EPA
United States        Office of Acid Deposition, Environmental
Environmental Protection  Monitoring and Quality Assurance
Agency           Washington DC 20460
                                                   EPA/600/4-87/027
                                                   September 1987
                Research and Development
Western  Lake Survey
Phase I

Data  Base
                 -. * "&,*; % ,, w* X , ,n >S  i-^^f'^iA *'{/*%*


                '

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                                                              EPA 600/4-87/02>
                                                                September 198^
                   Western  Lake  Survey

                              Phase I

                            Data Base
                            A Contribution to the

                    National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
                 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Acid Deposition and Atmospheric Research Division
Office of Acid Deposition, Environmental Monitoring, and Quality Assurance
                 Office of Research and Development
                       Washington, D.C. 20460
        Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193
             Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon 97333


                             i  r   " r-*  mr-tpl  Protection Agency

                                                   rom 1670

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                                 NOTICE
     The information in this  document has been  funded wholly or  in  part  by the U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency under Contract No. 68-03-3246 to Northrop Services, Inc.,
Nos. 68-03-3249 and 68-03-3050 to Lockheed Engineering and Management Services Company,
Inc., No. 68-02-3889 to Radian Corporation, and Interagency Agreement No. 40-1441-84 with
the U. S. Department of Energy.  It has been subject  to  the Agency's peer and administrative
review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA document.

     Much of the information in this document, including figures and tables has been taken
directly from Landers et al. (1987), with permission of the authors.

     Mention of corporation names, trade names, or commercial products does not constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.

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                                     CONTENTS
Figures	iv
Tables	v
      1.0 Introduction to Document and Explanation for its Use	1
      2.0  Survey Description	.	3

         2.1    Overview.	3
         2.2    Survey design	5
         2.3    Survey implementation	9
         2.4    Quality assurance program	10
      3.0  Statistical Design Applications and Restrictions	12

         3.1    Extrapolation from sample to population	12
         3.2    Estimating the target population size and attributes	12
         3.3    Restrictions	15
         3.4    Design considerations	16
      4.0 Survery Results	18

         4.1    Description of target population	18
         4.2    Estimated chemical characteristics	18
      5.0 References	26
Apendices

A.    Data base dictionary.	A-l
B.    Data base format documentation	B-1

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                                      FIGURES
Number
2-1      Subregions and alkalinity map classes in study areas of the Western Lake
         Survey -Phase1	4

3-1      Procedures used to estimate the target population size, Western Lake
         Survey-Phase I	13

4-1      Cumulative frequency distributions for acid neutralizing capacity for the
         target populations of lakes in the western subregions sampled in fall,
         1985 during Phase I of the Western Lake Survey	22

4-2      Cumulative frequency distributions for pH for the target populations of lakes
         in the western subregions sampled in fall, 1985 during Phase I of the Western
         Lake Survey.	23

4-3      Median values for acid neutralizing capacity, pH, and sulfate by subregion
         for the Northeast, Upper Midwest, Southeast and West, for lakes in the
         target populations surveyed during Phase I of the National Lake
         Survey.	25
                                           IV

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                                     TABLES


Number
2-1     Non-Target Lakes and Lakes Not Visited or Not Sampled, Western Lake
        Survey - Phase 1	7

2-2     Population Estimates of Median Lake Area and Median Elevation for Frozen
        Lakes and Sampled Lakes in Central Rockies (4D) and Southern Rockies (4E),
        Western Lake Survey - Phase I.....	8

2-3     Summary of Variables Measured in the Western Lake Survey - Phase 1	9

3-1     Use of Weights in Combined Strata Estimation,
        Western Lake Survey - Phase 1	17

4-1     Description of the Target Population, Sample and Weighting Factors Excluding
        Lakes > 2000 ha, Western Lake Survey - Phase 1	19

4-2     Number of Lakes Sampled Within each Subregion in the West (Region 4)
        During the Western Lake Survey - Phase 1	20

4-3     Number of Lakes Sampled Within Each State in the West (Region 4)
        During the Western Lake Survey-Phase 1	20

4-4     Estimated Number of Lakes, and Number and Percentage of Lakes with
        Selected Values of Three Key Variables from Phase I of the
        Western Lake Survey.	24

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      1.0  INTRODUCTION TO DOCUMENT AND EXPLANATION FOR ITS USE

      The Western Lake Survey-Phase I (WLS-I) is a component of the National Surface Water
Survey (NSWS), a project implemented by EPA as part of the Aquatic Effects Research Program
(AERP) which is a major component of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
(NAPAP). For information about projects within the AERP, contact:

      Dr. R. A. Linthurst, Director
      Aquatic Effects Research Program
      U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory
      Mail Drop - 39
      Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

      The AERP includes several integrated studies which are conducted in areas believed to be
potentially sensitive to change as a result of acidic deposition. The AERP addresses four major
policy questions relating to the effects of acidic deposition on aquatic ecosystems:  1) the extent
and magnitude of past change, 2) the change to be expected in the future under various rates of
acidic deposition, 3) the maximum rates of deposition below which further change is not ex-
pected, and 4) the rate of  change or recovery of aquatic ecosystems  if deposition rates are
decreased.

      The NSWS is comprised of the Regional Stream Survey (RSS) and the National Lake Sur-
vey (NLS), the latter of which is subdivided into the Eastern Lake Survey (ELS) and the WLS.
Each survey is conducted in two phases.  Phase I activities provide information to determine the
current status of lakes and streams. Phase II activities describe seasonal variation in regional sur-
face water chemistry.

      This data base package covers only the WLS-I. It is one of several products produced by
the AERP Technical Information Project which has the goal of making AERP information and
data available to state agencies and organizations involved in acidic deposition monitoring ac-
tivities. Address inquires regarding the AERP Technical Information Project to:

      Mr. R. E. Crowe, Technical Director, AERP Technical
         Information Project
      EPA/Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas
      P.O. Box 93478
      Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-3478
      (702) 798-2273
      FTS: 545-2273

      Included in this package are a computerized copy of the WLS-I data set and documenta-
tion necessary to make use of the data. There are three distributed WLS-I data sets: data set 3,
the validated data set; data set 4, the final data set; and the PC data set, which is a subset of data
set 4.  Data sets 3 and 4 are distributed on magnetic tape, and the PC data set is distributed on a
low-density diskette.

      Documentation provided in the data base package includes information about the design
and implementation of the WLS-I, a detailed description of the statistical design of the survey,
and a summary of survey results (Sections 1-3). The data base dictionary and instructions on ac-
cessing the data are included as appendices.

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      Questions about the information in the data base, reading the data, or analysis of the data
should be directed to:

      Mr. J. M. Eilers, Technical Director
      Western Lake Survey
      Northrop Services, Inc.
      200 S.W. 35th Street
      Corvallis, OR 97333
      (503) 757-4664

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                          2.0   SURVEY DESCRIPTION

2.1   OVERVIEW

      The NSWS was initiated by EPA when it became apparent that existing data could not be
used quantitatively to assess the present chemical and biological status of surface waters in the
United States. The results of the ELS-I are presented in detail in Linthurst et al. (1986), Overton
et al. (1986), and Kanciruk et al.  (1986).  The WLS-I survey design, presented in Landers et al.
(1987) and Eilers et al. (1987), is summarized here.

      Phase I of the NSWS is designed to provide a geographically extensive data base of suffi-
cient quality to estimate with known confidence the number of acidic and potentially sensitive
lakes  (lakes that have low acid-neutralizing capacity or ANC), identify their  location,  and
describe their present chemical status from a broad-scale, regional perspective. Phase II of the
NLS is designed to evaluate seasonal variability in lake chemistry. Lakes sampled in Phase I and
Phase II will be used to frame a long-term monitoring program which will evaluate regional-
scale, long-term trends in surface water chemistry that may be attributable to the effects of acidic
deposition.

      The WLS-I was conducted in the fall of 1985 in  five  high elevation areas in the western
United  States. The major areas surveyed included those containing the Sierra Nevada, the Cas-
cade Range, and the Rocky Mountains.  Because not all lakes in the western United States could
be sampled, a statistical procedure for selecting a subset of lakes for sampling was developed.
Lakes were selected using a stratified design with equal allocation of sample lakes to strata. Lakes
were selected in each stratum by systematic sampling of an ordered list following a random start.
The choice  of a desired sample size of 50 target lakes per stratum was based on the judgement
that this sample size would yield adequate precision for population estimates by stratum.

      During the WLS-I, one sample per lake was collected during the fall turnover period from
the apparent deepest part of the lake as an index to the essential characteristics of each lake. The
fall turnover period was selected because lake water chemistry within any single lake was expected
to be the most homogeneous during this season.
                         0
      The population to be sampled was defined as lakes located in those areas of the western
United States expected to contain an abundance of lakes with alkalinity <  400 fjieq L"1.  The
boundaries of the western region (Figure 2-1) were derived from a national map of surface water
alkalinity (Omernik and Powers 1983) and were considered to contain 95 to 99  percent of the
lower alkalinity lakes in the western United States. Unlike the Northeast and Upper Midwest in
the ELS-I (Linthurst et al. 1986), no subregions in the West were conterminous, because the low
alkalinity areas of the West generally coincide with major mountain ranges.

      Environmental data collection activities conducted or sponsored by EPA are based on a
program which ensures that the resulting data are of known quality.  The detailed  quality as-
surance plan for the WLS-I (Silverstein et al. 1987) provides protocols for assessment of data
quality in terms of precision, accuracy, completeness, and comparability.  Standardized methods
for sampling and analysis were developed, based upon the protocols used in the ELS-I (Morris et
al. 1986; Kerfoot and Faber 1987).

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      The data collected during the WLS-I were used to address the key objectives of the Survey--
identification of the numbers and locations of acidic lakes and lakes with low ANC, and quan-
tification of the present chemical characteristics of the western lake resource.  Because of the
WLS-I lake selection design, the standardized protocols employed in data collection, and the
quality assurance program, the data from the WLS-I can be used to compare the chemical status
of (1) lakes sampled in the West to those sampled in the East during the ELS-I,  (2) lakes
sampled among the five subregions of the West, and (3) lakes sampled within specific subpopula-
tions within subregions, such as wilderness lakes and nonwilderness lakes.
                               NORTHERN
                               ROCKIES (4C)
ALKALINITY MAP CLASSES
      (/ieq L'1)

       
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2.2   SURVEY DESIGN

2.2.1  Lake Selection

2.2.1.1   Probability Sample~The stratification factors used in lake selection were region, sub-
region, and alkalinity map class. The West was defined as one region (Region 4 in the National
Lake Survey) with five subregions (4A through 4E). Descriptive names of subregions were as-
signed (Figure 2-1). Lakes representing each of the three alkalinity map classes (ANC < 100,
100-199,200-400 jjieq L-1 derived from Omernik and Griffith 1986, Figure 2-1) were found within
each of the five subregions; thus, 15 strata were defined in the WLS-I.

      Lakes were identified and listed using  l:100,000-scale United States Geological Survey
(USGS) topographic maps in contrast of the ELS-I, in which l:250,000-scale maps were used for
lake selection.  Use  of l:100,000-scale maps permitted lakes with a  minimum size  of ap-
proximately 1 hectare (ha) to be identified, as opposed to the approximately 4 ha minimum used
in the ELS-I.

      Strata boundaries were delineated, and all lakes on the maps were numbered in spatial or-
der within each stratum.  The final number of lakes identified in each stratum was the total num-
ber of lakes in the map population for the stratum.  All population estimates for physical and
chemical attributes computed in this study refer to the map population of lakes and do not neces-
sarily represent conditions in lakes outside the area of coverage or in those not depicted on the
USGS topographic maps used.  For example, population estimates cannot be made for lakes
smaller than 1 hectare.

      Within each stratum, a systematic random sample of 50 lakes was drawn.  Lake numbers
were entered into a computer file in numberical order as labeled on the maps.  In each stratum,
the first lake was selected at random between lakes 1 and k (where k  is  the size of the map
population divided by  the desired sample size), and every kth lake was selected thereafter.  This
sample  is a true probability sample, i.e., within each stratum, each lake had an equal probability
of inclusion.

2.2.1.2   Identification of Non-target Lakes~"Non-target" lakes (Table 2-1) are those bodies of
water that either were not the focus of the Survey's objectives or could not be sampled within the
constraints of a synoptic survey. Non-target lakes were first identified in  the probability sample
by the examination of large-scale (1:24,000 or 1:62,500) USGS topographic maps. Categories of
non-target lakes identified by examining these maps include:

      1. No lake present: lakes initially identified on l:100,000-scale maps that did not appear
         on more detailed, larger scale maps.

      2. Flowing water: sites identified as lakes on l:100,000-scale maps that appeared as points
         on a stream on larger scale maps. However, if the small-scale maps were more recent
         than the large-scale maps and the lake in question was known to be a new reservoir, the
         lake was not eliminated.

      3. Urban/Industrial/Agricultural:  lakes surrounded by or adjacent to intense urban, in-
         dustrial, or agricultural land use including tailing  ponds, water treatment lagoons, and
         fish hatcheries.

      4. Wetlands: lakes identified on l:100,000-scale maps that appeared as wetlands on larger
         scale maps.

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      5.  Too small (< 1 ha): lakes identified on l:100,000-scale maps that were smaller than
         approximately 1 ha when measured on larger scale maps.   Because the resolution of
         most l:100,000-scale maps was about 1 ha, this limit was established for consistency.

      Following the elimination of non-target lakes by map examination, it was necessary to re-
store the number of selected lakes per stratum to 50.  Also, in the event that field crews encoun-
tered non-target lakes, additional lakes were selected. These additional lakes were chosen from
the computer file of lakes remaining after initial selection using the same  procedure as for  the
original set of lakes, and were also evaluated on large-scale maps to eliminate non-target lakes.

      The lakes that met the selection criteria after the map evaluation were provisionally desig-
nated as "target" lakes. This designation was refined further as a result of information obtained
during or after field sampling. The categories and numbers of non-target lakes eliminated during
or after sampling are given in Table 2-1. The definitions of these categories are as follows.

      1.  No lake present: sites visited that were found to be dry.

      2.  Flowing water: sites visited that were found to be streams.

      3.  High conductance:  lakes visited that were found to have a measured conductance
         greater than 1500 jjiS cm"1.

      4.  Urban / Industrial / Agricultural: lakes  that  were surrounded  by  or  were adjacent
         to intense anthropogenic activities.

      5.  Too shallow: lakes that were too shallow (generally less than 0.75 m) to obtain clean
         (i.e., free of debris and sediment) sample.

      6.  Other: lakes that were inaccessible due  to a permanent feature of  the  lake that
         prevented helicopters from landing safely (e.g., power lines).

      Lakes were classified as "not visited" (Table 2-1) if the reason for not sampling was unre-
lated to a permanent feature of the lake.  This category of lakes includes those that could  not be
visited because permission to sample was not obtained or weather conditions prohibited  access.
Lakes that were visited but were not sampled because they were frozen or were sampled, but were
found during data validation to be the wrong lake, were also classified as not visited. The target or
non-target status of this group of lakes could not be determined; thus, they represent incomplete-
ness in the sample. For statistical analyses,  it was assumed that lakes not visited were a random
subsample of the original probability sample and thus had the same proportion of non-target
lakes as the lakes that were visited.  This asumptions appears valid because no systematic dif-
ferences in lake area, watershed area, or elevation were found between frozen lakes and sampled
lakes.

      However, some differences were noted in the Central and Southern Rockies between the
frozen lakes and the sampled lakes (Table 2-2).  Frozen lakes were generally smaller and were lo-
cated at higher elevations than were the sampled lakes. It is also probable that the frozen lakes
were shallower  than the sampled lakes, although no measurements of lake depth in the  frozen
lakes are available to confirm this assumption. Analyses indicate that ANC is inversely related to
elevation in the Central Rockies  (Landers et al. 1987).  That frozen lakes in this subregion were
generally located at elevations higher than those estimated from the sampled lakes for the target
population suggests that the population estimates for the Central Rockies are not based on a
random subsample. The degree to which the population estimates underestimate the number of

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TABLE 2-1.  NON-TARGET LAKES AND LAKES NOT VISITED OR NOT
          SAMPLED,  WESTERN LAKE SURVEY - PHASE I
A. Probability sample lakes determined to be non-target from large-scale map examination


Categories
No Lake Present
Flowing Water
Urban/Industrial/
Agricultural
Wetlands
Too Small(< 1 ha)
Total

California
4A
7
1
2
2
14
26
Pacific
Northwest
4B
0
0
1
4
24
29
Northern
Rockies
4C
1
0
0
2
7
10
Central
Rockies
4D
1
1
0
1
18
21
Southern
Rockies
4E
1
1
3
0
3
8


Total
10
3
6
9
66
94
B. Non-target probability sample lakes determined during or after sampling


Categories
No Lake Present
Flowing Water
High Conductance
Urban/Industrial/
Agricultural
Too Shallow
Other
Total

California
4A
7
0
0
1
10
0
18
Pacific
Northwest
4B
2
0
0
0
15
0
17
Northern
Rockies
4C
5
0
1
0
18
0
24
Central
Rockies
4D
6
0
0
0
14
2
22
Southern
Rockies
4E
2
0
1
0
13
1
17


Total
22
0
2
1
70
3
98
C. Probability sample lakes that were not visited


Categories
No Access Permit
Bad Weather
Wrong Lake
Frozen

California
4A
2
0
0
1
Pacific
Northern
Northwest Rockies
4B
4
1
0
0
4C
0
0
1
7
Central
Rockies
4D
0
1
0
21
Southern
Rockies
4E
2
0
0
20


Total
8
2
1
49
Total
22
22
60

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TABLE 2-2.   POPULATION ESTIMATES OF MEDIAN LAKE AREA AND MEDIAN
              ELEVATION FOR  FROZEN LAKES  AND SAMPLED LAKES  IN
              CENTRAL  ROCKIES (4D)  AND SOUTHERN  ROCKIES  (4E),
              WESTERN  LAKE SURVEY-PHASE I
Stratum
                 Target Lakes Visited  (n***)     Lake Area (ha)
frozen    sampled
                                               Elevation (m) ,
frozen    sampled    frozen    sampled
Central Rockies
4D1
4D2
4D3

11
7
3

43
47
39

3.5
2.4
6.1

5.6
5.5
3.5

3338
3042
2865

3219
3042
2687
Southern Rockies
4E1
4E2
4E3
14
5
1
46
52
41
2.6
2.6
1.7
3.0
3.3
3.5
3394
3237
3188
3307
3456
3147
low ANC lakes in the Central Rockies is difficult to assess. However, comparison of WLS-I
results with previous surveys shows relatively close agreement (Eilers et al. 1987).

     The population estimates for the number of low ANC lakes in the Southern Rockies are
probably not affected to the degree that may have occurred in the Central Rockies.  The dif-
ference in lake  size between frozen  and sampled lakes is smaller  and there is no apparent
relationship between lake ANC and lake elevation in Subregion 4E. However, with such a large
proportion of the selected subsample unavailable for sampling in the Central and  Southern
Rockies, it is not possible to determine confidently the impact that frozen lakes had on  the
characterizations of the lake populations.

2.2.1.3.  Special Interest Lakes-Other  lakes,  in  addition to those  chosen in the probability
sample, were included in the WLS-I. Forty-two lakes that were not selected randomly, and are or
were the subjects of relevant research programs were selected as special interest lakes. Of these
lakes, samples were collected from 32.  All western lakes in the  current EPA Long-Term
Monitoring Program were selected as special interest lakes.  Other special interest lakes were in-
cluded based on recommendations from state and federal agencies.  Data from these lakes were
not used in computing population estimates, but individual lake results are shown in Volume II
of the Western Lakes Report (Eilers et al. 1987).

2.2.1.4.  Final Lake Lists and Maps-Lake names, identification (ID)  numbers, geographical
coordinates, wilderness area or park names, and map names were entered into computer files and
were printed for field crews. If no name was printed on the map for a given lake, the entry in the
file was "no name." Each lake was assigned a unique ID number coded for the stratum in which it
occurred (e.g., 4A2-011 is the llth lake selected  in alkalinity  map class 2 of Subregion A in
Region 4). The latitude and longitude for each lake were measured with 11 point dividers to the
nearest degree,  minute, and second and were checked by visual examination and computer-
generated overlays. Additionally, ID codes were printed on the topographic maps for use by field
crews in locating the lakes.

                                  8

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2.2.2  Variables Selected for Analysis

      A number of physical and chemical variables were measured in the WLS-1,24 of which are
shown in Table 2-3.  The variables were selected on the basis of their importance in chemically
characterizing lakes from a regional perspective, as well as for their biological importance.

TABLE 2-3.    SUMMARY OF VARIABLES MEASURED IN THE WESTERN LAKE
               SURVEY-PHASE Ia
Acid neutralizing capacity                         Magnesium, dissolved
Aluminum, extractable                            Manganese, dissolved
Aluminum, total                                  Nitrate, dissolved
Ammonium, dissolved                             pH
Calcium, dissolved                                Phosphorus, total
Carbon, dissolved inorganic                        Potassium, dissolved
Carbon, dissolved organic                         Secchi disk transparency
Chloride, dissolved                                Silica, dissolved
Color, true                                       Sodium, dissolved
Conductance                                     Sulfate, dissolved
Fluoride, total dissolved                           Temperature
Iron, dissolved                                   Turbidity

aThe complete list of variables for the Survey is given in Eilers et al. (1987) and Kanciruk et al.
(1986).

2.3   SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION

2.3.1 Base Site Operations

      During the WLS-I  sampling effort five base sites were established:  Missoula  and
Bozeman, Montana; Aspen, Colorado; Carson City, Nevada; and Wenatchee, Washington. Each
base site consisted of a mobile field laboratory, an area for storage and calibration of field equip-
ment, one helicopter, and one fixed-wing aircraft. Approximately 25 personnel were responsible
for collection and delivery  of samples to each field laboratory staffed by a crew of five people.
The field laboratories were responsible for sample tracking,  sample preservation, and sample
shipping by overnight courier to analytical laboratories.   Additionally, the field laboratories
analyzed samples collected in airtight sealed syringes for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon; two
chemical variables which are especially prone to change.

2.3.2 Field Sampling Activities

      Approximately six lakes per day were scheduled for sampling by each helicopter sampling
crew.  Ground crews sampled one or two lakes per day, depending on the distance they had to
travel to reach each site.  Upon approaching each lake, crews recorded watershed descriptions
for the site and conducted on-site measurements of a few key chemical variables.  Samples col-
lected at each lake included those to be processed through the field laboratory for delivery to the
analytical laboratories and  the two samples collected in airtight sealed syringes.  As part  of a
calibration study, helicopter crews collected 3 lake water samples (triplicates) and ground crews
collected 2 lake water samples (duplicates) from each of 45 calibration study lakes (see Section
2.4.1).

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2.3.3  Analytical Laboratory Operations

      Laboratories analyzing WLS-I samples were contractually required to process samples
within pre-established holding times according to standardized protocols (Kerfoot and Faber
1987). Data for each batch (an entire set of samples processed at one field laboratory on one day)
were required to be submitted to the Quality Assurance group at the Environmental Monitoring
Systems Laboratory (EMSL), Las Vegas, within 35 days of receiving the samples.

2.4   QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

      An extensive quality assurance program was designed to standardize all sampling and
analytical protocols and to ensure that the quality of the data could be determined. Field sam-
pling methods and field laboratory activities are detailed in Bonoff and Groeger (1986), Morris et
al. (1986), and Peck et al. (1985). Several types of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)
samples were used to ensure that sampling and analytical methods were performed as specified in
the QA plan. The results of QA sample analysis were used to evaluate the performance of field
sampling methods and field and analytical laboratory procedures. The analysis of QC samples al-
lowed field samplers and laboratory personnel to identify and quickly correct problems such as
instrument malfunctions or reagent contamination.

2.4.1  Calibration Study

      The necessity to access wilderness area lakes by ground rather than by helicopter required
that field sampling methods used in the WLS-I be modified from those previously used in the
ELS-I.  To evaluate the differences  between ground sampling and helicopter sampling, and the
potential effect of these differences  on data interpretation, 45 lakes located in wilderness areas
were sampled using both protocols.  This study was conducted primarily to determine if the data
from  samples collected by ground crews had to be "calibrated" or adjusted to ensure that they
were comparable to data from samples collected by helicopter crews.

      A statistical evaluation of the  data collected by helicopter crews and ground crews revealed
that no significant differences existed, consequently, data collected using both protocols were
pooled for data analysis. A related study with these samples which evaluated the effects of various
holding times revealed that the few instances of delay in sample delivery by the ground crews had
no significant effect on the chemical variables measured.

2.4.2  Data Base Quality Assurance

      Quality assurance of the WLS-I data base was accomplished through a series of steps
designed to identify and eliminate  errors and verify all questionable or  unusual  data.   Data
verification was a systematic process in which the raw data set was reviewed. The initial step in-
volved a review of the  field data forms to ensure that field QA/QC sample data were within pre-
viously established acceptance criteria.  The results reported by the analytical laboratories were
evaluated to ensure that the reports were complete, that laboratory QA/QC criteria were met, and
that, if necessary, data were appropriately qualified.

      The validation process for the WLS-I data base was designed to investigate potential errors
in the chemical analyses that were not detected during verification. The data validation proce-
dures provided a means of identifying questionable data, based on empirical evidence or statistical
analyses, and a way to determine the most appropriate value for a water quality variable when it
was measured in more than one way or when data substitution was necessary.  Data substitution
was necessary when values were missing from the data set.

                                    10

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2.4.3  Summary of OA/QC Results

      The numerous quality assurance/quality control procedures that were implemented during
the WLS-I are described in detail  in Silverstein et al. (1986).  Analysis of the QA/QC data
revealed that the two analytical laboratories performed well; however, for a few variables there
were systematic differences in the measurements reported. This relative laboratory bias has been
evaluated and is discussed in more detail in Landers et al. (1987) and Silverstein et al. (1987).
                                     11

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         3.0 STATISTICAL DESIGN APPLICATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS

3.1   EXTRAPOLATION FROM SAMPLE TO POPULATION

      For statistical analyses,  the probability sample was treated as a simple random sample
within each stratum.   The ordering of the lakes  and the systematic selection process were
designed to increase the precision over that which would have been obtained with a simple ran-
dom sample; therefore, statements of precision for population estimates are probably conserva-
tive.

      When population estimates from combined strata are required (e.g., when making sub-
regional or regional estimates), expansion factors or weights (W) must be used because the sam-
pling intensity varied among strata. These weights (the stratum target population size divided by
the stratum sample size) vary considerably among strata; for example, a lake sampled in one
stratum may represent three lakes, whereas  each lake sampled in another stratum may represent
36 lakes.

      This design permits strata to be combined when it is meaningful to do so. The flexibility of
the design also allows estimates  to be made for  specific subpopulations,  or subsets of lakes;
however, unless the definition of the population of interest is clearly stated, conclusions based on
the WLS-I data can be misleading.

3.2   ESTIMATING THE TARGET POPULATION SIZE AND ATTRIBUTES

      The first steps in the statistical analysis of the data were to estimate the target population
size in each stratum (N; Figure 3-1) and to determine the stratum-specific weights needed for in-
terstratum estimation.  The target population size in each stratum was estimated in two units:
number of lakes and lake area (in hectares).

      The statistical frame is defined by the list of lakes identified by the map population.  The
map population consists of both target and non-target populations.  Within each stratum, it is
possible to estimate the size of the target population by multiplying the number of sampled lakes
classified as target (n***) by the stratum-specific weight (W). This weight is the inverse of the in-
clusion probability  (P) of a target lake in the final sample, which is determined according to the
following equation:

                         P = 1/W = (n*/N*) q                                     (1)

where n* = the size of the sample drawn from the map population

     N* = the size of the map population

      q = the probability that a target lake in the drawn sample is actually visited;
           computed by dividing the actual number of lakes visited (n* - n  - n ) by the
           number of lakes intended to be visited (n* - nnb)             "    

           where nnb = the number of non-target lakes in the original sample, as
                      determined from the maps, and

                 no = the number of lakes not visited.
                                  12

-------
 ESTIMATED
 NON-TARGET
 LAKES
 SELECTED
 I
                LARGE SCALE
                    MAP
               EXAMINATION
               ESTIMATED
               NON-TARGET
               LAKES IN
               NOT VISITED
               LAKES
                                       DIRECT
                                    EXAMINATION
MULTIPLY BY EL,
ESTIMATED NON-TARGET
POPULATION  SIZE (Nn)
 ESTIMATED TARGET
 POPULATION SIZE
 (fi=N" -Nn)
                                                                MAP POPULATION
                                                                      (N*)
                                                        SELECTED LAKES
                                                               (n*)
                                                      LAKES SCHEDULED FOR
                                                      VISITATION (n*-nnb)
                                                               I
                                                                  LAKES VISITED
                                                          TARGET LAKES
                                                          VISITED (n"**)
                                                              WEIGHTING FACTOR (W)
                                                                W = N/n**"
                                                                  = N'/n'
                                                                n'= EFFECTIVE
                                                                    SAMPLE SIZE
Figure 3-1.  Procedures used to estimate the target population size, Western  Lake Survey -
           Phase I.

