United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Program Office
^36 South Clark Street
Chicago, Illinois 60605
            EPA-905/4-78-003
Water Quality Studies
Of Lower And Middle
Green Bay, 1938-1977

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                                             September, 1978
MATER QUALITY STUDIES OF LOWER AND MIDDLE GREEN BAY
                    1938 - 1977
                        by

                 Judith Henningson
                   Tim Coughlin
                   Marc Phillips
     Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
             Madison, Wisconsin  53707
               Grant No.  R005332-01
                  Project Officer
                 David C.  Rockwell
     Great Lakes Surveillance & Research Staff
        Great Lakes National  Program Office
       U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
             Chicago,  Illinois   60605
        GREAT LAKES  NATIONAL PROGRAM OFFICE
       U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
          536. SOOTH CLSRK STREET, BQCM 932
                CHICftGO, ILLINOIS  60605

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                                   DISCLAIMER

     This report has been reviewed by the Great Lakes National Program Office,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication.   Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies
of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  nor does mention of trade names
or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for  use.
                                    ii

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                                    FOREWORD
     The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPQ) of the United States
Environmental Protection Agency was established in Region V, Chicago to
focus attention on the significant and complex natural resource represented
by the Great Lakes.

     GLNPO implements a multi-media environmental management program drawing
on a wide range of expertise represented by Universities, private firms, State,
Federal, and Canadian Governmental Agencies and the International Joint
Commission.  The goal of the GLNPO program is to develop programs, practices
and technology necessary for a better understanding of the Great Lakes - Basin
Ecosystem and to eliminate or reduce to the maximum extent practicable the
discharge of pollutants into the Great Lakes system.  The Office also coordi-
nates U.S. actions in fulfillment of the Agreement between Canada and the
United States of America on Great Lakes Water Quality of 1978.

     This study was supported by a GLNPO grant to the Wisconsin Department
of Natural Resources to gather data on southern Green Bay and make it avail-
able through the medium of a computerized data base.
                                       111

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                                    ABSTRACT

     Research with quantitative water quality data from Green Bay was located
and evaluated by objective criteria.  Data from "high priority" studies were
entered Into Environmental Protection Agency computer systems (chemical data
in STORE! and biological data in BIOSTORET).  A summary of the data stored is
presented.

     Using this data base, changes in Green Bay water quality were examined,
but made difficult by deficiencies and inconsistencies in the different re-
searchers sampling locations, frequencies, and methods.  A sampling network
is proposed that would correct the deficiencies and efficiently monitor water
quality conditions in Green Bay.

     The data stored in the computer systems and the proposed sampling network
provide background information for future research on Green Bay water quality.

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                                    CONTENTS
                                                                      Page
Foreword . . . . . 	  iii
Abstract	   iv
Figures	 .   vi
Tables	vli
Acknowledgements	 vi.il

     1,   Introduction	   1
     2.   Conclusion	 .........   2
     3.   Research data evaluated for computer storage ........   3
     4.   Analysis of studies computerized 	   7
     5.   Proposed sampling network  ..... 	 .....  34

References .	  48
Appendices

     A.   Comments on BIOSTORET
     1.   Data Entered on STORET
     C.   Data Entered on BIOSTORET

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                                     FIGURES

Number                                                         {        Page

 1.  Stations with data in STORET	  9
 2.  Data points in STORET	10
 3.  Regions of Green Bay for Figures 4-8	11
 4.  Dissolved ortho  phosphates in Green Bay (summer)  	 12
 5.  Total phosphorus in Green Bay (summer) .........  	 13
 6.  Transparency of Green Bay (summer)	14
 7.  Dissolved oxygen in Green Bay (winter) .	 15
 8.  Dissolved oxygen in Green Bay (summer) 	 16
 9.  Physical areas of Green Bay	36
10.  Proposed sampling network  	  .....  	 37

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                                     TABLES

Number
  1. Studies considered for storage in STORE! and BIOSTORET systems .  .  4
  2. (A-L) Computerized data base	17
  3. Physical areas of Green Bay	  34
  4. Recommended stations for Green Bay monitoring	  38
  5. (A-H) Proposed sampling network  	 ....  39
                                    Vll

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                                 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     We wish to acknowledge the cooperation of the researchers whose work is
reflected here for their willingness to allow sharing of their data through
automation, and for their help in bringing together the most pertinent information
on Green Bay.  People who were especially helpful are Dr. Larry N. Vanderhoef,
University of Illinois, Urbana; and Dr. Paul Sager and Dr. James Wiersna,
University of Wisconsin, Green Bay.

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                                    SECTION 1

                                  INTRODUCTION

     The decline of the water quality of Green Bay and the subsequent aesthetic
and economic losses has been a matter of concern for many years.   This concern
has spurred a great deal of research on the bay, but nowhere has the cream of
this work been gathered and made available in one place.

     The purpose of this project was to store as much of the data as possible
in the appropriate Environmental Protection Agency computer systems (chemical
data in STORET, and biological data in BIOSTORET).  The bulk of the results of
this project are not in the pages of this report., but are stored in these
systems.  It is hoped the work accomplished and described here can be used by
subsequent investigators as a quantitative reference.  For a qualitative
reference, The Green Bay Watershed, Past/Present/Future (Bertrand et al.,  1976)
gives an excellent review of conclusions of most of the studies computerized.

     Studies of Green Bay were identified which demit quantitatively with
parameters of interest to researchers working on the evaluation of water quality.
Within this group of studies, further restrictions were made and the studies
most appropriate and valuable for long term computer storage were chosen.
The data from these studies was then processed and entered into the STORET and
BIOSTORET computer systems.  Since some of these studies were either unpublished
or unavailable for decades, the increased availability should be valuable.

