0
: 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
: 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
: o
0
0
0
0
0
267,672
Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
1,463
201,700
372,183
0
22,964
0
45,720
0
0
0
99,500
290,500
12,873
23,121
0
55,411
1,410
0
250
425
76,000
42,245
2,450
0
0
9,330
0
27,250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,955
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,286,750
Transfers
toPOTWs
Pounds
7,887,654
2,855,430
2,351,336
1,544,738
1,271,901
1,174,100
667,311
1,250
33,869
404,063
39,255
40,862
119,389
232,640
238,956
167,872
189,248
29,320
199,711
131,130
55,838
84,097
123,049
96,406
76,282
63,814
69,658
13,600
34,554
8,017
25,468
16,069
17,225
16,384
15,000
8,798
1,955
3,451
1,828
250
109
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20,311,887
Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
750
Total Off-site
Transfers
for Further
Waste
Management
Pounds
7,947,158
3,057,130
2,898,315
1,589,738
1,326,166
1,205,914
728,483
541,250
482,875
413,063
409,010
331,362
326,436
280,555
240,889
223,283
212,492
201,995
200,211
133,810
131,838
126,464
125,499
110,829
76,282
73,144
69,658
40,850
34,554
34,149
25,468
17,469
17,225
16,384
15,000
8,798
3,910
3,451
1,828
250
109
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
23,683,294
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                       37

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           Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
                To Recycling
                   7.7%
             To Energy
              Recovery
                                   1.1%
                                       To Treatment
                                          5.4%
                                       To POTWs
                                         85.8%
    Figure 2-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
       Further Waste Management, 1996: Food and
           Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
(excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers
are transfer!; reported without a valid waste management code.
reported 137.0 million pounds of on-site recycling
in 1996. Illinois was second for other on-site waste
management with 68.6 million pounds, nearly
one-quarter (23.4%) of the total. These two states
also had the largest amounts of total production-
related waste: 144.9 million pounds in Michigan
and 84.0 million pounds in Illinois. Iowa was third
for both on-site waste management and
production-related waste, with 10.4 million pounds
and 26.4 million pounds, respectively, in these two
categories.

Food and beverage industries in Iowa reported 7.2
million pounds in transfers off-site for further waste
management, 30.6% of the sector's total for such
transfers. Wisconsin reported 2.3 million pounds
and California 1.9 million pounds in transfers off-
site for further waste management.
             9.000,000


             8,000,000


             7,000,000


             6,000.000


             5,000,000


             4.000.000


             3,000,000


             2,000,000


             1,000,000
             Figure
               with



                                        • Other Off-site Transfers
                                        S3 To POTWs
                                        D To Treatment
                                        E3 To Energy Recovery
                                        • To Recycling


                       1
                      2046
                             2022
                                    Mult.
                                           2023
                                                  2099
                                                         2026
                                                                2011
                                                                       2047
                                                                             2079
                                                                                    2077
2-6. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes
Largest Totals, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
38

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                                                  Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 Table 2-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20
State
Alabama
Alaska
American Samoa
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virgin Islands
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total for SIC Code 20
Total
Facilities
Number
45
2
1
14
59
160
26
4
11
56
83
4
26
103
55
114
41
39
28
5
34
14
47
84
40
66
4
49
5
3
16
3
52
70
12
71
23
24
62
12
2
15
16
42
114
14
6
1
51
33
9
119
4
1,993
Total
Forms
Number
82
4
1
18
116
255
43
7
22
121
133
4
50
210
103
251
69
48
48
5
64
22
69
148
65
117
4
97
8
4
26
8
93
141
20
133
30
38
98
27
3
23
29
68
187
23
8
1
87
56
17
233
4
3,541
Form As
Number
40
3
0
3
46
26
15
0
11
25
50
1
4
67
42
69
24
13
20
1
25
3
14
56
26
39
1
35
2
2
3
0
14
63
7
30
10
15
22
3
1
7
6
14
57
5
1
1
18
13
3
40
0
996
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1,651,092
1,700
10,500
322,253
3,470,377
3,499,131
471,848
36,310
551,126
1,487,315
2,474,154
29,798
3,232,950
13,936,917
2,667,534
8,784,741
1,883,487
1,378,012
727,026
11,202
528,767
65,143
1,330,197
3,537,721
2,012,572
3,604,225
535,205
1,422,335
470
3,817
167,441
919,637
343,357
2,530,875
1,342,302
2,437,901
939,369
739,599
347,785
54,817
0
2,036,548
3,757,179
1,238,150
3,895,087
8,315
0
0
966,445
179,457
39,655
750,279
183,879
82,546,002
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
255
0
0
0
250
60,619
6,200
0
0
1,488
535
0
2,400
24,294
'10,217
29,670
1 3,260
10
0
0
: 0
0
41,609
; 9,035
0
381
0
141,337
0
0
0
0
1,086
94,727
0
11,235
15,000
0
3,593
0
0
250
; 5,751
0
96,539
2,368
0
0
1,755
64,000
0
129,529
o
757,393
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
1,651,347
1,700
10,500
322,253
3,470,627
3,559,750
478,048
36,310
551,126
1,488,803
2,474,689
29,798
3,235,350
13,961,211
2,677,751
8,814,411
1,886,747
1,378,022
727,026
11,202
528,767
65,143
1,371,806
3,546,756
2,012,572
3,604,606
535,205
1,563,672
470
3,817
167,441
919,637
344,443
2,625,602
1,342,302
2,449,136
954,369
739,599
351,378
54,817
0
2,036,798
3,762,930
1,238,150
3,991,626
10,683
0
0
968,200
243,457
39,655
879,808
183,879
83,303,395
Total Transfers
Total Other Off-site for
On-site Waste Further Waste
Management Management
Pounds Pounds
1,013,826
0
0
177,355
2,361,695
9,274,751
2,311,801
710,600
156,840
1,915,078
993,438
825
2,772,166
68,565,874
1,424,650
10,448,621
1,340,296
1,592,092
272,020
55
476,060
579,977
143,241,326
3,453,792
707,239
2,015,573
2,300
2,703,609
19,168
20,066
259,467
80,492
3,391,496
5,661,875
3,433,085
2,210,023
11,859
224,577
1,255,843
1,057,124
0
1,241,652
1,665,891
466,958
3,173,056
386,073
314,061
0
1,112,934
1,152,419
87,357
6,791,139
3,882
292,532,356
28,575
0
0
258,723
69,643
1,939,068
244,175
320,750
15,850
123,149
728,519
5
258,211
1,327,701
1,122,336
7,244,323
296,737
74,180
19,624
0
220,086
124,072
461,308
747,831
47,957
158,889
0
356,864
19,549
1,500
480,602
5
578,161
500,199
120,717
564,326
139,229
49,025
313,522
64,848
12,786
7,726
1,195,044
183,115
678,063
13,898
0
0
66,966
182,599
40,449
2,282,389
0
23,683,294
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
2,690,223
1,700
10,500
758,311
5,913,509
13,496,657
3,023,549
1,066,480
725,668
3,485,018
4,019,237
30,430
6,217,314
83,975,099
5,253,191
26,448,610
3,474,830
3,001,949
1,101,645
11,005
1,058,924
748,739
144,893,379
7,692,612
2,846,913
5,718,212
533,900
4,748,139
39,013
25,366
1,146,892
996,727
3,997,024
8,776,466
4,901,970
5,224,269
1,037,028
1,016,555
1,905,217
1,153,628 .
12,566
3,282,814
6,626,113
1,905,997
7,844,713
410,169
314,061
0
2,150,513
1,544,954
157,048
9,955,261
187,761
397,557,868
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
2,615
0
0
0
43,375
31,360
1,792
50
620
22,180
9,410
50
80
34,181
5,720
1,616
2,330
7,462
1
300
21,251
0
9,889
44,000
50,611
1 10,792
0
12,604
0
17
20
0
15,060
5,613
8,020
6,466
29,000
20
30,626
0
0
740
1,746
500
44,084
0
0
0
12,113
10
0
20,918
0
587,242
Note:  On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
                                                                                                                           39

-------
         Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Map 2-1 illustrates the geographic distribution of
total on- and off-site releases in the food and
beverage processing sector.


1996 TRI  Data by

Chemical for  Food and

Beverage Processing

In the food and beverage processing sector, the 15
chemicals with the largest on- and off-site releases
represented 98.3% of all releases; they appear in
Table 2-7. Total releases of these chemicals were
81.9 million pounds, including 68.1 million pounds
of air emissions and 9.0 million pounds of surface
water discharges. Other on-site land releases of
these chemicals were 4.1 million pounds.

The chemical with the largest air emissions was
n-hexane, with 44.4 million pounds. This amounted
to more than half (53.2%) of all releases reported in
this sector. N-hexane is used in the food industry as
an extraction solvent in food processing and as a
solvent for certain applications in the manufacture
of food-contact articles. The Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) regulates n-hexane as a food
additive, and the existence of the regulations
signifies that FDA has determined that n-hexane is
safe for the intended use.

Most n-hexane releases reported to TRI are not
associated with production of food for human
consumption. Soybean oil mills (SIC code 2075)
and cottonseed oil mills reported the largest
releases, 30.1 million pounds and 8.1 million
pounds, respectively. Miscellaneous vegetable oil
mills (SIC code 2076) reported 1.6 million pounds
of n-hexane releases. These industries do not
produce edible cooking oils. The multiple-codes
group reported 2.4 million pounds of n-hexane
releases; this group includes forms that combined
miscellaneous vegetable oil milling (SIC code
2076) with flour and grain milling (SIC code 2046).
Ammonia ranked second for air emissions, with
18.9 million pounds. Among other applications,
ammonia is used in food processing to control
fungal growth on citrus fruit. Dissociated1 ammonia
also supplies hydrogen for the hydrogenation of
fats and oils.

Nitrate compounds were reported with the largest
discharges to surface water, 8.4 million pounds.
This was 94.0% of all releases to surface water in
this sector. Two forms totaling 5.3 million pounds
accounted for most of this reporting; both reported
multiple SIC codes related to meat processing (SIC
codes 2011, 2013, and 2077). Meat processing
industries use sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate
to cure meats.

OSHA Carcinogens

Table 2-8 shows the on- and off-site releases of
chemicals designated as OSHA carcinogens for the
four-digit industries in the food and beverage
processing sector. (OSHA carcinogens and the
bases for their designation appear in Box 1-9 in
Chapter 1.)

Two of the top 15 chemicals for total on- and off-
site releases in this sector were OSHA carcinogens:
atrazine with 614,000 pounds of other on-site land
releases and acetaldehyde with 410,000 pounds,
almost entirely in air emissions (see Table 2-7).
Atrazine is a herbicide. Raw cane sugar producers
(SIC code 2061) submitted two forms accounting
for 424,000 pounds of this chemical; the two
facilities that submitted these forms both raise and
process sugar cane. Acetaldehyde is an important
 1  Dissociation uses a change in physical condition (such as
   pressure or temperature) or the action of a solvent to split a
   molecule into simpler groups of atoms, single atoms, or
   ions; the process is usually reversible.
40

-------
                                        Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Process//?;
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                                                                                                        41

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           Chapter 2— TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-7. The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)
CAS
Number
II 0-54-3
7664-41-7

67-56-1
7647-01-0
1912-24-9
74-83-9
75-07-0
7664-93-9
7664-33-2
_
107-21-1
7782-50,5
7697-37-2
103*83-3


Chemical
n-Hexanc
Ammonia
Nitrate compounds
Meihinol
Hydrochloric acid
Atrazine
Bromomethane
Acctaldchydc
Sulftiric acid
Phosphoric acid
Manganese compounds
Elhyfcne glycol
Chlorine
Nitric acid
Toluene
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 20
Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
44,287,671
18,874,015
50
1,669,916
1,553,736
0
436,139
410,216
321,028
32,219
32,105
214,379
144,422
3,029
163,242
68,142,167
69,065,606
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
59,287
368,759
8,445,095
0
0
0
0
132
0
507
0
634
54,300
50,226
5
8,978,945
8,983,229
Underground Injection
Class I Class H-V
Wells Wells
Pounds Pounds
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
250
5
0
1,010
1,010
0
29,548
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29,548
29,548
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,320
0
0
0
0
8,570
28,506
2,265
982,175
1,880,709
6,624
0
614,353
0
0
7,849
243,625
268,463
35,513
24,515
66,805
0
4,132,896
4,438,103
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
44,349,473
20,255,247
10,325,854
1,676,540
1,553,736
614,353
436,139
410,348
328,877
276,356
308,888
250,526
223,487
120,065
163,247
81,293,136
82,546,002
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
660
334,199
81,325
250
0
0
0
0
40,164
53,155
16,901
0
0
65,288
18,000
609,942
757,393
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
44,350,133
20,589,446
10,407,179
1,676,790
1,553,736
614,353
436,139
410,348
369.041.
329,511
325,789
250,526
223,487
185,353
181,247
81,903,078
83,303,395
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.

Table 2-8. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Food and Beverage
Processing, SIC Code 20 (in Rank Order)
On-site Land Releases

SIC
Code

3061
2046
2099

2087
2079
2043
2034
2011
207S
2066




Industry

Raw Cane Sugar
Wet Com Milling
Food Preparations, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 20
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*
Edible Fats & Oils, nee*
Prepared Feeds, nee*
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups
Meat Packing Flams
Soybean Oil Mills
Chocolate & Cocoa Products
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 20

Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
0
280,128
246,463
8,640
74,298
0
9,268
8,700
1,768
0
18
629,283
69,065,606
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
0
105
27
0
0
0
0
0
0
306
0
438
8,983,229
Underground Injection
Class I
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,010
Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29,548
RCRA
Subtitle C
Landfills
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
13,050
0
0
0
0
0
13,050
. , 28,506
Other
On-site Land
Releases
. Pounds
424,353
5
0
190,000
0
0
0
5
0
567
0
614,930
4,438,103
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
424,353
280,238
246,490
198,640
74,298
13,050
9,268
8,705
1,768
873
18
1,257,701
82,546,002
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
0
4
250
0
..0
29,599
0
0
0
31
0
29,884
757,393

Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
424,353
280,242
246,740
198,640
74,298 ...
42,649
9,268
8,705
1,768,
904
18
1,287^585
83,303,395
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 component of food flavorings added to milk
 products, baked goods, fruit juices, candy, and soft
 drinks. It is also used in production of vinegar and
 yeast and to preserve fruit and fish. Acetaldehyde
 has been approved by FDA for these uses. The
 concentration of acetaldehyde in food is usually up
 to 0.047%. About half of the acetaldehyde air
emissions were reported in miscellaneous food
preparations (SIC code 2099, 205,000 pounds) and
half in wet corn milling (SIC code 2046, 203,000
pounds).

The OSHA carcinogens with the next-largest
releases in this sector were propylene oxide (82,000
 42

-------
                                    Chapter 2 — TRl Data for Food and Beverage Processing
pounds), dichloromethane (66,000 pounds), and
chloroform (31,000 pounds), also principally in air
emissions.

The industry with the largest releases of OSHA
carcinogens reported only other on-site land
releases. This was raw cane sugar production (SIC
code 2061) by the two facilities reporting 424,000
pounds of atrazine. Forms reporting multiple SIC
codes also reported most of their releases as other
on-site land disposal (190,000 pounds) for these
chemicals. Because of this reporting, air emissions
accounted for a smaller portion of releases of
OSHA carcinogens in this sector than in many
others. Air emissions were less than half (48.9%) of
the releases of these chemicals (629,000 pounds out
             of 1.3 million pounds). However, for other industry
             sectors, virtually all (99.9% or more) of the OSHA
             carcinogen releases were air emissions.

             Figure 2-7 shows the on- and off-site releases of the
             four-digit SIC codes with the largest OSHA
             carcinogen releases.

             1996 TRl Chemicals in
             Waste for Food and
             Beverage Processing

             The food and beverage processing sector reported
             more than half (54.4%) of its production-related
          450,000
          400,000 -


          350,000 -


          300,000 -


          250,000 -


          200,000 -


          150,000-


          100,000-


           50,000 -
                          D Transfers Off-site to Disposal
                          s Other On-site Land Releases
                          E RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
                          n UIJ, Class II-V Wells
                          BUIJ, Class I Wells
                          • Surface Water
                      2061
2046
                                                  2099
Mult.
                                                                              2087
          Figure 2-7. TRl On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes
             with Largest Totals, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. UIJ = underground injection.
Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
                                                                                            43

-------
           Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 waste in 1996 as recycled on-site (216.4 million
 pounds out of 397.6 million pounds total), as shown
 in Table 2-9. Soybean oil mills (SIC code 2075)
 reported 137.6 million pounds of this on-site
 recycling; as noted earlier, the majority of this
 amount is attributed to one facility. Another 21.0%
of the sector's production-related waste was
reported as quantities released on- and off-site (83.5
million pounds). Soybean oil milling also
accounted for the largest portion of these releases,
30.2 million pounds. The industrial group with the
Table 2-9. Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20
(In Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2075

2048
20-16
2022
2037
2063
2011
2074
2023
2037
2013
2015
2099
2082
2026
2076
2034
2077
2034
2032
2079
2061
2021
2052

2062
2047
2024
2033
2064
20S6
2041
2096
2033
20SS
2066
2098
2097
2035
2053
2044
2092
2033
2043
2068
2091
2051
2095
2045

Industry
Soybean Oil Mills
Multiple wilhin SIC Code 20
Prepared Feeds, ncc*
Wet GOTO Milling
Cheese, Natural & Processed
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, ncc*
Beet Sugar
Meat Packing Plants
Cottonseed Oil Mills
Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products
Frozen Fruits & Vegetables
Sausages & Other Prepared Meats
Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Food Preparations, nee*
Mall Beverages
Fluid Milk
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*
Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits
Animal & Marine Fats & Oils
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups
Canned Specialties
Edible Fats & Oils, ncc*
Raw Cane Sugar
Creamery Butter
Cookies & Crackers
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20
Cane Sugar Refining
Dog & Cat Food
Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts
Frozen Specialties, nee*
Candy & Other Confectionery Products
Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks
Flour & Other Grain Mill Products
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Canned Fruits & Vegetables
Distilled & Blended Liquors
Chocolate & Cocoa Products
Macaroni & Spaghetti
Manufactured Ice
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings
Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
Rfcc Milling
Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish
Mak
Cereal Breakfast Foods
Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds
Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods
Bread. Cake. & Related Products
Roasted Coffee
Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs
Total for SIC Code 20
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
137,589,184
24,324,154
41,910,760
868,148
757,275
9,592,302
0
10,146
0
639,415
14,462
1,750
0
397,844
0
32,921
3,482
0
0
0
0
0
0
300
0
246,450
0
6,139
0
0
0
10,700
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
216,405,632
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
260,000
38,000
45,691
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6,351
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9,600
52,068
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
411,710
Treated
On-site
Pounds
3,002,747
14,878,591
1,724,029
9,468,830
10,323,145
933,130
2,994,744
5,533,875
0
4,402,072
2,605,682
2,835,378
1,651,221
1,423,478
2,095,971
1,646,741
988,698
1,912,775
1,032,978
1,102,937
1,145,598
127,397
430,000
1,079,540
0
301,277
831,845
126,278
314,638
141,923
0
205,886
225
180,501
83,631
0
31,000
0
9,999
65,423
0
0
0
49,162
27,325
0
0
0
6,344
0
75,715,014
Recycled
Off-site
Pounds
172,675
158,211
0
58,041
0
58,000
0
10,247
0
0
25,440
14,423
9,243
31,300
58
31,064
16,553
0
9,000
270,004
0
472,196
0
0
0
0
0
540,000
64
22,000
1,933
1,621
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,400
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,903,473
Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
0
64,300
0
0
0
134,712
0
5,204
0
45,000
0
0
0
80,804
0
0
0
0
0
490
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
330,510
Treated
Off-site
Pounds
; 27,363
1,998,315
215,422
7,882,052
1,739,445
128,392
18,811
712,966
12,134
1,497,254
165,228
30,105
413,534
1,268,754
126,720
1,057,119
8,039
1,828
450,690
138,470
43,039
33,661
0
34,554
0
315,831
0
126
189,100
70,848
280,218
121,214
25,463
585
40,361
0
131,838
0
0
66,448
15,814
0
2,701
15,000
3,004
0
0
1,955
0
0
19,284,401
Quantity
Released
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
30,236,074
11,858,057
4,126,772
2,638,510
2,603,738
1,098,237
6,568,290
1,634,140
7,669,263
344,492
2,006,874
1,677,960
1,882,052
520,140
1,153,341
176,262
1,671,021
147,336
251,668
172,585
177,147
561,209
737,585
863
1,089,493
104,582
176
144,037
282,410
532,583
282,161
23,159
182,412
61,022
52,610
169,805
27
150,374
138,892
1,440
110,881
93,750
80,841
9,800
34,567
25,875
10,500
8,500
115
3,500
83,507,128
Total
Production- ]
related
Waste
Pounds
171,028,043
53,541,628
48,014,983
20,961,272
15,423,603
11,944,773
9,581,845
7,906,578
7,681,397
6,928,233
4,817,686
4,559,616
3,956,050
3,722,320
3,376,090
2,944,107
2,687,793
2,061,939
1,744,336
,684,486
,372,135
,194,463
,167,585
,115,257
,089,493
968,140
832,021
816,580
786,212
767,354
564,312
372,180
260,168
242,108
176,602
169,805
162,865
150,374
148,891
133,511
128,095
93,750
83,542
73,962
64,896
25,875
10,500
10,455
6,459
3,500
397,557,868
Non-
*roduction-
related
Waste
Pounds
800
98,828
15,326
0
3,860
7,000
0
15,125
131,000
7,466
16,493
42,785
76,445
17,697
8,223
6,895
8,000
5,561
11
18,015
0
2,393
0
11,580
0
24,041
0
0
350
14,689
0
310
14,740
0
610
0
0
18,675
5,750
0
8,328
0
6,246
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
587,242
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 44

-------
                                      Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
second-largest quantities in these two categories
was the group reporting multiple SIC codes.
These forms totaled 24.3 million pounds recycled
on-site and 11.9 million pounds released.

The multiple-codes group reported the largest
amount of on-site treatment. This sector reported
75.7 million pounds of on-site treatment (19.0%
of total production-related waste), which included
14.9 million pounds reported on forms with
multiple SIC codes. Production of natural and
processed cheese (SIC code 2022) was second in
this category reporting 10.3 million pounds.

Figure 2-8 illustrates the distribution of waste
management types in the food and beverage
processing sector's reporting for 1996.
Distribution of production-related waste for the
top industries in the sector appears in Figure 2-9.
     Quantity Released
         21.0%
  Off-site Waste
   Management
     5.4%
                                        On-site Waste
                                        Management
                                          73.6%
     Figure 2-8. Distribution of TRI Production-related
       Waste, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing
                    (SIC Code 20)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

 Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals
 in Waste

 Food and beverage processors' current and projected
 data for production-related waste are summarized in
 Table 2-10. (As explained in Chapter 1, facilities
     100%
                                                                        S Quantity Released

                                                                        • Treated Off-site

                                                                        m Energy Recovery Off-site

                                                                        D Recycled Off-site

                                                                        a Treated On-site

                                                                        B Energy Recovery On-site

                                                                        ffl Recycled On-site
           2075    Mult.    2048   2046   2022   2087   2063   2011    2074   2023
                 Figure 2-9.  Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with
                 Largest Totals, 1996:  Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category
                                                                                                    45

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           Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 Table 2-10. Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:  Food and Beverage Processing,
 SIC Code 20
Waste Management Activity

On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and
Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
for SIC Code 20
Waste Management Activity

On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
for SIC Code 20
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
216,405,632 54.4
411,710 0.1
75,715,014 19.0
1,903,473 0.5
330,510 0.1
19,284,401 4.9
83,507,128 21.0
397,557,868 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent
116.6
-23.5
2.3
-0.1
-8.7
1.2
1.5
64.3
Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
468,819,363 71.8
314,951 0.0
77,457,492 11.9
1,901,501 0.3
301,742 0.0
19,512,393 3.0
84,753,275 13.0
653,060,717 100.0
Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent
16.0
0.0
0.7
-0.5
1.5
1.6
-1.0
11.5
Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
543,741,506 74.7
314,951 0.0
77,975,999 10.7
1,892,802 0.3
306,182 0.0
19,827,272 2.7
83,898,753 11.5
727,957,465 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent
151.3
-23.5
3.0
-0.6
-7.4
2.8
0.5
83.1
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 not only report current data but project waste
 management quantities for the next two years in
 their TRI submissions.) By 1998, on-site recycling
 was projected to increase from about half (54.4%)
 to three-quarters (74.7%) of total production-related
 waste in this sector. This would be a 151.3%
 increase from 216.4 million pounds to a projected
 543.7 million pounds, most of it expected in the
 first year. Overall, total production-related waste
for SIC code 20 would increase 83.1%, from 397.6
million pounds to 728.0 million pounds.

These data include large amounts reported for 1996
and projected through 1998 by one soybean oil mill
mentioned in the discussion of "1996 TRI Data for
Food and Beverage Processing," earlier in this
chapter. This facility reported 137.0 million pounds
46

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                                   Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
of on-site recycling in 1996 and projected 465.8
million pounds in 1998.

Quantities released were projected to increase
slightly, from 83.5 million pounds in 1996 to 83.9
million pounds by 1998. However, with the very
large increase expected in on-site recycling,
releases would represent a much smaller proportion
of total production-related waste, down from 21.0%
in 1996 to 11.5% in 1998.

Increases were also projected in treatment:  3.0%
for on-site treatment, a 2.3 million-pound increase,
and 2.8% off-site, a 543,000 pound increase, by
1998. This also would result in treatment
accounting for a smaller proportion of total
production-related waste: On-site treatment was
19.0% of production-related waste in 1996, but
would decline to 10.7% in 1998, and off-site
treatment was 4.9% in 1996, declining to 2.7% in
1998.

Comparatively little change was expected in off-site
recycling and in on- and off-site energy recovery.

Figure 2-10 illustrates the projected changes in
waste management in this sector.

The large projected increase in on-site recycling
appears to indicate improved performance in
managing waste, as described in the waste
management hierarchy. In that hierarchy, explained
in Chapter 1, recycling is the preferred management
option for TRI chemicals in waste that cannot be
prevented in the first place. However, this sector's
projection for recycling reflects increasing
production-related waste, not decreases in other
less desirable waste management options, such as
releases and treatment. Thus, this forecast of the
sector's performance suggests little or no real
improvement.

A clearer view of projected performance by the
sector as a whole can be obtained by reviewing the
data without including the one facility that reported
large on-site recycling (137.0 million pounds) in
1996 and projected a large increase (to 465.8
million pounds in 1998). Without that facility's
data, on-site recycling and releases each amounted
to nearly one-third of total production-related waste
in the food and beverage processing sector in  1996,
with little projected change by 1998. This
represents not only little or no progress, but a
continuing high proportion of releases of
production-related waste, the least desirable option
for handling TRI chemicals in waste under the
waste management hierarchy.

Source Reduction  Activity

As shown in Table 2-11, 13.8% of the forms
submitted in this sector reported engaging in one or
more source reduction activities during 1996.  The
largest number of these forms—86 forms, out of
489 reporting source reduction activity—were in
the multiple-codes group (reporting more than one
four-digit SIC code in SIC code 20). This was
20.1% of all multiple-codes forms in food and
beverage processing, and the activity they most
often cited was improving their operating practices
(46 forms), followed by preventing spills and  leaks
(30 forms).

Cheese makers (SIC code 2022) submitted 45
forms indicating source reduction activity (18.6%
of the forms in that industry). Good operating
practices (20 forms) was also the category most
often identified in this industry, followed by
process modifications (11 forms).

Year-to-Year

Comparisons for Food

and  Beverage  Processing

1995-1996 TRI Data for Food and
Beverage Processing

From 1995 to 1996, the number of forms submitted
in food and beverage processing decreased 3.4%,
but the number of Form A certification statements
                                                                                          47

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          Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
               120
                      On-site Waste
                       Management
Off-site Waste
 Management
Quantity Released
On-site and Off-site
Total Production-
  related Waste
             Figure 2-10. Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals
                in Waste, 1996-1998:  Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
rose 8.4%, as shown in Table 2-12. (The Form A
certification statement is explained in Chapter 1.)
This may reflect more widespread awareness of the
Form A certification statement in its second year of
availability.

On- and Off-site Releases

Table 2-12 presents on- and off-site releases for this
sector for 1995-1996, illustrated in Figure 2-11.
The total of these releases decreased from 86.5
million pounds in 1995 to 83.3 million pounds in
1996, a 3.7% reduction. The largest decrease
occurred in reporting of air emissions, which were
74.5 million pounds in 1995 and 69.1 million
pounds in 1996. This resulted from a 6.4 million-
pound reduction in point source emissions, partly
offset by a 951,000 pound increase in fugitive
emissions. Together, air emissions were reduced by
7.3%.
             Smaller decreases were reported in on-site land
             releases (from 4.7 million pounds to 4.5 million
             pounds) and in off-site releases (transfers to
             disposal, from 793,000 pounds to 757,000 pounds).

             Surface water discharges increased from 6.5
             million pounds in 1995 to nearly 9.0 million
             pounds in 1996, an increase of 39.3%.
             Underground injection, the smallest release type in
             this sector, showed an increase from 23,000 pounds
             to 31,000 pounds.

             Other On-site Waste Management

             By far the largest change in other on-site waste
             management appeared in on-site recycling, a
             reduction from 3.81 billion pounds in 1995 to 216.4
             million pounds in 1996, as presented in Table 2-12.
             This accounted for the great majority of the reduction
             in total other on-site waste management for this
             sector, which dropped from 3.94 billion pounds to
             292.5 million pounds. Both of these reductions
             amounted to more than 90% of the 1995 levels.
48

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                                            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-11.  Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20
SIC
Code
2011
2013
2015
2021
2022
2023
2024
2026
2032
2033
2034
2035
2037
2038
2041
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2051
2052
2053
2061
2062
2063
2064
2066
2068
2074
2075
2076
2077
2079
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2091
2092
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099





Total
Industry Forms
Number
Meat Packing Plants
Sausages & Other Prepared Meats
Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Creamery Butter
Cheese, Natural & Processed
Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products
Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts
Fluid Milk
Canned Specialties
Canned Fruits & Vegetables
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings
Frozen Fruits & Vegetables
Frozen Specialties, nee*
Flour & Other Grain Mill Products
Cereal Breakfast Foods
Rice Milling
Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs
Wet Corn Milling
Dog & Cat Food
Prepared Feeds, nee*
Bread, Cake, & Related Products
Cookies & Crackers
Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread
Raw Cane Sugar
Cane Sugar Refining
Beet Sugar
Candy & Other Confectionery Products
Chocolate & Cocoa Products
Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds
Cottonseed Oil Mills
Soybean Oil Mills
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*
Animal & Marine Fats & Oils
Edible Fats & Oils, nee*
Malt Beverages
Malt
Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits
Distilled & Blended Liquors
Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*
Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods
Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish
Roasted Coffee
Potato Chips & Similar Snacks
Manufactured Ice
Macaroni & Spaghetti
Food Preparations, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 20
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20
Total for SIC Code 20
78
55
194
12
242
94
55
139
28
26
21
13
96
31
68
9
4
3
93
51
824
2
21
7
17
9
39
6
7
1
27
90
15
39
51
77
2
25
24
253
54
4
10
3
27
12
9
119
427
28
3,541
Forms Repo
Source Redi
Activities
rting
iction
Percent of Op
All Forms P
Number Percent
22
13
21
3
45
22
15
24
9
2
4
5
25
12
5
1
0
0
9
3
37
1
3
1
9
0
2
0
1
0
4
12
7
0
6
14
1
5
2
11
11
1
2
0
4
3
1
18
86
7
489
28.2
23.6
10.8
25.0
18.6
23.4
27.3
17.3
32.1
7.7
19.0
38.5
26.0
38.7
7.4
11.1
0.0
0.0
9.7
5.9
4.5
50.0
14.3
14.3
52.9
0.0
5.1
0.0
14.3
0.0
14.8
13.3
46.7
0.0
11.8
18.2
50.0
20.0
8.3
4.3
20.4
25.0
20.0
0.0
14.8
25.0
11.1
15.1
20.1
25.0
13.8
Category of Source Reduction Activity
Raw Surface
Good Spill Material Process Cleaning Preparation Product
crating Inventory and Leak Modifi- Modifi- and and Modifi-
ractices Control Prevention cations cations Degreasing Finishing cations
Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number
11
,8
16
0
20
10
8
9
7
1
2
4
19
10
3
1
0
0
2
0
20
1
1
1
9
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
2
0
,4
9
0
3
0
6
5
1
2
0
1
3
1
10
46
3
264
0
0
0
0
6
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
20
7
4
7
0
9
1
3
9
1
1
0
0
13
5
0
0
0
0
1
3
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
2
7
1
1
0
3
2
1
0
0
3
1
0
4
30
0
137
1
1
0
0
0
3
1
5
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
28
11
5
4
0
11
8
4
4
0
1
4
2
5
3
3
0
0
0
6
0
3
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
3
7
5
0
3
6
0
2
0
3
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
17
5
146
0
1
0
3
8
7
1
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
13
0
40
0
0
2
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
11
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
Note: Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                               49

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             Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-12. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-Site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1995-1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
2,050
3,664
2,745
919
Pounds

74,491,223
20,859,651
53,631,572
6,446,608
23,010
4,712,880
85,673,721

792,799
86,466,520

3,809,604,478
149,252
135,009,546
3,944,763,276

1,375,035
191,257
1,006,508
23,342,285
2,448
25,917,533

1996
Number
1,993
3,541
2,545
996
Pounds

69,065,606
21,810,437
47,255,169
8,983,229
30,558
4,466,609
82,546,002

757,393
83,303,395

216,405,632
411,710
75,715,014
292,532,356

1,816,235
267,672
1,286,750
20,311,887
750
23,683,294
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
-2.8
-3.4
-7.3
8.4
Percent

-7.3
4.6
-11.9
39.3
32.8
-5.2
-3.7

-4.5
-3.7

-94.3
175.8
-43.9
-92.6

32.1
40.0
27.8
-13.0
-69.4
-8.6
Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
Management from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of
Ftorm R. Breakdown of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code.
 50

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                                       Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
      50
      40-
      30-
      20-
      10
       0 -
      -10
                    Air
                                  Surface
                                   Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
 Transfers
  Off-site
to Disposal
            Figure 2-11. Percentage Change in On-Site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                            Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995.
Seven facilities in SIC code 20 reported from 50
million to 1 billion pounds each in on-site recycling
of n-hexane in 1995, but none in 1996. Each year,
as noted in Chapter 1, TRI facilities report
production-related waste quantities for the prior
year as well as the current year (along with
projections for the next two years). On their 1996
TRI Form Rs, these facilities also reported zero
amounts for the prior year (1995), although they
did not submit revisions of their actual 1995 data.
These changes generally indicate that facilities have
revised their interpretation of on-site recycling.
There are no TRI regulatory definitions of
recycling. Facilities may use their own
interpretations for purposes of reporting to TRI.
Changes in these interpretations do not represent a
change in guidance by EPA on how to report
recycling.
   The seven facilities also projected no recycling of
   n-hexane in future years, and projections for this
   sector discussed earlier in this chapter (in
   "Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste")
   are not influenced by their reporting.

   Data for 1996 in this comparison include the
   soybean oil mill that reported 137.0 million pounds
   of on-site recycling of n-hexane, discussed in the
   section on "1996 TRI Data for Food and Beverage
  ' Processing" above. This facility did not report in
   1995. Comparison data for on-site recycling for
   1995 to 1996 in Table 2-12 thus include a 137.0
   million-pound increase for this facility. However,
   the large reduction by the seven facilities who no
   longer report n-hexane recycling overshadows this
   increase, when data are presented for the sector as
   in Table 2-12.
                                                                                                   51

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         Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
On-site treatment also showed a sizable decrease
for this period, although largely masked by the
numbers for on-site recycling. In 1995, on-site
treatment was 135.0 million pounds, and in 1996, it
was 75.7 million pounds, a 43.9% reduction.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

Table 2-12 also presents 1995-1996 data for
transfers off-site for further waste management in
the food and beverage processing sector. The total
decreased from 25.9 million pounds to 23.7 million
pounds (8.6% reduction), driven by a 13.0%
reduction in transfers to POTWs, the transfer type
with the largest amounts in this sector. Food and
beverage processors reported sending 23.3 million
pounds to POTWs in 1995 and 20.3 million pounds
in 1996.

Other types of transfers increased, but the amounts
involved were smaller, as shown in Table 2-12.

Changes in SIC Codes

As indicated in facility descriptions below, some
facilities report different SIC codes over time. This
may reflect new or discontinued lines  of
production, or it may represent a different
understanding of how SIC code designations relate
to a facility's business activities. These changes can
contribute—sometimes largely—to apparent
increases or decreases across comparison years in
the amounts reported by the four-digit, or even
two-digit, SIC codes.

1988-1996 TRI  Data for Food and
Beverage Processing

As explained in Chapter 1, comparisons from the
1988 TRI baseline year to the current year rely on
the list of "core" TRI chemicals that were
reportable, with the same reporting definition, in all
years. These multi-year comparisons also review
only the data elements that were collected in all
years, which excludes from this section any analysis
that distinguishes RCRA subtitle C landfills from
other land releases as well as analysis based on the
types of underground injection wells. On-site waste
management data and transfers off-site to recycling
and to energy recovery have been collected only
since 1991; these data are included, but cannot be
compared across the full 1988-1996 period.

From 1988 to 1996, food and beverage industries'
reporting of total releases decreased from 8.4
million pounds to 5.1 million pounds, a 38.9%
reduction. All types of releases decreased. The
largest component of the 3.3 million-pound overall
reduction was surface water discharges, which
decreased 1.3 million pounds (from 1.4 million
pounds to 107,000 pounds) during this period. Air
emissions decreased by 904,000 pounds (from 4.7
million pounds to 3.8 million pounds), primarily in
fugitive emissions, although both types of air
emissions rose in the last year. Off-site releases
went from 1.1 million pounds in 1988 to 298,000
pounds in 1996, a 787,000 pound decrease.

These data appear in Table 2-13, and percentage
changes are illustrated in Figure 2-12.

On-site waste management and transfers off-site for
recycling or energy recovery were not collected in
1988. For the 1994-1996 period, a reduction in
on-site recycling from 12.0 million pounds to 10.0
million pounds was partly offset by an increase in
on-site treatment from 41.2 million pounds to 42.6
million pounds. Relatively little was reported in
energy recovery. The net change in other on-site
waste management for 1988-1996 was a reduction
of 497,000 pounds, from 53.4 million pounds to
52.9 million pounds.

Among categories reported in all years, transfers
off-site to POTWs decreased from 14.0 million
pounds to 10.4 million pounds, a 25.8% reduction.
Transfers to treatment increased from 238,000
pounds to 431,000 pounds; although the absolute
amounts were relatively small, this represented an
81.5% increase.
52

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                                                  Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processin
Table 2-13. Comparison of TRI On-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for Further
Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Land Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1988
Number
1,185 '
1,777
1,777 .
NA
Pounds

4,749,078
2,505,922
2,243,156
1,395,632
12,800 ;
1,134,750
7,292,260

1,085,457
8,377,717

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA .
NA •
237,511
14,027,014
122,933
NA

1994
Number
1,532
2,451
2,451
NA
Pounds

4,062,676
1,838,885
2,223,791
51,424
260
1,314,805
5,429,165

584,395
6,013,560

12,020,355
205,930
41,208,559
53,434,844

1,174,803
144,835
679,937
12,495,923
5,004
14,500,502

1995
Number
1,550
2,469
1,655
814
Pounds

3,521,930
1,587,224
1,934,706
120,025
10
1,163,061
4,805,026

315,331
5,120,357

9,176,780
149,252
44,285,763
53,611,795

878,895
174,671
441,457
11,745,510
250
13,240,783

1996
Number
1,522
2,473
1,560
913
Pounds

3,844,770
1,779,364
2,065,406
107,203
260
869,825
4,822,058

298,445
5,120,503

9,971,687
359,642
42,606,959
52,938,288

1,500,904
212,474
431,005
10,401,096
750
12,546,229
Change
1988 to 1996
Percent
28.4
39.2
-12.2
NA
Percent

-19.0
-29.0
-7.9
-92.3
-98.0
-23.3
-33.9

-72.5
-38.9

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
81.5
-25.8
-99.4
NA
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990, 1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste Management
from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown
of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996. For 1994-1996, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code.  For 1988, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code or codes not required to be reported in
1988. NA: not required to be reported in that year.
                                                                                                                             53

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          Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
     -80
    -100-
    -120
                  Air
Surface
 Water
 r
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
 Transfers
   Off-site
to Disposal
            Figure 2-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases,! 988-1996:
                            Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: Docs not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection
and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996.
 From 1988 to 1996, the number of forms submitted
 in food and beverage processing rose 39.2%, in
 contrast to a 4.2% decline for all industry sectors
 over the same period.

 1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in
 Food and Beverage Processing

 Tables 2-14 through 2-16 summarize data for 1988
 and 1994-1996 for industries at the four-digit SIC
 code level within SIC code 20. The tables present,
 respectively, on- and off-site releases, other on-site
 waste management, and transfers off-site for further
 waste management.
                    On- and Off-site Releases

                    The industry with the largest increase in releases
                    from 1988 to 1996 was miscellaneous flavoring
                    extracts and syrups (SIC code 2087), whose total
                    on- and off-site releases rose from 62,000 pounds
                    to 556,000 pounds. This came from increases in
                    reported air emissions, on-site land releases and
                    off-site releases (transfers to disposal). Two other
                    industry groups had increases of more than 200,000
                    pounds: the multiple SIC codes category (from 1.5
                    million pounds to 1.8 million pounds) and poultry
                    slaughtering and processing (SIC code 2015, from
                    44,000 pounds to 251,000 pounds). Both
                    represented a number of changes partly off-setting
                    one another, including increases in air emissions
 54

-------
                                      Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 and decreases in surface water discharges in both
 cases.

 The industry with the largest decrease was
 miscellaneous food preparations (SIC code 2099).
 This industry reported 1.1 million pounds in total
 releases in 1988 and 382,000 pounds in 1996; this
 reduction was attributable primarily to air
 emissions and secondarily to off-site releases
 (transfers to disposal). The next largest reduction
 was in frozen fruits and vegetables (SIC code
 2037), from 548,000 pounds in 1988 to 159,000
 pounds in 1996. On-site land releases and air
 emissions, as well as off-site releases (transfers to
 disposal), decreased in this industry. Third for
 reductions was beet sugar (SIC code 2063), which
 reported 385,000 pounds in  1988 and none in 1996.

 Table 2-14 provides release  data for all four-digit
 SIC codes in the food and beverage processing
 sector, for 1988-1996.

 Other On-site Waste Management

 The multiple-codes group accounted for the largest
 reduction in other on-site waste management for
 1994-1996 (on-site waste management data were
 not collected in 1988). TRI forms in this group
 reported 17.9 million pounds of such waste
 management in 1994 and 14.1 million pounds in
 1996, a 3.7 million-pound reduction. About
 two-thirds of this reported decrease in on-site waste
 management occurred in recycling and the rest in
 treatment, with a small increase in energy recovery.

 Three industries had decreases of more than 1
 million pounds each. These were miscellaneous
 food preparations (SIC code  2099), with a
reduction of 1.2 million pounds; miscellaneous
edible fats and oils (SIC code 2079), 1.2
million-pound reduction; and potato chips and
similar snacks (SIC code 2096), 1.1 million-pound
reduction. For the miscellaneous food products and
miscellaneous fats and oils, these decreases were
attributable to treatment. For chip and snack
 products, the largest reduction occurred in
 recycling.

 The largest increase was reported in production of
 natural and processed cheese (SIC code 2022),
 which increased from 8.0 million pounds in 1994 to
 10.1 million pounds in 1996. On-site treatment
 accounted for this increase, partly offset by a
 smaller decrease in on-site recycling.

 The miscellaneous flavoring extracts and syrups
 (SIC code 2087) reported an increase of 1.8 million
 pounds, and the dry, condensed, evaporated
 products (SIC code 2023, a dairy products industry)
 reported an increase of 1.3 million pounds. Both
 arose from increases in on-site recycling and
 treatment; the larger portion of the increase for
 flavorings was in recycling and the larger portion of
 the increase for dry dairy products was in
 treatment. No other industry reported an increase of
 more than 1 million pounds.

 On-site waste management data for 1994-1996
 appear in Table 2-15.

 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 As shown in Table 2-16, the miscellaneous food
 preparations industry (SIC code 2099) reported a
 decrease in transfers off-site for further waste
 management from 1.8 million pounds in 1994 to
 344,000 pounds in 1996 (data for some types of
 off-site transfers were not collected in 1988). This
 was the largest reduction, 1.5 million pounds,
 posted in the food and beverage processing sector,
 and it represented a decrease of 978,000 pounds in
 transfers to POTWs with smaller reductions in
 other transfer types.

Production of natural and processed cheese (SIC
code 2022) was second with a 1.2 million-pound
reduction, entirely in transfers to POTWs.
                                                                                               55

-------
r
                      Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
          Table 2-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
          SIC Code 20
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2011


2013


2015


2021



2022


2023


2024



2026



2032


2033



Industry
Meat Packing Plants


Sausages & Other Prepared Meats


Poultry Slaughtering & Processing


Creamery Butter



Cheese, Natural & Processed


Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products


Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts



Fluid Milk



Canned Specialties


Canned Fruits & Vegetables



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
29,545
11,428
30,609
40,660
16,383
25,688
48,650
79,130
73,919
52,818
48,736
750
500
0
0
250
2,024
431
434
3,548
127,160
128,971
123,196
164,231
0
0
23,000
5,900
2,045
2,030
4,092
22,530
134,372
129,685
148,779
238,652
2,215
1,260
2,015
2,750
Surface
Water Underground
Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds
27,823
78,404
1,005
38,348
5
5
5
250
2,167
1,750
1,250
40,762
0
0
0
0
10
55
54
106,619
5
5
10
16,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
20,795
198,671
250
750
750
8,350
0
0
250
7,050
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,300
Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
750
0
13,004
0
0
174,453
238,868
191,262
2,700
0
0
0
0
24,342
132,854
359,409
20,870
5,900
500
10
92,677
0
0
0
0
500
0
20,795
109,464
3,339
3,339
1,965
21,306
0
0
0
74,481
Off-site
Releases

Total Transfers Total On-
On-site Off-site to and Off-site
Releases Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds
57,368
89,832
31,614
79,758
16,388
38,697
48,655
79,380
250,539
293,436
241,248
44,212
500
0
0
250
26,376
133,345
359,897
131,287
133,065
129,476
123,216
272,908
0
0
23,000
5,900
2,545
2,030
45,682
330,665
137,961
133,774
151,494
268,308
2,215
1,260
2,265
96,581
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
83,307
44,319
121,804
0
18,000
16,540
16,304
98,377
0
0
0
0
6,200
24,985
17,540
0
0
0
250
2,252
0
0
0
51,807
57,368
89,832
31,614
79,758
16,388
38,697
48,655
79,380
250,539
293,436
241,248
44,212
500
0
0
250
109,683
177,664
481,701
131,287
151,065
146,016
139,520
371,285
0
0
23,000
5,900
8,745
27,015
63,222
330,665
137,961
133,774
151,744
270,560
2,215
1,260
2,265
148,388
          Note: On-sUe Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
          4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
          "nee: not elsewhere classified.
            56

-------
                                               Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 Table 2-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
 SIC Code 20, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2034



2035



2037



2038



2041



2043



2044



2045



2046



2047



Industry
Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups



Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings



Frozen Fruits & Vegetables



Frozen Specialties, nee*



Flour & Other Grain Mill Products



Cereal Breakfast Foods



Rice Milling



Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs



Wet Corn Milling



Dog & Cat Food



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
19,863
768
36,263
59,712
258
8
12
250
75,281
81,430
122,289
163,395
49,572
51,700
83,882
88,889
167,979
170,370
186,934
42,889
34,460
21,200
30,700
31,000
93,400
90,000
20,205
17,640
5
5
5
10,750
382,334
469,758
318,773
301,424
3,985
35,786
54,201
37,761
Surface
Water Underground
Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
1,400
: o
0
0
1,917
0
0
0
6,027
0
0
324
66,500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
105
365
1,020
58,300
1,072
250
250
2,926
0
0
0
0
250
0
250
250
10
5
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
83,370
59,432
74,618
255,699
0
0
0
0
0
0
0'
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
5
0
1,250
1,200
0
0
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
19,868
768
36,268
61,112
513
8
267
2,417
158,661
140,867
196,917
425,121
49,572
51,700
84,206
155,389
167,979
170,370
186,934
42,889
34,460
21,200
30,700
31,000
93,400
90,000
20,205
17,640
5
5
5
10,750
382,444
470,128
319,793
360,974
6,257
36,036
54,451
40,687
Off-site
Releases
Transfers Total On-
Off-siteto and Off-site
Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds




0
0
0
0
242






0
0
0
0
0
0
122,687










0
2,700
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
254
278
761
275
1,750
250
1,810
68,742
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0


















19,868
768
36,268
61,112
755
8
267
2,417
158,661
140,867
196,917
547,808
49,572
51,700
84,206
155,389
167,979
170,370
186,939
42,889
34,460
21,200
30,700
33,700
93,400
90,000
20,205
17,640
5
5
5
10,750
382,698
470,406
320,554
361,249
8,007
36,286
56,261
109,429
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                       57

-------
r
                      Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
         Table 2-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
         SIC Code 20, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2043


2051


2052


2053


2061


2062


2063



2064


2066


2067



Industry
Prepared Feeds, nee*


Bread, Cake, & Related Products


Cookies & Crackers


Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread


Raw Cane Sugar


Cnnc Sugar Refining


Beet Sugar



Candy & Other Confectionery Products


Chocolate Se. Cocoa Products


Chewing Gum



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
66,560
54,883
106,992 1
410
35
149
50,481 1,265
0
1,015
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
58,839
23,500
30,000
18,848
19,840
No reports received
303
5,047
12,863
3,052
176
7,755
7
750
No reports received
0
5
384,508
0
0
0
0
273
12,949
53,000
206,991
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
750

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
15,231
3,146
2,425
169,381
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

203,826
331,978
217,769
107,050
0
0
0
750

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0
Off-site
Releases

Total Transfers Total On-
On-site Off-site to and Off-site
Releases Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds
82,201
58,064
110,566
221,127
0
1,015
0
0

58,839
23,500
30,000
18,848
19,840

204,129
337,025
230,632
110,102
176
7,755
7
2,250

0
5
384,508
0
0
0
0
273
12,949
53,000
206,991



0
44,212
36,127
90,793
41,814
0
0
0
0

0
15,840
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0
126,413
94,191
201,359
262,941
0
1,015
0
0

58,839
39,340
30,000
18,848
19,840

204,129
337,025
230,632
110,102
176
7,755
7
2,250


5
384,508
0
0
0
0
273
12,949
53,000
206,991



0
          Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
          4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
          *ncc: not elsewhere classified.
           58

-------
                                               Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
SIC Code 20, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2068



2074



2075



2076



2077



2079



2082



2083



2084



2085



2086



Industry
Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds



Cottonseed Oil Mills



Soybean Oil Mills



Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*



Animal & Marine Fats & Oils



Edible Fats & Oils, nee*



Malt Beverages



Malt



Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits



Distilled & Blended Liquors



Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
Releases
to Land
Pounds
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
Off-site
Releases
Transfers Total On-
Off-siteto and Off-site
Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds
No reports received
14,700
10,110
0
0
0
0
0
0
14,700
10,110
0
0
14,700
10,110
No reports received
0
0
0
0
524
774
1,432
750
257
0
2,589
0
280
755
1,134
4,505
500
750
500
138,119
30,101
30,420
29,024
24,469
9,800
13,000
10,000
27,650
0
0
0
9,750
37,818
1,500
4,026
2,412
255
255
1,583
5,484
0
: o
0
0
306
1,611
2,273
6,686
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
754
0
0
0
30,250
417
58
64
6,317
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
634
250
299
275
250
500
500
i 5,910
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
567
10,931
15,343
22,202
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13,050
6,005
7,800
94,075
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
35,292
26,469
36,849
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,397
12,716
19,048
29,638
257
0
2,589
0
280
755
1,134
5,259
13,550
6,755
8,300
262,444
30,518
30,478
29,088
30,786
9,800
13,000
10,000
27,650
35,292
26,469
36,849
9,750
38,452
1,750
4,325
2,687
505
755
2,083
11,394
0
0
0
0
31
4,348
4,776
13,917
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29,599
110,450
132,251
121,754
1,086
1,967
0
380
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
327
1,179
0
0
0
0
1,428
17,064
23,824
43,555
257
0
2,589
0
280
755
1,134
5,259
43,149
117,205
140,551
384,198
31,604
32,445
29,088
31,166
9,800
13,000
10,000
27,650
35,292
26,469
36,849
9,750
38,452
1,750
4,325
2,687
505
760
2,410
12,573
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                      59

-------
            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing,
SIC Code 20, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2087



2091



2092



2095



2096



2097



2098



2099















Industry
Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*



Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods



Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish



Roasted Coffee



Potato Chips & Similar Snacks



Manufactured Ice



Macaroni & Spaghetti



Food Preparations, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 20



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20



Total for SIC Code 20



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
448,833
483,256
33,906
61,674
Surface
Water Underground
Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
25,067
153,439
0
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
473,900
636,695
33,906
61,674
Off-site
Releases
Transfers Total On-
Off-siteto and Off-site
Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds
82,515
1,003
0
500
556,415
637,698
33,906
62,174
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
0
0
0
10
0
5
0
0
55,470
24,757
35,700
207,855
190,005
0
0
0
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
94,697
0
0
189,200
1,100
0
0
0
15
5
5
0
0
150,167
24,757
35,700
397,055
191,105
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
72,000
4,835
0
0
1,100
0
0
0
15
5
5
0
0
222,167
29,592
35,700
397,055
192,205
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
0
169,049
105,747
139,260
84,896
308,921
506,225
839,778
998,460
1,468,115
949,860
1,242,943
717,641
32,943
5,155
4,205
446,400
3,844,770
3,521,930
4,062,676
4,749,078
0
0
0
0
0
46
755
10
2,700
63,453
705
3,461
619,811
10,250
35,127
17,950
167,789
107,203
120,025
51,424
1,395,632
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
260
10
260
12,800
0
0
0
0
0
72,143
0
0
0
211,030
182,591
196,850
50,898
500
500
500
15,400
869,825
1,163,061
1,314,805
1,134,750
0
169,049
105,747
139,260
84,896
381,110
506,980
839,788
1,001,160
1,742,598
1,133,156
1,443,254
1,388,350
43,693
40,782
22,655
629,589
4,822,058
4,805,026
5,429,165
7,292,260
0
0
0
0
0
1,300
48,589
126,820
117,674
25,114
26,470
70,954
159,586
0
0
0
192,873
298,445
315,331
584,395
1,085,457
0
169,049
105,747
139,260
84,896
382,410
555,569
966,608
1,118,834
1,767,712
1,159,626
1,514,208
1,547,936
43,693
40,782
22,655
822,462
5,120,503
5,120,357
6,013,560
8,377,717
Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
"ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 60

-------
                                            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage
Processing, SIC Code 20
SIC
Code
2011


2013


2015


2021


2022



2023


2024



2026



2032


2033


2034


Industry
Meat Packing Plants


Sausages & Other Prepared Meats


Poultry Slaughtering & Processing


Creamery Butter


Cheese, Natural & Processed



Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products


Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts



Fluid Milk



Canned Specialties


Canned Fruits & Vegetables


Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups


Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
300
290
290
NA
729,675
906,409
1,115,368
NA
636,415
237,000
196,370
NA
0
0
0
NA
6,400
40,797
38,606
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
: 0
0
NA
0
i 0
0
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
b
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
6,351
35,285
27,580
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
891,546
951,666
743,265
NA
493,267
621,252
584,300
NA
1,350,173
1,868,657
1,957,240
NA
1,079,540
70,872
242,227
NA
9,338,450
8,824,435
6,926,288
NA
3,386,556
2,500,210
2,510,643
NA
292,369
483,059
321,804
NA
1,358,828
1,456,327
1,573,910
NA
1,132,598
1,008,113
1,036,278
NA
83,631
77,144
65,316
NA
361,210
244,172
89,569
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
891,546
951,666
743,265
NA
493,267
621,252
584,300
NA
1,350,173
1,868,657
1,957,240
NA
1,079,840
71,162
242,517
NA
10,068,125
9,730,844
8,041,656
NA
4,022,971
2,737,210
2,707,013
NA
292,369
483,059
321,804
NA
1,365,228
1,497,124
1,612,516
NA
1,138,949
1,043,398
1,063,858
NA
83,631
77,144
65,316
NA
361,210
244,172
89,569
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                 61

-------
            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
 Table 2-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage
 Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2035



2037



2038



2041



2043



2044



2045



2046



2047



2043



2051



Industry
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings



Frozen Fruits & Vegetables



Frozen Specialties, nee*



Flour & Other Chain Mill Products



Cereal Breakfast Foods



Rice Milling



Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs



Wet Com Milling



Dog &Cat Food



Prepared Feeds, nee*



Bread, Cake, & Related Products



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
200
0
0
NA
0
7,300
9,000
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
35,688
89,642
799
NA
6,139
6,024
0
NA
116,908
100,142
121,463
NA
0
0
0
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
45,691
36,185
8,633
NA
0
0
0
NA
38,000
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
65,366
6,864
36,563
NA
1,236,210
1,077,299
611,788
NA
104,308
114,006
156,912
NA
225
11,775
1
NA
11,100
21,625
26,680
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
3,309,070
3,022,781
2,763,288
NA
68,778
5,165
27,049
NA
781,762
559,680
691,910
NA
0
0
0
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
65,566
6,864
36,563
NA
1,236,210
1,084,599
620,788
NA
104,308
114,006
156,912
NA
225
11,775
1
NA
11,100
21,625
26,680
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
3,390,449
3,148,608
2,772,720
NA
74,917
11,189
27,049
NA
936,670
659,822
813,373
NA
0
0
0
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
•nee: not elsewhere classified.
 62

-------
                                            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage
Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2052



2053



2061



2062



2063



2064



2066



2067



2068



2074



2075



Industry
Cookies & Crackers



Frozen Bakery Products, Except Bread



Raw Cane Sugar



Cane Sugar Refining



Beet Sugar



Candy & Other Confectionery Products



Chocolate & Cocoa Products



Chewing Gum



Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds



Cottonseed Oil Mills



Soybean Oil Mills



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Energy
Recycled Recovery
On-site On-site
Pounds Pounds
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
0
0
0
No reports received
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
0
0
NA -
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
No reports received
0
0
No reports received
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA


0
NA
0
0
0

0
789
717
NA
0
0
0
NA

0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA

0
0

0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds


0
NA
0
0
0

0
0
0
NA
831,845
691,739
829,401
NA

0
9,650
NA
0
0
0
NA
31,000
597
2,450
NA



NA

0
0

0
0
0
NA
1,378,396
1,616,602
1,715,007
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds


0
NA
0
0
0

0
789
717
NA
831,845
691,739
829,401
NA

0
9,650
NA
0
0
0
NA
31,000
597
2,450
NA



NA

0
0

0
0
0
NA
1,378,396
1,616,602
1,715,007
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                63

-------
            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage
Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2076



2077



2079



2082



2083



2084



2085



2086



2087



2091



2092



Industry
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*



Animal & Marine Fats & Oils



Edible Fats & Oils, nee*



Malt Beverages



Malt



Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits



Distilled & Blended Liquors



Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks



Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*



Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods



Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
3,482
4,584
3,670
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
5,964
6,414
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
10,700
10,623
10,730
NA
4,306,182
6,826,177
3,178,772
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
9,600
9,600
22,000
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
8,698
16,019
18,150
NA
230,252
180,360
202,181
NA
116,546
782,716
1,294,641
NA
1,776,542
1,645,801
1,794,311
NA
49,162
74,100
51,800
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
45
45
NA
178,000
70,138
63,049
NA
827,940
892,553
182,543
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
12,180
20,603
21,820
NA
230,252
180,360
202,181
NA
116,546
788,680
1,301,055
NA
1,776,542
1,645,801
1,794,311
NA
49,162
74,100
51,800
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
45
45
NA
198,300
90,361
95,779
NA
5,134,122
7,718,730
3,361,315
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
Note: Dala from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 64

-------
                                            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processin.
Table 2-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Food and Beverage
Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2095



2096



2097



2098



2099















Industry
Roasted Coffee



Potato Chips & Similar Snacks



Manufactured Ice



Macaroni & Spaghetti



Food Preparations, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 20



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20



Total for SIC Code 20



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
970,000
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
363,844
330,815
126,150
NA
3,524,154
486,113
6,115,123
NA
231,600
124,900
127,600
, 0
9,971,687
9,176,780
12,020,355
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
260,000
67,393
147,000
NA
0
0
0
0
359,642
149,252
205,930
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
6,344
0
0
NA
180,501
142,229
297,839
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
1,030,452
2,712,935
2,475,002
NA
10,317,145
12,019,666
11,588,245
NA
299,149
515,161
319,214
0
42,606,959
44,285,763
41,208,559
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
6,344
0
0
NA
180,501
142,229
1,267,839
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
1,394,296
3,043,750
2,601,152
NA
14,101,299
12,573,172
17,850,368
NA
530,749
640,061
446,814
0
52,938,288
53,611,795
53,434,844
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                65

-------
             Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20
SIC
Code
2011



2013



2015



2021



2022



2023



2024



2026



2032



2033



2034



Industry
Meat Packing Plants



Sausages & Other Prepared Meats



Poultry Slaughtering & Processing



Creamery Butter



Cheese, Natural & Processed



Dry, Condensed, Evaporated Products



Ice Cream & Frozen Desserts



Fluid Milk



Canned Specialties



Canned Fruits & Vegetables



Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, Soups



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
14,423
12,814
0
NA
250
250
750
NA
0
0
0.
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
, NA
31,064
38,937
30,300
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
14,414
0
NA
5
0 '
0
NA
Transfers
to Energy Transfers to
Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds
5,204
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
45,000
39,294
33,646
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
500
500
500
47,698
0
0
5,354
34,800
0
23,913
31,137
0
0
33,800
23,000
75,500
9,330
10,275
7,340
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
6,927
11,044
111,154
286,303
14,900
2,678
3,760
11,200
105,394
110,782
247,925
93,174
34,554
52,273
55,947
163,756
270,964
909,716
1,423,981
2,625,251
548,199
52,284
220,053
707,123
161,446
218,852
193,345
422,640
1,145,080
1,256,288
1,286,735
2,666,224
63,814
57,351
40,319
53,554
250
0
15,090
95,747
255
5
5
50,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,131
11,044
111,154
NA
29,323
15,492
3,760
NA
105,644
111,032
248,675
NA
34,554
52,273
55,947
NA
271,464
910,216
1,424,481
NA
593,199
91,578
259,053
NA
161,446
242,765
224,482
NA
1,176,894
1,329,025
1,340,035
NA
73,144
67,626
47,659
NA
500
14,414
15,090
NA
260
5
5
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc; not elsewhere classified.
 66

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                                                Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2035



2037



2038



2041



2043



2044



2045



2046



2047



2048



2051



Industry
Pickles, Sauces, & Salad Dressings



Frozen Fruits & Vegetables



Frozen Specialties, nee*



Flour & Other Grain Mill Products



Cereal Breakfast Foods



Rice Milling



Prepared Flour Mixes & Doughs



Wet Corn Milling



Dog & Cat Food



Prepared Feeds, nee*



Bread, Cake, & Related Products



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
1,352
2,315
NA
0 '
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
58,041
77,668
164,464
NA
540,000
0
263,000
NA
0
25,556
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
1,410
1,034
2,900
10,990
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,463
1,064
250
0
0
0
0
0
3,627
2,375
4,271
0
0
0
0
0
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
13,332
16,440
11,000
92,840
37,988
12,283
14,551
14,162
28,603
19,727
18,485
19,998
25,468
11,784
18,998
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6,013,371
6,587,295
6,186,122
2,966,112
1,250
1,250
1,750
2,608
7,872
11,544
28,611
89,292
0
950
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,500
0
0
0
0
13,332
16,440
11,000
NA
39,398
13,317
17,451
NA
28,603
21,079
20,800
NA
25,468
11,784
18,998
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
6,072,875
6,666,027
6,350,840
NA
541,250
1,250
264,750
NA '
11,499
39,475
32,882
NA
0
950
0
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                        67

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            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2052



2053



2061



2062



2063



2064



2066



2067



2068



2074



2075



Industry Year
Cookies & Crackers



Frozen Bakery Products, Except
Bread


Raw Cane Sugar



Cane Sugar Refining



Beet Sug.ir



Candy & Other Confectionery Products



Chocolate & Cocoa Products



Chewing Gum



Salted & Roasted Nuts & Seeds



Cottonseed Oil Mills



Soybean Oil Mills



96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
0
0
0
No reports received
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
No reports received
0
0
No reports received
0
0
0
NA
172,675
109,555
132,305
NA


0
NA
0
0
0

0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA

0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA

0
0

0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA


0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
76,000
76,612
27,746
0



6,257

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,488
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds


0
0
13,814
35,590
24,100

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
30,409
31,367
21,720
18,268



0

0
0

0
0
0
0
1,005
1,255
16,255
84,512


0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
NA
13,814
35,590
24,100

0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA

0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
106,409
107,979
49,466
NA



NA

0
0

0
0
0
NA
173,680
110,810
148,560
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code.  Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
•ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 68

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                                               Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processin
Table 2-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code
2076



2077



2079



2082



2083



2084



2085



2086



2087



2091



2092



Industry
Vegetable Oil Mills, nee*



Animal & Marine Fats & Oils



Edible Fats & Oils, nee*



Malt Beverages



Malt



Wines, Brandy, & Brandy Spirits



Distilled & Blended Liquors



Bottled & Canned Soft Drinks



Flavoring Extracts & Syrups, nee*



Canned & Cured Fish & Seafoods



Fresh or Frozen Prepared Fish



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
26,132
13,280
17,239
NA
9,000
9,000
0
NA
449,006
419,044
226,853
NA
0
0
0
NA :
0
0
0
NA :
0
0
o :
NA
0
0
0
NA
2,255
14,305
0
NA
58,000
0
0
2,500
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
97,427
500 109,221
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
84,791
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10,203
80
69
386
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
425
750
0
36,142
12,873
15,033
23,305
750



0
0
0
0
0
Total Transfers
Other Off -site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
250
250
250
0
0
0
0
0
1,075
8,315
7,430
6,500
2,859
78,829
62,062
15,989
15,000
20,000
38,500
28,688
0
0
0
51,326
0
0
0
0
116,759
125,480
86,948
196,798
115,981
115,155
53,093
45,570



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
96,300
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5,000
250
0
0
0
0



0
0
0
0
0
26,382
13,530
19,989
NA
9,000
9,000
0
NA
450,081
427,359
234,283
NA
2,939
78,898
62,448
NA
15,000
20,000
38,500
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
119,439
140,535
91,948
NA
284,281
239,909
161,189
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code.  Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                        69

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           Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:
Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20, Continued
SIC
Code Industry
2095 Roasted Coffee



2096 Potato Chips & Similar Snacks



2097 Manufactured Ice



2093 Macaroni & Spaghetti



2099 Food Preparations, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 20



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 20



Total for SIC Code 20



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
30,100
46,689
190,044
NA
109,953
95,531
147,533
NA
0
0
0
NA
1,500,904
878,895
1,174,803
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
64,843
26,156
23,898
NA
0
0
0
NA
212,474
174,671
144,835
NA
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0



0
0
0
0
0
9,714
71,627
344,100
183
34,733
71,697
82,048
13,500
280,600
132,700
127,600
0
431,005
441,457
679,937
237,511
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
109
0
250
88,638
76,282
143,540
190,844
189,500



0
0
0
0
0
303,869
947,296
1,282,022
373,896
1,211,172
887,289
723,808
1,710,116
32,845
18,598
110,810
567,335
10,401,096
11,745,510
12,495,923
14,027,014
0
0
0
1,600
0
0
0
0



500
0
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
22,780
0
0
0
3
750
250
5,004
122,933
109
0
250
NA
76,282
143,548
190,844
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
343,683
1,065,862
1,816,166
NA
1,420,701
1,080,673
977,287
NA
313,445
151,298
238,410
NA
12,546,229
13,240,783
14,500,502
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 20 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 The largest increases were in dry, condensed,
 evaporated products (SIC code 2023, a dairy
 products industry), with a 334,000 pound increase;
 dog and cat food production (SIC code 2047), with
 a 277,000 pound increase; and miscellaneous edible
 fats and oils (SIC code 2079), with a 216,000
 pound increase. For the dry dairy products, the
 increase occurred primarily in reporting of transfers
to POTWs, while transfers to recycling accounted
for the change in the other two industries.

Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
in Releases. 1988-1996

Grain Processing Corporation in Muscatine, Iowa
(SIC codes  2046, 2948, 2085 and 2099), ranked
first for increases in releases with a 717,000 pound
 70

-------
                                    Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Process/ft
overall change due to a production increase. This
facility, a wet corn miller, has several product lines
including food grade and regular grade starches,
corn sweeteners, beverage alcohol, and animal
feeds. A desiccant product, used in commercial
goods such as baby diapers and batteries, requires
the use of methanol as a processing aid. The
desiccant is manufactured in a water solution, and
methanol is used to remove water from the product.
Point-source air emissions of methanol accounted
for most of the facility's increase.

Kalsec, Inc., in Kalamazoo, Michigan (SIC code
2096 in 1988 and 2087 in 1996), ranked second in
increases with an overall 167,000 pound increase.
The facility, a producer of natural flavors and
natural colors, uses methanol in extraction
processes. Most of the change was reported as
fugitive air emissions of methanol. A production
increase was cited as the reason for the change.

The third-ranked facility for increases was U.S.
Sugar in Canal Point, Florida (SIC code 2061). This
sugar cane farm uses manganese compounds as a
nutrient in its fertilizer formulations. No data were
reported for manganese compounds in 1988, and
the 1996 total was 100,000 pounds, all in the
category of releases to land. The manganese
content of the fertilizer varies from application to
application and is formulated on the basis of the
perceived need. The manganese content of the
fertilizer is low enough to miss the TRI reporting
threshold in some years. This is the reason that no
data were reported for the chemical in 1988.

Crossroads Farms Dairy in Indianapolis, Indiana
(SIC codes 2024 and 2026), was first in decreases
with a 441,000 pound increase. Surface water
discharges of phosphoric acid accounted for 87% of
the reported reduction. Phosphoric acid is used at
the dairy to clean stainless steel tanks and to lower
the pH of city water used in cottage cheese
production. No data for phdsphoric acid were
reported in 1996. The decrease in the phosphoric
acid content of wastewater is due to improved
estimation methods, according to the facility.

Hops Extract Corporation of America in Yakima,
Washington (SIC 2099 in 1988, did not report in
1996), ranked second in decreases.
Dichloromethane, with 261,000 pounds of
emissions to air, was the only chemical reported by
this facility in 1988. This chemical accounts for
100% of the decrease since no report was filed in
1996. Dichloromethane was used as an extracting
agent to remove specific organic substances from
hops prior to brewing for beer. Removal of certain
acids, oils, and waxes from hops improves the
flavor of beer. The facility converted to a carbon
dioxide extraction process.

Red Star Yeast in Baltimore, Maryland (SIC code
2099), was third for decreases with an overall
reduction of 256,000 pounds. Acetaldehyde is a
byproduct of a yeast fermentation process and the
chemical primarily responsible for the decrease.
The facility made changes in several processes that
reduced point-source air emissions of the chemical
by 92%. Some process changes were mandated by
the Clean Air Act, according to Red Star Yeast, and
some were made voluntarily.

1991-1996 Waste Management Data
for Food  and Beverage Processing

Table 2-17 summarizes on- and off-site waste
management data for the food and beverage
processing sector for 1991, when TRI began
collecting  this information, and the three most
recent years  (1994-1996). Total production-related
waste increased 11.2% from 63.1 million pounds in
1991 to 70.2 million pounds in 1996. All types of
waste management increased, except quantities
released on- and off-site.

The largest reported increase (in pounds) occurred
in on-site recycling, which more than tripled
(239.7% increase) from 2.9 million pounds in  1991
to 10.0 million pounds in 1996. In 1991, on-site
                                                                                              71

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            Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Table 2-17. TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996: Food and Beverage Processing, SIC Code 20
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
1991
Pounds
2,935,394
192,593
39,154,542
42,282,529
1,241,954
126,004
8,333,160
9,701,118
11,082,621
63,066,268
48,307
Change
1994-1995
Percent
-23.7
-27.5
7.5
0.3
-17.7
68.0
-1.0
-1.8
-15.5
-1.3
-48.1
1994
Pounds
12,020,355
205,930
41,208,559
53,434,844
1,198,175
145,449
11,421,366
12,764,990
5,918,832
72,118,666
77,532
Change
1995-1996
Percent
8.7
141.0
-3.8
-1.3
56.9
21.3
-11.9
-5.9
8.1
-1.4
59.0
1995
Pounds
9,176,780
149,252
44,285,763
53,611,795
986,249
244,351
11,310,388
12,540,988
5,003,711
71,156,494
40,229
Change
1991-1996
Percent
239.7
86.7
8.8
25.2
24.6
135.3
19.5
21.7
-51.2
11.2
32.4
1996
Pounds
9,971,687
359,642
42,606,959
52,938,288
1,547,348
296,473
9,960,419
11,804,240
5,408,629
70,151,157
63,946








Note: Docs not include delistcd chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Currcm Year, Column B) of year indicated.
 72

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                                         Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
         300
         250-
         200 -
         150-
         100 -
         50 -
          0 -
         -50-
        -100
            Recycled   Energy   Treated
             On-site  Recovery    On-site
                     On-site

             On-site Waste Management
Recycled   Energy   Treated           Quantity
 Off-site  Recovery   Off-site       Released On-
         Off-site                and Off-site

  Off-site Waste Management
    Total
Production-
   related
   Waste
         Figure 2-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
                             Food and Beverage Processing (SIC Code 20)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfiiric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
  recycling represented 4.7% of total production-
  related waste in this sector; by 1996, it was 14.2%
  of total production-related waste.

  On-site treatment, the largest waste management
  option in this sector, rose 8.8% from 39.2 million
  pounds in 1991 to 42.6 million pounds in 1996.

  Food and beverage processing industries reported a
  reduction of more than half (51.2%) in on- and off-
  site releases, from 11.1 million pounds to 5.4
  million pounds in this period. This decrease,
  combined with increases in other categories, served
  to reduce the role of releases in this sector's
  reported waste management from 17.6% of total
  production-related waste in 1991 to 7.7% in 1996.

  Figure 2-13 illustrates the percentage change in the
  waste management types reported in this sector for
  1991-1996.
            The fact that releases decreased while total
            production-related waste increased indicates
            improvement in how the food and beverage
            processing industries manage their TRI chemicals
            in waste, although it does not point to success in
            reducing such waste by preventing it. In terms of
            the  waste management hierarchy (explained in
            Chapter 1), releases are the least desirable option
            for managing toxic waste.

            The sector's reporting of total production-related
            waste decreased, while production steadily
            increased. TRI facilities report absolute amounts of
            waste managed and environmental releases, not
            amounts adjusted for changes in production levels.
            Individual facilities with large increases in
            production-related waste and in releases attribute
            those changes  to increasing production. At the same
            time, several facilities with large decreases cite
            process changes that reduced or eliminated the use
                                                                                                     73

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         Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
of chemicals they had previously reported in large
amounts. (See "Facilities with Large Increases and
Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996" and the section
below.)

Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
In Waste Management,  1991-1996

R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in Merry Hill,
North Carolina (SIC code 2087), ranked first for
increases. On-site recycling of methanol, used in
several processes at the facility, was primarily
responsible for the overall 2.44 million-pound
increase. The main use of the chemical at the Merry
Hill plant is in the extraction of sclareol, an organic
wax found in the clary sage plant. Sclareol is
extracted from the sage plant itself as well as from
a clary sage "concrete." The concrete is a byproduct
of clary sage oil  extraction and is purchased from
manufacturers outside of the United States. On-site
recycling of methanol has  grown due to several
reasons: a production increase of sclareol extracted
from the sage plant, the initiation of the process
where sclareol is extracted from the concrete, and
the addition of new products whose manufacture
involve the use of methanol.

Penford Products Company in Cedar Rapids, Iowa
(SIC code 2046), ranked second with a 2.4 million-
pound increase. The facility, a wet corn miller, is
one of the nation's largest manufacturers of
hydroxy-ethylated starches (used in paper
coatings). A byproduct of hydroxy-ethylated starch
production is ethylene glycol, which accounted for
95% of the overall increase. Wastewater containing
the ethylene glycol is sent  to a publicly owned
treatment works  (POTW). Penford stated that most
of the ethylene glycol is destroyed as it is pumped
to the POTW due to the anaerobic environment in
the trunk line. The facility attributes the increase in
waste managed to increasing production.

Grain Processing Corporation in Muscatine, Iowa
(SIC codes 2046, 2948,2085 and 2099), was third
for increases with a 2.3 million-pound change. The
facility was also ranked as the number-one
increaser in releases due to increases in methanol
reporting. The facility attributes an increase in on-
site recycling of methanol to a production increase
as well as improved efficiency in recovering and
reusing the chemical. (See "Facilities with Large
Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996"
for more information.)