      Hence, P is the  probability of obtaining  a  water sample from  any target lake  in the
map population.  Note  that each lake within a stratum has the same value of P and hence the
same W, but that lakes from different strata can have different weights depending on the values of
n*, N*, or q. Within a stratum, the estimated number of target lakes in the map population is:
                                 N = W(n***)
                                                                        (2)
An alternate expression for W is this (N/n***)
      The use of equations 1 and 2 can be illustrated with the data from Stratum 4A1. A sample
of 60 lakes (n*) was selected from a map population of 1885 lakes . Three lakes in the sample
were determined to be non-target lakes based on the examination of large-scale maps (nnb), and
                                  13

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one lake was not visited (n ). Thus, the probability that a target lake in the sample from Stratum
4A1 was actually visited (q) is 56/57 = 0.982 and the probability of obtaining a water sample from
any target lake in the map population (P) is 0.982 (60/1885) = 0.031. The value of W to be used
in combining data from Stratum 4A1 with data from any other stratum is thus 1/0.031 = 31.978.
Because 54 target lakes (n***) were sampled in Stratum 4A1, the estimated target population size
(N) for the stratum is (31.98)(54) = 1727 lakes.

      The estimated target lake area in a stratum (A) was calculated similarly by multiplying the
total area of visited target lakes (2A) by the stratum weight:

                                A = W(2A)                                         (3)

The variances of N and A, for single strata, were estimated by:

                 V(N)  = N* [(N* - n')/(n'-l)][n***/n'][(n' - n***)/n']                    (4)

                 V(A)  = N* [(N* - n')/(n'-l)][l/n'][SA2 - (SA)2/n']                      (5)

where n', the "effective sample size," is used in place of n* because of incomplete visitation (i.e.,
n' = qn*). The standard errors are calculated as the square roots of the variances.

      For estimates of populations covering multiple strata, estimates  and variances must be
computed within strata and  added or else computed with equations containing weights  (see
below). Any explicitly defined subset of the total population of target lakes in the West is a sub-
population. Subpopulations can be defined over any combination of strata. For example, for any
given variable, each observed value of a variable, X, defines a subpopulation of lakes having a
value x less than or equal to that value.  Subpopulation definitions  also can be based on
geographic boundaries such as states or national parks.  This procedure was used in identifying
specific subpopulations in geomorphic units (Landers et al. 1987).

      Estimates for subpopulations that are defined within single strata can be generated using
formulae that are modifications of the equations given above (mathematically identical to the al-
gorithms used in generating all the statistics for the Survey).  To generate single stratum sub-
population equations from equations 2 through 5, each n*** is replaced by n and each S by S ,
where n is the number of sample lakes in the subpopulation z and 2 is the summation over the
sample lakes in the subpopulation z.                             z

      For example, all 22 lakes (nz) sampled in Rocky Mountain National Park are in Stratum
4E1, which has W = 3.261 (Section 4.1.2, Table 4-1). Thus, the estimated target population size
(N) for Rocky Mountain National Park is (3.261)(22) = 72 lakes. The 22 lakes have a combined
area of 106.8 ha (2 A); thus, the estimated area (A) of the target population in Rocky Mountain
National Park is (3.261)(106.8 ha) = 348.3 ha.

      A useful generalization, appropriate for any subpopulation and any combination of strata,
is that,

                             ft = ZW, and A = EWA,                                (6)

where summation is over the  appropriate subset of sample lakes in the appropriate strata, and
where the values of W are assigned according to the stratum in which the lake belongs.

      The use of equation  6  can be illustrated with the data for population estimates of acid

                                   14

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neutralizing capacity (ANC) by state. In Utah, 30 lakes were sampled. Eleven of these were in
Stratum 4D1 with W = 18.356,13 in Stratum 4D2 with W = 19.744, and 6 in Stratum 4D3 with
W =  14.918).  The estimated target population size (N) for Utah is calculated by adding the
product of nz and W for each stratum, which is the same as 11(18.356) + 13(19.744) + 6(14.918)
= 548 lakes.2 A subpopulation of the lakes in Utah can be defined by a particular value for ANC.
Only one of the lakes sampled in Utah had an ANC value <. 50 jieq L"1. This lake was in Stratum
4D2 with a weight of 19.744; thus, the estimated number of lakes in Utah with ANC <. 50 p,eq L'1
is 20, and the estimated proportion is 20/548 = 0.04.

      A further generalization, used in data analysis, leads to a similar formula for the estimated
variance of any variable, X, over any subpopulation and combination of strata:

                     Variance(X) = 2WX*/2W - (2WX/2W)2                          (7)

where the set of sample lakes in the summation defines the subpopulation of lakes for which the
variance is estimated.

      The weighting factors are extremely important.  Estimating population parameters from
sample data without accounting for weights can lead to erroneous calculations and incorrect in-
terpretation.  Examining relationships among variables with the expectation that these relation-
ships are representative of the population should only be done within strata or by using weighting
factors.

      By a method equivalent to calculating subpopulation estimates (number or area of lakes
with concentration less than or equal to x) and their associated upper confidence limits for all
possible values of X, cumulative frequency distributions [F(x)] and cumulative areal distributions
[G(x)] were calculated. At any value x, these curves represent the estimated number or area of
lakes in the population having a value for that variable less than or equal to x, with the 95 percent
upper confidence limit for  that number.  For some variables, interest is in the number of lakes
with concentrations above  a particular value (e.g., sulfate >  50 p,eq L"1), so the inverses of the
cumulative frequency distributions [l-F(x)]  and of the cumulative areal distributions [l-G(x)J
were generated in a similar  manner.

      Quintiles and medians for these cumulative frequency and areal distributions were also cal-
culated. The quintiles (Qi and 04) reflect the estimated values of x separating the distribution
into five equal parts (i.e., the 4th quintile is  the 80th percentile). The median is the estimated
value of x such that half the lakes in the population are characterized by concentrations of the
variable equal to or less than the value of x.

3.3   RESTRICTIONS

      The use and interpretation of any data set are restricted by the design, the quality of the
data obtained, and the sampling protocols.  The map and target populations and the period of
sampling are  the  primary design considerations influencing the proper interpretation of the
WLS-Idata.

      Estimates of the number of lakes within an area are strongly affected by the map scale used
to define  the map  population. Use of larger scale maps provides greater resolution and allows
smaller lakes to be identified and included in the population under consideration. The map scale
used to define the map population in the WLS-I was  1:100,000, which identified lakes as small as
approximately 1 ha. Lakes identified from l:24,000-scale maps can be as small as 0.1 ha.  Some
estimates of the number of lakes in portions  of the West have been based on larger scale maps

                                    15

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such as 1:62,500 or 1:25,000 (Turk and Adams 1983).
      To illustrate the influence of map scale in estimating the total number of lakes, the number
of lakes on l:100,000-scale maps within several areas of interest were counted.  The process was
then repeated using larger scale maps covering the same area as the l:100,000-scale maps. The
results show that large-scale maps display more lakes.

      Comparisons of the results of the WLS-I to those from other lake surveys in the West must
be done with knowledge of the map scales used to prepare the population estimates.  No direct
conclusions can be drawn about the population of lakes less than 1 ha from WLS-I data. This
restriction also applies to other categories of non-target lakes defined in the WLS-I.

      The period of sampling restricts the conclusions of the WLS-I to the fall of 1985. The ac-
curacy of extrapolating the fall index sample to other times of the year or to other years is not
known.  The degree to which short term, episodic events (e.g. spring snowmelt) affect the es-
timated chemical characteristics of western lake populations is not addressed.

3.4    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

3.4.1  Using Weights

      The design of the WLS-I requires that the results be presented as population and/or sub-
population estimates whenever conclusions on combined strata are to be drawn. Expansion fac-
tors or weights (W) must be used when making combined strata estimates of attributes for the
populations of lakes (Linthurst et al. 1986). These weights are defined, and the estimating equa-
tions are given, in Section 3.2.

      Using Strata 4A1 and 4A2 illustrates the requirement that all unweighted estimates  be
made within strata and that means or other statistics involving more than one stratum be calcu-
lated with the appropriate stratum weights (Table 3-1).  The correct way to estimate the total
number of lakes in two strata below a reference value (in this example ANC  <. 50 |xeq L"1) is to
determine first the total number of lakes in the sample below the reference value in each stratum
(n ).  The next step is to determine the proportion of lakes in the sample below the reference
value for each stratum (n/n***: 23/54 = 0.426 and 12/53 = 0.226). Next, multiply the proportion
of sample lakes below the reference value in the stratum by the estimated number of lakes in the
stratum population (N), which results in frc, the  estimated number of lakes in the stratum
population below the reference value. Adding the N for each stratum (735.5 + 101.1) yields the
combined stratum NC (836.6). The same answer can be obtained by multiplying n  by W for each
stratum and summing the results.

      The most accurate estimate for the overall proportion of lakes in the designated popula-
tion below the reference value, therefore, is 836.6/2173 = 0.384 (Table 3-1). If the overall propor-
tion of lakes below the reference value were computed as 35/107 = 0.327 (nc/n*** for the sum of
n and n*** for both strata), the answer would be biased. For example, there is an estimated total
of 2173 lakes in Strata 4A1 and 4A2.  Using the correct value of 0.384 as pc, the estimated number
of lakes with ANC <. 50 fjieq L'1 would be 837. Using the incorrect pc value of 0.327  (based on
the combined n/n***), the estimated number of lakes with ANC < 50 (xeq L'1 would be 711.
Therefore, the number of lakes estimated to have ANC <. 50 (xeq L'^n both strata would be un-
derestimated by 126 (837-711.)

      A less clear issue associated with the design and weighting is related to examining relation-
ships among variables. Unweighted analyses such as  regressions  or correlations should not be
used unless the relationships between the variables are the same across strata.  Unless the

                                   16

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relationships are independent of alkalinity map class  (and any factor associated with the
alkalinity map class strata) unweighted estimates can be biased,  as can  unweighted means or
medians and total numbers.

TABLE3-1.   USE  OF WEIGHTS IN COMBINED STRATA  ESTIMATION,
               WESTERN LAKE SURVEY-PHASE I
                                                                ANC<.50|jieqL
                                                                               -i
Stratum
4A1
4A2
Combined
N
1727
446
2173
n***
54
53
107
W
31.978
8.422

nc
23
12
35
PC
0.426
0.226
0.384
Nc
735.5
101.1
836.6
  ft   =  estimated number of lakes within an alkalinity map class stratum.
 n*** =  number of lakes  from which samples were obtained.
  W  =  weighting or expansion factor.
  nc  =  number of lakes  in the probability sample with ANC <. 50 p-eq L"1, the reference
         value.
  p   =  estimated proportion of lakes in the sample ( for a stratum ) or population ( for
         combined strata) which has ANC <.50 jxeq L'1 ( n./n*** ).
  51   =  estimated number of lakes in the population which has ANC <50 |xeq L'1. the
         reference value.
      In this report the estimated statistics for regression and correlation analyses and their as-
sociated standard errors are presented by stratum; thus, they are unweighted. Analyses which
combine strata (e.g., on a subregional level) are weighted and, as for strata, the regression statis-
tics are unbiased.  However, the standard errors associated with these combined estimates are
biased and, therefore, are not presented.

3.4.2  Evaluation of Alkalinity Map Classes

      The third level of stratification for the design was alkalinity map class (Section 2.2.1).  In
order to evaluate the effectiveness of the stratification based on alkalinity map class, measured
ANC values were compared to the ranges of alkalinity for each map class. For the design to be
most efficient, the largest percentage of lakes with ANC  < 100 (jueq L"1 should be observed in
Map Class 1, the largest percentage with ANC from 100-199 |Aeq L"1 should be observed in Map
Class 2 and the largest percentage having ANC J> 200 yueq L"1 should be observed in Map Class 3.
In general, the map classes used in lake selection were good estimates of the measured ANC, but
the intermediate class (100-199  n#q L"1) was less effectively classified by the maps than were the
other two classes.

      The maps also can be evaluated by examining the distribution of ANC within map classes.
In all cases, Map Class 1 had lower quintile values than either Map Class 2 or 3. Map Class 3 had
the highest quintile values of ANC  These results indicate that the map classes used in selection
led to increased efficiency in the design.
                                    17

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                                4.0 SURVEY RESULTS

4.1   DESCRIPTION OF TARGET POPULATION

4.1.1  Number of Lakes Sampled

      A total of 973 probability sample lakes was selected from the map population. Of those, 94
were classified as non-target by examination of large-scale maps, 98 were classified as non-target
when visited, and 60 were not visited (Table 2-1).  Data from water samples collected from 720
lakes were subsequently considered for use in making population estimates. One lake which was
larger than 2000 ha was excluded  from  population estimates; thus, the number of lakes upon
which population estimates are based is 719.

      Of the 42 special interest lakes selected, 32 were sampled.  The data collected from special
interest lakes are presented in Volume II of the WLS report (Eilers et al. 1987).  Because these
lakes were not part of the random selection process, weighting factors do not apply in this case,
and the representativeness of these lakes with respect to the chemical characteristics of the lake
population as a whole is uncertain.

4.1.2  Description of Target Population and Sample

      Table 4-1 gives the components of the population and sample by strata, subregions, and
region.  All estimates were made with the equations in Section 3.0 The weights provided in Table
4-1 are appropriate for all analyses  in which weighting is necessary.

4.1.3  Distribution of Lakes

      Of the 719 probability sample lakes, 455 were located in wilderness areas (Table 4-2). The
largest numbers of probability sample  lakes were sampled in the states of California (147),
Colorado (132), and Washington (117).  Only two lakes were sampled in Nevada and one in New
Mexico (Table 4-3). Most of the special interest lakes sampled were located in Montana (8), Utah
(7), and Wyoming (7). Based on the sample size of the probability sample lakes, and using the
equations developed to extrapolate to the total number of target lakes, it  is estimated that the
number of lakes characterized by the WLS -1 is 10,393 with a standard  error of 219.4 (see
Table 4-1).

4.2   ESTIMATED CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

4.2.1  Comparison among Subregions

      Five of the  chemical variables measured during the WLS-I were selected for detailed
analysis because of their direct relevance to the effects of acidic deposition on lake chemistry, as
described below:

      1. pH: In some lakes, continuous  inputs  of acids can result indecreases in pH and
         acid neutralizing capacity.

      2. ANC: In other lakes, acid neutralizing capacity may decrease before substantial
         decreases in pH occur; therefore, losses in acid neutralizing capacity may serve as a
         better indicator of acidification than decreases in pH.
                                   18

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 TABLE4-1.  DESCRIPTION OF THE TARGET POPULATION, SAMPLE AND
             WEIGHTING FACTORS EXCLUDING LAKES > 2000 ha, WESTERNR
             LAKE SURVEY-PHASE I
STR
4A1
4A2
4A3a
4B1
4B2
4B3
4C1
4C2
4C3
4D1
4D2
4D3
4E1
4E2
4E3
N*
1885
538
383
695
724
781
343
675
2317
885
1024
1061
150
261
1784
n*
60
65
72
70
70
70
60
60
65
60
60
75
60
63
63
n***
54
53
42
59
53
47
53
50
40
43
47
39
46
52
41
W
31.978
8.422
5.416
9.929
10.700
11.766
6.246
11.455
36.875
18.356
19.744
14.918
3.261
4.526
29.834
N
1726.81
446.37
227.47
585.81
567.10
553.00
331.04
572.75
1475.00
789.31
927.97
581.80
150.01
235.35
1223.19
SE(N)
67.58
23.94
20.34
28.87
34.78
42.01
7.85
30.38
139.79
38.89
40.78
60.90
0.00
9.11
106.19
A
14256
10822
10931
7676
9185
51177
1831
4136
30097
9242
7726
12818
711
1119
10123
SE(A)
2409
3355
3296
1566
3469
23022
196
794
11284
1877
1121
5324
65
136
2979
Subregion
4Aa
4B
4C
4D
4E
Region
4a
STR =
N* =
n* =
n*** =
W =
N =
2806
2200
3335
2970
2195

13506
stratum.
197
210
185
195
186

973

149
159
143
129
139

719









2400.65
1705.91
2378.79
2299.08
1608.55

10392.98

74.52
61.71
143.27
82.98
106.58

219.39

36009
68038
36065
29786
11953

181851

5284
23335
11314
5756
2983

27248

map population.
number of lakes in the probability sample.
number of lakes sampled.
weight.
estimated tan







ret population size.
SE(N)= standard error of N.
  A  = estimated area of target population.
SE(A)= standard error of A.
aLake Almanor (ID number = 4A3-017)  is not included in these estimates. The estimates
for the  target population which included Lake Almanor are:
STR 4A3:     N =  232.89, SE(N) = 20.22, A = (65148), SE(A) = 48927.
Subregion 4A:  N=  2406.07, SE(N) = 74.52,  A= 90227, SE(A) = 49101.
Region 4:     N = 10,398.40, SE(N) = 219.38, A = 236069, SE(A) = 55906.
                               19

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TABLE 4-2.   NUMBER  OF LAKES SAMPLED  WITHIN EACH SUBREGION IN
           THE WEST (REGION 4) DURING THE WESTERN LAKE SURVEY -
           PHASE I
Probability
Sample Lakes


Subregion
California (4A)
Pacific Northwest (4B)
Northern Rockies (4C)
Central Rockies (4D)
Southern Rockies (4E)
Total


Wilderness
97
90
82
96
90
455

Non-
Wilderness
52
69
61
33
49
264
Special
Interest
Lakes
2
3
5
19
3
32
TABLE 4-3.  NUMBER OF LAKES SAMPLED  WITHIN EACH STATE IN THE
           WEST (REGION 4) DURING THE  WESTERN LAKE SURVEY
           PHASE I


State
California
Colorado
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming
Total
Probability
Sample
Lakes3
147
132
72
80
2
1
55
30
117
83
719
Special
Interest
Lakes
2
3
2
8
0
0
3
7
0
7
32
  The number of probability sample lakes that were > 1 ha and <. 2000 ha.
                           20

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      3.  Sulfate: Sulfate concentrations in lake water can become elevated as a result of
         sulfate deposition, one of the key components of acidic deposition.

      4.  Extractable Aluminum: Acidification of lakes can  be accompanied by
         elevated concentrations of aluminum that can be toxic to aquatic organisms,
         particularly fish.

      5.  DOC: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in "colored" lakes is largely composed of
         organic acids of terrestrial origin. These compounds can serve as sources of
         hydrogen ion (i.e., acidity). Thus, some acidic lakes may be so because of the
         presence  of organic acids and not necessarily because of acidic deposition.

      A  qualitative comparison of estimated cumulative frequency distributions reveals that
many lakes in the West are characterized by low ANC (Figure 4-1). Acid neutralizing capacity in
lakes in the California subregion (4A) was generally lower than in other subregions. The ANC
values for the Northern Rockies (4C) and Southern Rockies (4E) were generally high relative to
other subregions. A similar comparison for pH indicates that a very small percentage of lakes in
the West had pH <. 6.0 (Figure 4-2).

      A  quantitative analysis of the characteristics of lakes in the five western subregions was
made using the sample results and the statistical design of the Survey.  Reference values for ANC
(50 jjieq L  and 200 (jieq L"1) and pH (6.0) were selected to estimate the number and percentage
of lakes in each subregion and in the West as a whole at or below these specific values. California
had the largest number and percentage of lakes with ANC <. 50 n-eq L  , followed by the Pacific
Northwest, the Northern Rockies, the Central Rockies, and the Southern Rockies. Nearly 67
percent of the estimated 10,393 lakes in the western target population had ANC <. 200 jjieq L"1
and  most of these (2078 lakes, 86.6%) were located in California. Only 103 lakes in the West
were estimated to have pH <. 6.0; the highest percentage and largest number were estimated for
the Pacific Northwest.

      Three additional key chemical variables (Table 4-4) were also used to compare lakes in the
five western subregions. An estimated 13.5 percent of the lakes in the West had sulfate  con-
centrations equal to or exceeding 50 p,eq L"1.  The estimated percentage of lakes in the Southern
Rockies  (33.7%) with sulfate J>  50 \ueq L"1 was  nearly twice that observed in the Pacific
Northwest, the subregion with the second highest percentage of lakes in this category.

      The number of clearwater lakes (true color <_ 30 platinum cobalt units) with extractable
aluminum concentrations J> 50 |xg L"1 was extremely low in western lakes; only 16 of the es-
timated 10,393 lakes had extractable aluminum concentrations in this category. No lakes with ex-
tractable aluminum J> 50 p-g L"1 were sampled in the Rocky Mountain subregions. The highest
percentages of lakes with dissolved organic carbon >. 6 mg L"1 were estimated for the Northern
and Southern Rockies.

4.2.2  Comparison between Eastern and Western Lakes.

      Median  values, representing  50 percent  of  the lakes surveyed in the estimated target
populations in the East and West, were compared by region and subregion for ANC, pH, and sul-
fate (Figure 4-3). The West had a lower estimated median ANC than did the Northeast, the Up-
per Midwest, and the Southern Blue Ridge. The median values for ANC in the Northeast and
West (158 and 119 n-eq L"1, respectively) were less than one-half that estimated for the Upper
Midwest (360 yueq L"1). For all subregions surveyed, California had the lowest median ANC value
(62.6 jjieq L"1), followed by Florida in the Southeast (83.5 yueq L"1) and Northcentral Wisconsin in

                                   21

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the Upper Midwest (93.9 fjieq L"1).  Median pH values for all eastern subregions were above 6.5,
and for all western subregions were near or above 7.0.

      The clearest differences between eastern and western lakes for these three variables were
observed for sulfate. All median values for western lakes were lower than those observed for any
other subregion except the Southern Blue Ridge.  The median value in the Southern Blue Ridge
(31.8 u,eq L"1) was slightly less than that observed for the Southern  Rockies (34.6 }ieq L"1), the
highest estimated for the West.  Median values of sulfate for all other eastern subregions were
above 50 jxeq L"1.

4.2.3 Summary Observations

      Some of the principal observations based on the results of Phase I of the Western  and
Eastern  Lake Surveys (Landers et al.  1987 and Linthurst et al. 1986) are presented below. These
conclusions are valid only for the areas surveyed within the four regions of the NLS~the North-
east, Upper Midwest, Southeast, and  West.   The conclusions are restricted further by the
 c
 o
 3
 Q.
 s.
'o
I
s.
80-


60-


40-


20-




80-


90-


40-


20-





80-


80-


40-


20-
         West
                          Population Size = 10393(219.4)
                             Sample Size = 719
         Pacific Northwest
                            Population Size = 1706(61.7)
                              Sample Size = 159
         Central Rockies..-	''
                            Population Size = 2299(83.0)
                              Sample Size = 129
                                                 California
                                                                                          80


                                                                                         -60


                                                                                         -40
                  Population Size  2401 (74.5)
                    Sample Size = 149
                                                 Northern Rockies
                  Population Size = 2379(143.3)
                    Sample Size = 143
Southern Rockies
                  PopulatlonSIze = 1609(106.6)
                    Sample Size- 139
                                                                                         -40
-20
-80


-60


-40


-20
       -1000   100200300400500800700800900      0   100200300400500600700600800  1000

                                    Acid Neutralizing Capacity (peg L-')
 Figure 4-1.  Cumulative frequency distributions  for acid  neutralizing capacity for the target
             populations of lakes in the western subregions sampled in fall, 1985 during Phase  I
             of the Western Lake Survey.   NOTE: The dashed  line is the 95  percent upper
             confidence limit. Population size is estimated; standard errors of these estimates are
             shown in parentheses.  These  plots can be used to make qualitative comparisons
             among areas  surveyed; e. g.,  the  dots  shown  for  California indicate that
             approximately 85 percent of the lakes  have ANC<.200p,eqL"1.  Data are from
             Landers et al. (1987) and Eilers et al. (1987).
                                      22

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 c
 o
 s
 s.
80-


40-


20




80


60-


40-


20-




80-


60-


40-


20-
             West
            Population Size = 10393(219.4)
               Sample Size = 719
Pacific Northwest
            Population Size = 1706(61.7)
              Sample Size = 159
             Central Rockies
            Population Size = 2299(83.0)
              Sample Size = 129
                                                    California
                                        Population Size = 2401 (74.5)
                                          Sample Size = 149
Northern Rockies
                                       Population Size = 2379(143.3)
                                          Sample Size = 143
                                        Southern Rockies
                                        Population Size - 1609(106.6)
                                          Sample Size = 139
          4.0
                  9.0
                                          8.0
                                                  PH
Figure 4-2.   Cumulative frequency distributions for pH for the target populations of lakes in the
             western subregions sampled in fall, 1985 during Phase I of the Western Lake Survey.
             NOTE: The dashed line is the 95 percent upper confidence limit. Population size is
             estimated; standard errors of these estimates are shown in parentheses.  These plots
             can be used to make qualitative comparisons among areas  surveyed; e. g., the dots
             shown for the Southern Rockies indicate that approximately 14 percent of the  lake
             have pH <. 7.0. Data are from Landers et al. (1987) and Eilers et al. (1987).

Survey design criteria, which define the lake populations, or subpopulations, of interest selected
for sampling specifically to satisfy the objectives of the Survey. Extrapolation beyond the study
area or to lakes not meeting the selection criteria is not possible without further analyses.

      The following conclusions apply to the areas of the western United States sampled and
covered by the design of the Western Lake Survey.

      1. No lakes sampled in the West had ANC <_ 0 imeq L"1, with the exception of one lake
         associated with a hot spring.
                                     23

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TABLE 4-4.   ESTIMATED  NUMBER  OF  LAKES ,  AND  NUMBER AND
              PERCENTAGE  OF  LAKES  WITH SELECTED VALUES OF THREE
              KEY VARIABLES  FROM PHASE I  OF THE WESTERN  LAKE
              SURVEY.a'b THE  95 PERCENT  UPPER  CONFIDENCE LIMITS
              (UCL)  FOR  LAKE  NUMBER ARE SHOWN  IN PARENTHESES0.
Extractable
Sulfate6 Ald>f DOC8
Region/ Population
Subregion Size Number(UCL) % Number(UCL) % Number(UCL) %
California (4A)
Pacific NW(4B)
N. Rockies (4C)
Cen. Rockies (4D)
S. Rockies (4E)
2401
1706
2379
2299
1609
West (4) 10,393
187
292
256
128
543
1405
(300)
(374)
(399)
(198)
(711)
(1676)
7.8
17.1
10.7
5.6
33.7
13.5
5(14)
11 (28)
0 (-)
0 (-)
0 (-)
16 (35)
0.2
0.6
0
0
0
0.2
71
45
196
93
158
(129)
(80)
(326)
(152)
(263)
563 (753)
3.0
2.7
8.2
4.0
9.8
5.4
a ~^i v,o o-^A ^- on/in Via
b Data are from Landers et al. (1987) and Eilers et al. (1987).
c Upper confidence limits for values of zero are undefined.
d Data are for "clearwater" lakes only, i.e., with true  color values _<. 30 platinum cobalt units.
e Estimated target for sulfate is ^.SOjjieqL"1
f Estimated target for extractable Al is  >. 50 p,g L"1
8 Estimated target for Dissolved Organic Carbon is  >. 6 mg L"1
      2.  Of the subregions sampled in the West, California had the largest number (880) and
         percentage (36.7%) of lakes with low ANC (<. 50 yueq L"1); followed by the Pacific
         Northwest (332 lakes, 19.5%).  The Southern Rockies had the lowest percentage and
         smallest number of lakes with low ANC (74 lakes, 4.6%).

      3.  Lakes in wilderness areas had much lower concentrations of ANC than lakes in
         nonwilderness areas (median values 91.4 jxeq L"1 and 282.7 p,eq L"1, respectively).

      4.  pH values were high in the West, where 99 percent of the lakes had values greater
         than 6.0. Median pH values for the subregions ranged from 6.94 in California to
         7.60 in the Southern Rockies.