     This new and composite data base was examined for strengths and weaknesses.
Based on this examination, suggestions for future monitoring that will make
better use of the data already available on changes in water quality of
Green Bay have been provided.
                                     -1-

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                                    SECTION 2

                                   CONCLUSION

     The data added to the STORET/BIOSTORET data base documents the changes In
water quality In Green Bay from 1938 to 1977,  An examination of the research
data reveals varied approaches to sampling water quality parameters.  By
examining these approaches, deficiencies in the data base were detected and
rectified in the proposed sampling network.  Considerations of station location,
sampling frequency, needed information, and monetary limitations were prime
factors in assembling the proposed network.

     The value of this project is primarily for future researchers.  If the
proposed sampling network is followed and data stored in the computer system
is used for comparison to sampled data, the results will have greater value
to the scientific community.  Thus strengthened, the data base will also be more
useful to regulatory and management agencies.
                                      -2-

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                                    SECTION 3

                  RESEARCH DATA EVALUATED FOR COMPUTER STORAGE

     The first step of the project was to locate the sources and secure the
release of data.  Once a data set was secured and the methods of collection and
analysis checked, the study was evaluated according to the Importance of
its inclusion relative to other studies.  A number of "high priority" studies
were collected which represented a data base of sufficient breadth and depth
to he included in the computer systems.

     The criteria for choosing the studies to computerize were 1) purpose of
the study and subsequent nature and eittensiveness of the data, 2) reliability
of the principal investigator, 3) lucidity of the data, and 4) degree of support
of the data by previous and subsequent research.  All studies considered for
inclusion in the STORET and B10STORET systems are listed (Table 1) with the
studies finally computerized followed by the system's name in parentheses.

     Studies not computerized had one or more of the following characteristics:
1) qualitatively valuable data, but quantitatively less precise than is
generally considered appropriate for inclusion in computer storage, 2) questionable
techniques, 3) inconsistent research data as compared to reliable, relevant data
from other sources, 4) few data points for the amount of processing work involved,
5) impossibility of obtaining release of unpublished or unprocessed data from
the investigators, and 6) studies unavailable in time for processing.

     Although the evaluation and ranking of the studies is a subjective procedure,
attempts were made to objectify it by fixed criteria.
                                       -3-

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    TABLE 1.  STUDIES.CONSIDERED FOR STOEAGE IM ST01ET AND BIOSTORET SYSTEMS

Adams, M.S. AND W. Stone.  1973.  Field studies on photosynthesis of Cladophora
     glomerata (Chlorophyta) in Green Bay, Lake Michigan.  Ecology 54(4)853-862.
     (STORE!)

Allen, H.E.  1966.  Seasonal variation of nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll
     a. in Lake Michigan and Green Bay, 1965, Contrib. 471 Great Lakes Fisheries
     Lab.  Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife:  Tech. Pap. 70, 23 pp.  (STORET)

Balch, R.F., K.M. Mackenthum, W.M. Van Horn and T.F. Wisniewski.  1956.  Biological
     studies of the Fox River and Green Bay, 1955-1956.  Wisconsin State Comm.
     Water Poll. Bull. WP102, 74 pp. mimeo.

Bott, T.L.  1968.  Ecology of Clostrldium botullnum type E.  Unpublished Ph.D.
     dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 85 pp.

Gannon, J.E.  1972.  Contributions to the ecology of zooplankton Crustacea of Lake
     Michigan and Green Bay.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
     Wisconsin, 257 pp.

Holland, R.E.  1969.  Seasonal fluctuations of Lake Michigan diatoms.  Limnol.
     and Oceanogr. 4:423-436.

	.  and L.W. Claflln.  1975.  Horizontal distribution of plank-
     tonic diatoms in Green Bay, mid-July 1970.  Limnol. and Oceanogr. 20:365-378.

Hewlett, G.F.  1974.  The rooted aquatic vegetation of Green Bay with reference
     to environmental change.  M.S. thesis, Syracuse University.

Howffliller, R.P,  1971.  The benthic maerofauna of Green Bay, Lake Michigan.
     Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin.  225 pp.  (BIOSTOIET)

              ..  and A.M. Beeton.  1972.  Report on the cruise of the R/V NEESKAY
     in central Lake Michigan and Green Bay, 8-14 July, 1971.  Center for Great
     Lake Studies, University of Wisconsin, Spec. Rept. 13, 70 pp.

Lee, K.W. and A.I. Goldsby.  1974.  Physical and biological interrelationships
     related to Green Bay Metropolitan sewage discharge plume in a complex
     coastal zone in lower Green Bay and the Fox River.  Report to the Green Bay
     Metropolitan Sewage District.  75 pp.

Leland, H.V. and N.F. Shimp.  1974.  Distribution of selected trace metals in
     southern Lake Michigan and lower Green Bay.  University of Illinois Water
     Resources Center, Research Rept. 84, 28 pp.

Maase, M.H.  1978,  Chironomldae of Green Bay.  Personal communication.

Neustadter, R.  1976.  Unpublished report on the Fox River.  WDNR.

	.  1977.  Unpublished chemical data on the water and sediments of
     Green Bay.   (STORET)

Sager, P. and J. Wiersma.  1972.  Nutrient discharges to Green Bay, Lake
     Michigan from the lower Fox River.  Proc.  15th Conf. Great Lakes
     Research.  I.A.G.L.R. pp. 132-148.  (STORET)
                                       -4-

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	.  1975.  Phosphorus sources for lower Green Bay,  Lake
     Michigan.  J. Water Poll. Control Fed. 47:504-514.  (STORET)

	.  1977.  Trophic status - lower Green Bay 1976-1977.
     Rept. to the Fox Valley Water Quality Planning Agency.  59 pp.  (STORET)

Schraufnagel, F.H., L.A. Lueschow, G. Karl, L.A. Montie, J. Lissack and
     J.R. McKersie.  1968.  Report on an investigation of the pollution  in the
     lower Fox River and Green Bay made during 1966 and 1967.  WDNR, Internal
     Report. 47 pp.