First in decreases was U.S. Sugar in Clewiston,
Florida (SIC code 2061), with a 2.9 million-pound
reduction. Phosphoric acid, responsible for all of
the facility's decrease, was used as a clarification
agent in raw sugar production. Wastewater from the
process was treated on-site. The facility stopped
using the chemical in this process prior to the 1996
reporting year.

Red Star Yeast in Baltimore, Maryland (SIC code
2099), was second in decreases. The facility, also
ranked as a top decreaser in releases, reported a 2.8
million-pound reduction in waste managed.
Phosphoric acid accounted for nearly all of the
decrease and is used to supply phosphorus to yeast
as a nutrient. The facility attributes the change to an
improved method of estimating phosphoric acid
content of wastewater treated on-site.

The number three facility for decreases was IBP,
Inc., in Waterloo, Iowa (SIC codes 2011,2013  and
2077), with a 1.9 million pound overall decrease.
The meat packing and processing facility has two
primary uses of phosphoric acid: for production area
and equipment cleaning and as an aid in separating
water from rendered lard and grease. A decrease in
reported on-site treatment of phosphoric acid
accounted for all of the decrease. This was due to the
installation of equipment that mechanically separates
water from rendered lard and grease, reducing the
need for the chemical separation process.
74

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                                     Chapter 2 — TRI Data for Food and Beverage Processing
Facilities Contacted for Explanations
(alphabetical by facility):

   Crossroad Farms Dairy, Indianapolis, Indiana:
   John Wurgler, July 28, 1998 (explanation
   provided)
   Grain Processing Corporation, Muscatine,
   Iowa: Daniel A. Huss, July 23, 1998
   (explanation provided)
   Hops Extract Corporation of America, Yakinia,
   Washington: Tai Y. Yum, July 23, 1998
   (explanation provided)
   IBP, Inc., Waterloo, Iowa: Dove Mullins, July
   23 and August 3, 1998 and Kim Dirks, August
   4, 1998 (explanation provided)
   Kalsec, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan: Stephen
   Kuhnert, July 23 and 28, 1998 (explanation
   provided)
Penford Products Company, Cedar Rapids,
Iowa: Otto J. Rajtora, July 23, 1998
(explanation provided)
R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Merry Hill,
North Carolina: Richard S. Krell, July 23 and
July 31, 1998 (explanation provided)
Red Star Yeast, Baltimore, Maryland: Alan
Bahl, July 23, 1998 (explanation provided)
U.S. Sugar Corporation, Canal Point, Florida:
Jose M. Porro, July 23, 1998 (explanation
provided)
U.S. Sugar Corporation/Western Division,
Clewiston, Florida: Peter Briggs, July 28 and
July 29, 1998 (explanation provided)
                                                                                              75

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         Chapter 2 — TRl Data for Food and Beverage Processing
76

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                                  Chapter 3
              Toxics Release Inventory Data
                      for Tobacco Products
                              (SIC Code 21)
A Look at the Tobacco

Products Industry

(SIC  Code 21)

The tobacco products industry manufactures
cigarettes (from tobacco or other materials), cigars,
smoking and chewing tobacco, snuff, and
reconstituted tobacco. (Byproducts of tobacco
processing are used to manufacture insecticides;
this is classified in chemical manufacturing, SIC
code 28.) Box 3-1 lists Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes and their designations
for this sector. In TRI, SIC codes are given as
reported by the facilities; these may differ from
information in economic and other data collections.

Industry shipments of tobacco products were
valued at $34.48 billion in 1996 and $32.98 billion
in 1995 (in current dollars). This was just under 1%
of the nation's total value of manufacturing
shipments; among manufacturing sectors, only the
leather products sector (SIC code 31) had smaller
shipments in total dollars. Employment in the
tobacco products sector was 31,000 in both years,
less than any other manufacturing sector.
Production in the tobacco products sector declined
sharply through the early 1990s, but recovered by
1996 (see Chapter 1, Table 1-10). Although this
sector represents a small segment of U.S. industry,
it is concentrated in few states, where its economic
(and environmental) activity may assume greater
importance.

The largest shipments and employment in the
sector related to cigarette production (SIC code
2111), which had $28.99 billion in shipments and
nearly 21,000 employees in 1996. The stemming
and redrying industry (SIC code 2141) contributed
$3.23 billion in shipments and employed nearly
6,000.

In addition to physical processes (stripping,
stemming, shredding), much of the processing of
tobacco involves moistening and drying the leaves.
Tobacco is cured in natural, artificial, or wood-fire
heat, and cured leaves are moistened and stripped
before sale. Manufacturers redry the tobacco and
add uniform moisture before fermentation. The
tobacco is then aged in hogshead barrels for up to
three years. Aged tobacco is again moistened,
stalks and other wastes are removed, and various
tobaccos are blended. Reconstituted tobacco
                                                                                  77

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          Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
 Box 3-1. SIC Code 21, Tobacco Products: Codes and Classifications
  SIC Code
                                                Industry Description
  211   Cigarettes

       2111  Cigarettes

  212   Cigars

       2121  Cigars

  213   Chewing and Smoking Tobacco and Snuff

       2131  Chewing and Smoking Tobacco and Snuff
  214   Tobacco Stemming and Redrying

       2141  Tobacco Stemming and Redrying
Manufacture of cigarettes from tobacco or other materials.
Manufacture of cigars.
Manufacture of chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff.
Stemming and redrying of tobacco. Manufacture of reconstituted tobacco.
 (ground-up tobacco with binding agents) may also
 be blended with tobacco leaves. Specific processes
 include vacuum or hot air conditioning, threshing,
 and the cutting, drying, and expanding of lamina
 (thin sheets of tobacco). Additives may be sprayed
 into the dryers or introduced at other stages. In the
 production of cigarettes, cakes of blended tobacco
 are shredded, and the tobacco blend is scattered
 over continuous tobacco paper. The cigarettes are
 then rolled, cut, fitted with filters, and packaged.

 The processes of heating and cooling and the use of
 agents, conditioners, and other additives may result
 in chemical releases. Cigarette papers are also
 coated and treated. Some facilities perform only
 certain processing services, such as fermentation
 and stemming or threshing. Facilities that specialize
 in stemming and redrying (SIC code 2141)
 accounted for some of the largest amounts reported
 to TRI in this sector in 1996.
      Because the industry is small, changes in TRI
      reporting by a few facilities have a large effect on
      the sector's data.

      1996  TRI Data for

      Tobacco Products

      Table 3-1  summarizes TRI reporting by the tobacco
      products sector for 1996. Sixty-one forms were
      submitted in this sector, 70.5% of them (43 forms)
      were submitted by cigarette manufacturers (SIC
      code 2111). This was the only sector that did not
      submit any Form A certification statements, which
      certify that a facility's total annual reportable
      amount of a TRI chemical was less than 500
      pounds for the year and that the facility did not
      manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 1
      million pounds.  (The Form A certification
      statement is explained in Chapter 1.)
                                                Sources

    Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
       Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
    U.S. Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRI/McGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
       International Trade Administration, 1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and
       industrial processes for selected industries.
    U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures:  Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
       February 1998 : value of shipments and employment.
       Supplemental data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
    Various tobacco industry equipment manufacturers: industry processes and technologies.
78

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On- and off-site releases totaled 4.2 million pounds
in this sector in  1996, including 3.7 million pounds
released on-site. The largest total on- and off-site
releases were reported in the tobacco stemming and
redrying industry (SIC code 2141). This was 2.4
million pounds, or 57.8% of the sector's total. The
second-largest source of total releases was cigarette
manufacture (SIC code 2111), with 1.6 million
pounds or 37.7% of the total. Smaller amounts were
reported in cigar manufacture (SIC code 2121) and
in the production of chewing and smoking tobacco
(SIC code 2131).

Other on-site waste management in this sector was
1.3 million pounds. Only the tobacco stemming and
redrying industry (SIC code 2141), with 741,000
pounds, and the cigarette industry (SIC code 2111),
with 598,000 pounds, reported other on-site waste
management.

Cigarette production accounted for the largest
reporting of transfers off-site for further waste
management, 406,000 pounds out of the sector's
total of 489,000 pounds.

Box 3-2. Data Not Appearing in This Chapter
                                                    Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
For production-related waste, which totaled 5.9
million pounds in this sector, tobacco stemming
and redrying accounted for 3.2 million pounds
(53.7% of the total) and cigarette production for 2.5
million pounds (42.4%).

None of the TRI forms received in this sector
reported more than one SIC code within SIC code
21, as explained in Box 3-2.

On- and Off-site Releases

As shown in Table 3-3, this sector's on- and off-site
releases consisted primarily of air emissions, which
were 3.5 million pounds in 1996. Tobacco
stemming and redrying (SIC code 2141) accounted
for 2.1 million pounds and cigarette production
(SIC code 2111) for 1.2 million pounds. One
facility in the stemming and redrying industry (SIC
code 2141) reported 1,7 million pounds of air
emissions of ammonia.

Surface water discharges of  180,000 pounds in this
sector were almost exclusively reported in the
   Facilities that engage in more than one kind of manufacturing activity may report more than one SIC code on their TRI
   forms to describe their activities. Most industrial sectors discussed in the 1996 TRI Public Data Release include such
   "multiple-code" reporting. No forms were received, however, with multiple SIC codes within SIC code 21 in 1996.
   (Multiple code reporting is further explained in Box 1-5 in Chapter 1.)

   There were also no forms in SIC code 21 for chemicals designated as OSHA carcinogens. (OSHA carcinogens and the
   bases for their designation appear in Box 1-9 in Chapter 1.)

   This chapter, therefore, does not contain the following tables and figures:

      Table 3-2.   Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21
      Table 3-8.   TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code 1996: Tobacco
                 Products, SIC Code 21
      Figure 3-7.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with Largest Totals:
                 Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21

   Industry-specific chapters in both volumes of the 7996 TRI Public Data Release present comparable data tables,
   numbered consistently from chapter to chapter. The remaining tables and figures in this chapter conform to that
   numbering system.
                                                                                                    79

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            Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-1. Summary of TRI Information by4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21
Total
Total





On- and Production-
Off-sHc
Releases
Rank
2
3
4
1

related
Waste
Rank
2
3
4
1

SIC
Code

2111
2121
2131
2141


Industry

Cigarettes
Cigars
Chewing & Smoking Tobacco
Tobacco Stemming & Redrying
Total for SIC Code 21
Total
Facilities
Number
21
1
3
4
29
Total
Forms
Number
43
2
4
12
61

Form As
Number
0
0
0
0
0

Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1,203,696
171,300
1,651
2,317,792
3,694,439

Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
362,519
0
13,316
82,298
458,133
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
1,566,215
171,300
14,967
2,400,090
4,152,572
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R, Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).

Table 3-3. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)
On-site Land Releases

SIC
Code

2141
2111
2121
2131



Industry

Tobacco Stemming & Redrying
Cigarettes
djare
Chewing & Smoking Tobacco
Total for SIC Code 21

Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
2,138,092
1,203,695
171,300
1,651
3,514,738
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
179,700
1
0
0
179.70Z
Underground Injection
Class I
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
RCRA
Subtitle C
Landfills
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
Other
On-site Land
Releases
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
2,317,792
1,203,696
171,300
1,651
3,694,439
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
82,298
362,519
0
13,316
458,133

Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
2,400,090
1,566,215
171,300
14,967
4,152,572
Note: On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
   Transfers Off-site
     to Disposal
       11.0%
     Surface
     Water
      4.3%
                     Underground Injection = 0%
                     On-site Land Releases = 0%
     Figure 3-1. Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
            Releases, 1996:  Tobacco Products
                      (SIC Code 21)
tobacco stemming and redrying industry, and the
chemical with the largest discharges was nitrate
compounds (168,000 pounds all reported by one
facility). The sector reported no underground
injection or on-site land releases.

Off-site releases (transfers to disposal) were
458,000 pounds in SIC code 21. The cigarette
industry (SIC code 2111) reported 363,000 pounds
in such transfers. The chemical with the largest
such transfers was nicotine and its salts (432,000
pounds).

Figure 3-1 illustrates the distribution of on- and off-
site releases in this sector by the type of release.
Figure 3-2 shows the industrial distribution of these
releases.
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R
 80

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                                                                Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-1. Summary of TRI Information by4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21, Continued
SIC
Code
2111
2121
2131
2141

Industry
Cigarettes
Cigars
Chewing & Smoking Tobacco
Tobacco Stemming & Redrying
Total for SIC Code 21
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
598,117
0
0
740,700
1,338,817
Total Transfers
Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
406,499
9,920
27,910
44,624
488,953
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
2,511,416
185,000
42,933
3,182,404
5,921,753
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R.  On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
         3,000,000
         2,500,000 -
         2,000,000 -
      | 1,500,000
      Q_
         1,000,000-
           500,000 -
H Transfers Off-site to Disposal
• Other On-site Land Releases
E3 RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
DUIJ, Class II-V Wells
Q UIJ, Class I Wells
H Surface Water
EAir
                              2141
                                                       2111
                                                                                2121
                                                                                                         2131
                       Figure 3-2.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, by SIC Code, 1996:
                                           Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
  Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal). UIJ = underground injection.
                                                                                                                           81

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          Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)

SIC
Code

2141
2111
2121
2131



Industry

Tobacco Stemming & Rediying
Cigarettes
Cigars
Chewing & Smoking Tobacco
Total for SIC Code 21

Recycled
On-site
Pounds
0
9,753
0
0
9,753
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0

Treated
On-site
Pounds
740,700
588,364
0
0
1,329,064
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
740,700
598,117
0
0
1,338,817
Note: Other On-sltc Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R.
              Recycled On-site
                  0.7%
                               Treated On-site
                                  99.3%
                               Energy Recovery
                               On-site = 0%
    Figure 3-3. Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
         Management, 1996: Tobacco Products
                  (SIC Code 21)
Note: Dsta from Section 8 of Form R.

 Other On-site Waste Management

 Table 3-4 and Figure 3-3 show the tobacco
 products sector's reporting of other on-site waste
 management, which totaled 1.3 million pounds in
 1996. Tobacco stemming and redrying (SIC code
 2141) reported 741,000 pounds of this total, and
 cigarette producers (SIC code 2111) reported
 598,000. All of this was in on-site treatment, except
 for 10,000 pounds of on-site recycling reported in
 cigarette manufacturing. One facility in SIC code
 2141  reported 561,000 pounds of on-site treatment
 of nitrate compounds. The chemical with the next-
 largest on-site treatment was nicotine and its salts
 (570,000 pounds); three facilities in SIC code 2111
 reported more than 100,000 pounds each of on-site
 treatment of this chemical.

 Figure 3-4 illustrates the distribution of on-site
 waste management reporting for industries by the
 four-digit SIC codes.

 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 The tobacco products sector reported 489,000
 pounds in transfers off-site for further waste
 management in 1996, as shown in Table 3-5.
 POTWs received the largest portion (267,000
 pounds) of these transfers, and the cigarette
 manufacturing industry (SIC code 2111) reported
 the largest amount (241,000 pounds) of these
 transfers to POTWs. The second-largest transfer
 type was recycling. The 165,000 pounds sent to
 recycling was reported entirely by the cigarette
 industry (SIC code 2111).

 For both types of transfers, the chemical with the
 largest amounts reported was nicotine and its salts.
 The cigarette industry reported sending a total of
 218,000 pounds of this chemical to POTWs and
 159,000 pounds to off-site recycling.

Figure 3-5 shows the distribution of types of off-
site transfers for further waste management, and
Figure 3-6 illustrates the distribution by industry in
this sector.
82

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                                                              Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
800,000 -I
700,000 -
600,000 -
500,000 -
*
i 400,000-
o
Q_
300,000 -
200,000 -
100,000 -
0 -




















2141





2111





2121


QTreated
• Energy Recovery
H Recycled





2131














Figure 3-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, by SIC Code, 1996:
Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R.

Table 3-5. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:  Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)


SIC
Code
2111
2141
2131
2121



Industry
Cigarettes
Tobacco Stemming & Redrying
Chewing & Smoking Tobacco
Cigars
Total for SIC Code 21


Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
165,113
0
0
0
165,113

Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
0
0
0
, 0
0


Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
50
21,500
27,341
7,600
56,491


Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
241,336
23,124
569
2,320
267,349

Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
Total Off-site
Transfers
for Further
Waste
Management
Pounds
406,499
44,624
27,910
9,920
488,953
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code.
                                                                                                                       83

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          Chapters — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
  To POTWs
   54.7%
To Recycling
  33.8%
                                 To Treatment
                                    11.6%
                              Energy Recovery = 0%

   Figure 3-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
       Further Waste Management, 1996: Tobacco
               Products (SIC Code 21)
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
(excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
1996 TRI  Data  by State for

Tobacco  Products

The tobacco products sector submitted TRI forms
in eight states in 1996. This was the lowest number
of states in any industrial sector. Tobacco
processors have generally located in tobacco
growing states. Table 3-6 presents summary release
and waste management data for the eight states in
which tobacco processing was reported in  1996.

Of the 61 forms submitted in this sector, 38 were in
North Carolina and 13 in Virginia. These two states
also reported the largest amounts in most of the
                450,000
                400.000
                350,000-
                300,000
                250,000 -
              E

              I
                200.000-
                150,000 -
                100,000
                 50,000-
                                    Other Off-site Transfers
                                   n To POTWs
                                   D To Treatment
                                   ED To Energy Recovery
                                   H To Recycling	
                            2111
                                            2141
                                                            2131
                                                                           2121
        Figure 3-6. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, by SIC Code, 1996:
                                 Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
84

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                                                   Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21

Total
State Facilities
Number
Georgia
Illinois
Kentucky
North Carolina
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Tennessee
Virginia
Total for SIC Code 21
1
1
2
IS
1
1
1
4
29
Total

Forms Form As
Number Number
3
1
2
38
2
1
1
13
61
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
98,100
78
8,525
1,086,755
171,300
1,366
123
2,328,192
3,694,439
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
158,440
12,592
14,388
252,700
0
17,243
270
2,500
458,133
Total Total Transfers Total Non-
On-and Total Other Off-site for Production- Production-
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste related related
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
256,540
12,670
22,913
1,339,455
171,300
18,609
393
2,330,692
4,152,572
208,700
0
8,900
153,453
0
959
0
966,805
1,338,817
640
168
21,824
341,753
9,920
0
27,198
87,450
488,953
Waste
Pounds
469,340
12,838
53,637
1,777,772
185,000
10,628
27,591
3,384,947
5,921,753
Waste
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
 summary categories in Table 3-6. Virginia had the
 largest total on- and off-site releases, 2.3 million
 pounds, or 56.1% of the releases in this sector.
 North Carolina was second with 1.3 million
 pounds, or 32.3% of the total. Total production-
 related waste was also led by these two states, with
 Virginia reporting 3.4 million pounds, or 57.2% of
 the total, and North Carolina reporting 1.8 million
 pounds, or 30.0% of the total. Georgia was third in
 both categories with 257,000 pounds in on- and off-
 site releases and 469,000 pounds in production-
 related waste.

 Almost all of Virginia's releases were reported as
 on-site releases, but North Carolina-reported off-
 site releases (transfers to disposal) of 253,000
 pounds, the largest amount among the eight states.
 In other on-site waste management, Virginia
 reported 967,000 pounds, nearly three-quarters
 (72.2%) of the total in that category. North Carolina
 had the largest transfers off-site for further waste
 management, with 342,000 pounds, or 69.9% of all
 such transfers.

 Map 3-1 illustrates the geographic distribution of
 total on- and off-site releases in the tobacco
 products sector.
1996 TRI Data by

Chemical for Tobacco

Products

The tobacco products sector reported on- and off-
site releases of 11 chemicals in 1996; these appear
in Table 3-7. Ammonia had the largest releases, 2.0
million pounds, mostly in air emissions. The
\ chemical with the second-largest releases was
hydrochloric acid; these were all air emissions
(898,000 pounds), as would be expected, since only
aerosol forms of hydrochloric acid are reportable.
About equal amounts of nicotine and its salts were
released on-site to air (432,000 pounds) and
transferred off-site to disposal (off-site releases,
423,000 pounds).

None of the chemicals reported in this sector are
designated as OSHA carcinogens, as noted in Box
3-2. (OSHA carcinogens and the bases for their
designation appear in Box 1-9 in Chapter 1.)
                                                                                                 85

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           Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
 I
  3
  
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                                                 Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-7. Chemicals with On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21 (in Rank Order)
On-site Land Releases

CAS
Number

7664-41-7
7647-01-0
	
7664-93-9

7664-39-3
7782-50-5
107-21-1
7664-38-2
108-88-3
78-93-3



Chemical

Ammonia
Hydrochloric acid
Nicotine and salts
Sulfuric acid
Nitrate compounds
Hydrogen fluoride
Chlorine
Ethylene glycol
Phosphoric acid
Toluene
Methyl ethyl ketone
Total for SIC Code 21

Total Air
Emissions
• Pounds
1,948,185
898,083
431,545
174,410
0
61,590
300
300
300
24
1
3,514,738
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
500
0
1
0
168,300
0
10,700
200
0
0
0
179,701
Underground Injection
Class I
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Class H-V
, Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
: o
RCRA
Subtitle C
Landfills
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Other
On-site Land
Releases
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1,948,685
898,083
431,546
174,410
168,300
61,590
11,000
500
300
24
1
3,694,439
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
34,653
0
423,480
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
458,133

Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
1,983,338
898,083
855,026
174,410
168,300
61,590
11,000
500
300
24
1
4,152,572
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.

Table 3-9. Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21 (in Rank
Order)


SIC
Code

2141
2111
2121
2131




Industry

Tobacco Stemming & Redrying
Cigarettes
Cigars
Chewing & Smoking Tobacco
Total for SIC Code 21


Recycled
On-site
Pounds
0
9,753
0
0
9,753

Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0


Treated
On-site
Pounds
740,700
588,364
0
0
1,329,064


Recycled
Off-site
1 Pounds
0
165,113
0
0
' 165,113

Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0


Treated
Off-site
Pounds
45,424
241,386
10,000
27,910
324,720
Quantity
Released
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
2,396,280
1,506,800
175,000
15,023
4,093,103
Total
Non-
Production- Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
3,182,404
2,511,416
185,000
42,933
5,921,753
related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

 1996 TRI Chemicals in

 Waste for Tobacco

 Products

 As shown in Table 3-9, releases were the largest
 constituent of production-related waste in the
 tobacco products sector. Total production-related
 waste in 1996 was 5.9 million pounds for SIC code
 21. Of that, 4.1 million pounds was reported in
 quantities released on- and off-site. Tobacco
 stemming and redrying (SIC code 2141) and
 cigarette production (SIC code 2111) together
 accounted for 96.2% of production-related waste,
 and 95.4% of the quantities released.
Another 1.3 million pounds was reported in on-site
treatment, followed by 325,000 pounds in off-site
treatment. Recycling off-site was 165,000 pounds,
while on-site recycling was 10,000 pounds. There
were no tobacco product manufacturing reports
submitted for energy recovery, either on- or off-
site.

Figure 3-8 illustrates the percentages of on- and
off-site waste management and quantities released,
as reported in the tobacco products sector.
Distribution of production-related waste by
industry appears in Figure 3-9.
                                                                                             87

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          Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
  Quantity
  Released
   69.1%
                                    On-site Waste
                                    Management
                                      22.6%
Off-site Waste
Management
   8.3%
       Rgure 3-8. Distribution of TRI Production-
         related Waste, 1996: Tobacco Products
                   (SIC Code 21)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.
Projected Quantities of TRI
Chemicals in Waste

Table 3-10 and Figure 3-10 present waste
management projections for the tobacco products
sector through 1998. Overall, facilities reporting in
this sector expect to make little change in the
overall distribution of the types of waste
management practiced. (As explained in Chapter 1,
facilities not'only report current data but project
waste management quantities for the next two years
in their TRI submissions.)

All waste management options were expected to
increase. Quantities released on- and off-site were
projected to rise from 4.1 million pounds in 1996 to
        100%
         80%
         60%
         40%
         20%
                                 H Quantity Released
                                 • Treated Off-site
                                 H Energy Recovery Off-site
                                 D Recycled Off-site
                                 0 Treated On-site
                                 H Energy Recovery On-site
                                 H Recycled On-site
                  2141
                                2111
                                               2121
                                                             2131
              Figure 3-9. Distribution of Production-related Waste, by SIC Code, 1996:
                                  Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

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                                                   Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-10. Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 21
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 21
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
9,753 0.2
0 0.0
1,329,064 22.4
165,113 2.8
0 0.0
324,720 5.5
4,093,103 69.1
5,921,753 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent
1.5
1.6
-0.8
10.5
2.0
2.3
Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
9,900 0.2
0 0.0
1,349,764 22.3
163,800 2.7
0 0.0
358,674 5.9
4,176,611 68.9
6,058,749 100.0
Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent
0.0
3.5
9.8
5.3
1.6
2.5
Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
9,900 0.2
0 0.0
1,397,019 22.5
179,800 2.9
0 0.0
377,604 6.1
4,244,451 68.4
6,208,774 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent
1.5
5.1
8.9
16.3
3.7
4.8
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 4.2 million pounds in 1998, releases would
 decrease slightly, from 69.1% to 68.4%, as a
 percentage of total production-related waste. This is
 still a much larger percentage of total production-
 related waste than in most industrial sectors.

 These data suggest no progress toward
 environmentally preferable options for managing
 TRI chemicals in waste, as established in the waste
 management hierarchy, explained in Chapter 1.
Source Reduction Activity
Of the 61 forms submitted in the tobacco products
sector in 1996, two indicated that source reduction
activity had taken place during the year, as shown
in Table 3-11. Both forms were in the cigarette
industry (SIC code 2111), and both identified the
activity as process modifications. This level of
.source reduction activity—3.3% of all forms—is
considerably lower than in many other industrial
sectors.
                                                                                                  89

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           Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
                                                                                        m 1996-1997

                                                                                        • 1996-1998
                     On-site Waste
                      Management
Off-site Waste
 Management
 Quantity Released
On-site and Off-site
Total Production-
  related Waste
              Figure 3-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in
                           Waste, 1996-1998:  Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
Nolc: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.

Table 3-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21
Forms Reporting
Cateeorv of Source Reduction Activitv
Source Reduction
Activities
SIC
Code Industry

2111 Cigarette*
2121 Cigars
2131 Chewing & Smoking Tobacco
2141 Tobacco Stemming & Redrying
Total for SIC Code 21
Total
Forms
Number
43
2
4
12
61


Number
2
0
0
0
2
Percent of
AH Forms
Percent
4.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
Good
Operating
Practices
Number
0
0
0
0
0

Inventory
Control
Number
0
0
0
0
0
Spill
and Leak
Prevention
Number
0.
0
0
0
0
Raw
Material
Modifi-
cations
Number
0
0
0
0
0

Process
Modifi-
cations
Number
2
0
0
0
2

Surface
Cleaning Preparation
and
Degreasing
Number
0
0
0
0
0
and
Finishing
Number
0
0
0
0
0

Product
Modifi-
cations
Number
0
0
0
0
0
 90

-------
Year-to-Year

Comparisons for

Tobacco Products

1995-1996 TRI Data for Tobacco
Products

Tobacco products manufacturers submitted 10
more forms in 1996 than in 1995, as shown in
Table 3-12.

On- and Off-site Releases

Table 3-12 also presents on- and off-site releases
for this sector for 1995 and 1996. Air emissions,
which constituted the great majority of the
sector's releases, doubled in this period, from 1.7
million pounds in 1995 to 3.5 million pounds in
1996. In both years, the bulk of the reported
releases to air came from point sources.

Surface water discharges also increased
substantially from 1995 to 1996, although the
amounts involved were smaller. Releases to
surface water were 10,000 pounds in 1995 and
180,000 pounds  in 1996. Off-site releases
(transfers to disposal) increased by more than
half, from 289,000 pounds to 458,000 pounds.

Figure 3-11 illustrates the percentage change in
on- and off-site releases in this sector for 1995-
1996.

Other On-site Waste Management

On-site treatment in the tobacco products sector
increased nearly three-fold from 1995 to 1996,
from 347,000 pounds to 1.3 million pounds. As
shown in Table 3-12, this waste management type
accounts for almost all the on-site waste
management reported in this sector.
                                               Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

Table 3-12 also presents the sector's transfers off-
site for further waste management for 1995 and
1996. Generally, changes in these off-site transfers
represented smaller amounts and smaller
percentages than the categories of data summarized
above. Transfers off-site for further waste
management decreased 0.9% overall, from 493,000
to 489,000.

Changes in SIC Codes

As indicated in facility descriptions below, some
facilities report different SIC codes over time. This
may reflect new or discontinued lines of
production, or it may represent a different
understanding of how SIC code designations
relate to a facility's business activities. These
changes can contribute—sometimes largely—to
apparent increases or decreases across
comparison years in the amounts reported by the
four-digit, or even two-digit, SIC codes.

1988-1996 TRI Data for Tobacco
Products

As explained in Chapter 1, comparisons from the
1988 TRI baseline year to the current year rely on
the list of "core" TRI chemicals that were
reportable, with the same reporting definition, in
all years. These multi-year comparisons also
review only the data elements that were collected
in all years, which excludes from this section any
analysis that distinguishes RCRA subtitle C
landfills from other land releases as well as
analysis based on the types of underground
injection wells. On-site waste management data
and transfers off-site to recycling and to energy
recovery have been collected only since 1991;
these data are included, but cannot be compared
across the full 1988-1996 period.
                                                                                          91

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             Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-12.  Comparison of TR! On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1995-1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
26
51
51
0
Pounds

1,734,393
60,060
1,674,333
10,105
0
135
1,744,633

289,496
2,034,129

0
0
347,339
347,339

99,383
1,000
28,575
364,507
0
493,465

1996
Number
29
61
61
0
Pounds

3,514,738
61,394
3,453,344
179,701
0
0
3,694,439

458,133
4,152,572

9,753
0
1,329,064
1,338,817

165,113
0
56,491
267,349
0
488,953
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
11.5
19.6
19.6
—
Percent

102.6
2.2
106.3
1,678.3
-
-100.0
111.8

58.3
104.1

-
-
282.6
285.4

66.1
-100.0
97.7
-26.7
--
-0.9
Note: On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
Management from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of
Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code.
 92

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                                                   Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
         1,800
         1,600-
         1,400-
         -200
                    Air
                                   Surface
                                    Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
 Transfers
  Off-site
to Disposal
           Figure 3-11. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                                 Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995.
From 1988 to 1996, reporting in the tobacco
products sector of on- and off-site releases of the
"core" chemicals decreased by about three-quarters
(78.5%), from 342,000 pounds to 73,000 pounds.
The largest component of this change was air
emissions, which were reduced by 81.1%, from
330,000 pounds to 63,000 pounds. About two-
thirds of this reduction occurred in point source
emissions and the remainder in fugitive emissions.
These data appear in Table 3-13 and are illustrated
in Figure 3-12.

On-site waste management and transfers off-site for
recycling or energy recovery were not collected in
1988. For the 1994-1996 period, on-site
treatment—the only type of other on-site waste
management with amounts reported for the "core"
chemicals—declined from 97,000 pounds to 34,000
pounds (or 65.0%), as shown in Table 3-13.
Transfers to treatment for these chemicals were
121,000 pounds in 1988, and transfers to POTWs
  were 81,000 pounds. In 1996, little or no transfers
  to treatment and POTWs were reported.

   1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in
   Tobacco Products

  Tables 3-14 through 3-16 summarize data for 1988
  and 1994-1996 for industries at the four-digit SIC
  code level within SIC code 21. The tables present,
  respectively, on- and off-site releases, other on-site
  waste management, and transfers off-site for  further
  waste management.

  SIC code 2131, chewing and smoking tobacco and
  snuff, does not appear in these tables because in
   1996 this industry reported only chemicals that are
  not among the "core" chemicals reportable in all
  years (1988-1996) and having the same reporting
  definitions. This industry filed three forms for
  nicotine and its salts, added to TRI in reporting year
  1995, and one for ammonia, for which the reporting
                                                                                                93

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              Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
 Table 3-13. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
 Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21

Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Othef On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
1988
Number
18
38
38
NA
Pounds

330,227
84,157
246,070
10,950
0
750
341,927

0
341,927

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
120,996
81,110
0
NA
1994
Number
6
10
10
NA
Pounds

124,897
57,218
67,679
9,874
0
0
134,771

0
134,771

0
0
96,608
96,608
0
0
5
0
0
5
199S"
Number
7
13
13
0
Pounds

85,526
23,739
61,787
9,700
0
0
95,226

0
95,226

0
0
53,850
53,850
0
1,000
521
0
0
1,521
Change
1996 1988 to 1996
Number Percent
6
9
9
0
Pounds

62,515
925
61,590
10,900
0
0
73,415

0
73,415

0
0
33,800
33,800
0
0
400
0
0
400
-66.7
-76.3
-76.3
NA
Percent

-81.1
-98.9
-75.0
-0.5
-100.0
-78.5

~
-78.5

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
-99.7
-100.0
-
NA
Note: Docs not include delistcd chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-sltc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste Management
from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown
of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996. For 1994-1996, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code. For 1988, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code or codes not required to be reported in
1988. NA: not required to be reported in that year.
 94

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                                                   Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
         -120
                      Air
                                     Surface
                                     Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
 Disposal
                  Figure 3-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases,
                            1988-1996: Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added hi 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996.
definition has changed. Facilities in other
manufacturing sectors submitted 28 forms in SIC
code 21 in 1988, but have reported in later years in
the SIC codes that describe their manufacturing
operations. This accounts for the "invalid SIC
code" data in Tables 3-14 through 3-16.

On- and Off-site Releases

Table 3-14 provides release data for all four-digit
SIC codes in the tobacco products sector, for 1988-
1996. Total on- and off-site releases for
manufacturers of cigarettes (SIC code 2111)
decreased  50,000 pounds (44.7%), from 111,000
pounds to  62,000 pounds. In releases, the industry
reported only air emissions for the "core"
chemicals  for this period. Cigar manufacturers (SIC
code 2121) reported 92,000 pounds of releases in
1988, but submitted no reports for the "core"
    chemicals in 1996. Amounts reported in the
    tobacco stemming and redrying industry (SIC code
    2141) showed little change from 1988 to 1996.

    Other On-site Waste Management

    Cigarette producers (SIC code 2111) reported other
    on-site waste management of 33,000 pounds in
    1994 and 15,000 pounds in 1996 (on-site waste
    management data were not collected in 1988). This
    was a reduction of 54.7%. Cigar producers (SIC
    code 2121) reported 63,000 pounds in 1994, but as
    noted above, no forms were submitted in this
    industry for the "core" chemicals in 1996. Tobacco
    stemming and redrying (SIC code 2141) reported
    zero amounts for all on-site waste management in
    these years except for 19,000 pounds of on-site
    treatment in 1996.
                                                                                                  95

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           Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
 Table 3-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Tobacco Products,
 SIC Code 21
On-slte Releases

SIC
Code Industry Year

21 1 1 Cigarettes 96
95
94
88
2121 Cigars 96
95
94
88
2141 Tobacco Stemming and Recycling 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 21 96
95
94
88
Tola! for SIC Code 21 96
95
94
88

Surface

Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds
61,615
58,919
60,161
111,374
Pounds
0
0
0
0
Pounds
0
0
0
0

Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
61,615
58,919
60,161
111,374
Off-site
Releases
Transfers

Total On-
Off-site to and Off-site
Disposal Releases
Pounds
0
0
0
0
Pounds
61,615
58,919
60,161
111,374
No reports received
25,707
64,226
91,640
900
900
510
500
0
0
0
10,900
9,700
9,874
10,950
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25,707
64,226
91,640
11,800
10,600
10,384
11,450
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25,707
64,226
91,640
11,800
10,600
10,384
11,450
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
126,713
62,515
85,526
124,897
330,227
0
10,900
9,700
9,874
10,950
0
0
0
0
0
750
0
0
0
750
127,463
73,415
95,226
134,771
341,927
0
0
0
0
0
127,463
73,415
95,226
134,771
341,927
i~.n~~.il   j	•   i-j or/-.  T •  orA       v^i-suc Ceases trom aecuon o ^transfers ott-site to disposal) of Form R. Two facilities reported
incorrectly under an mvalid SIC code m SIC code 21 for 1988. They should have reported in SIC code 26. The incorrectiy reported amount was 90,231 pounds of

                                                     Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
                                                     in Releases. 1988-1996

                                                     The top-ranked facility for increases was R. J.
                                                     Reynolds Tobacco Company in King, North
                                                     Carolina (SIC code 2111). This auxiliary facility is
                                                     a coal-burning power plant that provides electricity
                                                     to the tobacco facility and also sells power locally.
                                                     Hydrogen fluoride,  a byproduct of coal combustion,
                                                     accounted for 100% of the plant's increase, with
                                                     point-source air emissions of 62,000 pounds.

                                                     Philip Morris USA in Chester, Virginia (SIC code
                                                     2141), ranked second in increases of releases with
                                                     an overall increase of 600 pounds. Over 80% of the
                                                     increase at the tobacco processing facility was
                                                     attributable to fugitive air emissions and surface
                                                     water discharges of ethylene glycol. The facility did
                                                     not report this chemical in 1988. Ethylene glycol is
                                                     used as a coolant in  a chiller system at this tobacco
 On-site waste management data for these years
 appear in Table 3-15.

 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 Little was reported in this sector for transfers off-
 site for further waste management in the years that
 can be compared for the "core" chemicals that were
 reportable in all years (data for some types of off-
 site transfers were not collected in 1988). In 1994,
 these transfers totaled 5 pounds, and in 1996 they
 totaled 400 pounds. Table 3-16 provides multi-year
 data by four-digit SIC codes for these transfer
 types.
96

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                                                   Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Tobacco Products,
SIC Code 21
SIC
Code Industry Year
2111 Cigarettes 96
95
94
88
2121 Cigars 96
95
94
88
2141 Tobacco Stemming and Redrying 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 21 96
95
94
88
Total for SIC Code 21 96
95
94
88
Energy
Recycled Recovery
On-site On-site
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
0
0
;NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA

0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
Total Other
Treated On-site Waste
On-site Management
Pounds Pounds
15,000
29,400
33,131
NA

24,450
63,477
NA
18,800
0
0
NA



NA
33,800
53,850
96,608
NA
15,000
29,400
33,131
NA

24,450
63,477
NA
18.800
0
0
NA



NA
33,800
53,850
96,608
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

 stemming and redrying facility. In 1993, ethylene
 glycol losses were discovered, and the facility
 began reporting the releases to TRI.

 Third in increases was R.J. Reynolds Tobacco
 Company in Winston-Salem (Reynolds Blvd.),
 North Carolina (did not report in 1988, SIC code
 2111 in 1996). This site is a large complex where
 many types of activities take place. One of these is
 the fifth largest gravure printing operation in the
 country. The printing operation uses toluene in
 excess of the TRI reporting threshold and therefore
 makes any toluene released from the complex
 reportable, according to the R.J. Reynolds contact.
 In 1996, the facility reported toluene fugitive air
 emissions of 20 pounds. A building not connected
 with the printing operation was painted and toluene
 was a constituent of the paint. The 20 pounds of
 toluene emissions was both the total for the
 chemical and the total overall increase for the
 facility.
Brown & Williamson Tobacco in Lancaster,
Pennsylvania (SIC code 2121), had the largest
decrease with 84,000 pounds. Brown & Williamson
purchased the Lancaster facility from General Cigar
in 1991. One of General Cigar's products was a
cigar wrapper. A cellulose film coating was applied
to the cigar wrapper to function as a moisture
barrier. This prevented the cigar from decomposing
in the smoker's mouth. Toluene was used as a
solvent in the coating process and represented
100% of the facility's 1988 releases, all as air
emissions. When Brown & Williamson bought the
facility from General Cigar, the cigar wrapper
product continued to be produced under contract
with General Cigar. Implementation of new volatile
organic carbon (VOC) restrictions and maximum
•achievable control technology (MACT) regulations
would have required the facility to purchase new
emissions control equipment. The cost of the new
equipment would have raised the cost of the cigar
                                                                                                 97

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           Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Table 3-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Tobacco
Products, SIC Code 21
SIC
Code Industry Year
2111 Cigarettes 96
95
94
88
2121 Cigars 96
95
94
88
2141 Tobacco Stemming and Retrying 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 21 96
95
94
88
Total for SIC Code 21 96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA

1,000
0
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0
1,000
0
NA
0
1
0
99,346

510
0
0
400
10
5
0



21,650
400
521
5
120,996
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
22,319

0
0
0
0
0
0
0



58,791
0
0
0
81,110
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
NA

1,510
0
NA
400
10
5
NA



NA
400
1,521
5
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Two facilities reported incorrectly under an invalid SIC code in SIC code 21 for 1988. They should
have reported in SIC code 26. The incorrectly reported amounts were 21,650 pounds of transfers to treatment and 3,551 pounds of transfers to POTWs.
 wrapper and General Cigar opted out of the
 contract with Brown & Williamson. There were no
 data reported for toluene in 1996.

 Liggett Group, Inc., in Durham, North Carolina
 (SIC code 2111), was second in decreases with a
 75,000 pound reduction. Toluene was responsible
 for 100% of the reduction. The cigarette-
 manufacturing facility houses printing operations
 that use toluene. The facility formerly used a top
 lacquer, containing toluene, on printed cartons and
 labels, but has now switched to a water-based top
 lacquer. Toluene is still used in small amounts at
 the facility, but not in a quantity exceeding the TRI
 reporting threshold. Therefore the facility did not
 report toluene in 1996.

 The third-ranked facility for decreases was R. J.
 Reynolds Tobacco Company in Winston-Salem
(Shorefair & 30th), North Carolina (SIC code
2111), with an overall decrease of 36,000 pounds.
The facility manufactured a smokeless-cigarette
product during the 1988 reporting year. Since that
time, the product line has been discontinued and
other processes now take place at the plant. Freon
113 was used by the facility when it produced the
smokeless cigarettes. The facility contact did not
know how the chemical was used. There were no
data reported for Freon 113 in 1996.

Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
Releases, 1988-1996

In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
large apparent increases and decreases, which have
been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
Because these are errors or plant closures and not
actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
98

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discussed in detail here. There are two such
facilities in the tobacco products sector:

   Little Falls Color Print, Little Falls, New York,
   decrease of 46,000 pounds, reported incorrect
   SIC code.
   Sullivan Paper Company, Inc., West
   Springfield, Massachusetts, decrease of 42,000
   pounds, reported incorrect SIC code.

1991-1996 Waste Management Data
for Tobacco Products

Table 3-17 summarizes on- and off-site waste
management data for the tobacco products sector
for 1991, when TRI began collecting this
information, and the three most recent years (1994-
1996).

Total production-related waste fell from 51.4
million pounds in 1991 to 108,000 pounds in 1996
in the tobacco products,sector. The largest decrease
was in on-site waste management, which was 49.9
million pounds in 1991, almost all of this in on-site
recycling. For 1994 through 1996, on-site recycling
was zero. One facility in SIC code 2111, cigarette
production, reported 49.7 million pounds of on-site
recycling in 1991, but has since closed, accounting
for this large reduction in the sector's waste
management data. This plant closure also explains
part of the large reduction in quantities released on-
and off-site in this sector. Tobacco products
manufacturing reported 1.4 million pounds in
quantities released in 1991, including 502,000
pounds from the facility that has  since closed. By
1996, the sector's total had declined to 73,000
pounds, a reduction of nearly 95%.

On-site treatment declined from  93,000 pounds to
34,000 pounds from 1991 to 1996, a 63.7%
reduction.

Off-site waste management in this sector decreased
from 7,000 pounds in 1991 to 400 pounds in 1996.
                                                 Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
Off-site recycling and energy recovery were both
more than 3,000 pounds in 1991, but dropped to
zero by 1996.

Figure 3-13 presents the percentage change in the
types of waste management in this sector for 1991-
1996.

The very large apparent reductions in on-site
recycling and in quantities released obscure the
picture of waste management in this sector over the
comparison period. Excluding the data from the
closed facility, however, recycling on-site still
dropped to zero, and quantities released and total
production-related waste both showed substantial
decreases. For quantities released, this was a 92.0%
reduction from 915,000 pounds to 73,000 pounds,
and for total production-related waste, the reduction
was 90.8%, from 1.2 million pounds to 108,000
pounds. These are much larger percentage
decreases than in most industrial sectors, and these
decreases continued while the tobacco products
sector regained production levels it had lost in the
early 1990s. More than two-thirds (68.2%) of the
remaining level of production-related waste,
however, was reported as released in 1996. In the
waste management hierarchy (explained in Chapter
1), this is the option of last resort, to be
implemented only when toxic chemicals cannot be
recycled, burned for energy recovery, or treated.

As indicated in the  following section, restrictions
on ozone-depleting chemicals that were
implemented as a result of the Montreal Protocol
led tobacco products facilities to eliminate uses of
trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) during this
period. This has contributed significantly to the
sector's reductions  in production-related waste.

Facilities with Lame Increases and Decreases
in Waste Management.  1991-1996

The number-one facility for increases in waste
management was also the  number-one facility for
increases of releases, R.J.  Reynolds Tobacco
Company in King, North Carolina (SIC code 2111).
                                                                                              99

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             Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
 Table 3-17. TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996: Tobacco Products, SIC Code 21
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Manaaement
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-sitc Waste Management
Off-site Waste Manaaement
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
1991
Pounds
49,888,442
0
93,020
49,981,462
3,615
3,207
186
7,008
1,416,623
51,405,093
14,118
Change
1994-1995
Percent
-44.3
-44.3
10,100.0
30,100.0
-33.0
-36.9
-100.0
1994
Pounds
0
0
96,608
96,608
0
0
5
5
142,073
238,686
12,500
Change
1995-1996
Percent
-37.2
-37.2
-100.0
-21.6
-73.5
-22.9
-28.5
-
1995
Pounds
0
0
53,850
53,850
0
1,000
510
1,510
95,236
150,596
0
Change
1991-1996
Percent
-100.0
-63.7
-99.9
-100.0
-100.0
115.1
-94.3
-94.8
-99.8
-100.0
1996
Pounds
0
0
33,800
33,800
0
0
400
400
73,415
107,615
0







Note: Docs not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
 100

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                                                     Chapters — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
    150
   -150
      Recycled     Energy   Treated
        On-site   Recovery   On-site
                 On-site

           On-site Waste Management
Recycled    Energy   Treated           Quantity
 Off-site  Recovery    Off-site       Released On-
          Off-site                  and Off-site

    -Off-site Waste Management
    Total
Production-
   related
    Waste
        Figure 3-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
                                   Tobacco Products (SIC Code 21)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
The facility reported a 29,000 pound increase in
quantity of hydrogen fluoride released. No other
waste management data were reported for this or
any other chemical. Hydrogen fluoride released by
the facility is a by-product of coal combustion for
electricity generation. (See also "Facilities with
Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-
1996.")

Philip Morris USA in Chester, Virginia (SIC code
2111 in 1991 and 2141 in 1996), reported the
second largest increase with 20,000 pounds. The
facility, also ranked second for increases in
releases, reported no production-related waste data
for ethylene glycol in  1991 and 20,000 pounds in
1996. The chemical is used as a coolant in a chiller
system. Lost coolant is treated in an on-site waste-
            water treatment system. In 1996, 19,000 pounds of
            ethylene glycol were treated on-site. The facility
            did not report ethylene glycol in 1991 because the
            losses were not discovered until 1993.

            Third in increases was R.J. Reynolds Tobacco
            Company in Winston-Salem (Reynolds Blvd.),
            North Carolina (did not report in 1991, SIC code
            2111 in 1996). This facility was also third for
            increases of releases. The only reported chemical in
            1996 was toluene. There were no data for 1991.
            The total increase was 20 pounds, equaling the 20
            pound increase in toluene releases (see "Facilities
            with Large Increases and Decreases in Releases,
            1988-1996.").
                                                                                                   101

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          Chapter 3 — TRI Data for Tobacco Products
 First in decreases was Commonwealth Brands, Inc.
 in Reidsville, North Carolina (SIC code 2111), with
 an overall reduction of 362,000 pounds. The
 cigarette manufacturer used CFC-11, trichloro-
 fluoromethane, as an expansion agent for tobacco.
 A substitute process was found as a result of the
 Montreal Protocol, which calls for the phase-out of
 ozone-depleting chemicals, and the facility stopped
 using the chemical after 1994.

 Liggett Group, Inc., in Durham, North Carolina
 (SIC code 2111), was second in decreases with a
 312,000 pound reduction. The plant used
 trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) in its tobacco
 expanding process. The process was completely
 shut down after the United States adopted
 provisions implementing the Montreal Protocol's
 ban on ozone-depleting chemicals.

 Lorillard Tobacco Company in Greensboro, North
 Carolina (SIC code 2111), had the third largest
 decrease with a 280,000 pound reduction. Similar
 to the number-one decreaser,  100% of the
 Lorillard's reduction was the result of the phase-out
 of CFC-11 in a tobacco-expanding process. The
 CFC-11 process was substituted with  a carbon
 dioxide process.

 Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
 Production-Related Waste, 1991-1996

 In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
 large apparent increases and decreases, which have
 been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
 Because these are errors or plant closures and not
 actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
 discussed in detail here. There is one such facility
 in the tobacco products sector:
   R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-
   Salem (5th and Lhiden), North Carolina,
   decrease of 50.2 million pounds, plant closure

Facilities Contacted for Explanations
(alphabetical by facility):

   Brown & Williamson Tobacco, Lancaster,
   Pennsylvania: Bob Walquist, July 28, 1998
   (explanation provided)

   Commonwealth Brands, Inc., Reidsville, North
   Carolina: Richard A. Filbey, July 28, 1998
   (explanation provided)

   Liggett Group, Inc., Durham, North Carolina:
   Thomas W. Newsom, August 10, 1998
   (explanation provided)

   Little Falls  Color Print, Little Falls, New York:
   Joseph Sullivan, August 4, 1998 (explanation
   provided)

   Lorillard Tobacco Company, Greensboro,
   North Carolina: R.L. Thomas, August 4, 1998
   (explanation provided)

   Philip Morris USA, Chester, Virginia:  Ethel G.
   Tatum, July 28 and August 5, 1998
   (explanation provided)

   R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, facilities in
   Winston-Salem and King, North Carolina: Carl
   L. Martin, July 28 and August 5, 1998
   (explanation provided)

   Sullivan Paper Company, Inc., West
   Springfield, Massachusetts: Joseph Sullivan,
   August 4, 1998 (explanation provided)
102

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                                  Chapter 4
               Toxics Release Inventory Data
                     for Textile  Mill Products
                              (SIC Code 22)
A  Look at the Textile Mill

Products Industry

(SIC Code 22)

Textile mills (SIC code 22) prepare fiber and
produce yarn, thread, braids, twine, and cordage.
They manufacture various fabrics—broadwoven,
narrow woven, and knit. Facilities in this sector dye
and finish fiber, yarn, fabrics, and knit apparel.
They also coat and treat fabrics. Facilities that
manufacture knit apparel and other finished
products from their own yarn are classified in this
sector. Broadwoven fabrics are generally more than
12 inches wide, and narrow woven fabrics less than
12 inches wide. The latter category includes, for
example, fabrics for the production of men's ties.
Miscellaneous products of this sector (SIC code
229) include non-rubberized coated fabrics, tire
cord and fabrics, and other goods. Box 4-1 lists
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and
their designations for this sector. In TRI, SIC codes
are given as reported by the facilities; these may
differ from information in economic and other data
collections.
 Textile mills constitute one of the smaller segments
. of the United States manufacturing economy. In
 1996, textile mills shipped products valued at
 $80.24 billion, up slightly from $79.87 billion in
 1995 (both in current dollars). Employment in SIC
 code 22 was 576,000 in 1996. Textile mill
 employment declined steadily from 1988 to 1991.
 Although employment in this sector fluctuated in
 the mid-1990s, the 1996 level was the lowest
 recorded throughout the 1988-1996 period.

 Knitting mills (SIC code 225) accounted for about
 one-fourth of the economic activity in this sector in
 1996. Knitting mills had $19.52 billion in
 shipments and employed 169,000. A number of
 other industry groups contributed roughly equal
 amounts to the sector's output, as measured hi
 value of shipments. Yarn and thread mills (SIC
 code 228), carpets and rugs (SIC code 227),
 broadwoven synthetic fabric mills (SIC code 222),
 and miscellaneous textile goods (SIC code 229) all
 had shipments valued at approximately $10 billion
 to $13 billion. Textile mill production rose 10.6%
 from 1989 to 1996, compared to an increase of
 17.6% for all U.S. manufacturing (see Chapter 1,
 Table 1-10).
                                                                                  103

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              Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
 Box 4-1. SIC Code 22, Textile Mill Products:  Codes and Classifications
  SIC Code
                                                                Industry Description
  221    Broadwovcn Fabric Mills, Cotton
         2211   Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton
  222    Broadwovcn Fabric Mills, Manmade Fiber and Silk
         2221   Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade Fiber
                and Silk
  223    Broadwovcn Fabric Mills, Wool (Including Dyeing
         and Finishing)
         2231   Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool (Including
                Dyeing and Finishing)

  224    Narrow Fabric and Other Smallwares Mills: Cotton,
         Wool, Silk, and Manmade Fiber
         2241   Narrow Fabric and Other Smallwares Mills:
                Cotton, Wool, Silk, and Manmade Fiber
  225    Knitting Mills
         2251   Women's Full-Length and Knee-Length
                Hosiery, Except Socks
         2252   Hosiery, nee*
         2253   Knit Outerwear Mills

         2254   Knit Underwear and Nightwear Mills

         2257   Weft Knit Fabric Mills
         2258   Lace and Warp Knit Fabric Mills

         2259   Knitting Mills, nee*
  226    Dyeing and Finishing Textiles, except Wool, Fabrics
         and Knit Goods
         2261   Finishers of Broadwoven Fabrics of Cotton
         2262   Finishers of Broadwoven Fabrics of Manmade
                Fiber and Silk
         2269   Finishers of Textiles, nee*
 227    Carpets and Rugs
         2273   Carpets and Rugs

 228    Yarn and Thread Mills
         2281   Yarn Spinning Mills

         2282   Yarn Texturizing, Throwing, Twisting, and
                Winding Mills
         2284   Thread Mills
Weaving of fabrics more than 12 inches wide, wholly or chiefly of cotton.
Weaving of fabrics more than 12 inches wide, wholly or chiefly of silk and
manmade fibers including glass.
Weaving of fabrics more than 12 inches wide, wholly or chiefly of wool, mohair, or
similar animal fibers. Dyeing and finishing all woven wool fabrics. Dyeing wool,
tops, or yarn. Shrinking and sponging of wool goods for the trade.
Weaving or braiding narrow fabrics of cotton, wool, silk, and manmade fibers
(including glass). Manufacture of fabric-covered elastic yarn or thread.
Knitting, dyeing, or finishing women's and misses' full-length and knee-length
hosiery (except socks) and panty hose.
Knitting, dyeing, or finishing miscellaneous hosiery.
Knitting outerwear from yarn. Manufacturing outerwear from knit fabrics produced
in the same establishment.
Knitting underwear and nightwear from yarn. Manufacturing underwear and
nightwear from knit fabrics produced in the same establishment.
Knitting weft (circular) fabrics. Dyeing or finishing weft knit fabrics.
Knitting, dyeing, or finishing warp (flat) knit fabrics. Manufacturing, dyeing, or
finishing lace goods.
Knitting gloves and other miscellaneous articles, including bedspreads, curtains, and
towels.
Finishing cotton broadwoven fabrics, either purchased or on a commission basis.
(Includes bleaching, dyeing, printing, shrinking, and chemical finishing for water
repellency, fire resistance, and mildew proofing.)
Finishing manmade fiber and silk broadwoven fabrics, either purchased or on a
commission basis (as above).
Dyeing and finishing of miscellaneous textiles (purchased or on commission),
including raw stock, yarn, braided goods, and narrow fabrics.
Manufacture of woven, tufted, and other carpets and rugs, such as art squares, floor
mattings, and needle punch carpeting. Manufacture of door mats and mattings from
textile materials or from twisted paper, grasses, sisal, rags, and other materials.
Spinning yarn wholly or chiefly of cotton, manmade fibers, silk, wool, mohair, or
similar animal fibers.
Texturizing, throwing, twisting, winding, or spooling yarns or manmade fiber
filaments, purchased or on commission.
Manufacture of thread, including handicraft threads.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
104

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                                                       Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Box 4-1. SIC Code 22, Textile Mill Products:  Codes and Classifications, Continued
 SIC Code
                                                   Industry Description
 229   Miscellaneous Textile Goods

       2295   Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized


       2296   Tire Cord and Fabrics


       2297   Nonwoven Fabrics


       2298   Cordage and Twine

       2299   Textile Goods, nee*
Manufacture of coated, impregnated, or laminated textiles. Finishing of textiles, such
as varnishing and waxing.

Manufacture of cord and fabric for use in reinforcing rubber tires, industrial belting,
fuel cells, and similar uses.

Manufacture of nonwoven fabrics (by bonding or interlocking of fibers) by
mechanical, chemical, thermal, and/or solvent means.

Manufacture of rope, cable, cordage, twine, and related products.
Manufacture of miscellaneous textile goods, including goods of linen, jute, or felt;
padding and upholstery filling; and recovered fibers and flock. Processing textile
fibers for spinning, such as scouring and carbonizing wool or combing and
converting wool tow to top.
*nec: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
Unlike some sectors such as pulp and paper
milling, where integrated manufacturing processes
and materials are common, textile mills and related
establishments generally engage in one process or
produce one product. Mills may weave cotton or
synthetic fabrics, but seldom do both. Some mills
spin yarn, but do not weave. Mills that spin and
weave may not dye or finish their fabrics. Dyeing
and finishing plants may process purchased
materials, although many process fabrics for the
mills on a commission basis.

Processes in textile milling begin with cleaning,
carding and combing, and reblending staples
(natural fibers) before spinning them into yarn.
Synthetic fibers do not require these preliminary
steps, but spinning processes are similar for both
      natural and manmade fibers. Yarns are then woven
      or knit into fabrics. Finishing, also known as wet
      processing, may be mechanical, chemical, or both.
      This may include scouring and bleaching to prepare
      for further finishing steps such as dyeing, treating
      (for example, durable-press treatment), or coating.
      Finishing (industries in SIC code 226) and coating
      (SIC code 2295) make up the majority of the
      sector's TRI reporting.

      Chemicals used in finishing textile products include
      wetting and cleaning agents, surfactants, and others
      with functional roles in processing, plus substances
      such as dyes and finishes that are intended to
      remain on the processed fibers and fabrics. In
      bleaching processes, hydrogen peroxide has largely
      replaced sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite.
                                                    Sources
    Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
       Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
    U.S. Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRI/McGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
       International Trade Administration, 1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and
       industrial processes for selected industries.
    U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures: Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
       February 1998 : value of shipments and employment.
       Supplemental data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, Office of Compliance, Profile
       of the Textile Industry, Sector Notebook project, EPA/310-R-97-009, September 1997
       : industry processes and technologies, pollutant sources, and selected
       economic data.
    McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., 1997: industry processes and technologies.
                                                                                                           105

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            Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products

Table 4-1. Summary of TRI Information by4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22
Total Total
On- and Production-
OfT-sIte related
Releases Waste
Rink Rank
8
5
13
22
23
18
24
17
15
21
10
9
3
6
20
16
4
1
7
12
14
11
2
19

13
8
12
24
18
20
21
16
15
22
10
4
2
5
23
19
6
1
9
7
17
11
3
14

SIC
Code
2211
2221
2231
2251
2252
2253
2254
2257
2258
2259
2261
2262
2269
2273
2281
2282
2284
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299



Industry
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool
Women's Hosiery, Except Socks
Hosiery, nee*
Knit Outerwear Mills
Knit Underwear Mills
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills
Knitting Mills, nee*
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Finishing Plants, Manmade
Finishing Plants, nee*
Carpets & Rugs
Yarn Spinning Mills
Throwing & Winding Mills
Thread Mills
Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized
Tire Cord & Fabrics
Nonwoven Fabrics
Cordage & Twine
Textile Goods, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22
Total for SIC Code 22
Total
Facilities
Number
9
8
13
3
4
8
1
3
3
1
18
19
31
35
2
5
5
44
11
9
2
17
54
2
307
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
19
22
25
3
4
13
1
3
3
2
34
34
67
59
2
5
9
158
25
12
5
27
120
5
657
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
5
9
1
2
0
6
2
0
0
3
5
1
35
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
343,254
466,466
145,622
181
2
19,595
0
40,011
105,565
0
219,065
289,444
1,482,755
413,221
12,300
42,197
1,120,795
9,908,417
334,448
166,120
106,331
174,596
1,455,976
19,021
16,865,382
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
250
48,713
6,322
0
0
12
0
0
0
7,395
0
42,763
5
5,813
0
0
0
236,305
59,102
0
0
14,066
41,402
0
462,148
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
343,504
515,179
151,944
181
2
19,607
0
40,011
105,565
7,395
219,065
332,207
1,482,760
419,034
12,300
42,197
1,120,795
10,144,722
393,550
166,120
106,331
188,662
1,497,378
19,021
17,327,530
Notes On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility reported incorrectly under SIC code
2269 for 1996. The facility should have reported under SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported amounts were the following: 51,735 pounds of total releases,
4,437,287 pounds of other on-site waste management, 61,342 pounds of transfers off-site for further waste management and 4,552,414 pounds of total production-
related waste. Another facility incorrectly reported 393,101 pounds of total releases under SIC code 2269. The correct amount is 42,493 pounds. Accounting for
these two facility errors, the total releases rank of SIC code 2269 changes from 3 to 4. Another facility incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of other on-site
waste management and total production-related waste under SIC code 2269. The correct amount is 0 pounds.
"nee: not elsewhere classified.
 Noncresylic surfactants have similarly been
 substituted for cresol-based surfactants in
 surfactants in mercerization processes that enhance
 luster and smoothness. Dyes may be reactive
 (reacting with fiber molecules to form chemical
 bonds), or direct (not requiring an affixing agent).
 Dyes for polyesters are disperse (requiring dye
 carriers, pressure, and heat).  Printing operations
 typically rely on resin binders to apply pigments to
 fibers; solvents transport the resin-pigment mixture
 to the chemically treated fiber surface. Dyeing and
 printing processes may involve other chemical aids
 (to speed or retard dye penetration, for example), as
 well as after-treatment to prevent fading. Polyvinyl
and urea-formaldehyde resins are applied as
stiffeners in some fabrics. Fabrics may also be
treated to obtain fire-retardant or water-repellent
characteristics.

1996 TRI  Data for Textile
Mill  Products
Table 4-1 summarizes TRI reporting by the textile
mills sector for  1996. Textile mill products
industries submitted 657 forms in 1996. Of these,
35 were Form A certification statements, certifying
that a facility's total annual reportable amount of a
 106

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                                                         Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-1. Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22, Continued
SIC
Code
2211
2221
2231
2251
2252
2253
2254
2257
2258
2259
2261
2262
2269
2273
2281
2282
2284
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299



Industry
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool
Women's Hosiery, Except Socks
Hosiery, nee*
Knit Outerwear Mills
Knit Underwear Mills
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills
Knitting Mills, nee*
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Finishing Plants, Manmade
Finishing Plants, nee*
Carpets & Rugs
Yarn Spinning Mills
Throwing & Winding Mills
Thread Mills
Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized
Tire Cord & Fabrics
Nonwoven Fabrics
Cordage & Twine
Textile Goods, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22
Total for SIC Code 22
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
10,037
102,619
388,371
0
0
23,000
0
56,798
495
6,800
141,048
5,087,269
20,326,972
651,381
0
0
77,022
9,895,645
447,621
871,039
0
352,045
3,475,454 ;
126,484
42,040,100
Total Transfers
Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
152,400
168,920
25,807
0
108,891
17,738
24,153
72,293
14,000
38
424,132
79,604
927,188
265,252
0
19,144
160,564
2,414,583
19,696
4,711
3,069
94,319
754,947
0
5,751,449
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
506,198
853,636
552,119
181
109,011
62,547
24,153
119,259
119,297
14,233
818,995
5,499,715
22,365,755
1,388,550
12,300
73,788
1,309,328
22,453,748
829,926
1,043,510
109,400
635,610
5,562,785
145,023
64,609,067
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
490
0
0
0
468
200
1,158
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility reported incorrectly under SIC code
2269 for 1996. The facility should have reported under SIC code 2869.  The incorrectly reported amounts were the following: 51,735 pounds of total releases,
4,437,287 pounds of other on-site waste management, 61,342 pounds of transfers off-site for further waste management and 4,552,414 pounds of total production-
related waste. Another facility incorrectly reported 393,101 pounds of total releases under SIC code 2269. The correct amount is 42,493 pounds. Accounting for
these two facility errors, the total releases rank of SIC code 2269 changes from 3 to 4.  Another facility incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of other on-site
waste management and total production-related waste under SIC code 2269. The correct amount is 0 pounds.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 TRI chemical was less than 500 pounds for the year
 and that the facility did not manufacture, process,
 or otherwise use more than 1 million pounds. This
 represented 5.3% of all submissions from this
 industry, which was about half the percentage
 (10.1%) of Form As submitted for all industries in
 1996. (The Form A certification statement is
 explained in Chapter 1.)

 The textile mill products industry that submitted the
 most forms was coated fabrics (SIC code 2295).
 This industry submitted 158 forms, one-quarter of
 the sector's total. Forms that reported more than
one SIC code in SIC code 22 to describe their
operations (explained below) was the second
largest group, with 120 forms. Miscellaneous
finishing plants (SIC code 2269) was third, with 67
forms.

Some facilities in this sector manufacture products
classified in distinct, but related SIC codes. A few
textile mills weave both cotton and synthetic
fabrics; such facilities would report SIC codes 2211
(broadwoven fabric mills, cotton) and 2221
(broadwoven fabric mills, manmade) to describe
their activities. Other facilities might finish
manmade fabrics (SIC code 2262) and also perform
                                                                                                               107

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          Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
operations such as bleaching and finishing raw
stock, yarn, and narrow fabrics (SIC code 2269,
miscellaneous finishing plants). Such facilities also
may report multiple SIC codes on their TRI forms.
(Box 1-5 in Chapter 1 further explains reporting of
multiple SIC codes and its affect on the analyses
presented in the TRI data release.)

As shown in Table 4-1, on- and off-site releases in
the textile mills sector totaled 17.3 million pounds
in 1996. Production of coated fabrics (SIC code
2295) reported the largest releases. This industry
reported 9.9 million pounds of on-site releases and
236,000 pounds of offcsite releases. Both amounts
were the largest reported in this sector for these
categories. Together, they represented 58.5% of the
all releases reported in this sector.

Forms with multiple SIC codes reported the
second-largest amounts of total on- and off-site
releases, 1.5 million pounds, or 8.6% of the  sector's
total. Miscellaneous finishing plants (SIC code 2269)
was third, with 1.5 million pounds, also 8.6%.
However, taking into account two facility reporting
errors in SIC code 2269 would reduce this amount to
1.1 million pounds. One facility submitted an incorrect
amount for releases of methanol and another facility
that should have reported in SIC code 2869 not SIC
code 2269 (further described below).

Other on-site waste management reported in the
textile mills sector totaled 42.0 million pounds in
1996. Miscellaneous finishing plants (SIC code
2269) reported nearly half (48.4%) of this amount,
20.3 million pounds. However, two forms
indicating SIC code 2269 have been identified as
containing reporting errors. These two forms
accounted for 15.1 million pounds of the other
on-site waste management reported in SIC code
2269. One of these forms was submitted by a
facility that correctly stopped reporting non-aerosol
forms of sulfuric acid  in 1995, because EPA had
modified the reporting definition for that chemical
to require reporting of aerosol forms only.
However, this facility  erroneously submitted a form
for non-aerosol forms  of sulfuric acid for 1996, for
10.7 million pounds that it treated on-site.
Secondly, an inorganic chemical manufacturing
facility, which files in SIC code 2869, inadvertently
submitted one form for xylenes in SIC code 2269.
This form included 4.4 million pounds of on-site
recycling of xylenes. After correcting for these
errors, amounts of other on-site waste management
for SIC code 2269 were 5.2 million pounds.

Manufacturing of coated fabrics (SIC code 2295)
ranked second for other on-site waste management
with 9.9 million pounds, or 23.5% of the sector's
total, and finishing of manmade fabrics (SIC code
2262) was third with 5.5 million pounds, or 12.1%.

Coated fabrics (SIC code 2295)  reported the largest
transfers off-site for further waste management in
this sector, 2.4 million pounds, 42.0% of the
sector's 5.8 million-pound total. Miscellaneous
finishing plants (SIC code 2269) was second with
927,000 pounds (16.1%). Forms reporting multiple
codes ranked third with 755,000 pounds (13.1%).

Coated fabrics (SIC code 2295)  also reported the
largest production-related waste in 1996, 22.5
million pounds. The miscellaneous finishing plants
industry (SIC code 2269) ranked second for total
production-related waste, with 22.4 million pounds;
the reporting errors described above reduce this
industry's total to 7.1 million pounds, which was still the
second-largest amount in this sector. The multiple-codes
group was third, with 5.6 million pounds.

Reporting Errors in 1996 Data for SIC Code 22
As mentioned above, some reports submitted to
EPA contained errors. These included:

•  reporting an incorrect amount for releases of
   methanol in SIC code 2269 (393,101 pounds
   instead of 42,493 pounds),

•  reporting of 10.7 million pounds of sulfuric acid
   treated on-site in SIC code 2269 (the facility
   should not have submitted a  form for this
   chemical), and
108

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                                                   Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
 •  reporting of 4.4 million pounds of xylenes
    recycled on-site in SIC code 2269 (this form
    should have been reported in SIC code 2869).

 EPA is working with these facilities to correct their
 reporting errors. These facility errors are footnoted
 in the appropriate tables and figures and
 incorporated where there are comparisons in the
 text.

 Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 22
 Table 4-2 further examines reporting on the forms
 submitted with multiple SIC codes. The most
 frequent combination, reported on 26 of the 120
forms with multiple SIC codes, was finishing
broadwoven cotton fabrics (SIC code 2261) and
finishing broadwoven manmade fabrics (SIC code
2262). This combination also reported the largest
total on- and off-site releases (196,000 pounds) and
the largest total production-related waste (1.2
million pounds) among multiple-codes forms in
SIC code 22.

Twelve forms reported the combination of
broadwoven cotton fabric mills (SIC code 2211)
and finishing of broadwoven cotton fabrics (SIC
code 2261), the second-largest number of multiple-
codes forms in SIC code 20. This combination
Table 4-2. Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22
SIC Codes
2211
2211
2211
2211
2211
2211
2211
2211
2211
2211
2221
2221
2221
2231
2231
2231
2253
2253
2258
2258
2258
2259
2259
2259
2261
2261
2261
2262
2262
2262
2269
2273
2281
2282
2221
2221
2221
2221
2221
2221
2261
2261
2261
2261
2257
2262
2262
2262
2262
2283
2254
2254
2261
2262
2269
2262
2262
2269
2262
2262
2262
2269
2269
2295
2295
2297
2295
2284

2259 2281 2282 2296
2261
2261 2262
2261 2262 2269 2281
2281

2262
2269
2281
2262 2295 2297

2269
2281
2295

2258
2269




2295 2299


2269
2295

2299

2297
2299

2298
Total for SIC Code 22
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
2
4
4
1
4
1
12
2
1
1
1
5
2
2
7
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
2
26
3
6
7
1
1
3
2
4
1
120
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
5
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
37,905
37,402
15,604
16,370
162,227
14,250
48,238
59,791
40,500
13,100
20
22,065
30
13,502
170,355
46
5,300
3,300
1,521
23,768
2,185
159,000
9,549
11,620
196,377
1 18,250
1,832
27,600
0
10,060
32,920
0
10,289
191,000
1,455,976
Total Transfers Total Non-
Total Total On- Total Other Off-site for Production- Production-
Off-slte and Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste related related
Releases Releases Management Management Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
207
0
0
0
0
1,808
0
0
0
7,000
3,900
0
1
1,500
0
0
0
: 0
3,577
0
0
9,886
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
13,522
0
0
0
41,402
37,905
37,609
15,604
16,370
162,227
14,250
50,046
59,791
40,500
13,100
7,020
25,965
30
13,503
171,855
46
5,300
3,300
1,521
27,345
2,185
159,000
19,435
11,620
196,378
118,250
1,832
27,600
0
10,060
46,442
0
10,289
191,000
1,497,378
0
0
0
0
0
0
551,695
0
39,000
69,000
0
0
1,988
45,000
886,600
55,539
88,000
0
0
17,455
0
275,580
0
313,800
767,559
55,300
86,343
140,000
0
0
0
0
82,595
0
3,475,454
250
1,984
55,579
0
6,768
0
8,000
250
0
0
0
36,605
1,988
0
0
1,659
0
0
13,693
0
29,019
0
104,910
1,170
204,845
0
254,627
11,350
8,125
1,399
750
0
11,976
0
754,947
38,293
41,534
71,183
16,370
168,996
14,250
609,709
59,923
79,500 .
69,000
7,500
62,520
5,964
58,680
1,057,200
57,244
93,300
3,300
15,214
44,800
31,204
275,580
122,728
326,600
1,171,649
173,300
342,802
179,250
8,100
11,459
49,743
0
104,890
191,000
5,562,785
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
350
0
0
118
0
0
0
0
0
0
468
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases are transfers off-site to disposal
from Section 6 of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 of Form R. Total Production-related Waste sums
Section 8 of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
                                                                                                    109

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           Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-3. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Textiles, SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2295

2269
2284
2221
2273
22%
2211
2262
2261
2299
2297
2231
2298
2258
2282
2257
2253

2281
2259
2251
2252
2254

Industry
Coated Fabrics. Not Rubberized
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Finishing Plains, nee*
Thread Mills
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade
Carpets & Rugs
Tire Cord &. Fabrics
Broadwown Fabric Mills, Cotton
Finishing Plants, Marunade
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Textile Goods, nee*
Nonwovcn Fabrics
BrotdwoWM Fabric Mills, Wool
Cordage & Twine
Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills
Throwing & Winding Mills
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Knit Outerwear Mills
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22
Yarn Spinning Mills
Knitting Milk, nee*
Women's Hosiery, Except Socks
Hosiery, nee*
Knit Underwear Mills
Total for SIC Codc-22
Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
9,908,147
1,147,765
1,471,712
1,120,795
466,136
372,361
334,078
287,100
289,244
201,294
173,796
166,120
72,514
106,331
105,310
42,197
40,011
6,470
19,021
12,300
0
181
2
0
16,342,885
On-site Land Releases
Surface Underground Injection RCRA Other
Water Class I Class II-V Subtitle C On-site Land
Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
270
149,787
11,038
0
330
40,860
360
55,904
200
17,771
800
0
71,307
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
348,877
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
158,424
5
0
0
0
10
250
0
0
0
0
1,801
0
5
0
0
13,125
0
0
0
0
0
0
173,620
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
9,908,417
1,455,976
1,482,755
1,120,795
466,466
413,221
334,448
343,254
289,444
219,065
174,596
166,120
145,622
106,331
105,565
42,197
40,011
19,595
19,021
12,300
0
181
2
0
16,865,382
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
236,305
41,402
5
0
48,713
5,813
59,102
250
42,763
0
14,066
0
6,322
0
0
0
0
12
0
0
7,395
0
0
0
462,148
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
10,144,722
1,497,378
1,482,760
1,120,795
515,179
419,034
393,550
343,504
332,207
219,065
188,662
166,120
151,944
106,331
105,565
42,197
40,011
19,607
19,021
12,300
7,395
181
2
0
17,327,530
Note: On-site Releases ftom Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility reported incorrectly under SIC code 2269. The facility should have reported
under SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported amount was 51,735 pounds of total releases. Another facility incorrectly reported 393,101 pounds of total releases
under SfC code 2269. The correct amount is 42,493 pounds. Accounting for these two facility errors, the total releases rank of SIC code 2269 changes from 3 to 4.
*nซc: not elsewhere classified.
 reported on- and off-site releases totaling 50,000
 pounds and production-related waste totaling
 610,000 pounds.

 The group that combined throwing and winding
 mills (SIC coded 2282), thread mills (SIC code
 2284), and cordage and twine (SIC code 2298)
 ranked second among multiple-codes forms for
 total on- and off-site releases with 191,000 pounds.
 The combination of broadwoven wool fabric mills
 (SIC code 2231), finishing broadwoven manmade
 fabrics (SIC code 2262), and coated fabrics (SIC
 code 2295) ranked second for total production-
 related waste, reporting 1.1 million pounds.

 On- and Off-site Releases

 Air emissions reported in the textile mills sector
 totaled 16.3 million pounds in 1996, 94.3% of the
 sector's total releases of 17.3 million pounds, as
shown in Table 4-3. Surface water discharges were
reported as 349,000 pounds. Although textile
milling and finishing are water-intensive processes,
releases to surface water was a smaller percentage
(2.0%) of the sector's total releases than the
average for all manufacturing industries (7.1%).
Amounts reported for other on-site land releases
(174,000 pounds) and off-site releases (transfers to
disposal,  462,000 pounds) were also relatively
small. Figure 4-1 makes clear the dominant role of
air emissions among on- and off-site releases in this
sector.