      5.  Median sulfate concentrations were extremely low throughout the West, ranging from
         6.6 (Jieq L"1 in California to 34.6 jieq L"1 in the Southern Rockies. In comparison,
         median concentrations for lakes in the East were 115.4 p,eq L"1 for the Northeast, 57.1
         (jieq L"1 for the Upper Midwest, 31.8 n-eq L"1 for the Southern Blue Ridge, and
         93.7 jjueq L1 for Florida.
                                 24

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      6. Extractable aluminum concentrations in clearwater lakes were very low throughout
         the West.  Only 0.2 percent of the lakes in the West had extractable aluminum
         concentrations exceeding 50 jxg L"1 compared to 5.2 percent of the lakes in the
         Northeast, and 7.4 percent of the lakes in Florida. Lakes in the West were most
         similar to those for the Southern Blue Ridge, where no lakes exceeded this criterion.

      7. Concentrations of DOC were also low throughout the West; only 5.4 percent of the
         lakes in the West had DOC values exceeding 6 mg L"1 whereas this criterion was
         exceeded for 26.4 percent of the lakes in the Northeast, 62.9 percent in the Upper
         Midwest, and 68.9 percent in Florida. DOC in the Southern Blue Ridge was
         similar to the West with 6.1 percent of the lakes having DOC >. 6 mg L "1.

4.2.4 Additional Information

      Results of the WLS-I are presented in much greater detail in the two volume report
entitled Characteristics of Lakes in the Western United States (Landers et al. 1987; Eilers et al.
1987).
                                       East versus West


300
200
100

75
70
65

100
50

Acid Neutralizing Capacity












n







(802(D







II









.
H n
n n



n

 hill Mill 1, illlll



e


9(159)
1
I
Sulfate




&
il
N K

ii

Ii 8
I
; . H a 8

R
1A 18 1C 10 1E 1 2A 2B 2C 2D 2 3A 3B 4A 4B 4C 40 4E 4
Northeast Upper Midwest Southeast West
Figure 4-3.  Median values for acid neutralizing capacity, pH, and sulfate by subregion for the
            Northeast, Upper Midwest, Southeast and West, for lakes in the target population
            surveyed during Phase I of the National Lake Survey. NOTE: ANC and sulfate are
            measured in (ieq L"1; pH is measured in pH units.
                                   25

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                                  5.0   REFERENCES
Bonoff, M. B., and A. W. Groeger. 1987. National Surface Water Survey, Western Lake Survey
   (Phase I) Field  Operations Report.  EPA/600/8-87/018, U. S. Environmental Protection
   Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada. 21 p. (In press.)

Eilers, J. M., P. Kanciruk, R. A. McCord, W. S. Overton, L. Hook, D. J. Blick, D. F. Brakke, P. E.
   Kellar, M.  D.  DeHaan,  M. E.  Silverstein, and D. H.   Landers. 1987.  Characteris-
   tics of Lakes in the Western United States.  Volume II: Data Compendium  for Selected
   Physical and  Chemical  Variables.  EPA/600/3-86/054b,  U. S.  Environmental Protec-
   tion Agency, Washington, D. C. (In press.)

Kanciruk, P., J.  M. Eilers, R. A.  McCord,  D. H.  Landers, D. F.  Brakke,  and R.   A.
   Linthurst. 1986. Characteristics of Lakes  in  the Eastern United States Volume III: Data
   Compendium  of Site  Characteristics and Chemical Variables.  EPA/600/4-86/007c, U. S.
   Environmental Protection  Agency, Washington, D. C. 439 p.

Kerfoot,  H. B., and M. L. Faber. 1987.  National Surface Water Survey, Western Lake Sur-
   vey -  Phase I.  Analytical  Methods Manual.  EPA/600/8-87/038, U. S. Environmental
   Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada. (In preparation.)

Landers, D.H.,J. M. Eilers,  D. F. Brakke,  W. S. Overton, R. D. Schonbrod, R. E. Crowe,
   R. A. Linthurst, J. M. Omernik, S. A. Teague, and E. P. Meier.  1987.  Characteristics of Lakes
   in the Western United States. Volume I: Population Descriptions and Physico-Chemical
   Characteristics. EPA/600/3-86/054a, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington,
   D. C. (In press.)

Linthurst, R. A., D. H. Landers, J. M. Eilers, D. F. Brakke, W. S. Overton, E. P. Meier, and R. E.
   Crowe.  1986.  Characteristics   of  Lakes in the  Eastern   United  States.  Volume  I:
   Population Descriptions and  Physico - Chemical Relationships.  EPA/600-4-86/007a, U. S.
   Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. C 136 p.

Morris, F. A., D. V. Peck, D. C. Hillman,  K. J.  Cabbie,  S.  L.  Pierett, and W. L. Kinney. 1986.
   National  Surface Water Survey, Western Lake Survey  (  Phase I ),  Field Training  and
   Operations Manual. (Internal report).  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas,
   Nevada, 201 p.

Omernik, J. M. and G. E. Griffith. 1986. Total Alkalinity of Surface Waters:  A Map of the
   Western Region. EPA/600/D-85/219. Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory, U. S.
   Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Oregon. 52 p.

Omernik, J. M., and C. F. Powers. 1983.  Total alkalinity of surface waters - A national map.
   Ann. Assoc. Am. Geog. 73:133-136.

Overton, W. S., P. Kanciruk, L. A. Hook, J. M. Eilers, D.  H. Landers, D. F. Brakke, D. J. Blick,
   Jr., R. A. Linthurst, M. D. DeHaan, and J. M. Omernik. 1986. Characteristics of Lakes in the
   Eastern United States. Volume  II:  Lakes Sampled and  Descriptive Statistics for Physical
   and  Chemical  Variables. EPA/600/4-86/007b, U.  S.  Environmental Protection Agency,
   Washington, D. C. 374 p.
                                   26

-------
Peck, D. V., R. F. Cusimano,  and W. L.  Kinney.  1985.  National Surface  Water  Survey,
   Western  Lake  Survey - Phase I,  Ground Sampling  Training and  Operations Manual.
   (Internal report). U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada 37 p.

Silverstein, M.  E., S. K Drouse',  J. L. Engels, M. L. Faber, and T. E. Mitchell-Hall.  1987.
   National Surface  Water Survey Western  Lake Survey  (Phase I - Synoptic  Chemistry)
   Quality Assurance Plan.   EPA/600/8-87/026, U. S.  Environmental Protection Agency,
   Las Vegas, Nevada.

Silverstein, M. E., M. L. Faber, S. K. Drouse', and T. E. Mitchell-Hall. 1987. National Surface
   Water Survey Western Lake Survey ( Phase I -  Synoptic Chemistry ) Quality Assurance
   Report. EPA/600/X-87/007, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
   (In preparation.)

Turk, J. T. and D. B. Adams.  1983. Sensitivity to Acidification of  Lakes  in  the  Flat Tops
   Wilderness Area, Colorado.  Water Resources Research 19:346-350.

Wilderness Act of 1964. Public Law 88-577.
                                  27

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                                 APPENDIX A


                           DATA BASE DICTIONARY
Notice: This document contains proprietary information received from Oak Ridge National
Laboratory and has been reprinted here in full with the authors' permission.
                                      A-l

-------

-------
ornl
                                      ORNL/TM-10307
 OAKRBDGE
  tt ftwy-
   sum :
'
               , INC,
                         National Surface Water Survey:
                         Western Lake Survey-Phase I,
                             Data Base Dictionary
                                  Paul Kanciruk
                                  Merilyn Gentry
                                  Raymond McCord
                                  Les Hook
                                  Joseph Eilers
                                  Mary D. Best
                             Environmental Sciences Division
                                Publication No. 2838

-------
     Printed in the United States of America. Available from
             National Technical Information Service
                  U.S. Department of Commerce
        5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161
     NTIS price codesPrinted Copy: A05  Microfiche A01
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the
United States Government. Neither theUnitedStatesGovernment nor any agency
thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or
assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or
usefulness of  any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or
represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein
to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,
manufacturer,  or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or  imply its
endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or
any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not
necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency
thereof.

-------
                                                           ORNL/TM-10307
                    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES DIVISION
                     NATIONAL SURFACE WATER SURVEY:
                      WESTERN LAKE SURVEY-PHASE I,
                          DATA BASE DICTIONARY

                    Paul  Kanciruk, Herilyn Gentry,1
                       Raymond McCord, Les  Hook,'
                   Joseph  Eilers,2  and Mary 0. Best3

                     Environmental  Sciences Division
                          Publication No.  2838
Science Applications International Corporation,  800 Oak Ridge
 Turnpike, Oak Ridge, TN  37831

2Northrop Services, Inc., 200 SW 35th Street,  Corvallis, OR  97333

3Lockheed-EMSCO, Inc., 1050 E. Flamingo Rd.t  Las  Vegas, NV  89109
                        Date  of  Issue    May  1987
                            Prepared for the
                  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                  under
                  Interagency Agreement No. 40-1441-84
                             Prepared  by  the
                      OAK  RIDGE  NATIONAL  LABORATORY
                       Oak Ridge,  Tennessee   37831
                              operated by
                  MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
                                 for the
                        U.S.  DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                  under Contract No. DE-AC05-840R21400

-------
                                 NOTICE

     This research was funded as part of the National  Acid  Precipitation
Assessment Program (NAPAP)  by the U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
(EPA).  The research described in this report has not been  subjected  to
EPA's or NAPAP's required peer and policy review and,  therefore, does
not necessarily reflect the views of these organizations, and no
official endorsement should be inferred.
     This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an
agency of the U.S. government.  Neither the U.S. government nor any
agency thereof nor any of their employees makes any warranty, express
or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the
accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,
product, or process disclosed or represents that its use would not
infringe privately owned rights.
     Reference here to any specific commercial product,  process, or
service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not
necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or
favoring by the U.S. government or any agency thereof.  The views and
opinions of authors expressed here do not necessarily state or reflect
those of the U.S. government or any agency thereof.
                                   ii

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                                CONTENTS





                                                                    Page




LIST OF TABLES	     v



RELATED DOCUMENTS  	   vii



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS		    ix



ABSTRACT	    xi



1.  INTRODUCTION 	     1



2.  DATA BASE DESIGN	     3



3.  DATA TAGS AND FLAGS	     6



4.  LIST OF VARIABLES	    12



5.  DEFINITION OF VARIABLES	    20



6.  CARD-IMAGE FORMAT DEFINITION 	    38



7.  DATA TRANSPORT VERIFICATION  	    50




REFERENCES	    69
                                    iii

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LIST OF TABLES
Table
1

2
3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

I4

15

16


Summary of information collected during the
U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	
Characteristics of data sets 3 and 4 and the PC data set .
Tag code definitions, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-
Phase I 	
Flag code definitions, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-
Phase I 	
List of variables, all data sets, U.S. EPA Western Lake
Survey-Phase I 	
Definition of variables, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-
Phase I 	
Card-image format definition, data set 3, U.S. EPA
Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	
Card-image format definition, data set 4, U.S. EPA
Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	
Card-image format definition, PC data set, U.S. EPA
Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	 	 .
Characteristics of numeric variables, data set 3,
U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	
Characteristics of numeric variables, data set 4,
U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	
Characteristics of numeric variables, PC data set,
file WLS-I.RES, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I ...
Characteristics of numeric variables, PC data set,
file WLS-I.SPC, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I ...
Card-image listing (first five lakes), data set 3,
U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	
Card-image listing (first five lakes), data set 4,
U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I 	
Card-image listing (first five lakes), PC data set,
file WLS-I.REG, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I ...
Page

2
4

7

8

13

21

39

45

49

51

54

56

57

58

63

68

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                           RELATED DOCUMENTS*
Anonymous.  1984.  National Surface Water Survey,  National  Lake Survey -
     Phase I, Research Plan.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Washington, D.C. (internal  document).
Best, M. 0.,  L. W. Creelman, S.  K. Drouse, and D.  J.  Chaloud.   1986.
     National Surface Water Survey, Eastern Lake Survey - Phase I,
     Quality Assurance Report.  EPA 600/4-86-011,  U.S.  Environmental
     Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Bonoff, H. B., and A. W.  Groeger.   1987.   National Surface  Water
     Survey,  Western Lake Survey - Phase  I, Field  Operations Report.
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas,  Nevada.
Drouse, S. K., D. C .J. Hillman, L. W.  Creelman, J. F.  Potter,  and
     S. J. Simon.  1986.   National Surface Water Survey, Eastern Lake
     Survey - Phase I, Quality Assurance  Plan.  EPA 600/4-86-008.
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas,  Nevada.
Eilers, J. M., P. Kanciruk, R. A.  McCord, W. S. Overton, L. A.  Hook,
     D. J. Blick, D. F. Brakke,  P. E.  Kellar, M. E. Silverstein, and
     D. H. Landers.  1986.  Characteristics of Lakes  in the Western
     United States.  Volume II:   Data  Compendium for Selected  Physical
     and Chemical Variables.  EPA-600/3-86/054B.  U.S.  Environmental
     Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Eilers, J. M., D. J. Blick, Jr., and M. S. DeHaan.  1986.  National
     Surface Water Survey, Eastern Lake Survey - Phase I.  Validation
     of the Eastern Lake  Survey - Phase I Data Base.
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis,  Oregon.
Hillman, D. C. J., J. F.  Potter, and S. J. Simon.   1986.  National
     Surface Water Survey, Eastern Lake Survey - Phase I, Analytical
     Methods Manual.  EPA 600/4-86-009.  U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency,  Las Vegas,-Nevada.
Kanciruk, P., M. J. Gentry, R. A.  McCord, L. A. Hook,  J. M. Eilers,  and
     M. D. Best.  1986.  National  Surface Water Survey:  Eastern Lake
     Survey - Phase I, Data Base Dictionary.  ORNL/TM-10153.  Oak Ridge
     National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  102  pp.
Kanciruk, P., J. M. Eilers, R. A.  McCord, D. H. Landers, D. F.  Brakke,
     and R. A. Linthurst.  1986.  Characteristics  of  Lakes  in  the
     Eastern United States.  Volume III:   Data Compendium of Site
     Characteristics and  Chemical  Variables.  EPA-600/4-86-007C.
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,  D.C.
Kanciruk, P., R. J. Olson, and R.  A. McCord.  1986.  Quality Control  in
     Research Databases:   The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
     National Surface Water Survey Experience,  pp. 193-207.  IN
     W. K. Michener (ed.), Research Data  Management in the  Ecological
     Sciences, The Belle  W. Baruch Library in Marine Science,  No. 16,
     University of South  Carolina Press,  Columbia.
     *These documents fully describe the purpose, design, and results
of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Western Lake Survey-Phase I,

-------
Kerfoot, H.  8., and M. L. Faber.   1986.   National Surface Water Survey,
     Western Lake Survey --Phase  I, Analytical  Methods Manual.
     Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Landers, D.  H., J. M. Eilers, D.  F. Brakke, W.  S. Overton,
     R. D. Schonbrod, R. E. Crowe, R. A. Linthurst, J. M. Omernik,
     S. A. league, and E. P. Meier.  1986.   Characteristics of  Lakes
     In the Western United States.  Volume  I:  Population Descriptions
     and Physico-chemical Relationships.  EPA-600/3-86-054A.
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Washington, D.C.
Linthurst, R. A., D. H. Landers,  J. M. Eilers,  0. F. Brakke,
     W. S. Overton, E. P. Meier,  and R.  E.  Crowe.  1986.
     Characteristics of Lakes in  the Eastern United States.  Volume I:
     Population Descriptions and  Physico-chemical Relationships.
     EPA-600/4-86-007A.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Washington, D.C.
Morris, F. A., D. V. Peck, M. B.  Bonoff, and K. J. Cabbie.  1986.
     National Surface Water Survey, Eastern Lake Survey - Phase I,
     Field Operations Report.  EPA 600/4-86-010.  U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Norton, S. A.  1982.  Distribution of Surface Water Sensitive to Acid
     Precipitation:  A State Level Atlas.  NADP Technical Report #4.
     Department of Geological Science, University of Maine, Orono.
     72 pp.
Overton, W. S., P. Kanciruk, L. A. Hook, J. M.  Eilers, D. H. Landers,
     D. J. Blick, Jr., D. F. Brakke, R.  A.  Linthurst, M. S. DeHaan, and
     J. M. Omernik.  1986.  Characteristics of Lakes  in the Eastern
     United States.  Volume II:  Lakes Sampled and Descriptive
     Statistics for  Physical and Chemical Variables.
     EPA-600/4-86-007B.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
     Washington, D.C.
Silverstein, M. E. S. K. Drouse,  M. L. Faber, and T.  E. Mitchell-Hall.
     1986.  National Surface Water Survey,  Western Lake Survey  -  Phase
     I, Quality Assurance Plan.  U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency,
     Las Vegas, Nevada.
Silverstein, M. E.,  S. K. Drouse, M. L. Faber, T. E.  Mitchell-Hall.
     1987.  National Surface Water Survey,  Western Lake Survey  -
     Phase I,  Quality Assurance Report.  U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Las Vegas,  Nevada.
Snead,  R. E.   1980.  World  Atlas of Geomorphic Features.
     Robert E. Krieger  Publishing Co. Inc., Huntington, New York.
     301 pp.

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                             ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     We gratefully acknowledge the many people who helped create the
Western Lake Survey-Phase I data base, including Cindy Wear,
Sharon Chandler, and Shelia Ladd [Oak Ridge National  Laboratory
(ORNL)]; Jim Blick, Mark DeHaan, Sharon league, Doug  Brown,  Colleen
Johnson, Regina O'Brien, and Barbara Rosenbaum (Northrop Services,
Inc.); and Sevda R. Drouse, Mark Silverstein, Carol MacLeod,  Karen
Cougan, Daniel C. J. Hillman, Daniel Allison, and Richard Maul
(Lockheed-EMSCO, Inc.).  Without their expertise and  attention  to
numerous details, this complex research data management project could
not have succeeded.
     We thank Dick Olson and Larry Voorhees (ORNL), Penny Kellar
(Radian Corporation), and Sevda Drouse (Lockheed-EMSCO) for their
reviews of the manuscript.  Jennifer Seiber is appreciated for  careful
document preparation.
     We especially thank the National Surface Water Survey management
team for the opportunity to work on an interesting and challenging
project.
                                   ix

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                                ABSTRACT
     Kanciruk, Paul, Merilyn Gentry, Raymond McCord,  Les Hook,
          Joseph Eilers, and Mary D. Best.   1987.   National
          Surface Water Survey:  Western Lake Survey-Phase I,
          Data Base Dictionary.  ORNL/TM-10307.   Oak  Ridge
          National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.    90 pp.
     The Western Lake Survey-Phase I (WLS-I), conducted in the fall of

1985, was the second part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

field sampling effort known as the National Surface Water Survey.  The

WLS-I followed the Eastern Lake Survey-Phase I, which was conducted in

the fall of 1984 and included the northeastern, southeastern, and upper

midwestern regions of the United States (see "Related Documents").

Both surveys were designed to quantify synoptically the lake chemistry

in areas of the United States where the majority of lakes were expected

to exhibit low alkalinity.  These surveys were conducted as part of the

National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.

     The survey involved a three-month field effort in which 720

probability sample lakes and 32 special interest lakes in the western

regions of the United States were sampled.  The Environmental Sciences

Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory designed and implemented

data management and provided data analysis for the WLS-I.
                                   xi

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     This document provides the information necessary for researchers

to accurately transfer the WIS-I data base to their own computer

systems.  As a data dictionary, this document also includes  complete

descriptions of the variables in the data base and of the data set

formats.
Keywords:  National Lake Survey; NSWS; Western Lake Survey;  Water
           Quality; Acidic Deposition; Acid Rain;  EPA;  Research Data
           Management.
                                   xii

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                            1.   INTRODUCTION

     This data dictionary describes the U.S. Environmental  Protection
Agency's (EPA's) Western Lake Survey-Phase I (WLS-I)  data  base.   A
description of the purpose, design, and results  of the survey is
contained in the two-volume report on the WLS-I  (Landers  et al.  1987;
Eilers et al.  1987).  Table 1 summarizes the information  collected
during the survey.
     This dictionary does not report the results of the survey nor does
it describe its purpose, design, or protocols.  The purpose of the data
base dictionary is to provide to data managers and programmers the
information necessary to transfer accurately the WLS-I data to their
own computer systems.

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            Table 1.  Summary of information collected during the
                     U.S.  EPA Western  Lake Survey-Phase  Ia
Geographic information

Bedrock
County
Elevation
Geographic face
Geomorphic unit
Lake area
Lake ID

Collected on the lake

Air temperature
Conductance
Depth
                    Lake name
                    Latitude
                    Longi tude
                    Presence of inlets/outlets
                    State
                    USGS map names
                    Watershed area
Number of inlets/outlets
pH
Secchi disk transparency
Watershed disturbances
Water temperature
Measured in the field laboratory

Color        Dissolved inorganic carbon

Measured in the analytical 1aboratory
                       PH
Acid neutralizing capacity  Dissolved organic carbon
Acidity
Air-equilibrated pH
Ammonium
Calcium
Chloride
Conductance
Dissolved inorganic carbon

Calculated or interpolated
     Extractable aluminum
     Fluoride
     Initial titration pH
     Iron
     Magnesium
     Manganese
     Nitrate
    Turbidity
     Phosphorus
     Potassium
     Silica
     Sodium
     Sulfate
     Total aluminum
Anion deficit
Bicarbonate ion
Calculated conductance
Carbonate ion
Distance from ocean
Estimated hydraulic residence time
Lake volume
Organic anions
                     Precipitation
                     Runoff
                     Sum of anions
                     Sum of base cations
                     Sum of cations
                     Sum of cations/sum of anions
                     Watershed/lake area
     aFor a complete list and definition of variables, see Sects. 4 and 5.
For a description of the survey purpose, design, and results, see the
"Related Documents" listed on pp. vii and viii of this report.

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                          2.   DATA BASE DESIGN

     The WLS-I data base was  developed at the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory (ORNL) on tandem IBM* 3033 mainframe computers  using the
SAS  statistical analysis software system.  The data were entered
into a series of relational (tabular) SAS files which,  after extensive
error checking and validation, were merged to create the data sets
distributed for public use.  A description of data base design and
implementation is presented in Kanciruk, Olson, and McCord (1986).
     Two working data sets (1 and 2) were used internally to verify and
validate the WLS-I data base.  These are not distributed.   There are
three distributed WLS-I data  sets (Table 2):  data set 3 (the validated
data set), data set 4 (the final data set), and a subset of data set 4
[the personal computer (PC) data set, distributed on IBM PC format
disks].  Data sets 3 and 4, which are distributed on magnetic tape  in
both SAS and card-image formats, contain similar sets of variables, but
duplicate lake samples [collected for quality assurance (QA)] are
identified separately only in data set 3.  In data set 4 and the PC
data set the duplicate samples were averaged, and only the average
value is reported for each lake; additionally, some missing data were
substituted with estimates based upon duplicate analyses (Eilers,
Blick, and DeHaan, 1987).  For example, if the analytical laboratory
calcium value was missing, a calcium value determined from the split
sample with the EPA Corvallis laboratory was substituted.
     *IBM is the registered trademark of International Business
Machines Corporation, Boca Raton, Florida 33432.
     tSAS is the registered trademark of SAS Institute Inc., Cary,
North Carolina 27511.

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         Table 2.   Characteristics of data sets 3 and 4 and the PC data set
Characteristic
Format,
media
Number of files
File namesa



Approximate
size in HBytes
Number of
observations
Number of
variables
Duplicate
lake samples
Number of
observations
per lake
Tags present
Flags present
Missing data

Missing value
representation0
Unique key

Data set 3
(validated)
SAS or card image,
9-track magtape
1
WLSI.SAS(DS3)
(SAS format)
WLSI.DS3C
(Card format)
3.0

1106

277

Retained

1 or 2


Yes
Yes
Not
substituted
-999 if numeric,
space if character
LAKE_ID with
SAMCOD
Data set 4
(final)
SAS or card image,
9-track magtape
1
WLSI.SAS(DS4)
(SAS format)
WLSI.DS4C
(Card format)
1.1

752

159

Averaged

1


No
Yes
Substi tuted
when possible'1
-999 if numeric,
space if character
LAKE_ID

PC data set
(final)
Card image,
IBM PC disks
2
WLS-I.REG
(Regular)
WLS-I.SPC
(Special)
0.26 (total)

752

47

Averaged

1


No
No
Substituted
when possible*1
-999 if numeric,
space if character
LAKE_ID

     aMagnetic tape files may or may not be named.  PC data files are always named.
     bEi1ers, Blick, and DeHaan (1987).
     'Missing value representation is for card-image files only.  Standard SAS
notation for missing values is used in the SAS files.

-------
     Data set 4 was used for analyzing and reporting  results  in  Landers
et al.  (1987) and Eilers et al.  (1987).   Data set 3 is  useful  when  the
researcher desires unaveraged,  unsubstituted data.   In  data  set  3,
LAKE_ID concatenated with SAMCOD is the unique record identifier.   Data
set 4 and the PC data set are easier to use for general analysis, with
LAKE_ID the unique record identifier.  The PC data set  (two  files - one
for probability sample lakes and one for all special  interest lakes) is
smaller and duplicates information presented in some  of the  tables  in
Eilers et al. (1987).

-------
                         3.   DATA TAGS AND  FLAGS

     In addition to the WLS-I analytic  and  descriptive variables,  some
variables on the data sets were designated  as "tags"  or "flags."   These
data qualifiers provide additional  information for an individual
value.  Tags were one-letter codes  contained in a variable used to
qualify data as the data were recorded  on the field or laboratory data
forms.  For example, if a pH reading was not acceptable because the pH
meter was slow to stabilize or was  erratic  and a second attempt was
necessary, then the pH was recorded with a  tag "B" to associate this
information specifically with this  variable.  Tag variable names have
the same names as the variables they qualify, but with the suffix "T."
A list of tag codes is given in Table 3.  Tags are provided only in
data set 3 for historic purposes.  Tags values were adjusted, if
necessary, in data set 4 and the tags themselves deleted.
     Flags are two-character codes  (Table 4)'that also qualify data.
Flags were not entered by the observer conducting the measurement but
were entered later during the data verification and validation
process.  For flag variable names,  an "F" was appended to the name
of the variable being qualified.
     Both tags and flags can contain multiple, concatenated codes.
Variables that are tags or flags are included in the list of variables
presented in Sect. 4.  The use of tags and flags during the WLS-I is
described in Kanciruk, Olson, and McCord (1986).  Analytical QA and
validation procedures, including QA flagging, are provided in
Silverstein et al. (1986, 1987) and Eilers,  Blick, and DeHaan  (1987).

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Table 3.  Tag9 code definitions,  U.S.  EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I
Tag
code                           Definition"
A        Instrument unstable.

8        Redone; first reading not acceptable.

C        Instruments and sampling gear not vertical  in water column.

D        Slow stabilization.

E        HYDROLAB cable too short.

F        Results outside of criteria with consent of the quality
         assurance manager.

J        Results not available; insufficient sample  volume shipped
         to the analytical laboratory from the  field.

K        Results not available; entire aliquot  not shipped.

L        Results not available due to interference.

M        Results not available; sample lost or  destroyed by
         analytical laboratory.

N        Not required.

R        Results from reanalysis.

S        Contamination suspected.

T        Leaking container.

U        Results not required by procedure; unnecessary.

X        User-defined on the field form (defined in  variable TAG_X)

Y        User-defined on the field form (defined in  variable TAG_Y)

Z        User-defined on the field form (defined in  variable TAG_Z)

<        Measurements taken at <0.75 m.
     aTags are included only in data set 3.
     bpor a description of the analytical quality assurance
verification process, see Silverstein et al. (1986, 1987).

-------
  Table  4.   Flag  code definitions, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I
Flag
code                          Definition3
AO    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to unknown cause.

Al    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to nitrate contamination.

A2    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to anion (other than nitrate)  contamination.

A3    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to cation contamination.

A4    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to unmeasured organic protolytes (fits Oliver Model,
      Kerfoot and Faber 1986).

A5    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to possible analytical error;  anion concentration
      too high.

A6    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to possible analytical error;  cation concentration
      too low.

A7    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to possible analytical error;  anion concentration
      too low.

A8    Anion/cation percent ion balance difference was outside of
      criteria due to possible analytical error;  cation concentration
      too high.

80    External (field) blank was above expected criteria (for pH, QIC,
      DOC, conductance, alkalinity, and acidity determinations where
      the blank was above expected criteria).

Bl    Internal (laboratory) blank was greater than twice the required
      detection limit (this flag used for pH, DIG, DOC, conductance,
      alkalinity, and acidity determinations where the blank was above
      expected criteria).

-------
                          Table  4.   (continued)
Flag
code                          Definition3
B2    External (field) blank was above expected criteria and
      contributed more than 20 percent to sample concentrations that
      were greater than ten times the required detection limit (flag
      not used for pH, QIC, DOC, acidity, or alkalinity determinations)

83    Internal (laboratory) blank was more than twice the required
      detection limit and contributed more than 10 percent to the
      sample concentrations that were greater than ten times the
      required detection limit (flag not used for pH, DIC, DOC,
      acidity, or alkalinity determinations).