Schwartz, L.J., A.I. Goldsby and J. Wiersma.  1976.  Biological, chemical  and
     physical impacts of sewage effluent discharges in lower Green Bay.   Rept.
     to Green Bay Metropolitan Sewage District.  88 pp.

Sridharan, N.  1972.  Aqueous environmental chemistry of phosphorus in lower
     Green Bay, Wisconsin.  Ph.D. dissertation, water chemistry, University
     of Wisconsin.  (STORET)

Stewart, W.D.P., T. Mague, G.P. Fitzgerald and R.H. Burris.  1971.  Nitrogenase
     activity in Wisconsin lakes of differing degrees of eutrophication.  New
     Phytol.  70:497-509.

Surber, E.W. and H.L. Cooley.  1952.  Bottom fauna studies of Green Bay,
     Wisconsin in relation to pollution.  U.S. Public Health Service and
     Wisconsin State Comm. Water Pollution,  77 pp. mimeo.  (BIOSTORET)

U.S. Department of Interior.  1967.  Green Bay Pilot Study.  Fed.  Water
     Poll. Cont. Adm. Great Lakes Region, Chicago, Illinois.  34 pp.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  1969.  Green Bay Pilot Study.  Appendix A9
     in dredging and water quality problems in the Great Lakes.  Summary report,
     Buffalo district.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  1975.  Maintenance dredging and contained disposal
     of dredge materials at Green Bay harbor, Wisconsin.  Draft Environmental
     Impact Statement, Chicago District.  28 pp.

Vanderhoef, L.N., B. Dana, D. Enerich, and R.M. Burris.  1972.  Acetylene reduction
     in relation to levels of phosphate and fixed nitrogen in Green Bay.
     New Phytol.  71:1097-1105.  (STORET and BIOSTORET)

Vanderhoef, L.N, C.Y. Huang, R. Musil and J. Williams.  1974.  Nitrogen fixation
     (acetylene reduction) by phytoplankton in Green Bay, Lake Michigan in
     relation to nutrient concentrations.  Limnol. and Oceanogr.  19:119-125.
     (STORET and BIOSTORET)

Veith, G.D.  1975.  Baseline concentrations of polychlorinated blphenyls
     and DDT in Lake Michigan fish, 1971.* Pesticides Monitoring J.  9(l):21-29.
     (BIOSTORET)

Wisconsin Public Service Corporation.  1974.  Effects of Wisconsin's Public
     Service Corporation's Pulliam power plant on lower Green Bay, January 1973-
     December 1973.  483 pp.  (STORET and BIOSTORET)

Wisconsin Public Service Corporation.  1976.  J.P. Pulliam power plant  316(a)
     demonstration type 1:  Absence of prior appreciable harm.  378 pp.    (STORET
     and BIOSTORET)

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Wisconsin State Committee on Water Pollution.  1939.  Investigation of the
     pollution of the Fox and East Rivers and Green Bay in the vicinity
     of the city of Green Bay.  Madison, Wisconsin.  242 pp.  (STORET)

Yaguchi, E.M., B.J. Walker and J.S. Marshall.  1974.  Plutonium distribution
     in Lake Michigan biota.  Proc, 17th Conf. Great Lakes Res., pp. 150-157,
     I.A.G.L.R.
                                        -6-

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                                    SECTION 4

                        ANALYSIS OF STUDIES COMPUTERIZED

     It is only necessary to glance through a few of the studies computerized
 (summarized in table 2, A-L) to see how difficult an attempt to generate a
 holistic picture of the Green Bay data base can be.  Some problems encountered
 are: 1) Sample values are not comparable because investigators used different
 techniques to test for the same parameter.  2) Researchers, thinking of their
 studies as self contained units rather than in a historical context, were often
 quite casual in identifying the exact locations of their stations.  When in
 doubt whether to combine two stations or to keep the data sets separate, the
 latter was done.  This deprives the data base of continuity.     One excellent
 data set used three overlapping, but not identical, sets of stations (Vanderhoef,
 1972, 1974).  3) Many areas of lower Green Bay have stations every few hundred
 feet, while other areas have been virtually ignored (Figure 1).

     During the 1970's there was intensive sampling of Green Bay (Figure 2).  The
 data base for this period is extensive, despite the low efficiency of gathering
 data.  Since 1975, controls on effluents entering Green Bay have been introduced
 and enforced, but the sampling effort has declined.  Improvement in the water
 quality is not as easily documented because of this.  There is little water
 chemistry data in 1976 and 1977 from north of Long Tail Point and there has been
 no large scale biological sampling since 1975.

     It is clear from the data that Green Bay was already experiencing a serious
 decline in uater quality by 1938.  The Burrowing Mayfly vHexagenia), once so
 common in the area it was a pest at emergence, was already declining in numbers.
 By 1952 Hexagenia had nearly disappeared, and even tolerant species such as
 Sludgeworms (Plesiopora) were being reduced in number by the pollution near the
mouth of the Fox River.  By 1969 the mouth of the Fox River was a biological desert
 for invertebrates.  Heavy blooms of diatom species characteristic of highly eutrophic
waters were no longer confined to inner Green Bay, but extended to the Brown County
 line.  More extensive analysis of the biological data is not presently feasible
 due to the problems with the BIOSTORET system (see appendix for elaboration of the
 problems).

