vvEPA
          United States
          Environmental Protection
          Agency
             Great Lakes National
             Program Office
             536 South Clark Street
             Chicago, Illinois 60605
EPA-905/3-84-006
October 1984
Polychlorinated  Dioxins
And  Polychlorinated
Furans in Fish  From  the
Great  Lakes and
Midwest
                             Do not WEED. This document
                             should be retained in the EPA
                             Region 5 Library Collection.


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                                                       EPA 905/3-84-006
                                                       October 1984
POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORIMATED FURANS IN FISH


                         FROM THE


                 GREAT LAKES AND MIDWEST
                            by
                      David DeVault


                           for
           U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
           GREAT LAKES NATIONAL PROGRAM OFFICE
                  536 SOUTH CLARK STREET
                 CHICAGO, ILLINOIS  60605

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                                  DISCLAIMER

"This report has completed the EPA peer and publications review process
and is approved for publication as an EPA document.   Mention of trade
names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recom-
mendation by EPA."

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                                   FOREWORD

The Great Lakes National Program Office (RLNPO) of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency was established in Region V, Chicago to focus attention
on the significant and complex natural resource represented by the Great
Lakes.

GLNPO implements a multi-media environmental  management program drawing on
a wide ranqe of expertise represented by universities, private firms, State,
Federal  and Canadian governmental agencies and the International  Joint Com-
mission.  The goal of the GLNPO program is to develop programs, practices
and technology necessary for a better understanding of the Great  Lakes
system and to eliminate or reduce to the maximum extent practicable the
discharge of pollutants into the Great Lakes  system.  The GLNPO also
coordinates U.S. actions in fulfillment of the Agreement between  Canada
and the United States of America on Great Lakes Water Quality of  1978.
                                       ii

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                                   ABSTRACT
Data on concentrations of polychlorlnated  dioxins (PCDD)  and polychlorinated
furans (PCDF) in fish from the Great Lakes and  midwest  were compiled  from
several sources.  While differences in study design precluded rigorus
analysis several observation were possible.
While most samples have been analyzed for  only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-
p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), those samples which were analyzed for other
congeners indicate that penta and hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins are more
common than 2,3,7,8-TCDD.  PCDD, while monitored infrequently, may be
ubiquitous in fish from the Great Lakes and midwest, occurring above
detection limits in over 80 percent of the samples analyzed.  One of
several sites at which 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo furan (2,3,7,8-TCDF)
was detected is Siskwit Lake  (Isle Royal,  Lake Superior), which given
its remote location and lack  of point sources, suggests atmospheric
deposition of PCDFs.
Areas  of Concern  (due to 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations) include the entire
Lake Ontario Basin, Saginaw Bay  (Lake Huron) and the Saginaw River System,
Grand  River  (Lake Michigan),  Niagara River  (Lake Ontario), Lake Erie  (at
Woodtick, Michigan),  Huron River, Michigan  (Lake Erie), Port Clinton, Michigan
(Lake  Erie), Wisconsin River  (at Pentenwell Flowage), and the Mississippi
River  (St. Louis, MO.).
                                        iii

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                                   CONTENTS
Foreword                                        lii
Abstract                                         1v
Tahles                                           vl
Acknowledgements                                vii
Introduction                                      1
Data Presentation                                 2
  Polychlorinated Dloxlns                         4
  Polychlorinated Furans                         25
  Discussion                                     35
  Literature Cited                               39

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                                   TABLES

                                                                     PAGE
Table 1:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        5
          Dioxin in Lake Superior Fish

Table 2:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        6
          Dioxin in Lake Huron Fish

Table 3:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        8
          Dioxin in Lake Saginaw Bay Fish

Table 4:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        12
          Dioxin in Lake Michigan Fish

Table 5:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        15
          Dioxin in Lake Erie Fish

Table 6:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        18
          Dioxin in Lake Ontario Fish

Table 7:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin        21
          in Fish From Midwest Rivers and Lakes

Table 8:  Polychlorinated Dibenzo Dioxins in Great Lakes and           24
          Midwest Fish

Table 9:  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan           26
          in Lake Superior Fish

Table 10: Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan           27
          in Lake Huron Fish

Table 11: Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan           28
          in Lake Michigan Fish

Table 12: Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan           30
          in Lake Erie Fish

Table 13: Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan           31
          in Lake Ontario Fish

Table 14: Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan           32
          in Fish From Midwest Rivers and Lakes

Table 15: Polychlorinated Dibenzo Furans in Great Lakes and            33
          Midwest Fish

Table 16: Data Contributors                                            38

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                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS







First and Foremost, I thank the many individuals and organizations who



made this report possible by sharing their data.  I also would like to



thank Mr. Lee Liebenstein (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources),



Mr.'Dennis Swanson (Michigan Department of Natural  Resources) and



Dr. John Estenik (Ohio EPA) for reviewing and commenting on the manuscript,



I also thank Ms. Gaynell  Whatley for her patience in typing the manuscript,
                                      vi

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                                 INTRODUCTION
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans
(PCDF) are two groups of tricyclic aromatic compounds with similar
chemical, biological and toxicological properties (Poland et at. 1979,
Rappe et al. 1979).  The occurrence of both classes of compounds in
environmental samples have been the subject of much concern in recent
years, primarily due to the extremely high mammalian toxicity of some of
the specific isomers (Poland et al. 1979).  This concern has resulted
in several studies to monitor levels of these compounds in fish from
the Great Lakes and other waterways since 1978.  While most studies
have monitored concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,
(the most toxic isomer of either group), limited data are available for
other dioxin congeners, as well as PCDF's.  Unfortunately, with the
exception of 2,3,7,8,-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF, the existing data are not
isomer specific.

This report was prepared as a part of the USEPA Region V, Dioxin Task Force's
contribution to USEPA1s National  Dioxin Strategy.  Its purposes are to,
1) compile the existing data on PCDD and PCDF in fish from the Great Lakes
and Midwest, 2) identify areas with existing PCDD and PCDF fish contaminant
problems, and 3) identify additional  data requirements.

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                              DATA PRESENTATION
The data are presented by lake or river basin.   Due to the  large  quantity  of
data and concern over PCDD in Saginaw Bay and  its  tributaries,  that  information
has been presented as a separate basin.

Within each basin, the data is subdivided into  an  "open lake" and a  "nearshore
and tributary" section.  This is an artifical  division based on the  habits
of the species analyzed rather than the area in which  it was collected.
"Open lake" species are those which range over large geographical  areas  and
thus may acquire contaminants from numerous sources.  Included  in this
category are species such as brown trout which, while  usually remaining
nearshore, cover long stretches of coast line  as well  as coho salmon and
lake trout which move about the open waters of the Great Lakes.  The "near-
shore and tributary" category includes species  which are likely to remain
in a fairly confined geographical area for substantial periods  of time.
These would include bass and carp from river mouths and embayments as well
as carp and catfish from specific sites in the open waters  of Saginaw Bay.
The number of samples represented by mean values and the number of fish
in composite samples are given when such information was available.   When
it was not, it was omitted and each data point  was considered a single
sample.  Omission of this data is not important, given the  heterogenicity
of sample type, species and analytical methodologies used in the  various
studies.
The sample portion analyzed has been indicated for each data point.   For
whole fish this is self explanatory, however edible portions  vary from  agency
to agency.  The Ontario Ministry of the Environment analyzes a  skinless
dorsal fillet, while the U.S. Food and Drug Administration  (USFDA) analyzes  a

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skin-on lateral  fillet for most species.   The USFDA analyzes a skin-off lateral
fillet for species such as bullheads and  catfish for which the skin is con-
sidered inedible.  The data furnished by  Michigan State University (MSU 1979),
as well as samples analyzed by the New York State Departments of Environmental
Conservation and Health (NYDEC/NYDOH) were analyzed as skin-off fillets
(O'keefe et al.  1983).  Based on PCB and  DDT analysis of coho and Chinook
salmon, a skin-off fillet can be expected to yield results one third to
one half that found in a skin-on fillet (Rohrer et al. 1981).