84    Potential negative sample bias based on internal (laboratory)
      blank data.

85    Potential negative sample bias based on external (field) blank
      data.

CO    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      an unknown cause (possible analytical error; ion concentration
      too high).

Cl    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      possible analytical error; anion concentration too high.

C2    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      anion contamination.

C3    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      cation contamination.

C4    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      unmeasured organic anions (fits Oliver Model, Kerfoot and Faber
      1986).

C5    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      possible analytical error in conductance measurement.

C6    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      possible analytical error; anion concentration too low.

C7    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      unmeasured protolyte anions (does not fit Oliver Model, Kerfoot
      and Faber 1986).

-------
                                   10


                         Table 4.   (continued)
Flag
code                          Definition3
C8    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      possible analytical error; cation concentration too low.

C9    Percent conductance difference was outside of criteria due to
      possible analytical error; cation concentration too high.

DO    External (field) duplicate precision exceeded the maximum
      expected percent relative standard deviation, but either the
      routine or the duplicate concentration was greater than ten times
      the required detection limit.

D2    External (field) duplicate precision exceeded the maximum
      expected percent relative standard deviation, and both the
      routine and the duplicate sample concentrations were greater than
      ten times the required detection limit.

D3    Internal (laboratory) duplicate precision exceeded the maximum
      required percent relative standard deviation, and both the
      routine and duplicate sample  concentrations were greater than ten
      times  the required detection  limit.

FO    Percent conductance difference exceeded criteria when HYDROLAB
      conductance value  was substituted.

Fl    Protolyte analysis program  indicated  field pH  problem when
      HYDROLAB pH value  was substituted.

F2    Protolyte analysis program  indicated  unexplained field  pH/DIC
      problem when  HYDROLAB pH value was  substituted.

HO    The maximum holding-time criteria were not met.

 N5    Nitrate data  obtained from  analysis  of aliquot 5.

 PO     Field problem;  station  pH.

 PI     Field problem;  station  DIG.

 P2     Field problem;  unexplained  (pH or DIG).

 P3     Laboratory problem;  initial alkalinity pH.

-------
                                   11
                          Table 4.   (continued)
Flag
code                          Definition3
P4    Laboratory problem; initial acidity pH.
P5    Laboratory problem; unexplained, initial pH (acidity or
      alkalinity).
P6    Laboratory problem; initial DIC.
P7    Laboratory problem; air-equilibrated pH or DIC.
P8    Laboratory problem; unexplained, initial pH or DIC.
P9    Laboratory problem; alkalinity determination.
UO    Known error based on relationships with other variables and/or
      impossible values; substitutions were made in data set 4.
Ul    Data value is a substitution; original value was missing.
U2    Data value is a substitution; original value was considered to be
      in error.
VO    Data value represents the average from a duplicate split and
      measurement of the lake sample.
VI    Data value is from the duplicate lake sample and is not averaged
      because the regular sample had "WO" flag limitations.
WO    Data value has possible measurement error, based on relationships
      with other variables, has QA violations or is outside of QA
      criteria for acceptable data.
ZO    Original value was less than zero and has been replaced with zero.
     aFor a description of the analytical verification process and
validation methods, see Silverstein et al.  (1986, 1987) and Eilers,
Blick, and DeHaan (1987).

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                                   12

                         4.  LIST  OF VARIABLES

     Table 5, which lists the variables in data  sets  3 or 4  or the  PC
data set, is alphabetized by variable name and provides variable type
(numeric or character), length (in bytes,  as structured in SAS), the
SAS label, and the data set(s)  in which the variable  is found.  Units
of measure are defined in Sect. 5.
     Variable labels are printed as they appear in the SAS data sets.
To ensure accuracy, these lists are unedited file transfers from the
mainframe computer.  The use of all capital letters and "UEQ/L" for
"v.eq/1"  and  "US"  for  "-nS/cm" are  examples  of  some  unavoidable
constraints on the aesthetics of table presentation imposed by
limitations of the mainframe computer character set.
     To  avoid confusion, programmers loading data into their local
software systems  should  retain original variable names and labels when
possible.

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Table 5.  List of variables, all data sets, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I
Variable
name
ACC011
ACC011F
ACC011T
AIRTHP
AIRTMPF
ALEX 11
ALEX11F
ALEX 11T
ALKA11
ALKA11F
ALKA11T
ALK_CLSS
ALTIM
ALTIHT
ALTL11
ALTL11F
ALTL11T
ANCAT
ANDEF
ANSUM
ANSUMF
BAT_ID
BATJDT
BEDROCK
BNSTAR
CA11
CA11F
CA11T
CA16
CATSUM
CATSUMF
CL11
CL11F
GLUT
CL16
COS 16
C0316F
COLVAL
COLVALF
COLVALT
COH01
COHMNT
CONCAL
CONCALF
Variable
Label3 type
C02 ACIDITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR ACC011
TAG FOR ACC011
AIR TEMPERATURE (DEG C)
FLAG FOR AIRTHP
EXTRACTABLE ALUMINUM (UG/L)
FLAG FOR ALEX 11
TAG FOR ALEX 11
ALKALINITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR ALKA11
TAG FOR ALKA11
ALKALINITY CLASS (1,2,3)
ALTIMETER (FT)
TAG FOR ALTIM
TOTAL ALUMINUM (UG/L)
FLAG FOR ALTL11
TAG FOR ALTL11
CATSUM/ANSUM
CATSUM - ANSUM (UEQ/L)
SUM OF ANIONS (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR ANSUM
BATCH ID
TAG FOR BAT_ID
NORTON BEDROCK CLASSIFICATION
POPULATION SIZE BY STRATA
CALCIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR CA11
TAG FOR CA11
CALCIUM (UEQ/L)
SUM OF CATIONS (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR CATSUM
CHLORIDE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR CL11
TAG FOR CL11
CHLORIDE (UEQ/L)
CARBONATE ALKALINITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR C0316
COLOR (PCU)
FLAG FOR COLVAL
TAG FOR COLVAL
COMMENT FROM FORM 1
COMMENT FROM FORM 2
CALCULATED SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
FLAG FOR CONCAL
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
Variable
length5
8
12
6
8
12
8
12
6
8
12
6
1
8
6
8
12
6
8
8
8
12
6
6
1
8
8
12
6
8
8
12
8
12
6
8
8
12
8
12
6
75
75
8
14
Variable present
in data setc
3
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
t
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
4
Y
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
.
Y
Y

Y
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
.
.

Y
Y
PC





Y


Y
.
.
.


Y
.

Y
.
Y
.

.
.
Y
.
.

Y
Y
.



Y

.
Y
.
.
.

Y
.

-------
          14
Table 5.   (continued)
Variable
name
CONDI!
CONDI IF
CONDI IT
CONFI
CONFIT
CONIN
CONINT
CONTOP
CONTOPF
CONTOPT
CON_1
CON_10
CONJT
CON_2
CONJ2T
CON_3
CONJT
CON_4
CON_4T
CON_5
CON_5T
CONJ
CON JO
CON JOT
CONJT
CON_7
CONJT
CON~8
CON_8T
CON_9
CON_B
CONJBT
COUNTY
CRW_ID
DATPRO
DATSHP
DATSHP
DATTR
DICE 11
DICE11F
DICE! IT
DICI11
DICI11F
DICI11T
Variable
Label3 type
CONDUCTANCE, ANALYTICAL LAB (US/CM)
FLAG FOR CONDI 1
TAG FOR CONDI 1
FINAL CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
TAG FOR CONFI
INITIAL CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
TAG FOR CONIN
CONDUCTANCE AT SURFACE (1.5M) (US/CM)
FLAG FOR CONTOP
TAG FOR CONTOP
CONDUCTANCE AT 4 OR 5 H (US/CH)
CONDUCTANCE AT 50 H (US/CM)
TAG FOR CONJ
CONDUCTANCE AT 6 OR 10 H (US/CH)
TAG FOR CON_2
CONDUCTANCE AT 8 OR 15 M (US/CH)
TAG FOR CON_3
CONDUCTANCE~AT 10 OR 20 H (US/CH)
TAG FOR CON_4
CONDUCTANCE~AT 12 OR 25 H (US/CM)
TAG FOR CONJ
CONDUCTANCE AT 14 OR 30 H (US/CM)
CONDUCTANCE AT 0.60*SITE DEPTH (US/CH)
TAG FOR CON_60
TAG FOR CONJ
CONDUCTANCE~AT 16 OR 35 H (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON_7
CONDUCTANCE AT 18 OR 40 H (US/CM)
TAG FOR CONJ
CONDUCTANCE~AT 20 OR 45 H (US/CM)
CONDUCTANCE AT BOTTOH-1.5H (US/CH)
TAG FOR CONJ
FIPS CODE (STATE, COUNTY)
CREW ID
DATE PROCESSED, FORH 2
DATE SHIPPED, FORH 2
DATE SAHPLED (DOHMHYY) , FORH 1
DATE RECEIVED AT TRAILER, FORH 1
EQUILIBRATED DIG, ANALYTICAL LAB (HG/L)
FLAG FOR DICE 11
TAG FOR DICE11
INITIAL DIC, ANALYTICAL LAB (HG/L)
FLAG FOR DICm
TAG FOR DICI11
NUH
CHAR
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
CHAR
NUH
NUH
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUH
NUH
CHAR
CHAR
MUM
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUH
NUH
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUH
NUH
NUH
NUH
NUH
CHAR
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
CHAR
Variable
lengthb
8
12
6
8
6
8
6
8
12
6
8
8
6
8
6
8
6
8
6
8
6
8
8
6
6
8
6
8
6
8
8
6
5
6
8
8
8
8
8
12
6
8
12
6
Variable present
in data setc
3
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
4 PC
Y Y
Y
.
.
.
.
.
Y
Y
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
Y

.
.
.
.
.

Y
.
Y
Y


Y Y
.
Y Y
Y

Y
Y


-------
          15
Table 5.   (continued)
Variable
name
DICQCS
DICQCST
DICVAL
DICVALF
DICVALT
DISM
DOC11
DOC11F
DOC11T
DP_60
DP_60T
DP_B
DP_8T
DPJOP
DP_TOPT
ELEV
FACE
FEU
FE11F
FE11T
FOREST
FTL11
FTL11F
FTL11T
FTL16
GHU
H16
H16F
HC0316
HC0316F
HELGR
HEL_ID
HYDROTYP
HYD_ID
INLETS
INLETST
IN_OUT
KlT
K11F
K11T
K16
LABNAH
LAKENAHE
LAKEJD
LAKE_SIZ
Label3
DIG QCCS, FIELD LAB (HG/L)
TAG FOR DICQCS
DIG, FIELD LAB (HG/L)
FLAG FOR DICVAL
TAG FOR DICVAL
DISTANCE FROM COAST (KM)
DOC, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DOC 11
TAG FOR DOC 11
DEPTH AT 0.6*SITE DEPTH (H)
TAG FOR DP_60
DEPTH AT BOTTOM-!. 5 M (M)
TAG FOR DP_B
DEPTH AT SURFACE (1.5 H) (M)
TAG FOR DP_TOP
LAKE ELEVATION (H)
GEOMORPHIC SLOPE (E/W)
IRON (UG/L)
FLAG FOR FE11
TAG FOR FEU
FOREST-NF PAR-NP NATREC-NRA
FLUORIDE (HG/L)
FLAG FOR FTL11
TAG FOR FTL11
FLUORIDE (UEQ/L)
GEOMORPHIC UNIT
HYDRONIUM FROM PHAC (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR H16
HC03 (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR HC0316
H/HELICOPTER, G/GROUND TEAM
HELICOPTER ID
DRAINAGE, SEEPAGE, CLOSED, RESERVOIR
HYDROLAB ID
INLETS (#) (FORM 1)
TAG FOR INLETS
PRESENCE/ABSENCE OF INLETS/OUTLETS
POTASSIUM (HG/L)
FLAG FOR K11
TAG FOR K11
POTASSIUM (UEQ/L)
LABORATORY FOR ANALYSIS
LAKE NAME
LAKE IDENTIFICATION CODE
LAKE SURFACE AREA (HA)
Variable
type
NUH
-CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
Variable
length5
8
6
8
12
6
8
8
12
6
8
6
8
6
8
6
8
1
8
12
6
30
8
12
6
8
6
8
12
8
12
1
9
9
3
8
6
6
8
12
6
8
30
30
7
8
Variable present
in data setc
3
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
4 PC


Y Y
Y

Y
Y Y
Y

Y

Y

Y

Y Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
Y

Y Y
Y
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
Y

Y Y



Y
Y
Y

Y Y
Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y

-------
          16
Table 5.   (continued)
Variable
name
LAKEJ/OL
LAKVER
LAT
LATINS
LATINST
LATMAP
LATMAPT
LAT_00
LNGINS
LNGINST
LNGHAP
LNGMAPT
LONG
LONG_OD
HAP_BIG
MAP_MED
MAP_SHL
MGlT
MG11F
MG11T
MG16
MN11
HN11F
HN11T
NA11
NA11F
NA11T
NA16
NH411
NH411F
NH411T
NH416
N0311
N0311F
N0311T
N0316
NUM_IO
ORGION
ORGIONF
OUTLET
OUTLETT
PHAC11
PHAC11F
PHAC11T
PHAL11
Label4
CALCULATED LAKE VOLUME (10**6 CU M)
LOCATION VERIFIED BY, FORM 1
LATITUDE
LORAN LATITUDE (DDMM.DM)
TAG FOR LATINS
MAP LATITUDE (DDMM.DM)
TAG FOR LATMAP
LATITUDE (DECIMAL DEGREES)
LORAN LONGITUDE (DDDMM.DM)
TAG FOR LNGINS
MAP LONGITUDE (DDDMM.DM)
TAG FOR LNGMAP
LONGITUDE
LONGITUDE (DECIMAL DEGREES)
MAP NAME, 1:250,000 SCALE
MAP NAME, 1:100,000 SCALE
MAP NAME, 15 OR 7.5 QUAD
MAGNESIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR MG11
TAG FOR MG11
MAGNESIUM (UEQ/L)
MANGANESE (UG/L)
FLAG FOR MN11
TAG FOR HN11
SODIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR NA11
TAG FOR NA11
SODIUM (UEQ/L)
AMMONIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR NH411
TAG FOR NH411
AMMONIUM (UEQ/L)
NITRATE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR N0311
TAG FOR N0311
NITRATE (UEQ/L)
NUMBER OF INLETS/OUTLETS (MAP)
ORGANIC ANION (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR ORGION
OUTLETS (#) (FORM 1)
TAG FOR OUTLET
PH, ACIDITY INITIAL
FLAG FOR PHAC11
TAG FOR PHAC11
PH, ALKALINITY INITIAL
Variable
type
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
Variable
lengthb
8
25
10
10
6
10
6
4
10
6
10
6
11
4
25
60
40
8
12
6
8
8
12
6
8
12
6
8
8
12
6
8
8
12
6
8
5
8
12
8
6
8
12
6
8
Variable present
in data setc
3
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
4
Y
.
Y
Y
.
.
.
Y
Y
.
.
.
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
Y

.
Y
Y

Y
PC

.
Y
.
.
.
.
.

.

.
Y



.

.
.
Y
Y
.
.


.
Y



Y



Y










-------
Table 5.
17





(continued)
Variable
name
PHAL11F
PHAL11T
PHEQ11
PHEQ11F
PHEQ11T
PHFI01
PHFI01T
PHIN01
PHIN01T
PHSTQC
PHSTQCT
PHSTVL
PHSTVLF
PHSTVLT
PH_60
PH_60F
PH~60T
PH_B
PH^BF
PH_BT
PH_TOP
PHJOPF
PH_TOPT
PRECIP
PTL11
PTL11F
PTL11T
REGION
REG_SPC
RT
RUNIN
SAHCOO
SAM_ID
SAM_IDF
SAfTlDT
SECDIS
SECOIST
SECMEAN
SECREA
SECREAT
SI0211
SI0211F
SI0211T
SITDPF
SITDPFT
Label3
FLAG FOR PHAL11
TAG FOR PHAL11
PH, AIR EQUILIBRATED
FLAG FOR PHEQ11
TAG FOR PHEQ11
PH FINAL CALIBRATION
TAG FOR PHFI01
PH INITIAL CALIBRATION
TAG FOR PHIN01
PH QCCS, FIELD LAB
TAG FOR PHSTQC
PH, FIELD VALUE
FLAG FOR PHSTVL
TAG FOR PHSTVL
PH AT 0.60*SITE DEPTH
FLAG FOR PH_60
TAG FOR PHJ50
PH AT BOTTOM-! . 5M
FLAG FOR PH_B
TAG FOR PH_B
PH AT SURFACE (1.5M)
FLAG FOR PH_TOP
TAG FOR PH_TOP
ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (M/YR)
TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (UG/L)
FLAG FOR PTL11
TAG FOR PTL11
NSWS REGION
/REG/SPC/LTM
RESIDENCE TIME (YR)
SURFACE WATER RUNOFF (INCHES)
SAMPLE CODE
SAMPLE ID
FLAG FOR SAM_ID
TAG FOR SAM_ID
SECCHI DISAPPEARANCE DEPTH (M)
TAG FOR SECDIS
SECCHI MEAN DEPTH (M)
SECCHI REAPPEARANCE DEPTH (M)
TAG FOR SECREA
SILICA (MG/L)
FLAG FOR 510211
TAG FOR S 10211
SITE DEPTH (FT)
TAG FOR SITOPF
Variable
type
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
Variable
lengthb
12
6
8
12
6
8
6
8
6
8
6
8
12
6
8
12
6
8
12
6
8
12
6
8
8
12
6
1
12
8
8
9
6
12
6
8
6
8
8
6
8
12
6
8
6
Variable present
in data setc
3
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
4
Y
^
Y
Y
.
.
f
.
,
,
.
Y
Y
t
Y
Y
4
Y
Y
f
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
m
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
f
Y
(
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
f
^
B
PC

f
Y
.
,
.
.
.
f
.
.
Y
f
m
f
f
.
.
f
.
,
f
.
f
Y
f
f
f
Y
f
f
f
.
f
f
.
m
Y
.
.
Y
.
^



-------
          18
Table 5.   (continued)
Variable
name
SITDPM
SITDPMT
S0411
S0411F
S0411T
S0416
SOBC
SOBCF
SPLCOD
ST
STA_ID
STRAT
STRATA
SUB_RGN
TAG_X
TAG_X2
TAG_Y
TAG_Y2
TAG_Z
TAG_Z2
TIMSMP
TIMTR
TMPDF1
TMPDF1T
TMPDF2
TMPDF2T
TMPTOP
TMPTOPT
TMPJ
TMPJO
TMPJT
TMP_2
TMP_2T
TMPJ
TMP~4
TMPJ
TMPJ
TMPJO
TMP JOT
TMPJ
TMPJT
TMPJ
TMPJ
TMPJ
TMP BT
Variable
Label3 type
SITE DEPTH (M)
TAG FOR SITDPM
SULFATE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR S0411
TAG FOR S0411
SULFATE (UEQ/L)
SUM OF BASE CATIONS (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR SOBC
SPLIT CODES
STATE (TWO-LETTER ABBREVIATION)
STATION ID
STRATIFICATON TYPE (MIXED, WEAK, STRONG)
NSWS STRATA
NSWS SUBREGION
MEANING OF TAG X, FORM 1
MEANING OF TAG X, FORM 2
MEANING OF TAG Y, FORM 1
MEANING OF TAG Y, FORM 2
MEANING OF TAG Z, FORM 1
MEANING OF TAG Z, FORM 2
TIME SAMPLED (HH:MM), FORM 1
TIME RECEIVED AT TRAILER, FORM 1
TEMP DIFFERENCE TOP-BOTTOM (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMPDF1
TEMP DIFFERENCE TOP-0.6*DEPTH (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMPDF2
TEMPERATURE AT SURFACE (1.5M)
TAG FOR TMPTOP
TEMPERATURE AT 4 OR 5 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 50 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMPJ
TEMPERATURE AT 6 OR 10 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMPJ
TEMPERATURE AT 8 OR 15 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 10 OR 20 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 12 OR 25 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 14 OR 30 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 0.6*SITE DEPTH (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMPJO
TEMPERATURE AT 16 OR 35 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMPJ
TEMPERATURE AT 18 OR 40 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 20 OR 45 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT BOTTOM-1.5 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMP B
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
Variable
length15
8
6
8
12
6
8
8
12
4
2
6
6
3
1
40
40
20
25
20
25
8
8
8
6
8
6
8
6
8
8
6
8
6
8
8
8
8
8
6
8
6
8
8
8
6
Variable present
in data setc
3
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
4 PC
Y Y
, ,
Y
Y
, .
Y Y
Y
Y
. ,
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
Y t .

.
.
.
.
.
Y
.
Y
. .
Y

Y Y
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Y
.
.
.
.
.
Y
.

-------
                                             19
                                   Table 5.   (continued)
Variable present
Variable
name
TURQCS
TURVAL
TURVALF
TURVALT
USFS
MALA
WEIGHT1
WILDNA
WSHEO
WS_DIS
WS_OTH

Label3
TURBIDITY QCCS, FIELD LAB (NTU)
TURBIDITY, FIELD LAB (NTU)
FLAG FOR TURVAL
TAG FOR TURVAL
FOREST SERVICE REGION (APPROX)
WATERSHED AREA / LAKE AREA
POPULATION EXTRAPOLATION FACTOR
USFS WILDERNESS NAME
WATERSHED AREA (HA)
D)WELL F)IRE L)OG M)INE R)OAO S)TOCK
OTHER DISTURBANCE
Variable
type
NUM
MUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
HUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
Variable
lengthb
8
8
12
6
1
8
8
30
8
8
25
in
3
Y
Y
.
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
data
4

Y
Y
t
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
setc
PC

Y
.
f
.
Y
Y
.
Y
.

     aLabels are provided only in the SAS-formatted version of data sets 3 and 4.   Labels
are not provided in the PC data sets.
     bLength for character fields is the integer field length.
     C"Y" in the column indicates the variable is in the data set;  "." indicates that the
variable is not in the data set.

-------
                                   20

                       5.   DEFINITION OF VARIABLES

     Table 6 provides units of measure  and extended definitions for
variables contained in data sets 3 and  4 and the PC data set.   Variable
tags and flags are not included because their definitions would
invariably be just "tag (or flag) for variable X."   A complete
description of data collected and WLS-I protocol is provided in Landers
et al. (1987).  In situ measurements are outlined in Kerfoot and Faber
(1986) and Bonoff and Groeger (1986).  EPA methods  are from U.S. EPA
(1983), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)  methods are from Skougstad
et al. (1979).
     Conventions used in the computer-coded equations are:

 + represents addition,
 - represents subtraction,
 * represents multiplication,
** represents exponentiation,
 / represents division, and
() represents operational  grouping.

-------
                                    21
   Table 6.   Definition  of  variables, U.S.  EPA Western  Lake Survey-Phase I
 Name
Units
                   Definition
ACC011       ueq/L
AIRTHP
ALEX11       ug/L
ALK CLSS
ALKA11
 Ueq/L
ALTIM

ALTL11
 ft

 Ug/L
Carbon dioxide acidity (or base-neutralizing
capacity) is the measured acidity in a sample due to
dissolved C02, hydronium, and hydroxide.
Determined in the analytical laboratory, using base
titration and modified Gran analysis.  Used in
conjunction with alkalinity to refine alkalinity and
acidity calculations.

Air temperature measured from the helicopter with a
thermometer.

Extractable aluminum is an estimate of labile
monomeric aluminum (Al**).  Aluminum in an
unacidified, filtered sample was complexed with
8-hydroxyquincline and extracted with
methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) in the field
laboratory.  The extract was analyzed in the
analytical laboratory, using the method described in
Kerfoot and Faber (1986).

Alkalinity class, defined by an area's expected
alkalinity.  Classes are
       1 = <100 ueq/L,
       2 = 100 to 200 ueq/L,  and
       3 = >200 ueq/L.

Acid-neutralizing capacity is a measure of the
amount of acid necessary to neutralize the
bicarbonate, carbonate, alumino-hydroxy complexes,
and other bases in a sample.  Determined in the
analytical laboratory in an unfiltered, unacidified
aliquot, using acidimetric titration and modified
Gran analysis (Kerfoot and Faber 1986; Kramer 1984).

Altimeter reading (helicopter samples only).

Total aluminum, measured in the analytical
laboratory in an unfiltered, acidified (HfK^)
aliquot, using EPA method 202.2 [atomic absorption
spectroscopy (AAS) and graphite furnace].

-------
                                    22
                            Table  6.   (continued)
 Name
            Units
                                           Definition
ANCAT
ANOEF
ANSUN
BAT 10
             vieq/L


             iieq/L
BEDROCK
BNSTAR
 CA11



 CA16

 CATSUM


 CL11
             mg/L
Ueq/L


mg/L
                        Ratio of measured cations to measured anions:
                        ANCAT = CATSUM/ANSUM.

                        Anion deficit is the measured cations minus the
                        measured anions:  ANDEF = CATSUM - ANSUM.
                        Sum of major anion concentrations:
                        ANSUM = CL16 + FTL16 + N0316 + HC0316
                        S0416.
                                                                C0316
                        Batch identification number, lake and quality
                        assurance samples processed and analyzed together on
                        the same day and in the same field laboratory were
                        given cannon batch numbers.

                        Bedrock classification, describes the dominant
                        bedrock class (Norton 1982) within the lake basin.
                        Classes are ordered from one to five, in order of
                        lowest to highest acid-neutratizing capacity:
                        Class 1 = Low to no acid-neutralizing capacity
                                  (eg., granitic gneiss),
                        Class 2 = Medium to low acid-neutralizing
                                  capacity (eg., sandstones, shales, etc.),
                        Class 3 = High to medium acid-neutralizing capacity
                                  (eg., ultramafic rocks and glassy volcanic
                                  rocks) ,
                        Class 4 = "Infinite" acid-neutralizing capacity
                                   capacity (eg., limestone), and
                        Class 5 = Glacial debris obscuring bedrock.

                        Number of lakes identified in a stratum  (see STRATA)
                        from the USGS 1:100,000 scale maps.  Lakes to be
                        sampled were randomly selected within strata to
                        represent this frame population.

                        Dissolved calcium, measured  in the analytical
                        laboratory in filtered, acidified  (HNC^) aliquot
                        (EPA method 215.1, AAS, flame or ICPAES).

                        Dissolved calcium:  CA16 = CA11*49.90 Tieq/mg.
                         Summation  of major  cation  concentrations:
                         CATSUM = CA16  + MG16  + NA16  + K16  + NH416
                                                                     H16.
                         Chloride ion, measured in  the analytical  laboratory
                         in a filtered,  unacidified aliquot  (ASTM  1984;
                         O'Dell  et al.  1984;  ion chromatographic method).

-------
                                    23
                            Table 6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                   Definition
CL16

C0316
 Tieq/L

 Ueq/L
Chloride ion:  CL16 = CL11*28.21 ueq/mg.

Carbonate, an estimate (Butler 1982) of
                        CO.
               .   4.996 x [DIC mg/L] x K,K,
              -2   	1 t.
                  ''     A
                   [HY + [H*] X KI + K]K2
COLVAL
COHHNT

COM01
CONTOP


CON_B

CON 60
            which is coded as

            C0316 = 60009*(DICm/12011)*ALPHA2*33.33,

            where   ALPHA2 = K1*K2/
                    ((10**(-PHAC11))**2 >
                    (10**-PHAC11)*K1 + K1*K2),

            where   Kl = 4.3*10**-7,
                    K2 = 5.61*10**-!1.
 PCU        True color (platinum cobalt units), measured
            in the field laboratory by first centrifuging
            the sample to remove particles, then using an
            HACH Model CO-1 Comparator (EPA method 110.2,
            modified).

            Ccmnent from field laboratory.

            Comment from field sampling crew.

 Field specific conductance

            The following measurements of conductance
            (CONTOP thru CONFI) were made with the
            HYDROLAB probe from the helicopter.  These
            are not in alphabetical order but are ordered
            as usually measured.  Measurements paralleled
            field temperature measurements.

 y.S/cm      Conductance at surface (usually 1.5 m below
            the surface).

 TiS/cm      Conductance at SITDPM - 1.5 m.

 jxS/cm      Conductance at 0.6*SITDPM.  Measurement taken
            when TMPDF1 >  4C.