The industry reporting the largest total releases was
coated fabrics (SIC code 2295), with 10.1 million
pounds. This industry also had the largest air
emissions (9.9 million pounds) and off-site releases
(transfers to disposal, 236,000 pounds). The coated
fabrics industry reported releases to air of 5.5
million pounds of methyl ethyl ketone and 2.8
 110

-------
      Other On-site
      Land Releases
         1.0%
Transfers Off-site
  to Disposal
    2.7%
Surface Water
     2.0%
                           Underground Injection = 0%
                           RCRA Subtitle C Landfills = 0%
   Figure 4-1. Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
         Releases, 1996: Textile Mill Products
                    (SIC Code 22)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
                                                        Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
million pounds of toluene. This industry's transfers to
disposal included 104,000 pounds of antimony
compounds.

Forms reporting more than one SIC code in SIC code
22 reported 1.5 million pounds of total on- and off-
site releases. These multiple-codes forms reported 1.1
million pounds of air emissions. This group had the
largest surface water discharges (150,000 pounds)
and also accounted for most of the sector's on-site
land releases (158,000 pounds). Taking into account
reporting errors previously described, the
miscellaneous finishing plants industry (SIC code
2269) reported 1.08 million pounds of total releases,
entirely as air emissions.

Figure 4-2 shows the distribution of on- and off-site
releases for the industries (four-digit SIC code) with
the sector's largest releases.
                12,000,000
                10,000,000-
                 8,000,000 -
                 6,000,000 -
                 4,000,000 -
                 2,000,000 -
                           B Transfers Off-site to Disposal

                           • Other On-site Land Releases

                           H RCRA Subtitle C Landfills

                           D UIJ, Class II-V Wells

                           H UIJ, Class I Wells

                           H Surface Water
                           2295
                                  Mult.
                                          2269
                                                 2284
                                                        2221
                                                                2273
                                                                       2296
                                                                               2211
                                                                                      2262
                                                                                             2261
                  Figure 4-2. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest
                            Releases, 1996: Textile Mill  Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal). UU = underground injection. Forms with
more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility reported incorrectly under SIC code 2269. The facility
should have reported under SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported amount was 51,735 pounds of total releases. Another facility incorrectly reported 393,101
pounds of total releases under SIC code 2269. The correct amount is 42,493 pounds. Accounting for these two facility errors, the total releases rank of SIC code
2269 changes from 3 to 4.
                                                                                                              Ill

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            Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
  Other On-site Waste Management

  Table 4-4 shows the other on-site waste
  management reported in the textile mills sector.
  More than half of the sector's total of 42.0 million
  pounds of other on-site waste management was
  reported as treated on-site (23.6 million pounds);
  this quantity includes  10.7 million pounds reported
  In error, as noted above. A total of 13.1 million
  pounds was reported in on-site recycling, including
  4.4 million pounds reported in error, also as noted
  above. The sector also reported 5.3 million pounds
  of on-site energy recovery. Figure 4-3 illustrates
  this distribution of types of on-site waste
  management.
                                   Recycled
                                    On-site
                                    31.1%
Treated
On-site
 56.2%
                                     Energy Recovery
                                        On-site
                                         12.7%
   Figure 4-3.  Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
 Management, 1996: Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
                                                           Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.
Table 4-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996:  Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2269
2295
2262

2297
2273
2296
2231
2299
2261

2221
2284
2257
2253
2211
2259
2258
2251
2252
2254
2281
2282
2298

Industry
Finishing Plants, nee*
Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized
Finishing Plants, Manmade
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Nonwoven Fabrics
Carpels & Rugs
Tire Cord & Fabrics
Broadwovcn Fabric Mills, Wool
Textile Goods, ncc*
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22
Broadwovcn Fabric Mills, Manmade
Thread Mills
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Knit Outerwear Mills
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton
Knitting Mills, nee*
Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills
Women's Hosiery, Except Socks
Hosiery, nee*
Knit Underwear Mills
Yam Spinning Mills
Throwing & Winding Mills
Cordage & Twine
Total for SIC Code 22
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
6,282,304
1,982,438
3,849,529
303,000
520,839
6,000
0
0
5,000
9,000
0
82,273
0
38,476
0
0
6,800
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13,085,659
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
981,867
3,221,289
1,114,500
3
0
0
0
0
0
9,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5,326,659 	
Treated
On-site
Pounds
13,062,801
4,691,918
123,240
3,172,451
350,200
645,381
447,621
388,371
347,045
123,048
126,484
20,346
77,022
18,322
23,000
10,037
0
495
0
0
0
0
0
0
23,627,782
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
20,326,972
9,895,645
5,087,269
3,475,454
871,039
651,381
447,621
388,371
352,045
141,048
126,484
102,619
77,022
56,798
23,000
10,037
6,800
495
0
0
0
0
0
0
42,040,100
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the
"multiple" category. One facility reported incorrectly under SIC code 2269. The facility should have reported under SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported
amounts were K follows: 4,426,812 pounds of recycling on-site, 10,475 pounds of treatment on-site and 4,437,287 pounds of total other on-site waste
management. Another facility incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of treatment on-site and total on-site waste management in SIC code 2269 for 1996. The
correct amount is 0 pounds. Accounting for these two facility errors, the rank of SIC code 2269 for total on-site waste management changes from 1 to 2.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 112

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                                                    Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
 Miscellaneous finishing plants (SIC code 2269)
 reported the largest amounts of on-site recycling
 and on-site treatment in the textile mills sector, but
 these data included the reporting errors discussed
 earlier in this chapter. Taking these errors into
 account, finishing of manmade fabrics (SIC code
 2262) ranked first for on-site recycling with 3.8
 million pounds, and coated fabrics (SIC code 2295)
 ranked first for on-site treatment with 4.7 million
 pounds. Coated fabrics ranked second for on-site
 recycling with 2.0 million pounds, and the
 multiple-codes group  ranked second for on-site
 treatment with 3.2  million pounds.

 Coated fabrics (SIC code 2295) reported the largest
 amount of on-site energy recovery, 3.2 million
 pounds. Finishing of manmade fabrics (SIC code
 2262) was second with 1.1 million pounds.
Figure 4-4 illustrates the distribution of on-site
waste management reporting for the top industries
in this sector.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

Reporting of transfers off-site for further waste
management in the textile mills sector was more
diverse than was the case for on- and off-site
releases and other on-site waste management. The
total of such transfers was 5.8 million pounds. As
shown in Table 4-5, the sector reported 2.3 million
pounds of transfers to POTWs  (39.8% of total
transfers for further waste management), 1.9
million pounds to energy recovery (33.5%), and 1.0
million pounds to recycling (17.6%). The category
with the smallest reported transfers was treatment,
with 524,000 pounds (9.1% of  the total transfers).
                 25,000,000
                 20,000,000 -
                 15,000,000 -
               I
               <ฃ
                 10,000,000 -
                  5,000,000 -
                D Treated

                • Energy Recovery

                f^ Recycled
                          2269
                                 2295
                                       2262
                                              MuK.
                                                    2297
                                                           2273
                                                                 2296
                                                                        2231
                                                                              2299
                                                                                    2261
       Figure 4-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
                                   Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC Code 22 are assigned to the
"multiple" category. One facility reported incorrectly under SIC code 2269. The facility should have reported under SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported
amounts were as follows: 4,426,812 pounds of recycling on-site, 10,475 pounds of treatment on-site and 4,437,287 pounds of total other on-site waste
management. Another facility incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of treatment on-site and total on-site waste management in SIC code 2269 for 1996. The
correct amount is 0 pounds. Accounting for these two facility errors, the rank of SIC code 2269 for total on-site waste management changes from 1 to 2.
                                                                                                       113

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             Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products

  Table 4-5. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2295
2269

2261
2273
2221
2284
2211
2252
2299
2262
2257
2231
2254
2296
2282
2253
2258
2297
2298
2259
2251
2281


Industry
Coaled Fabrics, Not Rubberized
Finishing Plants, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Carpels & Rugs
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade
Thread Mills
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton
Hosiery, nee*
Textile Goods, nee*
Finishing Plants, Manmade
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool
Knit Underwear Mills
Tire Cord & Fabrics
Throwing & Winding Mills
Knit Outerwear Mills
Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills
Nonwoven Fabrics
Cordage & Twine
Knitting Mills, nee*
Women's Hosiery, Except Socks
Yam Spinning Mills
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22
Total for SIC Code 22
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
637,305
331,005
0
0
336
43,230
2,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,013,876
Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
1,429,441
397,046
2,649
0
0
16,400
63,262
0
0
7,875
0
0
0
0
0
6,327
0
0
0
3,069
0
0
0
0
1,926,069
Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
337,052
94,078
13,757
0
842
30
3,200
0
0
0
4,455
50,288
5,172
0
12,491
0
0
0
2,574
0
0
0
0
0
523,939
Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
10,785
105,059
738,541
424,132
264,074
109,260
92,102
152,400
108,891
86,444
75,149
22,005
20,635
24,153
7,205
12,817
17,738
14,000
2,137
0
38
0
0
0
2,287,565
Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Off-site
Transfers
for Further
Waste
Management
Pounds
2,414,583
927,188
754,947
424,132
265,252
168,920
160,564
152,400
108,891
94,319
79,604
72,293
25,807
24,153
19,696
19,144
17,738
14,000
4,711
3,069
38
0
0
0
5,751,449
 Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
 transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple"
 category.
 *ncc: not elsewhere classified.
                                     To Recycling
                                       17.6%
   To POTWs
     39.8%
                                           To Energy
                                            Recovery
                                            33.5%
             To Treatment
                9.1%
    Figure 4-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
  Further Waste Management, 1996: Textile Mill Products
                     (SIC Code 22)
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
(excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
Figure 4-5 shows the distribution of these types of
transfers off-site.

The textile milling industry with the largest
transfers off-site for further waste management was
coated fabrics (SIC code 2295), with a total of 2.4
million pounds. Miscellaneous finishing plants
(SIC code 2269) was second, with 927,000 pounds.
Both industries reported amounts in all four types
of transfers off-site for further waste management,
and for both industries, transfers to energy recovery
was the largest type (1.4 million pounds for the
coated fabrics industry and 397,000 pounds for the
miscellaneous finishing plants).

Forms with multiple SIC codes within SIC code 22
ranked third for transfers off-site for further waste
management, with 755,000 pounds, which was
principally comprised of transfers to POTWs.
  114

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                                                  Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
              3,000,000
              2,500,000 -
              2,000,000 -
              1,500,000-
              1,000,000 -
                500,000 •
       • Other Off-site Transfers

       HToPOTWs

       D To Treatment

       D To Energy Recovery

       • To Recycling
                                                                             ESS   ESS3
                       2295
                              2269
                                     Mult.
                                           2261
                                                  2273
                                                         2221
                                                               2284
                                                                      2211
                                                                             2252
                                                                                   2299
  Figure 4-6.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals,
                              1996: Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other off-site transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
Figure 4-6 illustrates the distribution of off-site
transfers for further waste management for the top
industries in this sector.

1996 TRI  Data by  State for
Textile  Mill  Products

Table 4-6 presents summary data for the textile
mills sector by state. Historically centered in New
England, a substantial segment of the sector has
migrated to the southeast. More than 10% of the
forms in this sector were submitted in each of three
states: North Carolina (117 forms, 17.8% of the
total), South Carolina (86 forms, 13.1%), and
Georgia (78 forms, 11.9%).
Other states, however, ranked first for the largest
total releases and largest amounts of total
production-related waste in this sector.

The largest total on- and off-site releases were
reported in Mississippi, with 4.0 million pounds, or
23.0% of the sector's total releases.  Mississippi
also had the largest on-site releases, 3.9 million
pounds, or 23.3% of the sector's total on-site
releases. North Carolina was second in both
categories, with 2.8 million pounds  of total
releases, including 2.7 million pounds of on-site
releases. These amounts were 15.9% of the sector's
total in these categories. Tennessee was third with
1.7 million pounds in both total releases and on-site
releases, approximately 10% of these categories.
                                                                                                 115

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             Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
 Table 4-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22
State
Alabama
Arkansas
California
Connecticut
Florid*
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Miine
Midland
Mtsttchujcits
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Now Hampshire
New Jcrjey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rko
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Vennom
Virginia
Wwhlngton
Wisconsin
Total for SIC Code 22
Total
Facilities
Number
13
3
7
8
1
47
3
1
2
2
3
19
2
1
3
1
2
16
5
63
10
1
1
7
1
9
38
6
5
1
17
2
2
307
Total
Forms
Number
32
9
15
19
I
78
5
2
3
3
6
50
2
4
11
I
2
32
8
117
31
1
2
10
6
31
86
18
6
1
52
5
8
657
Form As
Number
7
0
0
0
0
10
1
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
3
1
0
3
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
35
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
583,708
79,202
143,701
390,693
1,262
780,146
99,700
31,481
28,788
10,904
145,544
677,259
43,109
124,940
3,930,020
11,641
12,858
131,942
55,320
2,677,248
1,380,418
0
35,750
92,731
6,060
679,633
1,347,117
1,717,401
16,605
3,320
755,549
33,131
838,201
16,865,382
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
45,345
44,935
0
0
0
9,228
0
0
0
0
0
25,637
0
0
51,450
0
0
0
0
80,268
43,070
0
0
9,604
0
1,700
38,083
21,268
0
0
78,691
0
12,869
462,148
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
629,053
124,137
143,701
390,693
1,262
789,374
99,700
31,481
28,788
10,904
145,544
702,896
43,109
124,940
3,981,470
11,641
12,858
131,942
55,320
2,757,516
1,423,488
0
35,750
102,335
6,060
681,333
1,385,200
1,738,669
16,605
3,320
834,240
33,131
851,070
17,327,530
Total Transfers
Total Other Off-site for
On-site Waste Further Waste
Management Management
Pounds Pounds
483,766
165,113
1,179,406
1,966,576
240,000
911,711
0
0
520,839
330
49,503
4,041,110
0
645,482
2,111,300
12,207
42,750
554,119
50,625
3,414,418
1,707,996
0
0
3,612,134
23,000
1,691,595
5,732,725
10,959,439
277,225
19,000
1,472,321
18,130
137,280
42,040,100
102,274
8,610
451,625
82,139
0
424,705
50,405
0
525
20,130
194,941
564,822
8,101
91,354
146,870
0
255
173,690
3,069
1,297,922
343,122
0
0
42,081
101
114,720
807,752
268,707
42,661
5
121,297
377,977
11,589
5,751,449
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
1,202,129
269,036
1,775,255
2,439,153
241,257
2,024,771
150,300
31,481
550,557
31,164
378,563
5,281,702
50,947
861,776
6,217,668
12,207
57,899
795,535
93,191
7,516,495
3,462,172
0
36,000
3,756,335
29,061
2,155,113
7,934,733
12,966,969
332,759
22,300
2,507,278
429,238
996,023
64,609,067
350
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
118
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
490
0
0
1,158
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).  One
facility in South Carolina reported incorrectly in SIC code 22 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 28.  The incorrectly reported amounts were
as follows: 51,735 pounds of total releases, 4,437,287 pounds of other on-site waste management, 61,342 pounds of transfers off-site for further waste
management and 4,552,414 pounds of total production-related waste. The rank of South Carolina for total other on-site waste management changes from 2 to 10
and for total production-related waste from 2 to 7. Another facility, in Rhode Island, incorrectly reported 393,101 pounds of total releases. The correct amount is
42,493 pounds. One facility in Ohio incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of other on-site waste management and total production-related waste. The rank of
Ohio for total other on-site waste management changes from 1 to 14 and for total production-related waste changes from 1 to 9.
 The largest off-site releases (transfers to disposal)
 were reported in North Carolina (80,000 pounds),
 Virginia (79,000 pounds), and Mississippi (51,000
 pounds).

 Excluding reporting errors, Massachusetts ranked
 first for on-site waste management, with a total of
 4.0 million pounds. Pennsylvania followed with 3.6
 million pounds and North Carolina with 3.4 million
 pounds. Ranking first for total production-related
waste was North Carolina, with 7.5 million pounds.
Other states where production-related waste was
reported in large quantities in this sector were
Mississippi with 6.2 million pounds and
Massachusetts with 5.3 million pounds.

For transfers off-site for further waste management,
North Carolina reported the largest amount, 1.3
million pounds. South Carolina reported 746,000
pounds (excluding a reporting error) and
 116

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                                               Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Massachusetts 565,000 pounds, placing them
second and third in this category.

Map 4-1 illustrates the geographic distribution of
total on- and off-site releases in the textile mills
sector.

1996 TRI  Data  by

Chemical for Textile Mill

Products

The 15 chemicals  with the largest on- and off-site
releases in the textile mills sector appear in Table
4-7. -Releases of these chemicals totaled 15.7
million pounds, or 90.7% of all releases reported in
textile milling. The majority of this reporting was
for air emissions, which totaled 15.0 million
pounds. Air emissions accounted for 85% or more
of the releases of 13 of the 15 chemicals. Surface
water discharges were 317,000 pounds, and other
on-site land releases were 158,000 pounds. Off-site
releases (transfers to disposal) of 203,000 pounds
were reported for these chemicals.

The chemical with the largest total releases was
methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), with 5.7 million
pounds. Ranking second and third were toluene
with 3.7 million pounds and methanol with 2.4
million pounds. Air emissions accounted for nearly
100% of the releases of all three chemicals. All
three are widely used in fabric coating and are also
used in finishing operations. One facility in the
coated fabrics industry reported air emissions of 2.8
million pounds of MEK, used in printing processes.
This facility is changing to water-based inks and
phasing out this use of MEK (see "Facilities with
Largest Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-
1996," later in this chapter.)

The two chemicals with large releases other than air
emissions were nitrate compounds and antimony
compounds. For nitrate compounds, which had total
releases of 444,000 pounds, discharges to surface
water were 284,000 pounds and other on-site land
releases were 158,000 pounds. Forms with multiple
SIC codes in SIC code 22 reported the largest
amounts of nitrate compounds in both categories:
117,000 pounds of the surface water discharges and
all of the other on-site land releases. For antimony
compounds, with 174,000 pounds of total releases,
the primary type of release was off-site (transfers to
disposal). Antimony trioxide is used in the textile
industry as a flame retardant in fabrics. Antimony
compounds may also be used  as solvents. The
coated fabrics industry (SIC code 2295) reported
104,000 pounds of the off-site releases of antimony
compounds.

OSHA Carcinogens

On- and off-site releases of chemicals designated as
OSHA carcinogens totaled 1.0 million pounds in
the textile mills sector in 1996. This was  5.9% of
the sector's total on- and off-site releases, a smaller
percentage than in many sectors that report to TRI.
Table 4-8 shows the releases of these chemicals by
four-digit industry in this sector. (OSHA
carcinogens and the bases for  their designation
appear in Box 1-9 in Chapter  1.) Thread mills (SIC
code 2284) reported the largest releases of OSHA
carcinogens in this sector, 273,000 pounds.
Miscellaneous finishing plants (SIC code 2269)
reported 164,000 pounds, ranking second, and
coated fabrics (SIC code 2295), reported  119,000
pounds, ranking third.

Two of the top 15 chemicals for total releases in
this sector were OSHA carcinogens:
dichloromethane and trichloroethylene. Total
releases of these two chemicals were 469,000
pounds and 157,000 pounds, respectively (see
Table 4-7). OSHA carcinogens with the next-
largest amounts released on- and off-site  were
formaldehyde with 107,000 pounds,
N,N-dimethylformamide with 98,000 pounds, and
styrene with 87,000 pounds.
                                                                                            117

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          Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
                                                                                                    PS

                                                                                                    a


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                                                                                                    C4-H
                                                                                                    O
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118

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                                                                Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-7.  The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Textile Mill Products,
SIC Code 22 (in Rank Order)
CAS
Number
78-93-3
108-88-3
67-56-1
7664-41-7
108-10-1
1330-20-7
75-09-2
-
872-50-4
91-20-3
—
—
79-01-6
107-21-1
110-54-3


Chemical
Methyl ethyl ketone
Toluene
Methanol
Ammonia
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Xylene (mixed isomers)
Dichloromethane
Nitrate compounds
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
Naphthalene
Antimony compounds
Glycol ethers
Trichloroethylene
Ethylene glycol
n-Hexane
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 22
Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
5,672,423
3,648,784
2,387,251
765,182
510,132
505,752
468,680
500
290,774
215,666
1,188
161,027
156,528
130,119
123,765
15,037,771
16,342,885
On-site Land Releases
Surface Underground Injection RCRA Other
Water Class I Class II-V Subtitle C On-site Land
Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
250
5
1,650
6,894
0
1,669
0
284,407
26
5,100
1,157
4,891
0
11,150
0
317,199
348,877
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
158,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
158,000
173,620
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
5,672,673
3,648,789
2,388,901
772,076
510,132
507,421
468,680
442,907
290,800
220,766
2,345
165,918
156,528
141,269
123,765
15,512,970
16,865,382
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
9,400
2,200
665
4,953
250
0
0
1,401
1,099
0
171,987
250
0
10,800
0
203,005
462,148
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
5,682,073
3,650,989
2,389,566
777,029
510,382
507,421
468,680
444,308
291,899
220,766
174,332
166,168
156,528
152,069
123,765
15,715,975
17,327,530
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. One facility reported incorrectly
in SIC code 22 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 28. The incorrectly reported amount was 51,735 pounds of total releases of xylene (mixed
isomers). The total releases rank of xylene (mixed isomers) changes from 6 to 7.


Table 4-8.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Textile Mill Products, SIC
Code 22 (in Rank Order)
On-site Land Releases
Surface Underground Injection
SIC
Code
2284
2269
2295
2221
2262

2273
2257
2297
2261
2299
2296
2298
2231
2282
2253


Industry
Thread Mills
Finishing Plants, nee*
Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade
Finishing Plants, Manmade
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Carpets & Rugs
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Nonwoven Fabrics
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Textile Goods, nee*
Tire Cord & Fabrics
Cordage & Twine
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool
Throwing & Winding Mills
Knit Outerwear Mills
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 22
RCRA
Other
Total Air Water Class I Class II-V Subtitle C On-site Land
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
272,595
163,878
86,344
98,734
91,142
80,710
39,388
40,000
21,188
20,702
19,800
13,995
15,132
11,754
10,500
171
986,033
16,342,885
0
0
0
0
0
100
660
0
0 .
0
0
0
0
187
0
0
947
348,877
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
; o
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
173,620
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
272,595
163,878
86,344
98,734
91,142
80,810
40,048
40,000
21,188
20,702
19,800
13,995
15,132
11,941
10,500
171
986,980
16,865,382
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
0
0
32,558
0
0
340
390
0
0
0
0
1,849
0
0
0
0
35,137
462,148
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
272,595
163,878
118,902
98,734
91,142
81,150
40,438
40,000
21,188
20,702
19,800
15,844
15,132
11,941
10,500
171
1,022,117
17,327,530
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                             119

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          Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
              300.000
              250,000
              200,000-
              150,000-
              100,000-
               50,000-
    D Transfers Off-site to Disposal
      Other On-site Land Releases
    El RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
    Q UIJ, Class II-V Wells
      UIJ, Class I Wells
      Surface Water
                         2284
                                      2269
                                                   2295
                                                                2221
                                                                             2262
    Figure 4-7. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with Largest
                         Totals, 1996:  Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: On-silc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) for Form R. UIJ = underground injection.
Figure 4-7 illustrates the on- and off-site releases of
the four-digit SIC codes with the largest OSHA
carcinogen releases.

1996 TRI  Chemicals  in

Waste for Textile Mill

Products

The textile mills sector reported total production-
related waste in 1996 of 64.6 million pounds, as
shown in Table 4-9. The waste management
reported in the largest amount was on-site
treatment, with 23.6 million pounds. As noted
earlier in this chapter, this included  10.7 million
pounds, identified as a reporting error. The sector
also reported 13.1 million pounds of on-site
recycling, including a 4.4 million-pound reporting
error.
Quantities reported as released on- and off-site
were 16.8 million pounds. Other waste
management types each accounted for 5 million
pounds or less of the total. Figure 4-8 illustrates the
distribution of waste management types in this
sector.


Coated fabrics (SIC code 2295) reported the largest
quantities of total  production-related waste (22.5
million pounds) and the largest quantities of on-
and off-site releases (10.1 million pounds). This
industry's reporting accounted for 60.0% of the
sector's quantities released.


Distribution of production-related waste for the top
industries in the sector appears in Figure 4-9.
120

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                                                        Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-9. Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22
(in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2295
2269

2262
2273
2284
2297
2221
2296
2261
2299
2231
2211

2258
2257
2298
2252
2282
2253
2254
2259
2281
2251

Industry
Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized
Finishing Plants, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Finishing Plants, Manmade
Carpets & Rugs
Thread Mills
Nonwoven Fabrics
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade
Tire Cord & Fabrics
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Textile Goods, nee*
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22
Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Cordage & Twine
Hosiery, nee*
Throwing & Winding Mills
Knit Outerwear Mills
Knit Underwear Mills
Knitting Mills, nee*
Yarn Spinning Mills
Women's Hosiery, Except Socks
Total for SIC Code 22
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
1,982,438
6,282,304
303,000
3,849,529
6,000
0
520,839
82,273
0
9,000
5,000
0
0
0
0
38,476
0
0
0
0
0
6,800
0
0
13,085,659
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
3,221,289
981,867
3
1,114,500
0
0
0
0
0
9,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5,326,659
Treated
On-site
Pounds
4,691,918
13,062,801
3,172,451
123,240
645,381
77,022
350,200
20,346
447,621
123,048
347,045
388,371
10,037
126,484
495
18,322
0
0
0
23,000
0
0
0
0
23,627,782
Recycled
Off -site
Pounds
632,699
331,000
0
0
0
0
0
1 10,491
6,027
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,080,217
Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
1,469,329
399,096
2,649
0
0
63,254
0
16,400
0
0
7,875
0
0
0
0
0
3,069
0
6,237
0
0
0
0
0
1,967,909
Treated
Off-site
Pounds
348,260
192,882
750,527
85,561
263,741
83,992
4,846
109,033
7,261
457,601
85,796
25,525
152,645
0
14,000
22,375
0
17,891
12,677
17,144
24,153
0
0
0
2,675,910
Quantity
Released
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
10,107,815
1,115,805
1,334,155
326,885
473,428
1,085,060
167,625
515,093
369,017
220,346
189,894
138,223
343,516
18,539
104,802
40,086
106,331
91,120
54,874
22,403
0
7,433
12,300
181
16,844,931
Total Non- .
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
22,453,748
22,365,755
5,562,785
5,499,715
1,388,550
1,309,328
1,043,510
853,636
829,926
818,995
635,610
552,119
506,198
145,023
119,297
119,259
109,400
109,01 1
73,788
62,547
24,153
14,233
12,300
181
64,609,067
0
0
468
0
0
0
0
0
490
0
0
0
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,158
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility
reported incorrectly in SIC code 2269 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported amounts were as follows: 4,426,812
pounds of recycling on-site and 4,552,414 pounds of total production-related waste. The rank for recycling on-site for SIC code 2269 changes from 1 to 4.
Another facility incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of treatment on-site and total production-related waste under SIC code 2269. The correct amount is 0
pounds. The rank for treatment on-site of SIC code 2269 changes from 1 to 3.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
         Quantity Released
             26.1%
  Off-site Waste
   Management
     8.9%
                                           On-site Waste
                                           Management
                                             65.1%
  Figure 4-8.  Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste,
         1996: Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.
Projected Quantities of TRI
Chemicals in Waste

As shown in Table 4-10, waste management
quantities in the textile mills sector were projected
to decrease 7.3% by 1998. (As explained in Chapter
1, facilities not only report current data but project
waste management quantities for the next two years
in their TRI submissions.) Forms in this sector
reported total production-related waste of 64.6
million pounds in 1996 and projected total
production-related waste of 59.9 million pounds in
1998. These projections, however, include the two
forms that represent large reporting errors in this
sector for on-site recycling and on-site treatment.
                                                                                                              121

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          Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
    100%
    80%
    60% •
    40% •
    20% •   =
         2295
                      H Quantity Released

                      • Treated Off-site

                      M Energy Recovery Off-site

                      D Recycled Off-site

                      0 Treated On-site

                      S Energy Recovery On-site

                      B Recycled On-site
                2269
                      Mult.
                            2262
                                   2273
                                         2284
                                               2297
                                                      2221
                                                            2296
                                                                  2261
     Figure 4-9. Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
                                 Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: Dซa from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC Code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
Excluding the data from those two forms, total
production-related waste for the textile mills sector
would decrease 12.7% from 49.4 million pounds in
1996 to a projected 43.1 million pounds in 1998.
The great majority of this projected 6.3 million-
pound reduction was expected in quantities released
on- and off-site. The projection for this category
was a decrease of 5.8 million pounds.

Figure 4-10 illustrates the projected percentage
changes in waste management hi this sector.

When data from the two reporting errors are
excluded, the quantities released for this sector are
projected to decrease from one-third (34.0%) of the
1996 total production-related waste to one-fourth
(25.4%) of the total in 1998. This indicates that
improvement is expected in the textile mills
sector's management of TRI chemicals in waste, as
measured by the waste management hierarchy,
explained in Chapter 1. In the terms of the
hierarchy, release or disposal is the least
environmentally desirable option.

Source Reduction Activity

Of the 657 forms submitted by the textile mills
sector, 144 reported undertaking one or more
source reduction activities in 1996. Reporting of
source reduction activities in this sector appears in
Table 4-11.

In the coated fabrics industry (SIC code 2295), 58
forms reported source reduction activity, more than
one-third (36.7%) of the forms submitted in this
industry. In the miscellaneous finishing plants
industry (SIC code 2669), 19 forms indicated
source reduction activity, which was 28.4% of the
industry's forms. These were the industries with the
largest number of such forms.
122

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                                                                   Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals In Waste, 1996-1998:  Textile Mill Products,
SIC Code 22
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 22
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 22
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
13,085,659 20.3
5,326,659 8.2
23,627,782 36.6
1,080,217 1.7
1,967,909 3.0
2,675,910 4.1
16,844,931 26.1
64,609,067 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent
2.3
2.9
7.0
3.4
-15.1
-7.8
-19.3
-2.5
Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
13,388,910 21.3
5,483,169 8.7
25,282,626 40.1
1,117,078 1.8
1,670,560 2.7
2,467,935 3.9
13,590,168 21.6
63,000,446 100.0
Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent
-5.6
2.4
0.7
2.0
-4.6
0.2
-19.1
-4.9
Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
12,637,308 21.1
5,612,342 9.4
25,452,438 42.5
1,139,546 1.9
1,593,535 2.7
2,471,827 4.1
10,996,882 18.4 .
59,903,878 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent
-3.4
5.4
7.7
5.5
-19.0
-7.6
-34.7
-7.3
 Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996. One facility reported incorrectly in SIC code 22 for 1996. The
 facility should have reported in SIC code 28.  The incorrectly reported amounts were as follows: 4,426,812 pounds of recycling on-site, 63,392 pounds of energy
 recovery off-site, 10,475 pounds of treatment on-site and 51,735 pounds of quantity released on- and off-site for 1996 and projections of 4,500,000 pounds of
 recycling on-site, 60,000 pounds of energy recovery off-site, 10,000 pounds of treatment on-site and 50,000 pounds of quantity released on- and off-site for 1997
 and 1998. Another facility incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of treatment on-site for 1996 and projected 12,016,010 pounds for 1997 and 12,200,000
 pounds for 1998. The correct amounts are 0 pounds. The percentage change from 1996 to 1997 in recycling on-site changes from 2.3% to 2.7%, in treatment on-
 site changes from 7.0% to 2.5%, and in total production-related waste changes from -2.5% to -6.1%. The percentage change from 1997 to 1998 in recycling on-site
 changes from -5.6% to -8.5%, hi treatment on-site changes from 0.7% to -0.1%, and in total production-related waste changes from -4.9% to -7.1%. The
 percentage change  from 1996 to 1998 in recycling on-site changes from -3.4% to -6.0%, in treatment on-site changes from 7.7% to 2.4%, and in total production-
 related waste changes from -7.5% to -12.7%.
                                                                                                                                     123

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              Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
                           On-sita Waste
                            Management
Off-site Waste
 Management
     Quantity
    Released
On- and Off-site
Total Production-
  related Waste
    Figure 4-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
   	Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
 Note: Current year and projected year amount are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996. One facility reported incorrectly in SIC code 22 for 1996. The faci-
 lity should have reported in SIC code 28. Another facility incorrectly reported amounts and projections for on-site treatment.  (See note on Table 4-10.) The per-
 centage change from 1996 to 1997 in on-site waste management changes from 5.0% to 2.6% and in total production-related waste changes from -2.5% to -6.1%. The
 percentage change from 1996 to 1998 in on-site waste management changes from 4.0% to 0.3% and in total production-related waste changes from -7.3% to -12.7%.

 Table 4-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996:  Textile  Mill Products, SIC Code 22
Forms Reporting
Source Reduction
Activities
SIC
Code
2211
2221
2231
2251
2252
2253
2254
2257
2258
2259
2261
2262
2269
2273
2281
2282
2284
2295
22%
2297
2298
2299



Total
Industry Forms
Number
Brotdwovcn Fabric Mills, Cotton
Brotdwoven Fabric Mills, Manrrade
Brewdwovcn Fabric Mills, Wool
Women's Hosiery. Except Socks
Hosiery, nee*
Knit Outerwear Mills
Knit Underwear Mills
Weft Knit Fabric Mills
Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills
Knitting Mills, nee*
Finishing Plants, Cotton
Finishing Plants, Manmade
Finishing Plants, nee*
Carpels & Rugs
Yarn Spinning Mills
Throwing & Winding Mills
Thread Mills
Coaled Fabrics, Not Rubberized
Ttre Cord & Fabrics
Nonwowa Fabrics
Cordage & Twine
Textile Goods, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 22
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22
Total for SIC Code 22
19
22
25
3
4
13
1
3
3
2
34
34
67
59
2
5
9
158
25
12
5
27
120
5
657
Percent of Of
All Forms P
Number Percent
0
6
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
9
19
10
0
1
6
58
2
3
0
6
14
0
144
0.0
27.3
16.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
33.3
100.0
8.8
26.5
28.4
16.9
0.0
20.0
66.7
36.7
8.0
25.0
0.0
22.2
11.7
0.0
21.9
Category of Source Reduction Activity
Raw Surface
Good Spill Material Process Cleaning Preparation Product
erating Inventory and Leak Modifi- Modifi- and and Modifi-
ractices Control Prevention cations cations Degreasing Finishing cations
Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number
0
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
3
9
0
0
1
2
28
0
3
0
1
2
0
58
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
1
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
3
0
10
0
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
4
8
6
0
0
1
14
0
0
0
4
6
0
52
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
3
0
0
1
17
0
0
0
0
3
0
27
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
1
7
0
0
0
0
2
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
2
7
2
0
0
0
3
0
16
Note:  Fbrms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc:  not elsewhere classified.
 124

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                                              Chapter 4 — TR1 Data for Textile Mill Products
In both these industries, as in the sector as a whole,
good operating practices was the source reduction
activity most often reported. In the coated fabrics
industry, process modifications was the next most
frequent activity indicated. For miscellaneous
finishing plants, raw material modifications ranked
second, as shown in Table 4-11.

Year-to-Year

Comparisons  for Textile

Mill  Products

1995-1996 TRI Data for Textile Mill
Products

From 1995 to 1996, the number of forms submitted
in the textile mills sector decreased 11.9% from
746 forms to 657. Submissions of both Form Rs
and Form As declined, as shown in Table 4-12. In
most of the other sectors reporting to TRI, the
number of Form As increased. (The Form A
certification statement is explained in Chapter  1.)

 On- and Off-site Releases

Table 4-12 shows the textile mills sector's
reporting of on- and off-site releases in 1995 and
 1996. Total releases for the sector decreased 6.3%,
 from 18.5 million pounds in 1995 to 17.3 million
 pounds in 1996. Figure 4-11 displays the
 percentage change from 1995 to 1996 in the types
 of release.

 The largest reduction in absolute terms, 1.3 million
 pounds, occurred in reported air emissions.
 Decreases in both fugitive and point source
 emissions contributed to this reduction. Among
 other on-site release types, both surface water
 discharges and on-site land releases showed small
 increases. A small  decrease was reported in off-site
 releases (transfers to disposal).
Other On-site Waste Management

All three methods of other on-site waste
management showed increases from 1995 to 1996
in textile mills reporting. Total other on-site waste
management was 32.6 million pounds in 1995 and
42.0 million pounds in 1996, an increase of 29.0%.
These data also appear in Table 4-12. The largest
change, in both pounds and percent, was reported in
on-site treatment, which increased from 17.0
million pounds to 23.6 million pounds, a 39.4%
increase. However, the facility that erroneously
reported on-site treatment of sulfuric acid in 1996
did not report in 1995; thus the 1995-1996 change
reflects an apparent increase for one form from no
data in 1995 to 10.7 million pounds in 1996.
Another facility also reported a smaller amount
(11,000 pounds) of on-site treatment in error. When
adjusted for these reporting errors, on-site treatment
shows a decrease of 23.7%.

On-site recycling increased from 10.7 million
pounds to 13.1 million pounds, or 22.2%. This
category also reflects an apparent increase from  a
reporting error, from no data in 1995 to 4.4 million
pounds in 1996. Taking this error into account, on-
site recycling decreased 19.1%.

The textile mills sector reported 4.9 million pounds
of on-site energy recovery in 1995 and 5.3 million
pounds in 1996, an increase of 8.2%.

 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

Table 4-12 also presents  transfers off-site for
further waste management reported in the textile
mills sector in 1995 and  1996. These transfers
decreased from 6.5 million pounds to 5.8 million
pounds during this period, an 11.3% reduction. All
types of off-site transfers for further waste
management decreased, except transfers to
recycling, which rose from 798,000 pounds in 1995
to 1.0 million pounds in  1996. The largest absolute
reduction was reported in transfers to POTWs, from
2.9 million pounds to 2.3 million pounds.
                                                                                            125

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               Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
 Table 4-12. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
 Further Waste Management, 1995-1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22



Total Facilities
Total Forms
Form Rs
Form As

Oo-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other-Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
359
746
695
51
Pounds

17,644,007
3,923,841
13,720,166
268,850
0
6,903
17,919,760

581,734
18,501,494

10,705,090
4,924,870
16,955,300
32,585,260

797,741
2,078,319
731,874
2,877,882
0
6,485,816

1996
Number
307
657
622
35
Pounds

16,342,885
3,217,057
13,125,828
348,877
0
173,620
16,865,382

462,148
17,327,530

13,085,659
5,326,659
23,627,782
42,040,100

1,013,876
1,926,069
523,939
2,287,565
0
5,751,449
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
-14.5
-11.9
-10.5
-31.4
Percent

-7.4
-18.0
-4.3
29.8
—
2,415.1
-5.9

-20.6
-6.3

22.2
8.2
39.4
29.0

27.1
-7.3
-28.4
-20.5
-
-11.3
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
Management from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of
Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
WMte management code. One facility reported incorrectly in SIC code 22 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 28. The incorrectly reported
amounts were as follows: 4,426,812 pounds of recycling and 10,475 pounds of treatment on-site.  One facility incorrectly reported 10,679,852 pounds of
treatment on-site for 1996. The correct amount is 0 pounds. The percentage change from 1995 to 1996 in recycling on-site changes from 22.2% to -19.1%, in
treatment on-site changes from 39.4% to -23.7%, and in total other on-site waste management changes from 29.0% to -17.4%.
 126

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                                                  Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
   3,000
   2,500 -
   2,000 -
   1,500-
   1,000-
    500-
    -500
                 Air
Surface
 Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
 Transfers
   Off-site
to Disposal
            Figure 4-11. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                                 Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995,
 Changes in SIC Codes

 As indicated in facility descriptions below, some
 facilities report different SIC codes over time. This
 may reflect new or discontinued lines of
 production, or it may represent a different
 understanding of how SIC code designations relate
 to a facility's business activities. These changes can
 contribute—sometimes largely—to apparent
 increases or decreases across comparison years in
 the amounts reported by the four-digit, or even two-
 digit, SIC codes.
                   1988-1996 TRI Data for Textile Mill
                   Products

                   As explained in Chapter 1, comparisons from the
                   1988 TRI baseline year to the current year rely on
                   the list of "core" TRI chemicals that were
                   reportable, with the same reporting definition, in all
                   years. These multi-year comparisons also review
                   only the data elements that were collected in all
                   years, which excludes from this section any
                   analysis that distinguishes RCRA subtitle C
                   landfills from other land releases as well as analysis
                   based on the types of underground injection wells.
                                                                                                  127

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          Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
 On-site waste management data and transfers off-
 site to recycling and to energy recovery have been
 collected only since 1991; these data are included,
 but cannot be compared across the full 1988-1996
 period.

 The number of forms submitted by the textile mill
 products decreased from 664 in 1988 to 509 in
 1996, a 23.3% reduction, as shown in Table 4-13.

 From 1988 to 1996, total on- and off-site releases
 reported in SIC code 22 decreased by more than
 half (57.3%). As shown in Table 4-13, the sector
 reported 35.8 million pounds of releases in 1988
 and 15.3 million pounds in 1996. All categories of
 releases decreased by 50.0% or more. The largest
 reduction in pounds was reported in air emissions,
 from 33.6 million pounds in 1988 to 14.8 million
 pounds in 1996, a decrease of 18.8 million pounds.
 Approximately two-thirds of this reduction
 occurred in reporting of point source emissions.
 Smaller absolute reductions were reported in
 surface water discharges (from 468,000 pounds in
 1988 to 58,000 pounds in 1996) and in on-site
 releases (from 80,000 pounds to 16,000 pounds).

 Figure 4-12 displays the percentage reductions in
 on- and off-site releases from 1988 to 1996.

 On-site waste management and transfers off-site for
 recycling or energy recovery were not collected in
 1988. For the 1994-1996 period, the net reduction
 in other on-site waste management in this sector
 was 1.3 million pounds, from 28.6 million pounds
 to 27.3 million pounds. However, the 1996 total
 includes a reporting error of 4.4 million pounds in
 on-site recycling. Taking into account this error,
 on-site waste management decreased by 5.7 million
 pounds, from 28.6 million pounds in 1994 to 22.9
 million pounds in 1996.

 For the types of transfers off-site for further waste
 management that were reported in all years, 1988-
 1996, transfers to treatment decreased from 1.4
million pounds to 512,000 pounds, and transfers to
 POTWs decreased from 9.8 million pounds to 1.7
 million pounds. These were reductions of 62.7%
 and 83.0%, respectively.


 1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in
 Textile Mill Products

 Tables 4-14 through 4-16 summarize data for 1988
 and 1994-1996 for industries at the four-digit SIC
 code level within SIC code 22. The tables present,
 respectively, on- and off-site releases, other on-site
 waste management, and transfers off-site for  further
 waste management.

 On- and Off-site Releases

 Table 4-14 provides release data for 1988 to 1996
 for all four-digit SIC codes in the textile mills
 sector. The largest 1988-1996 increase in on- and
 off-site releases in the textile mills sector was
 reported by the coated fabrics industry (SIC code
 2295). This industry's releases totaled 18.9 million
 pounds in 1988 and 9.7 million pounds in  1996.
 Almost all of this 9.1 million-pound reduction was
 reported in air emissions.

 The multiple-codes group (forms with more than
 one SIC code in SIC code 22) had a 2.3 million-
 pound reduction, from 3.3 million pounds to
 925,000 pounds. Most of this reduction also was
 reported in air emissions. Carpets and rugs (SIC
 code 2273) had a reduction of 2.0 million pounds,
 from 2.3 million pounds in 1988 to 274,000 pounds
 in 1996. More than half of this reduction occurred
 in off-site releases (transfers to disposal) and the
 balance was principally in air emissions.

 Thread mills (SIC code 2284) reported an increase
 in on- and off-site releases of 1.0 million pounds.
 This industry reported 26,000 pounds in 1988 and
 1.1 million pounds in 1996, mostly released to air.
However, reporting of releases by thread mills has
decreased over the last three years. No other
industry in this sector had an increase of more than
 150,000 pounds.
128

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                                                                  Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1988
Number
336
664
664
NA
Pounds

33,605,487
9,473,343
24,132,144
468,191
0
79,850
34,153,528

1,644,849
35,798,377

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA :
NA
1,373,980
9,763,696
109,478
NA

1994
Number
328
617
617
NA
Pounds

15,667,454
3,237,526
12,429,928
110,838
4
14,892
15,793,188

553,144
16,346,332

13,274,492
4,001,813
11,335,942
28,612,247

719,188
1,269,996
503,222
2,091,126
0
4,583,532

1995
Number
311
589
548
41
Pounds

15,061,062
3,121,677
11,939,385
74,205
0
6,898
15,142,165

513,442
15,655,607

10,519,581
4,205,406
10,936,222
25,661,209

724,971
1,879,711
553,910
2,037,329
0
5,195,921

1996
Number
259
509
480
29
Pounds

14,756,746
2,775,116
11,981,630
57,550
0
15,620
14,829,916

450,495
15,280,411

13,069,987
4,613,222
9,616,522
27,299,731

905,873
1,691,264
512,220
1,659,240
0
4,768,597
Change
1988 to 1996
Percent
-22.9
-23.3
-27.7
NA
Percent

-56.1
-70.7
-50.3
-87.7
-
-80.4
-56.6

-72.6
-57.3

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
-62.7
-83.0
-100.0
NA
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990, 1991, 1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste Management
from Section 8 of Form R.  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown
of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996. For 1994-1996, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code. For 1988, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code or codes not required to be reported in
1988. One facility reported incorrectly in SIC code 22 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 28. The incorrectly reported amounts were as
follows:  4,426,812 pounds of recycling on-site, 10,475 pounds of treatment on-site and 4,437,287 pounds of total other on-site waste management. NA: not
required to be reported in that year.
                                                                                                                                129

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          Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
                     Air
                                   Surface
                                    Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
 Transfers
  Off-site
to Disposal
            Figure 4-12. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996:
                                  Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-sitc Land Releases not required before 1996.
Other On-site Waste Management

For 1994-1996, the largest reduction in other on-
site waste management in the textile mills sector
was reported by the multiple SIC codes group (on-
site waste management data were not collected in
1988). This group reported 6.4 million pounds of
other on-site waste management in 1994 and 1.9
million pounds in 1996. This 4.5 million-pound
reduction reflected a 3.5 million-pound reduction in
on-site recycling and a 1.0 million-pound reduction
in on-site treatment. The carpet and rug industry
(SIC code 2273) had a reduction of 1.4 million
pounds, from 2.0 million pounds hi 1994 to
648,000 pounds hi 1996. This decrease occurred hi
the reporting of on-site treatment. Coated fabrics
(SIC code 2295) reported a 1.0 million-pound
reduction, from 9.6 miUion pounds hi  1994 to 8.6
    million pounds in 1996. This represented a larger
    reduction in on-site recycling, partly offset by
    increases in on-site energy recovery and treatment.

    The largest reported increase in on-site waste
    management reflected reporting errors, previously
    described, in the miscellaneous finishing plants
    industry (SIC code 2269). Taking into account the
    errors, the industry ranking first for increases in
    other on-site waste management was finishing
    plants, manmade (SIC code 2262). This industry
    reported 4.3 million pounds in 1994 and 5.0 million
    pounds in 1996,  a difference of 670,000 pounds.
    This change consisted of an increase in recycling,
    which was partly offset by decreases in energy
    recovery and treatment. Other industry increases
    for 1994-1996 were less than 100,000 pounds each.
130

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                                                                  Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2211



2221



2231



2241



2251



2252



2253



2254



2257



2258



2259



Industry
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton



Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade



Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool



Narrow Fabric Mills



Women's Hosiery, Except Socks



Hosiery, nee*



Knit Outerwear Mills



Knit Underwear Mills



Weft Knit Fabric Mills



Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills



Knitting Mills, nee*



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
215,100
266,762
542,272
589,761
466,136
278,355
378,519
927,453
58,103
57,071
53,176
1,331,321
0
250
505
12,000
- 330
540
3,010
44
14,854
3,202
15,018
6,271
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
250
500
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,801
1,811
3,010
7,620
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
215350
267,512
542,777
601,761
466,466
278,895
381,529
927,497
74,758
62,084
71,204
1,345,212
Off-site
Releases
Transfers Total On-
Off-siteto and Off-site
Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds
250
1,450
0
0
48,713
4,720
18,049
7,660
2,093
752
829
500
215,600
268,962
542,777
601,761
515,179
283,615
399,578
935,157
76,851
62,836
72,033
1,345,712
No reports received
11,000
91,177
73,188
181
173
0
0
2
465
3,997
0
6,470
401
7,140
85,558
0
5,437
26,566
0
40,011
54,045
62,480
424,455
10
1,450
1,000
335,205
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
839
. 0
0
0
11,225
250
1,237
660
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13,125
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
11,000
91,177
73,188
181
173
0
0
2
465
3,997
0
19,595
401
7,140
85,558
0
5,437
26,570
839
40,011
54,045
62,480
435,680
265
2,687
1,660
335,205
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
31,889
41,000
9,136
0
0
0
0
7,395
11,000
91,177
73,188
181
173
0
0
2
465
3,997
0
19,607
401
7,140
85,558
0
5,437
26,570
839
40,011
85,934
103,480
444,816
265
2,687
1,660
335,205
7,395
No reports received
No reports received •,
587,087
3,005
0
750
590,842
4,388
595,230
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category.  One facility incorrectly reported 393,101 pounds of air emissions and total releases
under SIC code 2269 for 1996. The correct amount is 42,493 pounds. Another facility reporting in SIC code 2295 did not report for 1988, but should have. The
correct amounts are 687,336 pounds of total air emissions and total releases.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                                131

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              Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code
22, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2261



2262



2269



2273



2281



2282



2284



2295



2296



2297



2298



Industry
Finishing Plants, Cotton



Finishing Plants, Manmade



Finishing Plants, nee*



Carpets and Rugs



Yam Spinning Mills



Throwing and Winding Mills



Thread Mills



Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized



Tire Cord and Fabrics



Nonwoven Fabrics



Cordage and Twine



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
81,882
40,676
30,976
230,169
261,041
376,936
450,783
986,737
1,392,352
762,394
1,041,602
1,218,675
265,374
240,688
233,064
1,197,119
12,300
39,541
36,791
74,001
42,197
107,429
177,759
241,412
1,059,110
1,772,812
2,397,654
25,950
9,506,419
9,062,104
7,683,950
18,571,457
124,328
124,375
109,111
65,147
139,675
77,179
66,962
284,920
106,331
105,220
130,191
142,381
0
0
5
13,272
196
30
3,030
48,711
4,869
4,002
6,236
133,262
2,860
3,862
3,905
5,600
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
270
285
290
4,250
360
976
902
0
0
0
0
55
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
4,450
0
1,499
0
0
5
286
4
58,080
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,650
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
750
0
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
81,882
40,676
30,981
247,891
261,237
378,465
453,813
1,035,448
1,397,226
766,682
1,047,842
1,410,017
268,234
244,550
236,969
1,202,719
12,300
39,541
36,791
74,001
42,197
107,429
181,409
241,412
1,059,110
1,772,812
2,397,654
25,950
9,506,689
9,062,389
7,684,990
18,575,707
124,698
125,361
110,013
65,147
139,675
77,179
66,962
284,975
106,331
105,223
130,194
142,381
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
0
0
7,000
3,500
42,763
11,366
7,003
21,660
5
10
20
1,252
5,493
4,430
3,400
1,072,657
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
23,000
0
1,847
283
0
233,806
293,691
278,664
301,215
55,997
51,007
38,424
250
0
750
0
32,550
0
5
5
0
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
81,882
40,676
37,981
251,391
304,000
389,831
460,816
1,057,108
1,397,231
766,692
1,047,862
1,411,269
273,727
248,980
240,369
2,275,376
12,300
39,541
36,791
74,001
42,197
107,429
181,409
264,412
1,059,110
1,774,659
2,397,937
25,950
9,740,495
9,356,080
7,963,654
18,876,922
180,695
176,368
148,437
65,397
139,675
77,929
66,962
317,525
106,331
105,228
130,199
142,381
Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility incorrectly reported 393,101 pounds of air emissions and total releases
under SIC code 2269 for 1996. The correct amount is 42,493 pounds. Another facility reporting in SIC code 2295 did not report for 1988, but should have. The
correct amounts are 687,336 pounds of total air emissions and total releases.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 132

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                                                    Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products,
SIC Code 22, Continued
On-site Releases

SIC
Code Industry Year

2299 Textile Goods, nee* 96
95
94
88
Multiple within SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Total for SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88

Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
125,901
134,193
160,073
629,324
851,039
1,480,107
1,787,616
3,057,451
2,784
62,249
194,595
2,526,716
14,756,746
15,061,062
15,667,454
33,605,487
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
800
800
3,102
70,208
32,761
59,011
74,160
56,949
0
10
15
102,500
57,550
74,205
110,838
468,191

Underground
Injection
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0'
4
0

Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
1,200
424
2,789
7,470
7,500
0
0
5
250
15,620
6,898
14,892
79,850
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
126,701
134,993
163,175
700,732
884,224
1,541,907
1,869,246
3,121,900
2,784
62,259
194,615
2,629,466
14,829,916
15,142,165
15,793,188
34,153,528
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
13,316
40,480
7,359
10,281
40,652
71,045
151,103
146,926
0
0
5
9,874
450,495
513,442
553,144
1,644,849

Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
140,017
175,473
170,534
711,013
924,876
1,612,952
2,020,349
3,268,826
2,784
62,259
194,620
2,639,340
15,280,411
15,655,607
16,346,332
35,798,377
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility incorrectly reported 393,101 pounds of air emissions and total releases
under SIC code 2269 for 1996. The correct amount is 42,493 pounds. Another facility reporting in SIC code 2295 did not report for 1988, but should have. The
correct amounts are 687,336 pounds of total air emissions and total releases.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 On-site waste management data for 1994-1996
 appear in Table 4-15.

 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 The multiple SIC codes group reported the largest
 decrease in transfers off-site for further waste
 management in this sector for 1994-1996 (data
 for some types of off-site transfers were not
 collected in 1988). This was a reduction from
 864,000 pounds in 1994 to 664,000 pounds in
 1996, despite an increase in 1995. The net
 reduction of 200,000 pounds was attributable
 primarily to transfers to POTWs. The sector's
 reported transfers off-site for further waste
 management are shown hi Table 4-16.

 Reported transfers off-site for further waste
 management in the miscellaneous finishing plants
industry (SIC code 2269) decreased from 995,000
pounds in 1994 to 877,000 pounds in 1996, a
reduction of 118,000 pounds. The transfer type with
the largest reduction in this industry's reporting was
transfers to POTWs.

The coated fabrics industry (SIC code 2295) had the
largest reported increase of any industry in the textile
mills sector for transfers off-site for further waste
management, from 1.6 million pounds in 1994 to 2.1
million pounds in 1996. This 437,000 pound increase was
due to increases in transfers to. energy recovery and to
recycling. Carpets and rugs (SIC code 2273) had an
increase of 110,000 pounds for the 1994-1996 period,
from 129,000 pounds to 239,000 pounds. This was
entirely attributable to reported transfers to POTWs.

No other industry had a decrease or increase in such
transfers of more than 100,000 pounds from 1994 to
1996.
                                                                                                     133

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             Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products,
SIC Code 22
SIC
Code
2211



2221



2231



2241



2251



2252



2253



2254



2257



2258



2259



Industry
Broadwovcn Fabric Mills, Cotton



Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade



Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool



Narrow Fabric Mills



Women's Hosiery, Except Socks



Hosiery, ncc*



Knit Outerwear Mills



Knit Underwear Mills



Weft Knit Fabric Mills



Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills



Knitting Mills, nee*



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Energy
Recycled Recovery
On-site On-site
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
82,273
28,207
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
38,476
55,084
34,526
NA
0
0
0
NA
6,800
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
1,000
0
. NA
0
0
0
NA

0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0


NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
1,037
3,053
32,341
NA
20,346
32,213
82,766
NA
213,283
161,148
153,342
NA

0
21,000
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
22,100
14,110
28,000
NA
0
0
0
NA
18,322
19,604
18,030
NA
420
13,304
12,540
NA
0


NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
1,037
3,053
32,341
NA
102,619
61,420
82,766
NA
213,283
161,148
153,342
NA

0
21,000
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
22,100
14,110
28,000
NA
0
0
0
NA
56,798
74,688
52,556
NA
420
13,304
12,540
NA
6,800


NA
Note:  Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more man one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility
repotted incorrectly in SIC code 2269 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported amount was 4,437,287 pounds of
other on-sitc waste management
*ncc:  not elsewhere classified.
 134

-------
                                                               Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
 Table 4-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products,
 SIC Code 22, Continued
SIC
Code
2261



2262



2269



2273



2281



2282



2284



2295



2296



2297



2298



Industry
Finishing Plants, Cotton



Finishing Plants, Manmade



Finishing Plants, nee*



Carpets and Rugs



Yarn Spinning Mills



Throwing and Winding Mills



Thread Mills



Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized



Tire Cord and Fabrics



Nonwoven Fabrics



Cordage and Twine



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94"
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
9,000
8,000
10,000
NA
3,849,529
4,146,394
2,967,489
NA
6,269,432
2,212,196
1,675,862
NA
6,000
15,000
351
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
1,979,638
2,816,766
4,350,620
NA
:o
;o
0
NA
520,839
408,946
442,000
NA
0
0
0
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
9,000
8,000
10,000
NA
1,114,500
1,053,500
1,250,600
NA
949,096
915,866
749,740
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
2,540,623
2,225,969
1,991,473
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
' 0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
49,300
97,100
19,500
NA
46,532
16,499
122,133
NA
2,159,078
1,794,358
2,016,061
NA
642,381
790,001
2,007,685
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
77,022
262,339
94,100
NA
4,040,614
4,408,646
3,214,443
NA
229,723
189,213
173,922
NA
100,000
174,200
151,370
NA
0
0
91,245
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
67,300
113,100
39,500
NA
5,010,561
5,216,393
4,340,222
NA
9,377,606
4,922,420
4,441,663
NA
648,381
805,001
2,008,036
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
77,022
262,339
94,100
NA
8,560,875
9,451,381
9,556,536
NA '
229,723
189,213
173,922
NA
620,839
583,146
593,370
NA
0
0
91,245
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility
reported incorrectly in SIC code 2269 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported amount was 4,437,287 pounds of
other on-site waste management.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                          135

-------
          Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill Products,
SIC Code 22, Continued
SIC
Code Industry Year
2299 Textile Goods, nee* 96
95
94
88
Multiple within SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Tola! for SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
5,000
0
0
NA
303,000
828,788
3,789,405
NA
0
200
4,239
NA
13,069,987
10,519,581
13,274,492
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
3
1,071
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
4,613,222
4,205,406
4,001,813
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
342,320
394,201
437,810
NA
1,593,061
2,414,171
2,640,497
NA
60,983
152,062
19,157
NA
9,616,522
10,936,222
11,335,942
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
347,320
394,201
437,810
NA
1,896,064
3,244,030
6,429,902
NA
60,983
152,262
23,396
NA
27,299,731
25,661,209
28,612,247
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility
reported incorrectly in SIC code 2269 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 2869. The incorrectly reported amount was 4,437,287 pounds of
other on-sitc waste management.
*nซc: not elsewhere classified.
 Facilities with Large Increases and
 Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996

 American & Efird, Inc., in Mount Holly, North
 Carolina (SIC code 2221 in 1988 and 2284 in
 1996), ranked first for increases with an overall
 191,000 pound increase. This facility produces
 threads used in air bag production, the shoe
 industry, and other manufacturing. Air emissions of
 dichloromethane, which is used in a coating
 process, accounted for 59% of the increase. A
 production increase was cited as the reason for the
 increase.

 Uniroyal Engineered Products in Port Clinton, Ohio
 (SIC code 2295), was second for increases with a
 140,000 pound total. Toluene accounted for 65% of
 the plant's increase. The facility manufactures a
 flexible PVC, Naugahydeฎ-like product used in
 automobile upholstery. Two reasons were cited for
 the increase: a switch was made to a urethane top
 finish in which toluene is a solvent and a machine
was installed that bonds a polypropylene foam
backing to the PVC product. The bonding process
involves the use of a polyester resin in toluene
solution.

Fil-Tec, Inc., in Cavetown, Maryland (did not
report in 1988, SIC code 2284 in 1996), ranked
third with an overall 134,000 pound increase. Fil-
Tec, which began operation after the 1988 reporting
year, produces bonded sewing threads used in wire
and cable products, upholstered furniture, shoes,
bedding, canvas goods, and other products.
Methanol was the only chemical reported in 1996,
and because the company did not report in 1988,
this chemical's 1996 releases accounted for 100%
of the facility's increase. Methanol is used as a
solvent in bonded thread production. A facility
contact stated that the 1998 data for methanol  stack
emissions will drop to 14% of the 1996 amount due
to the installation o f new emissions control
equipment.
 136

-------
                                                               Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Textile Mill
Products, SIC Code 22
SIC
Code
2211



2221



2231



2241



2251



2252



2253



2254



2257



2258



2259



Industry
Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Cotton



Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Manmade



Broadwoven Fabric Mills, Wool



Narrow Fabric Mills



Women's Hosiery, Except Socks



Hosiery, nee*



Knit Outerwear Mills



Knit Underwear Mills



Weft Knit Fabric Mills



Lace & Warp Knit Fabric Mills



Knitting Mills, nee*



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
43,230
86,900
2,250
NA
0
614
0
NA
No reports received
0
0
NA
0
0
0 :
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
1,861
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
16,400
21,505
21,700
NA
0
0
0
NA

0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0


NA
0
0
19,900
0
30
45
14,015
750
5,172
454
0
4,845

0
2,750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50,288
45,327
260
0
0
0
0
8
0


0
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
50,400
21,800
64,429
20,848
67,260
68,533
4,266
3,489,641
20,630
25,720
26,800
82,289

0
0
10,542
0
480
686
231,201
108,891
6,981
88,777
457,751
17,738
21,870
92,380
345,549
24,153
98,509
62,413
0
22,005
19,305
44,505
229,357
0
0
0
149,473
38


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0


0
50,400
21,800
84,329
NA
126,920
176,983
42,231
NA
25,802
26,788
26,800
NA

0
2,750
NA
0
480
686
NA
108,891
6,981
88,777
NA
17,738
21,870
94,241
NA
24,153
98,509
62,413
NA
72,293
64,632
44,765
NA
0
0
0
NA
38


NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                           137

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             Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill
Products, SIC Code 22, Continued
SIC
Code
2261



2262



2269



2273


2281



2282



2284



2295



2296



2297



2298



Industry
Finishing Plants, Cotton



Finishing Plants, Manmade



Finishing Plants, nee*



Carpels and Rugs


Yam Spinning Mills



Throwing and Winding Mills



Thread Mills



Coated Fabrics, Not Rubberized



Tire Cord and Fabrics



Nonwoven Fabrics



Cordage and Twine



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
331,005
326,000
379,000
NA
336
240
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
531,302
305,168
328,502
NA
0
3,306
4,178
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
Transfers
to Energy Transfers to
Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
393,796
222,382
245,496
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
6,327
5,459
6,856
NA
63,262
89,349
72,054
NA
1,197,886
1,409,596
857,888
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
5
NA
3,069
4,388
3,249
NA
0
0
0
0
4,455
9,478
5,729
1,850
92,708
36,272
4,900
11,540
842
25,871
1,072
17,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
334,562
410,121
432,283
1,172,523
11,162
2,954
1,942
9,388
520
5
5
48,500
0
5
5
3,106
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
156,216
64,629
77,331
46,653
63,761
86,140
60,539
400,322
59,567
93,234
365,909
572,951
237,593
319,255
127,614
1,473,710
0
0
0
0
12,817
51,335
47,303
60,672
78,792
89,204
96,180
0
10,535
29,452
18,742
119,871
2,036
988
2,530
0
2,097
1,005
10
250
0
250
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,010
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
44,263
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
49,570
0
0
0
0
156,216
64,629
77,331
NA
68,216
95,618
66,268
NA
877,076
677,888
995,305
NA
238,771
345,366
128,686
NA
0
0
0
NA
19,144
56,794
54,159
NA
142,054
178,553
168,234
NA
2,074,285
2,154,337
1,637,415
NA
13,198
7,248
8,650
NA
2,617
1,010
20
NA
3,069
4,643
3,504
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
"ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 138

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                                                   Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Textile Mill
Products, SIC Code 22, Continued
SIC
Code Industry Year
2299 Textile Goods, nee* 96
95
94
88
Multiple within SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Total for SIC Code 22 96
95
94
88
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
0
0
3,397
NA
0
2,743
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
905,873
724,971
719,188
NA
Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
7,875
3,020
0
NA
2,649
124,012
62,748
NA
0
0
0
NA
1,691,264
1,879,711
1,269,996
NA
Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
0
1,765
1,712
8,100
12,481
15,920
16,899
75,345
0
5,693
1,750
21,025
512,220
553,910
503,222
1,373,980
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
76,020
71,750
106,207
158,686
648,691
915,789
783,895
803,518
0
51,100
20,360
1,110,412
1,659,240
2,037,329
2,091,126
9,763,696
0
0
0
12,000
0
0
0
885
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
109,478
83,895
76,535
111,316
NA
663,821
1,058,464
863,542
NA
0
56,793
22,110
NA
4,768,597
5,195,921
4,583,532
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 22 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 Gencorp in Columbus, Mississippi (SIC code
 2295), ranked first in decreases with an overall 1.4
 million-pound decrease. The manufacturer of vinyl
 upholstery and wall coverings uses methyl ethyl
 ketone (MEK) in printing processes. Since 1995,
 the plant has been converting from organic-solvated
 inks to water-based inks. This accounted for a
 544,000 pound reduction in MEK usage, 40% of
 the overall decrease, through the 1996 reporting
 year.

 Reeves International in Rutherfordton, North
 Carolina (SIC code 2295 in 1988; codes 2295,
 3053, and 3069 in 1996), was second in decreases
 with 1.2 million pounds. The facility coats rubber
 and plastic onto  textile, substrates. Toluene, used as
 a solvent in several processes, accounted for 57%
 of the total decrease. One reason given for the
 reduction was a  switch from neoprene to silicon
 rubber in some processes. Less toluene is required
 to process silicone rubber. Also cited were solvent
recovery and coating equipment upgrades that
resulted in increased efficiency in solvent use and
recovery.

Collins & Aikman in Old Fort, North Carolina (SIC
codes 2270 and 2273 in 1988, did not report in
1996), ranked third in decreases with 1.1 million
pounds. Reported transfers off-site to disposal of
barium compounds were responsible for 86% of the
decrease. Automotive carpet manufactured at the
facility is backed by resin that contains barium
sulfate. Prior to 1994, carpet was trimmed,
packaged, and shipped from this Collins & Aikman
facility. Carpet scrap was sent off-site to a landfill.
Beginning in 1994, untrimmed carpet was sent to
another facility for trimming and packaging. This
facility also ranked third in decreases of waste
managed. See "Facilities with Large Increases and
Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996,"
below.
                                                                                                   139

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         Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
Releases, 1988-1996

In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
large apparent increases and decreases, which have
been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
Because these are errors or plant closures and not
actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
discussed in detail here. There are seven such
facilities in the textiles sector:

    Coats  American, Bristol, Rhode Island, increase
    of 393,000 pounds, reporting error.
    Excello Fabric Finishers, Inc., Coshocton, Ohio,
    increase of 335,000 pounds, reporting error.
    Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc., Kannapolis, North
    Carolina, increase  of 246,000 pounds, reporting
    error.
    Neese Coated Fabrics, Saint Louis, Missouri,
    decrease of 1.2 million pounds, plant closure.
    Paxar  Corporation, Orangeburg, New York,
    decrease of 1.7 million pounds, reporting error.
    Reeves Brothers, Inc., Buena Vista, Virginia,
    decrease of 1.2 million pounds, plant closure.
    Uniroyal Engineered Products, Stoughton,
    Wisconsin, increase of 181,000 pounds,
    reporting error.

1991-1996 Waste Management Data
for Textile Mill Products

Table 4-17 summarizes on- and off-site waste
management data for the textile mills sector for
1991, when TRI began collecting this information,
and the three most recent years (1994-1996). Total
production-related waste reported in this sector
decreased 9.0%, from  51.6 million pounds in 1991
to 47.0 million pounds in 1996. This change
reflects a larger decrease, in pounds and percent, hi
quantities  released on- and off-site. Releases were
reported as 24.2 million pounds in 1991 and 14.9
million pounds in 1996, a 38.2% reduction. Smaller
reductions (in pounds) were reported in off-site
energy recovery and treatment.

Increases in all types of on-site waste management
partly offset these reductions. Total on-site waste
management was 22.4 million pounds in 1991 and
27.3 million pounds in  1996, an increase of 4.9
million pounds, or 22.0%. Increases ranged from
20.5% for on-site recycling to  28.4% for on-site
energy recovery. However, one reporting error
previously discussed in this chapter affects the
1991-1996  analysis of production-related waste;
this was a 4.4 million-pound error in on-site
recycling for 1996. When adjusted for this error,
on-site recycling decreased by 20.3% from 1991 to
1996.

Off-site recycling increased 32.6% in this period,
although this was a much smaller increase in
absolute terms.

Figure 4-13 illustrates the percentage changes in
on-site waste management, off-site waste
management, quantities released,  and total
production-related waste for the textile mills sector
from 1991 to 1996.

Production levels for the textile mill sector
increased throughout this period, as noted earlier in
this chapter. TRI facilities report absolute amounts
of waste managed and of environmental releases,
not adjusted for changes in production levels.
Reductions in production-related waste reported to
TRI were accomplished as production levels in this
sector rose. Furthermore, the reductions were
largely attributable to decreases reported in
quantities released, the least desirable option in the
waste management hierarchy (explained in Chapter
1). These changes indicate substantial improvement
in the sector's management of TRI chemicals in
waste.
140

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                                                                 Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
Table 4-17. TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996: Textile Mill Products, SIC Code 22
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
1991
Pounds
10,848,820
3,594,145
7,927,547
22,370,512
734,661
2,167,180
2,155,617
5,057,458
24,152,624
51,580,594
5,701
Change
1994-1995
Percent
-20.8
5.1
-3.5
-10.3
-1.4
53.3
9.5
20.2
-7.0
-6.6
-47.9
1994
Pounds
13,274,492
4,001,813
; 11,335,942
28,612,247
730,626
1,237,494
2,333,073
4,301,193
16,782,600
49,696,040
34,227
Change
1995-1996
Percent
24.2
9.7
-12.1
6.4
35.3
-8.6
-20.7
-8.5
-4.4
1.1
-94.6
1995
Pounds
10,519,581
4,205,406
10,936,222
25,661,209
720,145
1,896,966
2,553,964
5,171,075
15,606,968
46,439,252
17,847
Change
1991-1996
Percent
20.5
28.4
21.3
22.0
32.6
-20.0
-6.0
-6.4
-38.2
-9.0
-83.2
1996
Pounds
13,069,987
4,613,222
9,616,522
27,299,731
974,214
1,733,282
2,025,327
4,732,823
14,927,994
46,960,994
958








Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated. One facility reported incorrectly in SIC code 2269 for 1996.  The facility should have reported in SIC code 2869.
The incorrectly reported amounts were as follows: 4,426,812 pounds of recycling on-site, 63,392 pounds of energy recovery off-site, 10,475 pounds of treatment
on-site and 51,735 pounds of quantity released on- and off-site. The percentage change from 1995 to 1996 in recycling on-site changes from 24.2% to -17.8% and
from 1991 to 1996 changes from 20.5% to -20.3%.
                                                                                                                               141

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           Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
          Recycled    Energy   Treated
           On-stta   Recovery    On-site
                    On-site

             On-sita Waste Management
Recycled      Energy   Treated           Quantity
 Off-site    Recovery   Off-site       Released On-
            Off-site                and Off-site

   Off-site Waste Management
    Total
Production-
   related
   Waste
        Figure 4-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
                                   Textile Mill Products (SIC Code 22)
Note: Docs not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated. One facility reported incorrectly in SIC code 22 for 1996. The facility should have reported in SIC code 28. The
incorrectly reported amounts were as follows: 4,426,812 pounds of recycling on-site, 63,392 pounds of energy recovery off-site, 10,475 pounds of treatment en-
sile and 51,735 pounds of quantity released on- and off-site. The percentage change from 1991 to 1996 in recycling on-site changes from 20.5% to -20.3%.
 Facilities with Lame Increases and Decreases
 In Waste Management. 1991-1996

 Synfin Industries in North Wales, Pennsylvania
 (SIC code 2262), was the top increaser for waste
 management with an overall 2.4 million pounds. A
 custom finisher of upholstery fabrics and other
 textiles, this facility's increase consisted wholly of
 an increase in on-site recycling of
 trichloroethylene, a processing aid. The facility
 contact cited a production increase as the reason for
 the change.

 Highland Industries, Inc., in Kernersville, North
 Carolina (SIC code 2269), ranked second for
 increases with 834,000 pounds. The facility
 manufactures fabrics for tires, fabrics for
            automotive air bags, and industrial and automotive
            v-belts (such as fan belts). The plant is undergoing
            a transition from neoprene rubber to silicone-based
            materials for its production of air bags. A coating
            process in air bag production involves the use of
            toluene as a solvent. In manufacturing air bags
            from neoprene rubber, the facility could efficiently
            recover toluene from solvated neoprene by carbon
            bed absorption. However, this is not a viable
            system for recovering toluene from solvated
            silicone. As its operations shifted to silicone, the
            facility installed a thermal oxidizer to treat toluene
            waste in air emissions. As a result, 67% of the
            plant's increase is accounted for by on-site
            treatment of toluene. On-site recycling of toluene
            did not decrease, however, due to a concurrent
142

-------
production increase of other neoprene rubber
products at the facility.

Kenyon Industries in Kenyon, Rhode Island (SIC
codes 2269 and 2295 in 1991 and 2269 in 1996),
ranked third for increases with 691,000 pounds.
This facility is a commissioned finisher of fabrics.
The primary processes involve dying and coating
nylon fabric according to customer specifications.
The fabrics are sold to manufacturers of
commercial goods such as backpacks and luggage.
Toluene, a solvent in urethane coating processes,
was responsible for 94% of the facility's increase.
The biggest changes for this chemical were
reported in on-site treatment. Following an EPA
audit of Kenyon's TRI reporting practices, the
Agency provided guidance for improving
estimation methods. This is cited by the facility as
the primary reason for the increase.

Synthetic Finishing, Inc., in Longview, North
Carolina (SIC code 2262), ranked first for
decreases with an overall 3.2 million-pound
reduction. Also a commissioned finisher of textile
fabrics, the plant's processes include application of
specialty coatings and finishes to woven  and
non-woven fabrics. Trichloroethylene accounted
for 90% of the decrease. The chemical, used as a
solvent, has been largely replaced by aqueous
solutions.

Gencorp in Columbus, Mississippi (SIC code
2295), was second in decreases with a 2.0 million-
pound change. Reductions in quantities released of
methyl ethyl ketone accounted for 69% of the total
decrease in production-related waste. This facility
also ranked second in decreases of releases (see
"Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases hi
Releases, 1988-1996"). As noted, Gencorp
attributes its decreases to its conversion from
organic-solvated inks to water-based inks.

Collins & Aikman in Old Fort, North Carolina (SIC
code 2273 in  1991, did not report in 1996), was
third for decreases with 1.8 million pounds. A
                                                Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
change in the reported amounts of barium
compounds constituted 95% of the facility's overall
reduction. Collins & Aikman manufactures
automotive carpeting which is backed by a resin
containing barium sulfate. Scrap carpet, trimmed
from the product, was sent off-site for disposal.
Beginning in 1994, the plant began shipping
unfinished carpets to another facility for trimming
and packaging. As a result, the Old Fort plant no
longer produced the scrap waste material. Collins &
Aikman in Old Fort also ranked as the third largest
decreaser in releases due to a reduction in reported
releases of barium compounds. See "Facilities with
Large Increases and Decreases in Releases,
1988-1996," above, for more information.

Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
Production-Related Waste, 1991-1996

In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
large apparent increases and decreases, which have
been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
Because these are errors or plant closures and not
actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
discussed in detail here. There is one such facility
in the textiles sector:

   American & Efird, Inc., Mount Holly, North
   Carolina, increase of 726,000 pounds, reporting
   error.