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), the New York State Department
of Health (NYSDOH) and Health and Welfare Canada (HWC) have established
guidelines or action limits for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in edible
portions of fish and shellfish.  These guidelines are:
     USFDA - limit consumption to 1 meal  (1/2 Ib) per week at concentrations
     J> 25 ng/kg  and avoid consumption at  concentrations 2. 50 ng/kg
     NYDOH - avoid consumption at concentrations j> 10 ng/kg.
     Health and  Welfare Canada - avoid consumption at concentrations
     j> 20 ng/kg.

Due to the differences in edible portion  analyzed, the USFDA and HWC limits
probably represent similar human exposure.  The NYDOH limit is substantially
more conservative.  There are presently no guidelines for other dioxin
isomers or furans.

As much of the data has not been published in the scientific literature and
was frequently produced under contract to government agencies, the organization
supplying the data and the year of the study are indicated in the data
tables rather than individual authors. Table 16 lists the organizations
supplying data.

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                         POLYCHLORINATEDIBENZO  DIOXINS
Tables 1 through 7 contain the data  on  2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
(2,3,7,8-TCDD) and, where data is  available,  total  tetrachlorodibenzo-p-
dioxins (TCPD) and total  polychlorinated  dibenzo-p-dioxin  (PCDD).   Table  8
contains the data on those samples which  were analyzed  for individual  congeners.

Lake Superior
Fifteen samples representing 8 areas of the open  waters of Lake  Superior  were
analyzed between 1979 and 1983 (Table 1).  Two  samples  representative  of
St. Louis River and Bay were also  analyzed.  Of the 15  samples from Lake
Superior which have been analyzed, only 1 sample  of whole  lake trout taken
off Ontonagon yeilded TCDD or PCDD above  detection  limits.  This sample con-
tained 8 ng/kg total PCDD of which 5 ng/kg was  pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
(penta-CDD) (Table 8).  The St. Louis River samples were also below detection
limits for 2,3,7,8-TCDD.  However, analysis was not conducted for congeners
other than 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

Lake Huron
The Lake Huron (not including Saginaw Bay) data base consists of 22 samples
from 7 open lake areas and 9 samples from 6 nearshore and tributary sites
(Table 2).  With the exception of 1 edible portion  sample from  Alpena, Michigan
concentrations were below detection limits, which ranged from 8 to 88  ng/kg.
No whole fish have been analyzed for dioxin nor have samples been analyzed
for dioxins other than 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

Saginaw Bay
The 10 edible portion samples from the open waters did not contain TCDD
above detection limits which ranged from 10 to 16 ng/kg.  Concentrations
in nearshore and tributary fish from the Bay were also typically low with

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                                                            Table 1
                                      Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                                               In Lake Superior Fish (ng/kg)
Location
Open Lake
Keweenaw
Apostle Islands

Ontonagon
Grand Marais
Copper Harbor
Thunder Bay
French River
St. Louis Bay

Sampl e
Species Type

Bl oater
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Lake Trout/Salmon
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Walleye
Walleye

W
W
E
W
W
W
E
E
E
E
#of Samples/ 2,3,7,8 Total
#Fish per Sample TCDD TCDD

1/5
1/5
1/5
1/1
1/3+3
1/2
6/1
1/6
1/5
1/5

NA
NA
<10
NA
NA
NA
<10
<5
<5
<10

ND
ND
ND
1
<1
<1
NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDD Source

ND USFWS 1979 (1)
ND USFWS 1979 (1)
NA GLNPO/USFDA 1982
8 USEPA-Duluth 1980 (1)
<1 USEPA-Duluth 1980 (1)
<1 USEPA-Duluth 1980 (1)
NA MOE 1980
NA USEPA-Duluth 1983
NA USEPA-Duluth 1983
NA WDNR 1983
Nearshore and Tributary
St. Louis River
Thompson Res.
Upper Bay

White Sucker
White Sucker

E
E

1/6
1/5

<5
<5

NA
NA

NA USEPA-Duluth 1983
NA USEPA-Duluth 1983
 NA = Not Analyzed
 ND = Not Detected
  U = Unknown
(1)   Data for Additional  Congeners in Table 8

      E = Edible portion
      W = Whole fish

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                                                            Table 2
                                    Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                                                    In Lake Huron Fish  (ng/kg)
Location
Open Lake
Tawas Pt.
Grid 1509
Pt. Edward
Owen Sound
St. Joseph Is.
Tawas River
Alpena, Michigan
Nearshore and Tributary
Au Gres

Sebewaing

Sand Pt.
Tawas Pt.
Black River
at Tower, MI
Au Sable River
Sampl e
Species Type

Yellow Perch
Yellow Perch
Lake Trout
Rainbow Trout
Wai 1 eye
Coho Salmon
Lake Trout

Catfish
Carp
Catfish
Carp
Catfish
Carp
White Sucker
White Sucker
Carp

E
E
E
E
E
E
E

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
#of Samples/
#Fish per Sampl

1/U
1/U
6/1
6/1
6/1
1/5
1/5

1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
i/u
i/u
i/u
i/u
1/8
2,3,7,8 Total
e TCDD TCDD

<8 NA
<11 NA
<10 NA
<10 NA
<10 NA
<10 NA
6 NA

<8 NA
<14 NA
<11 NA
<5 NA
<30 NA
<25 NA
<88 NA
<13 NA
<10 NA
Total
PCDD Source

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

WSU 1979
WSU 1979
MOE 1980
MOE 1980
MOE 1980
GLNPO/USFDA 1982
GLNPO/USFDA 1982

WSU 1979 
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/
1506
I
1606
\
s
VJ""*
1507

1607
1707
 -x

1508

1608
/*
\f*
1 509 *"^
/ Bay
1609
f
-/
1708
\

Harbor
Beach

                  Bay
                  City
Lake Huron
Sampling Zones
                                                                        Collingwood
                                                    Goderich
                                  Port 
                                  Sanilac
                                    Hu?on" Sarnia

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                     Table  3
Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
             In Saginaw Bay Fish (ng/kg)
Location
Open Lake
Grid 1509
Grid 1507


Grid 1509
Grid 1509


Shebewaing
Aus Gres
Nearshore and
Grid 1506
Grid 1506
Grid 1506
Grid 1506
Grid 1506
Grid 1506
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1507
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Grid 1509
Species

Yellow Perch
Yellow Perch
Bowfin
Wai 1 eye
Yellow Perch
Yellow Perch
Whitefish
Buffalo
Yellow Perch
Yellow Perch
Tributary
Sucker
Sucker ..
Catfish
Catfish
Carp
Carp
Sucker
Carp
Carp
Catfish
Carp
Carp
Sucker
Crappie
Rockbass
Bullhead
Bui 1 head
Sucker
Carp
Carp
Catfish
Catfish
Catfish
Carp
Sucker
Bui 1 head
Bui 1 head
Catfish
Catfish
Carp
Sampl e
Type

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
W
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample

1/24
1/24
1/1
1/1
1/24
1/5
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1

1/12
1/13
1/7
1/14
1/2
1/2
1/10
1/7
1/2
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/2
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/12
1/1
1/3-5
1/1
1/1
1/3
1/3
1/2
1/1
1/1
1/10
1/10
1/3
2,3,7,8
TCDD

^10
<10
<10
<10
<10
<10
<10
<10
<16
<15


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Location
                                Table 3 con't
          Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-rHoxin
                              In Saginaw Bay Fish (ng/kq)

             Sample      #of Samples/         2,3,7,8      Total      Total
Species	Type	#Fish Per Sample      TCDD         TCDD      PCDD
                                                             Source
Nearshore and Tributary

Near Saginaw River
Near Saginaw River
Near Saginaw River
Near Saginaw River
Bay City
Tittabawasse River
 5 Miles upstream of DOW
 Tittabawasse Rd.
 Freeland Rd.
 Smith's Crossing Rd.
 State Street

 Above Dow Dam
 Dublin Rd.
 Below Dow
Consumers Power Plant

Below Saginaw WWTP
 Carp
 Carp
 Carp
 Carp
 Carp

 White Sucker
 Carp
 White Sucker
 Carp
 Yellow Perch
 Carp
 Carp
 Yellow Perch
 Carp
 Channel  Cat
 Carp
 Channel  Cat
 Carp
 Sucker
 Sucker
 Yellow Perch
 Carp
E
E
E
E
W