-------
                                   24
                           Table 6.   (continued)
Name
Units
Definition
            Profile measurements
                       Specific conductance profile measurements
                       were taken when TMPDF2 >. 4C.   Profile
                       measurement depths were determined by maximum
                       lake depth measured (SITDPH).  If SITDPH <
                       20 m, profile measurements were taken at 4 m
                       and at 2-m increments to the bottom.  If
                       SITOPM >  20 m,  the profile was taken at
                       5 m and at 5-m  increments to a maximum depth
                       of 50 m.
CONJ
CON_2
CON_3
CON_4
CON_5
CON_6
CON_7
CON_8
CON_9
CONJO
CONIN
US/cm
V.S/cm
V.S/cm
US/ on
US/cm
US/on
u.S/cm
liS/on
V.S/cm
US/on
US/cm
                       Conductance at 4 m  (SITDPH < 20)
                       or 5 m (SITDPH >  20).

                       Conductance at 6 m  (SITDPH < 20)
                       or 10 m (SITDPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 8 m  (SITDPH < 20)
                       or 15 m (SITDPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 10 m (SITDPH  <. 20)
                       or 20 m (SITDPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 12 m (SITDPH  < 20)
                       or 25 m (SITDPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 14 m (SITDPH  <. 20)
                       or 30 m (SITOPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 16 m (SITDPH  <. 20)
                       or 35 m (SITDPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 18 m (SITDPH  <. 20)
                       or 40 m (SITDPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 20 m (SITDPH  <. 20)
                       or 45 m (SITOPH > 20).

                       Conductance at 50 m.

                       Initial conductance values,  obtained from
                       initial analysis  of a 50-y.S/cm QC check
                       sample used to verify HYDROLAB calibration.

-------
                                    25
                            Table 6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                                           Definition
CONFI        uS/cm     Final conductance values, obtained from final
                        analysis of a 50-TJ.S/cm QC check sample
                        used to verify HYDROLAB calibration  (see
                        CONIN).

CONCAL       uS/cm     Calculated conductance, sum of  the products
                        of ion concentration times equivalent
                        conductance.

                        The cations sunnmed were Ca+2, Mg+2,  Na+, K+,
                        NH4+, and H+.

                        The an ions sunnmed were S04~2, HC03~2,
                        C1-, N03-, F-, CDs-2, and QMr-

                        Coded as

                        CONCAL =  ((CA16*59.47) +  (MG16*53.0) + (K16*73.48)  +
                        (NA16*50.08) +  (NH416*73.5) +  (H16*349.65) +
                        (50416*80.0) +  (HC0316*44.5) +  (CL16*76.31)  +
                        (N0316*71.42) +  (F16*S5.4) -i-  (00316*69.3)  +
                        (OH*198))/1000.
                        This calculation converts  iieq/L to v.S/cm
                        (Kerfoot  and Faber  1986).

CONDI!       i4.S/cm     Specific  conductance, measured  in  the  analytical
                        laboratory using a  conductivity cell  (EPA  method
                        120.1).

COUNTY                  Federal Information Processing  Standard (FIPS 1979)
                        state and county code.

CRW_ID                  Lake sampling crew  ID  number.

DATPRO                  Date samples were processed by  the field
                        laboratory.  DDMHMYY format.

DATTR                   Date sample was  received  by the field  laboratory.
                        DDMMHYY format.

DATSHP                  Date samples were shipped from field laboratories to
                        the analytical  laboratories.   DDMMMYY  format.

DATSMP                  Date lake was sampled.  DDMMMYY format.

-------
                                    26
                            Table 6.   (continued)
 Name       Units
                              Definition
DICE11       mg/L
DICI11       mg/L
DICQCS       mg/L
DICVAL
DISH
DOC11
km
mg/L
DP B
             m
Air-equilibrated, dissolved inorganic carbon,
measured in the analytical laboratory in an
unfiltered, unacidified aliquot bubbled with 300-ppm
C02, drawn into a syringe, filtered, and analyzed
without exposure to the atmosphere (EPA method 415.2
modified, infrared spectrophotometric detector).

Dissolved inorganic carbon, measured in the
analytical  laboratory in an unfiltered, unacidified
aliquot.  The sample was drawn into a syringe,
filtered, and analyzed without exposure to the
atmosphere (EPA method 415.2 modified, infrared
spectrophotometric detector).

Dissolved inorganic carbon QC check sample (field
laboratory).  DIG was measured in the field
laboratory on a 2.0-mg/L sodium carbonate solution
using a detector.  The check sample was measured
before the first sample measurement and after every
eight samples.

Dissolved inorganic carbon, measured in the field
laboratory on a sample drawn directly into a syringe
from the Van Dorn water sampler, filtered, and
analyzed without exposure to the atmosphere, using a
DOHRMANN OC-80 carbon analyzer with infrared
spectrophotometric detector (EPA method 415.2,
modified).

Distance of the lake from the Pacific Ocean.  A
calculated variable for lakes within 150 km from the
coast line (otherwise this value is missing).

Dissolved organic carbon, measured in the analytical
laboratory in a filtered, acidified
aliquot (EPA method 415.2, infrared
spectrophotometric detector).

Depth at which bottom temperature and conductance
were measured:  DP 8 = SITDPN - 1.5.
DP CAT
           Lake depth category, 4 (if SITDPM < 20 m) or  5
           (if SITDPM >  20 m).
DP TOP
             m
           Depth of surface water sample, usually 1.5 m.

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                                   27
                           Table 6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                                           Definition
DP_60        m          Sixty percent of site depth:   DP_60 = 0.6*SITDPM.

ELEV         m          Lake elevation,  taken from USGS topographic maps.

FACE                    Gecmorphic slope (E/W),  defines the east- or
                        west-facing slope of the Cascade or Sierra Nevada
                        mountain ranges, determined on the basis of
                        topographic divide.

FE11         ug/L       Dissolved iron,  measured in the analytical
                        laboratory in a filtered, acidified (HMOs) aliquot
                        (EPA method 236.1, AAS,  flame or ICPAES).

FOREST                  Name of national forest, national park, or national
                        recreation area in which lake is located.

FTL11        mg/L       Total dissolved fluoride, measured in the analytical
                        laboratory in a filtered, unacidified aliquot,
                        analyzed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE,
                        EPA method 340.2, modified).

FTL16        v-eq/L      Total dissolved fluoride:
                        FTL16 = FTL11*52.64 veq/mg.

GMU                     Geomorphic unit, a physiographic area defined on the
                        basis of topography and common geologic history
                        (Snead 1980).

H16          v.eq/L      Hydrogen ion concentration:
                        H16 = 10**(-PHAC11)*10**6.

HC0316       ueq/L      Bicarbonate, an estimate (Butler 1982) of
                                5.080 x [DIG mg/L] x [H ] x K
                        HCO   =	~	  ,
                                [H 3  + [H ] x KI + K^2

                        which is coded as

                        HC0316 = 61017*(DICI11/12011)*
                               ALPHA1*16.39,

                         where ALPHA1 = ((10**(-PHAC11))*K1)/
                                        ((10**(-PHACn))**2 +
                                        (10**-PHAC11)*K1 + K1*K2),

                         where Kl = 4.3*10**-7,
                               K2 = 5.61*10**-n.

-------
                                    28
                            Table  6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                   Definition
HELGR



HEL_ID

HYD_ID


HYDROTYP
INLETS

IN OUT
K11
K16
LABNAM
 mg/L
 Ueq/L
LAKE 10
Helicopter/Ground, designates whether sample was
taken from a helicopter or by a ground crew:
H = Helicopter; G = Ground.

Helicopter identification number.

Identification number for the HYDROLAB meter used
for field measurements.

Hydrologic type, defined from geographic data
(see IN_OUT).
Classes are
       CLOSED (I/NO)         DRAINAGE (I/O; or NI/0)
       RESERVOIR (RES)       SEEPAGE (NI/NO)

Number of lake inlets observed from the helicopter.

Presence and/or absence of inlets and outlets,
determined from USGS topographic maps:
I/O = both, NI/0 = outlets only,
I/NO = inlets only; NI/NO = neither, and
RES = Reservoir.

Dissolved potassium, measured in the analytical
laboratory in a filtered, acidified (HttO^ aliquot
(EPA method 258.1, AAS, flame).

Dissolved potassium:
K16 = Kl 1*25.57 lieq/mg.

Name of the analytical laboratory that performed the
chemical analyses.  The two laboratories were
Versar, Inc. (VERSAR) and Environmental Monitoring
and Services, Inc. (EMSI).

Seven-character unique identification code assigned
to each lake.  The first character represents the
region (4); the second character, the subregion; the
third character, the alkalinity map class; a dash;
and the last three digits the assigned lake number.
The first three characters also designate the
stratum (see STRATA). LAKE_ID is unique for every
record in data set 4 and the PC data set but is
repeated in data set 3 for those lakes that were
sampled twice for quality assurance purposes.

-------
                                   29
                           Table 6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                                           Definition
LAKE SIZ
LAKE VOL
LAKENAME
 ha
Lake surface area, measured using an electronic
p1animeter on USGS topographic maps.

Estimated lake volume:
LAKE_VOL = ((LAKE_SIZ*10**4)*SITDPM*0.464)/10**6.

Lake name taken from USGS topographic maps.  When a
number of small lakes were identified by only one
name on the map, another qualifier, such as
"southern," was added to the name to identify the
lake.  Where no name was listed, "(NO NAME)" was
entered into the data base as the lake name.
LAKVER                  Source of information by which field crew verified
                        lake location.

LAT          deg        Latitude taken from the USGS topographic maps in
                        DD-MM-SS (degrees-minutes-seconds) format.

LATINS                  Latitude determined from LORAN-C guidance system
                        (helicopter samples only).

LATMAP                  Latitude recorded by the field crew.

LAT_DD       deg        Latitude expressed as degrees and  decimal degrees  in
                        DD.DDDD format.

LNGINS                  Longitude determined from  LORAN-C  guidance  system
                        (helicopter samples only).

LNGHAP                  Longitude recorded by the  field crew.

LONG         deg        Longitude read  from the USGS  topographic maps in
                        DDD-HM-SS format.

LONG_DO     deg        Longitude expressed as degrees and decimal  degrees
                        in OOO.DDDD format.

MAP_BIG                Name of  the  l:250,000-scale USGS  topographic map on
                        which  the lake  is  located.

MAP_MED                Name of  the  l:100,000-scale USGS  topographic map on
                        which  the lake  is  located.

-------
                                    30
                            Table 6.   (continued)
 Name       Units
                   Definition
MAP_SML                 Name of the 15- or 7.5-min scale USGS topographic
                        map on which the lake is located.

MG11         mg/L       Dissolved magnesium, measured in the analytical
                        laboratory in a filtered, acidified (HN03) aliquot
                        (EPA method 242.1, MS, flame or ICPAES).

MG16         Tieq/L      Dissolved magnesium:  HG16 = MG11*82.26 ueq/mg.

HN11         y.g/1       Dissolved manganese, measured in the analytical
                        laboratory in a filtered, acidified (HNC^) aliquot
                        (EPA method 243.1, AAS, flame or ICPAES).

NA11         mg/L       Dissolved sodium, measured in the analytical
                        laboratory in a filtered, acidified (HtKty aliquot
                        (EPA method 273.1, AAS, flame).

NA16         ueq/L      Dissolved sodium:  NA16 = NA11*43.50 v.eq/mg.

NH411        mg/L       Ammonium ion, measured in the analytical laboratory
                        in a sample from the filtered, acidified (h^SCfy)
                        aliquot (EPA method 350.1, colorimetric, automated).

NH416        y.eq/L      Ammonium ion:  NH416 = NH411*55.44 v.eq/mg.

N0311        mg/L       Nitrate ion, measured in the analytical laboratory
                        in a filtered, unacidified aliquot (ASTH 1984;
                        O'Dell et al. 1984; ion chromatography).

N0316        ueq/L      Nitrate ion:  N0316 = N0311*16.13 v.eq/mg.

NUM_IO                  Number of inlets/outlets of a lake, determined from
                        the map (MAP_SML) by the field crew.

ORGION       v.eq/L      Estimate of the organic anion concentration (Oliver
                        et al. 1983):

                        ORGION = K*CT/(K + (10**(-PHAC11))),

                          where  K = 10**(-PK); CT = DOC11*10 and
                                 PK = 0.96 -i- 0.9*PHAC11  - 0.039*PHAC11**2.
OUTLET
Number of lake outlets observed from the helicopter.

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                                   31
                           Table 6.  (continued)
 Name
            Units
                   Definition
             Field pH measurements

                        The following measurements  were made from the
                        helicopter with the HYDROLAB probe (PHJOP through
                        PHFI01).   They are listed in the  usual  order of
                        sampling.   Measurements of  pH paralleled field
                        temperature measurements.

             pH         pH measurement at surface (usually 1.5  m below the
                        surface).

             pH         pH at SITDPM - 1.5 m.

             pH         pH at 0.6*SITDPM.

             pH         Initial  measurement of a pH 3.91  QC check sample,
                        used to calibrate the HYDROLAB.

             pH         Final measurement of a pH 3.91 QC check sample,  used
                        to calibrate the HYDROLAB.

             Laboratory pH measurements
PHJOP


PH_B

PH_60

PHIN01


PHFI01
PHAC11
             PH
PHAL11
PHEQ11
             pH
PHSTQC
             pH
Initial pH from the acidity titration, measured in
the analytical laboratory.  A sample from an
unfiltered, unacidified aliquot was placed into a
C02~free titration vessel and stirred.  The pH was
measured with an electrode (without exposure to the
atmosphere) before addition of base titrant.

Initial pH from the alkalinity titration, measured
in the analytical laboratory.  A sample from the
unfiltered, unacidified aliquot was placed into a
titration vessel (not C02 free) and stirred.  The
pH was measured with an electrode before the first
addition of acid titrant.

Air-equilibrated pH, measured in the analytical
laboratory in an unfiltered, unacidified aliquot
bubbled with 300-ppm 002  (EPA metnod  150.1,
electrode).

Measurement of a pH 4.0 QC check sample, used by the
field  laboratory to calibrate closed-system pH
measurements.

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                                    32
                            Table  6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                   Definition
PHSTVL
 PH
PRECIP
             m
PTL11
REGION
REG SPC
RT
             yr
Closed-system pH, measured in the field laboratory
using an ORION Model 611 meter and an ORION ROSS
combination pH electrode on a syringe sample
unexposed to the atmosphere (EPA method 150.1).

Annual precipitation, estimated from 30-year
precipitation norm values (1931 - 1960) by
overlaying the location of lakes on a contour map of
normal annual total precipitation (USDC 1968) and
assigning the lower value to each lake.

Total phosphorous, measured in the analytical
laboratory in an unfiltered, acidified (t^SO^
aliquot, using either of two automated, cblorimetric
phosphomolybdate methods:  for normal phosphorus
levels, using a 15-rnn absorption cell; for low
levels, a preliminary method using a 50 inn
absorption cell was employed (USGS method 1-4600-78).

Region is a major area of the conterminous United
States where a substantial number of lakes with
alkalinity <400  v-eq/L can be found.  For the
WLS-I there was one region, Region 4 (West).

Reason for lake being sampled.  This can be any
combination of the following codes (the categories
are not mutually exclusive):
       REG: part of the probability sample,
       SPC: special interest lake, and
       LTM: EPA long-term monitoring lake.

Estimated hydraulic residence time, defined as years
required to replace the volume of the lake.
Calculated only for drainage lakes and reservoirs
(see HYOROTYP).
                        RT
                                           LA x site depth
                             runoff x (watershed area - LA) + (precip x LA)

                             where LA = lake area.

                        Coded as

                        RT = ((LAKE_SIZ*10**4)*(SITDPM*0.464))/
                             (((RUNIN*2.54*10**-2)*((WSHEO*10**4) -
                             (LAKE_SIZ*10**4))) -H
                             ((LAKE_SIZ*10**4)*(PRECIP))).

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                                   33
                           Table 6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                                           Definition
RUNIN       in/yr       Surface water runoff interpolated from USGS map
                        (Busby 1966).

SAM_ID                  Identifies individual samples within a batch (see
                        BAT_IO).  In combination BAT_ID and SAM_IO are the
                        unique sample identifiers.

SAMCOD                  Sample code  (consisting of up to three characters)
                        indicating the type of sample.
                        The first character can be one of the following:
                           0 = duplicate,
                           R = routine, or
                           T = triplicate.

                        The second character can be one of the following:
                           G = ground or
                           H = helicopter.

                        The third character can be one of the following:
                           C = calibration  lake or
                           2 =  indicating a second sample and second visit.
 SECDIS       m

 SECHEAN      m
             Secchi  disk disappearance depth.

             Mean of Secchi  disk disappearance and reappearance
             depths.   SECHEAN is set  to SITDPM if the disk was
             visible on the  lake bottom.
 SECREA      m          Secchi  disk  reappearance depth.

 SI0211      mg/L        Silica, measured in  the analytical  lab  in  an
                         unfiltered aliquot  (USGS method  1-2700-78,
                         colorimetric,  molybdate blue,  automated method).

 SITDPF      ft         Sampling  site  depth, measured  using a weighted
                         line.   Not necessarily maximum lake depth.

 SITDPM      m          Sampling  site  depth, measured  using a weighted
                         line.   Not necessarily maximum lake depth.

 S0411        mg/L        Sulfate ion, measured in  the analytical laboratory
                         in a filtered, unacidified aliquot (ASTM  1984;
                         O'Dell  et al.  1984;  ion chromatographic methods).

-------
                                    34
                            Table  6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
Definition
S0416        y.eq/L      Sulfate ion:  S0416 = 50411*20.82 v.eq/mg.

SOBC         ueq/L      Sum of base cations: SOBC = NA16 + K16 + CA16 + MG16.

SPLCOD                  Split code, indicates that duplicate sample aliquots
                        were sent to cooperating analytical laboratories,
                        where E = U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory
                        at Corvallis and L = U.S. EPA Environmental
                        Monitoring Systems Laboratory at Las Vegas.

ST                      State:  standard two-character postal abbreviation.

STA_ID                  Station ID of the field laboratory where lake
                        samples were processed.

                        STA_ID codes:
                          11 = Missoula, MT;
                          12 = Bozeman, MT;
                          13 = Aspen, CO;
                          14 = Wenatehee, WA; or
                          15 = Carson City, NV.

STRAT                   Thermal stratification status:

                          MIXED =  Lakes where the difference between top
                                   temperature and bottom temperature
                                   (TMPDF1) was <4C,

                          WEAK =   Lakes where the temperature difference
                                   between top and bottom (TMPDF1)  was
                                   >4C and the  difference between top
                                   and the 60% depth temperature (TMPDF2)
                                   was <4C,

                          STRONG = Lakes with a temperature difference
                                   >40C between  the top temperature  (TMPTOP)
                                   and the temperature at 60% of lake depth
                                   (TMP_60).

STRATA                  Stratum, a subpopulation of lakes within a
                        geographic area defined before sampling by  the
                        expected alkalinity of surface waters within a
                        subregion and within a region.

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                           Table 6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                                           Definition
SUB RGN
TAG_X


TAG_X2


TAG_Y


TAG_Y2


TAG_Z


TAG_Z2


TIMSMP

TIHTR
            Subregions are areas within each region that, based
            on historic data, are similar in water quality,
            physiography, vegetation, climate, and soil.  All
            WLS-I lakes were within Region 4, the western
            United States.  The five subregions in the WLS-I were

              A: California,
              B: Pacific Northwest,
              C: Northern Rockies,
              D: Central Rockies, and
              E: Southern Rockies.

            Meaning of the user-defined tag "X" reported on the
            field form.

            Meaning of the user-defined tag "X" reported on the
            field laboratory form.

            Meaning of the user-defined tag "Y" reported on the
            field form.

            Meaning of the user-defined tag "Y" reported on the
            field laboratory form.

            Meaning of the user-defined tag "Z" reported on the
            field form.

            Meaning of the user-defined tag "Z" reported on the
            field laboratory form.

            Time lake was sampled  in HH:MM format  (24 H).

            Time sample was  received by the field  lab in HH:MM
            format  (24 H).
             Field temperature measurement
                        The following temperature measurements  (TMPTOP to
                        TMPJO) were made from the helicopter with the
                        HYDROLAB probe.  They are not  in alphabetical order
                        but are ordered as usually measured.  Comparisons of
                        top and bottom temperatures determined  the need to
                        conduct profile measurements.
TMPTOP
  C
Lake water temperature at surface (1,5 m).

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                                    36
                            Table 6.  (continued)
 Name
Units
                   Definition
THP_B

THPDF1
 C

 C
Temperature at SITDPM - 1.5 m.

Difference between top and bottom temperatures:
THPDF1 = TMPTOP - TMP B.
THP 60
 C
Temperature at 0.6*SITDPH.  Measurement taken if
TMPDF1 >  4C.
THPDF2
            Difference between temperature at top and
            temperature at 0.6*SITDPH: THPDF2 = TMPTOP - TMP 60.
             Profile measurements
TMP 1
TMP 2
TMP 3
            Temperature profile measurements were taken when
            TMPDF2 >. 4C.  Profile measurement depths were
            determined by maximum lake depth measured (SITDPM).
            If SITDPM <. 20 m, profile measurements were  taken
            at 4 m and at 2-m increments to the bottom.   If
            SITDPM > 20 m, the profile was  taken at  5 m  and
            at 5-m increments to a maximum depth of 50 m.

            Temperature at 4 m (SITDPM < 20)
            or at 5 m (SITDPM > 20).

            Temperature at 6 m (SITDPM < 20)
            or at 10 m (SITDPM > 20).

            Temperature at 8 m (SITOPM <. 20)
            or at 15 m (SITDPM > 20).
TMP 4
TMP 5
            Temperature at 10 m (SITDPM < 20)
            or at 20 m (SITDPM > 20).

            Temperature at 12 m (SITOPM < 20)
            or at 25 m (SITDPM > 20).
TMP 6
            Temperature at 14 m (SITOPM <. 20)
            or at 30 m (SITDPM > 20).
TMP 7
            Temperature at 16 m (SITDPM < 20)
            or at 35 m (SITDPM > 20).
TMP 8
            Temperature at 18 m (SITDPM < 20)
            or at 40 m (SITDPM > 20).

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                                   37
                           Table 6.   (continued)
 Name
Units
                   Definition
TMP_9


TMPJO

TURQCS
 C

 NTU
TURVAL       NTU



USFS

WALA
WEIGHT]



WILDNA

WSHEO        ha
WS OIS
MS OTH
Temperature at 20 m (SITOPM < 20)
or at 45 m (SITDPM > 20).

Temperature at 50 m.

Turbidity, measured by the field laboratory on a
5.0-NTU nephelometric turbidity QC check sample used
to verify nephelometer calibration.  Values for the
check sample were recorded before and after eight
sample measurements.

Turbidity, measured in the unfiltered sample in the
field laboratory using a MONITEK model 21
nephelometer (EPA method 180.1).

United States Forest Service (USFS) region.
            Ratio of watershed area to lake area.
            area includes lake area.
                                       Watershed
            Stratum-specific population expansion factor
            (probability sample lakes only), equal to the
            inverse of a sample lake's inclusion probability.

            USFS Wilderness Area name.

            Watershed area, the geographic area from which
            surface water drains into a particular lake,
            determined using an electronic planimeter on USGS
            topographic maps.  Lake area was included in
            watershed area.

            Disturbances of the natural environment in a
            watershed within 100 m of the shore, noted by field
            crew, where
            0 = dwellings   L = logging     R = roads
            F = fire        M = mining      S = livestock.

            Disturbances of the natural environment in a
            watershed within 100 m of the shore, other than
            those described by WS_DIS, noted by field crew.

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                                   38

                        6.  CARD-IMAGE FORMAT DEFINITION

     WLS-I data sets 3 and 4 are provided as both SAS-formatted files
and as card-image files.  The PC data set is provided in card-image
format only.  The formats for the card-image files for all  data sets
are presented in Tables 7-9.  Table 9 provides the card-image format
used for both PC data set files.  The two PC data set files 
WLS-I.REG and WLS-I.SPCprovide information for the probability sample
lakes and the special interest lakes, respectively.
     Most numeric variables were transferred to the card-image files
for data sets 3 and 4 in 9.4 format (total length 9, including decimal
point, with 4 decimals), regardless of their original formats (however,
WSHED is in 9.2; LAKE_SIZ, WALA, and ALTIM are all in 9.3 format).   The
column "Dec" in Tables 7 and 8 indicates the original number of digits
to the right of the decimal point in the SAS data sets.  This value
should be used as a part of the input format to prevent the generation
of overly significant data on other computer systems.
     Dates are in DOMMMYY format, and times are in HH:MM format
(24-h clock) for all data sets.
     The two comment variables in data set 3 (COMMNT and COM01) were
each split into two parts because of their lengths (becoming COMMNT1,
COMMNT2, and COM011, COM012, respectively).  Therefore, the card-image
form of data set 3 has 279 (not 277) variables.
     Note that missing numeric variables are represented as -999.
These values must be removed before statistical analysis.