Facilities Contacted for Explanations
(alphabetical by facility):

   3V Inc., Georgetown, South Carolina: Matt
   Birdsong, August 17,  1998 (explanation
   provided)
   American & Efird, Inc., Mount Holly, North
   Carolina: John Eapen, August 20, 1998
   (explanation provided)
   Coats American, Bristol, Rhode Island: Mike
   Bell, August 3, 1998 (explanation provided)
                                                                                              143

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         Chapter 4 — TRI Data for Textile Mill Products
    Collins & Aikman, Old Fort, North Carolina:
    Pat McCabe, August 5 and August 17, 1998
    (explanation provided)
    Dixie Yarns, Inc., Chattanooga, Tennessee:
    Don Huffman, August 17, 1998 (explanation
    provided)
    Excello Fabric Finishers, Inc., Coshocton,
    Ohio: Jerry Stenner, August 4,1998
    (explanation provided)
    Fieldcrest Cannon Inc., Kannapolis, North
    Carolina: Josh Chandler, August 13,1998
    (explanation provided)
    Fil-Tec, Inc., Cavetown, Maryland: Andy
    Dubnik, August 24,1998 and Ted Schoek,
    September 8 and September 9,1998
    (explanation provided)
    Gencorp, Columbus, Mississippi: Mike
    Stierwalt, August 3,1998 (explanation
    provided)
    Highland Industries, Inc., Kernersville, North
    Carolina: Gary Voss, August 4, 1998 and Earl
    Crouch, August 5, 1998 (explanation provided)
    Kenyon Industries, Inc., Kenyon, Rhode Island:
    Barbara Burdick, August 13,1998 (explanation
    provided)
Neese Coated Fabrics, Saint Louis, Missouri:
Plant Closure. No contact person available.
Paxar Corporation, Orangeburg, New York:
Kevin Finnegan, August 11 and August 27,
1998 (no explanation provided)
Reeves Brothers, Inc., Buena Vista, Virginia:
Plant closure. No contact person available.
Reeves International, Rutherfordton, North
Carolina: Robert H. Enimel, Ph.D., August 27,
1998 (explanation provided)
Synfin Industries, North Wales, Pennsylvania:
Bert Ross, August 3, August 27, September 8,
and September 15,1998 (explanation provided)
Synthetics Finishing, Inc., Longview, North
Carolina: Mark Stultz, August 5, 1998
(explanation provided)
Uniroyal Engineered Products, Port Clinton,
Ohio: Jeffrey A. Hinchman, August 27, 1998
(explanation provided)
Uniroyal Engineered Products, Stoughton,
Wisconsin: Frank Krawcek, August 18, 1998
(explanation provided)
144

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                                   Chapter 5
             Apparel and Fabricated  Textiles
                               (SIC Code 23)
A  Look at the Apparel and

Fabricated Textiles

Industry (SIC Code 23)

The apparel and other finished products industry
(SIC code 23) includes not only production of
clothing, but also fabrication of other products by
cutting and sewing of fabrics or related materials.
This includes household furnishings such as
curtains and draperies. Clothing made by cutting
and joining (for example, by adhesives) paper,
nonwoven textiles, and similar materials is also
classified in SIC code 23. These are referred to as
the cutting trades, a term that distinguishes this
sector from the fabric production sector (in SIC
code 22, textile mill products). Miscellaneous
products that are produced in this sector range from
sleeping bags to non-disposable diapers to flags.
Box 5-1  lists Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) codes and their designations for this sector.
In TRI, SIC codes are given as reported by the
facilities; these may differ from information in
economic and other data collections.

In 1996, the value of shipments of apparel and
fabricated textile products was $77.63 billion, down
from $78.10 billion in 1995 (both in current
dollars).  Employment fell from 947,000 to 865,000
from 1995 to 1996, the largest one-year decrease in
this sector in the last decade. Apparel
manufacturing is highly labor intensive, and much
of the production has shifted abroad to lower-wage
countries, a trend that began more than twenty
years ago. Since the late 1980s, U.S. employment
in the sector has decreased by about 25,000 per
year. Facilities still operating in the United States—
nearly 25,000 apparel manufacturing
establishments—tend to be small or mid-sized,
averaging 40 employees. Apparel companies also
seldom produce their own goods, contracting out
the various phases of garment production.
Fabricated textile products such as home
furnishings require less sewing and therefore less
labor; manufacture of these products has been less
likely to shift overseas.

The apparel and fabricated textiles sector reports
the smallest amounts to TRI, and some of its
industries have submitted no TRI forms, very few
forms, or forms in some years and  not others. This
pattern is consistent with changes in the sector,
particularly in relocating production outside the
United States and shifting manufacturing
operations from the northeast states to the south.
Also, new owners may not report in the same ways
or in the same SIC codes, when facilities change
hands.
                                                                                    145

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              Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
 Box 5-1. SIC Code 23, Apparel and Other Finished Products Made from Fabrics and Similar Materials:  Codes and
 Classifications
  SIC Code
                                                                Industry Description
  231    Men's and Boy's Salts, Coats, and Overcoats •
         2311   Men's and Boys' Suits, Coats, and Overcoats

  232    Men's and Boys' Furnishings, Work Clothing,
         and Allied Garments
         2321   Men's and Boys' Shirts, Except Work Shirts

         2322   Men's and Boys' Underwear and Nightwear

         2323   Men's and Boys' Neckwear


         2325   Men's and Boys' Separate Trousers and Slacks

         2326   Men's and Boys' Work Clothing

         2329   Men's and Boys' Clothing, nee*



  233    Women's, Misses', and Juniors' Outerwear
                                                               Manufacture of men's and boys' tailored suits, coats, and overcoats from purchased
                                                               woven or knit fabrics. Manufacture of uniforms (except athletic and work uniforms).
                                                               Manufacture of men's and boys' shirts (including polo and sport shirts) from
                                                               purchased woven or knit fabrics.

                                                               Manufacture of men's and boys' underwear and nightwear from purchased woven or
                                                               knit fabrics.
                                                               Manufacture of men's and boys' neckties, scarves, and mufflers from purchased
                                                               woven or knit fabrics.
                                                               Manufacture of men's and boys' separate trousers and slacks from purchased woven
                                                               or knit fabrics, including jeans, dungarees, and jean-cut casual slacks.
                                                               Manufacture of men's and boys' work shirts, workpants (excluding jeans and
                                                               dungarees), other work clothing, and washable service apparel.
                                                               Manufacture of miscellaneous men's and boys' clothing (including athletic wear,
                                                               down-filled clothing, nontailored jackets, sports clothing, swimsuits, and others)
                                                               from purchased woven or knit fabrics.
         2331   Women's, Misses', and Juniors' Blouses and Shirts     Manufacture of women's, misses', and juniors' blouses and shirts from purchased
                                                                woven or knit fabrics.
         2335   Women's, Misses', and Juniors' Dresses

         2337   Women's, Misses', and Juniors' Suits, Skirts, and
                Coats

         2339   Women's, Misses', and Juniors' Outerwear, nee*
                                                               Manufacture of women's, misses', and juniors' dresses from purchased woven or knit
                                                               fabrics.
                                                               Manufacture of women's, misses', and juniors' suits, pantsuits, skirts, coats (except
                                                               fur coats and raincoats), and tailored jackets and vests, from purchased woven or
                                                               knit fabrics.
                                                               Manufacture of miscellaneous women's, misses', and juniors' outerwear (including
                                                               athletic uniforms, down-filled coats, jeans, scarves, slacks, swimsuits, and others),
                                                               from purchased woven or knit fabrics.
234    Women's, Misses', Children's, and Infants' Undergarments
       2341   Women's, Misses', Children's, and Infants'
              Underwear and Nightwear
       2342   Brassieres, Girdles, and Allied Garments
235    Hats, Caps, and Millinery
       2353   Hats, Caps, and Millinery                          Manufacture of hats, caps, millinery, and hat bodies.
236    Girls', Children's, and Infants'Outerwear
       2361   Girls', Children's, and Infants' Dresses, Blouses, and    Manufacture of girls', children's, and infants' dresses, blouses, and shirts from
                                                               purchased woven or knit fabrics.
                                                                Manufacture of women's, misses', children's, and infants' underwear and nightwear
                                                                from purchased woven or knit fabrics.
                                                                Manufacture of brassieres, girdles, and allied garments.
                Shirts
         2369   Girls', Children's, and Infants' Outerwear, nee*

 237    FurGoods
          237   FurGoods
 238    Miscellaneous Apparel and Accessories
         2381   Drew and Work Gloves, Except Knit and All-
                Leather
         2384   Robes and Dressing Gowns


         2385   Waterproof Outerwear
                                                              Manufacture of miscellaneous girls', children's, and infants' outerwear from
                                                              purchased woven or knit fabrics.
                                                              Manufacture of fur coats and other clothing, accessories, and trimmings made of fur.
                                                              Manufacture of dress, semidress, and work gloves and mittens from purchased
                                                              woven or knit materials, alone or combined with leather or plastics.
                                                              Manufacture of men's, boys', and women's robes and dressing gowns from purchased
                                                              woven or knit fabrics.
                                                              Manufacture of raincoats and other waterproof outerwear from purchased rubberized
                                                              fabrics, plastics, and similar materials. Manufacture of waterproof or water-repellant
                                                              outerwear from purchased woven or knit fabrics other than wool.
*neซ not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
146

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                                            Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Box 5-1. SIC Code 23, Apparel and Other Finished Products Made from Fabrics and Similar Materials: Codes and
Classifications, Continued
 SIC Code
                                                    Industry Description
 238   Miscellaneous Apparel and Accessories, Continued
       2386  Leather and Sheep-Lined Clothing
       2387  Apparel Belts
       2389  Apparel and Accessories, nee*
 239   Miscellaneous Fabricated Textile Products
       2391  Curtains and Draperies
       2392  Housefurnishings, Except Curtains and Draperies

       2393  Textile Bags
       2394  Canvas and Related Products
       2395  Pleating, Decorative and Novelty Stitching, and
             Tucking for the Trade
       2396  Automotive Trimmings, Apparel Rndings, and
             Related Products
       2397  Schiffli Machine Embroideries
       2399  Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Manufacture of leather and sheep-lined clothing.
Manufacture of apparel belts of any material.
Manufacture of suspenders, garters, handkerchiefs, and other miscellaneous apparel,
including academic caps and gowns, vestments, and theatrical costumes. Manufac-
ture of clothing by cutting and joining (for example, by adhesives) materials such as
paper and nonwoven textiles.


Manufacture of curtains and draperies from purchased materials.
Manufacture of housefurnishings, such as blankets, bedspreads, sheets, tablecloths,
towels, 'and shower curtains.
Manufacture of shipping and other industrial bags from purchased fabrics.
Manufacture of awnings, tents, and related products from purchased fabrics.
Pleating, decorative and novelty stitching, and tucking for the trade.

Manufacture of automotive trimmings, apparel findings, and related products.
Printing and stamping on fabric articles.
Manufacture of Schiffli machine embroideries.
Manufacture of miscellaneous fabricated textile products, such as sleeping bags,
banners, fabric belting, automobile tire and seat covers, non-disposable diapers,
parachutes, automobile and aircraft seat belts, and others.
*nec: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
Although some products, such as fusing nonwoven
textiles, may involve chemical and mechanical
processes, the basic operations of this sector—
cutting and sewing—are less likely to lead to
releases and waste management of TRI chemicals.
Some garments are prepared, dyed, and finished
after assembly, but these are a small segment of
overall production. Because processes such as these
are usually performed as fabric is made, they are
described in Chapter 4 (Textile Mill  Products).
Textile fabricating processes that are more
associated with TRI reporting are printing,
      stamping, and embossing fabrics and related
      materials. Solvents, dyes, and finishes applied in
      such processes account for the majority of TRI
      reporting in this sector.

      1996 TRI  Data for Apparel
      and  Fabricated  Textiles

      Table 5-1 summarizes TRI reporting by the apparel
      and fabricated textiles sector for 1996. Of the 47
      forms submitted in this sector, just two were
                                                     Sources

    Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
        Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
    U.S. Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRI/McGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
        International Trade Administration, 1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and
      •  industrial processes for selected industries.
    U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures: Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
        February 1998 : value of shipments and employment.
        Supplemental data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
    McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., 1997: industry process and technologies.
                                                                                                             147

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           Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-1.  Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23
Total
Total





On- and Production-
Off-slte
Releases
Rank
10
11
7
9
4
6
3
8
1
5
2

related
Waste
Rank
11
9
8
7
4
6
3
10
1
5
2

SIC
Code

2321
2325
2329
2337
2353
2389
2392
2393
2396
2399



Industry

Men's & Boys' Shirts
Men's & Boys' Trousers & Slacks
Men's & Boys' Clothing, nee*
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Hats, Caps, & Millinery
Apparel & Accessories, nee*
Household Furnishings, nee*
Textile Bags
Automotive & Apparel Trimmings
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23
Total for SIC Code 23
Total
Facilities
Number
1
1
2
1
3
5
1
1
6
3
1
25
Total
Forms
Number
3
1
2
2
7
5
3
2
14
4
4
47

Form As
Number
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
2

Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
72
2
24,400
2,005
145,138
64,239
176,205
9,610
508,761
69,597
252,495
1,252,524

Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
7,872
0
0
505
0
500
42,600
11,700
0
63,177
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
72
2
32,272
2,005
145,138
64,744
176,205
10,110
551,361
81,297
252,495
1,315,701
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 Form A certification statements, certifying that a
 facility's total annual reportable amount of a TRI
 chemical was less than 500 pounds for the year and
 that the facility did not manufacture, process, or
 otherwise use more than 1 million pounds. (The
 Form A certification statement is explained in
 Chapter 1.)

 The automotive and apparel trimmings industry
 (SIC code 2396) submitted 14 forms, the largest
 number of forms in this sector. Seven forms were
 submitted in the hats, caps, and millinery industry
 (SIC code 2353). Other industries in the sector filed
 five or fewer forms each. The automotive and
 apparel trimmings (SIC code 2396) industry
 dominated reporting of releases and
 production-related waste in this sector in 1996.

 As shown in Table 5-1, the apparel and fabricated
 textiles sector reported 1.32 million pounds of total
 on- and off-site releases in 1996, including 1.25
million pounds of on-site releases. The automotive
and apparel trimmings industry (SIC code 2396)
reported 551,000 pounds of total releases in 1996,
including 509,000 pounds on-site and 43,000
pounds off-site. Facilities reporting invalid SIC
codes within SIC code 23 were second for reported
releases with 252,000 pounds in both on-site
releases and total releases. Miscellaneous
household furnishings (SIC code 2392) was third
for reported releases, with 176,000 pounds in both
on-site releases and total releases. The industry that
reported the second-largest off-site releases
(transfers to disposal) was miscellaneous fabricated
textile products (SIC code 2399) with  12,000
pounds, and the miscellaneous men's and boy's
clothing industry (SIC code 2329) was third with
8,000 pounds of off-site releases.

The apparel and fabricated textiles sector reported
834,000 pounds of other on-site waste management
in 1996, as well  as 2.3 million pounds  of total
   One facility reported incorrectly under SIC code 23 for 1996. The correct SIC code is 26. Because this facility accounted
   for 30% or more of total releases, total other on-site waste management and total production-related waste in this sector, its
   forms have been omitted from all tables in this chapter. Therefore, the totals in the tables and figures in this chapter do not
   match the summary for SIC code 23 in Chapter 1. The incorrectly reported amounts were as follows: 549,149 on-site
   releases, 549,149 pounds total releases, 407,100 pounds total other on-site waste management and 950,700 pounds total
   production-related waste.
 148

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                                         Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-1. Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23, Continued


SIC
Code

2321
2325
2329
2337
2353
2389
2392
2393
2396
2399





Industry

Men's & Boys' Shirts
Men's & Boys' Trousers & Slacks
Men's & Boys' Clothing, nee*
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Hats, Caps, & Millinery
Apparel & Accessories, nee*
Household Furnishings, nee*
Textile Bags
Automotive & Apparel Trimmings
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23
Total for SIC Code 23

Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
0
19,915 ,
0
42,000
0
0
47,864
0
712,587
0
11,872
834,238
Total Transfers
. Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
0
0
978
250
64,058
1,255
0
0
59,152
16,190
0
141,883
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
72
19,917
33,250
44,000
209,196
65,065
224,069
9,935
1,320,758
132,040
264,587
2,322,889
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 production-related waste. The automotive and
 apparel trimmings industry (SIC code 2396)
 reported the largest amounts of other on-site waste
 management, 713,000 pounds, and total
 production-related waste, 1.3 million pounds.
 Miscellaneous household furnishings (SIC code
 2392) ranked second for both categories, reporting
 48,000 pounds of other on-site waste management
 and 224,000 pounds of total production-related
 waste. Hats, caps, and millinery (SIC code 2353)
 ranked third for total production-related waste with
 209,000 pounds, but women's and misses' suits and
 coats (SIC code 2337) ranked third for other on-site
 waste management with 42,000 pounds.

 The apparel and fabricated textiles sector reported
 142,000 pounds of transfers off-site for further
Box 5-2. Data Not Appearing in This Chapter
waste management in 1996. Of that amount, 64,000
pounds was reported in the hats, caps, and millinery
industry (SIC code 2353). Another 59,000 pounds
was reported in automotive and apparel trimmings
(SIC code 2396).

None of the TRI forms received in this sector
reported more than one SIC code within SIC code
23, as explained in Box 5-2.

On- and Off-site Releases

As shown in Table 5-3 and Figure 5-1, air
emissions were by far the largest release type in the
apparel and fabricated textiles sector. The sector's
total of 1.32 million pounds of total on- and off-site
releases included  1.25 million pounds of air
emissions.
   Facilities that engage in more than one kind of manufacturing activity may report more than one SIC code on their TRI
   forms to describe their activities.  Most industrial sectors discussed in the 1996 TRI Public Data Release include such
   "multiple-code" reporting. No forms were received, however, with multiple SIC codes within SIC code 23 in 1996.
   (Multiple code reporting is further explained in Box 1-5 in Chapter 1.)

   This chapter, therefore, does not contain Table 5-2. Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC
   Code 23.
   Industry-specific chapters in both volumes of the 1996 TRI Public Data Release present comparable data tables, numbered
   consistently from chapter to chapter.  The remaining tables and figures in this chapter conform to that numbering system.
                                                                                                       149

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           Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-3. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)
On-site Land Releases

SIC
Cock

2396

2302
2353
2399
2389
2329
2393
2337
2321
2325



Industry

Automotive & Apparel Trimmings
Ittwlid SIC Code within SIC Code 23
Household Furnishings, nee*
Hals, Ops, & Millinery
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Apparel & Accessories, nee*
Men's & Boy's' Clothing, nee*
Textile Bigs
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Men's & Boys* Shirts
Men's & Boys' Trousers & Slacks
Total for SIC Code 23

Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
508,756
252,495
176,205
145,138
69,597
64,239
24,400
9,610
2,005
72
2
1,252,519
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Underground Injection
Class I
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RCRA
Subtitle C
Landfills
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Other
On-site Land
Releases
Pounds
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
508,761
252,495
176,205
145,138
69,597
64,239
24,400
9,610
2,005
72
2
1,252,524
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
42,600
0
0
0
11,700
505
7,872
500
0
0
0
63,177

Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
551,361
252,495
176,205
145,138
81,297
64,744
32,272
10,110
2,005
72
2
1,315,701
Note: On-sttc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
  Transfers Off-site
     to Disposal
        4.8%
              Underground Injection = 0%
              RCRA Subtitle C Landfills = 0%
              Other On-site Land Releases < 0.1%
    Figure 5-1. Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
     Releases, 1S96: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
    	(SIC Code 23)
Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
 Ranking first for total releases, the automotive and
 apparel trimmings industry (SIC code 2396)
 reported 509,000 pounds released to air, including
 314,000 pounds of methyl ethyl ketone and
 121,000 pounds of 1,1,1-trichlorethane, largely by
 one facility. This industry also reported 43,000
 pounds of off-site releases.

 Figure 5-2 shows the distribution of on- and off-site
 releases for the industries (four-digit SIC code)
 with the sector's largest releases.
Other On-site Waste Management

The majority of the 834,000 pounds of other on-site
waste management reported in apparel and
fabricated textiles for 1996 was on-site treatment—
643,000 pounds. This sector also reported 191,000
pounds of on-site recycling. Table 5-4 and Figure
5-3 present the sector's other on-site waste
management reporting.

The automotive and apparel trimmings industry
(SIC code 2396) reported the largest amount of
on-site treatment with 581,000 pounds, including
450,000 pounds of methyl ethyl ketone recycling
reported by one facility.

The automotive and apparel trimmings industry
also reported most of the sector's on-site recycling,
131,000 pounds out of 191,000 pounds for all
apparel and fabricated textiles industries. This
industry reported on-site recycling of 46,000
pounds of methyl ethyl ketone, 40,000 pounds of
antimony compounds, and 33,000 pounds of
phenol.

Figure 5-4 illustrates the distribution of on-site
waste management reporting for the top industries
in this sector.
 150

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                                               Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
                         600,000
                         500,000 -
                         400,000 -
                         300,000 -
                         200,000 -
                         100,000-
B Transfers Off-site to Disposal
• Other On-site Land Releases
D RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
DUIJ, Class II-V Wells
ID UIJ, Class I Wells
IS Surface Water
                                 2396    Invalid   2392
                                                     2353   2399    2389   2329
                                                                                2393    2337
                                                                                             2321
                   Figure 5-2, TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest
                       Releases, 1996:  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal). UIJ = underground injection. Invalid SIC
codes are codes beginning "23" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.

Table 5-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2396
2392
2337
2325

2321
2329
2353
2389
2393
2399

Industry
Automotive & Apparel Trimmings
Household Furnishings, nee*
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Men's & Boys' Trousers & Slacks
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23
Men's & Boys' Shirts
Men's & Boys' Clothing, nee*
Hats, Caps, & Millinery
Apparel & Accessories, nee*
Textile Bags
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Total for SIC Code 23
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
131,240
47,864
0
0
11,872
0
0
0
0
0
0
190,976
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Treated
On-site
Pounds
581,347
0
42,000
19,915
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
643,262
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
712,587
47,864
42,000
19,915
11,872
0
0
0
0
0
0
834,238
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                      151

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          Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
  Treated
  On-site
  77.1%
                                     Recycled
                                      On-site
                                      22.9%
                                 Energy Recovery
                                 On-site = 0%
    Figure 5-3.  Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
   Management, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
                   (SIC Code 23)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

As shown in Table 5-5, the type of off-site transfer
for further waste management with the largest
amount reported in apparel and fabricated textiles
was transfers to energy recovery. This category
totaled 140,000 pounds, or 98.4% of the sector's
total of 142,000 pounds for off-site transfers for
further waste management. Figure 5-5 illustrates
the dominance of this transfer type in the apparel
and fabricated textiles sector's reporting.

The hats, caps, and millinery industry (SIC code
2353) reported the largest amounts in transfers to
energy recovery, with 63,000 pounds. The
automotive and apparel trimmings industry (SIC
code 2396) ranked second with 59,000 pounds. In
             800.000
             700.000
             600,000-
             500,000-
             400.000
             300.000
             200,000-
             100,000
                     n Treated
                     • Energy Recovery
                     m Recycled
                         2396
                                       2392
                                                     2337
                                                                    2325
                                                                                  Invalid
             Figure 5-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
                     Totals, 1996:  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: Other On-sltc Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "23" that do not exist in the current Standard
Industrial Classification code system.
 152

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                                       Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-5. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23
(in Rank Order)


SIC
Code

2353
2396
2399
2389
2329
2337
2321
2325
2392
2393





Industry

Hats, Caps, & Millinery
Automotive & Apparel Trimmings
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Apparel & Accessories, nee*
Men's & Boys' Clothing, nee*
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Men's & Boys' Shirts
Men's & Boys' Trousers & Slacks
Household Furnishings, nee*
Textile Bags
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23
Total for SIC Code 23


Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
754
0
0
0
686
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,440

Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
63,304
59,152
16,185
755
257
0
0
0
0
0
. 0
139,653


Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
0
0
0
500
35
0
0
0
0
0
0
535


Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
0
0
5
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
255

Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Off-site
Transfers
for Further
Waste
Management
Pounds
64,058
59,152
16,190
1,255
978
250
0
0
0
0
0
141,883
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
         To POTWs
            0.2%
                      To Treatment
                         0.4%
To Recycling
   To Energy
   Recovery
     98.4%
    Figure 5-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
       Further Waste Management, 1996: Apparel
         and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
(excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.

 the hats, caps, and millinery industry, methyl
 isobutyl ketone was the chemical with the largest
 reported transfers to energy recovery, with 55,000
 pounds. In the automotive and apparel trimmings
 industry, methyl ethyl ketone was the chemical
 with the largest such transfers, with 51,000 pounds.
Figure 5-6 illustrates the distribution of off-site
transfers for further waste management for the top
industries in this sector.


1996 TRR Data by  State for

Apparel  and Fabricated

Textiles

In 1996, TRI forms reporting SIC  codes in the
apparel and fabricated textiles sector were
submitted in 16 states, as listed in  Table 5-6. Four
states had more than  10% of the forms in this
sector: Ohio with eight (17.0%), and Michigan and
North Carolina with six (12.8%) each, and
Pennsylvania with five (10.6%).

North Carolina reported the largest on-site releases
and total on- and off-site releases in this sector,
with 450,000 pounds in both categories. North
Carolina also ranked  second for transfers off-site
for further waste management, with 57,000 pounds,
and second for total production-related waste with
507,000 pounds.
                                                                                                153

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            Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
                   70,000
                   60,000-
                   50,000-
                   40,000
                   30,000
                   20,000
                   10,000-
• Other Off-site Transfers
H To POTWs
D To Treatment
ED To Energy Recovery
• To Recycling
                              2353
                                           2396
                                                        2399
                                                                     2389
                                                                                  2329
                                                                                               2337
               Figure 5-6.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes
                 with Largest Totals, 1996:  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
 Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
Table 5-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996:  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23
Total
SOte Facilities
Number
Atebim*
Illinois
Indian*
low*
Kutoa
Maine
Mkhifin
Missouri
NcwYode
Noah Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
Texas
Washington
Wisconsin
Toul for SIC Code 23
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
3
3
3
1
2
1
0
25
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
2
1
1
1
1
1
6
4
4
6
8
5
1
4
1
1
47
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
2,005
10,164
0
14,362
0
16,375
14,015
252,495
190,814
450,446
87,225
42,030
12
103,110
24,400
45,071
1,252,524
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
255
29,000
0
250
0
14,100
11,700
0
0
7,872
0
63,177
Total Transfers
Total Off-site for Total Non-
On-and Total Other Further Production- Production-
Off-site On-site Waste Waste related related
Releases Management Management Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
2,005
10,164
0
14,362
0
16,630
43,015
252,495
191,064
450,446
101,325
53,730
12
103,110
32,272
45,071
1,315,701
42,000
0
0
0
38,347
0
82,000
11,872
47,864
600
591,640
0
0
19,915
0
0
834,238
250
0
686
0
0
1,255
0
0
0
56,672
2,480
759
0
63,304
292
16,185
141,883
44,000
10,164
686
14,362
38,347
17,191
125,072
264,587
238,688
506,606
693,985
54,484
10
186,329
32,564
95,814
2,322,889
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
There may be forms but no facilities in a single state because a facility reported different 4-digit SIC codes in the range of SIC codes 20 to 39 on its individual
forms.
 154

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                                    Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
The largest off-site releases (transfers to disposal)
were reported in Michigan, which had 29,000
pounds in this category. Michigan was also the
state with the second-largest amount reported for
other on-site waste management, with 82,000
pounds.

Ohio reported the largest other on-site waste
management, with 592,000 pounds, and the largest
total production-related waste, with 694,000
pounds. Texas was the state with the largest amount
reported for transfers off-site for further waste
management, with 63,000 pounds.

Missouri ranked second for total on- and off-site
releases, with 252,000 pounds, and third for total
production-related waste, with 265,000 pounds.
New York was third for both total releases
(191,000 pounds) and other on-site waste
management (48,000 pounds).

Map 5-1 illustrates the geographic distribution of
total on- and off-site releases in the apparel and
fabricated textiles sector.

1996 TRI Data by

Chemical for Apparel  and

Fabricated  Textiles

The 15 chemicals with the largest on- and off-site
releases accounted for all but a tiny portion of the
apparel and fabricated textiles sector's total
reported releases in 1996, as shown in Table 5-7.
Reported releases of these  15 chemicals totaled 1.3
million pounds, or 99.98% of the sector's total
releases.

Methyl ethyl ketone ranked first with reported
releases of 440,000 pounds. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
(TCA) was second with 249,000 pounds. Under the
United States' implementation of the Montreal
Protocol to reduce ozone-depleters, production of
TCA, an ozone-depleting chemical, was banned
effective January 1, 1996. One facility in the
automotive and apparel trimmings industry (SIC
code 2396) reported 121,000 pounds of TCA air
emissions for 1996. This facility projected releases
of 20,000 pounds of TCA in 1997 and none in
1998. (Projected data for this sector are presented
in "Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in
Waste," later in this chapter. Facility projections
are explained in Chapter 1.) Toluene was the third
ranked chemical for on- and off-site releases, with
177,000 pounds.

The solvents reported in large amounts in this
sector have uses in the cleaning and processing of
textiles and fabrics or in fabric coatings. However,
for most fabrics used in garment-making, these
processes are generally conducted in the textile
mills sector (SIC code 22). In the apparel and
fabricated textiles sector, these chemicals are used
in printing, stamping, and embossing fabric articles.
Among these are automotive door and dashboard
panels (automotive trimmings in SIC code 2396)
and automotive tire and seat covers (miscellaneous
fabricated textile products, SIC code 2399).

OSHA Carcinogens

In the apparel and fabricated textiles sector, on- and
off-site releases of chemicals designated as OSHA
carcinogens totaled 59,000 pounds in 1996, as
shown in Table 5-8. (OSHA carcinogens and the
bases for their designation appear in Box 1-9 in
Chapter 1.) This was 4.5% of all reported releases
in the sector for the year.

Miscellaneous apparel and accessories (SIC code
2389) reported 44,000 pounds of releases of OSHA
carcinogens, the largest amount in this sector. The
miscellaneous fabricated textiles products industry
(SIC code 2399) reported releases of 14,000 pounds
of OSHA carcinogens.

Two of the 15 chemicals with the largest total
releases reported in this sector were OSHA
carcinogens:  dichloromethane with 59,000 pounds
and formaldehyde with 500 pounds (see Table 5-7).
One other OSHA carcinogen was also reported in
this sector: toluene diisocyanate with 12 pounds of
total releases.
                                                                                           155

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         Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
                                                                                                vo
                                                                                                c
                                                                                                o
                                                                                                >n
                                                                                                1
                                                                                                I
156

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                                      Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-7. The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles,
SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)
CAS
Number
78-93-3
71-55-6
108-88-3
108-10-1
1 10-54-3
75-09-2
67-56-1
108-95-2
1330-20-7
7664-41-7

872-50-4
—
50-00-0


Chemical
Methyl ethyl ketone
1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
Toluene
Methyl isobutyl ketone
n-Hexane
Dichloromethane
Methanol
Phenol
Xylene (mixed isomers)
Antimony compounds
Ammonia
Diisocyanates
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
Zinc compounds
Formaldehyde
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 23
On-site Land Releases
Surface Underground Injection RCRA Other
Total Air Water Class I Class II-V Subtitle C On-site Land
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
439,675
248,883
176,357
132,100
84,180
58,596
46,576
4,848
24,400
319
18,690
12,012
5,273
66
500
1,252,475
1,252,519
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
5
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
439,675
248,883
176,357
132,100
84,180
58,596
46,576
4,853
24,400
319
18,690
12,012
5,273
66
500
1,252,480
1,252,524
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
0
0
255
0
0
250
0
29,000
7,872
23,700
250
0
0
1,600
0
62,927
63,177
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
439,675
248,883
176,612
132,100
84,180
58,846
46,576
33,853
32,272
24,019
18,940
12,012
5,273
1,666
500
1,315,407
1,315,701
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.

Table 5-8. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated
Textiles, SIC Code 23 (in Rank Order)
Surface Underground Injection
SIC
Code
2389
2399
2337
2321


Industry
Apparel & Accessories, nee*
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Men's & Boys' Shirts
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 23
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Total Air Water Class I Class II-V Subtitle C On-site Land
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
44,234
14,362
500
12
59,108
1,252,519
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
44,234
14,362
500
12
59,108
1,252,524
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
250
0
0
0
250
63,177
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
44,484
14,362
500
12
59,358
1,315,701
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 Figure 5-7 shows the on- and off-site releases of
 OSHA carcinogens by industries in the apparel and
 fabricated textiles sector.

 1996 TRI  Chemicals In
 Waste for Apparel and
 Fabricated Textiles

 As shown in Table 5-9, most of the total
 production-related waste in the apparel and
 fabricated textiles sector for 1996 was reported as
released. Quantities released on- and off-site totaled
1.3 million pounds, or 57.7% of the sector's 2.3
million pounds of total production-related waste.
Another 27.7% (643,000 pounds) was reported as
treated on-site. The automotive and apparel
trimmings industry (SIC code 2396) reported the
largest quantities in both categories, with 549,000
pounds of releases and 581,000 pounds of on-site
treatment.

Figure 5-8 displays the distribution of
production-related waste in the apparel and
fabricated textiles sector's 1996 reporting by waste
                                                                                              157

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            Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
                          50,000
                                                                         D Transfers Off-site to Disposal
                                                                         n Other On-site Land Releases
                                                                         CD RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
                                                                         DIUIJ, Class II-V Wells
                                                                         B UIJ, Class I Wells
                                                                         • Surface Water
                                                                         HAir
                          5,000
                                     2389
                                                     2399
                                                                      2337
                                                                                      2321
           Figure 5-7.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, by SIC Code,
                            1996:  Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. UIJ = underground injection.

Table 5-9.  Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23
(in Rank Order)

SIC
Code

2396

2392
2353
2399
2389
2337
2329
2325
2393
2321



Industry

Automotive & Apptral Trimmings
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23
Household Furnishings, nee*
Hits, Caps, & Millinery
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Appsrcl & Accessories, nee*
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Men's & Boys' Clottiing, nee*
Men's & Boys' Trousers & Slacks
Textile Bags
Men's & Boys' Shirts
Towl for SIC Code 23

Recycled
On-site
Pounds
131,240
11,872
47,864
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
190,976
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Treated
On-site
Pounds
581,347
0
0
0
0
0
42,000
0
19,915
0
0
643,262

Recycled
Off-site
Pounds
0
0
0
754
0
0
0
686
0
0
0
1,440
Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
59,152
0
0
63,304
16,185
532
0
257
0
0
0
139,430
Quantity Total Non-
Released Production- Production-
Treated
Off-site
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
195
0
7,907
0
0
0
8,102
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
549,019
252,715
176,205
145,138
115,855
64,338
2,000
24,400
2
9,935
72
1,339,679
related
Waste
Pounds
1,320,758
264,587
224,069
209,196
132,040
65,065
44,000
33,250
19,917
9,935
72
2,322,889
related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.
*nซc: not elsewhere classified.
 158

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                                       Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
management option. Distribution of production-
related waste for the top industries in the sector
appears in Figure 5-9.
                                   On-site Waste
                                   Management
                                      35.9%
  Quantity
  Released
   57.7%
                                     Off-site Waste
                                     Management
                                        6.4%
    Figure 5-8. Distribution of TRI Production-related
      Waste, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
                   (SIC Code 23)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.
Projected Quantities of TRI
Chemicals in Waste

Projections by the apparel and fabricated textiles
sector, presented in Table 5-10, show that
quantities released on- and off-site were expected
to decrease by 65.7%, or 880,000 pounds, through
1998. Decreases were projected for all categories
including off-site treatment (43.3% or 3,500
pounds), on-site recycling (27.4% or 52,000
pounds) and off-site energy recovery (17.7% or
25,000 pounds). Overall, these reductions were
expected to bring about a 42.9% decrease (997,000
pounds) in total production-related waste by 1998.
(As explained in Chapter 1, facilities not only
report current data but project waste management
quantities for the next two years hi their TRI
submissions.) Figure 5-10 shows the sector's
projected change in waste management through
1998.
90% -
80% -
70% -
60% -
50% -
40% -
30% -
20% -
10% -
0% -

[||
1
m%

\
fe

1
I
I

i

1
11
$8

Sss

T?

|






H Quantity Released
• Treated Off-site
M Energy Recovery Off-site
D Recycled Off-site
CD Treated On-site
S Energy Recovery On-site
B Recycled On-site


2396 Invalid 2392 2353 2399 2389 2337 2329 2325 2393
Figure 5-9. Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with
Largest Totals, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "23" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
                                                                                                 159

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           Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-10. Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:  Apparel and Fabricated
Textiles, SIC Code 23
Waste Management Activity
On-sitc Waste Manaeement
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 23
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 23
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
190,976 8.2
0 0.0
643,262 27.7
1,440 0.1
139,430 6.0
8,102 0.3
1,339,679 57.7
2,322,889 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent
-10.8
-4.8
-2.8
-10.4
-33.5
-42.3
-27.4
Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
170,389 10.1
0 0.0
612,500 36.3
1,400 0.1
124,864 7.4
5,390 0.3
772,590 45.8
1,687,133 100.0
Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent
-18.6
-1.0
0.0
-8.0
-14.8
-40.5
-21.4
Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
138,640 10.5
0 0.0
606,300 45.7
1,400 0.1
114,814 8.7
4,590 0.3
459,997 34.7
1,325,741 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent
-27.4
-5.7
-2.8
-17.7
-43.3
-65.7
-42.9
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 160

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                                    Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
                  On-site Waste
                   Management
Off-site Waste
 Management
Quantity Released
  On-and Off-site
Total Production-
  related Waste
           Figure 5-10. Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in
                Waste, 1996-1998: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 The effect of the projected reductions in the apparel
 and fabricated textiles sector's reporting would be
 to increase the role of on-site treatment in the
 sector's management of TRI chemicals in waste,
 from 27.7% of production-related waste in  1996 to
 45.7% in 1998. At the same time, releases would
 decrease from 57.7% of production-related waste in
 1996 to 34.7% in 1998. While this is still a high
 percentage for releases, the projected changes
 indicate improvement in the sector's waste
 management practices as measured by the waste
 management hierarchy, explained in Chapter 1. In
 that hierarchy of options, releases are the least
 environmentally desirable action. However,
 treatment is still a less preferred option, for
 environmental consequences, than recycling or
 energy recovery.

 Source Reduction Activity

 Approximately one-third (34.0%) of the forms
 submitted in the apparel and fabricated textiles
              sector indicated that one or more source reduction
              activities was being implemented for that chemical
              in 1996. Seven of the 10 industries in the sector
              reported such activity. Six forms reported process
              modifications, and six forms reported raw materials
              modifications, the categories most likely to
              represent innovative source reduction projects.
              Table 5-11 presents these data.

              Year-to-Year
              Comparisons for Apparel
              and  Fabricated Textiles

              1995-1996 TRI Data for Apparel and
              Fabricated Textiles

              The number of forms submitted in the apparel and
              fabricated textiles sector was about the same in
              1995 and 1996, increasing from 46 in 1995 to 47 in
              1996, as shown in Table 5-12.
                                                                                         161

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          Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles


Table 5-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23
Forms Reporting
Source Reduction
Activities
SIC
Code

2321
2325
2329
2337
2353
23S9
2392
2393
2396
2399



Industry

Men's & Boys' Shirts
Men's & Boys' Trousers & Slacks
Men's & Boys' Clothing, pec*
Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats
Hits, dps, & Millinery
Apparel & Accessories, nee*
Household Furnishings, nee*
Textile Bags
Automotive & Apparel Trimmings
Fabricated Textile Products, nee*
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23
Total for SIC Code 23
Total
Forms
Number
3
1
2
2
7
5
3
2
14
4
4
47


Number
3
0
0
2
3
1
3
0
3
1
0
16
Percent of
All Forms
Percent
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
42.9
20.0
100.0
0.0
21.4
25..0
0.0
34.0
Good

Operating Inventory
Practices
Number
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
Control
Number
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
Category of Source Reduction Activltv
Spill
and Leak
Prevention
Number
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
Raw
Material
Modifi-
cations
Number
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
0
1
0
0
6
Process
M odin-
cations
Number
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
2
1
0
6
Surface
Cleaning Preparation
and
Degreasing
Number
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
and
Finishing
Number
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Product
Modifi-
cations
Number
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 On- and Off-site Releases

 The sector's reported on- and off-site releases for
 1995 and 1996 also appear in Table 5-12. Total
 releases increased slightly from 1.29 million
 pounds to 1.32 million pounds. On-site releases in
 the apparel and fabricated textiles sector decreased
 by 7,000 pounds from 1995 to 1996.

 Off-site releases (transfers to disposal) reported in
 the apparel and fabricated textiles sector more than
 doubled from 1995 to 1996, from 28,000 pounds to
 63,000 pounds.

 Figure 5-11 illustrates the sector's change in
 releases for 1995-1996 in percentage terms.

 Other On-site Waste Management

 Amounts of other on-site waste management
 reported in the apparel and fabricated textiles sector
 increased from 640,000 pounds in 1995 to 834,000
 pounds in 1996, as shown in Table 5-12. The
 change from 1995 to 1996 was an increase of
 195,000 pounds or 30.4%, occurring in both on-site
 treatment and on-site recycling.
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

Table 5-12 also presents the sector's 1995-1996
data for transfers off-site for further waste
management. Such transfers decreased from
170,000 pounds to 142,000 pounds in this period, a
16.7% reduction. This represented a substantial
drop hi transfers to treatment (99.1%,  or 60,000
pounds), partly offset by an increase in transfers to
energy recovery (30.9%, or 33,000 pounds).

Changes in SIC Codes

As indicated in facility descriptions below, some
facilities report different SIC codes over time. This
may reflect new or discontinued lines  of
production, or it may represent a different
understanding of how SIC code designations relate
to a facility's business activities. These changes can
contribute—sometimes largely—to apparent
increases or decreases across comparison years in
the amounts reported by the four-digit, or even
two-digit, SIC codes.
 162

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                                                Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-12. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1995-1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
23
46
45
1
Pounds

1,258,927
81,334
1,177,593
5
0
250
1,259,024

27,842
1,287,024

138,311
0
501,405
639,716

3,021
106,707
60,300
255
0
170,283

1996
Number
25
47
45
2
Pounds

1,252,519
128,987
1,123,532
0
0
5
1,252,524

63,177
1,315,701

190,976
0
643,262
834,238

1,440
. 139,653
535
255
0
141,883
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
8.7
2.2
0.0
100.0
Percent

-0.5
58.6
-4.6
-100.0
—
-98.0
-0.5

126.9
2.2

38.1
—
28.3
30.4

-52.3
30.9
-99.1
0.0
—
-16.7
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
Management from Section 8 of Form R.  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of
Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code.
                                                                                                                        163

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          Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
      150
      100
      50
      -SO-
     •100-
     -150
                   Air
Surface
 Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
 Disposal
            Figure 5-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                           Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: On-sltc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995.
1988-1996 TRI Data for Apparel and
Fabricated Textiles

Reporting by four-digit SIC codes in this sector
reflects the level of economic change that has
characterized the apparel trades in the last decade.
In a number of industries, TRI forms have been
filed in only one or two of the years shown in these
tables (1988 and 1994-1996). These may represent
plant closures, relocation of operations in other
parts  of the United States or abroad, changes hi
product lines, reinterpretation of SIC codes when
facility ownership changes, or reporting errors in
earlier years. In several categories of data reported
to TRI, the largest changes result from amounts
reported in 1988 and "no reports received" in later
years or vice versa.
                  As explained in Chapter 1, comparisons from the
                  1988 TRI baseline year to the current year rely on
                  the list of "core" TRI chemicals that were
                  reportable, with the same reporting definition, in all
                  years. These multi-year comparisons also review
                  only the data elements that were collected in all
                  years, which excludes from this section any
                  analysis that distinguishes RCRA subtitle C
                  landfills from other land releases as well as analysis
                  based on the types of underground injection wells.
                  On-site waste management data and transfers off-
                  site to recycling and to energy recovery have been
                  collected only since 1991; these data are included,
                  but cannot be compared across the full 1988-1996
                  period.

                  The number of forms for "core" chemicals
                  decreased from 45 forms in 1988 to 37 forms in
164

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                                      Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
1996 in the apparel and fabricated textiles sector, as
shown in Table 5-13.

Total on- and off-site releases reported in this
sector increased from 1.0 million pounds in 1988 to
1.2 million pounds in 1996, an increase of 16.5%.
This change arose from increased reporting of point
source air emissions, from 620,000 pounds in 1988
to 1.0 million pounds in 1996. Small decreases, of
about 40,000 pounds each, were reported in on-site
land releases and in off-site releases (transfers to
disposal).

Figure 5-12 illustrates percentage change in on- and
off-site releases from 1988 to 1996 for this sector.

On-site waste management and transfers off-site for
recycling or energy recovery were not collected in
1988. Table 5-13 presents these data for recent
years. For this sector, other on-site waste
management increased from 739,000 pound in
1994 to 781,000 pounds in 1996. This included a
97,000-pound increase in on-site treatment, partly
offset by a 56,000-pound decrease in on-site
recycling.

Off-site transfers to treatment and to POTWs
decreased by nearly 100% from 1988 to 1996 in the
apparel and fabricated textiles sector's reporting, as
shown in Table 5-13.

1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in
Apparel and Fabricated Textiles

Tables 5-14 through 5-16 summarize data for 1988
and 1994-1996 for industries at the four-digit SIC
code level within SIC code 23. The tables present,
respectively, on- and off-site releases, other on-site
waste management, and transfers off-site for further
waste management.

On- and Off-site Releases

Table 5-14 provides release data for all four-digit
SIC codes in the apparel and fabricated textiles
sector for 1988-1996.
The largest decrease in on- and off-site releases in
this sector resulted from reporting of 98,000 pounds
of air emissions in the pleating and stitching
industry (SIC code 2395) in 1988 and no forms
filed in this industry in 1996. Forms were submitted
in all comparison years on Table 5-14 in the
miscellaneous apparel and accessories industry
(SIC code 2389), which had the second largest
decrease. This was a reduction of 97,000 pounds in
air emissions and total releases from 1988 to 1996.
All other net decreases for 1988-1996 in this sector
represented forms filed in 1988 with none
submitted in 1996.

The largest increase in total releases reported in this
sector was in automotive and apparel trimmings
(SIC code 2396), from 247,000 pounds in 1988 to
537,000 pounds in 1996. Miscellaneous household
furnishings (SIC code 2392) ranked second for
1988-1996 increase in releases, reporting 250
pounds in 1988 and  176,000 pounds in 1996. The
industry with the third-largest increase in reported
releases was miscellaneous fabricated textiles (SIC
code 2399).  This industry reported 750 pounds in
1988  and 81,000 pounds in 1996. Increases in all
three  industries were attributable to ah- emissions.

Other On-site Waste Management

The women's and misses' suits and coats industry
(SIC code 2337) reported the largest 1994-1996
decrease in other on-site waste management
(on-site waste management data were  not collected
in 1988). This industry reported 109,000 pounds in
1994  and 42,000 pounds in 1996, entirely in on-site
treatment. Schiffli machine embroideries (SIC code
2397) reported 39,000 pounds of on-site treatment
in 1994; no reports were filed in this industry in
1996. The next-largest 1994-1996 reduction was
reported in miscellaneous apparel and accessories
(SIC code 2389), from 31,000 pounds to zero
(forms submitted with zero amounts in on-site
waste management categories).
                                                                                              165

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             Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-13. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23


Tola! Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
TmmfegJ3fฃsite for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
1988
Number
31
45
45
NA
Pounds

881,030
260,793
620,237
250
0
40,849
922,129

103,568
1,025,697

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
45,425
276,730
5,351
NA
1994
Number
33
56
56
NA
Pounds

1,311,246
271,594
1,039,652
3
0
25
1,311,274

69,673
1,380,947

245,936
0
493,412
739,348

88,230
125,515
121,699
2,636
0
338,080
1995
Number
24
41
41
0
Pounds

1,231,889
73,546
1,158,343
5'
0
250
1,232,144

27,842
1,259,986

138,311
0
501,405
639,716

3,021
103,627
60,050
255
0
166,953
Change
1996 1988 to 1996
Number
22
37
36
1
Pounds

1,132,350
97,960
1,035,190
0
0
5
1,132,355

62,927
1,195,282

190,376
600
590,347
780,723

1,440
136,573
535
255
0
138,803
Percent
-29.0
-17.8
-20.0
NA
Percent

28.5
-62.7
66.9
-100.0
-
-100.0
22.8

-39.2
16.5

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
-98.8
-99.9
-100.0
NA
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-.sltc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste Management
from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Breakdown
of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996. For 1994-1996, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
WMle management code. For 1988, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code or codes not required to be reported in
1988. NA: not required to be reported in that year.
 166

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                                        Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
        40
        20-
        0-
       -20-
     Q -40-
       -60-
       -80-
       -100-
       -120
                    Air
                                   Surface
                                    Water
Underground
   Injection
On-site
 Land
Transfers
Off-site to
 Disposal
                  Figure 5-12. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases,
                      1988-1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996.
The two industries with the largest increases in
other on-site waste management for 1994 to 1996
were the same as those with the largest increases in
total releases for 1988 to 1996: automotive and
apparel trimmings (SIC code 2396), with 493,000
pounds in 1994 and 679,000 pounds in 1996, and
miscellaneous household furnishings (SIC code
2392), with 44,000 pounds in 1994 and 48,000
pounds in 1996. The reported increases occurred in
on-site treatment for automotive and apparel
trimmings industry and in on-site recycling for the
household furnishings industry.

On-site waste management data for 1994-1996
appear hi Table 5-15.
   Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
   Management

   The hats, caps, and millinery industry (SIC code
   2353) had the largest decrease in transfers off-site
   for further waste management reported for
   1994-1996 in the apparel and fabricated textiles
   sector (data for some types of off-site transfers
   were not collected in 1988). This industry reported
   72,000 pounds in 1994 and 64,000 pounds in 1996;
   an increase in transfers to energy recovery was
   more than offset by reductions in transfers to
   recycling and treatment. The fur goods industry
   (SIC code 2371), ranking second for decreases, had
   6,000 pounds of transfers off-site for further waste
   management in 1994, mostly  in transfers to
                                                                                                   167

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             Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-14.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles,
SIC Code 23
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2321



2322



2326



2329



2337



2341



2353



2371



2381



2385



Industry Year
Men's & Boys' Shirts



Men's & Boys' Underwear & Nightwear



Men's & Boys' Work Clothing



Men's & Boys' Clothing, nee*



Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats



Women's & Children's Underwear



Hats, Caps, & Millinery



Bir Goods



Fabric Dress & Work Gloves



Waterproof Outerwear



96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground Releases
Emissions Discharges Injection to Land
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
60
20
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
10
19,361
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
50
24,400
37,407
42,997
0
2,005
4,055
5,355
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
22,200
145,138
237,956
346,903
70,100
No reports received
No reports received
40,412
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
8,900
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
2,000
0
0




1
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0




0
0
0
0
0


0




0



0
o 	
0




0
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0




0
0
0
0
0


0




0



0
0
0




20
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0




0
0
0
0
0


0




0



0
Off-site
Releases

Total Transfers Total On-
On-site Off-site to and Off-site
Releases Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds Pound
60
20




31
19,361



50
24,400
37,407
42,997
0
2,005
4,055
5,355




22,200
145,138
237,956
346,903
70,100


40,412




8,900



2,000
0
0




0
0



11,441
7,872
7,742
0
9,943
0
0
0




0
0
0
0
11,899


0




0



0
60
20




31
19,361



11,491
32,272
45,149
42,997
9,943
2,005
4,055
5,355




22,200
145,138
237,956
346,903
81,999


40,412




8,900



2,000
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 23 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 168

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                                                 Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
 Table 5-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles,
 SIC Code 23, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2386


2389



2392



2393



2394



2395



2396



2397



2399















Industry
Leather & Sheep-lined Clothing


Apparel & Accessories, nee*



Household Furnishings, nee*



Textile Bags



Canvas & Related Products



Pleating & Stitching



Automotive & Apparel Trimmings



Schiffli Machine Embroideries



Fabricated Textile Products, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 23



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23



Total for SIC Code 23


'
Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
43,120
64,239
77,687
83,857
161,302
176,205
174,580
149,694
250
10
10
10
No reports received
No reports received
0
10
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
98,062
494,381
470,710
430,493
217,144
No reports received
No reports received
255
No reports received
69,597
74,387
16,508
750
No reports received
No reports received
33,595
36,807
156,315
155,077
161,147
200,984
1,132,350
1,231,889
1,311,246
881,030


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0




0
0
0
0
0


0

0
5
0
0


0
250
0
0
2
0
0
5
3
250


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0




0
0
0
0
0


0

0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds


0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0




0
5
0
5
0


0

0
250
0
0


0
99
0
0
0
40,500
5
250
25
40,849
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds


43,120
64,239
77,687
83,857
161,552
176,205
174,580
149,694
250
10
10
10


0
10




98,062
494,386
470,710
430,498
217,144


255

69,597
74,642
16,508
750


33,595
37,156
156,315
155,077
161,149
241,484
1,132,355
1,232,144
1,311,274
922,129
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds


0
505
250
0
85
0
0
0
0
250
0
0


0
0




0
42,600
12,150
61,973
29,700


0

11,700
7,700
7,700
0


0
0
0
0
0
40,500
62,927
27,842
69,673
103,568
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds


43,120
64,744
77,937
83,857
161,637
176,205
174,580
149,694
250
260
10
10


0
10




98,062
536,986
482,860
492,471
246,844


255

81,297
82,342
24,208
750


33,595
37,156
156,315
155,077
161,149
281,984
1,195,282
1,259,986
1,380,947
1,025,697
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 23 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                      169

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            Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Apparel and Fabricated
Textiles, SIC Code 23
SIC
Code
2321



2322



2326



2329



2337



2341



2353



2371



2381



2385



Industry
Men's & Boys' Shirts



Men's & Boys' Underwear & Nightwear



Men's & Boys' Work Clothing



Men's & Boys' Clothing, nee*



Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats



Women's & Children's Underwear



Hats, Caps, & Millinery



Fur Goods



Fabric Dress & Work Gloves



Waterproof Outerwear



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Energy
Recycled Recovery
On-site On-site
Pounds Pounds
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0




0
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0




NA
0
0
0
NA


0
NA



NA



NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
0
0




1,609
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
42,000
81,000
109,000




NA
0
0
0
NA


0
NA



NA



NA
Total
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
0
0




1,609
NA



NA
0
0
0
NA
42,000
81,000
109,000




NA
0
0
0
NA


0
NA



NA



NA
Note: Dala from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 23 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 170

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                                              Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Apparel and Fabricated
Textiles, SIC Code 23, Continued
SIC
Code
2386


2389



2392



2393



2394



2395



2396



2397



2399















Industry
Leather & Sheep-lined Clothing


Apparel & Accessories, nee*



Household Furnishings, nee*



Textile Bags



Canvas & Related Products



Pleating & Stitching



Automotive & Apparel Trimmings



Schiffli Machine Embroideries



Fabricated Textile Products, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 23



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23



Total for SIC Code 23



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Energy
Recycled Recovery
On-site On-site
Pounds Pounds
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
31,405
NA
47,864
42,230
44,110
NA
0
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
130,640
76,670
149,030
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
No reports received
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
11,872
19,411
21,391
NA
190,376
138,311
245,936
NA


NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0


0
0




NA
0
0
0
NA


0

0
0
0
NA


0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds


NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0


0
0




NA
548,347
419,000
343,848
NA


38,955

0
1,405
0
NA


0
NA
0
0
0
NA
590,347
501,405
493,412
NA
Total
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds


NA
0
0
31,405
NA
47,864
42,230
44,110
NA
0
0
0


0
0




NA
678,987
495,670
492,878
NA


38,955

0
1,405
0
NA


0
NA
11,872
19,411
21,391
NA
780,723
639,716
739,348
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 23 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                171

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          Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
 treatment and no forms in 1996. The miscellaneous
 apparel and accessories industry (SIC code 2389)
 was the third-ranked industry, reporting 7,000
 pounds in 1994 and 1,000 in 1996. This reduction
 was attributable to transfers to recycling.

 The automotive and apparel trimmings industry
 (SIC code 2396) reported the largest increase in
 transfers off-site for further waste management for
 1994-1996, from 36,000 pounds in 1994 and
 56,000 pounds in 1996. The miscellaneous
 fabricated textile products industry (SIC code 2399)
 ranked second for increases in this category,
 increasing from 5,000 pounds to 16,000 pounds.
 The principal factor in both industries' increase was
 reporting of larger amounts of transfers to energy
 recovery. No other sectors reported increases from
 1994 to 1996.

 Table 5-16 presents data for the apparel and
 fabricated textiles sector's transfers off-site for
 further waste management.

 Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
 in Releases,  1988-1996

 Glenmore Plastic Industries in Brooklyn, New
 York (did not report in 1988, SIC code 2392 in
 1996), was first in Increases with an overall
 increase of 176,000 pounds. The chemical 1,1,1-
 trichloroethane was responsible for 71% of the
 increase. Printing operations for shower curtains
 and table cloths used 1,1,1-trichloroethane as a
 solvent for inks. The plant did not start using the
 chemical until after the 1988 reporting year.
 However, beginning hi 1992, the facility began
 converting to water-based inks. Since the 1996
 reporting year, Glenmore has switched entirely to
water-based inks and has ceased using 1,1,1-
 trichloroethane altogether. (For more information
on the Glenmore facility, see "Facilities with Large
Increases and Decreases in Waste Management,
 1991-1996.")
 Tri-Con Industries, Ltd., in Columbia, Missouri
 (did not report in 1988, SIC code 2351 in 1996),
 was the second-ranked facility for increases with a
 total increase of 156,000 pounds. Methyl ethyl
 ketone accounted for 75% of the increase. The
 facility closed in 1996. No information was
 available.

 Hat Brands, Inc., in Garland, Texas (did not report
 in 1988, SIC code 2353 in 1996), was third in
 increases with 103,000 pounds. 82,000 pounds of
 methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) stack emissions
 were reported in 1996. This made up 80% of the
 facility's overall increase. Now operating under the
 name, HATCO, the facility is the site of straw hat
 manufacture. The straw hats are coated with a
 lacquer that contains MIBK. The  facility contact
 stated that no information was available for
 reporting years prior to 1995 and  that it was unclear
 why the facility did not report in 1988.

 Champion Products in Perry, New York (SIC code
 2389), was first in decreases with 97,000 pounds. A
 55,000 pound reduction in dichloromethane
 reporting accounted for 57% of the facility's overall
 decrease. Between 1988 and 1996, the facility's
 production focus shifted from cotton to nylon
 athletic wear. Less dichloromethane was required
 to clean the nylon products, according to the
 facility contact. The facility has also undergone a
 decrease in production between comparison years.

 E.R. Moore Company in Chicago, Illinois (SIC
 code 2388 in 1988 and 2389 in 1996), ranked
 second with a 95,000 pound decrease, all in
reported tetrachloroethylene releases. The reduction
is attributable to two factors, according to the
facility contact: a cleaning process substitution and
more frequent monitoring. E.R. Moore
manufactures and rents academic  caps and gowns.
172

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                                                 Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Apparel and
Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23
SIC
Code
2321



2322



2326



2329



2337



2341



2353



2371



2381



2385



2386



Industry
Men's & Boys' Shirts



Men's & Boys' Underwear & Nightwear



Men's & Boys' Work Clothing



Men's & Boys' Clothing, nee*



Women's & Misses' Suits & Coats



Women's & Children's Underwear



Hats, Caps, & Millinery



Fur Goods



Fabric Dress & Work Gloves



Waterproof Outerwear



Leather & Sheep-lined Clothing



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to Transfers
to Recycling Recovery Treatment toPOTWs
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
686
217
0
NA
0
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
754
2,554
7,787
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0.
0




0
NA



NA
257
0
0
NA
0
0
0




NA
63,304
37,028
50,034
NA


913




NA



NA



NA
0
0




0
0



0
35
225
5,285
0
0
0
0




0
0
2,220
14,600
2,277


4,868




29,200



9,100



0
0
0




750
28,667



30,164
0
0
0
0
250
250
250




22,000
0
0
0
0


0




0



500



0
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Off-site Further Waste
Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds
0
0




0
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0




0
0
0
0
4,811


0




0



0



0
0
0




750
NA



NA
978
442
5,285
NA
250
250
250




NA
64,058
41,802
72,421
NA


5,781




NA



NA



NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 23 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                        173

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             Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Apparel and
Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23, Continued
SIC
Code
2389



7392



2393



2394



2395



2396



2397



2399















Industry
Apparel & Accessories, nee*



Household Furnishings, nee*



Textile Bags



Canvas & Related Products



Pleating & Stitching



Automotive & Apparel Trimmings



Schiffli Machine Embroideries



Fabricated Textile Products, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 23



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 23



Total for SIC Code 23



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
6,001
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
0
0
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
No reports received
0
0
2,200
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
0
250
72,242
NA
1,440
3,021
88,230
NA
755
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0


0
0




NA
56,072
56,292
35,469
NA


0

16,185
10,307
1,631
NA


0
NA
0
0
37,468
NA
136,573
103,627
125,515
NA
500
1,250
625
4,348
0
0
3,565
0
0
750
0


0
0




0
0
0
430
250


0

0
5
5
0


0
0
0
55,600
92,321
250
535
60,050
121,699
45,425
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10,975
0
0
0


0
0




33,858
0
0
0
0


0

5
5
1,636
0


0
0
0
0
0
150,566
255
255
2,636
276,730
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0




0
0
0
0
0


0

0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
540
0
0
0
5,351
1,255
1,250
6,626
NA
0
0
3,565
NA
0
750
0


0
0




NA
56,072
56,292
35,899
NA


0

16,190
10,317
5,472
NA


0
NA
0
55,850
202,031
NA
138,803
166,953
338,080
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 23 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 174

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                                     Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Sandusky, Ltd., in Sandusky, Ohio (SIC code
2396), was third with a 90,000 pound reduction.
The manufacturer of automotive vinyls, such as
door panels and dashboard material, also ranked
first for increases in waste management (see
"Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in
Waste Management, 1991-1996"). Methyl ethyl
ketone (MEK), used as an ink solvent, accounted
for 81% of the facility's decrease. Conversions to
water-based inks within some processes at the plant
resulted in a significant reduction of MEK releases
between 1988 and 1991. MEK was not eliminated
from all processes, however. A production increase
between 1994 and 1996 resulted in the facility's
ranking as a top increaser in total amount of waste
managed between 1991 and 1996, with 82% of this
increase attributable to MEK reporting.

Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
Releases, 1988-1996

In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
large apparent increases and decreases, which have
been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
Because these are errors or plant closures and not
actual changes in the  data, these facilities are not
discussed in detail here. There is one such facility
in the apparel and fabricated textiles sector:

   Grimes Aerospace Company, Columbus, Ohio,
   decrease of 98,000 pounds, plant closure.

1991-1996  Waste Management Data
for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles

Table 5-17 summarizes on- and off-site waste
management data for the apparel and fabricated
textiles sector for 1991, when TRI began collecting
this information, and  the three most recent years
(1994-1996). Total production-related waste
reported in this sector decreased from 2.3 million
pounds to 2.1 million pounds (8.3%) from 1991 to
1996.
 Decreases from 1991 to 1996 were reported for on-
 site recycling (31.9%), off-site recycling (65.7%),
 off-site treatment (96.3%) and quantities released
 on- and off-site (12.2%). Increases were reported in
 on-site treatment (56.1%) and off-site energy
 recovery (93.8%).

 Figure 5-13 illustrates the percentage change in
 waste management quantities in this sector from
 1991 to 1996.

 The changes in the apparel and fabricated textiles
 sector's management of TRI chemicals in waste
 from 1991 to 1996 show little improvement, as
 measured by the waste management hierarchy
 (explained in Chapter 1).  As production-related
 waste decreased in this sector, both releases and
 recycling also decreased.  These are, respectively,
 the least desirable management option for
 environmental consequences and the most
 environmentally desirable option for waste that
 cannot be eliminated at the source.

 Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
 in Waste Management. 1991-1996

'. Sandusky, Ltd., in Sandusky, Ohio (SIC code
 2396), was first in increases of production-related
 waste. The manufacturer of automotive vinyls, such
 as door panel and dashboard material, was ranked
 third for decreases in releases (see "Facilities with
 Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-
 1996"). Methyl ethyl ketone, used as an ink
 solvent, was responsible for 82% of the facility's
 overall 286,000-pound increase. A production
 increase is cited as the reason for the change.

 Tri-Con Industries, Ltd., in Columbia, Missouri
 (SIC code 2351),  was the second-ranked facility for
 increases with a total increase of 168,000 pounds.
 Methyl ethyl ketone, a significant contributor to the
 facility's ranking as a major increaser in releases
 (see "Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
                                                                                             175

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            Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Table 5-17. TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996: Apparel and Fabricated Textiles, SIC Code 23
Waste Management Activity
Qn-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
1991
Pounds
279,602
0
378,208
657,810
4,196
70,359
220,250
294,805
1,388,265
2,340,880
6,066
Change
1994-1995
Percent
-43.8
1.6
-13.5
-70.7
-17.4
-48.2
-42.2
-9.2
-15.0
-90.5
1994
Pounds
246,116
0
493,412
739,528
82,225
125,485
128,429
336,139
1,374,738
2,450,405
242
Change
1995-1996
Percent
37.6
17.7
22.0
-94.0
31.6
-87.8
-24.9
-2.3
3.1
-87.0
1995
Pounds
138,311
0
501,405
639,716
24,089
103,599
66,539
194,227
1,247,993
2,081,936
23
Change
1991-1996
Percent
-31.9
56.1
18.7
-65.7
93.8
-96.3
-50.5
-12.2
-8.3
-100.0
1996
Pounds
190,376
600
590,347
780,723
1,440
136,350
8,102
145,892
1,219,144
2,145,759
3







Note: Docs not include dclisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
 176

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                                        Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
    -wo-
    -150
         Recycled   Energy   Treated
          On-site Recovery   On-site
                  On-site
           On-site Waste Management
Recycled    Energy   Treated          Quantity
 Off-site   Recovery    Off-site      Released On-
          Off-site                 and Off-site
  Off-site Waste Management
    Total
Production-
   related
   Waste
        Figure 5-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
                            Apparel and Fabricated Textiles (SIC Code 23)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
in Releases, 1988-1996"), accounted for 77% of the
increase. Most of this increase in production-related
waste is the result of the facility's increase in MEK
releases (reported as quantities released on- and
off-site). The facility closed in 1996. No
information was available.

United Techs. Automotive Systems in West Olive,
Michigan (SIC code 2396), was third with an
overall 46,000 pound increase. Phenol was
responsible for all of the facility's increase. The
chemical is produced as a by-product of a process
where recycled fabrics, such as blue jeans, T-shirts,
and sweatshirts are shredded and combined with
resin and then hot molded into pads that are used in
automotive interiors. Phenol is produced in the hot-
molding process. The increase in reporting is
             largely due to changes in emissions estimation
             methodology, according to the facility contact.

             Burrell-Leder Beltech, Inc., in Skokie, Illinois (SIC
             code 2399 in 1991, did not report in 1996), was
             first in decreases with 187,000 pounds. All of this
             change was due to a switch from solvent-based
             construction material coatings to water-based
             coatings. The contact did not specify the type of
             construction material produced at this site. Methyl
             ethyl ketone accounted for all of the facility's
             decrease.

             Glenmore Plastic Industries in Brooklyn, New
             York (SIC code 2392), was second in decreases
             with an overall 109,000 pound reduction. This plant
             is ranked as the top increaser in releases  from 1988
             to  1996 (see "Facilities with Large Increases and
                                                                                                    177

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         Chapter 5 — TRI Data for Apparel and Fabricated Textiles
Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996"). The chemical
1,1,1-trichloroethane was used as an ink solvent in
1991, when the facility reported releases (also
reported as quantity released on- or off-site, a
production-related waste category) of 178,000
pounds of this chemical. Beginning in 1992, 1,1,1-
trichloroethane usage declined as the facility
switched to water-based inks, accounting for the
ranking as a major decreaser in production-related
waste.

Champion Products, Inc., in Perry, New York (SIC
code 2389), was third in decreases with a 99,000
pound decrease. The facility also ranked first in
decreases of releases. Dichloromethane reported as
quantity released was responsible for 53% of the
facility's reduction. See "6.2.2 Facilities with Large
Increases and Decreases hi Releases, 1988-1996"
for more information.

Facilities Contacted for Explanations
(alphabetical by facility):

   Burrell-Leder Beltech, Inc., Skokie, Illinois:
   Eduardo Arce, August 11,1998 (explanation
   provided)
Champion Products, Lie., Perry, New York:
Joe Galarneau, August 27, 1998 (explanation
provided)
E. R. Moore Company, Chicago, Illinois:
Tom Hoy, September 16,1998 and Roger
Wandersee, September 21, 1988 (explanation
provided)
Glenmore Plastics Industries, Brooklyn, New
York: Leslie Liebowitz, August 12,  1998
(explanation provided)
Grimes Aerospace Co., Columbus, Ohio: Ray
White, August 12, 1998 (explanation provided)
Hat Brands, Inc., Garland, Texas: Tyra
Anderson, August 7 and  August 24,1998
(explanation provided)
Sandusky, Ltd., Sandusky, Ohio: Dinesh
Parekh, August 11 and August 12, 1998
(explanation provided)
Tri-Con Industries, Ltd.,  Columbia,  Missouri:
no contact information available.
                i
United Techs. Automotive Systems, West
Olive, Michigan: Chris Kull, September 16,
1998 (explanation provided)
178

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                                 Chapter 6
              Toxics Release Inventory Data
             for Lumber and  Wood Products
                             (SIC Code 24)
A Look at the Lumber and

Wood Products Industry

(SIC Code 24)

The lumber and wood products sector (SIC code
24) cuts timber and pulpwood, saws rough lumber
and timber, and re-saws veneer stock, dimension
(components cut to nominal or precise sizes for use
in manufacturing finished wood products), flooring,
frames for furniture, and other products. Facilities
in this sector also produce veneer and plywood. In
addition, the sector mills shutters, moldings,
staircases, and similar goods, manufactures wood
kitchen cabinets, and produces window and door
units. Other products include prefabricated houses
and mobile homes. Facilities that treat wood
products, including railroad crossties, are included
in SIC code 24, as are those that manufacture
reconstituted wood products such as fiberboard,
particleboard, and wallboard. Furniture, however, is
classified in SIC code 25. Box 6-1 lists Standard
Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and their
designations for this sector. In TRI, SIC codes are
given as reported by the facilities; these may differ
from information  in economic and other data
collections.
The lumber and wood products sector shipped
products valued at $106.52 billion in 1996, up from
$104.94 in 1995 (both in current dollars). This was
about 3% of the value of all manufacturing
shipments in the United States. The sector
employed 739,000 in 1996, down slightly from
740,000 in 1995. Employment in lumber and wood
products industries dropped substantially in 1991,
but grew steadily through 1995 to its highest level
in the last decade. Production in this sector has
grown modestly in the 1990s, increasing 5.3% from
1989 to 1996, compared to 17.6% for all U.S.
manufacturing (see Chapter 1, Table 1-10).

Industries in millwork, plywood, and structural
members (SIC code 243) contributed the largest
portion of the sector's shipments ($31.80 billion)
and employment (257,000) in 1996. Sawmills and
planing mills (SIC code 242) were second with
$29.70 billion in shipments and employment of
172,000. The sector's largest customer is the
construction and building sector.

Basic activities in the lumber and wood  products
sector are logging, sawing wood into sizes and
shapes for further use, cutting and gluing veneer
(layers) into plywood, reconstituting wood particles
or other fragments into boards, and treating wood
surfaces. Lumber and wood generally must be kept
                                                                                 179

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               Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 Box 6-1. SIC Code 24, Lumber and Wood Products, Except Furniture:  Codes and Classifications
   SIC Code
                                                                Industry Description
   241    Logging

          2411   Logging


   242    Sawmills and Planing Mills
          2421   Sawmills and Planing Mills, General
          2426   Hardwood Dimension and Flooring Mills
          2429   Special Product Sawmills, nee*
  243    Millwork, Vcnccr, Plywood, and Structural
          Wood Members

          2431   Millwork
          2434   Wood Kitchen Cabinets


          2435   Hardwood Veneer and Plywood


          2436   Softwood Veneer and Plywood

          2439   Structural Wood Members, nee*

  244     Wood Containers
          2441   Nailed and Lock Comer Wood Boxes and Shook

          2448   Wood Pallets and Skids

          2449   Wood Containers, nee*

  245     Wood Buildings and Mobile Homes

          2451   Mobile Homes

          2452   Prefabricated Wood Buildings and Components

  249     Miscellaneous Wood Products

          2491   Wood Preserving


          2493   Reconstituted Wood Products

         2499  Wood Products, nee*
 Cutting timber and producing rough, round, hewn, or riven primary forest or wood
 raw materials, or producing wood chips in the field.
 Sawing rough lumber and timber from logs and bolts. Resawing cants and flitches
 into lumber, including box lumber and softwood cut stock.  (Includes planing mills
 combined with sawmills and planing mills primarily producing surfaced lumber,
 standard workings, or patterns of lumber).

 Manufacture of hardwood dimension lumber and workings therefrom; other
 hardwood dimension, semifabricated or ready for assembly; hardwood flooring; and
 wood frames for household furniture.

 Manufacture of excelsior, wood shingles, and cooperage stock. Sawing of
 miscellaneous special products.
Manufacture of fabricated wood millwork, including millwork covered with
materials such as metal and plastics. (Includes planing mills primarily engaged in
producing millwork.)

Manufacture of wood kitchen cabinets and bathroom vanities, generally for
permanent installation.

Production of commercial hardwood veneer, commercial plywood, or prefinished
hardwood plywood. (Includes veneer and plywood backed or faced with non-wood
material).

Production of commercial softwood veneer and plywood.

Production of laminated or fabricated trusses, arches, and other structural members
of lumber.
Manufacture of nailed and lock corner wood boxes (lumber or plywood) and shook
for nailed and lock corner boxes.

Manufacture of wood or wood-and-metal pallets and skids.

Manufacture of miscellaneous wood containers, such as cooperage, wirebound boxes
and crates, and other veneer and plywood containers.
Manufacture of mobile homes and non-residential mobile buildings.

Manufacture of prefabricated wood buildings, sections, and panels.
Treatment of wood, sawed or planed elsewhere, with creosote or other preservatives.
Includes cutting, treating, and selling of poles, posts, and piling.

Manufacture of reconstituted wood products, including hardboard, particleboard,
insulation board, medium density fiberboard, waferboard, and oriented strandboard.

Manufacture of miscellaneous wood products and products from rattan, reed, veneer,
wicker, and similar materials.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
180

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                                          Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
moist until use; most finished products of this
sector, from plywood to kitchen cabinets, require
drying the moisture in the wood as well as drying
adhesives or coatings. Lumber and wood products
are generally dried in boiler-fired ovens, which may
result in air emissions reportable to TRI.

Nearly all phases of lumber and wood production
involve some treatment to protect the wood.
Sawmills, for example, may treat lumber to prevent
stains from sap. Chemicals used most extensively
in preserving wood are water-borne inorganic
chemicals such as chromated copper arsenate and
ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate. However,
creosote and pentachlorophenol, oil-borne organics,
represent 15% and 6%, respectively, of all
preservatives used. Chemicals used in treatment
processes account for a substantial portion of the
sector's TRI reporting. Because treating wood is its
primary business, the wood preserving industry
(SIC code 2491) ranks high in this sector for
amounts reported in most TRI categories.

Chemicals used in plywood and veneer production
(SIC codes 2435 and 2436) include phenol-
formaldehyde resins, generally used with
softwoods, and urea-formaldehyde resins, used
with hardwoods. These resins are mixed with
extenders, fillers, catalysts, and caustic to form
adhesives used to glue veneer into plywood.
Reconstituted wood products (SIC code 2493) are
similarly manufactured, using these resins and
other additives to bind wood particles, fibers, or
strands. The drying and pressing phases of this
production result in air emissions of chemicals such
as formaldehyde, methanol, toluene, and xylene.
The application of coatings and finishes in the
manufacture of wood kitchen cabinets (SIC code
2434) results in air emissions of volatile organic
chemicals reportable to TRI.


1996 TRI Data for Lumber

and Wood Products

Table 6-1 summarizes TRI reporting by the lumber
and wood products sector for 1996. More than
1,900 forms were submitted in this sector in 1996.
One-fourth of them (480 forms) were Form A
certification statements, certifying that a facility's
total annual reportable amount of a TRI chemical
was less than 500 pounds for the year and that the
facility did not manufacture, process, or otherwise
use more than 1 million pounds. (The Form A
certification statement is explained in Chapter 1.)
Form As were a substantially larger percentage
(24.9%) of the submissions in this sector than the
average for all reporting sectors (10.1%).

The wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491)
submitted the most forms in this sector: 884 forms
or 45.9% of the total. The wood kitchen cabinets
industry (SIC code 2434) submitted 285 forms,
                                             Sources

  Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
     Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
  U.S. Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRFMcGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
     International Trade Administration, 1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and
     industrial processes for selected industries.
  U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures:  Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
     February 1998 : value of shipments and employment.
     Supplemental data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, Office of Compliance, Profile
     of the Lumber and Wood Products Industry, Sector Notebook project, EPA/310-R-95-006, September 1995
     : industry processes and technologies, pollutant sources, and selected
     economic data.
                                                                                              181

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-1. Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24
Total Total
On- and Production-
Off-sltc related
Releases Waste
Rank Rank
13
12
5
2
10
7
9
15
16
11
14
1
3
4
6
8

13
9
5
2
12
7
10
15
16
11
14
1
3
4
6
8

SIC
Code
2421
2426
2431
2434
2435
2436
2439
2448
2449
2451
2452
2491
2493
2499


Total
Industry Facilities
Number
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Millwork
Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Structural Wood Members, nee*
Wood Pallets & Skids
Wood Containers, nee*
Mobile Homes
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Wood Preserving
Reconstituted Wood Products
Wood Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Total for SIC Code 24
10
10
27
85
10
19
8
1
0
103
4
311
79
40
46
12
765
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
19
13
84
285
17
40
14
1
1
159
4
884
167
114
97
27
1,926
1
0
4
0
1
4
2
1
1
109
1
318
4
0
28
6
480
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
61,349
193,060
2,305,119
8,718,447
248,200
1,190,616
285,940
0
0
228,689
16,730
1,229,577
7,087,818
4,309,887
2,119,337
590,740
28,585,509
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
11,193
18,062
250
270
0
0
0
0
0
7,612,134
2,380
379
10,148
2,355
7,657,171
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
61,349
193,060
2,316,312
8,736,509
248,450
1,190,886
285,940
0
0
228,689
16,730
8,841,711
7,090,198
4,310,266
2,129,485
593,095
36,242,680
Note: On-stte Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with mote than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category. There may be forms but no facilities in a single
4-digit SIC code because a facility reported different 4-digit SIC codes in the range of SIC codes 20 to 39 on its individual forms.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
  14.8% of the total. Third was reconstituted wood
  products (SIC code 2493), with 167 forms (8.7%).
  Form A submissions were unusually concentrated
  in this sector; 66.3% of these (318 forms) were
  submitted in the wood preserving industry (SIC
  code 2491) and 22.7% (109 forms) in the mobile
  homes industry (SIC code 2451).

  As shown in Table 6-1, two industries dominated
  reporting in the lumber and wood products sector.
  The wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491)
  ranked first among industries in this sector for
  amounts reported as off-site releases, total on- and
  off-site releases, other on-site waste management,
  and total production-related waste. In all of these
  categories, the wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC
  code 2434) ranked second. Wood kitchen cabinets
  also ranked first in the two remaining categories:
  on-site releases and transfers off-site for further
  waste management.
The wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491)
reported 8.8 million pounds of total on- and off-site
releases in 1996, one-fourth (24.4%) of the sector's
total of 36.2 million pounds. The wood kitchen
cabinets industry (SIC code 2434) reported 8.7
million pounds of total releases, also one-fourth
(24.1%) of the sector* s total. The reconstituted
wood products industry (SIC code 2493) ranked
third, with 7.1 million pounds (19.6%) of total
releases.

The wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code
2434) reported the largest on-site releases in this
sector, 8.7 million pounds, or 30.5% of the sector's
total of 28.6 million pounds. Reconstituted wood
products (SIC code 2493) was second with 7.1
million pounds (24.8%). Miscellaneous wood
products (SIC code 2499) was third with 4.3
million pounds (15.1%).
  182

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                                             Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-1. Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24, Continued
SIC
Code
2421
2426
2431
2434
2435
2436
2439
2448
2449
2451
2452
2491
2493
2499



Industry
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Millwork
Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Structural Wood Members, nee*
Wood Pallets & Skids
Wood Containers, nee*
Mobile Homes
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Wood Preserving
Reconstituted Wood Products
Wood Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Total for SIC Code 24
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
0
68,424 .
87,023
2,457,857
2,175
725
0
0
0
0
0
69,421,504
2,367,555
1,061,516
59,536
39,103
75,565,418
Total Transfers
Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
2,150
196,023
298,418
1,527,819
2,559
30,022
55,937
0
0
70,762
0
453,460
57,383
575,204
38,840
41,875
3,350,452
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
64,645
429,526
2,628,419
13,103,937
253,065
1,217,750
428,323
0
0
313,378
15,335
74,739,362
9,540,641
5,338,101
2,227,749
672,054
110,972,285
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
0
1,083
1
955
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,833,743
0
1,550
0
0
4,837,332
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 The wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491)
 reported the largest off-site releases (transfers to
 disposal), 7.6 million pounds, or 99.4% of the
 sector's total of 7.7 million pounds. Other lumber
 and wood products industries reported less than
 20,000 pounds each in this category. One facility in
 SIC code 2491 reported off-site releases in 1996 of
 3.4 million pounds of creosote; 3.3 million pounds
 of this resulted from one-time clean-up activities at
 the facility.

 The lumber and wood products sector reported 75.6
 million pounds of other on-site waste management
 in 1996. The wood preserving industry (SIC code
 2491) reported 69.4 million pounds of other on-site
 waste management, which was 91.9% of the
 sector's total. The wood kitchen cabinets industry
 (SIC code 2434) reported 2.5 million pounds in this
 category and the reconstituted wood products (SIC
 code 2493) reported 2.4 million pounds; these
 amounts represented a little over 3% each of the
 sector's total.
Wood kitchen cabinets (SIC code 2434) reported
1.5 million pounds of transfers off-site for further
waste management, 45.6% of the sector's total of
3.4 million pounds. Ranking second in this
category, the miscellaneous wood products industry
(SIC code 2499) reported 575,000 pounds (17.2%).
The wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491)
ranked third with 453,000 pounds (13.5%).

Production-related waste reported in the lumber and
wood products sector totaled 111.0 million pounds
in 1996. The industries reporting the largest
amounts of other on-site waste management also
reported the largest amounts of total production-
related waste. These were wood preserving (SIC
code 2491), with 74.7 million pounds (67.3% of the
sector's total), wood kitchen cabinets (SIC code
2434), with 13.1 million pounds (11.8%),  and
reconstituted wood products (SIC code 2493), with
9.5 million pounds (8.6%).
                                                                                                     183

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 24

 Some facilities in the lumber and wood products
 sector engage in operations that are classified in
 different SIC codes within SIC code 24. A sawmill,
 for example, may also treat wood that was sawed
 elsewhere. These activities are described by SIC
 code 2421 (sawmills and planing mills) and SIC
 code 2491 (wood preserving). Another facility may
 produce both softwood veneer and plywood (SIC
 code 2436) and reconstituted wood products (SIC
 code 2493). Such facilities may report multiple SIC
 codes on their TRI forms to describe their
 operations. (Box 1-5 in Chapter 1 further explains
 reporting of multiple SIC codes and its affect on the
 analyses presented in the TRI data release.)

 Forms that reported more than one four-digit SIC
 code within SIC code 24 represented a relatively
 small portion of lumber and wood products
 reporting to TRI in 1996. Table  6-2 further
 examines TRI reporting on these "multiple-codes"
 forms. The most frequent combination, submitted
on 42 forms, was sawmills and planing mills (SIC
code 2421) and wood preserving (SIC code 2491).
The second most frequent combination, reported on
11 forms, was sawmills and planing mills (SIC
code 2421) and softwood veneer and plywood (SIC
code 2436).

The multiple codes group in SIC code 24 reported
2.1 million pounds of total on- and off-site releases
and 2.2 million pounds of total production-related
waste in  1996, as shown in Table 6-2.

On- and Off-site Releases

The lumber and wood products sector reported 28.5
million pounds of air emissions in 1996, 78.6% of
the sector's total on- and off-site releases. Off-site
releases (transfers to disposal) totaled 7.7 million
pounds, or 21.1%. Much smaller amounts were
reported for surface water discharges and on-site
land releases. The sector reported no underground
injection. These data appear in Table 6-3 and
Figure 6-1.
Table 6-2. Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24
SIC Codes
2411
2421
2421
2421
2421
2421
2421
2421
2421
2431
2431
2434
2435
2435
2436
2436
2491
2491
2492
2421
2426
2436
2436
2436
2436
2436
2491
2493
2434
2434
2499
2436
2436
2491
2493
2493
2499
2499
2436
2436

2439
2491
2491 2493
2493



2499


2492





Total for SIC Code 24
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
1
1
11
1
4
4
2
42
4
2
4
1
2
2
2
6
1
1
6
97
1
0
1
0
0
3
0
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
28
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
0
11,700
276,285
633
8,879
102
338,000
2,241
135,915
18,635
88,524
21,259
439,175
95,471
0
430,558
154,885
490
96,585
2,119,337
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
270
0
350
0
0
9,388
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
140
0
10,148
Total Total Transfers
On- and Total Other Off-site for
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
11,700
276,555
633
9,229
102
338,000
11,629
135,915
18,635
88,524
21,259
439,175
95,471
0
430,558
154,885
630
96,585
2,129,485
0
0
38,000
20
845
0
0
1,628
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
93
0
0
18,850
59,536
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11,095
0
1,905
9,839
929
0
0
500
0
0
0
14,572
38,840
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
0
11,700
315,005
653
10,074
102
337,000
23,768
136,110
22,439
98,363
22,188
439,175
95,471
1,100
430,401
154,885
630
128,685
2,227,749
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases are transfers off-site to disposal
from Section 6 of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 of Form R. Total Production-related Waste sums
Section 8 of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
184

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                                              Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 Table 6-3. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code

2491
2434
2493
2499
2431

2436

2439
2435
2451
2426
2421
2452
2448
2449


Industry

Wood Preserving
Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Reconstituted Wood Products
Wood Products, nee*
Millwork
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Structural Wood Members, nee*
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Mobile Homes
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Wood Pallets & Skids
Wood Containers, nee*
Total for SIC Code 24
Total Air
Surface
Water
Emissions Discharges
Pounds
1,192,710
8,718,447
7,035,762
4,309,132
2,304,642
2,118,214
1,190,616
590,740
285,940
248,200
228,689
191,618
61,349
16,730
0
0
28,492,789
Pounds
26,629
0
49,000
122
0
1,123
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
76,874
Underground Injection
Class I Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills
Pounds
6,039
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6,039
Releases
Pounds
4,199
0
3,056
633
477
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,442
0
0
0
0
9,807
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1, 229,577
8,718,447
7,087,818
4,309,887
2,305,119
2,119,337
1,190,616
590,740
285,940
248,200
228,689
193,060
61,349
16,730
0
0
28,585,509
Off-site
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
7,612,134
18.062
2,380
379
11,193
10,148
270
2.355
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,657,171
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
8,841,711
8,736,509
7,090,198
4,310,266
2,316,312
2,129,485
1,190,886
593,095
285,940
248,450
228,689
193,060
61,349
16,730
0
0
36,242,680
 Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
 SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
 *nec: not elsewhere classified.
  Transfers Off-site
    to Disposal
     21.1%
      Surface
      Water
       0.2%
                    Underground Injection = 0%
                    RCRA Subtitle C Landfills < 0.1%
                    Other On-site Land Releases < 0.1%

    Figure 6-1. Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
       Releases, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products
                    (SIC Code 24)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.

 The wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code
 2434) reported 8.7 million pounds of air emissions,
 the largest in this sector. Reconstituted wood
 products (SIC code 2493) ranked second with 7.0
 million pounds, and miscellaneous wood products
 (SIC code 2499) was third with 4.3 million pounds.
Together, these industries accounted for 70.4% of
the sector's reported air emissions.

The wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491)
reported the largest off-site releases (transfers to
disposal) in this sector in 1996. With 7.6 million
pounds in off-site releases and 1.2 million pounds
in on-site releases, this industry had the largest
reported total releases in the sector, 8.8 million
pounds. As noted, one facility's report of 3.4
million pounds of off-site releases in SIC code
2491 included 3.3 million pounds resulting from
clean-up  activity in 1996.

Figure 6-2 shows the distribution of on- and off-site
releases for the industries (four-digit SIC code)
with the sector's largest releases.

Other On-site Waste Management

Two-thirds (66.9%) of the other on-site waste
management reported in the lumber and wood
products sector in 1996 was reported as on-site
recycling, which totaled 50.5 million pounds. The
wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491) reported
49.8 million pounds of this amount, or 98.5%. On-
                                                                                                     185

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
            10,500,000
            9.000,000-
            7,500,000 •
            6,000,000-
            4,500,000-
            3,000,000 •
            1,500,000
  Transfers Off-site to Disposal
  Other On-site Land Releases
 3 RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
DUIJ, Class II-V Wells
El UIJ, Class I Wells
S Surface Water
  Air
                     2491
                             2434
                                    2493
                                           2499
                                                   2431
                                                          Mult.
                                                                 2436
                                                                        Invalid
                                                                                2439
                                                                                       2435
                Figure 6-2.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest
                     Releases, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Oil-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal). UIJ = underground injection. Forms with
mote than one 4-digtt SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "24" that do not exist in the
current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
 site treatment totaled 23.5 million pounds, nearly
 one-third (31.1 %) of the other on-site waste
 management reported in this sector. The wood
 preserving industry (SIC code 2491) reported 19.7
 million pounds, or 83.7% of the total.

 Two facilities in the wood preserving industry
 reported large amounts of on-site waste
 management of creosote in 1996. One facility
 reported on-site recycling of 28.5 million pounds of
 this chemical, which it uses to treat wood products
 for farm use. The other facility reported 7.9 million
 pounds of on-site recycling and 12.7 million
 pounds of on-site treatment of creosote, used
 primarily to treat wood for railroad crossties.

 The lumber and wood products sector reported 1.5
 million pounds in on-site energy recovery, which
represented just 2.0% of the sector's total other on-
site waste management.

Table 6-4 presents the lumber and wood products
sector's data for other on-site waste management.
Distribution by waste management types appears in
Figure 6-3. Figure 6-4 illustrates the distribution of
on-site waste management reporting for the top
industries in this sector.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

The lumber and wood products sector reported 2.3
million pounds of transfers off-site for energy
recovery in 1996, as shown in Table 6-5. This was
the largest type of off-site transfer for further waste
management reported in this sector  and amounted
to 68.6% of the sector's total for such transfers.
 186

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                                         Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
                                                                                   Hfl
Table 6-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2491
2434
2493
2499
2431
2426


2435
2436
2421
2439
2448
2449
2451
2452

Industry
Wood Preserving
Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Reconstituted Wood Products
Wood Products, nee*
Millwork
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Structural Wood Members, nee*
Wood Pallets & Skids
Wood Containers, nee*
Mobile Homes
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Total for SIC Code 24
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
49,762,362
601,684
12,378
91,349
14,010
31,739
20,877 :
8,351
2,175 •
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50,544,925
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
272,244
283,557
959,685
0
0
70
22,830
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,538,386'
Treated
On-site
Pounds
19,659,142
1,583,929
2,071,620
10,482
73,013
36,685
38,589
7,922
0
725
0
0
0
0
0
0
23,482,107
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
69,421,504
2,457,857
2,367,555
1,061,516
87,023
68,424
59,536
39,103
2,175
725
0
0
0
0
0
0
75,565,418
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the
"multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
        Treated
        On-site
        31.1%
                                       Recycled
                                       On-site
                                        66.9%
 Energy Recovery
    On-site
    2.0%
   Figure 6-3. Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
    Management, 1996:  Lumber and Wood Products
                  (SIC Code 24)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

 The wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code
 2434) reported the largest transfers to energy
 recovery, 1.3 million pounds, and the
 miscellaneous wood products industry (SIC code
 2499) reported the second-largest transfers to
 energy recovery, 488,000 pounds.

 The sector reported 515,000 pounds transferred off-
 site to recycling, the second largest type of off-site
 transfers for further waste management in this
sector. The wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC
code 2434) reported 118,000 pounds of this
amount, and the hardwood dimension and flooring
mills industry (SIC code 2426) reported 99,000
pounds. Reporting of transfers to treatment totaled
491,000 pounds, including 380,000 pounds
reported in the wood preserving industry (SIC code
2491) and 80,000 pounds reported in the wood
kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code 2434).

Figure 6-5 illustrates the distribution of types of
off-site transfers for further waste management
reported in the lumber and wood products sector.
Figure 6-6 illustrates the distribution of such
transfers for the top industries in this sector.


1996 TRI Data by State for

Lumber  and Wood

Products

Table 6-6 presents 1996 TRI data by state for the
lumber and wood products sector. In four states,
more than 100 TRI forms were submitted in the
                                                                                             187

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
         80,000.000
         70,000,000
         60,000,000
         50,000,000
         40,000,000
         30,000,000
         20,000,000 -
         10,000,000
                                             D Treated
                                             • Energy Recovery
                                             H Recycled
                    2491
2434
2493
                                           2499
                                                   2431
                                                           2426
                                                                   Mult.
Invalid
                                                      2435
                                                      2436
       Figure 6-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
                              Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Other On-sJtc Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC Code 24 are assigned to the
"multiple" category. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "24" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
 lumber and wood products sector in 1996:
 Alabama (149 forms), Georgia (124 forms), North
 Carolina (118 forms), and Texas (117 forms).
 Together, these represented one-fourth (26.4%) of
 all forms submitted in the sector.

 The largest total on- and off-site releases were
 reported in Kentucky,  3.5 million pounds, or 9.8%
 of the sector's total.  Reporting of releases in
 Kentucky consisted largely of off-site releases
 (transfers  to disposal), which totaled 3.4 million
 pounds in that state or 44.9% of the sector's total
 off-site releases. Kentucky is the state in which one
 facility reported 3.4 million pounds of off-site
 releases, including 3.3 million pounds from clean-
 up activity. The state with the second-largest
 reported total releases  was Oregon with 2.82
                          million pounds (7.8%). On-site releases in Oregon
                          totaled 2.6 million pounds. Mississippi ranked third
                          among states for total releases with 2.79 million
                          pounds, including 1.8 million pounds of on-site
                          releases and 1.0 million pounds of off-site releases.

                          Most of the sector's other on-site waste
                          management was reported in South Dakota (29.7
                          million pounds, or 39.3% of the sector's total) and
                          Mississippi (20.7 million pounds, or 27.5%). Of the
                          two facilities that reported large amounts of on-site
                          waste management of creosote in 1996, described
                          above, one is located in South Dakota and the other
                          in Mississippi. Texas ranked third among states for
                          other on-site waste management, with 7.7 million
                          pounds, or 10.2%.
 188

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                                              Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-5. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24
(in Rank Order)


SIC
Code

2434
2499
2491
2431
2426
2451
2493
2439


2436
2435
2421
2448
2449
2452




Industry

Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Wood Products, nee*
Wood Preserving
Millwork
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Mobile Homes
Reconstituted Wood Products
Structural Wood Members, nee*
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Wood Pallets & Skids
Wood Containers, nee*
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Total for SIC Code 24


Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
118,412
85,771
3,082
64,068
99,217
70,308
18,350
46,161
0
9,839
0
0
0
0
0
0
515,208

Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
1,328,484
487,968
43,581
226,073
90,607
0
24,672
8,636
34,324
20,441
29,841
2,475
2,150
0
0
0
2,299,252


Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
79,923
500
379,741
7,495
6,199
454
750
0
7,551
8,544
0
0
0
0
0
0
491,157


Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
0
965
16,020
782
0
0
13,611
1,140
0
16
181
84
0
0
0
0
32,799

Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
1,000
0
1 1,036
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,036
Total Off-site
Transfers
for Further
Waste
Management
Pounds
1,527,819
575,204
453,460
298,418
196,023
70,762
57,383
55,937
41,875
38,840
30,022
2,559
2,150
0
0
0
3,350,452
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                          To Other Off-site
                To POTWs  Transfers
                  1.0% \   / 0.4%
    To Treatment
      14.7%
To Recycling
   15.4%
                                        To Energy
                                         Recovery
                                          68.6%
    Figure 6-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
   Further Waste Management, 1996:  Lumber and Wood
                Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
(excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers
are transfers reported without a valid waste management code.
Ohio was the state with the largest reported
transfers off-site for further waste management,
with 833,000 pounds or 24.9% of the sector's total.
The second- and third-largest amounts in this
category were reported in Illinois (218,000 pounds,
or 6.5%) and Wisconsin (179,000 pounds, or
5.3%).

The three states with the largest amounts reported
in total production-related waste in this sector for
1996 were the same as the three with the largest
amounts reported in other on-site waste
management. In South Dakota, the total for
production-related waste was 29.9 million pounds,
and in Mississippi,  the total was 23.4 million
pounds. These were 27.0% and 21.1%,
respectively, of the lumber and wood products
sector's total production-related waste. Texas was
third with 10.1  million pounds, or 9.1%.

Map 6-1 illustrates  the geographic distribution of
total on- and off-site releases in the lumber and
wood products  sector.
                                                                                                        189

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          Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
          1,800,000
          1,600,000-


          1,400,000


          1,200,000


          1,000,000-


           800,000
           600,000-
           400,000-
           200,000-
                                       • Other Off-site Transfers
                                       QToPOTWs
                                       D To Treatment
                                       E To Energy Recovery
                                       BTo Recycling
                    2434
2499
2491
2431
2426
                             2451
                             2493
                             2439
                             Invalid   Mult.
         Figure 6-6.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes with
                 Largest Totals, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC Code 24 are assigned to the "multiple"
eatcgMy. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "24" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
1996 TRI Data by
Chemical for Lumber
and Wood  Products

As shown in Table 6-7, the top 15 chemicals for
total on- and off-site releases in the lumber and
wood products sector accounted for 35.3 million
pounds, or 97.4% of the sector's total releases in
1996. Air emissions reported for these  15 chemicals
totaled 27.8 million pounds and off-site releases
(transfers to disposal) totaled 7.4 million pounds,
also approximately 97% of the sector's totals in
those categories.
                        The chemical with the largest reported releases was
                        creosote. Off-site releases for this chemical were
                        7.2 million pounds, and total releases were 7.9
                        million pounds. As noted earlier, one facility in the
                        wood preserving industry, SIC code 2491, reported
                        3.4 million pounds of off-site releases of creosote,
                        attributing 3.3 million pounds of this amount to
                        clean-up activities.

                        In addition to creosote, four chemicals were
                        reported in amounts of more than 4 million pounds
                        each for total releases. These were methanol with
                        5.8 million pounds, xylenes with 5.4 million
                        pounds, toluene with 5.3 million pounds, and
190

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                                                      Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24
State
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total for SIC Code 24
Total
Facilities
Number
60
4
27
23
4
1
1
23
50
2
5
10
43
5
8
7
18
4
5
3
17
20
36
8
3
3
1
1
3
2
11
44
1
21
2
45
37
3
1
24
5
19
47
6
2
36
21
9
32
2
765
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
149
11
71
57
13
1
1
62
124
6
10
35
95
32
18
17
34
8
17
9
47
50
85
16
9
9
3
3
4
4
26
118
3
63
5
95
79
7
3
72
11
41
117
22
3
94
54
28
81
4
1,926
30
3
13
7
6
0
0
21
63
4
3
7
17
0
2
0
16
0
8
3
19
11
18
6
1
6
0
3
0
0
2
43
0
16
2
18
31
0
0
11
0
11
23
0
1
21
14
3
14
3
480
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
896,423
53,759
931,139
773,456
133,095
1,000
5
97,417
986,429
10
599,955
251,475
1,642,175
744,248
490,590
97,223
251,576
105,490
20
30
1,035,420
1,607,659
1,752,804
100,971
517,192
254,392
10
0
15,122
4,570
176,334
2,016,224
60
707,354
11,700
2,556,273
790,275
542
15
1,096,846
253,369
473,132
2,134,545
289,561
10,055
1,187,081
825,611
1,353,889
1,358,984
4
28,585,509
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
85,682
' 0
49,256
6,068
192,150
0
. 0
14,222
132,490
0
0
306,898
321,060
10,100
0
3,441,828
396,564
0
218
1,500
8,742
2,134
1,039,508
237,560
0
0
2,555
0
19,250
500
4,413
5,924
500
19,529
750
268,680
473,734
1,743
2,852
102,635
20,750
4,050
359,710
773
0
11,065
3,619
101,405
6,004
750
7,657,171
Total Total Transfers
On- and Total Other Off-site for
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
982,105
53,759
980,395
779,524
325,245
1,000
5
111,639
1,118,919
10
599,955
558,373
1,963,235
754,348
490,590
3,539,051
648,140
105,490
238
1,530
1,044,162
1,609,793
2,792,312
338,531
517,192
254,392
2,565
0
34,372
5,070
180,747
2,022,148
560
726,883
12,450
2,824,953
1,264,009
2,285
2,867
1,199,481
274,119
477,182
2,494,255
290,334
10,055
1,198,146
829,230
1,455,294
1,364,988
754
36,242,680

0
159,809
44,887
140
46,400
0
349
86,295
1,111
0
5,618,897
999,975
150,826
15,000
10,412
161,872
5,297
1,145
30
36,233
585,555
20,747,347
1,567,102
0
0
2,477
0
0
741
734
1,330,519
488
2,567,797
0
1,740,254
1,462,558
14
0
15,533
29,660,070
4,439
7,695,124
650
1,449
444,302
49,377
115,325
54,133
0
75,565,418
57,253
22,431
90,110
79,716
32,260
3,025
0
1,169
2,228
0
46,688
217,777
160,382
162,966
31,895
1,515
154,567
1,250
287
0
30,846
80,601
163,222
22,743
7,441
0
600
0
1,800
0
2,269
120,867
0
833,397
1,090
44,654
151,898
0
0
18,951
13,850
142,532
91,432
3,185
0
152,764
51,403
170,400
178,988
0
3,350,452
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
1,191,968
76,205
1,215,697
891,947
166,555
46,400
10
111,390
1,318,086
1,263
646,657
6,399,627
3,135,054
1,419,447
524,325
335,436
684,598
108,238
1,650
376
1,119,472
2,275,491
23,388,967
1,927,029
523,633
254,392
7,838
0
57,095
5,916
182,634
3,170,816
543
4,296,369
13,370
4,692,127
2,848,698
1,464
2,852
1,155,946
29,913,229
625,355
10,106,743
294,094
11,408
1,733,136
665,736
1,783,893
1,619,747
19,363
110,972,285
5,360
0
5
6,312
190,775
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
318,060
0
0
3,268,311
280,000
0
0
0
0
0
10,237
213,143
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
950
0
1,550
457,274
212
0
79,785
0
0
0
5
0
0
1,628
3,724
0
0
4,837,332
 Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
 to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Total
 Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
                                                                                                                          191

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         Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
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                                                                                          •o
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192

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                                          Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-7. The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC
Code 24 (in Rank Order)
CAS
Number
8001-58-9
67-56-1
1330-20-7
108-88-3
50-00-0
78-93-3
7664-41-7
71-36-3
100-41-4
108-10-1
75-07-0
107-21-1
__
108-95-2
87-86-5


Chemical
Creosote
Methanol
Xylene (mixed isomers)
Toluene
Formaldehyde
Methyl ethyl ketone
Ammonia
n-Butyl alcohol
Ethylbenzene
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Acetaldehyde
Ethylene glycol
Glycol ethers
Phenol
Pentachlorophenol
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 24
Surface Underground Injection
Total Air Water Class I Class H-V
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
713,349
5,828,821
5,417,261
5,312,624
4,050,500
2,153,925
858,280
865,015
652,473
607,866
369,111
365,519
324,913
267,191
6,794
27,793,642
28,492,789
9,109
10
0
0
433
0
43,700
0
0
0
10
0
0
505
8,236
62,003
76,874
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds
460
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,750
3,210
6,039
250
0
0
1,442
251
0
1,650
0
0
0
0
632
0
505
250
4,980
9,807
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
723,168
5,828,831
5,417,261
5,314,066
4,051,184
2,153,925
903,630
865,015
652,473
607,866
369,121
366,151
324,913
268,201
18,030
27,863,835
28,585,509
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
7,226,364
250
0
18,035
500
25
2,255
1
0
1
0
0
265
2,105
196,075
7,445,876
7,657,171
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
7,949,532
5,829,081
5,417,261
5,332,101
4,051,684
2,153,950
905,885
865,016
652,473
607,867
369,121
366,151
325,178
270,306
214,105
35,309,711
36,242,680
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
 formaldehyde with 4.1 million pounds. The
 reconstituted wood products industry (SIC code
 2493) reported half or more of the releases of
 methanol (2.9 million pounds, or 50.1%) and
 formaldehyde (2.4 million pounds, or 59.0%). The
 wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code 2434)
 reported half or more of the releases of xylenes (2.7
 million pounds, or 49.1%) and toluene (3.1 million,
 or 58.8%).

 For 13 of the 15 chemicals in Table 6-7, air
 emissions were the predominant release type,
 accounting for 95% or more of total releases. For
 the 15th-ranked chemical, pentachlorophenol, off-
 site releases also represented the large majority of
 reported releases, 196,000 pounds out of 214,000
 pounds. Both creosote and pentachlorophenol are
 used in preserving wood.

 OSHA Carcinogens

 On- and off-site releases of OSHA carcinogens
 reported in the lumber and wood products sector
 totaled 12.7 million pounds in 1996, as  shown in
 Table 6-8. This was 35.2% of total releases
reported in the sector. (OSHA carcinogens and the
bases for their designation appear in Box 1-9 in
.Chapter 1.)

The largest source of these releases was the wood
preserving industry (SIC code 2491), which
reported total releases of 8.2 million pounds of
OSHA carcinogens. This included 7.4 million
pounds of off-site releases (transfers to disposal),
which was 97.2% of all off-site releases reported in
this sector. The chemical with the largest total
releases in this sector, creosote, is an OSHA
carcinogen (see Table 6-7). Most of the wood
preserving industry's reporting of off-site releases
was for creosote (7.2 million pounds), including the
3.4 million pounds reported by one facility that
resulted largely from clean-up activity.

The reconstituted wood products industry (SIC
code 2493) reported 2.7 million pounds of releases
of OSHA carcinogens,  largely as air emissions.
This was the industry with the second-largest total
releases of OSHA carcinogens in the lumber and
wood products sector. This industry reported 2.4
million pounds of air emissions of formaldehyde, a
                                                                                                193

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 ______ .^BjBi
           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-8. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Lumber and Wood
Products, SIC Code 24 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code

3491
2493

2499

2436
2431
2434
2451
2452
24:6
2435
2421



Industry

Wood Preierving
Reconstituted Wood Products
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Wood Products, nee*
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Mitlworfc
Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Mobile Homes
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 24
Total Air
Surface
Water
Emissions Discharges
Pounds
718,666
2,675,900
698,882
661,969
348,470
57,193
27,640
23,830
18,055
16,400
14,100
9,921
4,087
5,275,113
28,492,789
Pounds
17,270
250
252
107
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17,879
76,874
Underground Injection
Class I Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills
Pounds
3,211
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,211
6,039
Releases
Pounds
500
250
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
751
9,807
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
739,647
2,676,400
699,134
662,077
348,470
57,193
27,640
23,830
18,055
16,400
14,100
9,921
4,087
5,296,954
28,585,509
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
7,445,293
250
1,258
114
250
0
130
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,447,295
7,657,171
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
8,184,940
2,676,650
700,392
662,191
348,720
57,193
27,770
23,830
18,055
16,400
14,100
9,921
4,087
12,744,249
36,242,680
Note: On-sUc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 component of resins that bind wood particles,
 fibers, and strands to make up reconstituted wood
 products.

 Ranking third, the multiple-codes group (forms
 reporting multiple SIC codes within SIC code 24)
 reported 700,000 pounds of releases of OSHA
 carcinogens, also principally as air emissions.

 Altogether, four of the top 15 chemicals for total
 releases reported in this sector were OSHA
 carcinogens. Total releases of creosote and
 formaldehyde were 7.9 million pounds and 4.1
 million pounds, respectively. The other two
 chemicals were acetaldehye and pentachlorophenol.
 Reported releases of acetaldehyde totaled 369,000
 pounds, almost entirely as air emissions. Like
 creosote, pentachlorophenol was principally
 reported as off-site releases (transfers to disposal),
 196,000 pounds out of 214,000 pounds total
 releases for this chemical.

 Figure 6-7 shows the on- and off-site releases of the
 four-digit SIC codes with the largest OSHA
 carcinogen releases.
 1996  TRI Chemicals  in

 Waste for Lumber and

 Wood  Products

 The lumber and wood products sector reported
 111.0 million pounds of total production-related
 waste in 1996. Nearly half of this amount, 50.5
 million pounds or 45.5%, was reported as on-site
 recycling. Quantities released on- and off-site
 amounted to 31.5 million pounds, 28.4% of the
 total. The third-largest category of waste
 management in lumber and wood products
 reporting was on-site treatment, with 23.5 million
 pounds, or 21.2% of total production-related waste.
 Table 6-9 presents waste management data for the
 lumber and wood products sector. Figure 6-8
illustrates the distribution by type of waste
management.

The wood preserving industry (SIC code 2491)
reported the largest amount of on-site recycling in
this sector—49.8 million pounds. This was 44.8%
of all production-related waste in the sector. This
194

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                                                       Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
9,000,000 -
8,000,000 -
7,000,000 -

6,000,000 -

m 5,000,000-
|
ฐ" 4,000,000-
3,000,000 -
2,000,000 -
1,000,000-
0-






























2491










D Transfers Off-site to Disposal
H Other On-site Land Releases
H RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
m UIJ, Class I Wells
ED UIJ, Class II-V Wells
• Surface Water
H Air





B
2493 Mult.










2499 Invalid










Figure 6-7. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
Largest Totals, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note:  On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.  CU = underground injection.
Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "24" that do not
exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.

Table 6-9.  Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24 (in
Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2491
2434
2493
2499
2431

2436

2426
2439
2451
2435
2421
2452
2448
2449

Industry
Wood Preserving
Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Reconstituted Wood Products
Wood Products, nee*
Millwork
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Structural Wood Members, nee*
Mobile Homes
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Wood Pallets & Skids
Wood Containers, nee*
Total for SIC Code 24
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
49,762,362
601,684
12,378
91,349
14,010
20,877
0
8,351
31,739
0
0
2,175
0
0
0
0
50,544,925
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
272,244
283,557
959,685
0
70
0
22,830
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,538,386
Treated
On-site
Pounds
19,659,142
1,583,929
2,071,620
10,482
73,013
38,589
725
7,922
36,685
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
23,482,107
Recycled
Off-site
Pounds
3,123
104,608
17,640
85,921
163,517
9,839
0
0
99,275
46,206
70,308
0
0
0
0
0
600,437
Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
68,141
1,257,488
24,643
521,207
376,714
25,701
29,661
17,715
99,024
95,036
0
2,475
2,100
0
0
0
2,519,905
Treated
Off-site
Pounds
557,325
220,532
13,077
280
6,619
8,170
181
16,719
0
1,140
0
273
0
0
0
0
824,316
Quantity
Released
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
4,689,269
9,063,452
7,117,726
3,669,177
1,994,546
2,124,503
1,187,183
598,517
162,803
285,941
243,070
248,142
62,545
15,335
0
0
31,462,209
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
74,739,362
13,103,937
9,540,641
5,338,101
2,628,419
2,227,749
1,217,750
672,054
429,526
428,323
313,378
253,065
64,645
15,335
0
0
1 10,972,285
4,833,743
955
0
1,550
1
0
0
0
1,083
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,837,332
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                            195

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          Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
   Quantity Released
       28.4%
  Off-site Waste
  Management
    3,6%
                                    On-site Waste
                                     Management
                                      68.1%
       Figure 6-8. Distribution of TRI Production-
        related Waste, 1996: Lumber and Wood
              Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

industry also reported 19.7 million pounds of on-
site treatment, the largest amount in that category.
As noted earlier, two facilities in the wood
preserving industry accounted for a large portion of
the industry's reporting of on-site waste
management.

Three industries accounted for 66.3% of the
quantities reported as released by the lumber and
wood products sector. The wood kitchen cabinets
industry (SIC code 2434) reported the largest
quantities released on- and off-site, 9.1 million
pounds. Reconstituted wood products (SIC code
2493) reported 7.1  million pounds of releases.
Wood preserving (SIC code 2491) reported 4.7
million pounds of releases.

Distribution of production-related waste for the top
industries in the sector appears in Figure 6-9.

Projected Quantities of TRI
Chemicals in Waste

The lumber and wood products sector projected a
5.2% reduction in total production-related waste by
1998, as shown in Table 6-10. Production-related
waste reported in 1996 totaled 111.0 million
pounds, and this was projected to decrease to 105.2
million pounds in 1998. (As explained in Chapter 1,
facilities not only report current data but project
waste management quantities for the next two years
in their TRI submissions.)

The largest components of the overall projected
reduction were quantities released on- and off-site
(decrease from 31.5 million pounds in 1996 to 27.2
million pounds in 1998) and on-site recycling
(decrease from 50.5 million pounds to 47.6 million
pounds). These represented projected decreases of
13.4% in releases and 5.8% in on-site recycling. A
large percentage decrease (29.5%) was projected in
off-site treatment from 824,000 pounds in 1996 to
582,000 pounds in 1998.

These reductions were partly offset by a projected
6.9% increase in on-site treatment from 23.5
million pounds to 25.1 million pounds.

Figure 6-10 illustrates the projected percentage
changes in waste management in this sector for
1996-1998.

These projected changes represent some
improvement in the sector's management of TRI
chemicals in waste, as measured by the waste
management hierarchy, explained in Chapter 1. A
smaller portion of the sector's TRI chemicals in
waste would be released while a larger portion
would be managed by treatment. In  1996, releases
represented 28.4% of total production-related
waste; the projected proportion was 25.9% in 1998.
On-site treatment would increase from 21.2% of
total production-related waste in 1996 to 23.8% in
1998. In the waste management hierarchy
hierarchy, treatment is preferred over releases,
which are the least desirable waste management
option.
196

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                                      Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
100% 	
80% •
60% -
40% -
20% -

0% -




-
i
&fy%







i
^=
L





i







I
=
=
M
•ztmti














^
i
AJLi





^
1





i
^
i
as





1
II
li

i'i'i
8
ปซฃl





!
M
i!









S Quantity Released
• Treated Off-site
H Energy Recovery Off-site
D Recycled Off-site
EH Treated On-site
S Energy Recovery On-site
• Recycled On-site






2491 2434 2493 2499 2431 Mult. 2436 Invalid 2426 2439
Figure 6-9. Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with
Largest Totals, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC Code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Invalid SIC
codes are codes beginning "24" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
Source Reduction Activity

In the lumber and wood products sector, nearly
one-fourth (22.7%, 438 forms) of the forms
submitted indicated one or more source reduction
activities underway during the year. Table 6-11
presents the sector's reporting of source reduction
activity. The industries submitting the largest
number of forms indicating source reduction
activity were wood preserving (SIC code 2491)
with 144 forms and wood kitchen cabinets (SIC
code 2434) with 136 forms. These forms
represented nearly half (47.7%) of the submissions
in the wood kitchen cabinet industry, but less than
one-fifth (16.3%) of the submissions in wood
preserving.

The activities most frequently reported in this
sector were improving operating practices (190
forms) and modifying processes (113 forms).
Year-to-Year
Comparisons for  Lumber
and Wood  Products

1995-1996 TRI Data for Lumber and
Wood Products
From 1995 to 1996, the number of forms submitted
in the lumber and wood products industry increased
2.4%, an increase of 45 forms, as shown in Table
6-12. A much larger increase (29.0%, or 108 forms)
occurred in the number of Form As submitted. (The
Form A certification statement is explained in
Chapter 1.) This may reflect more  widespread
awareness of the Form A certification statement in
its second year of availability.
                                                                                      197

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-10. Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:  Lumber and Wood Products,
SIC Code 24
Waste Management Activity
Go-site Waste Manacement
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 24
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 24
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
50,544,925 45.5
1,538,386 1.4
23,482,107 21.2
600,437 0.5
2,519,905 2.3
824,316 0.7
31,462,209 28.4
110,972,285 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent
8.3
0.5
4.9
14.0
-2.1
-27.8
-12.0
1.3
Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
54,738,293 48.7
1,546,483 1.4
24,643,369 21.9
684,348 0.6
2,466,028 2.2
595,438 0.5
27,690,254 24-6
112,364,213 100.0
Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent
13.0
3.8
1.8
6.4
2.1
-2.3
-1.6
-6.3
Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
47,598,202 45.2
1,487,798 1.4
25,098,464 23.8
728,040 0.7
2,518,823 2.4
581,532 0.6
27,234,587 25.9
105,247,446 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent
-5.8
-3.3
6.9
21.3
0.0
-29.5
-13.4
-5.2
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996

 On- and Off-site Releases
 In the lumber and wood products sector, total on-
 and off-site releases reported to TRI increased 4.0%
 from 34.8 million pounds in 1995 to 36.2 million
 pounds in 1996. The overall increase in total
 releases reflected an increase of 166.7% in off-site
 releases (transfers to disposal) from 2.9 million
 pounds to 7.7 million pounds. As mentioned earlier
in this chapter, one facility reported 3.4 million
pounds in transfers to disposal of creosote in 1996
(including 3.3 million pounds of remedial waste
from clean-up activities). This facility reported
39,000 pounds of transfers to disposal in 1995,
resulting in an increase of 3.4 million pounds from
1995 to 1996.
 198

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                                               Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
                       On-site Waste
                        Management
Off-site Waste
 Management
Quantity Released
  On-and Off-site
Total Production-
  related Waste
              Figure 6-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in
                     Waste, 1996-1998:  Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.

Table 6-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24
Forms Reporting
Source Reduction
Activities
SIC
Code

2421
2426
2431
2434
2435
2436
2439
2448
2449
2451
2452
2491
2493
2499



Industry

Sawmills & Planing Mills, General
Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills
Millwork
Wood Kitchen Cabinets
Hardwood Veneer & Plywood
Softwood Veneer & Plywood
Structural Wood Members, nee*
Wood Pallets & Skids
Wood Containers, nee*
Mobile Homes
Prefabricated Wood Buildings
Wood Preserving
Reconstituted Wood Products
Wood Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 24
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24
Total for SIC Code 24
Total
Forms
Number
19
13
84
285
17
40
14
1
I
159
4
884
167
114
97
27
1,926
Good
Categorv of Source Reduction Activity
Raw Surface
Spill Material Process Cleaning Preparation Product
Percent of Operating Inventory and Leak Modifi- Modifi- and and Modifi-
All Forms Practices Control Prevention cations cations Degreasing Finishing cations
Number
0
4
40
136
4
3
0
0
0
12
0
144
29
49
9
8
438
Percent
0.0
30.8
47.6
47.7
23.5
7.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.5
0.0
16.3
17.4
43.0
9.3
29.6
22.7
Number Number
0
: 2
7
73
0
2
0
0
0
11
0
59
19
9
7
1
190
0
2
4
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
1
0
2
28
Number Number Number
0
2
3
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
79
4
3
0
2
101
0
2
9
39
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
6
27
3
4
102
0
1
4
20
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
58
4
15
5
5
113
Number
0
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
16
Number Number
0
0
15
31
0
0
0
0
0
I
0
3
3
28
5
2
88
0
1
4
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
5
0
2
27
Note: Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                           199

-------
              Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 Table 6-12. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
 Further Waste Management, 1995-1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
737
1,881
1,509
372
Pounds

31,884,645
5,268,456
26,616,189
68,632
0
10,970
31,964,247

2,870,699
34,834,946

76,288,451
1,468,254
5,672,195
83,428,900

459,499
2,649,553
526,038
29,720
2,418
3,667,228

1996
Number
765
1,926
1,446
480
Pounds

28,492,789
4,636,576
23,856,213
76,874
0
15,846
28,585,509

7,657,171
36,242,680

50,544,925
1,538,386
23,482,107
75,565,418

515,208
2,299,252
491,157
32,799
12,036
3,350,452
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
3.8
2.4
-4.2
29.0
Percent

-10.6
-12.0
-10.4
12.0
—
44.4
-10.6

166.7
4.0

-33.7
4.8
314.0
-9.4

12.1
-13.2
-6.6
10.4
397.8
-8.6
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
Management from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
Breakdown of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste
management code.
 200

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                                           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 From 1995 to 1996, air emissions, which
 constituted the great majority of releases reported
 in this sector, decreased from 31.9 million pounds
 to 28.5 million pounds (a 10.6% reduction), with
 reductions in both fugitive and point-source
 emissions.

 Table 6-12 shows the 1995-1996 reporting of
 releases in this sector, and Figure 6-11 illustrates
 the percentage change for each type of release.

 Other On-site Waste Management

 Table 6-12 also presents the lumber and wood
 products sector's other on-site waste management
 data for 1995-1996. A large absolute reduction in
 on-site recycling, from 76.3 million pounds in 1995
 to 50.5 million pounds in 1996, was the major
 factor in an overall reduction in the sector's
    reporting of other on-site waste management. The
    decrease in on-site recycling amounted to 33.7%.
    At the same time, on-site treatment increased from
    5.7 million pounds to 23.5 million pounds, or
    314.0%.

    Several facilities in the wood preserving industry
    (SIC code 2491) reported large amounts that
    influenced the 1995-1996 changes in other on-site
    waste management. Two facilities reported
    reductions of 12.7 million pounds and 7.3 million
    pounds, respectively, in on-site recycling of
    creosote from 1995 to 1996. At the same time,
    three facilities that reported zero amounts of on-site
    treatment of creosote in 1995 reported 12.6 million
    pounds, 3.4 million pounds, and 1.2 million
    pounds, respectively, for on-site treatment of
    creosote in 1996. In part,  these changes resulted
    from facilities redefining specific activities from
    one type of waste management to another, as noted
         180


         160


         140


         120-


         100-


         80-


         60-


         40-


         20-


          0
         -20
                     Air
                                  Surface
                                   Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
 Disposal
            Figure 6-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                             Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995.
                                                                                                 201

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          Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
in "Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in
Waste Management, 1991-1996," later in this
chapter.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

In the lumber and wood products sector, transfers
off-site for further waste management reported to
TRI decreased from 3.7 million pounds in 1995 to
3.4 million pounds in 1996, as shown in Table 6-
12. The largest component of this 8.6% reduction
was transfers to energy recovery, which decreased
from 2.6 million pounds to 2.3 million pounds
(13.2%). A smaller reduction was reported in
transfers to treatment, from 526,000 pounds to
491,000 pounds (6.6%). Transfers to recycling
increased from 459,000 pounds to 515,000 pounds,
a 12.1% increase.

1988-1996 TRI Data for Lumber and
Wood Products

As explained in Chapter 1, comparisons from the
1988 TRI baseline year to the current year rely on
the list of "core" TRI chemicals that were
reportable, with the same reporting definition, in all
years.1 These multi-year comparisons also review
only the data elements that were collected in all
years, which excludes from this section any
analysis that distinguishes RCRA subtitle C
landfills from other land releases as well as analysis
based on the types of underground injection wells.
On-site waste management data and transfers off-
site to recycling and to energy recovery have been
collected only since 1991; these data are included,
but cannot be compared across the full 1988-1996
period.
As shown in Table 6-13, the lumber and wood
products sector reported total on- and off-site
releases of 33.0 million pounds in 1988 and 27.1
million pounds in 1996, a reduction of 17.8%. All
release types showed decreases, including a 13.9%
reduction in air emissions from 31.0 million pounds
to 26.7 million pounds. Both fugitive and point-
source emissions decreased over the period 1988-
1996. Off-site releases (transfers off-site to
disposal) decreased by 78.1%, from 1.9 million
pounds in 1988 to 423,000 pounds in 1996.

Figure 6-12 illustrates percentage changes in on-
and off-site releases for 1988-1996 in the lumber
and wood products sector.

On-site waste management and transfers off-site for
recycling or energy recovery were not collected in
1988. For the 1994-1996 period, on-site waste
management showed little overall change in the
lumber and wood products sector, totaling 6.42
million pounds in 1994 and 6.46 million in 1996.
This represented the net result of a 644,000 pounds
decrease in on-site energy recovery and increases
of 271,000 pounds in on-site recycling and 410,000
pounds in on-site treatment.

Reductions were reported in both of the types of
transfers off-site for further waste management that
were collected for the full 1988-1996 period.
Transfers to treatment decreased from 2.4 million
pounds to 220,000 pounds, a 91.0% reduction.
Transfers to POTWs decreased from 80,000 pounds
to 4,000 pounds, a 95.3% reduction.

In some categories, substantially higher amounts
were reported in 1994 or 1995. In part, this reflects
changes in reporting by facilities mentioned earlier
in this chapter.
 1  Creosote, the chemical with the largest releases reported in
   the lumber and wood products sector for 1996, was added
   to the TRI list in reporting year 1990. Analyses of 1988-
   1996 data therefore do not include this chemical.
 202

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                                                                                                              Lia,-iaS?
                                                       Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-13.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1988
Number
678
1,816
1,816
NA
Pounds

30,972,926
5,463,271
25,509,655
27,125
0
49,529
31,049,580

1,932,227
32,981,807

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
2,438,178
79,544
395,167
NA

1994
Number
658
1,760
1,760
NA
Pounds

32,561,527
4,205,621
28,355,906
23,732
0
8,917
32,594,176

392,090
32,986,266

1,897,805
2,160,052
2,361,800
6,419,657

627,071
2,503,747
228,431
22,448
250
3,381,947

1995
Number
629
1,673
1,365
308
Pounds

30,102,727
4,353,277
25,749,450
11,049
0
7,142
30,120,918

313,719
30,434,637

11,914,269
1,439,098
4,168,098
17,521,465

457,249
2,555,283
288,032
6,006
2,418
3,308,988

1996
Number
615
1,654
1,294
360
Pounds

26,662,607
3,646,061
23,016,546
18,165
0
12,483
26,693,255

423,386
27,116,641

2,168,592
1,516,386
2,771,625
6,456,603

515,208
2,262,522
220,330
3,711
1,536
3,003,307
Change
1988 to 1996
Percent
-9.3
-8.9
-28.7
NA
Percent

-13.9
-33.3
-9.8
-33.0
-
-74.8
-14.0

-78.1
-17.8

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
-91.0
-95.3
-99.6
NA
Note:  Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste Management
from Section 8 of Form R.  Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown
of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996.  For 1994-1996, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code. For 1988, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code or codes not requited to be reported in
1988.  NA: not required to be reported in that year.
                                                                                                                          203

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
     •30
     -40
     -60
     •60
     -70
     -80
     -90
                   Air
Surface
 Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
 Disposal
             Figure 6-12. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996:
                              Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Does not include dclisted chemicals, chemicals added hi 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-sltc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection
and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996.
  1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in
  Lumber and Wood Products

  Tables 6-14 through 6-16 summarize data for 1988
  and 1994-1996 for industries at the four-digit SIC
  code level within SIC code 24. The tables present,
  respectively, on- and off-site releases, other on-site
  waste  management, and transfers off-site for further
  waste  management.

  On- and Off-site Releases

  Table  6-14 provides release data for all four-digit
  SIC codes in the lumber and wood products sector
  for 1988-1996.
                    The wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code
                    2434) reported the largest decrease in total on- and
                    off-site releases from 1988 to 1996, from 11.8
                    million pounds to 8.7 million pounds. The millwork
                    industry (SIC code 2431) had the second largest
                    reduction, from 4.2 million pounds to 2.3 million
                    pounds. Both industries reported somewhat larger
                    releases in 1994 than in 1988, as shown in Table 6-
                    14; their reductions were reported after 1994.
                    Ranking third was the miscellaneous wood
                    products industry (SIC code 2499), reporting 5.9
                    million pounds of releases in 1988 and 4.2 million
                    pounds in 1996. Air emissions accounted for the
                    largest portion of the reductions in all three of these
                    industries.
 204

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                                                    Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Lumber and Wood Products, SIC
Code 24
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2421



2426



2429



2431



2434



2435



2436



2439



2441



2449



2451



Industry
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General



Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills



Special Product Sawmills, nee*



Millwork



Wood Kitchen Cabinets



Hardwood Veneer & Plywood



Softwood Veneer & Plywood



Structural Wood Members, nee*



Nailed Wood Boxes & Shook



Wood Containers, nee*



Mobile Homes



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
61,339
33,897
9,418
345,436
191,618
130,411
284,722
296,073
No reports received
No reports received
57,766
No reports received
2,302,304
3,110,360
4,244,538
4,199,101
8,718,307
9,290,161
12,110,771
11,572,398
248,200
707,411
793,655
776,516
1,165,964
1,227,314
1,153,531
287,153
285,940
296,284
340,498
199,350
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
17
0
No reports received
No reports received
0
81,032
201,462
274,000
18,650
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
38
0
0
0
14
0



0
0


0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
, 0



0
0


0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
250
1,442
0
0
500


0

0
1,400
1,100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,250
0
0
0
0



0
0


0
0
0
5
0
Off-site
Releases

Total Transfers Total On-
On-site Off-site to and Off-site
Releases Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds
61,339
33,897
9,418
345,686
193,060
130,411
284,722
296,573


57,766

2,302,304
3,111,760
4,245,638
4,199,101
8,718,307
9,290,161
12,110,771
11,572,398
248,200
707,411
793,655
776,516
1,165,964
1,227,314
1,153,569
289,403
285,940
296,284
340,512
199,350



17
0


0
81,032
201,462
274,005
18,900
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0

10,707
2,739
14,469
27,350
18,062
905
1,871
273,449
250
250
250
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0



0
0


250
0
0
0
0
61,339
33,897
9,418
345,686
193,060
130,411
284,722
296,573


57,766

2,313,011
3,114,499
4,260,107
4,226,451
8,736,369
9,291,066
12,112,642
11,845,847
248,450
707,661
793,905
776,516
1,165,964
1,227,314
1,153,569
289,653
285,940
296,284
340,512
199,350



17
0


250
81,032
201,462
274,005
18,900
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                    205

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Lumber and Wood Products, SIC
Code 24, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2452



2491



2493



2499















Industry
Prefabricated Wood Buildings



Wood Preserving



Reconstituted Wood Products



Wood Products, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 24



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24



Total for SIC Code 24



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
16,400
46,098
106,620
41,950
13,404
12,864
43,173
495,690
6,927,927
7,399,983
5,245,147
3,123,754
4,244,991
4,508,431
4,729,231
5,854,210
1,814,441
1,897,093
1,965,763
2,475,585
590,740
1,240,958
1,202,694
1,287,043
26,662,607
30,102,727
32,561,527
30,972,926
0
0
0
0
16,580
9,466
15,089
8,035
500
260
5,766
4,220
122
96
500
819
963
1,177
2,325
13,301
0
50
0
500
18,165
11,049
23,732
27,125
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
0
9,278
265
265
23,298
1,130
1,794
1,047
2,500
633
3,433
6,500
0
0
250
0
13,674
0
0
0
7,057
12,483
7,142
8,917
49,529
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
16,400
46,098
106,620
41,950
39,262
22,595
58,527
527,023
6,929,557
7,402,037
5,251,960
3,130,474
4,245,746
4,511,960
4,736,231
5,855,029
1,815,404
1,898,520
1,968,088
2,502,560
590,740
1,241,008
1,202,694
1,294,600
26,693,255
30,120,918
32,594,176
31,049,580
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
0
4,456
11,500
0
381,270
263,643
319,311
1,522,698
625
1,638
1,198
998
379
11,783
15,798
87,070
9,738
27,305
19,805
15,299
2,355
1,000
7,888
4,863
423,386
313,719
392,090
1,932,227
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
16,400
50,554
118,120
41,950
420,532
286,238
377,838
2,049,721
6,930,182
7,403,675
5,253,158
3,131,472
4,246,125
4,523,743
4,752,029
5,942,099
1,825,142
1,925,825
1,987,893
2,517,859
593,095
1,242,008
1,210,582
1,299,463
27,116,641
30,434,637
32,986,266
32,981,807
Note: On-sltc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-d3git SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 The reconstituted wood products industry (SIC
 code 2493) reported the largest increase in total
 releases from 1988 to 1996 in the lumber and wood
 products sector. This industry reported 3.1 million
 pounds of releases in 1988 and 6.9 million pounds
 in 1996, although the 1996 level represented a
 decrease from 1995. Increases reported in air
 emissions accounted for the overall increase. The
 softwood veneer and plywood industry (SIC code
 2436) had the second largest-increase in the sector,
 from 290,000 pounds in 1988 to 1.2 million pounds
 in 1996. Almost all of this industry's reporting was
for air emissions. This industry also had a small
decrease from 1995 to 1996, despite the overall
increase for the full 1988-1996 comparison period.
The miscellaneous structural wood members
industry (SIC code 2439) ranked third for increases,
reporting 199,000 pounds in 1988 and 286,000
pounds in 1996, entirely in air emissions.

Other On-site Waste Management

In the lumber and wood products sector, the
miscellaneous wood products industry (SIC code
2499) had the largest  1994-1996 decrease in other
 206

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                                          Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
on-site waste management (on-site waste
management data were not collected in 1988). This
industry reported 1.7 million pounds in 1994 and
1.1 million pounds in 1996, and the reduction was
attributable to decreases in on-site energy recovery.
Reconstituted wood products (SIC code 2493)
reported 1.9 million pounds of other on-site waste
management in 1994 and 1.3 million pounds in
1996, the second-largest reduction in the sector.
Reductions in both on-site recycling and on-site
energy recovery contributed to this overall
decrease. Ranking third for decreases was the
millwork industry (SIC code 2431), which reported
331,000 pounds in 1994 and 87,000 pounds in
1996. The reported reductions occurred in both on-
site recycling and on-site treatment.

The wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code
2434) ranked first for increases in other on-site
waste management, with 1.4 million pounds in
1994 and 2.5 million pounds in 1996. Increases
were reported in all three types of waste
management. The industry with the second-largest
increase was wood preserving (SIC code 2491).
This industry reported 894,000 pounds in 1994 and
1.4 million pounds in 1996, although the 1995 level
was higher (2.1 million pounds). These changes
were reported primarily in on-site recycling. Some
wood preserving facilities with large increases in
on-site recycling attributed their increases to
revisions in their interpretation of how to report on-
site recycling2 (see "Facilities with Large Increases
and Decreases in Waste Management,  1991-1996,"
later in this chapter). The hardwood veneer and
plywood industry (SIC code 2435) was the only
other lumber and wood products industry to record
an increase from 1994 to 1996 in on-site waste
management. This industry reported a little over
  There are no TRI regulatory definitions of recycling.
  Facilities may use their own interpretations for purposes of
  reporting to TRI. Changes in these interpretations do not
  represent a change in guidance by EPA on how to report
  recycling.
2,000 pounds, entirely in on-site recycling, in both
1994 and 1996, with an increase of 87 pounds.

On-site waste management data for 1994-1996
appear in Table 6-15.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

The millwork industry (SIC code 2431) reported
870,000 pounds of transfers off-site for further
waste management in 1994 and 297,000 pounds in
1996, after an increase to 927,000 pounds in 1995.
The 1994-1996 reduction was the largest in the
lumber and wood products sector (data for some
types of off-site transfers were not collected in
1988). The second-largest reduction was reported
in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry (SIC
code 2435), from 176,000 pounds in 1994 to 3,000
pounds in 1996. Reductions in both industries were
reported in all transfer types. The multiple-codes
group (forms reporting more than one SIC code in
SIC code 24) had the third-largest decrease, from
41,000 pounds in 1994 to 35,000 in 1996. Transfers
to energy recovery decreased, offset by small
increases in transfers to recycling and treatment.

Hardwood dimension and flooring mills (SIC code
2426) reported the largest increase in transfers off-
site for further waste management in the lumber
and wood products sector for 1994-1996. This
industry reported 73,000 pounds in 1994 and
196,000 pounds in 1996, with increases in transfers
to recycling, energy recovery, and treatment. The
wood kitchen cabinets industry (SIC code 2434)
ranked second for increases, reporting 1.4 million
pounds in 1994, 1.2 million pounds in 1995, and
1.5 million pounds in 1996. An increase in reported
transfers to energy recovery was only partly offset
by a decrease in reported transfers to recycling in
the wood kitchen cabinets industry. The third-
largest increase was reported by the mobile homes
industry (SIC code 2451), from zero pounds in
1994 (forms received for 1994 reported no amounts
of transfers off-site for further waste management)
to 71,000 pounds in 1996.
                                                                                              207

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             Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 Table 6-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Lumber and Wood Products,
 SIC Code 24
SIC
Code
2421



2426



2429



2431



2434



2435



2436



2439



2441



2449



2451



Industry
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General



Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills



Special Product Sawmills, nee*



Millwork



Wood Kitchen Cabinets



Hardwood Veneer & Plywood



Softwood Veneer & Plywood



Structural Wood Members, nee*



Nailed Wood Boxes & Shook



Wood Containers, nee*



Mobile Homes



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
31,739
96,309
75,430
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
No reports received
14,010
41,685
151,461
NA
601,684
244,843
256,414
NA
2,175
7,165
2,088
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA


0

0
0
0
NA
272,244
181,440
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0


NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
36,685
0
0
NA


0

73,013
110,231
179,944
NA
1,583,929
2,194,028
1,163,597
NA
0
0
0
NA
725
1,184
1,200
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0


NA
0
0
0
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
68,424
96,309
75,430
NA


0

87,023
151,916
331,405
NA
2,457,857
2,620,311
1,420,011
NA
2,175
7,165
2,088
NA
725
1,184
1,200
NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
0


NA
0
0
0
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nซc: not elsewhere classified.
 208

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                                           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Lumber and Wood Products,
SIC Code 24, Continued
SIC
Code Industry
2452 Prefabricated Wood Buildings



2491 Wood Preserving



2493 Reconstituted Wood Products



2499 Wood Products, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 24



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 24



Total for SIC Code 24



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
1,386,479
2,089,180
849,890
NA
12,378
278,742
420,419
NA
90,899
88,482
78,424
NA
20,877
52,627
62,110
NA
8,351
9,015,236
1,569
NA
2,168,592
11,914,269
1,897,805
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
261,557
8,769
544,926
NA
959,685
1,209,200
1,605,111
NA
70
68
15
NA
22,830
39,621
10,000
NA
1,516,386
1,439,098
2,160,052
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
26,664
9,562
44,593
NA
993,616
932,174
936,132
NA
10,482
39,199
16,290
NA
38,589
38,680
18,684
NA
7,922
843,040
1,360
NA
2,771,625
4,168,098
2,361,800
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
0
0
0
NA
1,413,143
2,098,742
894,483
NA
1,267,551
1,219,685
1,901,477
NA
1,061,066
1,336,881
1,699,825
NA
59,536
91,375
80,809
NA
39,103
9,897,897
12,929
NA
6,456,603
17,521,465
6,419,657
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 Table 6-16 presents the lumber and wood sector's
 reporting of transfers off-site for further waste
 management for 1988 and 1994-1996.

 Facilities with Lame Increases and Decreases
 in Releases, 1988-1996

 American Woodmark Corporation in Moorefield,
 West Virginia (SIC code 2434), ranked first in
 increases with an overall 542,000 pound change.
 Approximately one-third of the change is accounted
 for by point-source air emissions of toluene. This
 manufacturer of kitchen cabinets uses toluene as a
 solvent in finish coatings and in cleaning materials.
The facility contact stated that the increase is due to
several factors: a slight increase in production, a
process change whereby two coats of a finish sealer
are applied instead of one, and a reformulation of
some finish materials. The contact also stated that
toluene air emissions were reduced from 461,000
pounds in 1996 to 266,000 pounds in 1997 to
comply with the Hazardous Air Pollutant
component of the facility's Title V air permit.

Fiber Products Operations in Diboll, Texas (SIC
code 2493), was second in increases with a 534,000
pound total. Methanol reporting is responsible for
90% of the increase. The manufacturer of
                                                                                                 209

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             Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Lumber and
Wood Products, SIC Code 24
SIC
Code
2421



2426



2429



2431



2434



2435



2436



2439



2441



2449



Industry
Sawmills & Planing Mills, General



Hardwood Dimension & Flooring Mills



Special Product Sawmills, nee*



Millworfc



Wood Kitchen Cabinets



Hardwood Veneer & Plywood



Softwood Veneer & Plywood



Structural Wood Members, nee*



Nailed Wood Boxes & Shook



Wood Containers, nee*



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
99,217
7,681
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
No reports received
64,068
202,681
257,356
NA
2,150
0
0
NA
90,607
78,908
72,769
NA


1,040

225,523
707,059
594,394
NA
118,412 1,328,479
50,231 1
,054,396
277,538 1,071,259
NA
0
0
4,960
NA
0
0
0
NA
46,161
250
1,000
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
No reports received
No reports received
NA
NA
2,475
94,677
152,107
NA
29,841
36,383
30,556
NA
8,636
14,850
23,850
NA



NA
0


NA
0
0
0
0
6,199
0
0
1,419


0

6,207
16,526
16,960
398,050
79,923
131,400
71,704
1,191,363
0
12,550
18,800
24,521
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,160



0
0


0
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0

782
604
1,309
10
0
0
0
0
84
205
198
17,600
181
296
300
1,500
1,140
1,112
1,323
0



0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0

0
0
0
0
1,000
2,418
250
46,536
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



0
0


0
2,150
0
0
NA
196,023
86,589
72,769
NA


1,040

296,580
926,870
870,019
NA
1,527,814
1,238,445
1,420,751
NA
2,559
107,432
176,065
NA
30,022
36,679
30,856
NA
55,937
16,212
26,173
NA



NA
0


NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 210

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                                              Chapter 6— TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Lumber and
Wood Products, SIC Code 24, Continued
SIC
Code Industry
2451 Mobile Homes



2452 Prefabricated Wood Buildings



2491 Wood Preserving



2493 Reconstituted Wood Products



2499 Wood Products, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 24



Invalid SIC Code within SIC 24



Total for SIC Code 24



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
70,308
6,263
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
3,082
360
250
NA
18,350
16,229
4,661
NA
85,771
168,316
64,654
NA
9,839
4,483
7,830
NA
0
755
8,822
NA
515,208
457,249
627,071
NA
Transfers
to Energy Transfers to
Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
11,596
18,102
24,982
NA
• 24,672
21,005
24,927
NA
487,968
463,488
427,950
NA
16,251
21,456
26,718
NA
34,324
44,959
53,195
NA
2,262,522
2,555,283
2,503,747
NA
454
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
110,202
98,210
89,178
171,305
750
1,989
2,642
55,500
500
23,074
22,659
491,234
8,544
3,698
6,488
58,461
7,551
335
0
44,165
220,330
288,032
228,431
2,438,178
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
toPOTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
630
1,764
2,090
25,145
525
525
16,298
6,286
369
250
165
253
0
0
250
5,400
0
1,250
515
23,350
3,711
6,006
22,448
79,544
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
172,500
536
0
0
23,230
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
151,401
0
0
0
750
0
0
0
750
1,536
2,418
250
395,167
70,762
6,513
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
126,046
118,436
116,500
NA
44,297
39,748
48,528
NA
574,608
655,128
515,428
NA
34,634
29,637
41,286
NA
41,875
47,299
62,532
NA
3,003,307
3,308,988
3,381,947
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
-transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 24 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 reconstituted wood products uses a low-level
 thermal digesting process to break down wood
 chips into fibers. This process produces methanol
 as a by-product. The fibers are then combined with
 resin and pressed into a board material. According
 to the facility contact, improved estimation
 methodology was the reason for the increase.
Weyerhaeuser in Elkin, North Carolina (did not
report in 1988, SIC code 2493 in 1996), ranked
third in increases with 513,000 pounds. Point
source air emissions of methanol accounted for
55% of the increase. The facility's primary product
is oriented strand board, which is produced by
impregnating wood chips with resin and then
                                                                                                      211

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          Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 forming the resinated material into boards under
 high temperature and pressure. Methanol is
 produced as a by-product during this pressing
 cycle. The plant did not come into full operation
 until 1989 and, according to the facility contacts,
 did not meet the reporting threshold in 1988.
 Therefore, the facility did not report in 1988.
 Facility contacts also stated that, until 1996,
 industry emission factors for methanol were not
 thoroughly developed for the oriented strand board
 manufacturing processes used at this plant.

 Andersen Corporation in Bayport, Minnesota (SIC
 code 2431), ranked first in decreases with an
 overall 1.3 million-pound decrease. Xylene (mixed
 isomers) accounted for over half (667,000 pounds)
 of the reduction. The manufacturer of clad-wood
 windows and patio doors reduced xylene usage in a
 number of ways. The chemical was used as a paint
 thinner and was replaced with n-butyl acetate. It
 was eliminated as a cleaning solvent and replaced
 by unlisted chemicals such as denatured alcohol.
 Xylene was also eliminated as a diluent in a
 solvent-based wood preservative (heptane was
 substituted). Additionally, Andersen asked its
 suppliers to reduce or eliminate TRI chemicals
 from their products. These included paints and a
 solvent-based wood preservative. Xylene usage was
 further reduced by switching from solvent-based
 adhesives (used to laminate vinyl to wood core) to
 urethane adhesives. Andersen noted that because
 the facility purchases high volumes of materials, its
 suppliers have sometimes discontinued products
 with higher contents ofregulated chemicals and
 replaced them with reformulated products.

 Dallas Woodcraft, Inc., in Dallas, Texas (SIC code
 2499), was second in decreases with a 790,000
 pound reduction. The plant produces framed copies
 of artwork. Wooden picture frames are
 manufactured on-site. Xylene (mixed isomers),
 which accounted for 84% of the decrease, was used
 in staining and coating processes. No xylene data
 were reported in 1996 because the facility switched
 to water-based processes.
 Pella Corporation in Pella, Iowa (SIC code 2431),
 was third in decreases with an overall 669,000
 pound decrease. Air emissions of toluene, a paint
 constituent, were reduced by over 353,000 pounds
 (53% of the total decrease) after the facility started
 using lower VOC (high-solids) paints on newly
 manufactured windows and doors.

 Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
 Releases, 1988-1996

 In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
 large apparent increases and decreases, which have
 been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
 Because these are errors or plant closures and  not
 actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
 discussed in detail here. There is one such facility
 in the lumber and wood products sector:

    Woodgrain Millwork, Inc., Fruitland, Idaho,
    increase of 600,000 pounds, reporting error.

 1991-1996 Waste Management Data
 for Lumber and Wood Products

 Table 6-17 summarizes on- and off-site waste
 management data for the lumber and wood
 products sector for 1991, when TRI began
 collecting this information, and the three most
 recent years (1994-1996). From  1991 to 1996,
 production-related waste reported in this sector
 increased from 68.5 million pounds to 108.0
 million pounds. This increase, of 39.5 million
 pounds or 57.7%, reflected increases in recent years
 in on-site recycling and on-site treatment by
 facilities mentioned in the discussion of "1996 TRI
 Data in Lumber and Wood Products," early in  this
 chapter.

 Overall, on-site recycling reported in this sector
increased from 19.1  million pounds in 1991  to 49.9
million pounds in 1996, although the amounts
reported fluctuated through this period. On-site
treatment increased from 1.5 million pounds in
 1991 to 22.4 million pounds in 1996, and the bulk
212

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                                                 Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Table 6-17. TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996:  Lumber and Wood Products, SIC Code 24
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste

Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
1991
Pounds
19,124,567
9,962,519
1,532,897
30,619,983
1,064,302
3,394,448
1,039,182
5,497,932
32,364,953
68,482,868
633,947
Change
1994-1995
Percent
389.1
-33.4
71.8
304.3
-37.9
0.6
54.2
-0.9
-16.1
88.5
-66.9
1994
Pounds
15,517,790
2,160,052
2,520,293
20,198,135
718,808
2,832,307
403,194
3,954,309
38,293,538
62,445,982
1,563,282
Change
1995-1996
Percent
-34.3
5.4
417.4
-9.7
34.5
-11.6
27.8
-0.1
-5.7
-8.3
834.1
1995
Pounds
75,897,536
1,439,098
4,329,754
81,666,388
446,470
2,850,179
621,617
3,918,266
32,129,087
117,713,741
517,690
Change
1991-1996
Percent
160.7
-84.8
1,361.6
141.0
-43.6
-25.8
-23.5
-28.8
-6.4
57.7
662.8
1996
Pounds
49,864,475
1,516,386
22,404,103
73,784,964
600,437
2,519,261
794,475
3,914,173
30,301,565
108,000,702
4,835,588









Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
                                                                                                               213

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          Chapter 6 — TRl Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 of this increase occurred in the last year. These
 changes also amounted to very large percentage
 increases, 160.7% for on-site recycling and more
 than 1,300% for on-site treatment.

 All other waste management options decreased
 from 1991 to 1996 in the lumber and wood
 products sector's reporting. The largest reduction
 was reported in on-site energy recovery, from 10.0
 million pounds to 1.5 million pounds.  Smaller
 reductions in reported quantities for each of the off-
 site waste management types contributed to a
 reduction in total off-site waste management from
 5.5 million pounds to 3.9 million pounds.

 The lumber and wood products sector reported 32.4
 million pounds in quantities released on- and off-
 site in 1991 and 30.3 million pounds in 1996. This
 was a reduction of 2.1 million pounds, or 28.8%.

 Figure 6-13 displays percentage change for on-site
 waste management, off-site waste management,
 quantities released on- and off-site, and total
 production-related waste for the lumber and wood
 products sector for 1991-1996.

 As a result of these changes, on-site waste
 management accounted for a much larger
 proportion of the  sector's production-related waste
 in 1996 than in 1991 and quantities released for a
 much smaller proportion. On-site waste
 management was 44.7% of production-related
 waste in 1991 and 68.3% in 1996, while releases
 decreased from 47.3% to 28.1%. Some changes
 reflect facilities' decisions about how to report
 quantities of TRI  chemicals in use of waste that
 they manage. However, the increase in use of waste
 management options such as recycling
 accompanied by the decrease in releases suggests
 improvement in the sector's performance, as
 measured by the waste management hierarchy
 (explained in Chapter 1). In that hierarchy,
 recycling is the most preferred option and releases
 the lease preferred option.
However, at the same time, production-related
waste showed large increases overall. TRI facilities
report absolute amounts of waste managed and of
environmental releases, not adjusted for changes in
production levels. In the lumber and wood products
sector, however, production-related waste has
increased much more rapidly than the sector's level
of production.

Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
in Waste Management,  1991-1996

Wheeler Lumber Operations in Whitewood, South
Dakota (SIC code 2491), ranked first for increases
with a 29.3 million-pound increase. Ninety-six
percent of the change was  attributable to on-site
recycling of creosote. The facility manufactures
timber bridges and farm products such as posts and
barn poles. Creosote is used as a wood preservative.
The facility contact at Wheeler gave two reasons
for the increase in on-site recycling: The facility
has undergone a production increase, and some of
the increase is likely due to a change in the
interpretation of how to report on-site recycling.3

Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation in Columbus,
Mississippi (SIC code 2491), was second in
increases with 18.2 million pounds. The facility
manufactures railroad products, primarily crossties,
that are preserved with creosote. All of this increase
was due to creosote reporting, and nearly all of that
was reported as on-site recycling and on-site
treatment. The facility contact stated that increases
in both of these categories were due to changes in
interpretation of its activities. Most of the increase
was a change in interpretation of how to estimate
3  There are no TRI regulatory definitions of recycling.
   Facilities may use their own interpretations for purposes of
   reporting to TRI. Changes in these interpretations do not
   represent a change in guidance by EPA on how to report
   recycling.
214

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                                              Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
    1,600
    -200
         Recycled
         On-site
 Energy
Recovery
 On-site
Treated
On-site
Recycled
 Off-site
  Energy
Recovery
  Off-site
Treated
Off-site
    Quantity
Released On-
 and Off-site
    Total
Production-
   related
   Waste
           On-site Waste Management                Off-site Waste Management
         Figure 6-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
                               Lumber and Wood Products (SIC Code 24)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
 on-site recycling quantities.4 More recently (1996),
 the facility also redefined some of its recycling to
 be treatment.

 Another Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation
 facility, in Texarkana, Texas (SIC code 2491), was
 ranked third in increases with 4.7 million pounds.
 The railroad crosstie manufacturing plant also uses
 creosote as a wood preservative. This chemical
 accounted for all of the facility's increase. An
                                       increase in the reported amount of creosote
                                       recycled on-site was responsible for 97% of the
                                       overall change. The reason cited for the increase
                                       was a change in the interpretation of how to
                                       estimate on-site recycling quantities.5

                                       Andersen Corporation in Bayport, Minnesota (SIC
                                       code 2431), was first in decreases with an overall
                                       1.0 million-pound decrease. The facility also
                                       ranked as the top decreaser in releases, in part due
    There are no TRI regulatory definitions of recycling.
    Facilities may use their own interpretations for purposes of
    reporting to TRI. Changes in these interpretations do not
    represent a change in guidance by EPA on how to report
    recycling.
                                          There are no TRI regulatory definitions of recycling.
                                          Facilities may use their own interpretations for purposes of
                                          reporting to TRI. Changes in these interpretations do not
                                          represent a change in guidance by EPA on how to report
                                          recycling.
                                                                                                        215

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           Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
 to significant reductions in the use of xylene (mixed
 isomers). Xylene accounted for almost half of
 Andersen's decrease. (See "Facilities with Large
 Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996"
 for more information.)

 Kenson Wood Preserving, LLC, in Picayune,
 Mississippi (SIC code 2491), was second in
 decreases with 786,000 pounds. The primary
 products of Kenson are power poles and pilings.
 Creosote accounted for 100% of the facility's
 decrease and 76% of the creosote reduction was
 reported as recycled on-site. Steam flashing, a
 process by which preservative is forced into wood
 and water is forced out, produces wastewater
 containing excess creosote. The excess preservative
 was separated from the water, recycled, and reused.
 Installation of dry kilns replaced steam flashing and
 effectively reduced the need to recover and recycle
 excess creosote.

 Colfax  Creosoting Company in Pineville, Louisiana
 (SIC code 2491), ranked third in decreases with an
 overall  556,000 pound decrease. A 394,000 pound
 drop in the amount of creosote reported as recycled
 on-site  accounted for 71 % of the decrease. A
 manufacturer of preserved wood products,
 primarily utility poles and railroad crossties, Colfax
 Creosoting attributes the change in on-site
 recycling data to revisions in how the figure was
 calculated.6

 Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
 Production-Related Waste, 1991-1996

 In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
 large apparent increases and decreases, which have
 been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
   There are no TRI regulatory definitions of recycling.
   Facilities may use their own interpretations for purposes of
   reporting to TRI. Changes in these interpretations do not
   represent a change in guidance by EPA on how to report
   recycling.
Because these are errors or plant closures and not
actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
discussed in detail here. There are three such
facilities in the lumber and wood products sector:

   Medite of New Mexico, Las Vegas, New
   Mexico, decrease of 8.7 million pounds, plant
   closure.