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
 Channel  Catfish E
 Carp            E
 Carp            E
 Channel  Catfish E
 Yellow Perch    E
 Carp            E
 Carp            W
 Carp            E
 Carp            E
 Carp            E
 Carp            E
 Carp            E
 Carp            E
 White Sucker    E
 Carp            E
 Carp            E
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/1

1/U
1/U
1/U
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/U
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/2
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/3-2
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
 43
173
 28
<50
 NA

287
 20
<63
 52
 20
 93
 32
 10
 66
273
 22
695
 49
  8
 21
 20
 93
 42
 <5
 <9
 28
 <4
 <9
 NA
 17
 39
 83
<54
301
129
 64
126
135
NA
NA
NA
NA
94
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
81
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
385
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
223
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
USFWS
MSU
MSU
MSU
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
MSU
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USFWS
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
1979
1979
1979
1979
1981 (1)
1979
1979
1979
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1979
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1979 (1)
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979
1979

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                                                          Table 3 con't
                                    Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                                                       In Saginaw Bay Fish
Open Lake
Location
Saginaw River
Saginaw WWTP
Wickes Park

Wicks Park
Blocks Marina


Mouth


Mouth
Sand Point

Chippewa River
10 miles upstream of
Dow
Pine River
Below St. Louis

Alma
Cass River
Frankenmurth


Flint River
Below Flint

Holloway Reservoir
Shiawassee River
Chesning
Sample #of Samples/
Species Type #Fish Per Sample

Carp
Carp
Yellow Perch
Carp
Channel Catfish
Channel Catfish
Carp
Channel Catfish
Carp
Yellow Perch
Carp
Carp
Carp

Carp


Carp
White Sucker
Carp

Redhorse Sucker
Carp
Carp

Carp
Carp
White Sucker

Carp

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

E


E
E
E

E
E
E

E
E
E

E

i/u
1/1
1/2
i/u
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/2
i/u
i/u
1/8

i/u


i/u
1/U
i/u

i/u
i/u
1/8

i/u
1/8
i/u

1/8
2,3,7,8
TCDD

319
62
<11
<35
105
52
28
30
153
11
288
<14
<10

136


322
85
<10

<40
< 9
<10

<100
<10
<24

<10
Total
TCDD

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA


NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
Total
PCDD

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA


NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
Sources

MSU
USEPA
USEPA
MSU
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
USEPA
MSU
MSU
USFDA

MSU


MSU
MSU
USFDA

MSU
MSU
USFDA

MSU
USFDA
MSU

USFDA

1979
1978
1978
1979
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1978
1979
1979
1983

1979


1979
1979
1983

1979
1979
1983

1979
1983
1979

1983
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Addition Congeners in Table 8

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
most samples below 10 ng/kg (Table 3).  However, elevated concentrations
occurred in fillets and whole fish from grids 1506, 1507, 1509 and at the
mouth of the Saginaw River (Figure 1).  The most seriously contaminated area
of the Bay was grid 1509 where 80 percent of the catfish and 60 percent
of the carp which have been analyzed exceeded 10 ng/kg.

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in Saginaw Bay tributaries ranged from <4
ng/kg in yellow perch above the Dow Dam in the Tittabawasse to 695 ng/kg
in channel catfish at Smiths Crossing Road.  Elevated concentrations of
2,3,7,8-TCDD have been monitored in fish at all  sites in the Tittabawasse
and Saginaw Rivers.

Three samples, a composite of whole carp from grid 1509, a single whole
carp taken off Bay City, Michigan, and a whole carp composite from below
Dow in the Tittabawasse River, have been analyzed for dioxins other than
2,3,7,8-TCDD.  The Tittabawasse River sample was dominated by TCDD while
the Bay City and Grid 1509 sample were dominated by Penta (Penta CDD) and
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin respectively (Octa CDD) (Table 8).

Lake Michigan
Despite the active sport fishery and large concentration of industry in the
Lake Michigan basin, only 12 samples from 6 open lake areas have been analyzed.
Concentrations in those open lake samples which have beee analyzed are low,
with only a single whole lake trout composite exceeding detection limits
(Table 4).
                                       11

-------
                     Table 4
Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
             In Lake Michigan Fish  (ng/kq)
Location
Open Lake
Saugatuck


St. Joseph River




Platte River
Kellogg River
Sheboygan River
Kenosha
Green Bay
Fox River
Grid 1001
Little Sturgeon Bay
Nearshore and Tributary
White River
White Lake

Muskegon River
Muskegon Lake
US Rt. 131
Bridgetown
Cobb Power Plant
Rodgers Dam


Grand River
Grand Ledge

Eagle




lona

Sample
Species Type

Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Chinook
Lake Trout

Walleye
Walleye
Walleye


White Sucker
Carp

Carp
White Sucker
Carp
Redhorse
Carp
Carp
Carp

Carp
Carp
Carp
Carp
Channel Catfish
Small mouth Bass
Small mouth Bass
Carp
Sucker

E
W
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

W
E
E


E
E

E
E
E
E
E
E
E

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
#of Samples/ 2,3,7,8
#Fish Per Sample TCDD

1/1
1/5
1/5
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/5
1/5
1/1
1/2

1/5
1/2
1/5


i/u
i/u

i/u
i/u
i/u
i/u
i/u
i/u
i/u

i/u
1/8
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1

<7.9
NA
<10
<4.8
<3.1
<4.0
<4.9
<2.0
<10
<10
<5.0
<25.0

<5
<5
<5


<48
<34

<10
<56
237
123
<10
<51
<10

298
<10
20
41
29
7
8
<2
<2
Total
TCDD

NA
5.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA


NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDD Source

NA
5.0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA


NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

USEPA 1978
USFWS 1979(1)
GLNPO/USFDA 1982
NYDOH 1979
NYDOH 1979
NYDOH 1979
NYDOH 1979
NYDOH 1979
GLNPO/USFDA 1982
GLNPO/USFDA 1982
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983

USEPA-Duluth 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983


MSU 1979
MSU 1979

USFDA 1984
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
USFDA 1983
MSU 1979
USFDA 1984

MSU 1979
USFDA 1983
USEPA 1979
USEPA 1979
USEPA 1979
USEPA 1979
USEPA 1979
USEPA 1979
USEPA 1979
                                                                                     CVI

-------
                                                         Table 4 con't
                                      Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                                                   In Lake Michigan Fish (ng/kq)
Location
Spring! ake



Waukegan Harbor

Kalamazoo River
Saugatuck





Milwaukee River
(below N. Ave.)
Sheboygan River
Green Bay
DePere
Little Lake Butte
Des Mortes
Grid 1001
Kidney Island
Little Sturgeon Bay
Sampl e
Species Type
Carp
Carp
Carp
Redhorse
Carp
Largemouth Bass

Carp
Carp
Carp
Carp
White Sucker
White Sucker
Carp

Carp

Carp
Carp
Walleye
Carp
Carp
Carp
E
E
E
E
W
W

E
E
E
E
E
E
E

E

W
E
E
E
E
E
#of Samples/ 2,3,7,8
#Fish Per Sample TCDD
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/1
1/1

1/U
i/u
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/3
1/U
1/3
1/U
1/5
1/6
1/5
1/5
1/2
1/5
324
<38
<173
<20
NA
NA

2.4
<21
<5
<115
<33
<76
<10

<10

< 5
< 6
< 9
< 5
<15
<13
Total
TCDD
NA
NA
NA
NA
ND
ND

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDD Source
NA
NA
NA
NA
ND
37

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
USFWS 1981(1)
USFWS 1981(1)

MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
WDNR 1983

WDNR 1983

USEPA-Duluth 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional Congeners in Table 8

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
Analysis of nearshore and tributary areas of Lake Michigan  consist  of
samples from White Lake (MI), Muskegon River (MI), Grand River (MI),
Waukegan Harbor (IL), and the Kalmazoo River (MI).  Concentrations  of total
PCDD in Waukegan Harbor were ND and 37 ng/kg in whole carp  and largemouth
bass respectively.  Neither Waukegan Harbor sample contained detectable
concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD.  In the Muskegan River, 2,3,7,8-TCDD
ranged from <56 ng/kg in white sucker fillets at U.S.  Route 131 to 237
ng/kg in carp fillets at Bridgetown.  Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD  in
White Lake and the Kalamazoo River were below detection limits in both
carp and suckers.