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                                          39
Table 7.   Card-image format definition,  data set 3,  U.S.  EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I
Card
No.a
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Variable
HELGR
LAKE ID
LATMAP
LATMAPT
LNGMAP
LNGMAPT
LATINS
LATINST
LNGINS
LNGINST
DATSMP
TIHSHP
HYD ID
PHIN01
PHIN01T
PHFI01
PHFI01T
CONIN
CONINT
CONFI
CONFIT
ALTIH
ALTIHT
WS OTH
SITDPM
SITDPMT
AIRTMP
AIRTMPF
SITDPF
SITDPFT
SECDIS
SECDIST
SECREA
SECREAT
DP TOP
DP TOPT
DP B
DP~BT
TMPTOP
TMPTOPT
TMP B
TMP BT
Label
H/HELICOPTER, G/GROUND TEAM
LAKE IDENTIFICATION CODE
MAP LATITUDE (DDMM.OM)
TAG FOR LATMAP
MAP LONGITUDE (DDDMM.DM)
TAG FOR LNGMAP
LORAN LATITUDE (DDMM.DM)
TAG FOR LATINS
LORAN LONGITUDE (DDDMM.DM)
TAG FOR LNGINS
DATE SAMPLED (DDMMMYY), FORM 1
TIME SAMPLED (HH:MM), FORM 1
HYDROLAB ID
PH INITIAL CALIBRATION
TAG FOR PHIN01
PH FINAL CALIBRATION
TAG FOR PHFI01
INITIAL CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
TAG FOR CONIN
FINAL CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
TAG FOR CONFI
ALTIMETER (FT)
TAG FOR ALTIM
OTHER DISTURBANCE
SITE DEPTH (M)
TAG FOR SITDPM
AIR TEMPERATURE (DEC C)
FLAG FOR AIRTMP
SITE DEPTH (FT)
TAG FOR SITDPF
SECCHI DISAPPEARANCE DEPTH (M)
TAG FOR SECDIS
SECCHI REAPPEARANCE DEPTH (M)
TAG FOR SECREA
DEPTH AT SURFACE (1.5 M) (M)
TAG FOR DP TOP
DEPTH AT B5TTOM-1.5 M (M)
TAG FOR DP B
TEMPERATURE AT SURFACE (1.5M)
TAG FOR TMPTOP
TEMPERATURE AT BOTTOM-1.5 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMP B
Variable
type
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
Variable
length13
1
7
10
6
10
6
10
6
10
6
7
5
3
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.3
6
25
9.4
6
9.4
12
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
Decc













2

2

0

0

0


1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

Col umn
start
1
3
n
22
29
40
47
58
65
1
8
16
22
26
36
43
53
60
70
1
11
18
28
35
61
1
8
18
31
41
48
58
65
1
8
18
25
35
42
52
59
69
Column
end
1
9
20
27
38
45
56
63
74
6
14
20
24
34
41
51
58
68
75
9
16
26
33
59
69
6
16
29
39
46
56
63
73
6
16
23
33
40
50
57
67
74
Card
No.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

-------
         40
Table 7.   (continued)
Card
No.a
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
Variable
CONTOP
CONTOPF
CONTOPT
CON B
CON~"BT
PH TOP
PHJOPF
PH TOPT
PH~B
PH BT
TMPDF1
TMPOF1T
DP 60
DP~60T
TMP 60
TMP~60T
CON 60
CON 60T
PH 50
PH~60T
THPDF2
TMPDF2T
OUTLET
OUTLETT
INLETS
INLETST
LAKVER
TMP 1
TMP IT
TMP~2
TMP 2T
TMP~3
TMP~4
TMP~5
TMP~6
TMP~7
TMP~7T
TMP^S
TMP 9
TMP~10
CON~1
CON~1T
CON~2
CON~2T
CON~3
CON 3T
Label
CONDUCTANCE AT SURFACE (1.5M) (US/CM)
FLAG FOR CONTOP
TAG FOR CONTOP
CONDUCTANCE AT BOTTOM-1.5M (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON B
PH AT SURFACE (1.5M)
FLAG FOR PHJOP
TAG FOR PH TOP
PH AT BOTTOM- 1.5M
TAG FOR PH B
TEMP DIFFERENCE TOP-BOTTOM (DEC C)
TAG FOR TMPDF1
DEPTH AT 0.6*SITE DEPTH (M)
TAG FOR DP 60
TEMPERATURE AT 0.6*SITE DEPTH (DEC C)
TAG FOR TMP_60
CONDUCTANCE AT 0.60*SITE DEPTH (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 60
PH AT 0.60*S"ITE DEPTH
TAG FOR PH 60
TEMP DIFFERENCE TOP-0.6*DEPTH (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMPDF2
OUTLETS (0)
TAG FOR OUTLET
INLETS (#)
TAG FOR INLETS
LOCATION VERIFIED BY, FORM 1
TEMPERATURE AT 4 OR 5 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMP 1
TEMPERATURE AT 6 OR 10 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMP 2
TEMPERATURE~AT 8 OR 15 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 10 OR 20 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 12 OR 25 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 14 OR 30 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 16 OR 35 M (DEG C)
TAG FOR TMP 7
TEMPERATURE~AT 18 OR 40 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 20 OR 45 M (DEG C)
TEMPERATURE AT 50 M (DEG C)
CONDUCTANCE AT 4 OR 5 M (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 1
CONDUCTANCE~AT 6 OR 10 M (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 2
CONDUCTANCE~AT 8 OR 15 M (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 3
Variable
type
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
Variable
1engthb
9.4
12
6
9.4
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
25
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
6
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
Decc
0


0

2


2

1

1

1

0

2

1

0

0


1

1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0

0

0

Column
start
1
11
24
31
41
48
58
1
8
18
25
35
42
52
59
69
1
11
18
28
35
45
52
62
1
11
18
44
54
61
1
8
18
28
38
48
58
65
1
11
21
31
38
48
55
65
Column
end
9
22
29
39
46
56
69
6
16
23
33
40
50
57
67
74
9
16
26
33
43
50
60
67
9
16
42
52
59
69
6
16
26
36
46
56
63
73
9
19
29
36
46
53
63
70
Card
No.
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11

-------
         41
Table 7.  (continued)
Card
No.a
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
21
21
21
Variable
CON 4
CON~4T
CON~5
CON~5T
CON~6
CON~6T
CON~7
CON~7T
CON 8
CON~8T
CON~9
CON~10
TAG X
TAG~>
TAG Z
BAT~ID
SAM~ID
DATTR
TIMTR
HEL 10
CRW~ID
PH BF
PH 60F
LAKE SIZ
LAKENAME
ST
WSHED
ELEV
IN OUT
LAT DO
LONG* OD
REGION
SUB RGN
ALK~CLSS
HAP BIG
MAP'SML
LAT
LONG
STRATA
COUNTY
USFS
WILDNA
FOREST
MAP MED
NUM~IO
BAflDT
Label
CONDUCTANCE AT 10 OR 20 H (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 4
CONDUCTANCE~AT 12 OR 25 H (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 5
CONDUCTANCE AT 14 OR 30 M (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 6
CONDUCTANCE'AT 16 OR 35 M (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON_7
CONDUCTANCE AT 18 OR 40 H (US/CM)
TAG FOR CON 8
CONDUCTANCE AT 20 OR 45 M (US/CM)
CONDUCTANCE AT 50 H (US/CM)
MEANING OF TAG X, FORM 1
MEANING OF TAG Y, FORM 1
MEANING OF TAG Z, FORM 1
BATCH ID
SAMPLE ID
DATE RECEIVED AT TRAILER, FORM 1
TIME RECEIVED AT TRAILER, FORM 1
HELICOPTER ID
CREW ID
FLAG FOR PH B
FLAG FOR PH 60
LAKE SURFACE AREA (HA)
LAKE NAME
STATE (TWO-LETTER ABBREVIATION)
WATERSHED AREA (HA)
LAKE ELEVATION (H)
PRESENCE/ABSENCE OF INLETS/OUTLETS
LATITUDE (DECIMAL DEGREES)
LONGITUDE (DECIMAL DEGREES)
NSWS REGION
NSWS SUBREGION
ALKALINITY CLASS (1,2,3)
MAP NAME, 1:250,000 SCALE
MAP NAME, 15 OR 7.5 QUAD
LATITUDE
LONGITUDE
NSWS STRATA
FIPS CODE (STATE, COUNTY)
FOREST SERVICE REGION (APPROX)
USFS WILDERNESS NAME
FOREST-NF PAR-NP NATREC-NRA
MAP NAME, 1:100,000 SCALE
NUMBER OF INLETS/OUTLETS
TAG FOR BAT ID
Variable
type
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
Variable
lengthb Decc
9.4 0
6
9.4 0
6
9.4 0
6
9.4 0
6
9.4 0
6
9.4 0
9.4 0
40
20
20
6
6
7
5
9
6
12
12
9.3 1
30
2
9.2 2
9.4 1
6
9.4 4
9.4 4
1
1
1
25
40
10
11
3
5
1
30
30
60
5
6
Column
start
1
11
18
28
35
45
52
62
1
11
18
28
1
42
1
22
29
36
44
50
60
1
14
27
37
68
1
11
21
28
38
48
50
52
1
27
1
12
24
28
34
36
1
1
62
68
Column
end
9
16
26
33
43
50
60
67
9
16
26
36
40
61
20
27
34
42
48
58
65
12
25
35
66
69
9
19
26
36
46
48
50
52
25
66
10
22
26
32
34
65
30
60
66
73
Card
No.
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
21
21
21

-------
         42
Table 7.   (continued)
Card
No.a
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
Variable
LABNAM
DATPRO
OATSHP
STA ID
SAH~IDF
SAtTlDT
SAHCOO
DICVAL
DICVALF
OICVALT
DICQCS
DICOCST
PHSTVL
PHSTVLF
PHSTVLT
PHSTQC
PHSTQCT
TURVAL
TURVALT
TURQCS
COLVAL
COLVALT
SPLCOD
TAG_X2
TAG Y2
TAG Z2
WS DIS
LAKEJ/OL
WALA
RUNIN
DISM
CONCALF
ANSUMF
CATSUMF
SOBCF
ORGIONF
ANSUH
CATSUM
SOBC
ORGION
ANDEF
HC0316
HC0316F
CA16
C0316
C0316F
CL16
MG16
Label
LABORATORY FOR ANALYSIS
DATE PROCESSED, FORM 2
DATE SHIPPED, FORM 2
STATION ID
FLAG FOR SAM ID
TAG FOR SAM_TD
SAMPLE CODE
DIG, FIELD LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DICVAL
TAG FOR DICVAL
DIG QCCS, FIELD LAB (MG/L)
TAG FOR DICQCS
PH, FIELD VALUE
FLAG FOR PHSTVL
TAG FOR PHSTVL
PH QCCS, FIELD LAB
TAG FOR PHSTQC
TURBIDITY, FIELD LAB (NTU)
TAG FOR TURVAL
TURBIDITY QCCS, FIELD LAB (NTU)
COLOR (PCU)
TAG FOR COLVAL
SPLIT CODES
MEANING OF TAG X, FORM 2
MEANING OF TAG Y, FORM 2
MEANING OF TAG Z, FORM 2
D)WELL F)IRE DOG M)INE R)OAD S)TOCK
CALCULATED LAKE VOLUME (10**6 CU M)
WATERSHED AREA / LAKE AREA
SURFACE WATER RUNOFF (INCHES)
DISTANCE FROM COAST (KM)
FLAG FOR CONCAL
FLAG FOR ANSUM
FLAG FOR CATSUM
FLAG FOR SOBC
FLAG FOR ORGION
SUM OF ANIONS (UEQ/L)
SUM OF CATIONS (UEQ/L)
SUM OF BASE CATIONS (UEQ/L)
ORGANIC ANION (UEQ/L)
CATSUM - ANSUM (UEQ/L)
HC03 (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR HC0316
CALCIUM (UEQ/L)
CARBONATE ALKALINITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR C0316
CHLORIDE (UEQ/L)
MAGNESIUM (UEQ/L)
Variable
type
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
Variable
length5
30
7
7
6
12
6
9
9.4
12
6
9.4
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
6
9.4
6
9.4
9.4
6
4
40
25
25
8
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
14
12
12
12
12
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
Dec0







4


3

2


2

1

1
0






4
3
1
0





2
2
4
4
4
3

3
3

3
3
Column
start
1
32
40
48
55
68
1
11
21
34
41
51
58
1
14
21
31
38
48
55
65
1
8
13
1
27
53
62
1
11
21
31
46
59
1
14
27
37
47
57
67
1
11
24
34
44
57
67
Col umn
end
30
38
46
53
66
73
9
19
32
39
49
56
66
12
19
29
36
46
53
63
73
6
11
52
25
51
60
70
9
19
29
44
57
70
12
25
35
45
55
65
75
9
22
32
42
55
65
75
Card
No.
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
29
29
29

-------
         43
Table 7.   (continued)
Card
No.a
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
Variable
N0316
K16
NA16
S0416
FTL16
NH416
H16
H16F
CA11
CA11F
CA11T
MG11
HG11F
HG11T
Kll
K11F
K11T
NA11
NA11F
NA11T
MN11
HN11F
HN11T
FEU
FE11F
FE11T
ALEX 11
ALEX11F
ALEX11T
CL11
CL11F
GLUT
S0411
S0411F
S0411T
N0311
N0311F
N0311T
SI0211
SI0211F
SI0211T
FTL11
FTL11F
FTL11T
DOC11
DOC11F
DOC11T
NH411
NH411F
Label
NITRATE (UEQ/L)
POTASSIUM (UEQ/L)
SODIUM (UEQ/L)
SULFATE (UEQ/L)
FLUORIDE (UEQ/L)
AMMONIUM (UEQ/L)
HYDRONIUM FROM PHAC (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR H16
CALCIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR CA11
TAG FOR CA11
MAGNESIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR MG11
TAG FOR MG11
POTASSIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR K11
TAG FOR Kll
SODIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR NA11
TAG FOR NA11
MANGANESE (UG/L)
FLAG FOR MN11
TAG FOR MN11
IRON (UG/L)
FLAG FOR FE11
TAG FOR FEU
EXTRACTABLE ALUMINUM (UG/L)
FLAG FOR ALEX 11
TAG FOR ALEX11
CHLORIDE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR CL11
TAG FOR CL11
SULFATE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR S0411
TAG FOR S0411
NITRATE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR N0311
TAG FOR N0311
SILICA (MG/L)
FLAG FOR SI0211
TAG FOR SI0211
FLUORIDE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR FTL11
TAG FOR FTL11
DOC, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DOC11
TAG FOR DOC11
AMMONIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR NH411
Variable
type
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
Variable
length5
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
Dec0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3


3


3


3


0


0


1


3


3


4


3


4


2


3

Column
start
1
11
21
31
41
51
61
1
14
24
37
44
54
67
1
11
24
31
41
54
61
1
14
21
31
44
51
61
1
8
18
31
38
48
61
1
11
24
31
41
54
61
1
14
21
31
44
51
61
Column
end
9
19
29
39
49
59
69
12
22
35
42
52
65
72
9
22
29
39
52
59
69
12
19
29
42
49
59
72
6
16
29
36
46
59
66
9
22
29
39
52
59
69
12
19
29
42
49
59
72
Card
No.
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
36
36
36

-------
                                                   44
                                          Table 7.  (continued)
Card
No.a
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
43
44
45
46
Variable
NH411T
PHEQ11
PHEQ1 IF
PHEQ11T
PHAL11
PHAL11F
PHAL11T
PHAC11
PHAC11F
PHAC11T
ACC011
ACC011F
ACC011T
ALKA11
ALKA11F
ALKA11T
CONDI!
CON011F
COND11T
DICE 11
DICE! IF
DICE 1 IT
DICIll
DICI11F
DICI11T
PTL11
PTL11F
PTL11T
ALTL11
ALTL11F
ALTL11T
CONCAL
GHU
FACE
PRECIP
RT
REG SPC
BNSTAR
WEIGHT 1
HYOROTYP
BEDROCK
ANCAT
SECMEAN
STRAT
COH011
COM012
COHHNT1
COMMNT2
Variable Variable
Label type length0
TAG FOR NH411
PH, AIR EQUILIBRATED
FLAG FOR PHEQ11
TAG FOR PHEQ11
PH, ALKALINITY INITIAL
FLAG FOR PHAL11
TAG FOR PHAL11
PH, ACIDITY INITIAL
FLAG FOR PHAC11
TAG FOR PHAC11
C02 ACIDITY (UEQ/l)
FLAG FOR ACC011
TAG FOR ACC011
ALKALINITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR ALKA11
TAG FOR ALKA11
CONDUCTANCE, ANALYTICAL LAB (US/CM)
FLAG FOR CONDI!
TAG FOR CONDI!
EQUILIBRATED DIG, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DICE 11
TAG FOR DICE 11
INITIAL DIG, ANALYTICAL LAB (HG/L)
FLAG FOR DICIll
TAG FOR DICIll
TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (UG/L)
FLAG FOR PTL11
TAG FOR PTL11
TOTAL ALUMINUM (UG/L)
FLAG FOR ALTL11
TAG FOR'ALTLll
CALCULATED SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
GEOMORPHIC UNIT
GEOMORPHIC SLOPE (E/W)
ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (M/YR)
RESIDENCE TIME (YR)
/REG/SPC/LTM
POPULATION SIZE BY STRATA
POPULATION EXTRAPOLATION FACTOR
DRAINAGE, SEEPAGE, CLOSED, RESERVOIR
NORTON BEDROCK CLASSIFICATION
CATSUM/ANSUM
SECCHI MEAN DEPTH (M)
STRATIFICATON TYPE (MIXED, WEAK, STRONG)
COMMENT FROM FORM 1 PT 1
COMMENT FROM FORM 1 PT 2
COMMENT FROM FORM 2 PT 1
COMMENT FROM FORM 2 PT 2
CHAR
MUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
12
6
9.4
6
1
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
9
1
9.4
9.4
6
75
45
75
75
Decc

2


2


2


2


2


1


3


3


1


1


4


3
4

0
4


4
2





Col umn
start
1
8
18
31
38
48
61
1
11
24
31
41
54
61
1
14
21
31
44
51
61
1
8
18
31
38
48
61
1
n
24
31
41
48
50
60
1
14
24
34
44
46
56
66
1
1
1
1
Column
end
6
16
29
36
46
59
66
9
22
29
39
52
59
69
12
19
29
42
49
59
72
6
16
29
36
46
59
66
9
22
29
39
46
48
58
68
12
22
32
42
44
54
64
71
75
45
75
75
Card
No.
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
43
44
45
46
     ?Card No.  is a variable on each record in columns 78-79.                                    .
     bLength for CHAR (character)  fields is the integer field length..  The length for NUM (numeric)
fields is in W.D format, where W = the total  field length (decimal  point included) and D = the number of
decimal places.  For example, 34.78 is in 5.2 format.
     C0ec is the number of decimal places with which the original  data were reported.

-------
                                          45
Table 8.   Card-image format definition,  data set  4,  U.S.  EPA Western  Lake  Survey-Phase I
Card
No.a









2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
Variable
HELGR
LAKE ID
LATINS
LNGINS
DATSMP
TIHSMP
ALTIH
SITDPM
AIRTHP
AIRTMPF
SECDIS
SECREA
DP TOP
DP~B
TMPTOP
THP_B
CONTOP
CONTOPF
CON B
PH TOP
PH'TOPF
PH B
TMPDF1
DP 60
THP 60
CON~60
PH 50
THPDF2
BAT ID
SAM~ID
CRW~ID
PH BF
PH~60F
LAKE SIZ
LAKENAME
ST
WSHED
ELEV
IN OUT
LAT DO
LONG DD
REGION
SUB RGN
ALK~CLSS
Label
H/HELICOPTER, G/GROUND TEAM
LAKE IDENTIFICATION CODE
LORAN LATITUDE (DDHH.DM)
LORAN LONGITUDE (DDDMM.DM)
DATE SAMPLED (DDMHMYY) , FORM 1
TIME SAMPLED (HH:MM), FORM 1
ALTIMETER (FT)
SITE DEPTH (M)
AIR TEMPERATURE (DEG C)
FLAG FOR AIRTMP
SECCHI DISAPPEARANCE DEPTH (M)
SECCHI REAPPEARANCE DEPTH (M)
DEPTH AT SURFACE (1.5 M) (M)
DEPTH AT BOTTOM- 1.5 M (M)
TEMPERATURE AT SURFACE (1.5M)
TEMPERATURE AT BOTTOM-1.5 M (DEG C)
CONDUCTANCE AT SURFACE (1.5M) (US/CM)
FLAG FOR CONTOP
CONDUCTANCE AT BOTTOM-1.5M (US/CM)
PH AT SURFACE (1.5M)
FLAG FOR PH TOP
PH AT BOTTOM- 1.5M
TEMP DIFFERENCE TOP-BOTTOM (DEG C)
DEPTH AT 0.6*SITE DEPTH (M)
TEMPERATURE AT 0.6*SITE DEPTH (DEG C)
CONDUCTANCE AT 0.60*SITE DEPTH (US/CM)
PH AT 0.60*SITE DEPTH
TEMP DIFFERENCE TOP-0.6*DEPTH (DEG C)
BATCH ID
SAMPLE ID
CREW ID
FLAG FOR PH B
FLAG FOR PH 60
LAKE SURFACE AREA (HA)
LAKE NAME
STATE (TWO-LETTER ABBREVIATION)
WATERSHED AREA (HA)
LAKE ELEVATION (M)
PRESENCE/ABSENCE OF INLETS/OUTLETS
LATITUDE (DECIMAL DEGREES)
LONGITUDE (DECIMAL DEGREES)
NSWS REGION
NSWS SUBREGION
ALKALINITY CLASS (1,2,3)
l/ar i able
type
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
Variable
length13
1
7
10
10
7
5
9.3
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
6
6
6
12
12
9.3
30
2
9.2
9.4
6
9.4
9.4
1
1
1
Decc






0
1
0







0

0
2

2
1
1
1
0
2
1





1


2
1

4
4



Column
start
1
3
11
22
33
41
47
57
67
1
14
24
34
44
54
64
1
11
24
34
44
57
67
1
11
21
31
41
51
58
65
1
14
27
37
68
1
11
21
28
38
48
50
52
Column
end
1
9
20
31
39
45
55
65
75
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
9
22
32
42
55
65
75
9
19
29
39
49
56
63
70
12
25
35
66
69
9
19
26
36
46
48
50
52
Card
No.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

-------
         46
Table 8.   (continued)
Card
No.a
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
n
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
Variable
MAP BIG
MAP_SML
LAT
LONG
STRATA
COUNTY
USFS
WILDNA
FOREST
NUM 10
LABFJAM
SAM IDF
SAHCOD
DICVAL
DICVALF
PHSTVL
PHSTVLF
TURVAL
COLVAL
LAKE VOL
WALA~
RUNIN
DISH
CONCALF
ANSUMF
CATSUMF
SOBCF
ORGIONF
ANSUH
CATSUM
SOBC
ORGION
ANOEF
HC0316
HC0316F
CA16
COS 16
C0316F
CL16
HG16
N0316
K16
NA16
S0416
FTL16
NH416
H16
H16F
CA11
Label
HAP NAHE, 1:250,000 SCALE
MAP NAME, 15 OR 7.5 QUAD
LATITUDE
LONGITUDE
NSWS STRATA
FIPS CODE (STATE, COUNTY)
FOREST SERVICE REGION (APPROX)
USFS WILDERNESS NAHE
FOREST-NF PAR-NP NATREC-NRA
NUMBER OF INLETS/OUTLETS
LABORATORY FOR ANALYSIS
FLAG FOR SAM ID
SAHPLE CODE ~
DIC, FIELD LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DICVAL
PH, FIELD VALUE
FLAG FOR PHSTVL
TURBIDITY, FIELD LAB (NTU)
COLOR (PCU)
CALCULATED LAKE VOLUME (10**6 CU H)
WATERSHED AREA / LAKE AREA
SURFACE WATER RUNOFF (INCHES)
DISTANCE FROH COAST (KM)
FLAG FOR CONCAL
FLAG FOR ANSUM
FLAG FOR CATSUM
FLAG FOR SOBC
FLAG FOR ORGION
SUM OF ANIONS (UEQ/L)
SUM OF CATIONS (UEQ/L)
SUM OF BASE CATIONS (UEQ/L)
ORGANIC ANION (UEQ/L)
CATSUM - ANSUM (UEQ/L)
HC03 (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR HC0316
CALCIUM (UEQ/L)
CARBONATE ALKALINITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR C0316
CHLORIDE (UEQ/L)
MAGNESIUM (UEQ/L)
NITRATE (UEQ/L)
POTASSIUM (UEQ/L)
SODIUM (UEQ/L)
SULFATE (UEQ/L)
FLUORIDE (UEQ/L)
AMMONIUM (UEQ/L)
HYDRONIUM FROM PHAC (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR H16
CALCIUM (MG/L)
Variable
type
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUH
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
Variable
length5
25
40
10
11
3
5
1
30
30
5
30
12
9
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
14
12
12
12
12
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
12
9.4
Decc













4

2

1
0
4
3
1
0





2
2
4
4
4
3

3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
Column
start
1
27
1
12
24
28
34
36
1
32
38
1
14
24
34
47
57
1
11
21
31
41
51
61
1
14
27
40
53
63
1
11
21
31
41
54
64
1
14
24
34
44
54
64
1
11
21
31
44
Column
end
25
66
10
22
26
32
34
65
30
36
67
12
22
32
45
55
68
9
19
29
39
49
59
74
12
25
38
51
61
71
9
19
29
39
52
62
72
12
22
32
42
52
62
72
9
19
29
42
52
Card
No.
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15

-------
         47
Table 3.   (continued)
Card
No.a
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
Variable
Variable Label type
CA11F
MG11
MG11F
K11
K11F
NA11
NA11F
HN11
MN11F
FE11
FE11F
ALEX 11
ALEX! IF
CL11
CL11F
S0411
S041 IF
N0311
N0311F
SI0211
SI0211F
FTL11
FTL11F
DOC11
DOC11F
NH411
NH411F
PHEQ11
PHEQ11F
PHAL11
PHAL11F
PHAC11
PHAC11F
ACC011
ACC011F
ALKA11
ALKA11F
CON011
CONDI IF
DICE 11
DICE11F
DICIll
OICI11F
PTL11
PTL11F
ALTL11
ALTL11F
FLAG FOR CA11
MAGNESIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR MG11
POTASSIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR K11
SODIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR NA11
MANGANESE (UG/L)
FLAG FOR MN11
IRON (UG/L)
FLAG FOR FEU
EXTRACTABLE ALUMINUM (UG/L)
FLAG FOR ALEX 11
CHLORIDE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR CL11
SULFATE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR S0411
NITRATE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR N0311
SILICA (MG/L)
FLAG FOR SI0211
FLUORIDE (MG/L)
FLAG FOR FT.L11
DOC, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DOC11
AMMONIUM (MG/L)
FLAG FOR NH411
PH, AIR EQUILIBRATED
FLAG FOR PHEQ11
PH, ALKALINITY INITIAL
FLAG FOR PHAL11
PH, ACIDITY INITIAL
FLAG FOR PHAC11
C02 ACIDITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR ACC011
ALKALINITY (UEQ/L)
FLAG FOR ALKA11
CONDUCTANCE, ANALYTICAL LAB (US/CM)
FLAG FOR CONDI!
EQUILIBRATED DIG, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DICE 11
INITIAL DIG, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
FLAG FOR DICIll
TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (UG/L)
FLAG FOR PTL11
TOTAL ALUMINUM (UG/L)
FLAG FOR ALTL11
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUH
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
Variable
length"3
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
9.4
12
Decc

3

3

3

0

0

1

3

3

4

3

4

2

3

2

2

2

2

2

1

3

3

1

1

Column
"start
54
67
1
14
24
37
47
60
1
14
24
37
47
60
1
14
24
37
47
60
1
14
24
37
47
60
1
14
24
37
47
60
1
14
24
37
47
60
1
14
24
37
47
60
1
14
24
Column
end
65
75
12
22
35
45
58
68
12
22
35
45
58
68
12
22
35
45
58
68
12
22
35
45
58
68
12
22
35
45
58
68
12
22
35
45
58
68
12
22
35
45
58
68
12
22
35
Card
No.
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23

-------
                                                    48
                                           Table 3.   (continued)
Card
No.a
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
Variable
CONCAL
GWJ
FACE
PRECIP
RT
REG SPC
TURVALF
COLVALF
ANCAT
SECMEAN
BNSTAR
WEIGHT 1
HYDROTYP
STRAT
BEDROCK
HAP_HED
WS OTH
WS~OIS
STA" ID
Variable
Label type
CALCULATED SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
GECMORPHTC UNIT
GEOMORPHIC SLOPE (E/W)
ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (M/YR)
RESIDENCE TIME (YR)
/REG/SPC/LTH
FLAG FOR TURVAL
FLAG FOR COLVAL
CATSUM/ANSUM
SECCHI MEAN DEPTH (H)
POPULATION SIZE BY STRATA
POPULATION EXTRAPOLATION FACTOR
DRAINAGE, SEEPAGE, CLOSED, RESERVOIR
STRATIFICATON TYPE (MIXED, WEAK, STRONG)
NORTON BEDROCK CLASSIFICATION
MAP NAME, 1:100,000 SCALE
OTHER DISTURBANCE
D)WELL F)IRE L)OG M)INE R)OAD S)TOCK
STATION ID
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
Variable
lengthb
9.4
6
1
9.4
9.4
12
12
12
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9
6
1
35
25
8
6
Dec0
4


3
4



4
2
0
4







Column
start
37
47
54
56
66
1
14
27
40
50
60
1
11
21
28
30
1
27
36
Column
end
45
52
54
64
74
12
25
38
48
58
68
9
19
26
28
64
25
34
41
Card
No.
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
     aCard No.  is a variable on each record in columns 78 and 79.
     bLength for CHAR (character)  fields is the integer field length.   The length for NUM (numeric)
fields is in W.D format, where W = the t9tal  field length (decimal  point included)  and D = the number of
decimal  places.  For example, 34.78 is in 5.2 format.
     C0ec is the number of decimal places with which the original  data were reported.

-------
                                                    49
          Table 9.  Card-image format definition, PC data set,  U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase  I
Can
No.'



2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
j
1 Variabh
LAKE ID
LAKENAME
LAT
LONG
ELEV
LAKE SIZ
WSHED
UALA
HYDROTYP
THPTOP
STRAT
SITDPH
SECMEAN
TURVAL
COLVAL
FE11
ANSUM
CATSUM
ANCAT
PHEQ11
PHSTVL
ALKA11
CON01 1
CONCAL
DICEH
DICVAL
DOC11
ALEX 11
ALTL11
CA16
HG16
NA16
K16
NH416
S0416
HC0316
CL16
N0316
FTL16
PTL11
SI0211
REG SPC
ST ~
MN11
DATSMP
WEIGHT 1
BNSTAR
\
J Label
LAKE ID
LAKE NAME
LATITUDE
LONGITUDE
LAKE ELEVATION (M)
LAKE SURFACE AREA (HA)
WATERSHED AREA (HA)
WATERSHED AREA/LAKE AREA
DRAINAGE, SEEPAGE, CLOSED, RESERVOIR
TEMPERATURE AT SURFACE
STRATIFICATION (NONE, WEAK, STRONG)
SITE DEPTH (M)
SECCHI, MEAN DEPTH (M)
TURBIDITY, FIELD LAB (NTU)
COLOR (PCU)
IRON (UG/L)
SUM OF ANIONS (UEQ/L)
SUM OF CATIONS (UEQ/L)
CATSUM/ANSUM
PH, AIR EQUILIBRATED
PH, FIELD LAB
ALKALINITY (UEQ/L)
CONDUCTANCE, ANALYTICAL LAB (US/CM)
CALCULATED SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE (US/CM)
EQUIL DIG, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
DIC, FIELD LAB (MG/L)
DOC, ANALYTICAL LAB (MG/L)
EXTRACTABLE ALUMINUM (UG/L)
TOTAL ALUMINUM (UG/L)
CALCIUM (UEQ/L)
MAGNESIUM (MG/L)
SODIUM (UEQ/L)
POTASSIUM (UEQ/L)
AMMONIUM (UEQ/L)
SULFATE (UEQ/L)
HC03 (UEQ/L)
CHLORIDE (UEQ/L)
NITRATE (UEQ/L)
FLUORIDE (UEQ/L)
TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (UG/L)
SILICA (MG/L)
/REG/SPEC/LTM
STATE (TWO-LETTER ABBREV)
MANGANESE (UG/L)
DATE SAMPLED, FORM 1
POPULATION EXTRAPOLATION FACTOR
POPULATION SIZE BY STRATA
fariable
type
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
NUM
CHAR
CHAR
NUM
CHAR
NUM
NUM
Variable
lengthb
7
26
10
11
4.0
7.1
7.0
7.1
9
6.1
6
5.1
6.1
5.1
4.0
6.1
6.1
6.1
4.2
4.2
4.2
6.1
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
5.1
4.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
4.1
5.1
5.1
6.2
12
2
6.1
7
6 3
4.0
Column
start
1
9
36
46
59
64
72
1
9
19
26
33
wJ
39
46
52
57
64
71
1
6
11
16
23
29
35
41
47
53
59
66
73
1
8
14
19
26
33
40
45
51
57
64
77
1
8
16
23
Column
end
7
34
45
C7
J 1
62
wt
70
78
7
/
17
1 1
24
fc*T
31
37
O 1
44
*T*T
50
Jw
55
JtJ
62
Wi.
69
76
4
*T
g

21
C. 1
27
33
39
45
51
57
64
71
78
6
12
1 w
17
1 /
24
t*T
31
J 1
38
JU
43
*TW
40
*t?
55
J J
62
jf.
i j
78
g
V
14
1 *T
?1
f 1
26
Card
No.
1
1
1
i
i
i
i
1
1



o
,

?
b
?
c
?