   Sanderson Plumbing Products, Inc., Columbus,
   Mississippi, decrease of 592,000 pounds,
   reporting error.

   Schrock Cabinet Company, Grants Pass,
   Oregon,  decrease of 773,000 pounds, reporting
   error.

Facilities Contacted for Explanations
(alphabetical by facility):

   American Woodmark Corporation, Moorefield,
   West Virginia: Rod Gunter, August 19,
   September 16, October 9, and October 15, 1998
   (explanation provided)

   Andersen Corporation, Bayport, Minnesota:
   Dale Olson, August 19, 1998 (explanation
   provided)

   Colfax Creosoting Company, Pineville,
   Louisiana: Carl Johnson and Rick Deerman,
   October 19, 1998 (explanation provided)

   Dallas Woodcraft, Inc., Dallas, Texas: Richard
   Hudson, August  17, 1998 (explanation
   provided)

   Fiber Products Operations, Diboll, Texas: Don
   Cox, August  19,  1998 (explanation provided)
   Kenson Wood Preserving, LLC, Picayune,
   Mississippi: Mark Simmons, October 13,  1998,
   Dr. John Ball, October 3, 1998, and Randy
   McGough, October 15, 1998 (explanation
   provided)

   Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation, Columbus,
   Mississippi and Texarkana, Texas: Nick Bock,
   August 17, 1998 (explanation provided)
216

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                                     Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
Medite of New Mexico, Las Vegas, New
Mexico: Barbara Lemley, August 17, 1998
(explanation provided)

Pella Corporation, Pella, Iowa: Jim Nieboer,
September 8,1998 (explanation provided)
Sanderson Plumbing Products, Inc., Columbus,
Mississippi (no explanation provided).
Schrock Cabinet Company, Grants Pass,
Oregon: Jim Weitkamp, September 8, 1998
(explanation provided)
Weyerhaeuser, Elkin, North Carolina: Billie
Caudill and Jim Odendahl, September 16, 1998
(explanation provided)
Wheeler Lumber Operations, Whitewood,
South Dakota: Tammie Hill, August 17, 1998
(explanation provided)
Woodgrain Millwork, Inc., Fruitland, Idaho:
James A. Jaderholm, August 25,1998
(explanation provided)
                                                                                       217

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        Chapter 6 — TRI Data for Lumber and Wood Products
218

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                                   Chapter 7
               Toxics Release  Inventory Data
                  for Furniture (SIC  Code 25)
A  Look at the Furniture
and Fixtures  Industry

(SIC Code 25)

The furniture and fixtures industry (SIC code 25)
manufactures furniture for homes, offices, public
buildings, and restaurants. It produces fixtures
such as partitions, shelving, and display cases for
offices and stores. Many products of this sector
are made of wood, but household furniture made
of metal and office and store fixtures made of
non-wood materials are included. This sector also
produces mattresses and bedsprings. Automobile
and aircraft seats are included, classified as
furniture for public buildings and related uses.
Box 7-1 lists Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) codes and their designations for this sector.
In TRI, SIC codes are given as reported by the
facilities; these may differ from information in
economic and other data collections.

The furniture sector shipped products valued at
$55.70 biUion in 1996, up from $53.47 billion in
1995 (both in current dollars). This was about
1.5% of the value of shipments of all U.S.
manufacturing. Employment in this sector was
515,000 in 1996, having increased steadily since
1991. From 1989 to 1996, furniture production
rose 6.3%, a modest expansion compared to a
17.6% increase for all U.S. manufacturing sectors
over that period (see Chapter 1, Table 1-10).
Household furniture manufacture (SIC code 251)
constituted approximately half the sector's 1996
economic activity, with $25.43 billion in shipments
and 273,000 in employment.

Processes in production of wood furniture and
fixtures include drying, sawing and planing,
assembly, and coating or finishing. Some furniture is
finished before assembly. Assembly of upholstered
wood furniture typically involves solvent-based
adhesives, while non-upholstered wood furniture is
joined using "hot melt" adhesive or polyvinyl acetate.
Veneer (a thin layer of wood) may be applied,
requiring adhesives along with heat and/or pressure.
Ammonia and acetone may be applied to remove
natural wood rosin. Wood surfaces are then bleached
(often with hydrogen peroxide), coated, and finished
for indoor or outdoor use. Coatings and finishes may
be applied, dried, and sanded several times. Outdoor
furniture is usually treated with a fungicide and
water-repellent.

Adhesives commonly used in assembling furniture
contain solvents such as methyl ethyl ketone, methyl
isobutyl ketone, toluene, and xylene. Coating and
finishing applications typically involve solvents in
stains, paints, finishes, and inks (used to simulate
wood grain); toluene and xylene are common.
                                                                                     219

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             Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Box 7-1. SIC Code 25, Furniture and Fixtures: Codes and Classifications
 SIC Code
Industry Description
  251   Household Furniture
        2511   Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered

        2512   Wood Household Furniture, Upholstered
        2514   Metal Household Furniture
        2515   Mattresses, Foundations, and Convertible Beds
        2517   Wood Television, Radio, Phonograph, and Sewing
               Machine Cabinets
        2519   Household Furniture, nee*
  252  Office Furniture
        2521   Wood Office Furniture
        2522   Office Furniture, Except Wood
  253  Public Building and Belated Furniture
        2531   Public Building and Related Furniture
  254   Partitions, Shelving, Lockers, and Office and
        Store Fixtures
        2541   Wood Office and Store Fixtures, Partitions,
               Shelving, and Lockers

        2542   Office and Store Fixtures, Partitions, Shelving,
               and Lockers, Except Wood

  259   Miscellaneous Furniture and Fixtures
        2591   Drapery Hardware and Window Blinds and Shades

        2599   Furniture and Fixtures, nee*
Manufacture of wood household furniture commonly used in dwellings.
Manufacture of camp furniture.
Manufacture of upholstered furniture on wood frames.
Manufacture of metal household furniture of a type commonly used in dwellings.
Manufacture of mattresses (innerspring, box spring, and non-innerspring) containing
felt, foam rubber, urethane, hair, or any other rilling material. Manufacture of
assembled wire springs (fabric, coil, or box) for use on beds, couches, and cots.
Manufacture of dual-purpose sleep furniture, such as convertible sofas and chair
beds.
Manufacture of wood cabinets for radios, television sets, phonographs, and sewing
machines.
Manufacture of reed, rattan, and other wicker furniture, plastics and fiberglass
household furniture and cabinets, and other miscellaneous household furniture.
Manufacture of office furniture, chiefly of wood.
Manufacture of office furniture, except furniture chiefly of wood.
Manufacture of furniture for schools, theaters, assembly halls, churches, and
libraries. Includes manufacture of seats for public conveyances, automobiles, and
aircraft.
Manufacture of shelving, lockers, and office and store fixtures, plastics laminated
fixture tops, and related fabricated products, chiefly of wood. (Includes
prefabricated partitions designed to be attached to the floor.)
Manufacture of office and store fixtures, shelving, storage racks, lockers, and related
products, chiefly of materials other than wood. (Includes prefabricated partitions
designed to be attached to the floor.)
Manufacture of curtain and drapery rods, poles, and fixtures. Manufacture of
Venetian blinds and other window blinds and shades, except of canvas.
Manufacture of miscellaneous furniture and fixtures, including hospital beds and
furniture specially designed for use in restaurants, bars, cafeterias, bowling centers,
and ships.
*ncc; not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
                                                              Sources

   Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
       Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
   U.S, Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRI/McGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce, International
       Trade Administration, 1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and industrial
       processes for selected industries.
   U.S, Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures: Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
       February 1998 :  value of shipments and employment.
       Supplemental data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, Office of Compliance, Profile of
       She Wood Furniture and Fixtures Industry, Sector Notebook project, EPA/310-R-95-003, September 1995
       : industry processes and technologies, pollutant sources, and selected
       economic data.
220

-------
 As previously mentioned, furniture and fixtures
 classified in SIC code 25 also include those
 constructed of non-wood materials. Production of
 furniture and fixtures from metals, plastics, and
 other materials is similar to processes associated
 with other industrial sectors. The manufacture of
 metal furniture, for example, involves preparation
 and finishing similar to processes applied in
 production of some fabricated metal products
 (SIC code 34).


 1996 TRI Data for

 Furniture

 Table 7-1 summarizes TRI reporting by the
 furniture sector for 1996. A total of 1,250 forms
 were submitted by this sector in 1996. Of this
 total, only 26 Form As (or 2.1%) were submitted
 by this sector, well below the 10.1% TRI average.
 Form A certification statements certify that a
 facility's total annual reportable amount of a TRI
 chemical was less than 500 pounds for the year
 and that the facility did not manufacture, process,
 or otherwise use more than 1 million pounds.
 (The Form A certification statement is explained
 in Chapter 1.)

 The wood household furniture industry (SIC code
 2511) submitted 630 forms, half (50.4%) of the
 forms submitted by this sector. There were 168
 forms that reported more than one SIC code
 within SIC code 25 to define the facility's
 operations. This "multiple-codes" group of forms
 (explained below) represented 13.4% of all forms
 submitted by the furniture sector for 1996. The
 wood office furniture industry (SIC code 2521)
 submitted the third-largest number of forms in the
 sector, 95 forms or 7.6% of the total.

 Some facilities in the furniture sector
manufacture distinct, but related, products that
 are classified in different SIC codes within SIC
code 25. A facility may manufacture office
furniture from both wood and non-wood
                                                         Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
 materials. These activities are classified in SIC code
 2521 (wood office furniture) and SIC code 2522
 (office furniture, except wood). Another facility may
 manufacture both wood household furniture and
 wood office furniture. These products are classified
 in SIC codes 2511 and 2521, respectively. These
 facilities may report multiple SIC codes on their TRI
 forms. (Box 1-5 in Chapter 1 further explains
 reporting of multiple SIC codes and its affect on the
 analyses presented in the TRI data release.)

 Two industrial groups dominated TRI reporting in the
 furniture sector in 1996. The wood household
 furniture industry (SIC code 2511) ranked first for
 releases (on-site, off-site, and total on- and off-site)
 and for total production-related waste. The multiple-
 codes group reported the largest amounts for other
 on-site waste management and transfers off-site for
 further waste management.

 the furniture sector reported 35.9 million pounds  of
 total on- and off-site releases, consisting almost
 entirely (99.6%) of on-site releases. Ranking first  in
 the sector, the wood household furniture industry
 (SIC code 2511) reported 22.2 million pounds of total
 releases, including 22.1 million pounds on-site and
 91,000 pounds off-site. This industry's reported
 releases amounted to 61.7% of the sector's total. The
 multiple-codes group ranked second for the release
 categories, with 5.3 million pounds of total releases
 (5.27 million pounds on-site and 19,000 pounds off-
 site). Multiple-codes forms accounted for  14.7% of
 the sector's total releases. The wood office furniture
 industry (SIC code 2521) reported the third-largest
 on-site releases and total releases, with 2.1 million
 pounds (approximately 6%).

 The multiple-codes group reported 2.7 million
pounds of other on-site waste management, 65.7% of
the sector's 4.1 million-pound total in this category.
This was the only category in which the  wood
household furniture industry did not rank first or
second in the sector. Non-wood partitions  and
fixtures (SIC code 2542) reported the second-
                                                                                              221

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           Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-1.  Summary of TRI Information by4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
Total Total
On* and Productlon-
OIT-sitc related
Releases Waste
Rank Rank
1
6
13
11
14
9
3
4
7
10
5
12
8
2
15

1
8
12
15
13
10
3
4
5
11
6
7
9
2
14

SIC
Code
2511
2512
2514
2515
2517
2519
2521
2522
2531
2541
2542
2591
2599



Total
Industry Facilities
Number
Wood Household Furniture
Upholstered Household Furniture
Metal Household Furniture
Mattresses & Bedsprings
Wood TV & Radio Cabinets
Household Furniture, nee*
Wood Office Furniture
Office Furniture, Except Wood
Public Building & Related Furniture
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades
Furniture & Fixtures, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 25
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25
Total for SIC Code 25
183
23
12
2
3
11
36
32
23
21
25
8
25
48
1
453
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
630
38
17
3
8
21
95
65
53
31
48
24
47
168
2
1,250
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
7
4
0
0
0
2
10
0
26
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
22,059,136
783,320
269,490
337,599
193,575
507,354
2,129,854
1,225,136
683,843
424,332
893,719
333,297
630,226
5,269,424
10,500
35,750,805
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
91,199
0
0
0
0
0
1,928
0
5,985
2,116
529
0
4,688
19,413
0
125,858
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
22,150,335
783,320
269,490
337,599
193,575
507,354
2,131,782
1,225,136
689,828
426,448
894,248
333,297
634,914
5,288,837
10,500
35,876,663
Note: On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility incorrectly reported 0 pounds of
total production-related waste under SIC code 2515. The correct amount is 370,695 pounds. The total production-related waste rank of SIC code 2515 changes
from 15 to 12.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 largest other on-site waste management, with
 455,000 pounds (11.2% of the total). Ranking
 third was drapery hardware and blinds and shades
 (SIC code 2591), with 381,000 pounds or 9.4%.

 The multiple-codes group also ranked first for
 transfers off-site for further waste management in
 the furniture sector. Multiple-codes forms
 reported 7.1 million pounds, 54.5% of the
 sector's 13.1 million pounds in this category.
 Wood household furniture (SIC code 2511)
 ranked second, with  1.7 million pounds (13.4%),
 and public building and related furniture (SIC
 code 2531) was third, with 1.3 million pounds
 (10.0%).

 Production-related waste reported in SIC code 25
 totaled 57.8 million pounds in 1996. The wood
 household furniture industry (SIC code 2511)
 reported 25.4 million pounds, 44.0% of this total.
 Multiple-codes forms reported 19.3 million
 pounds, or 33.3%. Ranking third for total
production-related waste, the wood office furniture
industry (SIC code 2521) reported 2.8 million pounds
(4.8%).

Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 25

Table 7-2 further examines reporting of multiple
SIC codes within SIC code 25. The most frequent
combination, submitted on 34 forms, was for non-
upholstered and upholstered household furniture
made of wood (wood household furniture in SIC
code  2511 and upholstered household furniture in
SIC code 2512).  Thirty-three forms reported the
combination of wood partitions and fixtures (SIC
code  2541) and non-wood partitions and fixtures
(SIC  code 2542).

Among multiple-codes groups in SIC code 25, the
combination of wood office furniture (SIC code
2521), non-wood office furniture (SIC code 2522),
and non-wood partitions and fixtures (SIC code
 222

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                                                              Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-1.  Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25, Continued
SIC
Code
2511
2512
2514
2515
2517
2519
2521
2522
2531
2541
2542
2591
2599



Industry
Wood Household Furniture
Upholstered Household Furniture
Metal Household Furniture
Mattresses & Bedsprings
Wood TV & Radio Cabinets
Household Furniture, nee*
Wood Office Furniture
Office Furniture, Except Wood
Public Building & Related Furniture
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades
Furniture & Fixtures, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 25
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25
Total for SIC Code 25
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
176,677
2,005
20,970
0
0
7,325
14,284
286,683
31,012
6,404
454,834
381,128
11,792
2,667,300
0
4,060,414
Total Transfers
Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
1,747,568
76,527
57,694
6,295
7,922
21,152
587,487
777,365
1,303,070
69,517
807,107
389,067
92,848
7,112,961
1,000
13,057,580
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
25,423,289
788,082
335,415
0
201,401
554,735
2,762,682
2,252,266
2,036,351
519,279
1,832,715
1,103,870
725,609
19,277,636
10,610
57,823,940
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
20
0
0
72
0
1
0
0
40
0
0
0
0
15
0
148
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility incorrectly reported 0 pounds of
total production-related waste under SIC code 2515. The correct amount is 370,695 pounds. The total production-related waste rank of SIC code 2515 changes
from 15 to 12.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 2542) reported the largest amounts of total on-
 and off-site releases (1.6 million pounds) and
 total production-related waste (12.9 million
 pounds), as shown in Table 7-2: Fifteen forms
 reported this combination.

 The combination of non-upholstered and
 upholstered wood household furniture (SIC codes
 2511 and 2512, respectively)  ranked second for
 both total on- and off-site releases (1.3 million
 pounds) and total production-related waste (1.5
 million pounds). Ranking third, the combination
 of wood and non-wood partitions and fixtures
 (SIC codes 2541 and 2542, respectively),
 reported 1.0 million pounds of total releases and
 1.4 million pounds of total production-related
 waste.
On- and Off-site Releases

Almost all of the sector's 35.9 million-pound total for
on- and off-site releases in 1996 consisted of air
emissions, which totaled 35.7 million pounds. The
wood household furniture industry (SIC code 2511)
reported 22.1 million pounds of air emissions, 61.1%
of the sector's total air emissions.

The multiple-codes group (forms with more than one
SIC code in SIC code 25) reported the second-largest
amount of air emissions, 5.2 million pounds (14.7%).
As noted above, these two industrial groups also
reported the largest off-site releases (transfers to
disposal), the wood household furniture industry with
92,000 pounds and the multiple-codes forms with
19,000 pounds.

Table 7-3 and Figure 7-1 present the sector's data for
on- and off-site releases in 1996. Figure 7-2 shows
the distribution of on- and off-site releases for the
                                                                                                        223

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              Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-2. Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
SlCCodts
251 1
2SU
2511
2511
2511
2511
1SI1
2511
2511
2511
2512
2519
2S21
2521
2521
2521
2521
2521
2522
2522
2522
2531
2531
2541
2512
2512 2514
2514
2515
2517 2531
2521
2521 2531
2522 2599
2541
2599
2521
2521
2517
2522
2522 2542
2522 2599
2531
2541
2531
2542
2599
2542
2599
2542
Total for SIC Code 25
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
34
1
1
4
1
14
2
1
1
1
I
I
1
IS
15
8
8
1
2
5
9
2
4
33
168
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
10
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1,300,661
0
13,000
53,820
11,250
279,469
30,172
0
21,416
5,202
26,000
250
11,786
352,445
1,613,744
47,200
175,166
37,260
55,477
187,487
507
19,390
5,403
1,022,319
5,269,424
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
18,400
1
0
0
0
0
1,000
12
0
0
0
19,413
Total Total Transfers
On- and Total Other Off-site for
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
1,300,661
0
13,000
53,820
11,250
279,469
30,172
0
21,416
5,202
26,000
250
11,786
370,845
1,613,745
47,200
175,166
37,260
55,477
188,487
519
19,390
5,403
1,022,319
5,288,837
7,600
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,180
0
273,300
2,178,171
0
4,346
0
0
120,000
60,203
0
0
22,500
2,667,300
157,887
7,453
500
0
950
24,494
3,222
0
1,930
0
960
2,580
0
564,822
4,600,361
93,100
9,910
0
11,869
320,829
636,989
10,465
13,165
651,475
7,112,961
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
1,469,614
7,453
13,200
52,820
11,700
303,415
33,394
0
23,346
5,201
26,960
2,591
11,786
1,190,232
12,911,664
139,550
189,422
37,260
66,979
621,187
696,472
28,634
18,568
1,416,188
19,277,636
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Q
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15
Note: On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases are transfers off-site to disposal
from Section 6 of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 of Form R. Total Production-related Waste sums
Section 8 of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).

Table 7-3. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25 (in Rank Order)

SIC
Code

25 II

2521
2522
2542
2512
2531
2599
2519
2541
2515
2591
2514
2517




Industry

Wood Household Furniture
Multiple wilhln SIC Code 25
Wood Office Furniture
Office Furoilure, Except Wood
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Upholstered Household Furniture
Public Building & Related Furniture
Furniture & Fixtures, ncc*
Household Furniture, nee*
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Mtttrcsscs & Bcdsprings
Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades
Metal Household Furniture
Wood TV & Rudio Cabinets
InvulW SIC Code within SIC Code 25
Total for SIC Code 25

Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
22,058,018
5,244,133
2,129,854
1,225,131
893,459
783,320
683,833
630,226
507,354
424,332
337,599
333,297
269,490
193,575
10,500
35,724,121
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
25
3
0
5
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43
Underground Injection
Class I
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
Pounds
1,093
25,288
0
0
250
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
26,641
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
22,059,136
5,269,424
2,129,854
1,225,131
893,719
783,320
683,843
630,226
507,354
424,332
337,599
333,297
269,490
193,575
10,500
35,750,805
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
91,199
19,413
1,928
0
529
0
5,985
4,688
0
2,116
0
0
0
0
0
125,858
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
22,150,335
5,288,837
2,131,782
1,225,136
894,248
783,320
689,828
634,914
507,354
426,448,,
337,599
333,297
269,490
193,575
10,500
35,876,663
Note: On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 224

-------
   Transfers Off-site
      to Disposal
         0.4%
                                         Air
                                        99.6%
             Underground Injection = 0%
             RCRA Subtitle C Landfills = 0%
             Surface Water < 0.1%
             Other On-site Land Releases = 0.1%
   Figure 7-1.  Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
        Releases, 1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of FormR. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
                                                             Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
industries (four-digit SIC code) with the sector's
largest releases.

Other On-site Waste Management

The furniture sector reported 2.8 million pounds of
on-site recycling in 1996, which was 70.0% of the
sector's other on-site waste management. On-site
treatment totaled 1.2 million pounds, or 29.1% of the
total. Little on-site energy recovery was reported.
Table 7-4 presents the sector's other on-site waste
management data for 1996, and Figure 7-3 illustrates
the distribution by waste management method.

The multiple-codes group reported 2.2 million
pounds of on-site recycling and 427,000 pounds of
on-site treatment, the largest amounts in this sector in
both categories. On-site recycling reported on
multiple-codes forms amounted to more than half
(55.2%) of all other on-site waste management
25,000,000 •

20,000,000 '



15,000,000-
1
10,000,000-
5,000,000 -
o -










||

f||
^
i

I







2511







i
Mult
















1
2521









H Transfers Off-site to Disposal
• Other On-site Land Releases
0 RCRA Subtitle C Landfills

a UIJ, Class II-V Wells
n UIJ, Class I Wells
H Surface Water
• Air








?l \%%&l \mrnd
2522 2542 2512 2531 2599 2519 2541








Figure 7-2. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest
Releases, 1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal). UIJ = underground injection. Forms with
more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC Code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
                                                                                                     225

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           Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture


Table 7-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code

2542
2591
2522
2511
2531
2514
2521
2599
2519
2541
2512
2515
2517


Industry
Multiple within SIC Code 25
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades
Office Furniture, Except Wood
Wood Household Furniture
Public Building & Related Furniture
Metal Household Furniture
Wood Office Furniture
Furniture & Fixtures, nee*
Household Furniture, nee*
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Upholstered Household Furniture
Mattresses & Bedsprings
Wood TV & Radio Cabinets
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25
Total for SIC Code 25
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
2,240,579
121,200
32,168
273,527
161,450
0
0
0
689
0
3,895
6,404
2,005
0
0
2,841,917
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0
0
12,080
0
0
0
13,595
11,792
0
0
0
0
0
37,467
Treated
On-site
Pounds
426,721
333,634
348,960
13,156
3,147
0
31,012
20,970
0
0
3,430
0
0
0
0
1,181,030
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
2,667,300
454,834
381,128
286,683
176,677
0
31,012
20,970
14,284
11,792
7,325
6,404
2,005
0
0
4,060,414
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the
"multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
      Treated On-site
         29.1%
 Energy Recovery
     On-site
      0.9%
                                        Recycled
                                         On-site
                                         70.0%
   Rgure 7-3. Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
      Management, 1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

 reported by the furniture sector. This included on-
 site recycling of 1.4 million pounds of xylenes
 reported by one facility, reporting SIC codes
 2522,2542, and 2521.

 The non-wood office furniture industry (SIC code
 2522) reported the second-largest amount of on-
 site recycling with 274,000 pounds. Drapery
 hardware and blinds and shades (SIC code 2591)
 reported the second-largest amount of on-site
 treatment with 349,000 pounds.
Figure 7-4 illustrates the distribution of on-site waste
management reporting for the top industries in this
sector.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

Recycling and energy recovery each accounted for
more than 40% of the furniture sector's total transfers
off-site for further waste management in 1996. The
sector reported 6.5 million pounds transferred to
recycling (49.4% of transfers for further waste
management) and 5.6 million pounds of transfers to
energy recovery (43.0%), as shown in Table 7-5.

Multiple-codes forms in SIC code 25 reported the
largest transfers to recycling (3.2 million pounds) and
transfers to energy recovery (3.6 million pounds).
One facility reported transferring 1.9 million pounds
of xylenes off-site to recycling. The facility that
reported substantial on-site recycling of xylenes,
noted above, also reported transferring 1.6 million
pounds of this chemical to energy recovery.
 226

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                                                                        Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
                3,000,000
                2,500,000 -
                2,000,000 -
                1,500,000 -
                1,000,000
                 500,000
DTreated

• Energy Recovery

il Recycled
                            Mult.
                                    2542
                                            2591
                                                     2522
                                                             2511
                                                                      2531
                                                                              2514
                                                                                       2521
                                                                                               2599
                                                                                                       2519
                 Figure 7-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
                                       Totals, 1996:  Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the
 Multiple" category.
Table 7-5. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25


SIC
Code

2511
2531
2542
2522
2521
2591
2599
2512
2541
2514
2519
2517
2515





Industry

Multiple within SIC Code 25
Wood Household Furniture
Public Building & Related Furniture
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Office Furniture, Except Wood
Wood Office Furniture
Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades
Furniture & Fixtures, nee*
Upholstered Household Furniture
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Metal Household Furniture
Household Furniture, nee*
Wood TV & Radio Cabinets
Mattresses & Bedsprings
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25
Total for SIC Code 25


Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
3,217,820
410,287
1,132,903
346,366
650,378
405,048
267,603
4,265
2,031
2,730
195
8,652
5,602
0
0
6,453,880

Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
3,624,081
1,209,346
50,207
100,791
102,019
151,436
104,876
88,483
62,684
48,721
56,297
12,500
1,300
0
0
5,612,741


Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
181,472
99,267
118,706
107,438
24,455
30,953
16,516
100
987
18,066
1,202
0
1,000
0
1,000
601,162


Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
89,588
28,668
1,254
252,512
513
50
72
0
10,825
0
0
0
20
0
0
383,502
(in Rank Order)

Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6,295
0
6,295
Total Off-site
Transfers
for Further
Waste
Management
Pounds
7,112,961
1,747,568
1,303,070
807,107
777,365
587,487
389,067
92,848
76,527
69,517
57,694
21,152
7,922
6,295
1,000
13,057,580
 Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
 transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
 *nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                         227

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           Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
 The public building and related furniture industry
 (SIC code 2531) ranked second for transfers to
 recycling with 1.1 million pounds. One facility
 reported 315,000 pounds of cobalt and 250,000
 pounds of chromium; these were the largest
 transfers to recycling reported in SIC code 2531.

 The wood household furniture industry (SIC code
 2511) ranked second for transfers to energy
 recovery with 1.2 million pounds, including
 487,000 pounds of toluene and 250,000 pounds of
 methanol.

 Less than 8% of the sector's transfers for further
 waste management were reported as transfers to
 treatment (602,000 pounds) and POTWs (384,000
 pounds). The multiple-codes group also reported
 the largest transfers  to treatment (181,000
 pounds). The non-wood partitions and fixtures
 industry (SIC code 2542)  reported the largest
 transfers to POTWs (253,000 pounds).

 Figure 7-5 illustrates the distribution of off-site
 transfers for further waste management by type.
 Figure 7-6 illustrates the distribution of such
 transfers for the top  industries in this sector.
      To Treatment 9.6%
To POTWs 2.9%
    To
  Energy
 Recovery
  43.0%
             To
           Recycling
            49.4%
  Figure 7-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
     Further Waste Management, 1996: Furniture
                  (SIC Code 25)
Nolc: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
(excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
1996  TRI  Data by State for

Furniture

Table 7-6 presents 1996 summary TRI data for the
furniture sector by state.

The furniture sector submitted more than 100 forms
in each of three states:  North Carolina with 279
forms, Virginia with 143, and Indiana with 110.
These were also the states with the largest on-site
releases and total releases. The furniture sector
reported on-site releases and total releases of 8.6
million pounds (24.0% of the sector's total releases)
in North Carolina, 5.9 million pounds (16.4%) in
Virginia, and 3.0 million pounds (8.3%) in Indiana.

Georgia was the state with the largest reported off-
site releases (transfers to disposal) with 79,000
pounds (62.7% of the total). Michigan was second
with 26,000 pounds (20.5%), and South Carolina was
third with 12,000 pounds  (9.7%).

Michigan ranked first in the remaining categories.
Two multiple-code facilities that reported sizable
amounts of on-site recycling, transfers to recycling,
and transfer to energy recovery are located in
Michigan.

Other on-site waste management reported in
Michigan totaled 2.6 million pounds (63.6% of the
sector's total). Pennsylvania reported the second-
largest total for other on-site waste management, with
438,000 pounds (10.8%).  Illinois ranked third in this
category with 320,000 pounds (7.9%).

For transfers off-site for further waste management,
5.6 million pounds was reported in Michigan. This
was 42.8% of the furniture sector's reported transfers
off-site for further waste management. Mississippi
ranked second with 1.2 million pounds (9.2%).
Wisconsin ranked third with 1.1 million pounds
(8.3%).
 228

-------
                                                         Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
               8,000,000
               7,000,000 -
               6,000,000 -
               5,000,000 -
             •8
             ง 4,000,000-
             D.
               3,000,000 -
               2,000,000 -
                1,000,000-
• Other Off-site Transfers
S To POTWs
D To Treatment
ED To Energy Recovery
• To Recycling
                        Mult
                              2511
                                     2531
                                           2542
                                                  2522
                                                        2521
                                                              2591
                                                                     2599
                                                                           2512
                                                                                 2541
            Figure 7-6. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes
                         with Largest Totals, 1996:  Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC Code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
 Michigan ranked first for production-related
 waste reporting 15.2 million pounds (26.3% of
 the sector's total), followed by North Carolina
 with 8.7 million pounds (15.0%) and Virginia
 with 6.3 million pounds (10.9%).

 Map 7-1  illustrates the geographic distribution of
 total on-  and off-site releases in the furniture
 sector.

 1996 TRI  Data by

 Chemical for Furniture

 Table 7-7 presents the 15 chemicals with the
 largest on- and off-site releases reported by the
 furniture sector. Releases of these chemicals
 totaled 35.7 million pounds in 1996, 99.5% of the
 sector's total releases. The sector reported 35.6
 million pounds of air emissions of these 15
 chemicals, 99.6% of total air emissions, and 107,000
 pounds of off-site releases (transfers to disposal),
 84.8% of total off-site releases.

 Toluene was reported in the largest amount, 10.5
 million pounds, followed by xylenes with 7.5 million
 pounds and methanol with 7.0 million pounds. These
 three chemicals made up 69.6% of the sector's total
 on- and off-site releases in 1996. As mentioned early
 in this chapter, solvents such as these are used in
 many furniture coating applications. The wood
 household furniture industry (SIC code 2511)
 reported the largest air emissions of all three
 chemicals:  7.3 million pounds of toluene, 5.5 million
 pounds of methanol, and 3.9 million pounds of
 xylenes.
                                                                                                229

-------
               Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
 Table 7-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
Slaie
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
Ctttforni*
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Borida
Ocซgiป
Wabo
Illinois
Indian*
Iowa
Ktrats
KGfWiKky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
MMMChuseni
Michigan
Minowoia
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
New Himpshire
NcwJcncy
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
RheJc Island
South Carolina
Tenneiiee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Viffink
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Total fซ SIC Code 25
Total
Facilities
Number
17
3
17
20
5
I
1
7
13
1
8
39
6
1
10
1
1
1
5
22
6
16
11
2
1
2
11
90
4
2
4
19
1
I
4
23
10
5
2
38
3
1
18
453
Total
Forms
Number
40
6
58
38
19
I
2
16
32
9
17
110
13
3
22
2
2
1
7
65
11
52
20
10
2
3
22
279
6
6
7
40
2
1
20
67
26
10
5
143
4
2
49
1,250
Form As
Number
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
26
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1,607,627
105,788
1,334,996
607,683
171,223
1,600
33,000
658,383
1,106,580
47,200
122,562
2,963,110
507,291
62,741
360,242
12,739
22,662
7,650
96,038
2,512,533
122,264
1,790,943
440,374
415,581
4,055
39,030
348,525
8,609,476
206,570
102,917
96,022
808,622
500
9,600
651,422
2,114,100
569,684
85,151
126,788
5,868,592
41,092
32,343
925,707
35,750,805
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
2,400
250
0
0
0
1,500
78,948
0
1,846
0
0
0
441
0
0
0
0
25,757
0
0
5
0
0
0
250
250
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,251
0
0
0
0
0
1,948
0
12
125,858
Total Total Transfers
On- and Total Other Off-site for
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
1,607,627
105,788
1,337,396
607,933
171,223
1,600
33,000
659,883
1,185,528
47,200
124,408
2,963,110
507,291
62,741
360,683
12,739
22,662
7,650
96,038
2,538,290
122,264
1,790,943
440,379
415,581
4,055
39,030
348,775
8,609,726
206,570
102,817
96,022
808,622
500
9,600
663,673
2,114,100
569,684
85,151
126,788
5,868,592
43,040
32,242
925,719
35,876,663
22,000
0
50,390
0
0
0
0
0
27,582
0
319,972
17,235
0
0
0
0
0
0
	 o 	
2,582,218
90,495
17,070
969
5,600
0
0
1,181
56,806
300
0
0
438,205
7,325
0
24,976
32,774
4,346
194,753
8,434
81,580
0
0
76,203
4,060,414
543,017
11,378
407,374
267,791
1,512
9,400
20,005
57,973
29,604
93,100
631,459
205,791
43,619
0
205,499
47,777
0
2,943
2,506
5,593,358
52,837
1,205,618
17,110
43,067
1,000
1,540
41,401
690,842
158,579
40,863
255
169,234
0
750
53,306
696,295
215,742
23,021
5,328
370,707
5,005
5,634
1,085,340
13,057,580
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
2,202,665
117,166
1,792,367
827,227
173,337
11,000
53,000
715,190
3,257,964
139,550
833,528
3,243,743
444,000
62,741
556,712
47,778
24,662
10,593
98,694
15,236,444
271,046
2,688,291
457,387
181,303
28,111
40,340
324,549
8,696,256
355,420
154,137
96,487
1,356,041
12,062
10,140
741,088
2,863,615
779,756
302,920
140,550
6,293,178
45,707
37,876
2,099,319
57,823,940
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
40
0
0
0
0
0
0
72
20
0
0
0
0
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
148
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R.  On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
 230

-------
                                                                 Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
CM


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-------
          Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-7. The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
(in Rank Order)
CAS
Number
108-88-3
1330-20-7
67-S6-I
78-93-3
71-36-3
108-10-1
_
75-09-2
10041-4
95-63-6
1 10-54-3
71-55-6
67-63-0

100-42-5
50-00-0


Chemical
Toluene
Xylcnc (nixed isomcrs)
Mcthtnol
Methyl ethyl ketone
n- Butyl alcohol
Methyl isobulyl kelone
Glycol ethers
Dfchloro methane
Elhylberuenc
1,2,4-Trimcthylbcnzene.
n*Hcx>nc
1,1.1 -Trichlofoelhane
Isopropyl alcohol
(minufuciuring)
Styrene
Formaldehyde
Subtotal
Toul for SIC Code 25
On-site Land Releases
Surface Underground Injection RCRA Other
Total Air Water Class I Class II-V Subtitle C On-site Land
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
10,498,072
7,441,280
6,978,735
3,335,687
1,984,495
1,129,309
1,037,251
890,645
823,752
735,992
222,957
197,967
147,866

76,860
73,852
35,574,720
35,724,121
5
8
5
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
28
43
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
404
605
430
0
0
154
0
0
250
0
0
0
0

0
0
1,843
26,641
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
10,498,481
7,441,893
6,979,170
3,335,692
1,984,500
1,129,463
1,037,251
890,645
824,002
735,992
222,957
197,967
147,866

76,860
73,852
35,576,591
35,750,805
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off -site to
Disposal
Pounds
21,344
16,252
13,934
14,558
1,844-
13,158
250
12,251
13,158
0
0
0
0

0
0
106,749
125,858
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
10,519,825
7,458,145
6,993,104
3,350,250
1,986,344
1,142,621
1,037,501
902,896
837,160
735,992
222,957
197,967
147,866

76,860
73,852
35,683,340
35,876,663
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
 OSHA Carcinogens

 The furniture sector's releases of chemicals
 designated as OSHA carcinogens totaled 1.1
 million pounds in 1996, as shown in Table 7-8.
 (OSHA carcinogens and the bases for their
 designation appear in Box 1-9 in Chapter 1.) This
 amounted to 3.2% of the sector's total releases. Air
 emissions of 1.1 million pounds represented 98.0%
 of total releases of the OSHA carcinogens.

 Dichloromethane was the OSHA carcinogen with
 the largest releases reported in this sector, with
 903,000 pounds. More than 50,000 pounds each
 was also reported for styrene (77,000 pounds),
 formaldehyde (74,000 pounds), and
 trichloroethylene (69,000 pounds). Three of these
 chemicals (dichloromethane, styrene, and
 formaldehyde) were among the top 15 chemicals
 for total releases reported by the furniture sector in
 1996 (see Table 7-7).

 The mattresses and bedsprings industry (SIC code
 2515) reported the largest releases of OSHA
 carcinogens in the furniture sector, with 338,000
pounds. One facility in SIC code 2515 reported
337,000 pounds of dichloromethane, although this
solvent and thinner was also reported in smaller
amounts in numerous furniture industries. Ranking
second for releases of these chemicals, the non-
wood partitions and fixtures industry (SIC code
2542) reported 155,000 pounds. Multiple-codes
forms reported 152,000 pounds of releases and
ranked third.

Figure 7-7 shows the on- and off-site releases of the
four-digit SIC codes with the largest OSHA
carcinogen releases.


1996 TRI Chemicals in

Waste for  Furniture

In 1996, the furniture sector reported production-
related waste totaling 57.8 million pounds. The
majority of this reporting consisted of quantities
released on- and off-site, 42.2 million pounds, or
73.0% of the sector's production-related waste. The
next largest categories were off-site energy
 232

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                                                                        Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-8. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
(in Rank Order)
On-site Land Releases

SIC
Code

2515
2542

2522
2531
2511
2512
2521
2541
2519
2599





Industry

Mattresses & Bedsprings
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Multiple within SIC Code 25
Office Furniture, Except Wood
Public Building & Related Furniture
Wood Household Furniture
Upholstered Household Furniture
Wood Office Furniture
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Household Furniture, nee*
Furniture & Fixtures, nee*
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 25

Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
337,599
154,930
143,262
137,799
81,912
62,210
63,900
45,434
44,810
29,762
9,089
6,050
1,116,757
35,724,121
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
43
Underground Injection
Class I
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RCRA
Subtitle C
Landfills
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Other
On-site Land
Releases
Pounds
0
0
8,288
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,293
26,641
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
337,599
154,940
151,550
137,799
81,917
62,210
63,900
45,434
44,810
29,762
9,089
6,050
1,125,060
35,750,805
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
0
8
7
0
1,900
12,251
0
0
0
0
0
0
14,166
125,858

Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
337,599
154,557
151,557
137,799
83,817
74,461
63,900
45,434
44,810
29,762
9,089
6,050
1,139,226
35,876,663
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                   400,000
                  350,000 -
                  300,000 -
                  250,000 -
                | 200,000-
                n.
                   150,000-
                  100,000 -
                   50,000 -
D Transfers Off-site to Disposal
H Other On-site Land Releases
EI RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
DUIJ, Class II-V Wells
BUIJ, Class I Wells
• Surface Water
HAir
                                2515
                                                2542
                                                                 Mult.
                                                                                 2522
                                                                                                 2531
          Figure 7-7. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
                                  Largest Totals, 1996:  Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. UU = underground injection.
Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
                                                                                                                       233

-------
           Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture

Table 7-9. Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2511

2521
25.22
2531
2542
2591
2512
2599
2519
2541
2514
2SI7

2515

Industry
Wood Household Furniture
Multiple within SIC Code 25
Wood Office Furniture
Office Furniture, Except Wood
Public Building & Related Furniture
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades
Upholstered Household Furniture
Furniture & Fixtures, ncc*
Household Furniture, ncc*
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Mela! Household Furniture
Wood TV & Radio Cabinets
Invalid SK Code within SIC Code 25
Mattresses & Bedsprings
Toml for SIC Code 25
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
161,450
2,240,579
689
273,527
0
121,200
32,168
2,005
0
3,895
6,404
0
0
0
0
2,841,917
Energy
Recovery
On-slte
Pounds
12,080
0
13,595
0
0
0
0
0
11,792
0
0
0
0
0
0
37,467
Treated
On-site
Pounds
3,147
426,721
0
13,156
31,012
333,634
348,960
0
0
3,430
0
20,970
0
0
0
1,181,030
Recycled
Off-site
Pounds
445,301
1,900,005
404,805
597,595
1,130,233
342,514
267,603
2,830
4,265
11,193
3,332
195
5,618
0
0
5,115,489
Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
1,216,048
3,622,093
155,583
102,019
53,376
153,364
104,954
49,848
81,086
12,500
50,717
43,559
2,100
0
0
5,647,247
Treated
Off-site
Pounds
233,647
265,949
56,669
24,208
118,481
57,467
16,563
11,916
150
4,055
13,572
1,202
1,108
610
0
805,597
Quantity
Released
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
23,351,616
10,822,289
2,131,341
1,241,761
703,249
824,536
333,622
721,483
628,316
519,622
445,254
269,489
192,575
10,000
0
42,195,193
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
25,423,289
19,177,636
2,762,682
2,252,266
2,036,351
1,832,715
1,103,870
788,082
725,609
554,735
519,279
335,415
201,401
10,610
0
57,823,940
20
15
0
0
40
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
72
148
Note: Dala from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category. One facility
incorrectly reported 0 pounds of total production-related waste under SIC code 2515. The correct amount is 370,695 pounds. The total production-related waste
rank of SIC code 2515 changes from 15 to 12.
*ซec: not elsewhere classified.
                            On-site Waste
                             Management
                                 7.0%.
 Quantity
 Released
  73.0%
                                       Off-site Waste
                                       Management
                                          20.0%
        .,—l||ii^     •
o
    Figure 7-8. Distribution of TRI Production-related
         Waste, 1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.

 recovery, 5.6 million pounds (9.8%) and off-site
 recycling, 5.1 million pounds (8.8%). Other waste
 management types accounted for less than 5%
 each of total production-related waste. These data
 appear in Table 7-9, and Figure 7-8 illustrates the
 percentage distribution.

 Two industrial groups accounted for the largest
 reported quantities released by this sector: wood
 household furniture (SIC code 2511), with 23.4
million pounds, and multiple-codes forms with 10.8
million pounds. These two amounts together
accounted for 81.0% of the sector's reported release
quantities and 59.1% of the sector's total production-
related waste. Zero amounts reported by the
mattresses and bedsprings industry (SIC code 2515),
shown in Table 7-9, represent a reporting error. As
seen in Tables 7-1 and 7-8, this industry reported
338,000 pounds of releases in Section 5 of Form R
for 1996, which should also have been reported as
quantities released on- and off-site in Section 8 of
FormR.

The multiple-codes group reported the largest
amounts in all other types of waste management
except on-site energy recovery. (The furniture sector
as a whole reported only small amounts of toxic
chemicals burned for energy recovery on-site.).
Multiple-codes  forms reported 2.2 million pounds of
on-site recycling, 427,000 pounds of on-site
treatment, 1.9 million pounds of off-site recycling,
3.6 million pounds of off-site energy recovery, and
266,000 pounds of off-site treatment. These amounts
ranged from 33.0% (off-site treatment) to 78.8% (on-
site recycling) of the sector's total in each of the
various categories.
 234

-------
 The non-wood office furniture industry (SIC code
 2522) ranked second for on-site recycling, with
 274,000 pounds (9.6% of the sector's total for on-
 site recycling). Drapery hardware and blinds and
 shades /SIC code 2591) reported the second-
 largest amount for on-site treatment, 349,000
 pounds (29.5%). The public building and related
 furniture industry (SIC code 2531) ranked second
 for off-site recycling, with 1.1 million pounds
 (22.1%). The wood household furniture industry
 (SIC code 2511) was second for off-site energy
 recovery, with 1.2 million pounds (21.5%), and
 for off-site treatment, with 234,000 pounds
 (29.0%).

 Distribution of production-related waste for the
 top industries in the sector appears in Figure 7-9.
                                                         Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
Projected Quantities of TRI
Chemicals in Waste

Table 7-10 and Figure 7-10 summarize the furniture
sector's projections for on- and off-site waste
management through 1998. (As explained in Chapter
1, facilities not only report current data but project
waste management quantities for the next two years
in their TRI  submissions.) Total production-related
waste was expected to decline 4.2% from 1996 to
1998, from 57.8 million pounds to 55.4 million
pounds. The largest component of this sector's
reported production-related waste—quantities
released on- and off-site—was projected to decrease
4.6%, from 42.2 million pounds to 40.3 million
pounds. These projected reductions would amount to
a 2.4 million-pound decrease in total production-
100% -i
90% -
80% -
70% -
60% -
50% -
40% -
30% -
20% -
10% •
0% -


sss
:•:';•:•:•
2511

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2521
57-
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.::::::::::
•:•:-:•:•:•
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2522
Dis
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_
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ges
1

I
si!
*:•:•:•:
m
•

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S3 Quantity Released
• Treated Off-site
H Energy Recovery Off-site
D Recycled Off-site
E3 Treated On-site
B Energy Recovery On-site
H Recycled On-site


2531 2542 2591 2512 2599 2519
ution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with
t Totals, 1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
                                                                                               235

-------
           Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture


Table 7-10. Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998: Furniture, SIC Code 25

Waste Management Activity
Qn-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 25

Waste Management Activity

On-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 25
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total

2,841,917 4.9
37,467 0.1
1,181,030 2.0

5,115,489 8.8
5,647,247 9.8
805,597 1.4
42,195,193 73.0
57,823,940 100.0

Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent

-6.3
284.4
0.2

-11.6
-8.3
8.8
-3.5
-4.4

Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total

2,662,976 4.8
144,010 0.3
1,183,940 2.1

4,523,551 8.2
5,176,598 9.4
876,297 1.6
40,718,754 73.7
55,286,126 100.0

Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent

0.4
-0.6
2.0

7.2
4.6
-0.1
-1.1
0.2

Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total

2,672,601 4.8
143,101 0.3
1,207,393 2.2

4,848,379 8.7
5,417,144 9.8
875,121 1.6
40,251,945 72.6
55,415,684 100.0

Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent

-6.0
281.9
2.2

-5.2
-4.1
8.6
-4.6
-4.2

Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 related waste, including a 1.9 million-pound
 decrease in quantities released.

 The sector also projected reductions of 6.0% in on-
 site recycling, 5.2% in off-site recycling, and 4.1%
 in off-site energy recovery. The absolute decrease
 in each of these cases would be less than 300,000
 pounds.
Relatively small absolute increases were projected
in on-site energy recovery (106,000 pounds), on-
site treatment (26,000 pounds), and off-site
treatment (70,000 pounds).

These projections indicate no change in the way the
furniture sector planned to manage its TRI
chemicals in waste. Despite the large absolute
decrease projected for releases, that category would
continue to account for approximately 73% of the
 236

-------
                                                       Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
                                                  Quantity Released
                                                   On-and Off-site
                   Total Production-
                     related Waste
     On-site Waste          Off-site Waste
      Management          Management
Figure 7-10. Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in
                Waste, 1996-1998:  Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 sector's production-related waste. As explained in
 Chapter 1, releases are the least desirable option
 for managing TRI chemicals in waste, according
 to the waste management hierarchy.

 Source Reduction Activity

 A relatively high percentage of the TRI forms
 submitted by the furniture sector—37.8%—
 indicated that one or more source reduction
 activities were undertaken during 1996. For TRI
 as a whole, 19.6% of all forms reported source
 reduction activity. As shown in Table 7-11, the
 furniture sector submitted 472 forms that reported
 source reduction activity. The wood household
 furniture industry (SIC code 2511) submitted the
 largest number, 279 forms or 44.3% of all TRI
 reports filed by that industry. Among the
 multiple-codes forms, 79 (or 47.0%) indicated
 source reduction activity. The level of source
 reduction activity represented by these high
percentages, in the industry groups that reported the
largest amounts of releases and waste management in
this sector, suggests that efforts are underway to
reduce those amounts.

Surface preparation and finishing was the category of
source reduction activity most often reported (on 235
forms), reflecting the importance of these activities in
furniture manufacture. Raw material modifications
was second (177 forms), and good operating
practices was third (112 forms).

Year-to-Year  Comparisons

for Furniture

1995-1996 TRI Data for Furniture

From 1995 to 1996, the number of forms submitted to
TRI by the furniture sector decreased 16.0%, from
1,488 forms to 1,250, as shown in Table 7-12.
                                                                                           237

-------
           Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
Forms Reporting
Source Reduction
Activities
SIC
Code
Industry
Total
Forms
Number
2511
2512
2514
2515
2517
2519
2521
2522
2531
2541
2542
2591
2599



Wood Household Furniture
Upholstered Household Furniture
Metal Household Furniture
Mittresscs & Bedsprings
Wood TV &. Radio Cabinets
Household Furniture, nee*
Wood Offfce Furniture
Office Furniture, Except Wood
Public Buitdlng & Related Furniture
Wood Partitions & Fixtures
Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood
Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades
Furniture & Fixtures, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 25
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25
TocalforSICCodc25
630
38
17
3
8
21
95
65
53
31
48
24
47
168
2
1,250
Good
Cateeorv of Source Reduction Activity
Raw Surface
Spill Material Process Cleaning Preparation Product
Percenter Operating Inventory and Leak Moditi- Modifi- and and Modifi-
All Forms Practices Control Prevention cations cations Degrcasing Finishing cations
Number
279
3
1
0
2
2
33
18
3
15
15
6
16
79
0
472
Percent
44.3
7.9
5.9
0.0
25.0
9.5
34.7
27.7
5.7
48.4
31.3
25.0
34.0
47.0
0.0
37.8
Number Number Number Number Number Number
58
0
1
0
0
1
8
6
1
7
5
2
4
19
0
112
36
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
3
0
1
0
0
44
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
2
2
0
32
105
2
0
0
2
2
13
5
0
4
4
2
3
35
0
177
21
1
1
0
0
0
1
5
1
0
2
1
2
9
0
44
5
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
15
Number Number
139
0
0
0
0
0
20
8
0
8
8
1
9
42
0
235
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
2
2
0
0
6
0
20
Note: Forms with more than one 4-digtt SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 Although very few Form As were submitted in this
 sector in either year, these also decreased by a
 substantial margin (35.0%), from 40 to 26. (The
 Form A certification statement is explained in
 Chapter 1.)

 On- and Off-site Releases

 Releases on- and off-site reported by the furniture
 sector decreased 14.1%, from 41.8 million
 pounds in 1995 to 35.9 million pounds in 1996.
 The largest component of the reduction was air
 emissions, which decreased from 41.7 million
 pounds to 35.7 million pounds (14.3%). Both
 fugitive and point-source emissions decreased.
 Other types of releases constituted less than 1%
 of the furniture sector's total on- and off-site
 releases, and were not significant elements of the
 1995-1996 change.

 Table 7-12 presents the furniture sector's on- and
 off-site releases for 1995 and 1996. Figure 7-11
 illustrates the percentage change in releases by
 type.
Other On-site Waste Management

All types of other on-site waste management reported
by the furniture sector decreased from 1995 to 1996,
as shown in Table 7-12- The sector reported a 16.2%
reduction, from 4.8 million pounds to 4.1 million
pounds in total other on-site waste management.
Contributing to this overall decrease was a reduction
in on-site recycling from 3.4 million pounds to 2.8
million pounds and a reduction in on-site treatment
from 1.4 million pounds to 1.2 million pounds.
Energy recovery, the on-site waste management
option with the smallest amounts reported by this
sector, decreased from 94,000 pounds to 37,000
pounds.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

Table 7-12 also shows the furniture sector's 1995 and
1996 reporting of transfers off-site for further waste
management. The total of such transfers decreased
8.3% from 14.2 million pounds to 13.1 million
 238

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                                                                         Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-12.  Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1995-1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
524
1,488
1,448
40
Pounds

41,662,290
5,867,608
35,794,682
872
0
9,608
41,672,770

107,119
41,779,889

3,394,403
94,077
1,356,904
4,845,384

6,340,055
6,982,200
798,575
122,438
250
14,243,518

1996
Number
453
1,250
1,224
26
Pounds

35,724,121
4,813,779
30,910,342
43
0
26,641
35,750,805

125,858
35,876,663

2,841,917
37,467
1,181,030
4,060,414

6,453,880
5,612,741
601,162
383,502
6,295
13,057,580
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
-13.5
-16.0
-15.5
-35.0
Percent

-14.3
-18.0
-13.6
-95.1
-
177.3
-14.2

17.5
-14.1

-16.3
-60.2
-13.0
-16.2

1.8
-19.6
-24.7
213.2
2,418.0
-8.3
 Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
 Management from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of
 Form R. Breakdown o"f Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
 waste management code.
                                                                                                                          239

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            Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
      200
       ISO
      100
       so
      -so
      -100-
      -150
                    Air
                                   Surface
                                    Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
 Disposal
            Figure 7-11. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                                       Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995.
 pounds. This reduction was principally
 attributable to a reduction in transfers to energy
 recovery from 7.0 million pounds in 1995 to 5.6
 million pounds in 1996, a 19.6% decrease.
 Transfers to treatment also decreased, from
 799,000 pounds to 601,000 pounds, while
 transfers to recycling increased from 6.3 million
 pounds to 6.5 million pounds and transfers to
 POTWs increased from 122,000 pounds to
 384,000 pounds.

 Changes in SIC Codes

 As indicated in facility descriptions below, some
 facilities report different SIC codes over time.
 This may reflect new or discontinued lines of
 production, or it may represent a different
 understanding of how SIC code designations
 relate to a facility's business activities. These
 changes can contribute—sometimes largely—to
 apparent increases or decreases across comparison
 years in the amounts reported by the four-digit, or
 even two-digit, SIC codes.

 1988-1996 TRI Data for Furniture

 As explained in Chapter 1, comparisons from the
 1988 TRI baseline year to the current year rely on the
 list of "core" TRI chemicals that were reportable,
 with the same reporting definition, in all years. These
 multi-year comparisons also review only the data
 elements that were collected in all years, which
 excludes from this section any analysis that
 distinguishes RCRA subtitle C landfills from other
 land releases as well as analysis based on the types of
 underground injection wells. On-site waste
 240

-------
management data and transfers off-site to
recycling and to energy recovery have been
collected only since 1991; these data are
included, but cannot be compared across the full
1988-1996 period.

The number of forms submitted by the furniture
sector decreased by 25.8% from 1988 to 1996
(from 1,630 forms to 1,209 forms), as shown in
Table 7-13.

For the 1988-1996 "core" chemicals, the furniture
sector reported 62.4 million pounds of total on-
and off-site releases in 1988 and 35.7 million
pounds in 1996. This was a reduction of 42.8% or
26.7 million pounds. The reduction in air
emissions over this period was 25.8 million
pounds (from 61.3 million pounds in 1988 to 35.5
million pounds in 1996), including reductions in
both fugitive and point-source releases to  air. The
sector also recorded an 848,000 pound reduction
in off-site releases (transfers to disposal),  from
974,000 pounds to 126,000 pounds.

Figure 7-12 displays the percentage change in on-
and off-site releases by type of release for the
furniture sector.

On-site waste management and transfers off-site
for recycling or energy recovery were not
collected in 1988. For the  1994-1996 period,
other on-site waste management reported by the
furniture sector increased from 2.8 million
pounds in 1994 to 3.7 million pounds in 1996, as
shown in Table 7-13. This reflected a larger
increase in on-site recycling (from 1.7 million
pounds to 2.8 million pounds), partly offset by
smaller decreases in energy recovery (from
 173,000 pounds to 37,000 pounds) and treatment
 (from 997,000 pounds to 840,000 pounds).

For the types of transfers reported to TRI for the
full 1988-1996 comparison period, the furniture
                                                        Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
sector reported an 83.8% reduction in transfers to
treatment (from 3.7 million pounds to 599,000
pounds) and a 57.9% reduction in transfers to
POTWs (from 250,000 pounds to 105,000 pounds).
These data also appear in Table 7-13.


 1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in
 Furniture

Tables 7-14 through 7-16 summarize data for 1988
 and 1994-1996 for industries at the four-digit SIC
 code level within SIC code 25. The tables present,
 respectively, on- and off-site releases, other on-site
 waste management, and transfers off-site for further
 waste management.

 On- and Off-site Releases

 Table 7-14 provides release data for all four-digit SIC
 codes in the furniture sector, for 1988-1996. The
 wood household furniture industry (SIC code 2511)
 reported the largest decrease in total on- and off-site
 releases, from 38.1 million pounds in 1988 to 22.1
 million pounds in 1996. The non-wood office
 furniture industry (SIC code 2522) ranked second for
 decreases in releases, reporting 3.2 million pounds in
 1988 and 1.2 million pounds in 1996. The third-
 largest decrease was reported by the public building
 and related furniture industry (SIC code 2531), from
 2.5 million pounds to 690,000 pounds. All three
 reductions occurred largely in reporting of air
 emissions.

 The mattresses and bedsprings industry (SIC code
 2515) reported the largest increase in releases for the
 1988-to-1996 period, from 30,000 pounds to 337,000
 pounds, entirely in air emissions. The only other
 industry reporting an increase was the miscellaneous
 household furniture (SIC code 2519), from 431,000
 pounds to 507,000 pounds. Releases reported in both
 industries were considerably higher in 1994, but
 decreased in 1995 and 1996. The overall increase was
 primarily attributable to air emissions.
                                                                                               241

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               Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
 Table 7-13. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
 Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Furniture, SIC Code 25



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1988
Number
500
1,630
1,630
NA
Pounds

61,313,783
8,556,134
52,757,649
3,051
0
72,249
61,389,083

974,037
62,363,120

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
3,706,391
250,472
1,143,394
NA

1994
Number
562
1,604
1,604
NA
Pounds

51,786,463
6,469,770
45,316,693
266
0
63,717
51,850,446

284,499
52,134,945

1,650,599
172,607
996,921
2,820,127

4,201,644
6,388,993
1,741,230
134,380
5,772
12,472,019

1995
Number
522
1,446
1,413
33
Pounds

41,412,706
5,786,731
35,625,975
872
0
9,603
41,423,181

107,119
41,530,300

3,354,403
94,077
985,333
4,433,813

6,340,055
6,943,916
789,922
122,428
250
14,196,571

Change
1996 1988 to 1996
Number
446
1,209
1,191
18
Pounds

35,499,005
4,717,964
30,781,041
43
0
26,636
35,525,684

125,857
35,651,541

2,806,917
37,467
840,182
3,684,566

6,453,880
5,544,138
598,945
105,448
6,295
12,708,706
Percent
-10.8
-25.8
-26.9
NA
Percent

-42.1
-44.9
-41.7
-98.6
—
-63.1
-42.1

-87.1
-42.8

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
-83.8
-57.9
-99.4
NA
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-slte Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste Management
from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Breakdown
of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996. For 1994-1996, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code. For 1988, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code or codes not required to be reported in
1988. NA: not required to be reported in that year.
 242

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                                                            Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
    -20-
    -40 •
     -60-
     -80
    -100
    -120
                    Air
Surface
 Water
Underground
   Injection
 On-site
   Land
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
 Disposal
                  Figure 7-12.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases,
                                  1988-1996: Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection
and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996.
  Other On-site Waste Management

  The drapery hardware and blinds and shades
  industry (SIC code 2591) reported the largest
  decrease in other on-site waste management in
  the furniture sector for 1994 to 1996 (on-site
  waste management data were not collected in
  1988). This was a reduction from 586,000 pounds
  to 381,000 pounds, although this industry's total
  other on-site waste management was higher
  (652,000 pounds) in 1995. The industry reported
  reductions in all waste management methods
  except for a small increase in on-site recycling.

  The miscellaneous furniture and fixtures industry
  (SIC code 2599) ranked second for decreases,
  reporting 77,000 pounds in 1994 and 12,000
  pounds in 1996. The public building and related
                  furniture industry (SIC code 2531) reported the third-
                  largest decrease, from 81,000 pounds to 31,000
                  pounds. In both industries, the reductions reflected
                  decreased reporting in on-site recycling and
                  treatment.

                  The largest increase from 1994 to 1996 was reported
                  by the multiple-codes group, from 1.4 million pounds
                  to 2.6 million pounds. This increase was reported
                  principally in on-site recycling. The non-wood
                  partitions and fixtures industry (SIC code 2542)
                  ranked second, increasing from 116,000 pounds to
                  194,000 pounds. The increase was attributable to
                  treatment and recycling. Non-wood office furniture
                  (SIC code 2522) ranked third, reporting 263,000
                  pounds in 1996 and 287,000 pounds in 1996. This
                  increase reflected an increase in on-site recycling,
                  partly offset by a decrease in on-site treatment.
                                                                                                    243

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               Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
 Table 7-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Furniture, SIC Code 25
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2511



2512



2514



2515



2517



2519



2521



2522



2531



2541



2542



Industry
Wood Household Furniture



Upholstered Household Furniture



Mcltl Household Furniture



Mattresses & Bedsprings



Wood TV & Radio Cabinets



Household Furniture, nee*



Wood Office Furniture



Office Furniture, Except Wood



Public Building & Related Furniture



Wood Partitions & Fixtures



Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
22,057,768
26,173,314
32,176,694
37,550,473
783,320
776,874
867,981
2,540,446
269,490
283,949
709,128
795,886
337,486
400,917
435,233
29,600
193,575
414,400
674,260
1,371,204
507,354
644,588
880,890
421,953
2,118,974
2,036,813
2,738,599
2,526,256
1,213,831
1,530,217
1,657,778
3,063,823
683,716
667,777
806,372
2,466,218
411,227
698,839
828,548
759,942
865,200
767,300
1,042,946
1,875,302
25
780
30
1,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
10
90
210
190
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
b
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
, 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
1,093
1,632
61,631
43,574
0
500
0
; o
0
0
68
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,250
27,425
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
250
22
15
0
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
22,058,886
26,175,726
32,238,355
37,595,047
783,320
777,374
867,981
2,540,446
269,490
283,949
709,196
795,886
337,486
400,917
435,233
29,600
193,575
414,400
674,260
1,371,204
507,354
644,588
880,890
421,953
2,118,974
2,036,813
2,739,849
2,553,681
1,213,836
1,530,217
1,657,778
3,063,823
683,721
667,777
806,372
2,466,468
411,227
698,839
828,548
759,942
865,460
767,412
1,043,171
1,875,492
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
91,199
84,074
173,505
512,180
0
0
250
3,750
0
0
14,436
4,150
0
0
250
0
0
0
0
20,737
0
0
0
8,739
1,928
2,748
0
69,376
0
0
1,111
180,736
5,985
2,523
1,955
8,665
2,116
173
7,944
5,100
529
608
26,551
311
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
22,150,085
26,259,800
32,411,860
38,107,227
783,320
777,374
868,231
2,544,196
269,490
283,949
723,632
800,036
337,486
400,917
435,483
29,600
193,575
414,400
674,260
1,391,941
507,354
644,588
880,890
430,692
2,120,902
2,039,561
2,739,849
2,623,057
1,213,836
1,530,217
1,658,889
3,244,559
689,706
670,300
808,327
2,475,133
413,343
699,012
836,492
765,042
865,989
768,020
1,069,722
1,875,803
Note: On-slle Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Forms with more than one
4-dlglt SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 244

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                                                           Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
                                                                                         B
Table 7-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code Industry Year
2591 Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades



2599 Furniture & Fixtures, nee*



Multiple within SIC Code 25



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25



Total for SIC Code 25



96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
333,297
388,166
555,236
346,207
573,550
913,939
848,809
1,299,911
5,139,717
5,471,343
7,103,554
5,482,818
10,500
244,270
460,435
783,744
35,499,005
41,412,706
51,786,463
61,313,783
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
26
1,600
0
0
0
11
43
872
266
3,051
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25,288
7,449
753
1,250
0
0
0
0
26,636
9,603
63,717
72,249
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
333,297
388,166
555,236
346,207
573,550
913,939
848,809
1,299,911
5,165,008
5,478,794
7,104,333
5,485,668
10,500
244,270
460,435
783,755
35,525,684
41,423,181
51,850,446
61,389,083
Off-site
Transfers Total On-
Off-siteto and Off-site
Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
1,248
4,688
15,851
34,224
70,835
19,412
1,142
24,273
21,810
0
0
0
66,400
125,857
107,119
284,499
974,037
333,297
388,166
555,236
347,455
578,238
929,790
883,033
1,370,746
5,184,420
5,479,936
7,128,606
5,507,478
10,500
244,270
460,435
850,155
35,651,541
41,530,300
52,134,945
62,363,120
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 On-site waste management data for 1994-1996
 appear in Table 7-15.

 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 The wood household furniture industry (SIC code
 2511) reported the largest decrease in the
 furniture sector from 1994 to 1996 in transfers
 off-site for further waste management (data for
 some types of off-site transfers were not collected
 in 1988). This was a reduction from 2.4 million
 pounds to 1.7 million pounds, reflecting
 decreases in all types of transfers except for a
 small increase in transfers to POTWs.

 The miscellaneous furniture and fixtures industry
 (SIC code 2599) ranked second for decreases,
 with 166,000 pounds in 1994 and 93,000 pounds
in 1996. Ranking third, the wood partitions and
fixtures industry (SIC code 2541) reported a
reduction from 138,000 pounds to 70,000 pounds.
Transfers to energy recovery accounted for the
majority of the reductions for both of these industries.

As with other on-site waste management, the
multiple-codes group reported the largest increase in
transfers off-site for further waste management.
Multiple-codes forms reported  5.9 million pounds in
1994 and 7.0 million pounds in 1996. A large
increase in transfers to recycling was the significant
factor in this overall change, although transfers to
treatment showed a substantial  decrease.

The public building and related furniture industry
(SIC code 2531) reported 1.2 million pounds of
transfers off-site for further waste management in
1994 and  1.3 million pounds in 1996, although the
                                                                                                   245

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             Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
SIC
Code
2511



2512



2514



2515



2517



2519



2521



2522



2531



2541



2542



Industry
Wood Household Furniture



Upholstered Household Furniture



Metal Household Furniture



Mattresses & Bedsprings



Wood TV & Radio Cabinets



Household Furniture, nee*



Wood Office Furniture



Office Furniture, Except Wood



Public Building & Related Furniture



Wood Partitions & Fixtures



Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
161,450
184,609
152,204
NA
2,005
9,002
8,645
NA
0
4,562
24,506
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
8,600
20,500
NA
3,895
0
5,062
NA
689
24,615
26,090
NA
273,527
134,210
238,336
NA
0
62,792
37,254
NA
6,404
11,087
13,395
NA
121,200
128,877
99,878
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
12,080
269
68,400
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
325
NA
13,595
8
23
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
2,737
0
320
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
3,430
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
13,156
30,204
24,665
NA
31,000
22,000
44,000
NA
0
0
110
NA
73,002
14,708
15,955
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
176,267
184,878
220,924
NA
2,005
9,002
8,645
NA
0
4,562
24,506
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
8,600
20,500
NA
7,325
0
5,387,,
NA
14,284
24,623
26,113
NA
286,683
164,414
263,001
NA
31,000
84,792
81,254
NA
6,404
11,087
13,505
NA
194,202
143,585
115,833
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*noc: not elsewhere classified
 246

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                                                         Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25,
Continued
SIC
Code Industry Year
2591 Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades 96
95
94
88
2599 Furniture & Fixtures, nee* 96
95
94
88
Multiple within SIC Code 25 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25 96
95
94
88
Total for SIC Code 25 96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
32,168
21,398
14,193
NA
0
20,947
51,197
NA
2,205,579
2,743,704
958,805
NA
0
0
534
NA
2,806,917
3,354,403
1,650,599
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
93,800
103,800
NA
11,792
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
59
NA
37,467
94,077
172,607
NA
Treated
On-slte
Pounds
348,960
536,661
467,628
NA
0
0
25,574
NA
367,897
381,760
418,669
NA
0
0
0
NA
840,182
985,333
996,921
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
381,128
651,859
585,621
NA
11,792
20,947
76,771
NA
2,573,476
3,125,464
1,377,474
NA
0
0
593
NA
3,684,566
4,433,813
2,820,127
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 1995 amount was higher (1.4 million pounds).
 This was the second-largest increase reported in
 the furniture sector. The drapery hardware and
 blinds and shades industry (SIC code 2591)
 ranked third for increases, with 354,000 pounds
 in 1994 and 389,000 pounds in 1996, although
 the total was lower (249,000 pounds) in the
 intervening year. Transfers to recycling were the
 principal factor in the increase for both industries.

 Transfers off-site for further waste management
 reported by the furniture sector for 1988-1996
 appear in Table 7-16.

 Facilities with Large Increases and
 Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996

 Broyhill Furniture Industries, Inc., in Lenoir,
 North Carolina (SIC code 2511 in 1988 and codes
 2493 and 2511 in 1996), ranked first with a
reported 787,000 pound increase between 1988 and
1996. The Broyhill Miller Hill complex is made up of
several wood household furniture manufacturing
plants. Three of the plants reported as individual
facilities from 1987 to 1990. Beginning in 1991,
reporting by the three plants was combined, and the
three were identified as a single facility. The decision
to combine the TRI reporting followed consolidation
of the plants' various air permits under Title V of the
Clean Air Act, according to the Broyhill contact. See
also "Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in
Waste Management,  1991-1996."

Peters-Revington Furniture  in Delphi, Indiana (SIC
code 2511), ranked second in increases with an
overall 765,000 pounds. Toluene was the largest
chemical contributor to the change, accounting for
44% of the increase. The chemical is part of coating
formulations for the facility's products, occasional
furniture. According to the facility contact, the
increase in releases was due to expansion
                                                                                                247

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              Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
 Table 7-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Furniture, SIC
 Code 25
SIC
Code
2511



2512



2514



2515



2517



2519



2521



2522



2531



2541



2542



Industry
Wood Household Furniture



Upholstered Household Furniture



Metal Household Furniture



Mattresses & Bedsprings



Wood TV & Radio Cabinets



Household Furniture, ncc*



Wood Office Furniture



Office Furniture, Except Wood



Public Building & Related Furniture



Wood Partitions & Fixtures



Partitions & Fixtures, Except Wood



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
410,287
1,426,541
780,076
NA
2,031
2,766
5,488
NA
195
1,250
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
5,602
8,747
7,280
NA
8,652
4,986
9,801
NA
405,048
25,232
66,320
NA
650,378
358,425
339,470
NA
1,132,903
1,195,060
1,058,758
NA
2,730
10,082
10,967
NA
346,366
183,689
319,888
NA
Transfers
to Energy Transfers to
Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds
1,187,146
1,392,523
1,486,323
NA
62,684
33,026
46,171
NA
56,297
34,184
32,418
NA
0
0
0
NA
1,300
12,753
24,073
NA
12,500
16,464
20,754
NA
151,436
232,712
258,575
NA
102,019
231,753
364,749
NA
50,207
84,024
69,185
NA
48,721
103,530
118,048
NA
100,791
64,430
148,317
NA
99,267
96,054
126,932
617,728
987
20,574
8,250
17,716
1,102
240
59,605
42,830
0
0
55
0
1,000
2,250
2,350
32,165
0
0
3
17,350
30,953
293,254
260,770
242,930
24,455
5,228
107,091
789,913
116,589
105,808
111,277
304,215
18,066
1,000
8,652
108,885
107,438
60,542
68,457
304,434
Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
28,668
9,605
9,058
80,962
10,825
8,800
8,000
4,537
0
0
0
1,250
0
0
0
0
20
0
0
2,000
0
0
0
250
50
250
1,000
2,803
513
6,965
23,525
72,937
1,254
1,394
1,307
11,820
0
0
0
0
2,570
395
283
2,000
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Off-site Further Waste
Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds
0
250
0
209,325
0
0
5,772
10,533
0
0
0
0
6,295
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,431
0
0
0
259,800
0
0
0
107,234
0
0
0
4,000
0
0
0
84,517
1,725,368
2,924,973
2,402,389
NA
76,527
65,166
73,681
NA
57,594
35,674
92,023
NA
6,295
0
55
NA
7,922
23,750
33,703
NA
21,152
21,450
30,558
NA
587,487
551,448
586,665
NA
777,365
602,371
834,835
NA
1,300,953
1,386,286
1,240,527
NA
69,517
114,612
137,667
NA
557,165
309,056
536,945
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 248

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                                                            Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
Table 7-16.  TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code. 1988 and 1994-1996:  Furniture SIC
Code 25, Continued
SIC
Code Industry Year
2591 Drapery Hardware & Blinds & Shades 96
95
94
88
2599 Furniture & Fixtures, nee* 96
95
94
88
Multiple within SIC Code 25 96
95
94
88
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 25 96
95
94
88
Total for SIC Code 25 96
95
94
88
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
267,603
89,594
105,805
NA
4,265
17,925
4,890
NA
3,217,820
3,012,196
1,452,827
NA
0
3,562
40,074
NA
6,453,880
6,340,055
4,201,644
NA
Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
104,876
151,211
236,237
NA
88,383
101,154
158,526
NA
3,577,778
, 4,453,882
3,380,549
NA
0
32,270
45,068
NA
5,544,138
6,943,916
6,388,993
NA
Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
16,516
7,576
4,150
12,390
100
2,991
2,400
33,124
181,472
193,805
979,785
761,390
1,000
600
1,453
421,321
598,945
789,922
1,741,230
3,706,391
Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
72
738
7,789
0
0
250
250
510
61,476
93,781
82,918
70,403
0
250
250
1,000
105,448
122,428
134,380
250,472
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Off-site Further Waste
Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
125,710
0
0
0
322,174
0
0
0
5,670
6,295
250
5,772
1,143,394
389,067
249,119
353,981
NA
92,748
122,320
166,066
NA
7,038,546
7,753,664
5,896,079
NA
1,000
36,682
86,845
NA
12,708,706
14,196,571
12,472,019
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 25 are assigned to the "multiple" category
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 and increased sales volume. See also "Facilities
 with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste
 Management, 1991-1996."

 Superior Products Sales, Inc., in Plantersville,
 Mississippi (did not report in 1988 and SIC code
 2515 in 1996), was third with 337,000 pounds.
 Dichloromethane was responsible for 100% of the
 increase. The chemical is used as a blowing (or
 expansion) agent in the production of urethane
 foam for furniture and bedding. No data were
 reported for dichloromethane in  1988 which was
 not used as a blowing agent until 1991.

 Child Craft Industry, Inc., in Salem, Indiana (SIC
 codes 2511, 2517, 2519, and 2521 in 1988 and code
 2511 in 1996), ranked first in decreases with a
 656,000 pound reduction. This manufacturer of
 wooden children's furniture, such as cribs and
 dressers, reduced the amount of methyl ethyl
ketone emitted to air by 241,000 pounds (37% of
the total decrease). The decrease was attributable,
in part, to the installation of automatic painting
equipment which improved paint transfer efficiency
and reduced overspray.

Singer Furniture Company in Lenoir, North
Carolina (SIC code 2511), was second in decreases
with 604,000  pounds. N-butyl alcohol, a
component of finishing material used on household
wood furniture, accounted for 27% of the decrease.
The facility experienced a gradual decrease in
production for several years prior to its closure in
March 1997. See also "Facilities with Large
Increases and  Decreases in Waste Management,
1991-1996."

The third-ranked facility for decreases, Kincaid
Furniture in Hudson, North Carolina (SIC code
2511), is a manufacturer of solid wood furniture.
                                                                                                  249

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          Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Reductions in the use of toluene were partly
attributable to reformulation of finishing materials
such as paints and stains. Toluene accounted for
35% of the facility's overall decrease.

Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
Releases. 1988-1996

In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
large apparent increases and decreases, which have
been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
Because these are errors or plant closures and not
actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
discussed in detail here. There is one such facility
in the furniture sector:

Johnston-Tombigbee Furniture, Columbus,
Mississippi, increase of 341,000 pounds, reporting
error.

1991-1996 Waste Management Data
for Furniture

Table 7-17 summarizes on- and off-site waste
management data for the furniture sector for 1991,
when TRI began collecting this information, and
the three most recent years (1994-1996). The
furniture sector's total production-related waste
decreased 8.1%, from 62.2 million pounds in 1994
to 57.1 million pounds in 1996 (a 5.0 million-pound
reduction). The largest decrease was reported in
quantities released on- and off-site, from 47.9
million pounds to 41.9 million pounds, a 5.9
million-pound reduction (12.4%). The sector also
reported smaller reductions in on-site recycling, on-
site energy recovery, off-site energy recovery, and
off-site treatment. The net decrease in each of these
cases was less than 400,000 pounds.