     Comparisons of the water chemistry data can be made for the more extensively
 sampled parameters.  The comparisons reveal short term fluctuations in lower Green
 Bay values due, in part, to changing levels of the Fox River (a major source of
 pollutants) and long term trends indicating improved water quality of lower Green
 Bay.  Trends in middle Green Bay are not as distinct and can be Interpreted variously.

     Figures 4 thru 8 represent the data which showed trends over the periods of
 the study.  For purposes of this analysis, the bay is divided into 10 regions as
 shown in Figure 3.  The graphs show mean values for years where at least 5 measure-
ments were available.  Lower Green Bay, regions 1-7, is represented by solid lines
 on the graphs.  Regions 8-10, represented by dashed lines, divide middle Green Bay.

     Orthophosphate levels (Figure 4) show fluctuations relating to Fox River flow
 values (the lower the flow rate, the greater the concentration of nutrients
 entering Green Bay), but the dramatic drop between the 1971-72 and 1973-74 periods
 is due (in part) to phosphorus controls.  No return to the high values of 1971-72
 occurs in 1975-77 when the flow values again drop.  Since little total phosphorus
 data from before 1973 is stored in STORET, an expected drop in total phosphorus

                                         -7-

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between 1972 and 1973 cannot be detected, and only a gradual increase from
1973 to 1977 due to decreasing Fox River flows is shown (Figure 5).  Both total
phosphorus and orthophosphate values are generally highest near the Fox River
mouth, decrease as the distance from the Fox River increases, and due to the
counterclockwise currents in Green Bay are usually higher in eastern Green Bay
at comparable distances from the Fox River as compared to western Green Bay.

     Secchi disc depths for lower Green Bay indicate a relationship to Fox River
flow rates (Figure 6).  Increased flow rates result in lower concentrations of
suspended particulate matter and less extensive algal blooms, causing greater
clarity in lower Green Bay.  Values generally increased as the distance from the
Fox River mouth increased.

     Dissolved oxygen values (Figure 7) are usually lower in eastern Green Bay
away from the Fox River (Regions 5,7,9).  During the winter the Fox River has high
amounts of dissolved oxygen, but also large amounts of organic compounds.  As the
organic load moves into eastern Green Bay, its oxygen demand reduces oxygen levels
in ice-covered Green Bay.  An exception to this pattern occured in the winter of
1976-77 when ice conditions and low Fox River flow rates resulted in low dissolved
oxygen values over most of lower Green Bay.  There is a trend towards increased
dissolved oxygen in summer (Figure 8) indicating the positive effect of effluent
controls.  The 1977 values for region 1 (near the Fox River mouth) are almost
double the values from 1939.
                                       -8-

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                                    SCALES! =375000






                                    Q] s STORE! STATION
FIGURE 1. STATIONS WITH DATA IN S1ORET

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9000-
8000-
7000-
6000-
g, 5000-
1
4000-
I
3000-
2000-
tooo-



l>

*
M
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^^f
MHMBMI











	
K58
                        IMS
                                                           1975
                           YEAi
           FIGURE 2,   DATA  POINTS  IN  SfORET
                           -10-

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^' M  / /          .'-/
  ;'   ',  ''  '"  ^^-ao-''     //It'
                                     1-7SLOWER BAY

                                     8-10=MIDDLE BAY
OTT
             FIGURE 3. REGIONS OF GREEN BAY FOR FIGURES 4-8
                                        -11-

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                             o   
                        ,     v
                                                                   p-5000
-4000
                                                                   -3000
                                                                   -2300
                                                                   -WOO        fl
                                                                               z
                                                                               ui
       J08-

       .06-
6   !
o
      ,04-
       .02-
                                10
                                JUNE 1-AUGUST 31
            FIGURE 4. DISSOLVED ORTHOPHOSPHATES IN GREEN SAY (SUMMER)
                                    -12-

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       .25-1
       .20-

to


I
8
i
       ,15-
.10-
       JD5-
                                                          '-8
                                                                               DC



                                                                      4000      g
                                                                     1-3000
                                                                    h2000      

                                                                               2
                                                                     -1000

                                     '-10
                                                             I
                                                            1977
                                JUNE 1-AUGUST 31
               FIGURE 5. TOTAL PHOSPHORUS IN GREEN BAY  (SUMMER)
                                     -13-

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                                        o      o

                                      O          O
                                                          10
                                                                                  -6000
                                                                                 -4000
                                                                    CL


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                                                                                 -2000
                                                                                 0
                                                                                              Z
    2
                                                          9
i
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ID
    ,
             1969
  I

1971-72
                                         197:
r>74           1975-76           1977
                                    JUNE 1-AUGUST 31
                     FIGURE 6. TRANSFfcRENCY OF GREEN BAY (SUMMER)
                                               -14-

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     12H
     ioH
Z    _J
D   6-
tu
i/t
5

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      2i
              193*09
        197>  19/4-75



DEC 1-MARCH 31
1976-77
                                                                           raooo
                                        [-6000
                                                                           MOOO
                                                                           1-2000
                                                                           1-0
                                                                                     8
                                                  Z

                                                  I
                  FIGURE 7! WSSCXVED OXYOEN IN GREEN BAY (WINTER)




                                         -15-

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     10-
     8-1
0
UJ
5

Z


I
     2-1
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             1939
 I
1972
                i - ~r - j
                    1975-76   1977
                                                                             1-6000
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                                                                             2000
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                                               1
                                               Z
                                               <
                                               LU
                                                                             -0
                                  UNI 1-AUGUST 31
                   FIGURE 8.  DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN GREEN BAY (SUMMER)
                                        -16-

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                        TABLE 2A.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  Adams and Stone, 1973.