?
Cm
2

3

3

-------
                                   50

                    7.  DATA TRANSPORT VERIFICATION

     The WLS-I data sets can be read as  fully formatted  SAS data sets
or as card-image files (Sect.  6).   Regardless, users  should verify that
the data have been transported correctly to their systems by generating
some or all of the statistics presented  in Tables 10-13.  These
statistics were generated using SAS (PROC MEANS) but  can be duplicated
in other statistical packages or languages.  If the statistics
generated by the user differ from those presented here,  the data sets
may have been corrupted in transport.  Note that missing values in the
card-image data sets, represented as -999, must be removed before
generating the summary  statistics to check data transport.
     Tables 14-16 are card-image printouts of the first five lakes in
data sets  3 and 4 and the PC data set (file WLS-I.REG).  They can be
used to  check data  formats  for those using the  card-image  versions.
     These statistics are presented  only  as a tool to ensure proper
reading  of the  data sets.   They are  not to be construed  as summarizing
the WLS-I  results.

-------
                               51
Table 10.  Characteristics of numeric variables, data set 3,
            U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I
Variable
ACC011
AIRTMP
ALEX11
ALKA11
ALTIM
ALTL11
ANCAT
ANOEF
ANSUM
BNSTAR
CA11
CA16
CATSUM
cm
CL16
C0316
COLVAL
CONCAL
CONDI 1
CONFI
CONIN
CONTOP
CON 1
CON 10
CON 2
CON 3
CON 4
CON 5
CON_6
CON 60
CON 7
CON 8
CON 9
CON B
DICE11
DICI11
DICQCS
OICVAL
OISM
OOC11
DP 60
DP B
DP TOP
N
1105
1105
1105
1105
573
1105
1104
l'l04
1104
1106
1105
1105
1105
1104
1104
1105
1104
1104
1105
579
579
564
21
1
21
21
21
18
18
33
12
10
7
474
1105
1105
355
1103
346
1105
63
944
1096
Mean
25.29
6.19
6.97
244.41
7332.98
36.87
1.16
32.60
274.11
849.96
3.65
182.03
306.61
0.44
12.34
3.90
8.69
31.68
29.64
43.98
47.39
35.16
36.48
7.00
36.19
38.19
43.29
44.56
46.17
35.06
50.00
51.80
8.71
34.95
2.84
2.98
2.10
3.17
71.68
1.72
19.77
11.91
1.50
Standard
deviation
32.92
5.76
29.30
426.37
2939.82
71.58
0.15
123.82
541.96
574.31
6.58
328.57
565.84
3.21
90.69
22.61
9.50
62.12
51.96
7.01
6.62
64.18
58.01

57.91
59.06
65.36
67.25
66.94
52.63
82.45
90.38
6.05
66.95
4.69
5.21
0.22
5.82
38.42
1.68
8.14
10.30
0.00
Min
-270.30
-17.00
-6.00
-24.00
20.00
-2.30
0.70
-639.79
14.62
150.00
0.09
4.29
18.04
0.01
0.31
0.00
0.00
2.14
1.60
0.00
30.00
-2.00
1.00
7.00
1.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
-3.00
0.14
0.16
1.82
0.20
1.00
0.05
3.60
0.30
1.50
Max
450.70
23.00
723.80
4948.60
12800.00
1154.00
2.76
2565.19
7320.76
2317.00
95.38
4759.51
6680.97
74.22
2093.66
311.12
110.00
852.16
695.00
60.00
64.00
667.00
206.00
7.00
206.00
212.00
225.00
225.00
224.00
225.00
224.00
223.00
17.00
668.00
50.22
61 .83
5.96
88.67
149.00
16.72
42.20
53.40
1.50

-------
           52
Table 10.  (continued)
Variable
ELEV
FEU
FTL11
FTL16
HI 6
HC0316
INLETS
Kll
K16
LAKE SIZ
LAKE VOL
LAT DO
LONG OD
MG11
MG16
MN11
NA11
NA16
NH411
NH416
N0311
N0316
ORGION
OUTLET
PHAC11
PHAL11
PHEQ11
PHFI01
PHIN01
PHSTQC
PHSTVL
PH 60
PH B
PH TOP
PRECIP
PTL11
RT
RUNIN
SECDIS
SECMEAN
SECREA
SI0211
SITDPF
SITDPM
N
1106
1105
1104
1104
1105
1105
989
1105
1105
1106
1104
1106
1106
1105
1105
1105
1105
1105
1105
1105
1104
1104
1105
1063
1105
1105
1104
579
579
388
1103
34
471
1093
1103
1105
880
1106
1096
1096
687
1104
569
1104
Mean
2405.99
31.61
0.05
2.84
0.20
214.79
1.22
0.37
9.47
34.53
4.27
42.95
114.85
0.81
66.44
3.84
1.11
48.47
0.00
0.00
0.10
1.53
16.72
0.90
7.01
7.01
7.27
3.94
3.95
4.06
7.19
6.67
7.04
6.71
1.04
8.08
0.74
27.22
6.21
6.08
6.48
3.71
41.85
12.42
Standard
deviation
843.87
68.24
0.19
10.22
0.87
379.46
1.58
0.97
24.72
357.27
39.96
3.57
5.89
1.84
151.45
18.54
5.38
234.09
0.03
1.45
0.21
3.39
16.45
0.37
0.54
0.54
0.50
0.08
0.08
0.02
0.60
0.52
0.79
0.85
0.61
14.71
1.41
23.35
4.06
3.99
4.25
6.64
44.38
12.53
Min
10.67
-9.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.63
0.00
0.03
0.10
1.00
0.01
36.09
105.06
0.02
1.32
-49.00
0.02
1.00
-0.08
-4.60
-0.01
-0.22
0.48
0.00
4.55
4.60
4.06
3.77
3.73
4.00
4.79
5.95
4.50
4.48
0.20
-3.00
0.00
0.20
0.30
0.25
0.20
-0.05
3.00
0.50
Max
3912.78
974.00
3.54
186.57
28.18
3732.72
25.00
20.00
511.40
10010.70
919.70
48.99
123.78
17.88
1471.14
227.00
124.50
5415.75
0.29
15.91
2.67
43.05
167.02
3.00
9.59
9.61
9.05
4.26
4.34
4.10
9.83
7.77
9.69
10.52
3.25
188.10
18.69
120.00
28.50
27.75
27.00
114.05
360.00
109.70

-------
           53
Table 10.  (continued)
Variable
S0411
S0416
SOBC
TMPDF1
TMPOF2
TMPTOP
TMP 1
TMP~10
TMP 2
TMP 3
TMP 4
TMP 5
TMP 6
TMP 60
TMP~7
TMP 8
TMP 9
TMP 8
TURQCS
TURVAL
MALA
WEIGHT1
WSHED
N
1104
1104
1105
945
60
1103
37
1
37
38
38
31
28
62
13
11
7
945
319
1104
1106
1106
1106
Mean
1.86
38.64
306.41
0.88
4.63
7.57
10.56
4.70
8.68
6.65
5.65
5.48
5.53
6.55
4.78
4.69
4.64
6.77
4.78
0.76
55.44
14.10
1354.44
Standard
deviation
8.02
166.91
565.25
1.78
3.29
2.70
1.08

2.30
2.28
2.63
2.99
4.43
3.42
0.73
0.59
0.62
2.51
0.13
1.86
177.86
9.60
11997.97
Min
0.00
0.08
17.40
-20.60
0.00
0.30
8.20
4.70
4.80
3.70
3.60
3.60
3.60
3.60
4.10
4.00
4.00
0.30
4.50
0.00
1.27
3.26
5.18
Max
142.17
2960.02
6668.25
8.80
20.30
20.10
12.90
4.70
12.60
11.30
18.70
20.00
27.40
26.50
6.30
5.70
5.50
27.40
5.30
30.00
3332.45
36.87
291592.56

-------
                               54
Table 11.  Characteristics of numeric variables,  data  set 4,
            U.S.  EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I
Variable
ACC011
AIRTMP
ALEX11
ALKA11
ALTIM
ALTL11
ANCAT
ANDEF
ANSUM
BNSTAR
CA11
CAT 6
CATSUM
cm
CL16
C0316
COLVAL
CONCAL
COND11
CONTOP
CON 60
CON B
DICE11
OICI11
OICVAL
OISM
DOC11
DP 60
OP B
DP TOP
ELEV
FEU
FTL11
FTL16
HI 6
HC0316
Kll
K16
LAKE SIZ
LAKE VOL
LAT DO
LONG DO
N
752
751
752
752
435
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
427
20
356
752
752
752
238
752
39
636
745
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
750
752
752
Mean
25.23
6.08
6.41
260.55
7364.45
37.82
1.16
33.31
287.24
868.75
3.80
189.81
320.55
0.43
12.24
4.28
9.19
33.00
30.85
35.04
36.60
33.73
3.04
3.15
3.30
73.26
1.83
19.67
11.87
1.50
2394.50
35.40
0.06
2.90
0.20
229.44
0.38
9.72
43.62
5.03
42.88
114.82
Standard
deviation
32.49
5.82
25.05
443.71
2961.86
69.49
0.13
66.45
527.67
586.52
6.39
319.10
550.44
2.82
79.67
23.57
10.11
59.77
49.86
59.01
50.02
60.82
4.93
5.25
5.57
39.37
1.83
8.23
10.31
0.00
855.84
75.97
0.19
10.09
1.04
394.42
0.90
23.00
429.33
45.14
3.60
5.92
Min
-270.30
-17.00
0.00
-24.00
20.00
0.70
0.78
-337.10
14.62
150.00
0.09
4.32
18.38
0.02
0.65
0.00
0.00
2.17
1.60
-2.00
4.00
-3.00
0.14
0.31
0.27
1.00
0.06
3.60
1.50
1.50
10.67
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.63
0.03
0.64
1.00
0.01
36.09
105.06
Max
380.80
23.00
658.95
4948.60
12800.00
1119.00
2.15
736.36
6967.79
2317.00
95.30
4755.57
6696.22
72.73
2051.77
311.12
110.00
834.43
676.00
667.00
225.00
668.00
50.22
61.83
86.72
149.00
16.72
42.20
53.40
1.50
3912.78
974.00
3.45
181.61
28.18
3732.72
19.65
502.45
10010.70
919.70
48.99
123.78

-------
            55
Table 11.   (continued)
Variable
MG11
MG16
MN11
NA11
NA16
NH411
NH41 6
N0311
N0316
OR6ION
PHAC11
PHAL11
PHEQ11
PHSTVL
PH 60
PH B
PH TOP
PRECIP
PTL11
RT
RUNIN
SECDIS
SECMEAN
SECREA
SI0211
SITDPM
S0411
S0416
SOBC
TMPDF1
TMPDF2
TMPTOP
TMP 60
TMP B
TURVAL
WALA
WEIGHT!
WSHEO
N
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
752
21
355
752
750
752
602
752
748
748
476
752
750
752
752
752
637
37
750
38
637
752
752
752
752
Mean
0.86
70.71
7.38
1.14
49.73
0.01
0.38
0.10
1.66
17.81
7.03
7.03
7.29
7.20
6.78
7.06
6.80
1.03
8.44
0.76
26.40
6.07
5.94
6.21
3.82
12.37
1.76
36.71
319.97
0.82
4.45
7.52
7.03
6.77
0.81
59.86
14.39
1701.14
Standard
deviation
1.86
152.75
17.06
4.92
213.99
0.02
1.15
0.22
3.59
17.97
0.55
0.55
0.50
0.61
0.56
0.80
0.87
0.60
15.43
1.42
22.43
4.03
3.96
4.20
6.77
12.78
7.02
146.08
549.97
1.78
3.71
2.76
4.03
2.59
1.89
200.84
9.79
14336.26
Min
0.02
1.81
0.00
0.02
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.58
4.55
4.60
4.65
4.79
5.95
4.50
4.48
0.20
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.04
0.50
0.01
0.23
17.40
-20.60
0.00
0.30
3.60
0.30
0.00
1.27
3.26
5.18
Max
17.88
1471.14
212.00
124.50
5415.75
0.26
14.61
2.67
43.05
167.02
9.56
9.61
9.05
9.81
7.77
9.69
10.52
3.25
188.10
18.69
120.00
28.50
27.75
27.00
114.05
109.70
139.72
2909.06
6682.94
8.80
20.30
20.10
26.50
27.40
30.00
3332.45
36.87
291592.56

-------
                              56
Table 12.  Characteristics of numeric variables,  PC data set,
     file WLS-I.REG, U.S. EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase I
Variable
ALEX11
ALKA11
ALTL11
ANCAT
ANSUM
BNSTAR
CA16
CATSUM
CL16
COLVAL
CONCAL
CONDI 1
OICE11
DICVAL
DOC11
ELEV
FEU
FTL16
HC0316
K16
LAKE SIZ
MG16
MN11
NA16
NH416
N0316
PHEQ11
PHSTVL
PTL11
SECMEAN
SI0211
SITDPM
S0416
TMPTOP
TURVAL
MALA
WEIGHT1
WSHED
N
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
720
717
720
720
720
719
720
720
720
720
Mean
6.56
265.37
38.42
1.16
292.20
873.12
193.62
325.97
12.13
9.23
33.55
31.33
3.09
3.37
1.85
2381 .52
35.88
2.98
233.80
9.77
33.01
71 .59
7.52
50.40
0.38
1.66
7.30
7.20
8.39
5.95
3.88
12.16
37.20
7.55
0.82
61.01
14.44
1694.16
Standard
deviation
25.58
450.95
70.85
0.13
536.67
595.86
324.67
559.65
80.68
10.24
60.79
50.66
5.01
5.67
1.87
862.82
77.26
10,31
400.89
23.40
382.17
155.06
17.39
218.11
1.15
3.54
0.50
0.61
15.64
3.98
6.88
12.10
149.07
2.77
1.92
205.06
9.94
14615.34
Min
0.00
-24.00
0.70
0.85
14.62
150.00
4.32
18.38
0.65
0.00
2.17
1.60
0.14
0.27
0.06
10.67
0.00
0.00
2.63
0.64
1.00
1.81
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
4.65
4.79
0.00
0.25
0.04
0.50
0.23
0.30
0.00
2.59
3.26
5.18
Max
658.95
4948.60
1119.00
2.15
6967.79
2317.00
4755.57
6696.22
2051.77
110.00
834.43
676.00
50.22
86.72
16.72
3885.33
974.00
181.61
3732.72
502.45
10010.70
1471.14
212.00
5415.75
14.61
43.05
9.05
9.82
188.10
27.75
114.05
93.90
2909.06
20.10
30.00
3332.45
36.88
291592.56

-------
                              57
Table 13.  Characteristics of numeric variables, PC data set,
     file WLS-I.SPC, U.S.  EPA Western Lake Survey-Phase  I
Variable
ALEX11
ALKA1 1
ALTL11
ANCAT
ANSUM
8NSTAR
CAT 6
CATSUM
CL16
COLVAL
CONCAL
COND11
DICE11
OICVAL
oocn
ELEV
FEU
FTL16
HC0316
K16
LAKE SIZ
MG16
MN11
NA16
NH416
N0316
PHEQ11
PHSTVL
PTL11
SECMEAN
SI0211
SITOPM
S0416
TMPTOP
TURVAL
MALA
WEIGHT1
WSHEO
N
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
31
32
30
32
31
32
32
32
32
Mean
3.09
152.19
24.30
1.16
175.54
770.53
104.02
198.52
14.73
8.20
20.59
19.86
1.80
1.93
1.40
2692.52
24.52
1.17
131.41
8.67
282.30
50.78
4.05
34.60
0.31
1.78
7.20
7.22
9.50
5.87
2.57
17.48
25.73
6.77
0.70
34.00
13.21
1858.24
Standard
deviation
2.73
200.79
18.97
0.14
228.04
297.94
118.31
244.02
52.71
6.45
25.84
23.95
2.22
2.18
0.73
630.33
35.39
1.16
175.36
10.48
1008.23
84.51
5.25
75.66
1.26
4.53
0.31
0.51
9.50
3.65
3.60
23.69
37.55
2.57
1.05
34.67
5.40
4972.87
Min
0.00
23.20
3.50
0.78
29.19
150.00
10.48
32.87
0.75
0.00
3.67
3.40
0.41
0.46
0.24
1423.60
0.00
0.19
16.35
1.53
1.00
4.94
0.00
5.57
0.00
0.00
6.68
6.36
0.00
1.65
0.16
2.40
1.39
2.70
0.10
1.27
3.26
23.31
Max
9.40
1100.00
74.80
1.42
1022.71
1061.00
675.80
1146.13
302.55
25.00
118.99
112.00
12.35
12.00
4.28
3912.78
162.50
4.89
967.24
50.09
5396.70
423.97
20.00
445.66
7.10
21.36
8.21
8.73
41.40
15.25
19.04
109.70
221.94
12.00
5.85
132.04
19.74
26570.69

-------
                                      58
            Table 14.   Card-image  listing (first five  lakes),  data set 3,
                         U.S.  EPA  Western Lake Survey-Phase I
H 4A1-001 0383167           1194658           0383182           1194657       1
       030CT85 13:28 HUM    3.9100           4.0300          44.0000          2
  37.0000         8250.000                                     2.7000         3
         15.0000                 9.0000           1.2000           1.0000     4
          1.5000<      -999.0000           9.9000        -999.0000           5
  20.0000                     -999.0000           8.7000                      6
X      -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000           7
-999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000           1.0000                  8
-999.0000        TOPO/LORAN                -999.0000        -999.0000         9
       -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000        -999.0000     10
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000               11
-999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000                  12
-999.0000        -999.0000 -999.0000                                          13
PH RANGE 8.67-8.72                                                            14
                     1512   06     030CT85 15:30 N90016    5754               15
                              1.700 NOBLE LAKE                     CA         16
     10.36 2702.0433 NI/0     38.5278   119.7764 4 A 1                          17
WALKER LAKE               7.5' EBBETTS PASS                                   18
38-31'40"N 119-46'35"W 4A1 06003 4 ZZZ NOT IN USFS WILDERNESS  ZZZ             19
TOIYABE NF                                                                    20
SMITH VALLEY                                                 0/1              21
EMSI                           030CT85 040CT85 15                             22
RH           3.3770                     -999.0000           8.5100            23
                       4.0400           2.5000        -999.0000   35.0000     24
       E                                                                      25
                                                                0.0210        26
   6.0900   20.0000 -999.0000 03             03           03                  27
             03            267.8200  337.6300  336.9278   64.0323    69.8070  28
 259.8460 03             118.4130    0.3120 03              4.0060   115.9870  29
   0.8230   33.6250   68.9040    0.9580    1.8790     0.6100    0.0900         30
03              2.3730                         1.4100                          31
    1.3150                         1.5840                        21.0000         32
                     401.0000                         2.2000                   33
          0.1420                        0.0460 WO                             34
   0.0510                        9.2180                        0.0357         35
                       6.5400                         0.0110                   36
           7.5100                         7.0600 03                             37
    7.0300 03                    55.8000                       317.5000         38
                       33.8000                         3.5700                   39
          3.8000                        72.3000                                40
   43.9000                        31.3171  SIERRA E    1.0160    0.3476         41
/REG         1885.0000   31.9780 DRAINAGE 3    1.2607     1.1000 MIXED       42
                                                                              43
                                                                              44
                                                                              45
                                                                              46

-------
                                       59
                              Table 14.   (continued)
G  4A1-003  0381382           1193885                                           1
        160CT85   7:30 T03 -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000          2
-999.0000          -999.000                                    15.2000         3
           0.0000              -999.0000           4.3000           4.0000     4
           1.5000          13.7000           5.0000           5.0000           5
-999.0000                      -.999.0000           6.2000 WO                   6
X       -999.0000           0.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000           7
-999.0000         -999.0000        -999.0000           1.0000                  8
    1.0000         USDAFS  EMIGRANT  WILD.  MAP -999.0000        -999.0000         9
        -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000        -999.0000    10
-999.0000  -999.0000  -999.0000         -999.0000        -999.0000              11
-999.0000         -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000                 12
-999.0000         -999.0000 -999.0000                                         13
DUPLICATE  PH 6.2                                                             14
                      1522   05     160CT85 21:45            0004              15
WO          WO                4.100 LOST  LAKE                       CA        16
    93.24  2964.3184  NI/0    38.2303  119.6475 4 A 1                          17
WALKER  LAKE                15'  TOWER PEAK                                      18
38-13'49"N 119-38'51"W 4A1  06109  5 EMIGRANT WILDERNESS                       19
STANISLAUS NF                                                                 20
WALKER  LAKE                                                   0/1              21
EMSI                            160CT85  170CT85 15                             22
RG          1.8870                     -999.0000            7.4200            23
                       4.0500           0.8000        -999.0000    0.0000    24
        EL                                                                     25
                                                                 0.2890       26
   22.7400   40.0000  -999.0000  02             02           02                 27
             B5D2           154.6500  166.9300   166.9454     7.2111    12.2811   28
 145.3140  02             127.0450     0.4000 02               1.3260    17.6040   29
   0.0000    1.7640   20.5320     7.2040    0.4050    -0.0550    0.0400        30
02              2.5460                         0.2140                          31
   0.0690                         0.4720                       -6.0000        32
85                    13.0000                         1.5000                  33
           0.0470                       0.3460                               34
   0.0000                         0.3060                        0.0077        35
                       0.7300  B5                    -0.0010                  36
           7.2600 02                     7.3600 02                             37
   7.3900  02                    20.8000 80                   164.9000        38
BO                    16.9000                         1.9840                  39
           1.9130 BO                     12.6000                               40
   17.0000                       16.8503 SIERRA W     1.0160    0.3052          41
/REG         1885.0000   31.9780  DRAINAGE   3    1.0794    4.1500 MIXED       42
                                                                              43
                                                                              44
                                                                              45
                                                                              46

-------
                                      60
                             Table 14.  (continued)
G 4A1-003 0381382           1193885                                            1
       16CCT85  7:30 T03 -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000           2
-999.0000         -999.000                                     15.2000          3
          0.0000              -999.0000           4.3000           4.0000      4
          1.5000          13.7000           5.0000           5.0000            5
-999.0000                     -999.0000           6.2000 WO                    6
X      -999.0000           0.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000            7
-999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000           1.0000                   8
   1.0000        USDAFS EMIGRANT WILD. MAP -999.0000        -999.0000          9
       -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000        -999.0000     10
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000               11
-999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000        -999.0000                  12
-999.0000        -999.0000 -999.0000                                          13
DUPLICATE PH 6.2                                                              14
                     1522   09      160CT85 21:45           0004               15
WO           WO               4.100 LOST LAKE                      CA         16
    93.24 2964.3184 NI/0     38.2303   119.6475 4 A 1                          17
WALKER LAKE               15' TOWER PEAK                                      18
38-13'49"N 119-38'51"W 4A1 06109 5 EMIGRANT WILDERNESS                        19
STANISLAUS NF                                                                 20
BRIDGEPORT                                                   0/1              21
EMSI                            160CT85 170CT85  15                             22
DG            1.8900                         1.8190           7.3800            23
                       4.0500           0.8000            4.7000    0.0000     24
       EL                                                                     25
                                                                0.2890       26
  22.7400   40.0000 -999.0000 02             D2           02                  27
              B5D2           146.8100   169.4400   169.3490   5.2919   22.6221   28
  136.880002             129.6400    0.1760 02               1.4950   17.7680   29
   0.0810     1.7130   20.2280    7.7870    0.3950     0.0000    0.0900         30
02              2.5980                        0.2160                          31
   0.0670                        0.4650                        0.0000         32
85                     19.0000                         1.5000                   33
          0.0530                        0.3740                                34
   0.0050                        0.3200                       0.0075         35
                       0.5400 B5                      0.0000                   36
           7.4400  02                      7.1200  02                             37
    7.0600 02                    33.2000 BO                    163.5000         38
BO                     17.3000                         1.9740                   39
           1.9780  BO                     2.4000                                40
   16.1000                        16.6898 SIERRA  W    1.0160    0.3052         41
/REG         1885.0000    31.9780 DRAINAGE   3    1.1541     4.1500 MIXED       42
                                                                              43
                                                                              44
                                                                              45
                                                                              46

-------
         61
Table 14.  (continued)
G 4A1-004 0381065 1194827
110CT85 11:30 T91 -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.000
8.0000 -999.0000 3.
1.5000 2.0000 7.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 5.
-999.0000 0.2000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000

-999.0000
3.5000
5000 X -999.0000
6.8000
5000 WO
-999.0000
1.0000
2.0000 PINECREST 7.5 QUAD -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000
0000 -999.0000
-999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000
SECCHI VISIBLE ON BOTTOM
1518 12 110CT85 21:10
WO WO 4.100 LEOPOLD LAKE
36.26 2695.9439 NI/0 38.1775 119.8044 4 A 1
WALKER LAKE 15' PINECREST


0006
CA


38-10'39"N 1 19-48' 16"W 4A1 06109 5 EMIGRANT WILDERNESS
STANISLAUS NF
BRIDGEPORT
EMSI 110CT85 120CT85 15
RG 0.3640 2.0590
-999.0000 0.2000
EL

8.8400 20.0000 -999.0000 B202 B2D2

0/1
T
6.2500
-999.0000 0.0000

0.0670
02
02 02 24.2000 28.5300 25.5594 13.7928 4.3391
11.5800 9.0320 0.0020
1.5320 3.2220 9.4400 7.1830 0.4000
0.1810 0.0470
0.1260 0.2170 D2
18.0000
0.124002NO 0.3450
0.0950 B202NO 1.0980
1.4900 D2NO
6.4200 6.1200
6.0900 34.5000 BO
3.8000
0.4020 2.2000
32.4000 3.3823 SIERRA W 1
3.4980 3.8660
2.1620 0.8100

4.0000
4.5000

0.0076
0.0390

16.4000
0.4510

1.2192 0.3121
/REG 1885.0000 31.9780 DRAINAGE 3 1.1789 3.5000 MIXED
CT/5C; DUPLICATE SCHEDULED, BUT NOT TAKEN







1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

-------
         62
Table 14.  (continued)
G 4A1-005 0380788 1194397
160CT85 8:30 T85 -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.000 SNOW & ICE
10.0000 -999.0000 1
1.5000< -999.0000 7.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 5
Y -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000

-999.0000
1.5000
.5000 X -999.0000
-999.0000
.5000 WO
-999.0000
0.0000
0.0000 USFS AIR PHOTOS; MAPS -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000
SECCHI ON BOTTOM DEPTH ESTIMATED DUPLICATE
1522 07 160CT85 21:45
WO WO 2.000 (NO NAME)
31.08 2549.5578 NI/NO 38.1314 119.7328 4 A
WALKER LAKE 15' TOWER PEAK
.0000 -999.0000
-999.0000
-999.0000

PH 5.5
0001
CA
1

38-07 '53"N 1 19-43 '58"W 4A1 06109 5 EMIGRANT WILDERNESS
STANISLAUS NF
BRIDGEPORT
EMSI 160CT85 170CT85 15
OG 0.5690 -999.0000
Q -999.0000 0.3000
EL