Off-site recycling increased from 3.6 million
pounds to 5.1 million pounds, or 42.8%. This was
an increase of 1.5 million pounds. On-site treatment
showed a smaller increase (376,000 pounds).

In several types of waste management, the sector
reported larger amounts in 1994 or 1995.

250
Figure 7-13 illustrates the percentage change in on-
site waste management, off-site waste management,
quantities released on- and off-site, and total
production related waste.

These changes suggest little real improvement in
the sector's management of TRI chemicals in
waste, as measured by the waste management
hierarchy (explained in Chapter 1). Over the 1991-
1996 period, quantities released decreased more
than total production-related waste decreased,
which indicates that the sector relied less on
releases and more on other waste management
options. However, releases still amounted to 73.4%
of total production-related waste reported in 1996.
This is a very high percentage for the least
desirable waste management option, as set forth in
the waste management hierarchy.

Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
in Waste Management, 1991-1996

Peters-Revington Furniture in Delphi, Indiana (SIC
code 2511), ranked first in increases in waste
management with an overall 558,000 pounds.
Toluene reported under quantity released made up
36% of the increase. The chemical is part of coating
formulations for the facility's products, occasional
furniture. A production increase was primarily
responsible for the change. See "Facilities with
Large Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-
1996" for more information.

Another Broyhill Furniture Industries, Inc., facility
in Lenoir, North Carolina (SIC code 2511 in 1991
and codes 2435, 2436 and 2511 in 1996) was the
second largest increaser in waste managed. The
Virginia Street plant, site of household furniture
manufacture, had a reported 508,000 pound
increase. Toluene, a constituent of paints and other
finishing materials,  accounted for 32% of the
change. The facility contact stated that the toluene
increase may be due to a higher toluene content of
finishing materials. The contact also stated that the
facility does not control the make-up of its finishing

-------
                                                                       Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
Tabje 7-17. TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996: Furniture, SIC Code 25
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
1991
Pounds
3,030,729
394,527
464,549
3,889,805
3,583,027
5,884,807
927,481
10,395,315
47,873,853
62,158,973
68,366
Change
1994-1995
Percent
103.2
-45.5
-1.2
57.2
30.0
1.1
-55.7
2.5
-12.0
-6.4
-96.6
1994
Pounds
1,650,599
172,607
996,931
2,820,137
4,204,474
6,985,222
1,821,776
13,011,472
53,269,294
69,100,903
40,437
Change
1995-1996
Percent
-16.3
-60.2
-14.7
-16.9
-6.4
-20.7
-3.9
-13.8
-10.6
-11.7
-89.2
1995
Pounds
3,354,403
94,077
985,333
4,433,813
5,463,991
7,059,720
807,883
13,331,594
46,891,595
64,657,002
1,366
Change
1991-1996
Percent
-7.4
-90.5
80.9
-5.3
42.8
-4.8
-16.3
10.6
-12.4
-8.1
-99.8
1996
Pounds
2,806,917
37,467
840,182
3,684,566
5,115,489
5,600,991
776,234
11,492,714
41,933,646
57,110,926
148








Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
                                                                                                                      251

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           Chapter 7 — TRI Data for Furniture
     100
      80
      GO
      40
     •20
     •40
     •60-
     •80
     -100
        Recycled    Energy  Treated
         On-sile   Recovery  On-srte
                  On-site

           On-sita Waste Management
Recycled    Energy   Treated
 Off-site  Recovery   Off-site
          Off-site

  Off-site Waste Management
    Quantity
Released On-
 and Off-site
    Total
Production-
   related
   Waste
        Figure 7-13.  Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
                                        Furniture (SIC Code 25)
Note: Docs not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Yeir, Column B) of year indicated.
 materials because they are purchased from
 suppliers.

 Meridian, Inc., in Spring Lake, Michigan (SIC
 codes 2522 and 2542), was the top decreaser with
 an overall 1.2 million-pound reduction. Reporting
 of toluene accounted for 91% of the overall
 change between 1991  and 1996. No information
 was provided by the facility before this
 publication's deadline.

 Singer Furniture Company in Lenoir, North
 Carolina (SIC code 2511), ranked second in
 decreases with 811,000 pounds. The Singer plant
 also ranked second in  decreases of releases (see
 "Facilities with Large  Increases and Decreases in
 Releases, 1988-1996"). Toluene, a solvent for
 finishing material used on household wood
           furniture, accounted for 29% of the decrease. The
           facility experienced a gradual decrease in production
           for several years prior to its closure in March 1997.

           Steelcase, Inc., in Athens, Alabama (SIC code 2522),
           was third in decreases with a 617,000 pound
           reduction. Toluene was used at the facility to adjust
           the viscosity of paints and as a cleaning solvent in
           painting processes. Toluene reporting dropped from
           370,000 pounds in 1991 to zero pounds in 1996 (60%
           of the overall reduction) due to several factors: A
           light aromatic solvent with a low toluene-content
           replaced a 40% toluene paint-thinner, the facility
           switched paint vendors in order to acquire materials
           with lower contents of regulated chemicals, and a
           dry-powder paint system was implemented. The latter
           involves the application of paint as a powder, which
           liquefies and adheres to surfaces in a heating cycle.
 252

-------
The metal office furniture manufacturer now uses
toluene in amounts below the TRI reporting
threshold.

Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
Production-Related Waste, 1991-1996

In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
large apparent increases and decreases, which
have been identified as reporting errors or plant
closures. Because these are errors or plant
closures and not actual changes in the data, these
facilities are not discussed in detail here. There
are four such facilities in the furniture sector:

    Bassett Furniture Industries, Dublin, Georgia,
    increase of 902,000 pounds, reporting error.
    Broyhill Furniture Industries, Inc., Lenoir,
    North Carolina (Miller Hill Complex),
    increase of 1.1 million pounds, reporting
    error.
    Steelcase, Inc., Grand Rapids, Michigan,
    increase of 5.0 million pounds, reporting
    error.
    Steelcase, Inc., Kentwood, Michigan, increase
    of 3.5 million pounds, reporting error.

Facilities Contacted for Explanations
(alphabetical by facility):

    Bassett Furniture Industries, Dublin, Georgia:
    Walt Hammond, October 19 and 21, 1998
    (explanation provided)
                                                         Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
Broyhill Furniture Industry, Inc. (Virginia Street
plant), Lenoir, North Carolina: David Stout,
October 21,1998 (explanation provided)
Broyhill Furniture Industry, Inc. (Miller Hill
Complex), Lenoir, North Carolina: David Stout,
September 25, 1998 (explanation provided)
Child Craft Industry, Inc., Salem, Indiana: Jenna
Robinson, August 18 and August 21,  1998
(explanation provided)
Johnston-Tombigbee Furniture, Columbus,
Mississippi: Bill Wells, August 18, 1998
(explanation provided)
Kincaid Furniture Company, Hudson, North
Carolina: Delbert Cline, August 18, 1998
(explanation provided)
Meridian, Inc., Spring Lake, Michigan: Rudy
Bartels, September 24 and October 23, 1998 (no
explanation provided)
Peters-Revington Furniture, Delphi, Indiana:
Linus Thornton, October 13, 1998 (explanation
provided)
Singer Furniture Company, Lenoir, North
Carolina: Dana Crump, September 24, 1998
(explanation provided)
Steelcase, Inc., Athens, Alabama: Dan Tomerlin,
August  18, 1998 (explanation provided)
Steelcase, Inc., Grand Rapids, Michigan (no
explanation provided)
Steelcase, Inc., Kentwood, Michigan (no
explanation provided)
Superior Products Sales, Inc., Plantersville,
Mississippi: Ronnie Johnson, September 24, 1998
(explanation provided)
                                                                                               253

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          Chapter 7— TRI Data for Furniture
254

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                                  Chapter 8
               Toxics Release Inventory Data
    for Printing  and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
A  Look at the Printing and

Publishing Industry

(SIC Code 27)

Printing, publishing, and allied industries (SIC code
27) publish newspapers, magazines, books, and
pamphlets. (Publishers in this sector may or may
not print their publications.) The sector also
includes commercial printing. In addition, other
products of the sector are business forms, greeting
cards, looseleaf binders and blankbooks, and a wide
variety of other materials ranging from atlases to
sheet music to telephone directories. Bookbinding
and services for the printing trade, such as
typesetting, also appear in SIC code 27. Box 8-1
lists Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes
and their designations for this sector. In TRI, SIC
codes are given as reported by the facilities; these
may differ from information in economic and other
data collections.

The printing and publishing sector's value of
shipments was $195.44 billion in 1996, up from
$188.13 in 1995 (both in current dollars). The
sector employed more than 1.5 million in both
years. Printing and publishing activities are
labor-intensive, although automation is increasing.
Employment in printing and publishing has been
relatively stable. Production levels, however,
decreased 4.8% from 1989 to 1996, compared to an
increase of 17.6% for all U.S. manufacturing (see
Chapter 1, Table 1-10). The United States is both
the world's largest market for printed products and
the world's largest exporter of printed products.
Electronic media such as CD-ROMs and the
Internet increasingly compete with printing and
publishing for certain types of products, such as
encyclopedias, catalogs, and advertising.

In 1996, commercial printing (SIC code 275)
accounted for one-third (34.7%) of the sector's
value of shipments, with $67.84 billion in 1996,
and more than one-third (40.0%) of the sector's
employment, with 604,000. Newspaper publishing
(SIC code 271) contributed $39.17 billion (20.0%)
in value of shipments and 403,000 (26.6%) in
employment. While industries in commercial
printing have reported the largest amounts of TRI
releases and waste management in this sector, no
TRI forms have been submitted in the newspaper
publishing industry in recent years.

Printing processes typically begin with
photographing prepared pages (or other layouts) to
produce film transparencies. Most printing
                                                                                  255

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              Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 Box 8-1. SIC Code 27, Printing, Publishing, and Allied Industries:  Codes and Classifications
  SIC Code
                                                             Industry Description
   271   Newspapers: Publishing, or Publishing and Printing
         2711   Newspapers: Publishing, or Publishing and Printing
   272   Periodicals: Publishing, or Publishing and Printing
         2721   Periodicals: Publishing, or Publishing and Printing
   273   Books
         2731   Books: Publishing, or Publishing and Printing
         2732   Book Printing

   274   Miscellaneous Publishing
         2741   Miscellaneous Publishing
   275   Commercial Printing
         2752   Commercial Printing, Lithographic

         2754   Commercial Printing, Gravure
         2759   Commercial Printing, nee*

   276   Manifold Business Forms
         2761   Manifold Business Forms

   277   Greeting Cards
         2771   Greeting Cards
   278   Bankbooks, Looscleaf Binders, and Bookbinding
         and Related Work
         2782   Blankbooks, Looseleaf Binders and Devices
         2789   Bookbinding and Related Work

   279   Service Industries for the Printing Trade
         2791   Typesetting
         2796   Platcmaking and Related Services
Publishing, or publishing and printing, of newspapers.


Publishing, or publishing and printing, of periodicals.


Publishing, or publishing and printing, of books and pamphlets.
Printing, or printing and binding, of books and pamphlets (establishments not
engaged in publishing).


Engaging in miscellaneous publishing activities, whether or not engaged in printing
(includes atlases, business services newsletters, calendars, catalogs, maps,
multimedia educational kits, sheet music, paper patterns, racing forms, shopping
news, technical manuals and papers, telephone directories, yearbooks).


Printing by the lithographic process (includes offset printing, photo-offset printing,
and photolithographing).
Gravure printing.

Miscellaneous commercial or job printing (includes miscellaneous general printing
shops and shops specializing in printing newspapers and periodicals for others).
Designing and printing, by any process, of special forms for use in operation of a
business, in single and multiple sets.
Publishing, printing by any process, or both, of greeting cards.
Manufacture of blankbooks, looseleaf devices, and library binders. Ruling of paper.
Edition, trade, job, and library bookbinding. Bronzing, gilding, and edging of books
or paper; mounting of maps and samples; and other services related to bookbinding.
Typesetting for the trade, including advertisement typesetting.
Making plates for printing purposes, and related services.  Includes making positives
or negatives from which offset lithographic plates are made.
*nซc: not elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
                                                             Sources

    Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
        Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
    U.S, Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRI/McGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
        International Trade Administration, 1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and
        industrial processes for selected industries.
    U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures:  Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
        February 1998 :  value of shipments and employment.
        Supplemental data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Guides to Pollution Prevention: The
        Commercial Printing Industry, EPA/625-7-90-008, September 1995 :
        industry processes and technologies, pollutant sources, and selected economic data.
    Print Publishing Guide, Adobe Systems Incorporated, 1993-1995, industry processes and technologies.
256

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                                             Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
processes require production of a positive image
from the transparencies, but some make use of
negatives (on paper or film). In either case, the
image is next transferred to a plate or cylinder.
Lithography, the predominant printing process,
uses printing plates to transfer ink to a rubber
blanket, which in turn transfers ink to the paper or
other  substrate. Lithographic plates are typically
thin aluminum sheets. Gravure processes print
directly from etched copper cylinders, rather than
plates and blankets. Printing processes thus share
characteristics, including chemical usage, with both
photographic and metal fabrication processes.

Printing processes involve metal compounds, light-
sensitive salts, acids, and other chemicals.
Photoprocessing chemicals used in printing may
include benzene derivatives used as developers.
Wastewaters from photoprocessing often contain
metals—not only silver, but others such as mercury
compounds, used to intensify image contrast during
photographic development. Plate coatings include
dyes,  photopolymers, binders, resins, pigments, and
acids. Platemaking and cleaning involve extensive
use of solvents, including toluene.  Inks also
typically contain solvents such as xylenes,
generating air emissions during printing and drying
operations. Gravure printing, in particular, uses
inks that dry by solvent evaporation. The
predominant solvent in TRI reporting by the
publishing and printing sector is toluene, which was
the chemical reported by this sector in the largest
amounts in almost all TRI categories.

Technological developments and environmental
concerns have both influenced changes in the
sector's environmental performance. Digital
(electronic) processes for text and graphics can
eliminate the need for photographic film. Water-
based printing processes are becoming more
common, and vegetable-based inks have been
formulated to replace inks with high solvent or
metal content. Solvents and waste ink are recycled;
in some cases, solvents used in platecleaning can be
re-used as ink thinners.
1996 TRI  Data for  Printing

and Publishing

Table 8-1 summarizes TRI reporting by the printing
and publishing sector for 1996. A total of 483
forms were submitted in publishing and printing
industries. This total included eight Form A
certification statements, certifying that a facility's
total annual reportable amount of a TRI chemical
was less than 500 pounds for the year and that the
facility did not manufacture, process, or otherwise
use more than 1 million pounds.  (The Form A
certification statement is explained in Chapter 1.)

The commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
code 2754) submitted 172 forms, or 35.6% of the
total number of forms submitted  in this sector. The
commercial lithographic printing industry (SIC
code 2752) submitted 95 forms, 19.7% of the total.
There were 71 forms  (14.7%) that reported more
than one SIC code within SIC code 27. Some
facilities in this sector conduct business in distinct,
but related, SIC codes. A commercial printer, for
example, may perform both lithographic and
gravure printing, classified in SIC codes 2752 and
2754, respectively. Such facilities may report
multiple SIC codes on their TRI forms. (Box 1-5 in
Chapter 1 further explains reporting of multiple
SIC codes and its affect on the analyses presented
in the TRI data release.)

Two industrial groups submitted most of the
sector's forms and reported the bulk of the sector's
releases and waste management.  These were the
commercial gravure printing industry (SIC code
2754) and the multiple-codes forms that reported
more than one SIC code within SIC code 27 to
describe their operations.

Commercial gravure printing (SIC code 2754)
reported the largest amounts of releases and waste
management in the printing and publishing sector
for 1996, summarized in Table 8-1. The
                                                                                             257

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            Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-1. Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27
Total Total
On- and Production-
Oir-slte related
Releases Waste
Rank Rank
10
14
6
8
3
1
4
12
11
9
13
7
2
5

13
14
7
11
3
1
4
9
8
10
12
5
2
6

SIC
Code
2721
2731
2732
2741
2752
2754
2759
2771
2782
2789
2791
2796



Total Total
Industry Facilities Forms Form As
Number Number Number
Periodicals
Book Publishing
Book Printing
Miscellaneous Publishing
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Commercial Printing, Gravure
Commercial Printing, nee*
Greeting Cards
Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders
Bookbinding & Related Work
Typesetting
Platemaking Services
Multiple within SIC Code 27
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Total for SIC Code 27
1
3
6
I
57
63
36
3
1
1
0
39
23
7
241
1
3
11
1
95
172
51
4
1
2
1
53
71
17
483
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
8
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
15,429
0
149,725
18,669
951,368
17,309,198
821,554
18
6,414
18,270
0
110,657
8,637,462
338,185
28,376,949
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
0
0
0
4,520
49,002
13,870
2,235
0
0
69
14,596
4,778
0
89,070
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
15,429
0
149,725
18,669
955,888
17,358,200
835,424
2,253
6,414
18,270
69
125,253
8,642,240
338,185
28,466,019
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
10 disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category. There may be forms but no facilities in a single
4-digit SIC code because a facility reported different 4-digit SIC codes in SIC code 27 on its individual forms.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 commercial gravure printing industry reported 17.4
 million pounds of total on- and off-site releases,
 61.0% of the sector's 28.5 million pounds of total
 releases. The commercial gravure printing industry
 reported 17.3 million pounds of on-site releases
 (also 61.0% of the sector's total of 28.4 million
 pounds) and 49,000 pounds of off-site releases
 (55.0% of the sector's total of 89,000 pounds.

 The commercial gravure printing industry also
 reported 115.7 million pounds (50.2% of the
 sector's total) of other on-site waste management,
 3.6 million pounds (44.9%) of transfers off-site for
 further waste management, and 136.1 million
 pounds (51.1%) of total production-related waste.
 The sector's totals in these categories were 230.4
 million pounds, 7.9 million pounds, and 266.2
 million pounds, respectively.

 The multiple-codes group ranked second in the
 publishing and printing sector in all categories,
 except off-site releases. The multiple-codes forms
 reported 8.6 million pounds of total releases, nearly
 all of it as on-site releases. This amount represented
30.4% of the sector's on-site releases and total
releases. Multiple-codes forms also reported 111.6
million pounds (48.4%) of other on-site waste
management, 2.7 million pounds (33.8%) of
transfers off-site for further waste management, and
122.9 million pounds (46.2%) of total production-
related waste.

Platemaking services (SIC code 2796) reported the
second-largest amount of off-site releases (transfers
to disposal), with 15,000 pounds (16.4% of the
sector's  total). Miscellaneous commercial printing
(SIC code 2759) reported the third-largest off-site
releases, with 14,000 pounds (15.6%).

No other industry reported as much as 10% of the
amount reported in any summary category
presented in Table 8-1.

Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 27

Table 8-2 further examines reporting of multiple
SIC codes within SIC code 27. Of the 71 forms that
258

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                                                     Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-1. Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27, Continued
SIC
Code
2721
2731
2732
2741
2752
2754
2759
2771
2782
2789
2791
2796



Industry
Periodicals
Book Publishing
Book Printing
Miscellaneous Publishing
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Commercial Printing, Gravure
Commercial Printing, nee*
Greeting Cards
Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders
Bookbinding & Related Work
Typesetting
Platemaking Services
Multiple within SIC Code 27
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Total for SIC Code 27
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
0
0
53,663
0
760,363
115,721,158
993,590
36,891
20,000
1,320
0
1,072,023
111,616,665
150,945
230,426,618
Total Transfers
Off -site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
0
0
50,759
0
740,716
3,560,715
267,472
2,715
17,218
4,919
0
579,666
2,680,356
32,961
7,937,497
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
253,739
18,669
2,471,543
136,064,979
2,116,847
41,859
43,700
24,590
69
1,734,863
122,920,147
516,147
266,207,152
Non-
Production-
Related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
0
0
27
3,784
1
0
0
0
0
0
2,175
1,120
7,107
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current .Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category. There may be forms but no facilities in a single
4-digit SIC code because a facility reported different 4-digit SIC codes in SIC code 27 on its individual forms.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.

Table 8-2. Multiple SIC Codes, 1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27


SIC Codes

2721
2752
2752
2752
2752
2752
2754
2759

2752
2754
2754 2759
2759
2789
2795
2759
2796
Total for SIC Code 27
Total
Forms
Number
2
59
1
1
3
2
2
1
71

Form As
Number
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
30,963
8,388,067
8,000
38,250
64,142
87,800
3,700
16,540
8,637,462
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
250
4,528
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,778
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
31,213
8,392,595
8,000
38,250
64,142
87,800
3,700
16,540
8,642,240
Total Transfers
Total Other Off-site for
On-site Waste Further Waste
Management
Pounds
21,637
111,434,028
0
0
0
87,800
72,500
700
111,616,665
Management
Pounds
1,505
2,626,319
0
0
12,032
0
40,250
250
2,680,356
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste
Pounds
55,053
122,432,858
8,000
38,250
75,886
175,600
116,400
18,100
122,920,147
Waste
Pounds
0
2,175
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,175
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases are transfers off-site to disposal
from Section 6 of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 of Form R. Total Production-related Waste sums
Section 8 of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
 reported multiple codes, 59 reported the
 combination of the two primary categories of
 commercial printing, lithographic (SIC code 2752)
 and gravure (SIC code 2754). This combination
 reported 95% or more of the releases and waste
 management amounts submitted on multiple-codes
 forms in SIC code 27, as shown in Table 8-2.
On- and Off-site Releases

Air emissions represented 99.6% (28.4 million
pounds) of the printing and publishing sector's
reported releases in 1996, as shown in Table 8-3
and Figure 8-1. Commercial gravure printing (SIC
code 2754) reported 17.3 million pounds of air
emissions (61.0% of all reported releases to air in
the sector), and multiple-codes forms reported 8.6
                                                                                                              259

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            Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
SIC
Code

2754
2752
2759
2732
2796
2741
17S9
2721
2782
2771
2791
2731

Industry

Commercial Priming, Gravure
Multiple wlihin SIC Code 27
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Conunerchl Printing, nee*
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Book Priming
Ptoemtldng Services
MiKCltoneoui Publishing
Bookbinding & Rotated Work
Periodicals
Blunfcbookj & Loosckaf Binders
Greeting Cards
Typweiting
Book Publishing
Total for SJC Code 27
On-site Land Releases
Surface Underground Injection RCRA Other
Total Air Water Class I Class II- V Subtitle C On-site Land
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds
17,307,788
8,637,212
951,368
821,304
338,175
149,725
97,257
18,669
18,270
15,429
6,414
18
0
0
28,361,629
Pounds
1,410
250
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,670
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o
0
0
Pounds
0
0
0
250
0
0
13,400
0
0
0
0
0
o
0
13,650
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
17,309,198
8,637,462
951,368
821,554
338,185
149,725
110,657
18,669
18,270
15,429
6,414
18
0
0
28,376,949
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
49,002
4,778
4,520
13,870
0
0
14,596
0
0
0
0
2,235
0
89,070
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
17,358,200
8,642,240
955,888
835,424
338,185
149,725
125,253
18,669
18,270
15,429
6,414
2,253
0
28,466,019
- -„—_ -ป-., a.-..—- ซป*vuซjn.d **wu.i w^bitwii ^ v/i i \jim x\. v^i*~oiic jYtitaaca
SfC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
"ncc: not elsewhere classified.
  Transfers Off-site
    to Disposal
      0.3%
                                     Air
                                     99.6%
                    Underground Injection = 0%
                    RCRA Subtitle C Landfills = 0%
                    Surface Water < 0.1%
                    Other On-site Land Releases < 0.1%

    Rgure 8-1. Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
        Releases, 1996:  Printing and Publishing
   	         (SIC Code 27)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
million pounds (30.5%). Commercial lithographic
printers (SIC code 2752) reported the third-largest
air emissions (951,000 pounds, or 3.4%).

As noted, the printing and publishing sector
reported larger amounts for toluene than for any
other chemical in nearly all TRI categories. The
two industrial groups with the largest releases—
commercial gravure printing (SIC code 2754) and
multiple-codes forms—reported toluene air
 emissions of 15.0 million pounds and 7.7 million
 pounds, respectively.

 The printing and publishing sector reported off-site
 releases (transfers to disposal) of 89,000 pounds.
 As noted earlier, the commercial gravure printing
 industry (SIC code 2754) reported 49,000 pounds
 (55.0% of this total).

 Figure 8-2 shows the distribution of on- and off-site
 releases for the industries (four-digit SIC code)
 with the sector's largest releases.

 Other On-site Waste Management
 The printing and publishing sector reported 168.5
 million pounds of on-site recycling, nearly three-
 quarters (73.1%) of the sector's reported other on-
 site waste management in 1996. This included
 105.8 million pounds of toluene. The second-
 largest waste management option in this sector's
 reporting was on-site treatment (61.7 million
 pounds, or 26.8% of total other on-site waste
 management). The sector reported on-site treatment
 of 55.9 million pounds of toluene. The sector
reported relatively little on-site energy recovery
(204,000 pounds). Table 8-4 and Figure 8-3 present
other on-site waste management data reported by
the printing and publishing sector for 1996.
260

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                                                               Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishin,
20,000,000 -|
18,000,000-

16,000,000-
14,000,000-
12,000,000-
co
i 10,000,000-
8,000,000 -
6,000,000 -
4,000,000 -

2,000,000 -
0 -












fw

if
H|

m
I
1


m
*!



B Transfers Off-site to Disposal
• Other On-site Land Releases
o RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
D UIJ, Class II-V Wells
a UIJ, Class 1 Wells
n Surface Water






I
1
1
P^
1
HAir











ra m „
2754 Mult. 2752 2759 Invalid 2732 2796 2741 2789 2721











Figure 8-2. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest
Releases, 1996: Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal). UIJ = underground injection.  Forms with
more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category.  Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "27" that do not exist in the
current Standard Industrial Classification code system


Table 8-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
2754

2796
2759
2752

2732
2771
2782
2789
2721
2731
2741
2791

Industry
Commercial Printing, Gravure
Multiple within SIC Code 27
Platemaking Services
Commercial Printing, nee*
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Book Printing
Greeting Cards
Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders
Bookbinding & Related Work
Periodicals
Book Publishing
Miscellaneous Publishing
Typesetting
Total for SIC Code 27
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
110,160,354
57,629,847
330,446
349,485
78
10,000
0
0
20,000
1,200
0
0
0
0
168,501,410
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
29,900
72,500
0
54,286
46,850
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
203,536
Treated
On-site
Pounds
5,530,904
53,914,318
741,577
589,819
713,435
140,945
53,663
36,891
0
120
0
0
0
0
61,721,672
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
115,721,158
111,616,665
1,072,023
993,590
760,363
150,945
53,663
36,891
20,000
1,320
0
0
0
0
230,426,618
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R.  Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the
"multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                                261

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          Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 Treated
 On-site
  26.8%
                                 Recycled
                                  On-site
                                  73.1%
                               Energy Recovery
                               On-site < 0.1%
   Figure 8-3. Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
Management, 1996: Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: Date from Section 8 of Form R.

The commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
code 2754) reported 110.2 million pounds of on-
site recycling, 65.4% of all on-site recycling
reported in this sector in 1996. The multiple-codes
group reported 57.6 million pounds (34.2%) of on-
site recycling. Three commercial gravure printing
facilities and two multiple-codes facilities reported
on-site recycling of more than 14 million pounds
each of toluene. (Both multiple-codes facilities
reported SIC codes 2752 and 2754.)

Multiple-codes forms also reported most of the
sector's on-site treatment: 53.9 million pounds, or
87.4% of the sector's total. One commercial printer
that reported in both the lithographic and gravure
industries (SIC codes 2752 and 2754, respectively)
reported on-site treatment of 53.2 million pounds of
toluene. Commercial gravure printing (SIC code
2754) reported 5.5 million pounds in on-site
treatment, or 9.0% of the sector's total.

Figure 8-4 illustrates the distribution of on-site
waste management reporting for the top industries
in this sector.

Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

As shown in Table 8-5, the printing and publishing
sector reported nearly equal amounts of transfers
off-site to recycling (3.64 million pounds) and to
energy recovery (3.67 million pounds) in 1996.
These transfer types accounted for about 46% each
of the sector's total transfers off-site for further
waste management. Figure 8-5 illustrates the
percentage distribution of transfer types reported in
this sector in 1996.

Forms reporting multiple SIC codes in SIC code 27
reported 2.3 million pounds of transfers to
recycling, the largest amount of off-site transfers to
recycling in the sector. This amount was 64.5% of
the sector's total for transfers to recycling. Almost
all of this was recycling of toluene (2.2 million
pounds). One facility that reported commercial
lithographic and gravure printing (SIC codes 2752
and 2754) reported transferring 2.0 million pounds
of toluene off-site to recycling.

The commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
code 2754) reported 2.6 million pounds of transfers
to energy recovery, the sector's largest amount in
that category. This was 71.5% of the sector's total
for transfers to energy recovery. The chemical with
the largest such transfers was glycol ethers with
549,000 pounds, including 532,000 pounds
reported by one commercial gravure printer (SIC
code 2754).

Figure 8-6 illustrates the distribution of off-site
transfers for further waste management for the top
industries in this sector.


1996 TRI  Data  by State for

Printing and  Publishing

Table 8-6 presents 1996 summary TRI data by state
for the printing and publishing sector. Facilities in
the printing and publishing sector are found
throughout the United States. Five percent or more
of the 1996 TRI forms filed in this sector were
submitted in each of 10 states. There were 24 to 35
forms submitted in California, Illinois, Indiana,
Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin.
262

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                                                          Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
                140,000,000
                120,000,000 -
                100,000,000 -
             1
             I
                 80,000,000 -
                 60,000,000 -
                 40,000,000 -
                 20,000,000 -
D Treated

• Energy Recovery
                             2754
                                     Mult.
                                              2796
                                                      2759
                                                              2752
                                                                      Invalid
                                                                               2732
                                                                                       2771
                                                                                               2782
                                                                                                       2789
        Figure 8-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
                                      Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC Code 27 are assigned to the
"multiple" category. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "27" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
Table 8-5. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996:  Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27
(in Rank Order)


SIC
Code

2754

2752
2796
2759
2732

2782
2789
2771
2721
2731
2741
2791




Industry

Commercial Printing, Gravure
Multiple within SIC Code 27
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Platemaking Services
Commercial Printing, nee*
Book Printing
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders
Bookbinding & Related Work
Greeting Cards
Periodicals
Book Publishing
Miscellaneous Publishing
Typesetting
Total for SIC Code 27


Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
766,697
2,349,432
62,607
345,263
86,329
14,312
597
17,218
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,642,455

Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
2,624,196
278,596
572,407
73,139
106,492
0
15,539
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,670,369


Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
122,985
43,862
79,513
51,573
70,114
10,130
^0
0
2,373
1,712
0
• o
0
0
382,262


Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
46,837
8,466
26,189
109,691
4,537
26,317
16,825
0
2,546
1,003
0
0
0
0
242,411

Other
Off-site
Transfers
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Off-site
Transfers
for Further
Waste
Management
Pounds
3,560,715
2,680,356
740,716
579,666
267,472
50,759
32,961
17,218
4,919
2,715
0
0
0
0
7,937,497
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.  Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                       263

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            Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
          To Treatment
             4.8%
To POTWs
  3.1%
  To Energy
   Recovery
    46.2%
                To Recycling
                  45.9%
    Figure 8-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
      Further Waste Management, 1996: Printing and
                Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Tennessee was the state with the sector's largest
reporting of on-site releases, total on- and off-site
releases, and transfers off-site for further waste
management. In Tennessee, the sector reported 5.9
million pounds of on-site releases, 20.9% of the
sector's total of 28.4 million pounds of on-site
releases. Tennessee's total for on- and off-site
releases was also 5.9 million pounds, or 20.9% of
the sector's total of 28.5 million pounds. Virginia
ranked second in both categories with 3.8 million
pounds, approximately 13% of the sector's reported
amounts for on-site releases and for total on- and
off>site releases. Illinois ranked third in both
categories with 2.8 million pounds, 10.0% of the
sector's  totals.
 Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.
                 4,000,000
                 3,500,000
                 3,000,000
                 2,500,000
                 2,000,000 •
                 1,500,000-
                 1,000,000-
                  500,000-
                                         • Other Off-site Transfers
                                         S To POTWs
                                         D To Treatment
                                         El To Energy Recovery
                                         H To Recycling
                          2754
                                  Mult.
                                         2752
                                                2796
                                                       2759
                                                              2732
                                                                     Invalid   2782
                                                                                    2789
                                                                                           2771
             Figure 8-6. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes
                    with Largest Totals, 1996:  Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)   C
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple"
category. Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "27" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
264

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                                                   Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing


Table 8-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27
State
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Florida
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Total for SIC Code 27
Total
Facilities
Number
3
2
1
12
1
3
4
8
15
10
2
1
7
1
1 '
2
4
7
7
1
10
1
I
2
12
11
12
21
1
2
11
1
5
IS
9
1
14
1
1
18
241
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
3
5
2
25
1
6
7
14
33
30
6
2
14
1
3
5
6
11
16
2
26
2
5
2
24
15
19
31
1
2
25
3
12
35
17
1
33
2
1
35
483
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
8
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
85,668
115,695
0
974,455
12,834
68,315
67,248
838,894
2,828,771
1,735,360
580,388
40,705
1,139,066
878
11,820
573,418
32,949
67,633
247,033
1,384,320
892,778
12,002
298,976
11,696
186,137
451,662
966,487
570,395
6,390
15,552
1,971,020
708,150
434,216
5,935,685
234,735
250
3,788,531
0
35,288
1,051,549
28,376,949
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
0
'. 18
2,235
0
0
0
0
0
4,544
0
0
0
4,950
0
0
0
820
5
2,200
0
20,848
0
0
0
500
12,290
5,320
1,601
0
0
1,750
795
20,000
9,141
53
0
2,000
0
0
0
89,070
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
85,668
115,713
2,235
974,455
12,834
68,315
67,248
838,894
2,833,315
1,735,360
580,388
40,705
1,144,016
878
11,820
573,418
33,769
67,638
249,233
1,384,320
913,626
12,002
298,976
11,696
186,637
463,952
971,807
571,996
6,390
15,552
1,972,770
708,945
454,216
5,944,826
234,788
250
3,790,531
0
35,288
1,051,549
28,466,019
Total Transfers
Total Other Off-site for
On-site Waste Further Waste
Management Management
Pounds Pounds
0
0
10,395
8,263,146
0
42,539
341,623
26,151,838
14,259,008
1,567,684
29,264
0
20,067,578
19,455
0
2,231,427
396,144
167,186
50,392
18,732,661
100,413
0
12,326
30,340
851,403
4,621,528
200,590
600,208
0
5,600
13,377,764
5,657,980
137,800
37,850,396
2,617,728
0
17,868,039
144,586
0
54,019,577
230,426,618
4,404
2,621
2,715
126,927
2,970
108,635
2,214
267,381
139,131
1,102,580
30,044
7,798
, 314,570
504
660
13,040
373,650
70,109
44,360
218,943
637,315
5,795
17,264
2,535
162,088
95,381
336,518
207,915
10,330
9,629
373,535
29,514
107,909
2,352,935
61,090
57,208
338,814
13,549
0
284,917
7,937,497
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
90,072
118,302
15,345
9,360,763
15,804
237,655
414,737
26,605,627
18,415,339
4,403,255
601,914
56,500
21,565,721
20,837
17,461
2,817,731
955,709
312,525
343,435
19,136,180
1,645,585
18,285
327,698
47,107
1,128,437
5,182,395
1,521,704
1,485,125
16,720
33,364
15,723,767
6,396,249
677,794
46,141,563
2,918,564
57,297
22,011,551
173,225
35,288
55,160,522
266,207,152
0
0
0
1,964
0
0
0
300
0
3,400
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,120
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
295
0
0
0
0
0
27
0
0
0
7,107
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents),

 Missouri ranked first for off-site releases with
 21,000 pounds of the printing and publishing
 sector's total of 89,000 pounds. South Carolina was
 second with 20,000 pounds, and New York was
 third with  12,000 pounds. These amounts
 represented 23.4%, 22.5%, and 13.8%, respectively
 of the sector's total off-site releases.
Wisconsin ranked first for other on-site waste
management, with 54.0 million pounds,  and first
for total production-related waste, with 55.2 million
pounds. These amounts represented 23.4% and
20.7%, respectively, of the sector's totals in those
categories. Tennessee ranked second for other on-
site waste management (37.9 million pounds, or
16.4%) and second for total production-related
waste (46.1 million pounds, or 17.3%). Georgia
                                                                                                        265

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          Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 ranked third in both categories, with 26.2 million
 pounds (11.3%) of other on-site waste management
 and 26.6 million pounds (10.0%) of total
 production-related waste.

 Tennessee had the sector's largest reported
 transfers off-site for further waste management, 2.4
 million pounds, or 29.6% of the sector's total
 transfers off-site for further waste management.
 Ranking second, Indiana reported 1.1 million
 pounds (13.9%). Missouri ranked third with
 637,000 pounds (8.0%).

 Map 8-1  illustrates the geographic distribution of
 total on-  and offcsite releases in the printing and
 publishing sector.

 1996 TRI  Data  by

 Chemical for  Printing and

 Publishing

 The top 15 chemicals for total on- and off-site
 releases in the printing and publishing sector
 accounted for more than 99% of the sector's air
 emissions, on-site releases, and total releases. The
 sector reported 28.2 million pounds of releases,
 almost entirely as  air emissions, as shown in Table
 8-7. Off-site releases (transfers to disposal) of these
 chemicals totaled 29,000 pounds, 32.3% of the
 sector's off-site releases.

 Toluene was reported in the largest amounts for
 both air emissions (23.1 million pounds) and
 transfers  to disposal (18,000 pounds). Toluene
 ranked first among all chemicals for total on- and
 off-site releases reported in the publishing and
 printing sector, with a total of 23.1 million pounds.
 As noted, commercial gravure printing (SIC code
 2754) reported 15.0 million pounds of air emissions
 of toluene, and multiple-codes forms reported 7.7
 million pounds of air emissions of toluene. This
 solvent is a constituent of inks used in gravure
printing and is used in cleaning printing plates,
cylinders, and other equipment.

As shown in Table 8-7, releases of other chemicals
reported in the printing and publishing sector were
considerably smaller than those for toluene.
Xylenes ranked second with 1.3 million pounds of
total releases, and glycol ethers ranked third with
1.2 million pounds. For xylenes, the multiple-codes
group reported 652,000 pounds of total releases,
and commercial gravure printing (SIC code 2754)
reported 527,000 pounds. Three industries reported
releasing more than 275,000 pounds each of glycol
ethers: commercial gravure printing (SIC code
2754, 376,000 pounds), commercial lithographic
printing (SIC code 2752, 332,000 pounds), and
miscellaneous commercial printing (SIC code 2759,
277,000 pounds).

OSHA Carcinogens

The printing and publishing sector reported
273,000 pounds of on- and offcsite releases of
chemicals designated as OSHA carcinogens, as
shown in Table 8-8. (OSHA carcinogens and the
bases for their designation appear in Box 1-9 in
Chapter 1.) This represented 1.0% of the sector's
total releases for all chemicals.

Two of the 15 chemicals with the largest total
releases in this sector were also OSHA
carcinogens:  dichloromethane and
tetrachloroethylene. The sector reported releases of
177,000 pounds of dichloromethane and 48,000
pounds of tetrachloroethylene, as shown in Table  8-
7. Releases of more than 10,000 pounds each were
also reported for two other OSHA carcinogens:
trichloroethylene (33,000 pounds)  and
di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (12,000 pounds).

The commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
code 2754) reported the largest total releases
(153,000 pounds) of OSHA carcinogens in the
printing and publishing sector. One commercial
gravure printer reported all of the sector's releases
266

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                                                  Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing

o>
1
u
QC
O
•o

(0


O
CO

Q.
(0
                                                                                                        267

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            Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
  (141,000 pounds) of dichloromethane. The gravure
  printing industry also reported the sector's only off-
  site releases (transfers to disposal) of the OSHA
  carcinogens, 12,000 pounds of di-(2-ethylhexyl)
  phthalate.

  Platemaking services (SIC code 2796) ranked
  second for total releases of these chemicals, with
75,000 pounds, including 13,000 pounds of on-site
land releases of trichloroethylene. Commercial
lithographic printing (SIC code 2752) reported the
third-largest total releases, with 35,000 pounds.

Figure 8-7 shows the on- and off-site releases of the
four-digit SIC codes with the largest OSHA
carcinogen releases.
Table 8-7. The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Printing and Publishing,
SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)
CAS
Number
108-88-3
1330-20.7
—
78-93-3
67-56-1
IDS 10-1
67-63-0

75-09-2
110-S4-3
95-63-6
I07-2I-I
7664-41-7
127-18-4
S72-S&4

71-55-6


Chemical
Toluene
Xylenc (mixed homers)
Gtyeol ethers
Methyl ethyl kctonc
Methanol
Methyl isobucyl ketone
Iiopropyl alcohol
(manufacturing)
Dtehloromethanc
n-Hexane
1,2,4-Triinethylbcnzenc
Elhylcnc glycol
Ammonia
Tctrachlotocthylcne
N-Methyl-2-
pynolidone
1.1.1-TricMorocthine
Subtotal
Tow! for SIC Code 27
On-site Land Releases
Surface Underground Injection RCRA Other
Total Air Water Class I Class II- V Subtitle C On-site Land
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
23,119,979
1,332,661
1,185,026
885,640
437,219
330,385
305,058

176,524
73,748
74,844
72,544
63,887
48,402
39,223

35,219
28,180,359
28,361,629
290
396
260
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
946
1,670
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
' 0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
13,650
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
23,120,269
1,333,057
1,185,286
885,640
437,219
330,385
305,058

176,524
73,748
74,844
72,544
63,887
48,402
39,223

35,219
28,181,305
28,376,949
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
17,521
20
1,830
500
1,500
250
0

0
4,960
2,200
0
0
0
0

0
28,781
89,070
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
23,137,790
1,333,077
1,187,116
886,140
438,719
330,635
305,058

176,524
78,708
77,044
72,544
63,887
48,402
39,223

35,219
28,210,086
28,466,019
Note: On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.

Table 8-8. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Printing and Publishing,
SIC Code 27 (in Rank Order)
On-site Land Releases

SIC
Code

2754
2796
2752
2782

2759
2732




Industry

Commercial Printing, Gravure
PiUemaking Services
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Btankbooks & Looselcaf Binders
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Commercial Priming, nee*
Book Printing
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 27

Total Air
Emissions
Pounds
140,762
61,302
35,362
6,414
1,900
500
650
246,890
28,361,629
Surface
Water
Discharges
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,670
Underground Injection
Class I
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Class II-V
Wells
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RCRA
Subtitle C
Landfills
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Other
On-site Land
Releases
Pounds
0
13,400
0
0
0
250
0
13,650
13,650
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
140,762
74,702
35,362
6,414
1,900
750
650
260,540
28,376,949
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
12,248
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,248
89,070

Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
153,010
74,702
35,362
6,414
1,900
750
650
272,788
28,466,019
Note: On-sitc Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 268

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                                             Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishin,
                180,000


                160,000-


                140,000-


                120,000-


                100,000-


                80,000 -


                60,000 -


                40,000 -


                20,000
  D Transfers Off-site to Disposal
  H Other On-site Land Releases
  m RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
  El UIJ, Class II-V Wells
  S UIJ, Class I Wells
  • Surface Water
  m Air
                          2754
                                      2796
                                                   2752
                                                               2782
                                                                           Invalid
    Figure 8-7. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with Largest
                       Totals, 1996: Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. DU = underground injection.
Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "27" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
 1996 TRI Chemicals  in
 Waste  for  Printing  and
 Publishing

 The printing  and publishing sector reported total
 production-related waste of 266.2 million pounds in
 1996, as shown in Table 8-9. On-site recycling
 amounted to  nearly  two-thirds (63.3%) of this total,
 with 168.5 million pounds. On-site treatment was
 the second-largest waste management option, with
 61.7 million  pounds (23.2%). Quantities released
 on-  and off-site totaled 26.4 million pounds (9.9%
 of total production-related waste). Each of the other
 types of waste management accounted for 2% or
 less of the sector's production-related waste. Figure
 8-8  illustrates the distribution of waste management
methods in the sector's 1996 reporting of
production-related waste.

The commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
code 2754) reported approximately two-thirds of
the sector's on-site recycling (110.2 million pounds
or 65.4%) and quantities released (16.5 million
pounds, or 62.4%). Forms reporting multiple SIC
codes in SIC code 27 reported most of the sector's
on-site treatment (53.9 million pounds, or 87.4%).
The multiple-codes forms also reported the second-
largest amounts for both on-site recycling (57.6
million pounds, or 34.2%) and quantities released
(7.4 million pounds, or 28.2%). Together, the
commercial gravure printing industry and the
multiple-codes group accounted for 97.3% of the
sector's total production-related waste.
                                                                                              269

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           Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-9. Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27
(In Rank Order)


SIC
Code

2754
2752
2759
2796
2712
2782
2T7I
2789
2741
2791
2721
2731




Industry

Commercial Printing. Gravure
Multiple within SIC Code 27
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Commercial Printing, nee*
Phtcmiking Services
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Book Printing
Bankbooks & Loosckaf Binders
Greeting Cards
Bookbinding & Rcktcd Work
Miscellaneous Publishing
Typesetting
Periodicals
Book Publishing
Total for SIC Code 27


Recycled
On-site
Pounds
110,160,354
57,629,847
78
349,485
330,446
10,000
0
20,000
0
1,200
0
0
0
0
168,501,410

Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
29,900
72,500
46,850
54,286
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
203,536


Treated
On-site
Pounds
5,530,904
53,914,318
713,435
589,819
741,577
140,945
53,663
0
36,891
120
0
0
0
0
61,721,672


Recycled
Off-site
Pounds
960,017
3,481,966
62,607
87,714
320,132
511
14,312
17,200
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,944,459

Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
2,734,592
301,329
577,814
128,957
65,723
15,539
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,823,954


Treated
Off-site
Pounds
174,225
76,498
107,028
76,220
138,954
4,065
36,339
0
2,715
5,000
0
0
0
0
621,044
Quantity
Released
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
16,474,987
7,443,689
963,731
830,366
138,031
345,087
149,425
6,500
2,253
18,270
18,669
69
0
0
26,391,077
"Total
Non-
Production- Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
136,064,979
122,920,147
2,471,543
2,116,847
1,734,863
516,147
253,739
43,700
41,859
24,590
18,669
69
0
0
266,207,152
related
Waste
Pounds
3,784
2,175
27
1
0
1,120
0
0
o
o
	 o 	
o
o
0
7,107
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category
*nce: not elsewhere classified.
               Quantity Released
   Off-site Waste     ' 9'9%
   Management
      3.5%
                                     On-site Waste
                                     Management
                                         86.6%
 Figure 8-8. Distribution of TRI Production-related Waste,
       1996: Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R.
Distribution of production-related waste for the top
industries in the sector appears in Figure 8-9.

Projected  Quantities of TRI
Chemicals in Waste

Table 8-10 summarizes the printing and publishing
sector's projections for on- and off-site waste
management through 1998. (As explained in
Chapter 1, facilities not only report current data but
project  waste management quantities for the next
 two years in their TRI submissions.) From 1996 to
 1998, the printing and publishing sector projected a
 2.7% increase of 7.2 million pounds in total
 production-related waste, from 266.2 million
 pounds to 273.4 million pounds. The largest
 contributing factor in this overall projected increase
 was on-site recycling, projected to increase from
 168.5 million pounds to 182.8 million pound (an
 8.5% increase). This projected increase was partly
 offset by a projected reduction in on-site treatment
 from 61.7 million pounds to 56.3 million pounds
 (an 8.8% decrease).

 Reductions were also projected for off-site
 recycling (from 4.9 million pounds in 1996 to 4.6
 million pounds in 1998) and off-site energy
 recovery (from 3.8 million pounds to 3.0 million
 pounds). Quantities released on- and off-site were
 expected to decrease from 26.4 million pounds to
 25.7 million pounds.

 The sector projected increases in on-site energy
recovery (from 204,000 pounds to 225,000 pounds)
 and off-site treatment (from 621,000 pounds to
705,000 pounds).
270

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                                               Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
    100%
     90% -
     20% -
     10% -
     0%
i
I
                                                                       H Quantity Released

                                                                       • Treated Off-site

                                                                       H Energy Recovery Off-site

                                                                       D Recycled Off-site

                                                                       ED Treated On-site

                                                                       5 Energy Recovery On-site

                                                                       • Recycled On-site
          2754
                Mult.
                      2752
                            2759
                                  2796   Invalid  2732
                                                   2782
                                                         2771
                                                               2789
     Figure 8-9.  Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with Largest Totals, 1996:
                               Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC Code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Invalid SIC
codes are codes beginning "27" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classified code system.
Figure 8-10 illustrates the projected changes in on-
site waste management, off-site waste management,
quantities released, and total production-related
waste.

These changes suggest only modest improvement
in the sector's management of TRI chemicals in
waste, as measured by the waste management
hierarchy, explained in Chapter 1. Although on-site
treatment was projected to decrease by nearly 5
million pounds, on-site recycling was projected to
increase nearly three times that amount. Despite
this apparent shift from treatment tcr recycling, the
printing and publishing sector's projected increase
represents an additional volume of production-
related waste.
            Source Reduction Activity

            As shown in Table 8-11, one-third (34.4%) of the
            forms submitted in printing and publishing
            indicated one or more source reduction activities
            underway in 1996. The three commercial printing
            industries submitted the majority of these (73.5% of
            all forms indicating source reduction activity). The
            largest number of forms (73 forms) was submitted
            by the commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
            code 2754). The miscellaneous commercial printing
            (SIC code 2759) submitted 26 forms indicating
            source reduction activity and the commercial
            lithographic printing (SIC code 2752) submitted 23
            such forms. Forms indicating source reduction
            activity represented 42.4% of all forms submitted
                                                                                                 271

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 iiiiliilliiiiiiliiliiiiiiiiliiii •^•llB
           Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 by commercial gravure printing and 51.0% of those
 submitted by miscellaneous commercial printing,
 but 24.2% of those submitted by commercial
 lithographic printing.
Seventy forms indicated improvements in operating
practices, the source reduction activity most often
reported. Raw material modifications (67 forms)
and process modifications (53 forms) were the next
most frequently reported activities.
Table 8-10.  Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998: Printing and Publishing,
SIC Code 27
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 27
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 27
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
168,501,410 63.3
203,536 0.1
61,721,672 23.2
4,944,459 1.9
3,823,954 1.4
621,044 0.2
26,391,077 9.9
266,207,152 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent
5.5
10.3
-4.7
-6.6
-10.5
-9.1
1.0
2.2
Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
177,704,130 65.3
224,445 0.1
58,811,928 21.6
4,618,227 1.7
3,421,044 1.3
564,707 0.2
26,642,306 9.8
271,986,787 100.0
Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent
2.9
0.2
-4.3
-0.1
-11.0
24.9
-3.4
0.5
Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total
182,794,584 66.9
224,975 0.1
56,263,486 20.6
4,612,485 1.7
3,043,113 1.1
705,371 0.3
25,741,991 9.4
273,386,005 100.0
Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent
8.5
10.5
-8.8
-6.7
-20.4
13.6
-2.5
2.7
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 272

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                                                     Chapter 8 — TR1 Data for Printing and Publishing
                         On-sile Waste
                          Management
Off-site Waste
 Management
 Quantity Released
On-site and Off-site
Total Production-
  related Waste
   Figure 8-10. Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998:
                                    Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: Current year and projected year amount are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.


Table 8-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996:  Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27
Forms Reporting
Source Reduction
Activities
SIC
Code
Total
Industry Forms
Number
2721
2731
2732
2741
2752
2754
2759
2771
2782
2789
2791
2796



Periodicals
Book Publishing
Book Printing
Miscellaneous Publishing
Commercial Printing, Lithographic
Commercial Printing, Gravure
Commercial Printing, nee*
Greeting Cards
Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders
Bookbinding & Related Work
Typesetting
Platemaking Services
Multiple within SIC Code 27
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27
Total for SIC Code 27
1
3
11
1
95
172
51
4
1
2
1
53
71
17
483
Good
Cateeorv of Source Reduction Activitv

Raw Surface
Spill Material Process Cleaning Preparation Product
Percenter Operating Inventory and Leak Modifi- Modifi- and and Modifi-
All Forms Practices Control Prevention cations cations Degreasing Finishing cations
Number
0
0
3
0
23
73
26
1
0
1
1
10
24
4
166
Percent Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number
0.0
0.0
27.3
0.0
24.2
42.4
51.0
25.0
0.0
50.0
100.0
18.9
33.8
23.5
34.4
0
0
0
0
8
34
9
0
0
0
1
4
14
0
70
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
8
0
0
0
0
1
11
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
15
0
0
1
0
7
36
12
0
0
0
0
2
6
3
67
0
0
2
0
6
25
7
1
0
1
1
3
6
1
53
0
0
0
0
3
6
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
12
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
7
0
0
0
0
3
4
1
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
11
Note: Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                              273

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          Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 Year-to-Year

 Comparisons  for  Printing

 and Publishing

 1995-1996 TRI Data for Printing and
 Publishing

 The number of TRI forms submitted in the
 printing and publishing sector decreased from
 538 in 1995 to 483 in 1996, as shown in Table
 8-12. Form As decreased from 12 to eight. (The
 Form A certification statement is explained in
 Chapter 1.)

 On- and Off-site Releases

 From 1995 to 1996, total on- and off-site releases
 reported in the printing and publishing sector
 decreased from 31.2 million pounds to 28.5
 million pounds, an 8.6% reduction. This resulted
 primarily from a 4.2 million-pound reduction in
 fugitive air emissions (from 18.0 million pounds
 in 1995 to 13.8 million pounds in 1996), partly
 offset by a 1.5 million-pound increase in point-
 source air emissions (from 13.1 million pounds to
 14.6 million pounds). Table 8-12 presents the
 sector's reporting of releases in 1995 and 1996.

 For other types of releases—surface water
 discharges, on-site land releases, and off-site
 releases (transfers to disposal)—the change from
 1995 to 1996 was less than 50,000 pounds  for
 each release type.

 Figure 8-11 illustrates the 1995-1996 percentage
 change in releases for the printing and publishing
 sector.

 Other On-site Waste Management

The printing and publishing sector reported
reductions in all three methods of on-site waste
 management from 1995 to 1996. Total other on-
 site waste management decreased from 255.1
 million pounds to 230.4 million pounds, a 9.7%
 reduction. The largest component of this change
 was on-site recycling, which decreased from
 187.7 million pounds to 168.5 million pounds (a
 10.2% reduction). On-site treatment decreased
 from 67.2 million pounds to 61.7 million pounds
 (8.1%). Energy recovery, the on-site waste
 management type reported in the smallest
 amounts in this sector, decreased from 278,000
 pounds to 204,000 pounds (26.7%).

 Table 8-12 presents 1995-1996 on-site waste
 management data for the printing and publishing
 sector.

 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 As shown in Table 8-12, the printing and
 publishing sector also reported reductions in all
 types of transfers off-site for further waste
 management from 1995 to 1996. Transfers off-
 site for further waste management totaled 10.1
 million pounds in 1995 and 7.9 million pounds in
 1996, a 21.1% reduction. The transfer type with
 the largest reduction, in both pounds and percent,
 was recycling. Transfers to recycling decreased
 from 5.6 million pounds to 3.6 million pounds, a
 34.7% decrease. Other transfer types decreased
 by less than 125,000 pounds each.

 Changes in SIC Codes

 As indicated in facility descriptions below, some
 facilities report different SIC codes over time.
 This may reflect new or discontinued lines of
 production, or it may represent a different
 understanding of how SIC code designations
relate to a facility's business activities. These
changes can contribute—sometimes largely—to
 apparent increases or decreases across
comparison years in the amounts reported by the
four-digit, or even two-digit, SIC codes.
274

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                                                           Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-12. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1995-1996:  Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
275
538
526
12
Pounds

31,083,334
17,975,664
13,107,670
14,372
0
4,600
31,102,306

54,025
31,156,331

187,685,423
277,629
67,163,824
255,126,876

5,578,564
3,791,308
426,755
261,638
3,866
10,062,131

1996
Number
241
483
475
8
Pounds

28,361,629
13,782,537
14,579,092
1,670
0
13,650
28,376,949

89,070
28,466,019

168,501,410
203,536
61,721,672
230,426,618

3,642,455
3,670,369
382,262
242,411
0
7,937,497
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
-12.4
-10.2
-9.7
-33.3
Percent

-8.8
-23.3
11.2
-88.4
-
196.7
-8.8

64.9
-8.6

-10.2
-26.7
-8.1
-9.7

-34.7
-3.2
-10.4
-7.3
-100.0
-21.1
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
Management from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of
Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code.
                                                                                                                         275

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           Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
              200
              150
              100
               50
               0-
              •50-
              •100-
                         Air
                                     Surface
                                      Water
Underground
  Injection
 On-site
  Land
Releases
 Transfers
  Off-site
to Disposal
            Figure 8-11. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                               Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995.
 1988-1996 TRI Data for Printing and
 Publishing

 As explained in Chapter 1, comparisons from the
 1988 TRI baseline year to the current year rely on
 the list of "core" TRI chemicals that were
 reportable with the same reporting definition in all
 years. These multi-year comparisons also review
 only the data elements that were collected in all
 years, which excludes from this section any
 analysis that distinguishes RCRA subtitle C
 landfills from other land releases as well as analysis
 based on the types of underground injection wells.
 On-site waste management data and transfers off-
 site to recycling and to energy recovery have been
 collected only since 1991; these data are included,
 but cannot be compared across the full 1988-1996
 period.

 The printing and publishing sector reported 61.2
 million pounds of total on- and off-site releases in
 1988 and 28.3 million pounds of total releases in
     1996, as shown in Table 8-13. This reduction of
     53.8%, or 32.9 million pounds, was attributable
     almost entirely to air emissions. In addition, the
     sector reported a 53.5% reduction in air emissions,
     from 60.6 million pounds in 1988 to 28.2 million
     pounds in 1996. Decreases were reported in both
     fugitive and point-source emissions.

     Other on-site releases decreased by large
     percentages (66.6% to 100.0%)  from 1988 to 1996,
     but these represented small absolute amounts, as
     shown in Table 8-13.

     Off-site releases (transfers to disposal) decreased
     82.9%, from 493,000 pounds to 84,000 pounds,
     over the 1988-1996 period.

     Figure 8-12 illustrates the percentage changes in
     releases by release type for the printing and
     publishing sector.
276

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                                                              Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-13. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1988 and 1994-1996: Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1988
Number
356
688
688
NA
Pounds

60,581,384
33,224,249
27,357,135
32,091
40,000
40,816
60,694,291

493,227
61,187,518

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
4,505,946
1,751,776
396,671
NA

1994
Number
283
542
542
NA
Pounds

34,323,896
19,917,668
14,406,228
843
0
1,370
34,326,109

60,570
34,386,679

187,310,903
263,890
9,024,252
196,599,045

6,228,807
3,310,699
531,812
233,217
22,740
10,327,275

1995
Number
263
501
493
8
Pounds

30,822,855
17,856,994
12,965,861
14,372
0
4,600
30,841,827

54,025
30,895,852

187,529,232
269,429
64,762,421
252,561,082

5,561,178
3,711,781
426,612
209,444
3,866
9,912,881

1996
Number
232
452
447
5
Pounds

28,170,356
13,693,054
14,477,302
1,670
0
13,650
28,185,676

84,110
28,269,786

168,357,066
199,336
61,173,022
229,729,424

3,638,700
3,594,420
376,604
159,617
0
7,769,341
Change
1988 to 1996
Percent
-34.8
-34.3
-35.0
NA
Percent

-53.5
-58.8
-47.1
-94.8
-100.0
-66.6
-53.6

-82.9
-53.8

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
-91.6
-90.9
-100.0
NA
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991, 1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste Management
from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of
Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996. For 1994-1996, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste
management code. For 1988, Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid waste management code or codes not required to be reported in 1988.
Forms for one facility for 1994 were not entered into the system due to an EPA error. The correct amounts for 1994 for these forms are 147,900 pounds of recycling
on-site, 48,480,000 pounds of treatment on-site and 48,927,900 pounds of total other on-site waste management. NA:  not required to be reported in that year.
                                                                                                                               277

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          Chapter 8 — TRl Data for Printing and Publishing
                          Air
                                     Surface
                                      Water
            Figure 8-12. Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1988-1996:
                                Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: Docs not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1990,1991,1994, and 1995, and aluminum oxide, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid.
On-sllc Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required before 1996.
                                                     168.4 million pounds in 1996, a decrease of 19.0
                                                     million pounds. Energy recovery decreased from
                                                     264,000 pounds to 199,000 pounds.

                                                     For the two transfer types reported for the full
                                                     1988-1996 comparison period, the printing and
                                                     publishing sector reported decreases of more than
                                                     90%. The sector reported a decrease in transfers to
                                                     treatment from 4.5 million pounds in  1988 to
                                                     377,000 pounds in 1996. The sector reported a
                                                     decrease in transfers to POTWs from  1.8 million
                                                     pounds in 1988 to 160,000 pounds in  1996. These
                                                     data also appear in Table 8-13.


                                                     1988-1996 Data for Four-Digit Industries in
                                                     Printing and Publishing

                                                     Tables 8-14 through 8-16 summarize  data for 1988
                                                     and 1994-1996 for industries at the four-digit SIC
                                                     code level within SIC code 27. The tables present,
                                                     respectively, on- and off-site releases, other on-site
On-site waste management and transfers off-site for
recycling or energy recovery were not collected hi
1988. For the 1994-1996 period, other on-site waste
management increased from 196.6 million pounds
to 229.7 million pounds, as shown in Table 8-13.
This 33.1 million-pound increase reflected an
apparent increase in on-site treatment from 9.0
million pounds to 61.2 million pounds (an increase
of 52.1 million pounds). However, for one
facility—a commercial lithographic and gravure
printer filing multiple SIC codes 2752 and 2754—
some forms for 1994 were not entered into the
system due to an EPA error. This facility filed a
1994 report for 48.5 million pounds of on-site
treatment of toluene. If this amount were included,
the sector's increase in on-site treatment would be
3.6 million pounds and total other on-site waste
management would show a decrease of  15.4 million
pounds.

The printing and publishing sector reported on-site
recycling of 187.3 million pounds in 1994 and
278

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                                             Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publish:
waste management, and transfers off-site for further
waste management.

On- and Off-site Releases

Table 8-14 provides release data for all four-digit
SIC codes in the printing and publishing sector,
from 1988 to 1996. The commercial gravure
printing industry (SIC jsode 2754) reported the
largest 1988-1996 decrease in total on- and off-site
releases, from 31.6 million pounds to 17.2 million
pounds. The multiple-codes group ranked second
for decreases, reporting 17.3 million pounds in
1988 and 8.6 million pounds in 1996. Commercial
lithographic printing (SIC code 2752) ranked third,
with 2.8 million pounds in 1988 and 956,000
pounds in 1996. In all three industries, reductions
occurred principally in reporting of air emissions,
with smaller decreases in off-site releases (transfers
to disposal).

Platemaking services (SIC code 2796) reported the
largest increase in total releases, from 83,000
pounds in 1988 to 125,000 pounds in 1996.
Increases in this industry were reported in air
emissions, on-site land releases, and off-site
releases (transfers to disposal). However, this
industry's reported releases have decreased in
recent years. Two other printing and publishing
industries reported increases from 1988 to 1996. No
TRI forms were submitted in bookbinding and
related work (SIC code 2789)  in 1988, while
18,000 pounds of releases were reported in this
industry in 1996. The periodicals  publishing
industry (SIC code 2721) reported 3,000 pounds in
1988 and 15,000 pounds in 1996. Both industries
reported only air emissions in  the years compared
in Table 8-14.

Other On-site Waste Management

The commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
code 2754) reported the largest decrease in on-site
waste management in the printing and publishing
sector from 1994 to  1996 (on-site waste
management data were not collected in 1988). This
industry reported 126.9 million pounds of other on-
site waste management in 1994 and 115.3 million
pounds in 1996. Reductions were reported in all
three types of waste management, although on-site
recycling and total on-site waste management were
larger (128.3 million pounds and 133.5 million
pounds) in 1995.

Platemaking services (SIC code 2796) ranked
second for decreases in other on-site waste
management, reporting 1.7 million pounds in 1994
and 896,000 pounds in 1996. This industry also
reported a larger sum in 1995 (1.8 million pounds).
Decreases were reported in on-site recycling and
treatment. Ranking third for decreases, the
manifold business forms industry (SIC code 2761)
reported 23,000 pounds of on-site recycling in
1994, but submitted no TRI forms in 1995 or 1996.

The multiple-codes group reported the largest
increase in on-site waste management for the
printing and publishing sector for 1994 to 1996, but
these numbers reflect the reporting problem
described hi "1988-1996 TRI Data for Printing and
Publishing," above. When data are adjusted for that
reporting problem, commercial lithographic
printing (SIC code 2752) ranked first for increases.
This industry reported 479,000 pounds in 1994 and
760,000 pounds in 1996, with most of the increase
occurring in on-site treatment. The second-largest
increase was reported in miscellaneous commercial
printing industries (SIC code 2759), with 797,000
pounds in 1994 and 982,000 pounds in 1996.
Increases in  all three waste management types
contributed to this overall increase, although on-site
recycling decreased from 1995 to 1996. The book
printing industry (SIC code 2732) ranked third with
an increase from 25,000 pounds in 1994 to 54,000
pounds in 1996. Nearly all of this increase was
reported in on-site treatment.

On-site waste management data for 1994-1996
appear in Table 8-15.
                                                                                             279

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             Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Printing and Publishing,
SIC Code 27
On-site Releases
SIC
Code
2711

2721



2731



2732


2741



2752


2754


2759


2761



Industry
Newspapers

Periodicals



Book Publishing



Book Printing


Miscellaneous Publishing



Commercial Printing, Lithographic


Commercial Printing, Gravure


Commercial Printing, nee*


Manifold Business Forms



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
1
Releases
to Land
Pounds
Off-site
Releases
Total Transfers Total On-
On-site Off-site to and Off-site
Releases Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds Pounds
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
44,185
15,429
32,319
30,314
3,118





0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
44,185
15,429
32,319
30,314
3,118
No reports received
10,080

0
0
0
10,080
11,300
0
0
0
0

0
55,485
15,429
32,319
30,314
3,118

10,080
No reports received
42,003
138,357
176,606
162,363
343,645




0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,100
0
42,003
138,357
176,606
163,463
343,645
0
0
0
0
90
42,003
138,357
176,606
163,463
343,735
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
108,457
951,368
1,100,222
1,448,145
2,637,427
17,186,028
19,107,315
21,591,192
31,377,396
781,838
894,686
1,354,579
808,574

0
0
13,401


0
0
1,410
711

338
30,100



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
40,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,240
0
40,000
0
0
20
0
250
250
250
0
108,457
951,368
1,117,863
1,448,145
2,717,427
17,187,438
19,108,026
21,591,550
31,407,496
782,088
894,936
1,354,829
808,574

0
4,520
9,250
6,755
81,033
49,002
15,442
18,525
174,689
8,910
14,867
23,443
0

108,457
955,888
1,127,113
1,454,900
2,798,460
17,236,440
19,123,468
21,610,075
31,582,185
790,998
909,803
1,378,272
808,574
No reports received
No reports received
17,900
508,612


0
0
0
0
0
313
17,900
508,925
0
11,133
17,900
520,058
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
 280

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                                                           Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-14. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Printing and Publishing,
SIC Code 27, Continued
On-site Releases
SIC
Code Industry
2771 Greeting Cards



2782 Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders



2789 Bookbinding & Related Work



2791 Typesetting



2796 Platemaking Services



Multiple within SIC Code 27



Invalid SIC Code within SIC
Code 27


Total for SIC Code 27



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Surface
Total Air Water Underground
Emissions Discharges Injection
Pounds Pounds Pounds
18
17
23,916
226,904
6,414
20,400
20,200
219,237
18,270
13,000
13,000
No reports received
0
No reports received
No reports received
0
97,247
249,766
253,447
82,599
8,637,212
8,830,095
8,927,889
17,203,655
338,175
388,349
480,951
6,975,572
28,170,356
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0


0
0
0
0
0
250
250
250
1,840
10
10
255
151
1,670
30,822,855 14,372
34,323,896
843
60,581,384 32,091
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
40,000
Releases
to Land
Pounds
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0


0
13,400
110
0
0
0
0
0
503
0
0
0
0
13,650
4,600
1,370
40,816
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
18
17
23,916
226,904
6,414
20,400
20,200
219,237
18,270
13,000
13,000

0


0
110,647
249,876
253,447
82,599
8,637,462
8,830,345
8,928,139
17,205,998
338,185
388,359
481,206
6,975,723
28,185,676
30,841,827
34,326,109
60,694,291
Off-site
Releases
Transfers Total On-
Off-siteto and Off-site
Disposal Releases
Pounds Pounds
2,235
0
0
1,500
0
0
0
1,400
0
0
0

69


3,800
14,596
1,550
6,418
0
4,778
5,334
5,069
142,875
0
7,582
360
65,407
84,110
54,025
60,570
493,227
2,253
17
23,916
228,404
6,414
20,400
20,200
220,637
18,270
13,000
13,000

69


3,800
125,243
251,426
259,865
82,599
8,642,240
8,835,679
8,933,208
17,348,873
338,185
395,941
481,566
7,041,130
28,269,786
30,895,582
34,386,679
61,187,518
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one
4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                        281

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              Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-15.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996:  Printing and Publishing,
SIC Code 27
SIC
Code
2711



2721



2731



2732



2741



2752



2754



2759



2761



2771



2782



Industry
Newspapers



Periodicals



Book Publishing



Book Printing



Miscellaneous Publishing



Commercial Printing, Lithographic



Commercial Printing, Gravure



Commercial Printing, nee*



Manifold Business Forms



Greeting Cards



Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
0
No reports received
NA
0
3,680
1,257
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
78
300
1,800
NA
110,141,802
128,303,874
120,448,670
NA
346,937
412,488
251,752
NA
No reports received
No reports received
23,000
NA
0
0
0
NA
20,000
19,500
21,000
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds



NA
0
0
0
NA

0

NA
0
0
0
NA



NA
46,850
40,700
30,450
NA
25,700
43,129
233,440
NA
54,286
0
0
NA


0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds



NA
0
0
o ,
NA
/
/o

NA
53,663
35,527
23,575
NA



NA
713,435
565,661
447,246
NA
5,177,653
5,190,961
6,264,474
NA
580,805
573,603
545,720
NA


0
NA
36,891
24,640
23,163
NA
0
0
0
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds



NA
0
0
0
NA

0

NA
53,663
39,207
24,832
NA



NA
760,363
606,661
479,496
NA
115,345,155
133,537,964
126,946,584
NA
982,028
986,091
797,472
NA


23,000
NA
36,891
24,640
23,163
NA
20,000
19,500
21,000
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one-4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms for one
facility for 1994 reporting under multiple codes within SIC code 27 were not entered into the system due to an EPA error. The correct amounts for 1994 are
147,900 pounds of recycling on-site, 48,480,000 pounds of treatment on-site and 48,927,900 pounds of total other on-site waste management.
"nee: not elsewhere classified.
 282

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                                                 Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-15. TRI Other On-site Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Printing and Publishing,
SIC Code 27, Continued
SIC
Code Industry
2789 Bookbinding & Related Work



2791 Typesetting



2796 Platemaking Services


Multiple within SIC Code 27


Invalid SIC Code within SIC 27



Total for SIC Code 27



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
1,200
0
0
No reports received
0
No reports received
No reports received
NA
217,202
405,948
465,301
NA
57,629,847
58,365,411
66,080,312
NA
0
18,031
17,811
NA
168,357,066
187,529,232
187,310,903
NA
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
0
0
0

0


NA
0
0
0
NA
72,500
185,600
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
199,336
269,429
263,890
NA
Treated
On-site
Pounds
120
0
0

0


NA
678,312
1,429,984
1,242,689
NA
53,914,318
56,820,327
384,086
NA
17,825
121,718
93,299
NA
61,173,022
64,762,421
9,024,252
NA
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
1,320
0
0

0


NA
895,514
1,835,932
1,707,990
NA
111,616,665
115,371,338
66,464,398
NA
17,825
139,749
111,110
NA
229,729,424
252,561,082
196,599,045
NA
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple" category. Forms for one
facility for 1994 reporting under multiple codes within SIC code 27 were not entered into the system due to an EPA error. The correct amounts for 1994 are
147,900 pounds of recycling on-site, 48,480,000 pounds of treatment on-site and 48,927,900 pounds of total other on-site waste management.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 The multiple-codes group reported the largest
 decrease in transfers off-site for further waste
 management in printing and publishing for 1994-
 1996 (data for some types of off-site transfers were
 not collected in 1988). Multiple-codes forms
 reported 4.7 million pounds of transfers off-site for
 further waste management in 1994 and 2.7 million
 pounds in 1996. Transfers to recycling were the
 largest factor in this reduction.

 The platemaking services industry (SIC code
 2796), ranking second for decreases, reported
 895,000 pounds of transfers off-site for further
 waste management in 1994 and 502,000 pounds in
1996. All types of transfers showed decreases, with
the largest reduction appearing in transfers to
recycling. The third-largest decrease was recorded
in the commercial gravure printing industry (SIC
code 2754), which reported 3.61 million pounds in
1994, 3.65 million pounds in 1995, and 3.48
million pounds in 1996.

The commercial lithographic printing industry (SIC
code 2752) reported the largest increase for the
1994-to-1996 period, from 526,000 pounds to
741,000 pounds. Increases were reported in all
transfer types except transfers to treatment.
Ranking second for increases, the book printing
industry (SIC code 2732) reported 37,000 pounds
in 1994 and 51,000 pounds in 1996. Increases were
reported in transfers to recycling and to treatment.
                                                                                                     283

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          Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 Bookbinding and related work (SIC code 2789)
 ranked third for transfers off-site for further waste
 management, as this industry reported no amounts
 in 1994 and 5,000 pounds in 1996. The 1996
 amount included transfers to treatment and to
 POTWs.

 Table 8-16 presents the sector's transfers off-site
 for further waste management for 1988-1996.

 Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
 in Releases. 1988-1996

 Quebecor Printing, Inc., in Dickson, Tennessee
 (SIC code 2754), ranked first in increases with an
 overall 1.7 million-pound increase. Toluene
 reporting constituted 100% of the increase. A
 gravure printer, this facility produces newspaper
 supplements. Toluene is a common ink solvent in
 gravure printing. The chemical is used to thin inks
 to a usable viscosity and is later allowed to
 evaporate off the printed material, resulting in air
 emissions. The increase in toluene air emissions is
 due to increased production, according to the
 facility contact. Quebecor Printing in Dickson also
 ranked as the third largest decreaser hi waste
 managed (see Facilities with Large Increases and
 Decreases in Waste Management, 1991-1996,
 below).

 World Color Press, Inc., in Dyersburg, Tennessee
 (SIC code 2752 and 2753 in 1988 and 2752 and
 2754 in 1996), was second in increases with 1.3
 million pounds. The facility installed its first
 gravure printing press in 1988 and did not come
 into full production until 1989. Since 1989, two
 additional presses have been installed.
 Consequently, toluene reporting was low in 1988
 compared to subsequent years. Toluene, used as an
 ink solvent, accounted for all of the facility's
 increase. The facility reported a 1.2 million-pound
 increase in toluene fugitive emissions between
 1988 and 1996.
 Quebecor Printing in Richmond, Virginia (SIC
 code 2754), ranked third with an overall 861,000
 pound increase. Like the other two top facilities for
 increases, air emissions of toluene are primarily
 responsible for the ranking of this gravure printing
 facility. The change in reporting was due to a
 production increase. Two presses were installed at
 the facility between 1988 and 1996. The facility
 prints newspaper supplements.

 R.R. Donnelley & Sons, Company in Warsaw,
 Indiana (SIC code 2754), was first in decreases
 with 2.4 million pounds. Toluene reporting
 accounted for 95% of this facility's reduction. A
 gravure printer, R.R. Donnelly in Warsaw reduced
 toluene air emissions by implementing "permanent
 total enclosure" systems whereby solvent fumes are
 more efficiently captured. The captured solvents
 are then sent to recovery systems where they are
 recycled for reuse. This facility prints catalogs.

 R.R. Donnelly & Sons Company in Mattoon,
 Illinois (SIC codes 2752 and 2754), ranked second
 in decreases with 2.0 million pounds. Again,
 toluene was the major contributor to this magazine
 printer's release reduction, accounting for 97% of
 the overall decrease. This facility cited improved
 solvent capture systems and improved process
 efficiency through equipment enhancements as the
 major reasons for decreased toluene releases.