Several sites on the Grand River from Grand Ledge to Spring Lake have been
sampled.  Concentrations of TCDD ranged from 20 ng/kg to 298 ng/kg in carp
fillets at Grand Ledge and Eagle.  At Spring Lake concentrations in redhorse
sucker and carp fillets ranged from <20 ng/kg TCDD to 324 ng/kg TCDD.  At
the intermediate Ionia site, carp and suckers both yeilded <2.0 ng/kg TCDD,
indicating that contamination may be confined to  specific river reaches.

Three composite samples from 3 open water areas of Green Bay were collected
in  1983 (Table 4).  All contained <3 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-TCDD.  Nearshore and
tributary samples from the Fox River and Green  Bay were also below detection
limits that ranged from 5 to 13 ng/kg.  No samples from Green Bay have been
analyzed for  dioxins other than 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

Lake Erie
 Concentrations  of  2,3,7,8-TCDD  in open lake fish from Lake Erie were low,
 ranging  from  0.9 ng/kg to  <10 ng/kg  (Table 5).  Most nearshore and tributary
 fish  from Lake  Erie  also contained only low levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD.  However,
                                       14

-------
                                                                Table 5
                                         Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                                                       In Lake Erie Fish (ng/kq)
Location
Open Lake
Belle Isle
Belle Isle
Belle Isle
Belle Isle
Belle Isle
Belle Isle
Belle Isle
Belle Isle
Monroe, MI
Monroe, MI
Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Port Dover
Detroit River
Upper Niagara
Detroit River
Huron River, Ohio
Trout River, Pa.
Charqin River, Ohio
Nearshore and Tributary
Belle River
Gratiot Road
Clinton River, MI
Avon Road
Huron River, MI
Superior Road
Flat Road

Raisin River
Monroe

Species

Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Wai 1 eye
Wai 1 eye
Walleye
Walleye
Walleye
Rainbow Trout
Yellow Perch
Yellow Perch
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon


White Sucker

White Sucker

Carp
Catfish
Carp

Carp
Carp
Sampl e
Type

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E


E

E

E
E
E

E
E
#of Samples
#Fish Per Sample

i/u
l/'J
1/U
i/u
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
3/1
3/1
6/1
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5


1/U

1/U

1/U
1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U
2,3,7,8
TCDD

0.9
1.9
1.4
<1.0
<5.0

-------
                                                            Table 5 con't
                                      Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                                                       In Lake Erie Fish (ng/kg)
Location
Athol Springs



Port Clinton, MI




St. Clair River
Lake St. Clair
Woodtick, MI
Upper Niagara
Upper Niagara
Fort Erie
Love Canal
Cayuga Creek
Nanticoke
Grand River
Diamond Shamrock
Corporation




Fields Brook
Ashtabula, Ohio
Sampl e
Species Type
Small mouth Bass E
Small mouth Bass E
Small mouth Bass E
Carp/Goldfish E
Carp W
Carp E
Carp E
Carp E
Carp E
Carp E
Catfish W
Carp W
White Sucker E
Small mouth Bass E
Spottail Shinners W
Spottail Shinners W
Spottail Shinners W
Spottail Shinners W

Carp

Black Redhorse
Rockbass
Small mouth Bass
Pumpkinseed
Largemouth Bass
Goldfish
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/3-5
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/8
1/2
1/3
1/1
1/1
7/10
7/10
7/10
7/10

1/U

1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
2,3,7,8
TCDD
<1.5
<3.2
1.6
<2.6
ND
<30
<18
<11
75
<10
NA
NA
<10
<10
15
7.5
59
ND

<5

<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
Total
TCDD
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
7
12
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDD
NA
NA
NA
NA
50
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
35
106
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Source
NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
USFWS 1979(1)
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
MSU 1979
USFDA 1983
USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)
USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)
MOE 1980
MOE 1980
MOE 1980
MOE 1980
MOE 1980
MOE 1980

USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional Congeners in Table 8

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole Fish

-------
samples from Lake St. Clair, Port Clinton (MI), Woodtick (MI) and the Huron
River (MI) contained TCDD in concentrations ranging from 7 ng/kg in Lake
St. Clair to 246 ng/kg in the Huron River.  Three Lake Erie samples (Woodtick
(MI), Port Clinton (MI), and Lake St. Clair) have been analyzed for dioxins
other than 2,3,7,8-TCDD.  In all  three samples hepta and octachlorodibenzo-p-
dioxins were the dominant congeners (Table 8).

Lake Ontario
Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD were above detection limits in 38 of the 51
edible portion samples of open lake data points.  The concentrations
ranged from <3.2 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-TCDD in suckers at Fort Niagara, NY to
162 ng/kg TCDD in brown trout at  St. Catharines, Ontario (Table 6).
Fourteen data points exceeded the applicable USFDA and Canadian guidelines
of 25 and 20 ng/kg while the New  York State Department of Health's guide-
line of 10 ng/kg was exceeded by  59 percent of the edible portion samples
analyzed.

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in whole open lake fish ranged from 28 ng/kg
in brook trout at Roosevelt Beach to 107 ng/kg in lake trout at Gallo Island.
The concentrations in nearshore and tributary samples ranged from ND to 13.5
ng/kg with no clear distribution  patterns.  The presence of 2,3,7,8-TCDD at
7 ng/kg and 13.5 ng/kg in the young of the year spottail  shiners from the
Niagara River indicates site specific contamination problems, given the
small  size and short (6 to 8 months) exposure period of these fish.  Only
one sample from Lake Ontario (Roosevelt Beach) has been analyzed for dioxins
other than TCDD.  That sample was dominated by TCDD.
                                     17

-------
                       Table 6
Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                  In Lake Ontario Fish (nq/kg)
Location
Open Lake
Cape Vincent


Gallo Island
Salmon River
Credit River

St. Catharines
Rochester
Nine Mile Point

Cape Vincent
Salmon River



Geren Point
Wilson



Ft. Niagara


Lewiston

Salmon River


Springbrook

Roosevelt Beach
Lower Niagara



Jordan Harbor

Credit River
Hearn Generating
Station
Sample
Species Type

White Perch
White Perch
White Perch
Lake Trout
Chinook Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Brown Trout
Brown Trout
Brown Trout
Brown Trout
White Perch
Rainbow Trout
Rainbow Trout
Rainbow Trout
Rainbow Trout
White Perch
White Perch
White Perch
White Perch
White Perch
White Sucker
White Sucker
White Sucker
White Sucker
White Sucker
Chinook Salmon
Chinook Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Brook Trout
American eel
Walleye
Rainbow Trout
Yellow Perch
Brown Trout
White Bass
Coho Salmon
Smelt


E
E
E
W
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
W
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

#of Samples/ 2,3,7,8
#Fish Per Sample TCDD

1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
i/u
i/u
1/U
i/u
1/U
i/u
1/U
i/u
i/u
i/u
5/1
1/1
1/1
6/1
13/1
6/1
8/1
8/1


16
36
4.9
107
39
20
19
162
30
11,11
8
9.9
20,21
20
9
17,18
14
31
22
7.7
45
4.7
18
<3.2
9.6
9.1
39
26
31
19
28
NA
<10

-------
                                     concentration  or  z,j,/,H-letrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
                                                      In  Lake  Ontario Fish (ng/kg)
Location
Scarborough
Bay of Quinte

Port Credit
Toronto


Port Hope
Lower Niagara
Burlington
Pt. Pet re
Niagara
Springhrook



Sampl e
Species Type
Lake Trout
Yellow Perch
White Perch
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Smelt
Rainbow Trout
Rainbow Trout
Yellow Perch
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
Coho Salmon
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
W
W
W
E
E
E
E
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample
5/1
6/1
6/1
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/5
1/5
2,3,7,8
TCDD
<10-19
<10
<10-16
24.4
17.8
8.0
32
8.3
6.6
72
42
41
22
20
<10
33/35
Nearshore and Tributary
Lower Niagara



Pultneyvil le


Rays Bay
Littel Fox Creek
Sodus Bay
Niagara River,
Lewiston
Peggys Eddy
Queenston
Niagara-on-the
Northern Pike
Muskellunge
Small mouth Bass
Rock Bass
Small mouth Bass
Small mouth Bass
Small mouth Bass
Brown Bui 1 head
Brown Bui 1 head
Brown Bui Ihead

Spotatil Shinner
Spottail Shinner
Spottail Shinner
Lake Spottail Shinner
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

W
W
W
W
6/1
1/1
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U

7/10
7/10
7/10
7/10
<10
<10
12.7
2.4
7
4.8
5.9
5
3.8
2

ND
7
ND
13.5
Total
TCDD
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDD Source
NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA NOE 1980
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1980
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1980
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1980
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1980
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1980
NA GLNPO/USFOA 1981
NA GLNPO/USFDA 1982

NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA MOE 1980
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1979
NA NYDEC/NYDOH 1979

NA MOE 1981
NA MOE 1981
NA MOE 1981
NA MOE 1981
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional  Congeners in Table 8

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
Midwest Lakes and Rivers





Samples from several  Region V sites (other than the Great Lakes)  have been



analyzed for 2,3,7,8-TCDD and, in a limited number of cases, other dioxins.