15.5400 20.0000 -999.0000 D2 02
B5D2 29.6100 34.7000 32.
11.9000 D2 12.8740 0.0010 D2
1.1940 3.7080 10.1790 9.0980 0.3630

0/0

5.7600
4.7000 0.0000

0.0140
02
,3545 21.6334 5.0911
7.0530 5.5940
0.8320 1.5100
02 0.2580 0.0680
0.1450 0.2340
B5 38.0000
0.2500 0.4370
0.0740 1.2990
2.4100 B5
6.2300 02 5.8400 02
5.8200 02 53.0000 BO
BO 3.9000
0.6460 BO 3.0000
55.9000 4.3345 SIERRA W
/REG 1885.0000 31.9780 SEEPAGE 1 1.
SAMPLE TAKEN FROM ROCK OUTCROP; VAN DORN HAND HELD
SAMP TAKEN @ <.75M; SHALLOW AREAS WERE FROZEN


7.0000
12.6000

0.0069
0.0150

14.1000
0.3680

1.2192 -999.0000
1719 1.5000 MIXED
, HAND TRIGGERED; ENTIRE



1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

-------
                                       63
          Table  15.  Card-image  listing  (first  five  lakes), data  set  4,
                       U.S. EPA  Western  Lake Survey-Phase  I
 H 4A1-001  0383182    1194657    030CT85 13:28  8250.000    2.7000   15.0000   1
                 1.2000    1.0000    1.5000 -999.0000    9.9000 -999.0000      2
   20.0000               -999.0000    8.7000              -999.0000 -999.0000   3
 -999.0000  -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 1512   06     5754          4
                               1.700 NOBLE LAKE                     CA         5
     10.36  2702.0433 NI/0     38.5278  119.7764 4 A 1                           6
 WALKER  LAKE                7.51  EBBETTS  PASS                                   7
 38-31'40"N 119-46-35"W 4A1 06003 4  ZZZ  NOT IN USFS WILDERNESS  ZZZ             8
 TOIYABE NF                     0/1    EMSI                                     9
             RH           3.3770                 8.5100                      10
   2.5000   35.0000    0.0210    6.0900   20.0000 -999.0000 D3WO             11
 D3WO         3                         03           267.8200   337.6300       12
  336.9278   64.0323   69.8070  259.8460 03            118.4130    0.3120     13
 03              4.0060  115.9870    0.8230   33.6250    68.9040    0.9580     14
   1.8790    0.6100    0.0900 D3              2.3730                  1.4100  15
                1.3150                 1.5840               21.0000         16
              401.0000                 2.2000                 0.1420         17
                0.0460 WO               0.0510                 9.2180         18
                0.0357                  6.5400                 0.0110         19
                7-5100                  7.0600 03               7.0300        20
03             55.8000               317.5000               33.8000        21
                3.5700                  3.8000               72.3000        22
               43.9000                31.3171  SIERRA E    1.0160     0.3476   23
/REG                                       1.2606    1.1000  1885.0000        24
  31.9780 DRAINAGE  MIXED  3 SMITH VALLEY                                    25
                                   15                                        26

-------
                                      64
                             Table 15.  (continued)
G 4A1-003                       160CT85  7:30  -999.000   15.2000    0.0000   1
                4.3000    4.0000    1.5000   13.7000    5.0000    5.0000      2
-999.0000              -999.0000    6.2000 WO           -999.0000    0.0000   3
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 1522   05     0004          4
                              4.100 LOST LAKE                      CA         5
    93.24 2964.3184 NI/0     38.2303  119.6475 4 A 1                          6
WALKER LAKE               15' TOWER PEAK                                      7
38-13'49"N 119-38'51"W 4A1 06109 5 EMIGRANT WILDERNESS                        8
STANISLAUS NF                  0/1   EMSI                                     9
             RG           1.8885VO              7.4000 VO                    10
   0.8000    0.0000    0.2890   22.7400   40.0000 -999.0000 02VOZO            11
02VO         D2V020       VO           B502VO         151.7700   168.2100       12
  168.1472    6.2506    16.4321   142.1610 D2VO           128.3430    0.2680      13
D2VO             1.4110    17.6860    0.0400     1.7390   20.3800    7.4950      14
   0.4000    0.0000    0.0600 D2VO             2.5720  VO               0.2150  15
VO              0.0680 VO             0.4685  VO              0.0000         16
B5VOZO          16.0000 VO              1.5000  VO              0.0500         17
VO              0.3600 VO             0.0025  VO              0.3130         18
VO              0.0076 VO             0.6350  B5VO            0.0000         19
VOZO             7.3500 02VO            7.2400  D2VO             7.2250         20
02VO            27.0000 BOVO          164.2000  BOVO            17.1000         21
VO              1.9790 VO              1.9455  BOVO             7.5000         22
VQ             16.5500 VO             16.8163  SIERRA W    1.0160    0.3052   23
/REG         vO           VO              1.1083     4.1500 1885.0000         24
   31.9780 DRAINAGE  MIXED  3 BRIDGEPORT                                       25
                                    15                                        26

-------
         65
Table 15.  (continued)
G 4A1-004 110CT85 11:30 -999.000 3.5000 8.0000
3.5000 -999.0000 1.5000 2.0000
-999.0000 -999.0000 5.5000 WO
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 1518
4. 100 LEOPOLD LAKE
36.26 2695.9439 NI/0 38.1775 119.8044 4 A 1
WALKER LAKE 15' PINECREST
38-10'39"N 1 19-48' 16"W 4A1 06109 5 EMIGRANT WILDERNESS
STANISLAUS NF 0/1 EMS I
7.0000 6.8000
-999.0000 0.2000
12 0006
CA




RG 0.3640 6.2500
0.2000 0.0000 0.0670 8.8400 20.0000 -999
B2D2 02 02 02
25.5594 13.7928 4.3391 11.5800
3.4980 3.8660 1.5320 3.2220
0.4000 2.1620 0.8100 0.1810
0.1260 0.217002
18.0000 4.5000
02NO 0.3450 0.0950 B202NO
0.0076 1.4900 D2NO
6.4200 6.1200
34.5000 BO 16.4000
0.4510 0.4020
.0000 B2D2
24.2000 28.5300
9.0320 0.0020
9.4400 7.1830
0.0470
4.0000
0.1240
1.0980
0.0390
6.0900
3.8000
2.2000
32.4000 3.3823 SIERRA W 1.2192 0.3121
/REG 1.1793 3.
31.9780 DRAINAGE MIXED 3 BRIDGEPORT
15
5000 1885.0000


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

-------
                                      66
                             Table 15.  (continued)
G 4A1-005                       160CT85  8:30  -999.000    1.5000   10.0000   1
                1.5000 -999.0000    1.5000 -999.0000    7.0000 -999.0000      2
-999.0000              -999.0000    5.5000 WO           -999.0000 -999.0000   3
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 1522   08     0001          4
                              2.000 (NO NAME)                      CA         5
    31.08 2549.5578 NI/NO    38.1314  119.7328 4 A 1                          6
WALKER LAKE               15' TOWER PEAK                                      7
38-07'53"N 119-43'58"W 4A1 06109 5 EMIGRANT WILDERNESS                        8
STANISLAUS NF                  0/0   EMSI                                     9
             RG           0.6275 VO              5.8450 VO                    10
   0.3000    0.0000    0.0140   15.5400   20.0000 -999.0000 02VO              11
D2VO         02VO         VO           B502VO         29.9200   34.6100       12
  32.2449   21.6192    4.6849   11.7940 D2VO           12.7490    0.0010      13
D2VO            7.2220    5.5530    1.2340    3.7200   10.2230    9.3070      14
   0.3660    0.8320    1.5300 02VO            0.2555 VO              0.0675   15
VO              0.1455VO              0.2350 VO              6.0000          16
B5VO           32.5000 VO             11.0500 VO              0.2560          17
VO              0.4470 VO              0.0765 VO              1.3040          18
VO              0.0069 VO              2.4100 B5VO            0.0150          19
VO              6.2350 D2VO            5.8400 D2VO            5.8150          20
D2VO           53.6500 BOVO           14.5000 BOVO            4.0000          21
VO              0.3785 VO              0.6460 BOV1            2.8500          22
VO             56.8000 VO              4.3629 SIERRA W     1.2192-999.0000    23
/REG         VO           VO               1.1566    1.5000 1885.0000          24
  31.9780 SEEPAGE   MIXED  1 BRIDGEPORT                                       25
SNOW 4 ICE                          15                                         26

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                                      67
                             Table 15.  (continued)
H 4A1-006 0380529    1194235    030CT8511:19  8290.000   18.6000   16.0000   1
               11.7000   11.0000    1.5000   17.1000   11.9000   11.6000      2
   2.0000                 3.0000    6.2400                 6.2200    0.3000   3
-999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 -999.0000 1512   08     5754          4
                              3.600 (NO NAME)                      CA         5
    33.67 2720.3416 NI/0     38.0867  119.7053 4 A 1                          6
WALKER LAKE               15' TOWER PEAK                                      7
38-05'12"N 119-42'19"W 4A1 06109 5 ZZZ NOT IN USFS WILDERNESS ZZZ             8
YOSEHITE NP                    0/1   EMSI                                     9
             RH           0.3015 VO              6.3150 VO                   10
   0.2500    0.0000    0.3110    9.3500   20.0000 -999.0000 D3VOZO           11
D3VO         03VOZO       VO           D3VO           19.5600   21.2000      12
  20.5681    5.9851    1.6414   11.7600 D3VO            9.4310    0.0020     13
D3VO            1.9750    2.7970    0.8390    2.2500    6.0900    4.6740     14
   0.3080    0.0000    0.6300 D3VO            0.1890VO              0.0340  15
VO              0.0880 VO              0.1400VO             12.0000         16
VO              4.5000 VO              2.0000 VO              0.0700         17
VO              0.2245 VO              0.0520 VO              0.7450         18
VO              0.0058 VO              0.6400 VO              0.0000         19
VOZO            6.3100 VO              6.170003VO            6.2000         20
03VO           26.5500 VO             15.6000 VO              2.6000         21
VO              0.4310 VO              0.3485 VO              0.0000         22
VOZO           21.0500 VO              2.5248 SIERRA W    1.2192    1.5800   23
/REG         VO           VO              1.0839   11.3500 1885.0000         24
  31.9780 DRAINAGE  MIXED  1 BRIDGEPORT                                      25
                                   15                                        26

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                                      68
           Table 16.  Card-image listing (first five lakes), PC data set,
                 file WLS-I.REG, U.S.  EPA Western  Lake  Survey-Phase I
4A1-001 NOBLE LAKE                 38-31'40"N 119-46'35"W 2702     1.7      10 1
    6.1 DRAINAGE     9.9 MIXED    2.7    1.1   2.5   35  401.0  267.8  337.6   2
1.26 7.51 8.51  317.5  33.8  31.3  3.57  3.38  6.54  2.2    43.9  118.4  116.0 3
  68.9  33.6  0.6    1.0  259.8    4.0  0.8   1.9  72.3   9.22 REGULAR      CA 4
  21.0 030CT85 31.978 1885 5
4A1-003 LOST LAKE                  38-13'49"N 119-38'51"W 2964     4.1      931
   22.7 DRAINAGE     5.0 MIXED   15.2    4.1   0.8    0   16.0  151.8  168.2   2
1.11 7.35 7.40  164.2  17.1  16.8  1.98  1.89  0.63  1.5    16.5  128.3    17.7 3
  20.4   1.7  0.0    7.5  142.2    1.4  0.0   0.4   7.5   0.31 REGULAR      CA 4
   0.0 160CT85 31.978 1885 5
4A1-004 LEOPOLD LAKE               38-10'39"N 119-48'16"W 2696     4.1      36 1
    8.8 DRAINAGE     7.0 MIXED    3.5    3.5   0.2    0   18.0   24.2   28.5   2
1.186.426.25   16.4   3.8   3.4  0.45  0.36  1.49  4.5    32.4    9.0    3.93
   9.4   3.2  2.2    7.2   11.6    3.5  1.5   0.4   2.2   1.10 REGULAR      CA 4
   4.0 110CT85 31.978 1885 5
4A1-005 (NO NAME)                  38-07'53"N 119-43'58"W 2550     2.0      31 1
   15.5 SEEPAGE      7.0 MIXED    1.5    1.5   0.3    0   32.5   29.9   34.6   2
1.166.235.84   14.5   4.0   4.4  0.38  0.63  2.4111.0    56.8   12.7    5.63
   10.2   3.7  0.8    9.3   11.8    7.2  1.2   0.4   2.8   1.30 REGULAR      CA 4
   6.0 160CT85 31.978 1885 5
4A1-006 (NO NAME)                  38-05'12"N 119-42'19"W 2720     3.6      341
    9.3 DRAINAGE    11.9 MIXED   18.6   11.3   0.2    0    4.5   19.6   21.2   2
1.086.316.31   15.6   2.6   2.5  0.43  0.30  0.64  2.0    21.0    9.4    2.83
   6.1   2.2  0.0    4.7   11.8    2.0  0.8   0.3   0.0   0.74 REGULAR      CA 4
   12.0 030CT85 31.978 1885 5

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                                   69

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                                   70

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                                   71
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                                   72

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     Analysis of Water and Wastes.   EPA-600/4-79-020, Cincinnati,  Ohio.

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                                  73
                                                          ORNL/TM-10153
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                 EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION

J. Bachmann, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, OAQPS,
MD-12, Research Triangle Park, NC  27711
R. H. Ball, Acid Deposition Planning Staff, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, 401 M Street, SW, RD-676, Washington,
DC  20460
W. R. Barchett, Acid Deposition Planning Staff, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, SW, RD-676,
Washington, DC  20460
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Department of Agriculture, Office of the Administrator,
Administration Bldg., Room 6440-S, Washington, DC  20250
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SW, Washington, DC  20250
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State University, 1509 University Drive, Raleigh, NC  27606
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, SW,
RD-676, Washington, DC  20460
M. D. Best, Lockheed-EMSCO, Inc., 1050 E. Flamingo Rd.,
Las Vegas, NV  98109
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Washington University, Bellingham, WA  98225
0. P. Bricker, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological
Survey, MS 432, Reston, VA  22092
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Program, Room 336, 1800 G Street, NW, National Science
Foundation, Washington, DC  20550

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                                  74
   75.  M. R. Church, Con/all is Environmental Research Laboratory,
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        Corvallis, OR  97333
   76.  E. B. Cowling, Acid Precipitation Program, North Carolina
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   77.  H. Drucker, Biomedical and Environmental Research, Argonne
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   78.  J. L. Durham, Chief, Aerosol Research Branch, U.S.
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79-83.  J. Eilers, Northrop Services, Inc., 200  SW 35th Street,
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   84.  C. E. Elderkin,  Geosciences Research and Engineering
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   85.  G. J. Foley, Office of Environmental Process and Effects
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   86.  R. M. Friedman,  Office of Technology Assessment, U.S.
        Congress, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue,  SE, Washington, DC  20003
   87.  J. N. Galloway,  University of Virginia,  Clark Hall,
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   88.  S. A. Gherini, Tetra Tech, Inc., 3746 Mt. Diablo Boulevard,
        Lafayette, CA  94549
   89.  C. R. Goldman, Professor of Limnology, Director of Tahoe
        Research Group,  Division of Environmental Studies, University
        of California, Davis,  CA  95616
   90.  R. A. Goldstein,  Electric Power Research Institute,  3412
        Hillview Avenue,  Palo Alto, CA  94303
   91.  C. Hakkarinen, Energy Analysis and  Environment, Electric Power
        Research Institute, 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto,  CA  94303
   92.  J. M. Hales, Atmospheric Chemistry  Section,  Pacific  Northwest
        Laboratory, P.O.  Box 999, Richland, WA   99352
   93.  W. F. Harris III, National Science  Foundation, Biotic Systems
        and  Resources, 1800 G Street, NW, Room 1140, Washington,
        DC  20550
   94.  W. W. Heck, U.S.  Department of Agriculture,  SEA-AR-SR,  Botany
        Department, North Carolina State University, 1509 Varsity
        Drive,  Raleigh,  NC  27650
   95.  G. R. Hendrey, Ecological Research  Division, Office  of  Health
        and  Environmental Research, Office  of Energy Research,  ER-75,
        U.S.  Department  of Energy, Washington, DC  20545
   96.  R. Herrmann, Water Resources Field  Support Laboratory,
        National Park Service,  Colorado State University, 107-C
        Natural  Resources Laboratory, Fort  Collins,  CO  80523
   97.  B. B. Hicks, Director,  Atmospheric  Turbulence and Diffusion
        Laboratory, National  Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
        P.O.  Box E, Oak  Ridge,  TN  37831
   98.  G. R. Holdren, Northrop Services, Inc.,  200  SW 35th  Street,
        Corvallis, OR 97333

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                                75
 99.   J.  W.  Huckabee,  Manager,  Ecological  Studies  Program,  Electric
      Power Research Institute,  3412 Hillview Avenue,  P.O.
      Box 10412,  Palo  Alto,  CA   94303
100.   P.  M.  Irving,  Biomedical  and Environmental  Research,  Argonne
      National  Laboratory,  9700 South Cass Avenue,  Building 203,
      Argonne,  IL  60439
101.   A.  C.  Janetos, Office of  Environmental  Process and Effects
      Research, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  401  M Street,
      SW, RD-682, Washington,  DC  20460
102.   M.  G.  Oohnson, Northrop  Services, Inc., 200 SW 35th Street,
      Corvallis,  OR  97333
103.   George Y. Oordy, Director, Office of Program Analysis, Office
      of  Energy Research,  ER-30, G-226, U.S.  Department of  Energy,
      Washington, DC  20545
104.   R.  L.  Kane, Office of Fossil Energy, MS FE-13, Room 5A035,
      1000 Independence Avenue,  U.S. Department of  Energy,
      Washington, DC  20585
105.   E.  Kaplan,  Brookhaven National Laboratory,  1  South Technology
      Street, Building 475, Upton, NY  11973
106.   P.  Kellar,  Radian Corporation, 3200 E Chapel  Hill Road, Nelson
      Hwy.,  Research Triangle  Park, NC  27511
107.   V.  C.  Kennedy, U.S.  Geological Survey,  345 Middlefield Road,
      Menlo Park, CA  94025
108.   V.  Klemas,  Director,  Center for Remote  Sensing,  College of
      Marine Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE  19711
109.   E.  C.  Krug, Connecticut  Agricultural Experiment Station,
      Box 1106, New Haven,  CT   06504
110.   0.  L.  Kulp, Director  of  Research, National  Acid Precipitation
      Assessment Program,  722  Jackson Place,  NW,  Washington,
      DC   20506
111.   R.  T.  Lackey,  Corvallis  Environmental Research Laboratory,
      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th Street,
      Corvallis,  OR  97333
112.   0.  Landers, Air Pollution Effect Branch, U.S. Environmental
      Protection- Agency, Corvallis Environmental  Research
      Laboratory, 200 SW 35th  Street, Corvallis,  OR  97333
113.   R.  A.  Linthurst, EPA/EMSL MD-39, Research Triangle Park,
      NC   27511
114.   F.  W.  Lipfert, Department of Energy and Environment,
      Brookhaven National  Laboratory, 1 South Technology Street,
      Building 318, Upton,  NY   11973
115.   L.  Machta,  Air Resources  Laboratories,  National  Oceanic and
      Atmospheric Administration, 6010 Executive Blvd (R-32),
      Rockville,  MD  20852
116.   J.  L.  Malanchuk, Acid Deposition Planning Staff, U.S.
      Environmental Protection  Agency, 401 M Street, SW, RD-676,
      Washington, DC  20460
117.   C.  0.  Mankin, Director,  Oklahoma Geological Survey, The
      University of Oklahoma,  830 Van Vleet Oval, Room 163, Norman,
      Oklahoma  73019
118.   B.  Manowitz, Department  of Energy and Environment, Brookhaven
      National  Laboratory,  1 South Technology Street,  Building 179A,
      Upton, NY  11973

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                                76
119.  Helen McCammon, Director, Ecological Research Division,  Office
      of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy
      Research, MS-E201,  ER-75, Room E-233, Department of Energy,
      Washington, DC  20545
120.  D. H. McKenzie, Corvallis Environmental  Research Laboratory,
      U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th Street,
      Corvallis, OR  97333
121.  P. Michael, Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National
      Laboratory, 1 South Technology Street, Building 475,  Upton,
      NY  11973
122.  J. E. Miller, U.S.  Department of Agriculture, SEA-AR-SR,
      Botany Department,  North Carolina State  University, 1509
      Varsity Drive, Raleigh, NC  27650
123.  R. M. Perhac, Environmental Assessment Department, Electric
      Power Research Institute, 3412 Hi 11 view  Avenue, Palo Alto,
      CA  94303
124.  C. W. Philpot, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
      12th and Independence Avenue, SW, P.O. Box 2417, Room 606,
      RPE, Washington, DC  20013
125.  R. Phipps, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 461, Reston, VA  22092
126.  R. J. Pickering, Quality of Water Branch, U.S. Geological
      Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, National Center,  MS  412,
      Reston, VA  22092
127.  C. F. Powers, Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory,
      U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th Street,
      Corvallis, OR  97333
128.  E. M. Preston, Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory,
      U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th Street,
      Corvallis, OR  97333
129.  D. L. Radloff, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
      12th and Independence Avenue, SW, P.O. Box 2417, Room 606,
      RPE, Washington, DC  20013
130.  W. A. Reiners, Department of Botany, University of Wyoming,
      Laramie, WY  82071
131.  D. S. Renne, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, P.O. Box 999,
      Richland, WA  99352
132.  P. L. Ringold, Deputy Director, Interagency Task Force on Acid
      Precipitation, 722  Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC  20506
133.  C. Riordan, Director, Office of Monitoring Systems and Quality
      Assurance, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401  M Street,
      SW, RD-680, Washington, DC  20460
134.  E. Rosenthal, Program Integration Analysis Division,  Office of
      Energy Research, ER-32, G-226, U.S. Department of Energy,
      Washington, DC  20545
135.  Bob Schonbrod, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
      Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, LaPlaza Bldg.  C,
      Las Vegas, NV 89114
136.  R. K. Schreiber, Eastern Energy and Land Use Team, U.S.  Fish
      and Wildlife Service, Box 70S, Kearneysville, WV  25430
137.  P. W. Shaffer, Northrop Services, Inc.,  200 SW 35th Street,
      Corvallis, OR  97333

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                                  77
   138.  J. D. Shannon, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass
         Avenue, Building 202, Argonne, IL  60439
   139.  M. E. Silverstein, Lockheed-EMSCO, Inc., 1050 East Flamingo
         Road, Las Vegas, NV  98109
   140.  D. H. Slade,  Physical and Technological Research Division,
         Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy
         Research, ER-74, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington,
         DC   20545
   141.  R. J. Stern,  Director, Office of Environmental Compliance,
         MS PE-25, FORRESTAL, U.S. Department of Energy,
         1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington,  DC  20585
   142.  D. 6. Streets, Argonne National Laboratory, EES Division,
         9700 South  Cass Avenue,  Building 362, Argonne, IL  60439
   143.  D. Tirpak,  Acid Deposition  Planning Staff, U.S. Environmental
         Protection  Agency, 401 M Street, SW, RD-676, Washington,
         DC   20460
   144.  W. L. Warnick, Program Integration Analysis Division, Office
         of Energy Research,  ER-32,  G-226, U.S.  Department of Energy,
         Washington,  DC  20545
   145.  Leonard H.  Weinstein, Program Director  of  Environmental
         Biology, Cornell University, Boyce Thompson Institute for
         Plant Research,  Ithaca,  NY   14853
   146.  Raymond G.  Wilhour,  Chief,  Air  Pollution  Effects Branch,
         Corvallis Environmental  Research  Laboratory, U.S.
         Environmental Protection Agency,  200 SW 35th Street,
         Corvallis,  OR 97330
   147.  T. Williams,  Office  of Environmental Analysis,  PE-26,
         Room 4G-036,  Forrestal Building,  U.S.  Department of  Energy,
         Washington, DC   20585
   148.  Frank J. Wobber,  Ecological Research Division,  Office of
         Health  and  Environmental Research, Office of Energy  Research,
         MS-E201, Department  of Energy,  Washington, DC   20545
   149.  M. Gordon Wolman,  The Johns Hopkins  University,  Department of
         Geography and Environmental Engineering,  Baltimore,  MO   21218
   150.  Office  of Assistant  Manager for Energy  Research  and
         Development,  Oak  Ridge Operations,  P.O. Box  E,  U.S.
          Department  of Energy, Oak  Ridge,  TN  37831
151-180.  Technical  Information Center,  Oak Ridge,  TN   37831

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          APPENDIX B






DATA BASE FORMAT DOCUMENTATION
             B-l

-------
                     Format Documentation for U.S. EPA NSWS
                            Western Lake Survey - Phase I
                                   PC Data Set

The U.S. EPA NSWS Western Lake Survey-Phase I data as reported in EPA report number
EPA-600/3-86-054A have been formatted into  fixed  records with a maximum length of 80
columns.  The data in this format are stored on one 360Kb double-sided, double-density 5 1/4"
diskette using PC-DOS version 3.1. The data and format are reported in the files as described
below. The data files have an identical format.
FILE DOCUMENTATION
Description

Regular lakes

Special lakes
     Filename

     WLS-I.REG

     WLS-I.SPC
           File
         Size (bytes^i

           257,758

           11,454
                   Number
                   of Lakes

                     720

                      32
PARAMETER AND FORMAT DOCUMENTATION

                                                 Format Attributes
 Parameter

 Lake ID
 Lake name
 Latitude
 Longitude
 Lake elevation
 Lake size
 Watershed area
 Record number
(none)
(none)
(dd-mm'ss"N)
(dd-mm'ss"W)
(meters)
(ha)
(ha)
(none)
Tyjje

Char
Char
Char
Char
Num
Num
Num
Num
Width*

   7
  26
  10
  11
  4.0
  7.1
  7.0
  1.0
Record
Number**

  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
Start -
End Column

   1-7
   9-34
  36-45
  46-57
  59-62
  64-70
  72-78
  80-80
 * Width for character fields represents the field width expressed as an integer. The width for
  numeric fields is in W.D. format where W = the total field width and D = the number of
  decimal places.

 * *Record number is a variable on each 80-column record. For records 1-4, it is in column 80
   and in column 28 for record 5.

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                                                         Format Attributes
 Parameter

 Watershed/lake area
 Hydrologic type
 Surface temperature
 Stratification
 Site depth
 Secchi depth
 Turbidity
 Color
 Iron
 Sum anions
 Sum cations
 Record number

 Cations/anions
 Equilibrated pH
 Closed pH
 Alkalinity
 Meas. conductivity
 Cal. conductivity
 Equilibrated DIC
 Closed DIC
 DOC
 Extractable Al
 Total aluminum
 Calcium
 Magnesium
 Record number

 Sodium
 Potassium
 Ammonium
 Sulfate
 HC03
 Chloride
 Nitrate
 Flouride
 Total phosphorus
 Silica
 Sample type
 State
 Record

 Manganese
 Date sampled
Population factor
Strata population
Record number

Units
(none)
(none)
(degC)
(char)
(m)
(m)
(NTU)
(PCU)
(ng/L)
fceg/L)
(^eg/L)
(none)
(none)
(pH)
(PH)
(,xeg/L)
(M-S/cm)
(jxS/cm)
(mg/L)
(rng/L)
(mg/L)
G*g/L)
(ng/L)
(fxeq/L)
(mg/L)
(none)
(neq/L)
(fjieq/L)
(M^q/L)
(fxeq/L)
(fjieq/L)
(neq/L)
(jjieq/L)
Gxeq/L)
fcg/L)
(mg/L)
(none)
(none)
(none)
(ng/L)
(ddmmmyy)
(none)
(N)
(none)

Type
num
char
num
char
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
num
char
char
num
num
char
num
num
num

Width*
7.1
9
6.1
6
5.1
6.1
5.1
4.0
6.1
6.1
6.1
1.0
4.2
4.2
4.2
6.1
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
1.0
6.1
5.1
4.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
4.1
5.1
5.1
6.2
12
2
1.0
6.1
7
6.3
4.0
1.0
Record
Number
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
Start
End Column
1-7
9-17
19-24
26-31
33-37
39-44
46-50
52-55
57-62
64-69
71-76
80-80
1-4
6-9
11-14
16-21
23-27
29-33
35-39
41-45
47-51
53-57
59-64
66-71
73-78
80-80
1-6
8-12
14-17
19-24
26-31
33-38
40-43
45-49
51-55
57-62
64-75
77-78
80-80
1-6
8-14
16-21
23-26
28-28
                               ttU.S.  GOVERNMENT  PRINTING OFFICE. 1987-748-121/67056

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