 R.R. Donnelly & Sons Company in Gallatin,
 Tennessee (SIC code 2754), was third for decreases
 of releases  with 1.5 million pounds. Reductions in
 toluene emissions at this facility accounted for 97%
 of the overall decrease. Another gravure printer of
 catalogs, the facility also identified equipment
 enhancements as the major contributor to the
 reduction. In gravure printing, ink is transferred to
paper by cylinders that are either made of copper or
 wrapped in copper plates. The copper is etched,
creating wells that carry ink. Changes in how the
copper was etched resulted in a reduction of ink
usage, according to the facility contact. Conse-
quently, toluene usage decreased.
284

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                                                           Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishin,
Table 8-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Printing and
Publishing, SIC Code 27
SIC
Code
2711


2721



2731



2732



2741



2752


2754


2759



2761



2771



2782



Industry
Newspapers


Periodicals



Book Publishing



Book Printing



Miscellaneous Publishing



Commercial Printing, Lithographic


Commercial Printing, Gravure


Commercial Printing, nee*



Manifold Business Forms



Greeting Cards



Blankbooks & Looseleaf Binders



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
0
0
0
NA
No reports received
0
No reports received
NA
14,312
1,553
0
NA
No reports received
No reports received
No reports received
NA
62,607
44,530
59,290
NA
763,582
877,908
982,822
NA
85,689
104,414
113,162
NA
No reports received
No reports received
0
NA
0
3,265
2,400
NA
17,218
8,116
16,009
NA


NA
0
1,826
0
NA

0

NA
0
1,493
3,583
NA



NA
572,407
589,417
352,021
NA
2,548,497
2,537,502
2,364,181
NA
106,242
113,589
193,225
NA


0
NA
0
12,952
16,534
NA
0
0
0
NA


2,300
0
0
4,135
10

0

0
10,130
13,764
3,897
3,712



27,365
79,513
54,865
90,149
393,011
117,327
172,153
201,748
2,347,107
70,114
19,214
23,636
94,439


250
14,753
1,712
5
0
104,415
0
0
0
35,989
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Transfers Off-site Further Waste
to POTWs Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds


250
0
0
0
0

0

26,324
26,317
30,208
29,482
6,993



492
26,189
58,142
24,434
25,591
46,837
61,753
59,813
104,310
4,537
4,735
4,098
2,000


0
5,953
1,003
250
350
4,180
0
0
0
2


0
0
0
0
0

0

0
0
0
0
454



0
0
3,866
0
0
0
0
0
187,748
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


NA
0
1,826
4,135
NA

0

NA
50,759
47,018
36,962
NA



NA
740,716
750,820
525,894
NA
3,476,243
3,649,316
3,608,564
NA
266,582
241,952
334,121
NA


250
NA
2,715
16,472
19,284
NA
17,218
8,116
16,009
NA
 Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
 transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the category.
 *nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                         285

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           Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
Table 8-16. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management by 4-digit SIC Code, 1988 and 1994-1996: Printing and
Publishing, SIC Code 27, Continued
SIC
Code Industry
2789 Bookbinding & Related Work



2791 Typesetting



2796 Platemaking Services



Multiple within SIC Code 27



Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 27



Toti! for SIC Code 27



Year
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
96
95
94
88
Transfers
Transfers to Energy Transfers to
to Recycling Recovery Treatment
Pounds Pounds Pounds
0
0
0
No reports received
0
No reports received
No reports received
NA
345,263
577,294
602,357
NA
2,349,432
3,923,496
4,354,814
NA
597
20,602
97,953
NA
3,638,700
5,561,178
6,228,807
NA
0
3,000
0

0


NA
73,139
84,330
143,599
NA
278,596
348,302
220,232
NA
15,539
19,370
17,324
NA
3,594,420
3,711,781
3,310,699
NA
2,373
0
0

0


0
51,573
94,732
88,939
4,905
43,862
47,340
77,274
878,588
0
24,539
41,784
599,352
376,604
426,612
531,812
4,505,946
Transfers
toPOTWs
Pounds
2,546
0
0

0


0
31,712
36,973
59,883
27,300
8,466
5,873
43,289
73,850
12,010
11,510
11,868
1,474,531
159,617
209,444
233,217
1,751,776
Total Transfers
Other Off-site for
Off-site Further Waste
Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds
0
0
0

0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
22,740
167,300
0
0
0
41,169
0
3,866
22,740
396,671
4,919
3,000
0

0


NA
501,687
793,329
894,778
NA
2,680,356
4,325,011
4,718,349
NA
28,146
76,021
168,929
NA
7,769,341
9,912,881
10,327,275
NA
Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 27 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
*ncซ: not elsewhere classified.
 Other Apparent Increases and Decreases in
 Releases, 1988-1996

 In the TRI database, there are other facilities with
 large apparent increases and decreases, which have
 been identified as reporting errors or plant closures.
 Because these are errors or plant closures and not
 actual changes in the data, these facilities are not
 discussed in detail here. There are three such
 facilities in the printing and publishing sector:

    Maxwell Communications Corporation,
    Broadview, Illinois, decrease of 4.2 million
    pounds, plant closure.
    R.R. Donnelly & Sons Company, Chicago,
    Illinois, decrease of 2.0 million pounds, plant
    closure.
    Standard Gravure Corporation, Louisville,
    Kentucky, decrease of 2.8 million pounds, plant
    closure.

1991-1996 Waste Management Data
for Printing and Publishing

Table 8-17 summarizes on- and off-site waste
management data for the printing and publishing
sector for 1991, when TRI began collecting this
information, and the three most recent years (1994-
1996). Over this period, total production-related
 286

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                                                              Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing


Table 8-17. TRI Waste Management Data, 1991,1994-1996:  Printing and Publishing, SIC Code 27
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
, Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non- Production-related Waste
Waste Management Activity
On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total On-site Waste Management
Off-site Waste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Total Off-site Waste Management
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste
Non-Production-related Waste
1991
Pounds
173,316,833
154,500
28,405,276
201,876,609
6,182,455
5,105,091
1,731,103
13,018,649
45,009,400
259,904,658
36,975
Change
1994-1995
Percent
0.1
2.1
617.6
28.5
-8.5
7.0
-0.1
-2.9
-8.6
22.2
-44.7
1994
Pounds
187,310,903
263,890
9,024,252
196,599,045
6,314,480
3,407,370
622,201
10,344,051
31,319,447
238,262,543
25,448
Change
1995-1996
Percent
-10.2
-26.0
-5.5
-9.0
-14.5
2.7
-14.7
-8.3
-8.5
-9.0
-49.5
1995
Pounds
187,529,232
269,429
64,762,421
252,561,082
5,779,672
3,644,857
621,547
10,046,076
28,619,969
291,227,127
14,064
Change
1991-1996
Percent
-2.9
29.0
115.4
13.8
-20.1
-26.7
-69.4
-29.2
-41.8
2.0
-80.8
1996
Pounds
168,357,066
199,336
61,173,022
229,729,424
4,940,704
3,743,765
530,222
9,214,691
26,193,723
265,137,838
7,107








Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated. Forms for one facility for 1994 were riot entered into the system due to an EPA error. The correct amounts for 1994
for these forms are 147,900 pounds of recycling on-site, 48,480,000 pounds of treatment on-site, 48,927,900 pounds of total on-site waste management, and
49,308,170 pounds of total production-related waste. The percentage change from 1994 to 1995 in treatment on-site changes from 617.6% to 5.8%, in total on-site
waste management changes from 28.5% to 2.9%, and in total production-related waste changes from 22.2% to 1.3%.
                                                                                                                               287

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          Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 waste reported in the printing and publishing sector
 increased from 259.9 million pounds to 265.1
 million pounds, a 2.0% increase.

 The largest increase was reported in on-site
 treatment, from 28.4 million pounds in 1991 to 61.2
 million pounds in 1996. As discussed in "1988-
 1996 TRI Data for Printing and Publishing," above,
 some forms for reporting year 1994 for one facility
 were not entered into the system due to an EPA
 error. This reporting problem accounts for the
 apparent increase in on-site treatment from 1994 to
 1995 in Table 8-17, but has no effect on the overall
 1991-1996 analysis.

 The sector reported a relatively small increase in
 on-site energy recovery, from 155,000 in 1991
 pounds to 199,000 pounds in 1996. This was the
 only other type of waste management with an
 increase for 1991-1996.

 The largest reduction was reported in quantities
 released on- and off-site, from 45.0 million pounds
 to 26.2 million pounds. On-site recycling also
 decreased, from 173.3 million pounds to 168.4
 million pounds. All three types of off-site waste
 management decreased: recycling from 6.2 million
 pounds to 4.9 million pounds; energy recovery
 from 5.1 million pounds to 3.7 million pounds; and
 treatment from 1.7 million pounds to 530,000
 pounds.

 Figure 8-13 illustrates the percentage changes in
 waste management methods reported by the
 printing and publishing sector for 1991-1996.

 TRI facilities report absolute amounts of waste
 managed and environmental releases, not amounts
 adjusted for changes in production levels. The
 printing and publishing sector's reporting of total
 production-related waste increased, while
 production decreased. However, changes in
 amounts reported  for the various waste
 management options indicate that the sector has
 made some progress in improving its management
 of TRI chemicals in waste, as measured by the
waste management hierarchy (explained in Chapter
1). Most production-related waste reported in this
sector was recycled. Although the proportion of
total production-related waste that was recycled
declined somewhat from 1991 to 1996, the
proportion of this waste that was released decreased
more substantially. The difference was taken up by
treatment (this is not affected by the 1994 reporting
problem identified above). In terms of the
hierarchy, recycling is the preferred option for
managing TRI chemicals in waste that cannot be
prevented. Although treatment is less desirable than
recycling, it is still preferable to releasing such
chemicals to the environment.

Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases
in Waste Management, 1991-1996

Quad/Graphics, Inc., in Lomira, Wisconsin (SIC
code 2572 and 2754), ranked first in increases of
waste managed with a total of 31.3 million pounds.
The facility is a solvent-based publications printer
and prints materials ranging from coupons to
magazines and catalogs. Reported on-site treatment
of toluene increased 31.2 million pounds between
1991  and 1996. Production doubled at the plant
after the installation of new presses between 1993
and 1996.

Brown Printing Company in Franklin, Kentucky
(SIC code 2754), was second in increases with 7.8
million pounds. Reported on-site recycling of
toluene accounted for nearly all of the facility's
increase. This facility, now owned by Quebecor
Printing, manufactures magazines, catalogs, and
newspaper inserts. The increase in toluene
reporting was the result of the addition of two
presses.

World Color in Evans, Georgia (SIC code 2754),
was third in increases with 4.3 million pounds.
Toluene reported in on-site recycling increased 4.2
million pounds between 1991 and 1996 (95% of the
overall increase). A gravure printer of catalogs,
World Color installed a press that was, at the time
288

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                                                Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
      150
      100
       50 -
      -50 -
     -100
         Recycled    Energy   Treated
          On-site   Recovery   On-site
                   On-site

            On-site Waste Management
Recycled    Energy   Treated           Quantity
 Off-site   Recovery   Off-site        Released On-
          Off-site                 and Off-site

   Off-site Waste Management
    Total
Production-
   related
   Waste
        Figure 8-13. Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1991-1996:
                                Printing and Publishing (SIC Code 27)
Note: Does not include delisted chemicals, chemicals added in 1994 and 1995, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Data from Section 8 of Form R
(Current Year, Column B) of year indicated.
of installation, the largest gravure printing press in
the world. Consequently, the amount of recovered
ink solvent increased by one-third.

Quebecor Printing Memphis, Inc., in Glen Burnie,
Maryland (SIC code 2754), ranked first in
decreases with an overall 10.1 million-pound
decrease. Toluene reporting accounted for 95% of
the overall decrease. On-site recycling of toluene
decreased by 8.3 million pounds between 1991 and
1996. A printer of newspaper inserts, the facility
cited three reasons for the decrease: first, one press
was removed from operation, reducing production
capacity by approximately 20%; second, overall
production concurrently decreased; and third,
toluene content of ink solvent was reduced.
           Quebecor Printing Memphis, Inc., in Memphis,
           Tennessee (SIC code 2754), was second in
           decreases with an overall 5.9 million pound
           decrease. Toluene was responsible for 87% of the
           overall decrease. The facility contact stated that the
           primary reason for reductions in toluene reporting
           was a reduction in toluene content of the facility's
           ink solvent.

           Quebecor Printing, Inc., in Dickson, Tennessee
           (SIC code 2754), was third in decreases with an
           overall 5.2 million-pound decrease. Toluene
           accounted for 97% of the decrease. Although the
           facility contacts stated that this facility had
           undergone a production increase and improvements
           in their solvent recovery systems, the amount of
           toluene reported in on-site recycling decreased by
           5.0 million pounds between 1991 and  1996. Two
                                                                                                  289

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          Chapter 8 — TRI Data for Printing and Publishing
 reasons were cited for the reported decrease:
 Solvent formulation changed from 90% to 55%
 toluene, and modifications were made to estimation
 methodology. This facility also ranked as the top
 increaser in releases (see Facilities with Large
 Increases and Decreases in Releases, 1988-1996).

 Facilities Contacted for Explanations
 (alphabetical by facility):

    Brown Printing Company, Franklin, Kentucky:
    Roswell Dennison, September 28,1998
    (explanation provided)
    Maxwell Communication Corporation,
    Broadview, Illinois: Plant closure. No contact
    person available.
    Quad/Graphics, Inc., Lomira, Wisconsin: Jason
    Bowker, August 26,1998 and Tom Estock,
    August 27 and 28, 1998 (explanation provided)
    Quebecor Printing Memphis, Inc., Glen Burnie,
    Maryland: James Hunt, August 26,1998
    (explanation provided)
    Quebecor Printing Memphis, Inc., Memphis,
    Tennessee: Tom Brown, August 26, 1998
    (explanation provided)
    Quebecor Printing, Inc., Dickson, Tennessee:
    Donna Brown, October 13,1998 and Steve
    Prosser, October 15, 1998 (explanation
    provided)
Quebecor Printing, Richmond, Virginia:
Edward A. Hall, August 27, 1998 (explanation
provided)
R.R. Donnelly & Sons Company, Chicago,
Illinois: Dale Kalina, September 28, 1998
(explanation provided)
R.R. Donnelly & Sons Company, Gallatin,
Tennessee: R.O. Thigpen, October 13, 1998
(explanation provided)
R.R. Donnelly & Sons Company, Mattoon,
Illinois: Vicki Howell and Dale Kalina,
September 28, 1998 (explanation provided)
R.R. Donnelly & Sons Company, Warsaw,
Indiana: Debora Woodward, September 28,
1998 (explanation provided)
Standard Gravure Corporation, Louisville,
Kentucky: Plant closure. No contact person
available.
World Color Press, Inc., Dyersburg, Tennessee:
Rick Yarbrough, August 26, 1998 (explanation
provided)
World Color, Evans, Georgia: Rick Stuart,
October 13, 1998 (explanation provided)
290

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                                 Chapter 9
              Toxics Release Inventory Data
           for Rubber and Plastics Products
                             (SIC Code 30)
A Look at the Rubber and

Miscellaneous Plastics

Products Industry (SIC
Code 30)

The rubber and plastics products industry (SIC
code 30) manufactures miscellaneous products
from natural, synthetic, or reclaimed rubber or from
plastics resins. Box 9-1 lists Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes and their designations
for this sector. In TRI, SIC codes are given as
reported by the facilities; these may differ from
information in economic and other data collections.

Manufacturing activity in this sector is closely
related to work performed in other industrial
sectors. Plastics materials (resins) and synthetic
rubbers, which are important raw materials for this
sector, are classified as chemical products in SIC
code 28. Many products made of rubber and
plastics, from boats to buttons, are classified
elsewhere, based on the type of object or end use
rather than the material from which they are made.
This sector, SIC code 30, covers some types of
rubber and plastics products with end uses—for
example, tires, plastic bottles, and numerous other
products made from both kinds of materials. It also
makes semi-finished plastics (in the group
designated by SIC code 308)—shaped plastics
(rods or tubes, for example) or plastics plate or
sheet—that are used in manufacturing other
products. Plants that produce both the resins and
the plastics sheet or shapes are categorized in this
sector (in SIC code 308). Most miscellaneous
rubber products (SIC code 306) are used by other
sectors such as automobile manufacturing and
service industries like hospitals.

Manufacturers in the rubber and plastics products
sector produced shipments valued at $150.47
billion in 1996, up from $145.74 billion in 1995
(both in current dollars). Employment in this sector
has steadily increased over the last decade and was
just over 1.0 million in both years. The rubber and
plastics products sector has seen rapid growth in the
1990s. Only electrical equipment (SIC code 36),
which includes computer components such as
circuit boards, and industrial machinery (SIC code
35) expanded more rapidly. Rubber and plastics
products manufacturing increased by one third from
1989 to 1996, nearly twice the U.S. average for all
manufacturing (see Chapter 1, Table 1-10).
                                                                               291

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             Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
 Box 9-1. SIC Code 30, Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products:  Codes and Classifications
  SIC Code
                                                            Industry Description
  301    Tires and Inner Tubes
         3011   Tires and Inner Tubes
  302    Rubber and Plastics Footwear
         3021  Rubber and Plastics Footwear

  305    Gaskets, Packing, and Sealing Devices and Rubber
         and Plastics Hose and Belting
         3052  Rubber and Plastics Hose and Belting
         3053  Gaskets, Packing, and Sealing Devices
  306    Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
         3061   Molded, Extruded, and Lathe-Cut Mechanical
                Rubber Goods
         3069   Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
  308    Miscellaneous Plastics Products
         3081  Unsupported Plastics Rim and Sheet

         3082  Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
         3083  Laminated Plastics Plate, Sheet, and Profile Shapes
         3084  Plastics Pipe
         3085  Plastics Bottles
         3086  Plastics Foam Products

         3087  Custom Compounding of Purchased Plastics Resins
         3088  Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
         3089  Plastics Products, nee*
Manufacture of pneumatic casings, inner tubes, and solid and cushion tires; tiring (in
continuous lengths); camelback for retreading, and tire repair and retreading
materials.
Manufacture of fabric upper footwear with rubber or plastics soles, and rubber and
plastics protective footwear.
Manufacture of rubber and plastics hose and belting, including garden hose.
Manufacture of gaskets, gasketing materials, compression packings, mold packings,
oil seals, and mechanical seals. Includes devices made of leather, rubber, metal,
asbestos, and plastics.
Manufacture of molded, extruded, and lathe-cut mechanical rubber goods (generally
parts for machinery and equipment).
Manufacture of industrial rubber goods, rubberized fabrics, vulcanized rubber
clothing, and miscellaneous rubber specialties and sundries. (Establishments
primarily engage in reclaiming rubber and rubber products.)
Manufacture of unsupported plastics film and sheet, including cellulosic plastics,
polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl, vinyl, and vinyl copolymer film
and sheet, and photographic, micrographic, and X-ray plastics sheet and film.
Manufacture of unsupported plastics profiles, rods, tubes, and other shapes.
Manufacture of laminated plastics plate, sheet, profiles, rods, and tubes.
Manufacture of plastics pipe.
Manufacture of plastics bottles.
Manufacture of plastics foam products, including cups, cushions, portable ice chests
or coolers, insulation and cushioning, packaging, plates, and shipping pads.
Custom compounding of purchased plastics resins.
Manufacture of plastics plumbing fixtures.
Manufacture of miscellaneous plastics products.
*nซc: noC elsewhere classified; these are generally referred to as "miscellaneous" products in their categories.
                                                             Sources
     Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987:
         Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and industry descriptions.
     U.S. Industry & Trade Outlook '98, DRLMcGraw Hill, Standard & Poor's, and U.S. Department of Commerce,
         International Trade Administration,  1998: economic analyses, also provides some information on environment and
         industrial processes for selected industries.
     U.S. Census Bureau, 1996 Annual Survey of Manufactures: Statistics for Industry Groups and Industries, M96(AS)-1,
         February 1998 : value of shipments and employment.
         Supplemental  data from U.S. Census Bureau  for some industries.
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, Office of Compliance, Profile
         of the Rubber  and Plastics Industry, Sector Notebook project, EPA/310-R-95-016, September 1995
         : industry processes and technologies, pollutant sources, and selected
         economic data.
292

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                                        Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
In 1996, miscellaneous plastics production (SIC
code 308, at the three-digit SIC code level)
represented three-quarters of the sector's
shipments, $112.62 billion, and three-quarters of
the sector's employment, 763,000 employees.
Among the industries producing rubber products,
two—tires and inner tubes (SIC code 301) and
miscellaneous fabricated rubber products (SIC
306)—each contributed more than $14 billion in
shipments. Employment in the miscellaneous
fabricated rubber products industry (122,000) was
about double that of the tire producers (65,000).

Plastics Products

Steps in making products out of plastics materials
vary. Generally, resins in the form of pellets,
granules, powders, sheets, fluids, or "preforms" are
molded into shapes or parts. Additives are common
and are used to influence characteristics such as
plasticity and brittleness, color, electrical
conductivity (to reduce electrostatic charges),
stability against the effects of heat or oxidation, and
others. Some plants use plastics pellets already
containing such additives, while others add them
on-site. Molding processes include injection,
extrusion, blow molding, thermoforming, rotational
molding, compression molding, casting, and
calendaring (squeezing or pressing). Foam plastics
undergo similar processes, but chemical blowing
agents, air, pressurized gases, or liquids that boil at
low temperatures are added to create the cellular
foam structures.

Generally, in the manufacture of plastics products,
solvent cleaning and finishing processes contribute
the bulk of the emissions of toxic substances to air.
Additives, including metals such as cadmium and
lead, may also be released during mixing or, under
conditions of high heat or pressure, in the molding
process. Plastics mixing processes are also a source
of styrene releases.
 Rubber Products

 Common processes in the manufacture of rubber
 products begin with mixing, which covers both
 mixing of polymers (raw and/or synthetic rubber),
 carbon black (filler), oils, and miscellaneous
 chemical aids or agents, and forming the rubber
 into preliminary sheets. Some plants purchase
 already mixed uncured rubber. Further steps in the
 process include milling the sheets in preparation for
 further processing; extruding and calendaring
 (squeezing through a press) into various shapes or
 thin sheets; building the rubber with reinforcing
 materials (wire, polyester, etc.) with or without
 adhesives; vulcanizing (or curing); and finishing by
 grinding, printing, washing, buffing, and other
 techniques.

 In the manufacture of rubber, air emissions of toxic
 chemicals occur primarily during preparation of
 mixing components and the building phase when
 reinforcing materials are added. Metals are
 common ingredients of the mixture, notably zinc
 compounds used as a processing aid, accelerator,
 activator, and/or age resistor.

 1996 TRI Data for  Rubber

 and Plastics  Products

 Table 9-1 summarizes TRI reporting by the rubber
 and plastics products sector for 1996. A total of
 3,747 forms were submitted in this sector. Of these,
9.2% were Form A certification statements,
certifying that a facility's total annual reportable
amount of a TRI chemical was less than 500
pounds for the year and that the facility did not
manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than  1
million pounds. (The Form A certification
statement is explained in Chapter 1.)
                                                                                            293

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           Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-1.  Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30
Total Total
On- and Productlon-
OIT-sitc related
Releases Waste
Rank Rank
7 8
14 14
9 1
10 10
13 12
3 5
8 3
15 15
5 7
16 16
17 17
2 4
12 13
4 9
1 2
6 6
11 11

SIC
Code
3011
3021
3052
3053
3061
3069
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089



Total
Industry Facilities
Number
Tires & Liner Tubes
Rubber & Plastics Footwear
Rubber & Plastics Hose & Belting
Gaskets, Packing & Sealing Devices
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Unsupported Plastics Film & Sheet
Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
Laminated Plastics Plate & Sheet
Plastics Pipe
Plastics Bottles
Plastics Foam Products
Custom Compound Purchased Resins
Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
Plastics Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 30
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Total for SIC Code 30
66
8
57
36
41
233
59
28
43
10
6
248
141
137
547
114
50
1,824
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
205
31
129
79
102
476
160
41
110
15
6
521
361
164
952
321
74
3,747
5
0
0
11
7
27
20
8
2
3
2
46
89
3
75
40
5
343
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
2,407,553
862,298
2,421,054
1,755,563
859,124
7,526,188
4,401,792
224,329
7,049,707
168,265
295
30,821,332
609,229
7,939,095
31,987,488
5,576,293
1,182,000
105,791,605
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
2,577,771
32,454
1,103,615
112,935
140,274
1,804,432
62,365
21,317
6,707
0
0
462,972
480,614
29,880
2,564,966
1,183,557
33,827
10,617,686
Total
On- and
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
4,985,324
894,752
3,524,669
1,868,498
999,398
9,330,620
4,464,157
245,646
7,056,414
168,265
295
31,284,304
1,089,843
7,968,975
34,552,454
6,759,850
1,215,827
116,409,291
Note: On-sUe Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 One quarter of all forms in this sector (952 forms)
 were submitted in the miscellaneous plastics
 products industry (SIC code 3089). Another 521
 came from the plastics foam products industry (SIC
 code 3086), and 476 from miscellaneous fabricated
 rubber products (SIC code 3069). Together, these
 three industries represented more than half of all
 forms in the sector.

 These were also the top industries for on- and off-
 site releases in this sector, which totaled 116.4
 million pounds, as shown in Table 9-1.
 Miscellaneous plastics products ranked first, with
 34.6 million pounds of total releases, followed by
 plastics  foam products with 31.3 million pounds.  In
 both cases, the great majority of the releases were
 reported on-site. No other industry in this sector
 totaled more than 10 million pounds in on- and off-
 site releases. Miscellaneous fabricated rubber
 products, which ranked third, had 9.3 million
 pounds. The same two industries that had the
largest total releases also had the largest amounts of
on-site releases, but plastics plumbing fixtures (SIC
code 3088) was third (with 7.9 million pounds) in
this category.

Tires and inner tubes (SIC code 3011) accounted
for the largest off-site releases (transfers to
disposal) with 2.58 million pounds, closely
followed by miscellaneous plastics products (SIC
code 3089) with 2.56 million pounds.
Miscellaneous fabricated rubber products (SIC
code 3069) was third with 1.8 million pounds.

For the most part, industries with large quantities of
production-related waste were different from those
with the largest releases. Production-related waste
in this sector totaled 369.8 million pounds in 1996.
The rubber and plastics hose and belting industry
(SIC code 3052) reported the largest amount, 97.8
million pounds. Miscellaneous plastics products
(SIC code 3089) was second with 72.9 million
 294

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                                           Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-1.  Summary of TRI Information by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996:  Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30, Continued
SIC
Code
3011
3021
3052
3053
3061
3069
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089



Industry
Tires & Inner Tubes
Rubber & Plastics Footwear
Rubber & Plastics Hose & Belting
Gaskets, Packing & Sealing Devices
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Unsupported Plastics Film & Sheet
Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
Laminated Plastics Plate & Sheet
Plastics Pipe
Plastics Bottles
Plastics Foam Products
Custom Compound Purchased Resins
Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
Plastics Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 30
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Total for SIC Code 30
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
2,991,544
9,482
92,708,038
2,857,008
228,399
14,411,993
36,236,347
211,671
11,469,430
162,488
3,004
16,805,912
500,218
9
30,597,303
10,838,269
666,011
220,697,126
Total Transfers
Off-site for
Further Waste
Management
Pounds
1,675,820
45,217
1,515,450
717,424
892,040
2,358,314
2,566,711
296,950
2,309,314
28,344
0
1,417,909
363,209
32,880
6,161,857
3,937,953
333,324
24,652,716
Total
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
9,668,342
977,685
97,791,468
5,242,928
2,076,226
26,686,362
50,511,044
696,319
20,751,598
339,504
3,094
49,201,648
1,881,639
7,367,415
72,902,282
21,446,604
2,246,104
369,790,262
Non-
Production-
related
Waste
Pounds
0
0
614
7,012
1,532
6,755
3,070
110
1,300
0
0
85,257
16,650
2,511
531
5,900
0
131,242
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Facilities/forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
 pounds, and unsupported plastics film and sheet
 (SIC code 3081) was third with 50.5 million
 pounds. Although miscellaneous plastics also
 ranked high for releases (ranking first), the first and
 third industries for total production-related waste
 were ninth and eighth, respectively, for releases.

 The same three industries reported the largest other
 on-site waste management quantities: rubber and
 plastics hose and belting with 92.7 million pounds,
 unsupported plastics film and sheet second with
 36.2 million pounds, and miscellaneous plastics
 products third with 30.6 million pounds.
 Altogether, other on-site waste management totaled
 220.7 million pounds in SIC code 30.

 One facility in the rubber and plastics hose and
 belting industry (SIC code 3052) accounted for a
 great majority of the sector's on-site recycling,
 reporting 89.2 million pounds for lead compounds
 in 1996. This large amount similarly influenced the
 sector's data for on-site waste management and
total production-related waste. This facility has
made a substantial reduction in its on-site recycling
of this chemical since 1995, described in "Faculties
with Large Increases and Decreases in Waste
Management, 1991-1996" later in this chapter.

Miscellaneous plastics products (SIC code  3089)
reported 6.2 million pounds of transfers off-site for
further waste management, out of 24.7 million
pounds for the sector. This was the only category in
which facilities that reported more than one SIC
code in SIC code 30 to describe their
manufacturing activities ranked high. TRI forms in
this "multiple-code" category, explained below,
were second for transfers off-site for further waste
management with 3.9 million pounds. Unsupported
plastics film and sheet (SIC code 3081) was third
with 2.6 million pounds.
                                                                                                     295

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         Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Multiple SIC Codes in SIC Code 30

Some facilities in the rubber and plastics products
sector manufacture products in similar but distinct
categories, as designated in the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) scheme. For example, a facility
may manufacture both rubber and plastics hose and
belting (SIC code 3052) and miscellaneous
fabricated rubber products (SIC code 3069).
Another facility may produce plastics foam
products (SIC code 3086) and miscellaneous
plastics products (SIC code 3089). Such facilities
may report multiple SIC codes on their TRI forms
to describe their operations. (Box  1-5 hi Chapter 1
further explains reporting of multiple SIC codes
and its affect on the analyses presented in the TRI
data release.)

In the rubber and plastics products sector, 321
forms were submitted hi  1996 with more than one
SIC code within SIC code 30, a little less than 10%
of the total forms submitted. Table 9-2 examines
TRI reporting from these forms. The most frequent
combination was custom compounding of
purchased resins (SIC code 3087) and
miscellaneous plastics products (SIC code 3089),
reported on 30 forms. Two combinations appeared
on 27 forms each. One such combination was
unsupported plastics film and sheet (SIC code
3081) and laminated plastics plate and sheet (SIC
code 3083), and the other combined miscellaneous
fabricated rubber products (SIC code 3069) and
miscellaneous plastics products (SIC code 3089).
The combination of miscellaneous fabricated
rubber products (SIC code 3069) and custom
compounding of purchased resins (SIC code 3087)
was reported on 26 forms.

The multiple-forms codes reported total on- and
off-site releases of 6.8 million pounds, other on-site
waste management of 10.8 million pounds,
transfers off-site for further waste management of
3.9 million pounds, and total production-related
waste of 21.4 million pounds. Forms reporting
gaskets, packing, and sealing devices (SIC code
3053) and mechanical rubber goods (SIC code
3061) reported the largest total on- and off-site
releases among multiple-codes groups in SIC code
30, with 1.6 million pounds. Forms reporting both
unsupported plastics film and sheet (SIC code
3081) and laminated plastics plate and sheet (SIC
code 3083) reported the largest total production-
related waste, with 5.9 million pounds. These data
are shown in Table 9-2.

On- and Off-site Releases

As shown in Table 9-3,  air emissions reported by
the rubber and plastics products sector totaled 105.3
million pounds, 90.5% of the sector's releases.
More than half the air emissions came from two
industries: miscellaneous plastics products (SIC
code 3089) with 31.8 million pounds and plastics
foam products (SIC code 3086) with 30.8 million
pounds. As noted in the discussion of chemicals
later in this chapter, the miscellaneous plastics
products industry reported air emissions primarily
of carbon disulfide and  styrene, while the plastics
foam industry reported large amounts of air emis-
sions of dichloromethane.

Other types of on-site releases in this sector were
much smaller, ranging from 398,000 pounds for
land releases (other than RCRA subtitle C landfills)
to 750 pounds for underground injection. Off-site
releases (transfers to disposal) were 10.6 million.
As noted above, tire manufacture (SIC code 3011)
and miscellaneous plastics products (SIC code
3089) each reported 2.6 million pounds of such
transfers. The bulk of the transfers to disposal by
the tire and inner tube industry consisted of zinc
compounds (2.3 million pounds). For the
miscellaneous plastics products industry, the
chemical with the largest transfers to disposal was
styrene (2.1 million pounds).
296

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                                            Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-2. Multiple SIC Codes, 1996:  Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30
SIC Codes
3011
3011
3020
3052
3052
3052
3052
3052
3052
3052
3052
3052
3053
3053
3053
3053
3053
3061
3061
3061
3061
3061
3069
3069
3069
3069
3079
3081
3081
3081
3081
3081
3081
3081
3081
3081
3082
3082
3082
3083
3083
3084
3086
3087
3087
3088
3088
30
3061 3069
3069
3061 3069
3053
3053 3061 3069
3061
3069
3069 3061 3089
3081 3087
3081 3089
3082
3087
3061
3061 3069
3069
3069 3082 3086 3089
3089
3069
3069 3089
3083
3086
3089
3079
3081
3087
3089
3088
3082 3083
3082 3083 3084 3086 3087
3083
3083 3086
3083 3089
3084
3087
3088
3089
3087
3087 3089
3089
3087
3089
3089
3089
3088
3089
3087 3089
3089
3079
Total for SIC Code 30
Total
Forms Form As
Number Number
1
9
1
4
2
11
16
5
5
7
1
7
14
9
12
6
1
7
4
1
1
1
2
2
26
27
2
8
3
27
4
1
1
5
5
9
2
2
8
3
4
1
17
1
30
2
3
1
321
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
7
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
6
0
0
5
1
0
2
1
0
5
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
40
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
10
285
0
55,107
146
166,021
30,853
1,000
491
0
0
1,010
1,471,720
253,170
131,182
23,724
40
66,409
500
4,931
0
0
28,769
0
26,355
502,960
10,934
0
0
1,259,578
3,930
0
21,945
0
187,951
70,290
12,374
28,828
106,026
48,267
123,300
3,896
680,916
11,345
227,914
8,200
5,916
0
5,576,293
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
5,000
50,255
0
0
19,600
13,939
87,166
37,270
78,860
0
0
43,069
111,223
10,800
43,551
0
4,000
37,440
936
0
0
1,259
0
2,081
266,030
140,309
0
14,824
0
18,575
2,050
0
0
0
3,858
5,394
11,000
0
0
0
5,200
0
0
0
169,868
0
0
0
1,183,557
Total Total Transfers
On- and Total Other Off-site for
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
5,010
50,540
0
55,107
19,746
179,960
118,019
38,270
79,351
0
0
44,079
1,582,943
263,970
174,733
23,724
4,040
103,849
1,436
4,931
0
1,259
28,769
2,081
292,385
643,269
10,934
14,824
0
1,278,153
5,980
0
21,945
0
191,809
75,684
23,374
28,828
106,026
48,267
128,500
3,896
680,916
11,345
397,782
8,200
5,916
0
6,759,850
8,800
47,993
0
0
0
55,020
5,913
18,150
7,403
0
0
13,741
2,535,030
0
72,481
0
0
6,700
0
150,024
0
0
1,080
12,000
0
838,854
0
0
0
4,062,670
0
0
0
0
0
2,660,800
0
0
31,400
0
0
0
100
0
306,410
0
0
3,700
10,838,269
3,150
39,370
0
8,127
5
154,767
12,398
69,460
35
0
750
505
84,037
123,612
58,799
95,246
0
10,556
500
250
0
0
1,250
0
40,202
221,643
0
0
0
590,777
0
0
0
0
88,522
2,210,162
5,815
0
6,738
750
20,500
0
7,064
0
82,963
0
0
0
3,937,953
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
16,720
130,191
0
62,722
26,200
392,722
124,660
109,280
86,778
0
2,308
57,290
4,206,821
387,512
310,730
118,970
4,100
121,198
1,144
155,333
0
1,259
31,099
14,081
329,250
1,690,857
10,934
14,824
0
5,911,819
6,290
0
22,194
0
280,331
4,946,656
17,691
28,828
130,850
48,803
147,200
3,896
691,055
11,345
777,226
8,200
3,537
3,700
21,446,604
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
300
0
0
0
0
0
5,600
0
0
0
5,900
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases are transfers off-site to disposal
from Section 6 of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 of Form R. Total Production-related Waste sums
Section 8 of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
Figure 9-1 illustrates the dominant role of air
emissions among all releases reported in this
sector. Figure 9-2 shows the distribution of on-
and off-site releases for the industries (four-digit
SIC code) with the sector's largest releases.
Other On-site Waste Management

Recycling was the largest category of other on-site
waste management for the rubber and plastics sector
in 1996. As shown in Table 9-4 and Figure 9-3,
                                                                                                        297

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           Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-3. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
3039
3086
3039
JOSS
3013

3011
m\
3052
3033

3087
3061
3021
3082
3084
3085

Industry
Plastics Products, nee*
Ptttties Foam Products
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
Laminated Plastics Plate & Sheet
Multiple within SIC Code 30
Tires & Inner Tubes
Unsupported Plastks Film & Sheet
Robber & Plaitks Hose ฃ Belting
Ga;le!s, Packing & Sealing Devices
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Custom Compound Purchased Resins
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Rubber St. Plastics Footwear
Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
Piaite Pipe
Plastics Bottles
Total for SIC Code 30
Surface Underground Injection
Total Air Water Class I Class H-V
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
31,788,725
30,803,210
7,469,029
7,939,090
7,045,193
5,549,123
2,377,898
4,399,070
2,380,117
1,751,700
1,181,998
574,133
801,424
862,298
224,187
168,265
295
105,315,755
4,479
5
4,222
0
100
1,815
10,439
216
6,020
18
2
299
200
0
0
0
0
27,815
0
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds
24,819
0
21,336
0
0
2,763
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
48,918
169,465
18,117
30,851
5
4,414
22,592
19,216
2,506
34,917
3,845
0
34,797
57,500
0
142
0
0
398,367
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
31,987,488
30,821,332
7,526,188
7,939,095
7,049,707
5,576,293
2,407,553
4,401,792
2,421,054
1,755,563
1,182,000
609,229
859,124
862,298
224,329
168,265
295
105,791,605
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
2,564,966
462,972
1,804,432
29,880
6,707
1,183,557
2,577,771
62,365
1,103,615
112,935
33,827
480,614
140,274
32,454
21,317
0
0
10,617,686
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
34,552,454
31,284,304
9,330,620
7,968,975
7,056,414
6,759,850
4,985,324
4,464,151
3,524,669
1,868,498
1,215,827
1,089,843
999,398
894,752
245,646
168,265
295
116,409,291
Nolc: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*ncc: not elsewhere classified.
     Other On-site
     Land Releases
         0.3%
                 Transfers Off-site
                    to Disposal
                      9.1%
                                          Air
                                         90.5%
                      UIJ, Class I Wells < 0.1%
                      UIJ, Class II-V Wells = 0%
                      RCRA Subtitle C Landfills < 0.1%
                      Surface Water < 0.1 %

     Figure 9-1. Distribution of TRI On-site and Off-site
      Releases, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products
                     (SIC Code 30)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from
Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. UU = underground
injection,
on-site recycling totaled 162.1 million pounds,
nearly three quarters of the on-site waste
management reported. More than half (55.7%) of
this amount, 90.3 million pounds, was reported in
the rubber and plastics hose and belting industry
(SIC code 3052), primarily by one facility as noted
above.

Other methods of on-site waste management had
considerably smaller amounts. Treatment totaled
39.0 million pounds, led by miscellaneous plastics
products (SIC code 3089) with 13.7 million pounds
and unsupported plastics film and sheet (SIC code
3081) with 12.9 million pounds. Energy recovery
on-site totaled 19.6 million pounds, and half of this
amount (10.6 million pounds) was reported by the
laminated plastics plate and sheet industry (SIC
code 3083).

Figure 9-4 illustrates the distribution of on-site
waste management reporting for the top industries
in this sector.
 298

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                                                Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
              40,000,000
              35,000,000-
              30,000,000 -
              25,000,000 -
            ง 20,000,000-
            Q_
              15,000,000-
              10,000,000-
               5,000,000-
B Transfers Off-site to Disposal
• Other On-site Land Releases
m RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
D UIJ, Class II-V Wells
C3 UIJ, Class I Wells
(3 Surface Water
• Air
                         3089
                                  3086
                                          3069
                                                  3088
                                                           3083
                                                                   Mult.
                                                                           3011
                                                                                    3081
                                                                                            3052
                                                                                                    3053
                  Figure 9-2. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, SIC Codes with Largest
                       Releases, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal). UIJ = underground injection. Forms with
more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.

Table 9-4.  TRI Other On-site Waste Management, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
3052
3081
3089
3086
3069
3083

3011
3053

3087
3061
3082
3084
3021
3085
3088

Industry
Rubber & Plastics Hose & Belting
Unsupported Plastics Film & Sheet
Plastics Products, nee*
Plastics Foam Products
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Laminated Plastics Plate & Sheet
Multiple within SIC Code 30
Tires & Inner Tubes
Gaskets, Packing & Sealing Devices
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Custom Compound Purchased Resins
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
Plastics Pipe
Rubber & Plastics Footwear
Plastics Bottles
Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
Total for SIC Code 30
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
90,279,770
20,224,009
14,554,683
16,044,545
9,896,971
283,746
5,331,123
2,113,611
2,439,515
60,458
479,925
209,772
135,030
0
9,482
0
0
162,062,640
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
787,943
3,153,847
2,335,531
0
1,713,342
10,561,479
150,024
720,000
0
175,977
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
19,598,143
Treated
On-site
Pounds
1,640,325
12,858,491
13,707,089
761,367
2,801,680
624,205
5,357,122
157,933
417,493
429,576
20,293
18,627
76,641
162,488
0
3,004
9
39,036,343
Total Other
On-site Waste
Management
Pounds
92,708,038
36,236,347
30,597,303
16,805,912
14,411,993
11,469,430
10,838,269
2,991,544
2,857,008
666,011
500,218
228,399
211,671
162,488
9,482
3,004
9
220,697,126
Note: Other On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the
"multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                  299

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          Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
 Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
 Management

 Transfers off-site for further waste management of
 24.7 million pounds represented a much smaller
 portion of all reporting in this industry than releases
 or other on-site waste management. As shown in
             Treated
             On-site
             17.7%
  Energy Recovery
     On-site
     8.9%
                                       Recycled
                                       On-site
                                        73.4%
    Figure 9-3. Distribution of TRI Other On-site Waste
        Management, 1996: Rubber and Plastics
               Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: Duta from Section 8 of Form R.
Table 9-5 and Figure 9-5, transfers off-site to
recycling were 11.8 million pounds, or 47.9% of
the total. Miscellaneous plastics products (SIC code
3089) accounted for 3.3 million pounds of the
transfers to recycling, and the group of TRI forms
with multiple SIC codes reported another 2.7
million pounds. Miscellaneous plastics products
also reported 2.0 million pounds transferred off-site
for energy recovery, out of the 6.8 million pounds
transferred off-site for energy recovery for the
entire sector.

Figure 9-6 illustrates the distribution of off-site
transfers for further waste management for the top
industries in this sector.


1996 TRI  Data by State  for

Rubber and  Plastics

Products

As shown in Table 9-6, 446 forms in this sector
came from Ohio, more than any other state. Indiana
              120.000,000
              100,000,000 -
               80,000,000
               60,000,000
              40,000,000
              20,000,000
                       3052
                              3081
                                    3089
                                          3086
                                                 3069
                                                       3083
                                                              Mult.
                                                                    3011
                                                                          3053
                                                                                Invalid
             Figure 9-4. TRI Other On-site Waste Management, SIC Codes with Largest
                    Totals, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: Other On-slte Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the
"multiple" category- Invalid SIC codes are codes beginning "30" that do not exist in the current Standard Industrial Classification code system.
300

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                                             Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-5. TRI Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30
(in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
3089

3081
3069
3083
3011
3052
3086
3061
3053
3087

'3082
3021
3088
3084
3085

Industry
Plastics Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 30
Unsupported Plastics Film & Sheet
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Laminated Plastics Plate & Sheet
Tires & Inner Tubes
Rubber & Plastics Hose & Belting
Plastics Foam Products
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Gaskets, Packing & Sealing Devices
Custom Compound Purchased Resins
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
Rubber & Plastics Footwear
Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
Plastics Pipe
Plastics Bottles
Total for SIC Code 30
Transfers
to Recycling
Pounds
3,252,620
2,692,165
667,460
673,825
410,798
1,355,478
1,248,573
667,830
112,872
154,946
140,106
184,039
196,056
25,107
16,806
18,602
0
11,817,283
Transfers
to Energy
Recovery
Pounds
2,008,938
795,630
1,177,872
816,899
719,163
94,155
227,971
216,941
41,495
396,149
96,007
121,394
3,957
20,110
4,265
9,742
0
6,750,688
Transfers to
Treatment
Pounds
511,302
409,304
668,145
325,838
242,441
188,299
26,685
527,181
21,510
164,785
48,525
3,141
21,106
0
•11,045
0
0
3,169,307
Transfers
to POTWs
Pounds
388,747
40,854
52,906
537,211
936,912
37,888
12,221
5,957
696,707
1,544
78,571
. 24,750
75,831
0
764
0
0
2,890,863
Total Off-site
Transfers
Other for Further
Off-site Waste
Transfers Management
Pounds Pounds
250
. 0
328
4,541
0
0
0
0
19,456
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
24,575
6,161,857
3,937,953
2,566,711
2,358,314
2,309,314
1,675,820
1,515,450
1,417,909
892,040
717,424
363,209
333,324
296,950
45,217
32,880
28,344
0
24,652,716
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers reported without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
             To POTWs
               11.7%
    To Treatment
       12.9%
        To Energy
        Recovery
         27.4%
                                         To Recycling
                                           47.9%
Other Off-site
Transfers = 0.1%
    Figure 9-5. Distribution of TRI Transfers Off-site for
         Further Waste Management, 1996: Rubber
           and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
 Note: Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6
 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers
 are transfers reported without a valid waste management code.
was second with 304, and two states had more than
200 forms each: Texas with 208 and Illinois with 203.

States with the largest on- and off-site releases were
Indiana with 12.7 million pounds and Tennessee
with 12.5 million pounds. Hlmois was third with
10.6 million pounds. The three accounted for a little
over 30% of total on-and off-site releases in the
rubber and plastics products sector.

By far the largest other on-site waste management
was reported in  Kansas: 102.4 million pounds or
46.4% of the total on-site waste management in this
sector. Kansas is the location of the facility with the
largest on-site recycling reported in this sector,
which accounted for 89.2 million pounds of the
on-site waste management reported in this sector.
The state with the second-largest reported amount
of on-site waste management was Kentucky with
14.5 million pounds, followed by three states with
more than 10 million pounds each: Florida, 10.7
                                                                                                           301

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          Chapter 9 — TRl Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
          7.000,000
          6,000,000 •
          5,000,000 •
          4,000,000-
          3,000,000-
          2,000,000 •
          1,000,000-
              • Other Off-site Transfers
              H To POTWs
              D To Treatment
              M To Energy Recovery
                To Recycling
                   3089
                          Mult.
                                  3081
                                         3069
                                                3083
                                                       3011
                                                              3052
                                                                     3086
                                                                            3061
                                                                                    3053
           Figure 9-6. TRl Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management, SIC Codes
              with Largest Totals, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: Off-site Transfers for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Other Off-site Transfers are
transfers repotted without a valid waste management code. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple"
category.
million pounds; Missouri, 10.4 million pounds; and
Texas, 10.3 million pounds.

Amounts transferred off-site for further waste
management were largest in Ohio, with 3.2 million
pounds and Arkansas with 2.9 million pounds. No
other state had more than 2 million pounds of such
transfers.

Total production-related waste was 103.9 million
pounds in Kansas, reflecting the large quantity of
on-site recycling by one facility. Indiana had 22.3
million pounds and Kentucky 17.3 million pounds.
Another 10 states had total production- related
waste of amounts ranging from 11 million to 16
million pounds, indicating the geographic diversity
of the sector.
Map 9-1 illustrates the geographic distribution of
total on- and off-site releases in the rubber and
plastics products sector.

1996  TRl  Data  by
Chemical for Rubber  and
Plastics Products

Air emissions were the primary release type for 13
of the top  15 chemicals for total on- and off-site
releases in this sector. This is consistent with the
role of air emissions in the rubber and plastics
products sector as a whole, as discussed above. As
shown in Table 9-7, more dichloromethane was
released to air in the rubber and plastics products
sector than any other chemical, with 24.9 million
pounds. This made dichloromethane the chemical
302

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                                                    Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-6. Summary of TRI Information by State, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30
State
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total for SIC Code 30
Total
Facilities
Number
29
24
30
89
14
18
8
49
65
1
96
125
30
21
35
8
7
13
40
74
38
32
50
12
6
11
46
3
39
98
3
186
18
18
90
7
13
46
4
72
113
7
2
39
17
12
65
1
1,824
Total
Forms
Number
65
41
84
169
21
33
13
70
120
1
203
304
45
49
65
16
13
25
91
135
58
57
103
35
15
25
101
4
72
198
3
446
39
23
174
10
31
121
7
161
208
17
4
92
32
23
124
1
3,747
Form As
Number
1
4
5
17
0
2
0
3
15
0
18
23
6
8
3
3
3
7
15
14
4
2
5
0
1
0
13
1
3
16
0
50
1
0
12
2
6
6
0
12
29
0
2
4
6
4
16
1
343
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
1,584,388
592,503
2,935,010
2,108,979
295,485
781,538
168,320
2,354,680
3,737,219
22,600
10,089,432
11,770,102
1,484,629
879,683
2,411,397
173,127
77,252
464,015
1,104,455
1,953,631
881,706
3,688,184
1,890,441
1,387,095
645,720
477,805
431,371
13,934
1,973,208
6,386,579
33,967
5,759,325
620,959
1,410,762
5,738,713
155,614
212,036
7,082,113
108,842
10,316,011
4,148,625
272,896
2,647
4,369,281
825,049
681,859
1,288,418
0
105,791,605
Total
Off-site
Releases
Pounds
194,253
1,074
180,113
477,928
20,161
5,264
2,182
31,591
197,319
0
472,037
911,071
94,017
222,806
75,120
10
17,300
19,960
101,603
189,299
47,716
155,272
286,297
245,188
22,908
33,164
78,447
0
324,091
714,846
0
1,320,136
356,998
1,290
288,302
0
21,938
395,856
43,751
2,233,879
313,474
5,410
689
206,494
6,272
38,064
264,096
0
10,617,686
Total Total Transfers
On- and Total Other Off-site for
Off-site On-site Waste Further Waste
Releases Management Management
Pounds Pounds Pounds
1,778,641
593,577
3,115,123
2,586,907
315,646
786,802
170,502
2,386,271
3,934,538
22,600
10,561,469
12,681,173
1,578,646
1,102,489
2,486,517
173,137
94,552
483,975
1,206,058
2,142,930
929,422
3,843,456
2,176,738
1,632,283
668,628
510,969
509,818
13,934
2,297,299
7,101,425
33,967
7,079,461
977,957
1,412,052
6,027,015
155,614
233,974
7,477,969
152,593
12,549,890
4,462,099
278,306
3,336
4,575,775
831,321
719,923
1,552,514
0
116,409,291
2,275,700
25
3,287,929
3,650,601
572,601
1,155,027
2,933,124
10,740,996
2,501,820
0
2,279,038
7,868,807
178,355
102,444,162
14,485,372
5
0
102,138
5,477,510
811,887
75,065
180,022
10,380,263
208,594
400
444,288
1,927,350
45,635
2,718,819
5,874,343
9,966
3,271,697
478,397
10,302
3,387,181
206,244
3,712,581
7,846,320
35,309
765,227
10,273,761
31,314
0
6,984,687
89,346
19,598
955,320
0
220,697,126
897,701
61,771
2,863,481
767,088
23,791
301,128
232,650
553,020
823,080
0
1,295,121
1,638,205
162,212
358,989
279,963
0
12,871
102,499
769,530
506,779
1,041,626
412,435
848,870
167,880
0
111,973
479,690
806
470,422
1,049,344
1,350
3,214,022
457,880
9,294
714,657
14,093
372,758
926,631
12,912
612,432
812,954
5,507
0
427,291
6,439
65,198
766,373
0
24,652,716
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
5,126,033
648,598
9,407,118
6,944,532
903,844
2,196,993
3,326,924
13,906,208
7,774,789
22,600
14,289,985
22,332,224
1,811,733
103,862,703
17,308,652
180,922
90,738
662,116
7,453,598
3,394,509
2,062,647
4,440,256
13,450,456
1,993,605
669,520
1,177,755
2,886,375
59,560
5,405,390
13,937,883
43,506
13,883,644
1,929,495
1,426,722
9,793,927
343,494
11,436,260
16,321,169
200,068
14,248,298
15,188,008
282,485
.3,335
11,954,289
918,311
790,987
3,297,998
0
369,790,262
2
0
5,410
3,588
0
65
9,500
1,320
7
0
7,012
50,010
0
0
1,426
0
1
0
0
16,650
0
0
1,532
614
0
300
2
0
0
43
0
5,650
0
2,511
340
500
2,978
6,200
0
300
112
0
0
15,168
1
0
0
0
131,242
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. On-site Waste Management from Section 8 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site
to disposal) of Form R. Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R.  Total
Production-related Waste sums Section 8 (Current Year, Column B) of Form R, except: Non-production-related Waste (remedial/catastrophic incidents).
                                                                                                                            303

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         Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
304

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                                         Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-7. The 15 Chemicals with the Largest Total On-site and Off-site Releases, 1996:  Rubber and Plastics Products,
SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)
CAS
Number
75-09-2
100-42-5
75-15-0
108-88-3
78-93-3
__
67-56-1
110-54-3
1330-20-7
1717-00-6

75-68-3

108-95-2
108-10-1
117-81-7
-


Chemical
Dichloromethane
Styrene
Carbon disulfide
Toluene
Methyl ethyl ketone
Zinc compounds
Methanol
n-Hexane
Xylene (mixed isomers)
1,1-DichIoro-l -fluoroethane
(HCFC-141b)
l-Chloro-l,l-difluoroethane
(HCFC-142b)
Phenol
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Glycol ethers
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 30
Surface Underground Injection
Total Air Water Class I Class II- V
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
24,936,111
19,980,164
12,588,600
10,647,737
7,839,262
184,658
4,764,537
4,258,280
3,151,126
2,167,161

1,888,731

1,491,565
1,584,572
296,350
1,215,913
96,994,767
105,315,755
10
18
404
689
0
12,363
0
5
10
0

0

1,461
0
26
4,306
19,292
27,815
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0

0
0
0
0
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds
0
23,500
0
3,212
0
9,474
0
0
0
0

0

0
0
250
0
36,436
48,918
1,162
144,214
0
0
0
69,408
77
0
0
5,353

0

4,576
0
57,512
15,269
297,571
398,367
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
24,937,283
20,147,896
12,589,004
10,651,638
7,839,262
275,903
4,764,614
4,258,285
3,151,136
2,172,514

1,888,731

1,497,602
1,584,572
354,138
1,235,488
97,348,066
105,791,605
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
5,274
2,318,865
0
33,262
34,619
4,810,788
697
2,750
200
123,439

0

96,094
250
1,154,421
81,921
8,662,580
10,617,686
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
24,942,557
22,466,761
12,589,004
10,684,900
7,873,881
5,086,691
4,765,311
4,261,035
3,151,336
2,295,953

1,888,731

1,593,696
1,584,822
1,508,559
1,317,409
106,010,646
116,409,291
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R.
 with the largest on-site releases and the largest
 total on- and off-site releases. The largest
 industrial source of dichloromethane releases in
 this sector was the plastics foam products
 industry (SIC code 3086), with 23.3 million
 pounds. Dichloromethane serves as a blowing
 agent in production of plastics foam.

 Styrene ranked second in air emissions, on-site
 releases, off-site releases, and total releases; it
 also had the largest on-site land releases. Carbon
 disulfide ranked third for total releases, almost
 exclusively as air emissions These chemicals
 were reported in large amounts by producers of
 miscellaneous plastics products (SIC code 3089).
 This industry reported 10.2 million pounds of air
 emissions of styrene and 2.1 million pounds in
 off-site releases (transfers to disposal). Styrene is
 a component of many plastics production
 processes, including fiberglass. All reported
 releases of carbon disulfide in this sector
 originated in the miscellaneous plastics products
industry, although the chemical has uses in rubber
production as well.
Off-site releases (transfers to disposal) were led by
zinc compounds, with 4.8 million pounds. This was
also the chemical with the largest surface water
discharges (12,000 pounds). The manufacture of
rubber products often relies on zinc compounds for
several purposes, such as processing aid and
vulcanizing accelerator. Among the top 15 chemicals,
only zinc compounds and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
had off-site releases larger than on-site releases.

OSHA Carcinogens

In the rubber and plastics sector, on- and off-site
releases of chemicals designated as OSHA
carcinogens totaled 51.0 million pounds in 1996,  as
shown in Table 9-8. This represented 43.8% of all
releases in this sector. (OSHA carcinogens and the
bases for their designation appear in Box 1-9 in
Chapter  1.) Consistent with the pattern of releases in
                                                                                                   305

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          Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-8. TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Rubber and Plastics
Products, SIC Code 30 (in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
3086
3069
3063

3069
3083
30S2

3031
3037
301 1
3084
3053
3032
3061
3011


Industry
Ptetki Fotm Products
PMUKJ Products, ncc*
PbutiCJ PlumMns Fixtures
Muttlpte within SIC Code 30
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Lantln*ted Plastics Pkte & Sheet
Rubber & Pkitfcs Hose & Belting
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Unsupported Plutics Him & Sheet
Cunom Compound Purchased Resins
Tire* & Inner Tubes
Ptalki Pipe
Gistets, Packing & Sealing Devices
Umtipportcd Plastics Profile Shapes
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Rubber & Plutics Footwear
Subtotal
Total for SIC Code 30
Surface Underground Injection
Total Air Water Class I Class II-V
Emissions Discharges Wells Wells
Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
23,461,382
11,355,557
7,874,057
730,112
460,912
928,263
309,933
502,730
441,917
376,020
49,347
168,038
137,937
81,195
45,729
3,265
46,926,394
105,315,755
5
261
0
24
1
0
0
2
8
12
80
0
0
0
0
0
393
27,815
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
750
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
On-site Land Releases
RCRA Other
Subtitle C On-site Land
Landfills Releases
Pounds Pounds
0
23,750
0
2,763
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
26,513
48,918
1,681
166,174
5
11,250
750
204
25,292
0
5
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
205,369
398,367
Total
On-site
Releases
Pounds
23,463,068
11,545,742
7,874,062
744,149
461,663
928,467
335,225
502,732
441,930
376,040
49,427
168,038
137,937
81,195
45,729
3,265
47,158,669
105,791,605
Off-site
Releases
Transfers
Off-site to
Disposal
Pounds
25,488
2,090,712
29,880
497,397
581,194
1,590
300,584
11,877
3,019
66,132
184,722
0
0
15,719
255
5,292
3,813,861
10,617,686
Total On-
and Off-site
Releases
Pounds
23,488,556
13,636,454
7,903,942
1,241,546
1,042,857
930,057
635,809
514,609
444,949
442,172
234,149
168,038
137,937
96,914
45,984
8,557
50,972,530
116,409,291
Note: Oil-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit
SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
"ncc: not elsewhere classified
 this sector, 92.1% (46.9 million pounds) of these
 releases were air emissions.

 Plastics foam products (SIC code 3086) reported
 the largest total releases of the OSHA carcinogens,
 23.5 million pounds. The miscellaneous plastics
 products industry group (SIC code 3089) had 13.6
 million pounds, and plastics plumbing fixtures (SIC
 code 3088) reported 7.9 million pounds.

 The top two chemicals for total releases in this
 sector, dichloromethane and styrene, are both
 OSHA carcinogens. Total releases for these
 chemicals were 24.9 million pounds and 22.5
 million pounds, respectively (see Table 9-7).
 Releases of other OHSA carcinogens were reported
 in smaller amounts: One other TRI chemical among
 the top  15 chemicals released in this sector was an
 OSHA carcinogen. This was di-(2-ethylhexyl)
 phthalate (1.5 million pounds). The OSHA
 carcinogen with the next-largest releases was
 trichloroethylene (918,000 pounds).
Figure 9-7 shows the on- and off-site releases of the
four-digit SIC codes with the largest OSHA
carcinogen releases.

1996 TRI Chemicals in

Waste for Rubber  and

Plastics Products

Table 9-9 and Figure 9-8 present 1996 waste
management data for the industries in rubber and
plastics products manufacturing. Production-related
waste totaled 369.8 million pounds in 1996. The
industry within the sector with the largest on-site
waste management was rubber and plastics hose
and belting (SIC code 3052). Of the 97.8 million
pounds of production-related waste reported in this
industry, 90.3 million pounds was on-site recycling
and 89.2 million pounds of this was reported by one
facility, as noted throughout this chapter.
 306

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                                               Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
              25,000,000
              20,000,000
              15,000,000
            3
            O
            CL
              10,000,000
               5,000,000
n Transfers Off-site to Disposal
n Other On-site Land Releases
EJ RCRA Subtitle C Landfills
QUIJ, Class II-V Wells
HUIJ, Class I Wells
• Surface Water
                              3086
                                               3089
                                                               3088
                                                                                Mult
                                                                                                3069
          Figure 9-7.  TRI On-site and Off-site Releases of OSHA Carcinogens, SIC Codes with
                    Largest Totals, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R. Off-site Releases from Section 6 (off-site transfers to disposal) of Form R. UIJ = underground injection.
Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.

Table 9-9.  Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste by 4-digit SIC Code, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30
(in Rank Order)
SIC
Code
3052
3089
3081
3086
3069

3083
3011
3088
3053

3061
3087
3021
3082
3084
3085

Industry
Rubber & Plastics Hose & Belting
Plastics Products, nee*
Unsupported Plastics Film & Sheet
Plastics Foam Products
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 30
Laminated Plastics Plate & Sheet
Tires & Inner Tubes
Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
Gaskets, Packing & Sealing Devices
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Custom Compound Purchased Resins
Rubber & Plastics Footwear
Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
Plastics Pipe
Plastics Bottles
Total for SIC Code 30
Recycled
On-site
Pounds
90,279,770
14,554,683
20,224,009
16,044,545
9,896,971
5,331,123
283,746
2,113,611
0
2,439,515
60,458
209,772
479,925
9,482
135,030
0
0
162,062,640
Energy
Recovery
On-site
Pounds
787,943
2,335,531
3,153,847
0
1,713,342
150,024
10,561,479
720,000
0
0
175,977
0
0
0
0
0
0
19,598,143
Treated
On-site
Pounds
1,640,325
13,707,089
12,858,491
761,367
2,801,680
5,357,122
624,205
157,933
9
417,493
429,576
18,627
20,293
0
76,641
162,488
3,004
39,036,343
Recycled
Off -site
Pounds
1,229,184
4,295,212
7,756,166
625,037
648,956
2,660,942
409,539
1,432,541
30,246
153,477
169,553
122,392
99,481
25,057
196,056
12,502
0
19,866,341
Energy
Recovery
Off-site
Pounds
224,936
2,753,857
1,309,195
188,526
1,003,320
808,657
644,381
94,785
4,040
395,304
121,212
37,163
95,437
47,208
3,957
0
0
7,731,978
Treated
Off-site
Pounds
34,841
873,325
780,433
492,523
906,867
399,799
1,184,040
74,106
10,857
54,232
40,941
722,847
138,908
0
95,669
0
0
5,809,388
Quantity
Released
On- and
Off-site
Pounds
3,594,469
34,382,585
4,428,903
31,089,650
9,715,226
6,738,937
7,044,208
5,075,366
7,322,263
1,782,907
1,248,387
965,425
1,047,595
895,938
188,966
164,514
90
115,685,429
Total Non-
Production- Production-
related related
Waste Waste
Pounds Pounds
97,791,468
72,902,282
50,511,044
49,201,648
26,686,362
21,446,604
20,751,598
9,668,342
7,367,415
5,242,928
2,246,104
2,076,226
1,881,639
977,685
696,319
339,504
3,094
369,790,262
614
531
3,070
85,257
6,755
5,900
1,300
0
2,511
7,012
0
1,532
16,650
0
110
0
0
131,242
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                                  307

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           Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
  Quantity Released
      31.3%
   Off-site Waste
    Management
      9.0%
                                        On-site Waste
                                         Management
                                           59.7%
        Rgure 9-8. Distribution of TRI Production-
        related Waste, 1996: Rubber and Plastics
                Products (SIC Code 30}
Note: Da)a from Section 8 of Form R.
Other reporting of production-related waste was
somewhat more diverse. Miscellaneous plastics
products (SIC code 3089), which was second
overall, had the largest quantities treated on-site
(13.7 million pounds), sent off-site for energy
recovery (2.8 million pounds), and released on- and
off-site (34.4 million pounds). Producers of
laminated plastics plate and sheet (SIC code 3083)
reported the largest quantities of on-site energy
recovery (10.6 million pounds) and the largest
quantities treated off-site (1.2 million pounds).
Unsupported plastics film and sheet (SIC code
3081) was first for off-site recycling (7.8 million
pounds).

Distribution of production-related waste for the top
industries in  the sector appears in Figure 9-9.
    100%
    00%
    60%
    40%
    20%
                     H Quantity Released
                     • Treated Off-site
                     H Energy Recovery Off-site
                     D Recycled Off-site
                     ED Treated On-site
                     & Energy Recovery On-site
                     m Recycled On-site
          3052
                3089
                       3081
                              3086
                                    3069
                                           Mult.
                                                  3083
                                                        3011
                                                               3088
                                                                     3053
                 Figure 9-9. Distribution of Production-related Waste, SIC Codes with
                  Largest Totals, 1996:  Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: Data from Section 8 of Form R. Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC Code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
308

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                                      Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
 Projected Quantities of TRI
 Chemicals in Waste

 Reported amounts on TRI forms filed for 1996 in
 the rubber and plastics products sector projected
 that total production-related waste would decrease
 by 90.0 million pounds, or nearly one fourth
 (24.3%), by reporting year 1998. As shown in
 Table 9-10, the largest percentage reduction,
 53.6%, was expected in on-site recycling; this
 would be a decrease of 86.8 million pounds. This
 reflects further reductions anticipated by the facility
 reporting the largest amount of on-site recycling.
 Table 9-10 shows current year and projected waste
 management data, and percentage changes  are
 illustrated in Figure 9-10. (As explained in Chapter
 1, facilities not only report current data but project
 waste management quantities for the next two years
 in their TRI submissions.)

 The quantity released on- and off-site was also
 projected to decline, by 16.9 million pounds or
 14.6%. Such releases constituted nearly one-third
 (31.3%) of total production-related waste in this
 sector in 1996. Despite the projected decrease,
 quantities released would form a larger proportion
 (35.3%) of production-related waste in 1998,
 because of the much larger drop in on-site
 recycling. This sector reports releasing a greater
 proportion of production-related waste than do
 many others.

 Increases were projected in most other types of
 waste management in this sector, although the
 quantities involved are smaller. In particular,
 on-site energy recovery and treatment were
projected to increase (by 10.0% and 27.4%,
respectively).

These projected changes suggest that the sector
 does not expect to improve its management of TRI
chemicals in waste, as measured against the waste
management hierarchy. In that hierarchy, as
explained in Chapter 1, recycling is the preferred
management option for waste that is not prevented
or cannot be prevented in the first place. The least
desirable option is releasing the chemical to the
environment. In these terms, projections in the
rubber and plastics products sector indicate that less
desirable performance is expected.

Source Reduction Activity

Of the 3,747 forms submitted in the rubber and
plastics products sector, 800 reported source
reduction activity during 1996. Table 9-11 shows
the number of forms and categories of source
reduction activity by four-digit SIC code. Rubber
and plastics footwear manufacturers (SIC code
3021) had the highest percentage (64.5%) of forms
indicating source reduction activity. In several
industries, 25% to 35% of the forms reported such
activities. Miscellaneous fabricated rubber products
(SIC code 3069) and miscellaneous plastics
products  (SIC code 3089), which accounted for a
substantial proportion of the sector's releases, had
about 21% of forms with source reduction activity.
Good operating practices was the category most
often reported (289 forms). Two others were also
cited on more than 200 forms each: raw material
modifications (241 forms) and process
modifications (207 forms). Such modifications
often represent more innovative pollution
prevention projects.

Year-to-Year

Comparisons  for  Rubber

and Plastics Products

1995-1996 TRI  Data for Rubber and
Plastics Products

Although the number of forms submitted in the
rubber and plastics products sector dropped 4.4%
from 1995 to 1996, the number of Form A
certification statements increased 15.9%, as shown
in Table 9-12. (The Form A certification statement
is explained in Chapter 1.) This may reflect more
widespread awareness of the Form A certification
statement in its second year of availability.
                                                                                         309

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          Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-10. Current Year and Projected Quantities of TRI Chemicals in Waste, 1996-1998: Rubber and Plastics Products,
SIC Code 30

Waste Management Activity
Qn-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Wtste Management
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 30

Waste Management Activity

On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Off-site Waste Manaeement
Recycled Off-site
Energy Recovery Off-site
Treated Off-site
Quantity Released On- and Off-site
Total Production-related Waste for
SIC Code 30
Current Year 1996
Total Percent
Pounds of Total

162,062,640 43.8
19,598,143 5.3
39,036,343 10.6

19,866,341 5.4
7,731,978 2.1
5,809,388 1.6
115,685,429 31.3
369,790,262 100.0

Projected Change
1996-1997
Percent

-25.4
7.2
-10.8

3.3
3.5
-1.5
-8.2
-14.2

Projected 1997
Total Percent
Pounds of Total

120,820,121 38.1
21,003,772 6.6
34,802,671 11.0

20,526,534 6.5
8,003,170 2.5
5,723,015 1.8
106,222,829 33.5
317,102,112 100.0

Projected Change
1997-1998
Percent

-37.7
2.7
42.9

2.0
-6.0
4.1
-7.0
-11.8

Projected 1998
Total Percent
Pounds of Total

75,247,536 26.9
21,560,812 7.7
49,746,655 17.8

20,934,761 7.5
7,526,913 2.7
5,959,877 .21
98,793,085 35.3
279,769,639 100.0

Projected Change
1996-1998
Percent

-53.6
10.0
27.4

5.4
-2.7
2.6
-14.6
-24.3

Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.
 On- and Off-site Releases

 Releases on- and off-site decreased by 8.5% from
 1995 to 1996, a decrease of 10.8 million pounds
 (see Table 9-12). This was largely the result of a
 corresponding decrease in air emissions (8.3%, or
 9.5 million pounds), as would be expected with air
 emissions playing such a dominant role in the
 sector's releases. The reduction in releases to air
came about equally from fugitive (4.8 million
pounds) and point (4.7 million pounds) sources.

Off-site releases (transfers to disposal) decreased
10.6%, or 1.3 million pounds. Other release types
showed large percentage changes, as illustrated in
Figure 9-11, but these represent smaller absolute
amounts. On-site land releases increased 46.7%, or
142,000 pounds.
 310

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                                              Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
                -40
                         On-site Waste
                         Management
Off-site Waste
 Management
Quantity Released
  On-and Off-site
Total Production-
  related Waste
              Figure 9-10.  Projected Percentage Change in Quantities of TRI Chemicals in
                     Waste, 1996-1998:  Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: Current year and projected year amounts are all taken from Section 8 of Form R for 1996.

Table 9-11. Number of Forms Reporting Source Reduction Activity, 1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30
Forms Reporting
Source Reduction
Activities
SIC
Code

3011
3021
3052
3053
3061
3069
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089



Industry

Tires & Inner Tubes
Rubber & Plastics Footwear
Rubber & Plastics Hose & Belting
Gaskets, Packing & Sealing Devices
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Fabricated Rubber Products, nee*
Unsupported Plastics Film & Sheet
Unsupported Plastics Profile Shapes
Laminated Plastics Plate & Sheet
Plastics Pipe
Plastics Bottles
Plastics Foam Products
Custom Compound Purchased Resins
Plastics Plumbing Fixtures
Plastics Products, nee*
Multiple within SIC Code 30
Invalid SIC Code within SIC Code 30
Total for SIC Code 30
Total
Forms
Number
205
31
129
79
102
476
160
41
110
15
6
521
361
164
952
321
74
3,747
Good
Category of Source Reduction Activity
Raw Surface
Spill Material Process Cleaning Preparation Product
Percent of Operating Inventory and Leak Modifi- Modifi- and and Modifi-
AII Forms Practices Control Prevention cations cations Degreasing Finishing cations
Number
29
20
26
20
26
99
50
14
29
0
0
101
53
26
205
78
24
800
Percent
14.1
64.5
20.2
25.3
25.5
20.8
31.3
34.1
26.4
0.0
0.0
19.4
14.7
15.9
21.5
24.3
32.4
21.4
Number Number Number Number Number
8
16
11
7
12
34
13
4
6
0
0
17
24
6
87
35
9
289
4
1
4
2
7
15
4
1
3
0
0
5
4
0
16
2
2
70
5
0
2
1
1
6
14
1
3
0
0
8
5
0
23
19
0
88
7
4
5
6
2
18
10
5
6
0
0
58
24
10
55
26
5
241
7
0
7
4
5
29
7
4
16
0
0
22
7
10
63
22
4
207
Number
0
0
1
1
4
5
4
0
9
0
0
6
1
2
16
2
6
57
Number Number
2
0
2
1
6
13
1
4
2
0
0
7
0
8
24
8
9
87
1
0
7
0
0
13
11
2
3
0
0
8
8
2
10
7
2
74
Note: Forms with more than one 4-digit SIC code within SIC code 30 are assigned to the "multiple" category.
*nec: not elsewhere classified.
                                                                                                            311

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             Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
Table 9-12. Comparison of TRI On-site and Off-site Releases, Other On-site Waste Management, and Transfers Off-site for
Further Waste Management, 1995-1996: Rubber and Plastics Products, SIC Code 30



Total Facilities
Total Forms
FormRs
Form As

On-site Releases
Total Air Emissions
Fugitive Air
Point Source Air
Surface Water Discharges
Underground Injection
On-site Land Releases
Total On-site Releases
Off-site Releases
Transfers Off-site to Disposal
Total On- and Off-site Releases
Other On-site Waste Management
Recycled On-site
Energy Recovery On-site
Treated On-site
Total Other On-site Waste Management
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management
Transfers to Recycling
Transfers to Energy Recovery
Transfers to Treatment
Transfers to POTWs
Other Off-site Transfers
Total Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management

1995
Number
1,881
3,921
3,625
296
Pounds

114,827,334
32,349,396
82,477,938
152,593
5
304,898
115,284,830

11,883,163
127,167,993

311,405,281
21,703,785
47,308,429
380,417,495

19,534,871
7,541,660
3,042,927
2,684,018
13,156
32,816,632

1996
Number
1,824
3,747
3,404
343
Pounds

105,315,755
27,540,757
77,774,998
27,815
750
447,285
105,791,605

10,617,686
116,409,291

162,062,640
19,598,143
39,036,343
220,697,126

11,817,283
6,750,688
3,169,307
2,890,863
24,575
24,652,716
Change
1995 to 1996
Percent
-3.0
-4.4
-6.1
15.9
Percent

-8.3
-14.9
-5.7
-81.8
14,900.0
46.7
-8.2

-10.6
-8.5

-48.0
-9.7
-17.5
-42.0

-39.5
-10.5
4.2
7.7
86.8
-24.9
Note: On-sile Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Other On-site Waste
Management from Section 8 of Form R. Transfers Off-site for Further Waste Management from Section 6 (excluding transfers off-site to disposal) of
Form R. Breakdown of Underground Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995. Other Off-site Transfers are transfers reported without a valid
waste management code.
 312

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                                        Chapter 9 — TRI Data for Rubber and Plastics Products
                                                                        Underground Injection > 14,000%
      -100
                                        Surface
                                         Water
           On-site
           Land
           Releases
 Transfers
  Off-site
to Disposal
            Figure 9-11.  Percentage Change in On-site and Off-site Releases, 1995-1996:
                            Rubber and Plastics Products (SIC Code 30)
Note: On-site Releases from Section 5 of Form R and Off-site Releases from Section 6 (transfers off-site to disposal) of Form R. Breakdown of Underground
Injection and On-site Land Releases not required in 1995.
 Other On-site Waste Management

 Table 9-12 also shows the changes from 1995 to
 1996 in other on-site waste management for the
 rubber and plastics products sector. The largest
 change occurred in on-site recycling, which
 decreased by nearly half (48.0%, or 149.3 million
 pounds). This change was attributable to one
 facility that recorded a large reduction in on-site
 recycling of lead compounds, as discussed in
 "Facilities with Large Increases and Decreases in
 Waste Management, 1991-1996" later in this
 chapter.

 On-site energy recovery and treatment also
 declined and, overall, other on-site waste
 management decreased 42.0% (159.7 million
 pounds) in the rubber and plastics products sector
 for 1995-1996.
Transfers Off-site for Further Waste
Management

As with releases and other on-site waste
management, transfers off-site for further waste
management decreased from 1995 to 1996 in this
sector. As shown in Table 9-12, the net decrease
was 24.9%, or 8.2 million pounds. Transfers to
recycling decreased by 39.5%, or 7.7 million
pounds.