Dates data taken:  June 8, 1971 to August 19, 1971.

System used:  STORET
   STORET Station Code Number
    Latitude
(deg./win./sec.)
   Longitude
(deg. /min./sec.)
                    053295
                    053296
                    053297

        STORET Parameter Code Number
                      10
                      30
                      94
                     400
                     410
                     610
                     620
                     665
                     666
                     671
    44/41/47
    44/36/10.4
    44/34/20.1
   87/59/13.6
   87/59/17.3
   87/54/04.9
              Parameter Tested
    Water Temperature (C)
    Incident Light (C/cro2/D)
    Specific Field Conductance (umhos/cm)
    pH (standard units)
    Total Alkalinity (mg/1  as CaCOs)
    Ammonia (mg/1 as N)
    Nitrate (mg/1 as N)
    Phosphorus (mg/1)
    Dissolved Phosphorus (mg/1 as P)
    Dissolved orthophosphate  (mg/1 as P)
                                      -17-

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                        TABLE 2B.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  Allen, 1966.

Dates data taken:  April 28, 1965 to November 5, 1965.

System used:  STORET
          STORET Station Code Number
    Latitude
(dee./rain./sec.)
                    153072

               Parameter Code Number
   Longitude
(deg. /min./sec._)_
                      631

                    32210

                    70505
                    70506
    44/48/17.5               87/43/31.9

              Parameter Tested     	
    Dissolved Nitrite plus Nitrate
      (mg/1 as N)
    Chlorophyll A-Trichomatic uncorrected
      (mg/D
    Phosphate - Colorimetric (mg/1 as P)
    Soluble Phosphate - Colorimetric
      (mg/1 as P)
                                        -18-

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                        TABLE 2C.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  Howmiller, 1971.

Dates data taken:  October 20, 1966 to May 3, 1971.
System used:  BIOSTORET
          BIOSTORET Station Code Number
   Latitude
(deg./mln./see.)
   Longitude
(dee./rain./sec.)
053241
053242
053243
053244
053245
053246
053247
053248
053249
053250
053324
053325
053326
053327
053328
053329
053330
053331
053332
053333
053334
053335
053336
053337
053338
053339
053340
053341
053342
053343
053344
053345
053346
053347
053348
053349
053350
053351
053352
053353
053354
053355
153041
44/32/50
44/33/21
44/33/58
44/34/48
44/35/20
44/35/42
44/36/24
44/37/17
44/38/17
44/39/06
44/23/25
44/32/25
44/32/25
44/32/25
44/33/17
44/33/17
44/33/17
44/33/17
44/33/17
44/34/08
44/34/08
44/34/59
44/34/59
44/34/59
44/35/51
44/35/51
44/35/51
44/35/51
44/36/43
44/36/43
44/36/43
44/36/43
44/36/43
44/37/35
44/37/35
44/37/35
44/37/37
44/37/35
44/37/35
44/37/35
44/38/27
44/38/27
44/45/18
88/00/00
87/59/37
87/59/24
87/58/48
87/57/50
87/57/06
87/56/29
87/56/15
87/54/34
87/54/00
88/00/09
87/58/34
87/57/22
87/56/10
87/59/45
87/58/34
87/57/22
87/56/10
87/54/58
87/56/10
87/54/58
87/59/45
87/58/34
87/57/22
87/59/45
87/58/34
87/57/22
87/56/10
87/58/34
87/57/22
87/56/10
87/53/47
87/52/35
87/59/45
87/58/34
87/57/22
87/56/10
87/54/58
87/53/47
87/52/35
87/59/45
87/54/58
87/47/10
                                           -19-

-------
BIOSTORET Station Code Number
   Latitude
(deg./min./sec.)
   Longitude
(dee./min./sec.)
          153042
          153043
          153044
          153045
          153046
          153047
          153048
          433211
          433212
          433213
          433214
          433215
          433216
          433217
          433218
          433219
   44/44/27
   44/43/33
   44/51/56
   44/51/14
   44/50/32
   44/49/55
   44/39/57
   44/43/18
   44/42/20
   44/41/36
   44/48/57
   44/47/03
   44/46/10
   44/53/59
   44/53/20
   44/52/40
   87/45/44
   87/44/18
   87/43/02
   87/41/08
   87/39/15
   87/37/36
   87/48/24
   87/54/20
   87/52/20
   87/50/22
   87/51/30
   87/50/00
   87/48/33
   87/48/42
   87/46/53
   87/45/00
                             -20-

-------
                        TABLE 2D.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  Neustadter, 1977.

Dates data taken:  January 31, 1977 to March 3, 1977.
System used:  STORE!
          STORIT Station Code Number
    Latitude
(dee./min./sec.)
   Longitude
(deg./min./sec.)
053005
053007
053008
053010
053012
053013
053014
053016
053017
053018
053019
053020
053021
053022
053023
053024
053025
053027
053028
053031
053032
053254
053335
STORE! Parameter Code Number
10
299

1003

1008

1028

1029

1068

1093
1148

71921

44/32/55 87/58/56
44/34/48 87/58/37
44/34/14 87/57/26
44/35/00 87/56/58
44/37/53 87/55/02
44/37/30 87/53/35
44/37/08 87/52/12
44/40/16 87/52/39
44/39/41 87/51/05
44/38/59 87/49/14
44/39/06 87/49/58
44/32/10 87/59/00
44/32/03 87/57/05
44/32/27 87/56/02
44/33/04 8*7/57/08
44/33/26 87/55/37
44/34/16 87/55/05
44/35/44 87/54/16
44/37/34 87/51/02
44/36/43 87/58/21
44/38/10 87/57/39
44/32/37 87/58/00
44/34/59 87/59/45
Parameter tested
Water Temperature (C)
Dissolved Oxygen-electrode
(mg/1)
Arsenic-bottom deposits
(rag/kg)
Barium-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
Cadmium-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
Chromium-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
Nickel-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
Zinc-bottom deposits (mg/kg)
Selenium-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
Mercury-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
                                       -21-

-------
                        TABLE 2E.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publications from data:  Sager & Wiersma 1972, 1975, 1977

Dates data taken:  June 17, 1969 to August 22, 1977.