With the exception of the Mississippi  and Wisconsin Rivers,  2,3,7,8-TCDD con-



centrations were below or near detection levels (Table 7).  Composite samples



of buffalo and channel  catfish from the Mississippi River at St.  Louis, Mo.



contained 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 40 ng/kg and 100 ng/kg respectively.  In the



Wisconsin River, 2,3,7,8-TCDD in carp fillets ranged from 35 to 65 ng/kg



at Pentenwell Flowage.  Contamination of Wisconsin River fish with



2,3,7,8-TCDD has resulted in the Wisconsin Department of Natural  Resources



closing a large portion of the commerical fishery and advising sports



fishmen not to consume the affected species.
                                     20

-------
                                                          Table 7
                            Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin in Fish  From
                                              Midwest Rivers and Lakes (ng/kg)
Location
Kaskusia River
(Illinois)
Great Miami River
Green Ml Is, OH
Hooven, OH
Species
Channel Cat/
Carp
Carp
Channel Cat/
Carp
Sampl e
Type
W
W
W
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample
1/1 & 1
1/4
1/4 ft 12
2,3,7,8
TCDD
NA
NA
NA
Total
TCDD
ND
4
2
Total
PCDD
14
18
18
17
Source
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Dul uth
USEPA-Dul uth

1980(1}
1980(1)
1980(1)
Scioto River
  Columbus, OH
   (Southwest of)

  Columbus, OH
   (Northwest of)
  ChillIcothe East, OH

Mississippi River
  St. Louis, Mo.
  St. Louis, Mo.
  St. Louis, Mo.
  Below St. Louis, Mo.
  Below St. Louis, Mo.
  Below St. Louis, Mo.
  Below St. Louis, Mo.
  St. Genevieve, Mo.
  Chester, II.
  Sartell, MN.
  Red Wing, MN.
  Spring Lake
  Pool 1011

Tuscarasus River
 RM 56.6. OH

Sugar Cr.
 RM 0.15, OH
Ohio River
 Marietta, OH
Black Crappie/   W
  Carp

Sucker/Bass      W
Carp             W
Carp             E
Buffalo          E
Channel Cat      E
Buffalo          E
Buffalo          E
Buffalo          E
Catfish          E
Buffalo          E
Buffalo          E
Carp             E
Carp             E
Carp             E
Carp             W
Carp             E
Channel Catfish  E

Carp             E
BrownBul1 head    E
Channel Catfish  E

Suger            E
Carp             E
Channel Catfish  E
1/1 ft 1
1/2 & 2
1/2
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U
1/U
 NA
 NA
 NA
 <7
 40
100
 <5
 <5
 <5
 ND
 <5
 <5

 <5
 <5
 <5
                                                                         <5
                                                                         <5
ND
ND
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
           NA
           NA
             24   USEPA-Duluth  1980(1)
17
30
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth
Syntex Corp.
Syntex Corp.
Syntex Corp.
USFDA
USFDA
USFDA
USFDA
USFDA
USFDA
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth
USFWS
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Dul uth
USEPA-Dul uth
1980(1)
1980(1)
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
1982
1983
1983
1983
1983
1984
1984
                          CSJ
NA   USEPA-Duluth 1984
NA   USEPA-Duluth 1984
NA   USEPA-Duluth 1984
             NA   USEPA-Duluth  1984
             NA   USEPA-Duluth  1984

-------
                           Table 7 con't
Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin in Fish
             USEPA Region V Rivers and Lakes (ng/kq)
From
Location
Little Beaver Cr.
Middle Fork, OH


Sunfish Cr.
RM 5.0, OH

Hocking River
Sugar Grove, OH

Little Scioto River
RM 12.6, OH


Little Muskinqum River
Dart, OH





Clear Creek
RM 2.0, OH

Still Water River
RM 51.2, OH

North Fort Paint Ck.
RM 17.6, OH

White Oak Cr.
RM 12.8, OH

Blachard River
RM 62.1, OH

Lake Delevan, WI
Lake Koshkonong, WI
Satnpl e
Species Type

Creek Chub
Stone Roller
White Sucker

Black Redhorse
Small mouth Bass

White Sucker
Carp

Spotted Bass
Golden Redhorse
Black Redhorse

Rockbass
Spotted Bass
Black Redhorse
Small mouth Bass
Golden Redhorse


White Sucker
Smallmouth Bass

Carp
Rockbass

Carp
Smallmouth Bass

Golden Redhorse
Smallmouth Bass

White Sucker
Rock Bass
Carp
Carp

E
E
E

E
E

E
E

E
E
E

E
E
E
E
E
E

E
E

E
E

E
E




E
E
E
E
# of Samples/ 2,3,7,8
#Fish Per Sample TCDD

1/U
1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U
1/U


1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U

1/U
1/U
1/3
1/5

<5
<5
<5

<5
<5

<5
<5

<5
<5
<5

<5
<5
<5
<5
<5


<5
<5

<5
<5

<5
<5

<5
<5

<5
<5
<2.0
<5.0
Total
TCDD

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA


NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDD

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA


NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
Source

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 198
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984


USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984

USEPA-Duluth 1984
USEPA-Duluth 1984
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983

-------
                                                                Table 7 con't
                                         Concentration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin in Fish From
                                                     USEPA Region V Rivers and Lakes  (ng/kg)
Location
Lake Tichigan, WI
Peddock Lake, WI
Lac LaBelle, WI
Fox River
Portage, WI

Wisconsin R., WI
Below Merrill Dam

Mosinee Flowage

Wisconsin River
Pentennell Flowage







Castle Rock Flowage

Lake Wisconsin


Agate Lake, MN.
Minnesota River, MN.
Zumbro Lake, MN.
Species
Carp
Carp
Carp

Carp
Largemouth Bass

Carp

Wai 1 eye
Carp
Walleye
Buffalo
Walleye
Wai 1 eye
Carp
Carp
Carp
Carp
Carp
Carp
Walleye
Walleye
Carp
Carp
Northern Pike
Carp
Channel Cat
bampie
Type
E
E
E

E
E

E
E

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
# of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample
1/5
1/3
1/2

1/7
1/6

1/3
1/2

1/5
1/5
1/7
1/5
1/1
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/6
1/3
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
2,3,7,8
TCDD
<5.0
<3.0
<8.0

<12.0
<10.0

<5
<2

<3
<4
<2
<2
<10
35
65
60
65
56
<5
<2
<5
<20
21
<5
<5
<5
Total
TCDD
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDD Source
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983

WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983

WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983

WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983 <*
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
USEPA-Duluth 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
WDNR 1983
USEPA-Duluth 1983
USEPA-Duluth 1983
USEPA-Duluth 1983
USEPA-Duluth 1983
NA = Not Analyzed
NO = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1) Data for Additional  Congeners in Table 8

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
Location
Roosevelt Beach
                                                           Table 8
                           Polychlorinated Dibenzo Dioxions 1n Great Lakes and Midwest Fish (ng/kg)
   Species
    Source
2cl    3cl    4cl    5cl
6cl
7cl    8cl
 Brook Trout
Region V Rivers and Lakes
Kaskusia River
Great Miami River
  Greenhills, OH
  Hooven, OH
Scioto River
  Columbus, OH
   (Southwest of)
   (Northwest of)
  Chillicothe East

NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
Thannelcat/Carp

 Carp
 Channel cat/Carp
 Black  crappie/carp
 Sucker/bass
 Carp
       USFWS 1979    NA    NA    33   ND
USEPA-Duluth 1980    ND     1    ND   ND
USEPA-Duluth 1980
USEPA-Duluth 1980

USEPA-Duluth 1980
USEPA-Duluth 1980
USEPA-Duluth 1980    ND    <1    ND   ND
                          ND
                          ND
        ND
        ND
       ND
       13
                                       17
Total
Lake Superior
Keweenaw
Apostle Islands
Grand Marais
Copper Harbor
Ontonogon
Saginaw Bay
Bay City
Grid 1509
Tittabawass River
(Below Dow)
Lake Michigan
Sagatuck
Waukegan Harbor

Lake Erie
Port Clinton, MI
Lake St. Clair
Woodtick, MI
Lake Ontario

Bloater
Lake Trout
Lake Trout/Salmon
Lake Trout
Lake Trout

Carp
Carp
Carp


Lake Trout
Carp
Largemouth Bass

Carp
Catfish
Carp


USFWS
USFWS
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth

USFWS
USFWS
USFWS


USFWS
USFWS
USFWS

USFWS
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth


1979
1979
1980
1980
1980

1981
1979
1979


1979
1981
1981

1979
1980
1980


NA
NA
ND
ND
ND

NA
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA

NA
ND
7


NA
NA
<1
<1
2

NA
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA

NA
ND
11


ND
ND
ND
ND
1

94
27
81


5
ND
ND

ND
7
12


ND
ND
ND
ND
5

157
21
31


ND
ND
ND

9
5
13


ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

122
ND
44


ND
ND
3

ND
6
17


ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

12
31
53


ND
ND
ND

11
17
20


ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
32
14


ND
ND
34

30
ND
26


ND
ND
<1
<1
8

385
111
223


5
ND
37
e\

50
35
106

 33
 14
5
ND
ND
ND
2
2
<1
ND
4
2
2
ND
7
3
12
ND
ND
4
ND
ND
ND
6
ND
ND
ND
ND
10
17
18
17
24
17
                     30
                                                       (Data is not isomer specific)

-------
                        POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO FURANS

Tables 9 through 14 contain the data on 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo furans
(2,3,7,8-TCDF) and, where data on additional congeners is available, total
tetrachlorodibenzo furans (TCDF) and total polychlorinated dibenzo furans
(PCDF).  Table 15 contains the available data on individual PCDF congeners.
Lake Superior
Five open lake samples from 5 locations in Lake Superior and Isle Royal
have been analyzed for PCDF's.  Concentrations of TCDF ranged from ND
at Ontonogon to 26 ng/kg in Keweenaw Bay with 4 of the 5 samples above
detection limits (Table 9).  Total  PCDF ranged from ND to 40 ng/kg with TCDD
predominant.  Lake trout from Si ski wet Lake (Isle Royal) contained 15 ng/kg
total PCDF, 10 ng/kg of which was TCDF (Table 15).

Lake Huron
The entire Lake Huron open lake data base consists of one composite sample
of lake trout taken off Rockport (Alpena, Michigan).  That sample contained
25.5 ng/kg TCDF and 80.5 ng/kg total  PCDF (Table 10).  The primary PCDF
was penta CDF (Table 15).  Saginaw Bay and its tributaries are represented
by 3 carp composites with TCDF concentrations ranging from 5 to 37 ng/kg.
PCDF in Saginaw Bay samples ranged  from 29 to 290 ng/kg (Table 10) with
penta and hexa CDF's the dominant congeners (Table 15).

Lake Michigan
A total  of 7 samples from 7 open lake areas of Lake Michigan and Green Bay
have been analyzed for PCDFs.   The  nearshore and tributary data base
consists  of 7 samples  from 6 sites.  2,3,7,8-TCDF was found in all  open
lake samples at concentrations ranging from 22 ng/kg to 90 ng/kg (Table 11).

                                     25

-------
                                                              Table 9
                                       Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furans
                                                  In Lake Superior Fish  (ng/kg)
Location
Species
Sample
Type
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample
2,3,7,8
TCDF
Total
TCDF
Total
PCDF
Source
Open Lake

Keweenaw Bay
Apostle Islands
Isle Royale
  Lake Si skiwit
Ontonogon
Copper Harbor
Bloater
Lake Trout

Lake Trout
Lake Trout
Lake Trout
W
W

W
W
W
1/5
1/5

1/5
1/1
1/2
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
26
19

10
ND
 2
40          USFWS 1979(1)
40          USFWS 1979(1)

15          USFWS 1980(1)
ND   USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)
 2   USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional  congeners in Table 15

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish
                                                                                                 VO
                                                                                                 evi

-------
                                                          Table 10
                                     Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan
                                                  In Lake Huron Fish (ng/kg)
Location
             Sample     #of Samples/          2,3,7,8    Total      Total
Species	Type      fFish Per Sample      TCDF	TCDF	PCDF
                                                   Source
Open Lake

Rockport, MI            Lake Trout

Nearshore and Tributary
Tittabawasse River      Carp
  (Below Dow)
               W
               W
1/5
Sag in aw Bay
Bay city
Grid 1509

Carp
Carp

W
W

1/1
1/U
i/u
NA      25.5       80.5       USFWS 1981(1)
27        NA        153       USFWS 1981
 5        NA         29       USFWS 1979

37        NA        290       USFWS 1979
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional  Congeners in Table 15

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish
                                                                                                                        CM

-------
                                                                Table  11
                                           Concentrations of  2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan
                                                      In Lake  Michigan  Fish  (ng/kg)
Location
Open Lake
Saugatuck
Green Bay
Grid 1001
Little Sturgen Bay
Strawberry Ck. WI
Gills Rock, WI
Sheboygan River
Kenosha, WI
Nearshore and Tributary
Waukegan Harbor

Green Bay
Kidney Is.
Little Sturgeon Bay
Milwaukee River
North Avenue
Sheboygan River
Fox River
Sampl e
Species Type

Lake Trout

Walleye
Walleye
Chinook
Lake Trout
Chinook
Lake Trout

Carp
Largemouth Bass

Carp
Carp

Carp
Carp
Carp

W

E
E
E
E
E
E

W
W

E
E

E
E
E
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sampl

1/5

1/5
1/5
1/2
1/2
1/1
1/2

1/1
1/1

1/2
1/5

1/3
1/3
1/7
2,3,7,8
e TCDF

35

56
35
22
80
24
90

NA
NA

10
<10

<8
<10
<10
Total
TCDF

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

29
68

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
Total
PCDF

86

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

32
98

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
Source

USFWS 1979(1)

WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984

USFWS 1981(1)
USFWS 1981(1)

WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984

WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
NA = Not Analyzed
NO = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional Congeners in Table 15

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
Nearshore and tributary samples were above detection limits for TCDF at
Waukegan Harbor  (IL), and Kidney  Island (Green Bay), ranging from in to
68 ng/kg (Table  11).  Total PCDF was 32 and 98 ng/kg in the 2 samples in
which other PCDFs were analyzed.  Tetra and penta PCDF were the dominant
congeners in these samples (Table 15).

Lake Erie
Two open lake (whole walleye) samples from Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair
contained 18 and 4 ng/kg TCDD and 40  and 12 ng/kg PCDF, respectively.
Nearshore and tributary samples from Port Clinton (MI), Woodtick (MI)
and Lake St. Clair yielded TCDD results ranging from 5 to 16 ng/kg
(Table 12).  Total PCDF in the nearshore and tributary samples ranged
from 18 to 37 ng/kg with tetra and penta PCDF the dominant forms (Table
15).

Lake Ontario
The two open lake samples from Lake Ontario contained 19 and 34 ng/kg
TCDF (Table 13)  respectively with total PCDF concentrations of 32 and
119 ng/kg, tetra CDF and penta CDF were the most abundant congeners.
No nearshore and tributary samples from Lake Ontario have been analyzed
for PCDF.