System used:  STORET
          STORET Station Code Number
   Latitude
(deg. /min../aec.
   Longitude
(dee./min./sec.)
053003
053004
053005
053006
053007
053008
053009
053010
053011
053012
053015
053022
053024
053025
053026
053028
053032
053034
053251
053253
053254
053255
053256
053257
053258
053259
053260
053261
053262
053263
053265
053269
053270
053271
053272
053273
053274
053275
053276
053277
053278
053279
053280
053281
44/32/25
44/33/08
44/32/55
44/33/53
44/34/48
44/34/14
44/35/26
44/35/00
44/36/46
44/37/53
44/39/22
44/32/27
44/33/26
44/34/16
44/35/03
44/37/34
44/38/10
44/37/14
44/33/25
44/32/28
44/32/37
44/35/00
44/33/06
44/34/40
44/35/46
44/36/18
44/38/51
44/37/09
44/36/37
44/40/41
55/35/10
44/39/53
44/38/32
44/32/26
44/32/31
44/32/36
44/32/40
44/32/46
44/32/47
44/32/47
44/32/50
44/33/00
44/33/12
44/33/38
88/00/14
87/59/53
87/58/56
87/59/21
87/58/37
87/57/26
87/59/46
87/56/58
87/55/42
87/55/02
87/53/49
87/56/02
87/55/37
87/55/05
87/55/05
87/51/02
87/57/39
87/59/21
88/00/20
88/00/18
87/58/00
88/00/10
87/50/50
87/55/11
87/56/31
87/57/56
87/59/30
87/54/52
87/53/23
87/57/16
87/57/51.5
87/55/35
87/53/27
87/59/42
87/59/00
87/59/39
87/59/48
88/00/00
87/57/13
88/00/28
87/59/09
87/59/23
88/00/42
87/58/32
                                       -22-

-------
       STORET Station Code Number
  Latitude
(deg./min./sec.)
   Longitude
(d eg. /tain, /sec.)
053283
053284
053285
053324
053350
433220
44/33/58
44/34/26
44/35/14
44/32/25
44/37/35
44/40/41
87/56/32
87/59/05
87/59/30
88/00/09
87/56/10
87/52/20
STORET Parameter Code Number
            Parameter tested
                 10
                 76
                 78
                 94
                300
                301
                340
                341

                403
                410
                608
                631
                660
                665
                671

              32211

              32218

              71886
              71889
  Water Temperature (C)
  Turbldity-Hach (Formazin Turb Unit)
  Transparency-Secchi disk (m)
  Specific Field Conductance (umhos/cm)
  Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1)
  Dissolved Oxygen (I saturation)
  Chemical Oxygen Demand  (mg/1)
  Chemical Oxygen Demand-dissolved
    (mg/1)
  pH-lab (standard units)
  Alkalinity (mg/1 as CaCOa)
  Ammonia (mg/1 as N)
  Nitrite plus Nitrate (mg/1 as N)
  Orthophosphate (mg/ as  P04)
  Phosphorus (mg/1 as P)
  Dissolved Orthophosphate
    (mg/1 as P)
  Chlorophyll A-Spectrophotometrie
    (mg/1)
  Pheophytin A-Spectrophotometrie
    (mg/1)
  Phosphorus (mg/1 as P04)
  Soluble Orthophosphate (mg/1 as P04)
                               -23-

-------
                        TABLE 2F.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data;  Sridharan, 1972.

Dates data taken:  October 28, 1968 to October 6, 1969.
System used:  STORET
          STORET Station Code Numbers
   Latitude
Cdeg./min,/sec.)
   Longitude
(deg./min./s ec.)
053298
053299
053300
053301
053302
053303
053304
053305
053306
053307
053308
053309
053310
433226
433227
433228
STORET Parameter Code Number
10
94
299

400
410
665
667
668

671
673
687
693

916
917
924

927
929
940
1053
1108
1170
70318
44/34/48 88/00/21.1
44/34/48 88/00/43.7
44/34/25 88/01/06.3
44/32/25 87/59/49
44/33/10 87/56/23.8
44/32/23.8 87/57/46.2
44/35/33 88/00/04
44/35/56 87/59/49
44/36/14 87/56/55.5
44/36/50 87/56/52
44/38/10 87/59/08.2
44/38/14 87/54/30
44/40/12 87/50/33
44/45/07.3 87/51/23.5
44/50/26.5 87/48/32.5
44/52/27.4 87/42/30
Parameter tested
Water Temperature (C)
Specific Field Conductance (umhos/cm)
Dissolved Oxygen-electrode
(mg/1)
pH (standard units)
Total Alkalinity (mg/1 as CaCOa)
Phosphorus (mg/1 as P)
Phosphorus-suspended (mg/1)
Phosphorus-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
Dissolved Orthophosphate (mg/1 as P)
Dissolved Phosphorus (mg/1 as P)
Organic Carbon-bed (gm/kg)
Organic and Inorganic Carbon-
bottom deposits (gm/kg)
Calcium (mg/1)
Calcium-bottom deposits (mg/kg)
Magnesium-bottom deposits
(mg/kg)
Magnesium (mg/1)
Sodium (mg/1)
Chloride (mg/1 as Cl)
Manganese-bottom deposits (mg/kg)
Aluminum-bottom deposits (mg/kg)
Iron-bottom deposits (mg/kg)
Solids (% of wet sample)
                                       -24-

-------
                        TABLE 2G.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  Surber and Cooley, 1952.

Dates data taken:  May 26, 1952 to November 5, 1952.

System used:  BIOSTORET

                                             Latitude
          BIOSTORST Station Code Number   Cdeg./min./sec
   Longitude
(deg./min./sec.)
053241
053242
053243
053244
053245
053246
053247
053248
053249
053250
153041
153042
153043
153044
153045
153046
153047
153048
433211
433212
433213
433214
433215
433216
433217
433218
433219
44/32/50
44/33/21
44/33/58
44/34/48
44/35/20
44/35/42
44/36/24
44/37/17
44/38/17
44/39/06
44/45/18
44/44/27
44/43/33
44/51/56
44/51/14
44/50/32
44/49/55
44/39/57
44/43/18
44/42/20
44/41/36
44/48/57
44/47/03
44/46/10
44/53/59
44/53/20
44/52/40
88/00/00
87/59/37
87/59/24
87/58/48
87/57/50
87/57/06
87/56/29
87/56/15
87/54/34
87/54/00
87/47/10
87/45/44
87/44/18
87/43/02
87/41/08
87/39/15
87/37/36
87/48/24
87/54/20
87/52/20
87/50/22
87/51/30
87/50/00
87/48/33
87/48/42
87/46/53
87/45/00
                                       -25-

-------
                        TABLE 2H.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publications from data:  Vanderhoef et  al,  1972, 1974.

Dates data taken:  June 9, 1971 to August 25, 1973.

System used:  BIOSTORET and STORET
               BIOSTORET and
          STORET Station Code Number
   Latitude
Cdeg./min./sec.)
   Longitude
(deg./min./sec.)
053242
053250
053336
053362
053400
153071
153111
433242
44/33/21
44/39/06
44/35/00
44/32/21
44/35/39.7
44/41/12
44/52/02.7
44/59.07.3
87/59/37
87/54/00
87/58/38
88/00/18
87/57/00
87/51/44
87/38/17.8
87/34/26.2
        STORET Parameter Code Number
             Parameter tested
                         10
                         20
                         35
                         36
                         94
                        299
                        600
                        610
                        615
                        620
                        671
   Water Temperature (C)
   Air Temperature (C)
   Wind Velocity (M.P.H.)
   Wind Direction (  true North)
   Specific Field Conductance (umhos/cm)
   Dissolved Oxygen-electrode (mg/1)
   Nitrogen (mg/1)
   Ammonia (mg/1 as N)
   Nitrite (mg/1 as N)
   Nitrate (mg/1 as N)
   Dissolved Orthophosphate (mg/1  as  P)
                                        -26-

-------
                        TABLE 21.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  Veith, 1975,

Hates data taken:  July 21, 1971 to November 1, 1971.

System used:  BIOSTORET

                                             Latitude                 Longitude
      BIOSTOSST Station Code Number	(deg./min. /sec.)	(deg./min./sec.)

                    153073                   45/04/00                 87/31/00
                    433225                   44/50/00                 87/46/00
                                       -27-

-------
                        TABLE 2J.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  W.P.S, 1974.

Dates data taken:  January 25, 1973 to November 11, 1973.

System used:  BIOSTORET and STOlEf
               BIOSTORET and
          STORET Station Code Number
   Latitude
(deg./min.Isec.)
   Longitude
(deg./min./sec.)
053003
053004
053005
053006
053008
053009
053010
053022
053025
053051
053254
053256
053271
053272
053273
053274
053275
053276
053277
053278
053279
053280
053281
053282
053283
053284
053285
STORET Parameter Code Number
10
76

80
94

300
403
410
530
608
613
618
625
44/32/25 88/00/14
44/33/08 87/59/53
44/32/55 87/58/56
44/33/53 87/59/21
44/34/14 87/57/26
44/35/26 87/59/46
44/35/00 87/56/58
44/32/27 87/56/02
44/34/16 87/55/05
44/33/25 88/00/20
44/32/37 87/58/00
44/33/06 87/50/50
44/32/26 87/59/42
44/32/31 87/59/00
44/32/36 87/59/39
44/32/40 87/59/48
44/32/46 87/00/00
44/32/47 87/57/13
44/32/47 88/00/28
44/32/50 87/59/09
44/33/00 87/59/23
44/33/12 88/00/42
44/33/38 87/58/32
44/33/57 88/01/10
44/33/58 87/56/32
44/34/26 87/59/05
44/35/14 87/59/20
Parameter tested
Water Temperature (C)
Turbidity-Hach (Formazin
Turb. Units)
Color (platinum-cobalt units)
Specific Field Conductance
(umhos/cm)
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1)
pH (standard units)
Alkalinity (mg/1 as CaCOO
Residue-nonfiltrable (mg/1)
Ammonia (mg/1 as N)
Dissolved Nitrite (mg/1 as N)
Dissolved Nitrate (mg/1 as N)
Nltrogen-Kjeldahl (mg/1)
                                       -28-

-------
STORET Parameter Code Number^-:-i__             Parameter tested

              665                  Phosphorus (mg/1)
              671                  Dissolved Orthophosphate
                                     (mg/1 as P)
              680                  Organic Carbon (mg/1)
              685                  Inorganic Carbon  (mg/1)
              690                  Carbon (mg/1)
              915                  Calcium (mg/1)
              925                  Dissolved Magnesium (mg/1)
              930                  Dissolved Sodium  (mg/1)
              935                  Dissolved Potassium (mg/1)
              940                  Chloride (mg/1)
              946                  Dissolved Sulfate  (mg/1)
              955                  Dissolved Silica  (mg/1)
              956                  Silica (mg/1)
            74010                  Iron (mg/1)
                             -29-

-------
                        TABLE 2K.  COMPUTERIZE) DATA BASE
Publication from data:  W.P.S, 1976.