Midwestern Rivers and Lakes
Fish from 8 sites in Wisconsin, Illinois and Ohio have been analyzed for
PCDF (Table 14).  Concentrations of TCDF range from ND in the single sample
from the Great Miami  River to 45 ng/kg in  Petenwell  Flowage, Wisconsin.
The contribution of the various congeners  to the total  PCDF is given in
Table 15.
                                      29

-------
                                                             Table 12

                                         Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan
                                                    In Lake Erie Fish (ng/kg)
Location
Open Lake
Cedar Point
Lake St. Clair
Anchor Bay
Nearshore and Tributary
Port Clinton, MI
Lake St. Clair
Woodtick, MI
Species
Walleye
Wai 1 ey
Carp
Catfish
Carp
Sampl e
Type
W
W
W
W
W
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample
1/5
1/5
1/3-5
1/U
1/3
2,3,7,8
TCDF
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Total
TCDF
18
4
5
16
8
Total
PCDF
40
12
18
33
37
Source
USFWS
USFWS
USFWS
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth

1979
1981
1979
1980
1980

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional  Congeners in Table 15

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
                                                      Table 13
                                   Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furan
                                            In Lake Ontario Fish (ng/kg)
Location
Open Lake
Oswego, N.Y
Roosevelt Beach
Species
Lake Trout
Brook Trout
Sampl e
Type
W
w
#of Samples/
#Fish Per Sample
1/5
1/1
2,3,7,8
TCDF
NA
NA
Total
TCDF
34
19
Total
PCDF
119
32
Source
USFWS 1979(1)
USFWS 1979(1)
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknown
(1)  Data for Additional Congeners in Table 15

 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
                                                             Table  14
                                          Concentrations  of  2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo Furans
                                            In  Fish From  Midwest Rivers  and  Lakes  (ng/kg)
Location
Lake Pepin, WI

Wisconsin River
Mosinee Flowage
Petenwell Flowage




Castle Rock Flowage

Kaskusia River
Red Bud, OH

Scioto River
Chill icothe East, OH
Columbus, OH
(Southwest of)

(Northwest of)
Sample #of Samples/
Species Type #Fish Per Sample
Walleye
Carp

Carp
Buffalo
Walleye
Walleye
Carp
Carp
Carp
Walleye

Channel Cat/
Cat

Carp

Black Crappie/
Carp
Sucker/bass
E
E

E
E
E
E
E
E



E


E

E

E
1/3
1/3

1/5
1/7
1/1
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/6

1/U


1/U

i/u

1/U
2,3,7,8
TCDF
25
20

<15
15
15
45
25
25
30
16

NA


NA

NA

NA
Total
TCDF
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

4


3

4

ND
Total
PCDF
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

7


3

32

ND
Source
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984

WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984

WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
WDNR 1984
CM
USEPA-Duluth 1980(1) m


USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)

USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)

USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)
Great Miami River
  Hooven, OH
Channel Cat/Carp E
1/U
NA
ND
USEPA-Duluth 1980(1)
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
 U = Unknwon
(1)  Data for Additional Congeners in Table 15
 E = Edible portion
 W = Whole fish

-------
                                                                  ib
Location
 Tittabawasse R.
   (Below Dow)

Lake Michigan
Sagatuck
Waukegan Harbor

Lake Erie
Cedar Point
Port Clinton, MI
Lake St. Clair
  Anchor Bay
St. Clair
Woodtick, MI

Lake Ontario
Roosevelt Beach
Oswego, NY
   Polychlorinated Dibenzo Furans in Great  Lakes  and  Midwest  Fish  (ng/kg)

  Species __ Source           2cl    3d    4cl    5cl     6cl     7cl
                                                                                                        8cl
                                                          Total
Lake Superior
Keweenaw
Apostle Islands
Isle Royal
Lake Siskiwit
Ontonogon
Copper Harbor
Lake Huron
Rockport
Saginaw Bay
Bay City
Grid 1509


Bloater
Lake

Lake
Lake
Lake

Lake

Carp
Carp
Trout

Trout
Trout
Trout

Trout




USFWS 1979
USFWS 1979

USFWS 1980
USEPA-Duluth 1980
USEPA-Duluth 1980

USFWS 1981

USFWS 1981
USFWS 1979

NA
NA

NA
ND
ND

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
ND
ND

NA

NA
NA

26
19

10
ND
2

25.5

27
5

9
5

5
ND
ND

28.5

44
12

2
5

ND
ND
ND

16

34
5

1
4

ND
ND
ND

6.5

44
6

2
3

Trace
ND
ND

4

4
1

40
40

15
ND
2

80.5

153
29
Carp
Lake Trout
Carp
Largemouth Bass

Walleye
Carp
Walleye

Catfish
Carp
Brook Trout
Lake Trout
USFWS 1979
NA   NA
      37
      73
      145
USFWS 1979
USFWS 1979
NA
NA
NA
NA
19
34
 4
48
 3
29
        31
3
6
3
2
           290
USFWS
USFWS
USFWS
USFWS
USFWS
USFWS
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth
1979
1981
1981
1979
1979
1979
1980
1980
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
ND
ND
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
ND
ND
35
29
68
18
5
4
16
8
41
3
28
9
5
4
17
29
8
ND
2
6
2
<1
ND
ND
1
ND
ND
5
4
<1
ND
ND
1
ND
ND
2
2
3
ND
ND
86
32
98
40
18
12
33
37
 32
119
                                                                                                  00
                                                                                                  ro

-------
Location
                                 Table  15 Con't
 Polychlorinated Dibenzo Furans in Great Lakes and  Midwest  Fish  (ng/kg)
Species                Source           2cl    3d    4cl    5cl     6cl     7cl
8cl
NA = Not Analyzed
ND = Not Detected
Total
Region V Rivers & Lakes
Kaskusia River
Red Bud, OH
Great Miami River
Hooven, OH
Scioto River
Columbus, OH
(Southwest of)
(Northwest of)
Chill icothe East, OH


Channel Cat/Carp

Channel Cat/Carp


Black Crappie/Carp
Sucker/Bass
Carp


USEPA-Duluth

USEPA-Duluth


USEPA-Dul uth
USEPA-Duluth
USEPA-Duluth


1980

1980


1980
1980
1980


ND

2


1
ND
ND


3

ND


ND
ND
ND


4

ND


4
ND
ND


ND

ND


13
ND
3


ND

ND


9
ND
ND


ND

ND


5
ND
ND


ND

ND


ND
ND
ND


7

2


32
ND
3
                                                                                                                          CO

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                                   DISCUSSION
The collective PCDD and PCDF data base,  while substantial,  suffers  from  severe
limitations.  Little coordination has  existed between  studies,  resulting in
differences in species, sample portion,  sample size, collection season and
parameters monitored.  This is exacerbated  in many  cases  by the absence  of
accurate ancillary data such as length,  weight and  lipid  content.   The
emphasis of many studies on criteria compliance has resulted in most  samples
being analyzed for only 2,3,7,8-TCDD,  the only isomer  of  either group for
which criteria exist. The data for PCDD's and PCDF's other  than 2,3,7,8-
tetra, is congener specific with no information on  specific isomers.
These limitations preclude any rigorous  analysis of data, however,  some
generalizations may be made.
With the exception of Lake Ontario and Saginaw Bay, concentrations  of 2,3,7,8-
TCDD in open lake samples are low, being at or near analytical  detection
limits.  Contamination in Saginaw Bay  appears confined to the southern portion
of the Bay, primarily near and in the  current pattern  of  the Saginaw  River.
All areas of Lake Ontario were contaminated,  with 59 percent of the samples
analyzed exceeding the NYDOH guideline of 10  ng/kg. The  nearshore  and
tributary data for TCDD indicate several  localized  areas  of concern.  These
include Grand River (Lake Michigan) Niagara River (Lake Ontario), Woodtick,
(Lake Erie), Huron River, MI, (Lake Erie),  Port Clinton,  MI (Lake Erie)
and Saginaw Bay and its tributaries the  Saginaw, Tittabawassee  and  Pine
Rivers.  Additional problem areas outside the Great Lakes Basin include
the Petenwell Flowage, area of the Wisconsin  River  and the  Mississippi
River at St. Louis, Mo.

Beyond a level of consistency in study design that  would  allow  geographical and
temporal comparisons, the most serious short  comings of the existing  data base are
the absence of isomer specific data on PCDD's other than  2,3,7,8-TCDD and a
lack of PCDF data.
                                       35

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While most studies have been directed  at  2,3,7,8-TCDD  the  limited  data  on
other PCDD congeners indicate that the contribution of TCDD to the total
PCDD varies widely and that frequently that contribution is  small.   In 18
of the 21 samples which have been analyzed for additional  PCDD congeners,
TCDD represents less than 30 percent of the total  PCDD concentration.
Penta CDD concentrations are frequently higher than TCDD.

Few samples have been analyzed for 2,3,7,8-TCDF and even fewer for other
PCDF congeners.  However, those samples which have been analyzed indicate
that 2,3,7,8-TCDF occurs with alarming frequency.   Over 80 percent of the
samples which have been analyzed contained 2,3,7,8-TCDF above analytical
detection limits.  PCDF's occurred in both "nearshore and  tributary" and
"open lake" species from each of the Great Lakes suggesting that PCDF's
may be ubiquitous in the Great Lakes system.  This is also suggested
by its occurrence in fish from Lake Siskiwit (Isle Royal,  Lake Superior)
(Stalling et at. 1983) where the most likely input route is atmospheric
deposition  (Swain 1980).

The significance of the absence of data for PCDFs and for PCDDs other than
2,3,7,8-TCDD lies in the toxicity of specific  isomers within each group.
It is well  known that both  dioxins and furans  having 4 to 6 chlorines and
at least  3  lateral  (2,3,7,8)  positions substituted with chlorine are extremely
toxic  (Jones 1981).   Included in this group are 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD,  1,2,3,7,8-
penta-CDD,  1,2,3,6,7,8-hexa-CDD,  1,2,3,7,8,9-hexa-CDD  1,2,3,4,7,8-hexa-CDD
as well  as  2,3,7,8-tetra-CDF, 1,2,3,7,8-penta-CDF, 2,3,4,7,8-penta-CDF,
1,2,3,6,7,8-hexa-CDF  1,2,3,7,8,9-hexa-CDF and  2,3,4,6,7,8-hexa-CDF  (Rappe
1984).   Of  these  2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD, 1,2,3,7,8-penta-CDD,  2,3,7,8-tetra-
CDF  and  2,3,4,7,8-penta-CDF are  particularly  toxic with LD50  values for
guinea pigs less  than 10 ug/kg  (Rappe  1984).
                                       36

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Due to the  toxicity of PCDD's other than TCDD (partlcuarly penta  CDD)
and the apparent wide spread occurrence of PCDF's,  efforts should  be
made to develop criteria and expand monitoring programs  to include these
compounds.
                                      37

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                                   Table 16

                               Data Contributors
GLNPO/USFDA =  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, (Great Lakes National
               Program Office) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
               Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program, Great Lakes National
               Program Office Chicago, Illinois

MOE         =  Ministry of the Environment Ontario,
               Toronto, Ontario Canada

MSU         =  Michigan State University
               East Lansing, Michigan

NYDEC/NYDOH =  State of New York Department of Environmental Conservation,
               New York Department of Health
               Albany, New York

Syntex Corp =  Syntex Corp.
               Palo Alto, California

USEPA-Duluth = U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
               Environmental Research Laboratory
               Duluth, Minnesota

USEPA       =  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
               Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

USFDA       =  U.S. Food and Drug Administration
               Detroit, Michigan

USFWS       =  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
               Columia National Fisheries Laboratory
               Columia, Missouri

WDNR        =  Wisconsin Department  of Natural Resources
               Madison, Wisconsin

WSU         =  Wright State University
               Dayton, Ohio
                                        38

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                               Literature Cited
Jones, P.A. 1981. Chlorophenol  and their imparities in the Canadian  Environment
Report EPA 3-EC-81-2. Environment Canada,  Ottawa,  Canada.  434 p.

O'Keefe, P., C. Meyer, D. Hilker, K. Aldous, B.  Jelus-Tyror,  K.  Dillion,
R. Donnelly, E. Horn and R. Sloan. 1983. Analysis  of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-
Dibenzo-p-Dioxin in Great Lakes Fish. Chemosphere.  12: 325-332.

Poland, A., W.F. Greenlee and A.S. Kende.  1979.  Studies on the  Mechanism
of Action of the Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds.
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 320: 214-230.

Rappe, C., H.R. Buser and H.P.  Bosshardt.  1979.  Dioxins,  dibenzofurans
and other polyhalogenated Aromatics; Production, use, Formation  and
destruction. Ann. N.Y. Acad Sci. 320:1-18.

Rappe, C. 1984. Analysis of Polychlorinated Dioxins and Furans.  Eviron.
Sci. Technol. 18:78-91.

Rohrer, T.K., J.H. Hartig and j.C. Forney. 1981. Organochlorine  and  Heavy
Metal  Residues inCoho an Chinook Salmon of the Great Lakes -  1980.   MDNR
Publ.  No. 3730-0031. Michigan Department of Natural  Resources. 23p.

Stalling, D.L., L.M. Smith, J.D. Petty, J.W. Hogan, J.L. Johnson,  C.  Rappe,
and H.R. Buser. 1983.  Residues of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins  and
Dibenzofurans in Laurentian Great Lakes Fish. in.  Human and Environmental
Risks  of Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds.  R.E. Tucker, Alvin  L.
Young  and Allan P. Gray, Eds. Plenum Publishing  Co.

Swain, W.R. 1980. Chlorinated Organic Residues in  Fish, Water and  Precipi-
tations From the Vicinity of Isle Royal, Lake Superior. J. Great Lakes
4:398-407.
                                     39

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                                    TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                             (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
  1. REPORT NO.

    EPA  - 905/3-84-006
                                                           3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO.
 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
    Polychlorinated Dioxins and Polychlorinated Furans
    In Fish From The Great Lakes Midwest
                                                           5. REPORT DATE
                                                              October 1984
                                                          6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE

                                                              5GL
 7. AUTHOR(S)
    David DeVault  III
                                                            8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
   U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
   Great Lakes National Program Office
   536 South Clark  Street, Chicago, Illinois 60605
   Chicago, Illinois 60605
                                                            10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
                                                            11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
  12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
    U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
    Great Lakes  National  Program Office
    536 South  Clark  Street,  Chicago, Illinois 60605
                                                            13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
                                                               Monitoring 1979-1983
                                                           14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
                                                              Great Lakes National Program
                                                              Office,  U.S. EPA, Region V
 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES


    David DeVault,  Project Officer
    ABSTRACT    ""     "
    Data on concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins  (PCDD)  and polychlorinated furans
    (PCDF) in fish  from  the Great Lakes and midwest were  compiled.   While differences
    in study design precluded rigorus analysis several  observation  were possible.

    Most samples have  been analyzed for only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
    (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Those samples which were analyzed for other congeners indicate
    that penta and  hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins are more common than 2,3,7,8-TCDD.
    PCDD may be ubiquitous in fish from the Great Lakes and midwest, occurring above
    detection limits in  over 80 percent of the samples analyzed. One of several
    sites at which  2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo furan (2,3,7,8-TCDF)  was detected is Siswi
    Lake (Isle Royal,  Lake Superior), which suggests atmospheric deposition of PCDFs.

    Areas of Concern  (due to 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations)  include the entire Lake
    Ontario Basin,  Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and the Saginaw River System, Grand
    River (Lake Michigan), Niagara River (Lake Ontario),  Lake Erie  (at Woodtick,
    Michigan), Huron River, Michigan (Lake Erie), Port Clinton, Michigan (Lake Erie),
    Wisconsin River (at  Pentenwell Flowage), and the Mississippi River (St. Louis, MO.).
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                              b.lDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
                                                                           COSATl Field/Group
    Polychlorinated  furans
    Polychlorinated  dioxins
    Fish contaminant
                                             \ 19. SECURITY CLASS f This Report/
laTRIBUTION STATEMENT
 Document is available to the public
 through  the National Technical           ;20 SECURITY CLASSi,
 Information Service (NTIS), Springfield,7A 22161
                                                                        21. NO OF PAGES
                                                                         22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)
                                                       ft U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1985-55S-S47/531

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