Dates data taken:  September 17, 1974 to August 18, 1975.

System used:  BIOST01ET and STORET
               BIOSTORET and
          STORET Station Code Number
   Latitude
(deg./mln./sec.
   Longitude
(d_eg. /mln. / s ec.)
053311
053312
053313
053314
053316
053318
053319
053320
053321
053323
44/32/14
44/32/13
44/32/30
44/32/28
44/32/50
44/33/19
44/32/30
44/32/23
44/33/04
44/32/09
88/00/25
88/00/28
88/00/28
88/00/26
88/00/47
88/00/51
87/59/49
87/59/52
87/58/20
87/58/56
        STORET Parameter Code Number
                  Parameter tested
                         10
                         76

                         94
                        300
                        301
                        310

                        370
                        400
                        410
                        530
                        550

                        605
                        610
                        620
                        665
                        671

                        680
                        740
                        745
                        916
                        927
                        929
                        940
                        945
        Water Temperature (C)
        Turbidity-Hach (Fonnazln
          Turb.  Units)
        Specific Field Conductance (umhos/an)
        Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1)
        Dissolved Oxygen (% saturation)
        Biochemical Oxygen Demand
          (mg/1/5 day)
        Chlorine Demand
        pH (standard units)
        alkalinity (mg/1 as
        Residue-nonfiltrable (mg/1)
        Oil and Grease-Soxhlet
          (mg/D
        Organic Nitrogen (mg/1)
        Ammonia (mg/1 as N)
        Nitrate (mg/1 as N)
        Phosphorus (mg/1)
        Dissolved Orthophosphate
          (mg/1 as P)
        Organic Carbon (mg/1)
        Sulfite (mg/1)
        Sulfide (mg/1)
        Calcium (mg/1)
        Magnesium (mg/1)
        Sodium (mg/1)
        Chloride (mg/1)
        Sulfate (mg/1)
                                       -30-

-------
STORE! Parameter Code Number
          Parameter tested
              950
              955
             1002
             1012
             1022
             1027
             1032
             1034
             1042
             1045
             1051
             1055
             1067
             1092
             1147
            31613
            31673

            32730
            50060
            50064
            70300
            71900
Dissolved Fluoride  (mg/1)
Dissolved Silica (mg/1)
Arsenic (ug/1)
Berylium (ug/1)
Boron (ug/J.)
Cadmium (ug/1)
Chromium-hexavalent  (ug/1)
Chromium (ug/1)
Copper (ug/1)
Iron (ug/1)
Lead (ug/1)
Manganese (ug/1)
Nickel (ug/1)
Zinc (ug/1)
Selenium (ug/1)
Fecal Coliform-agar  (num./lOO ml)
Fecal Streptoeocei-agar
  (num./lOO ml)
Phenolics-recoverable  (ug/1)
Chlorine-residual (mg/1)
Chlorine-free available  (mg/1)
Residue-filtrable (mg/1)
Mercury (ug/1)
                             -31-

-------
                        TABLE 2L.  COMPUTERIZED DATA BASE
Publication from data:  Wisconsin State Committee on Water Pollution, 1939.

Dates data taken:  October 4, 1938 to October 5, 1939.

System used:  STORET
                                             Latitude
               STORET Station Code Number  (deg./min./sec.)
   Longitude
(deg./min./sec.)
053251
053259
053360
053362
053367
053386
053387
053388
053389
053390
053391
053392
053393
053394
053395
053396
053397
053398
053399
053400
053406
053408
053409
053410
053411
053412
053413
053414
053415
053416
053417
053418
053419
053420
053421
053422
053423
053424
053425
053426
053427
053428
053429
053430
053431
44/33/25
44/36/18
44/39/07
44/32/21
44/32/36
44/33/34.2
44/36/35.2
44.35/48.3
44/35/28
44/36/18
44/36/42
44/35/17
44/38/43.7
44/38/12.9
44/37/58.5
44/34/03.2
44/33/53.6
44/34/56
44/34/30.1
44/35/39.7
44/30/07.5
44/32/06
44/32/58.4
44/33/06.5
44/32/52.3
44/33/18
44/38/51.1
44/36/36.6
48/38/42
44/38/38
44/38/57
44/40/22
44/39/45.5
44/35/00
44/35/17.7
44/34/41.3
44/34/27.6
44/34/24.2
44/34/21.8
44/37/08.4
44/37/27.8
44/38/36.2
44/37/26.4
44/37/47.3
44/38/06.2
88/00/20
87/57/56
87/54/03
88/00/18
87/55/58
87/56/13.3
87/55/00
87/54/09.6
87/54/36.2
87/54/11
87/53/54.1
87/59/24
87/57/37.9
87/56/40.5
88/00/08.6
87/58/25
87/59/00
87/59/27
87/58/00.1
87/57/00.4
88/00/30.3
87/58/36
87/58/52.9
87/59/37.1
87/57/28.6
87/59/50
87/55/48.1
87/58/21.8
87/46/14.4
87/45/59
87/46/44
87/48/33
87/55/11.6
87/57/43.3
87/57/55.5
87/54/58
87/54/47.8
87/55/13.3
87/55/03.1
87/51/47.8
87/50/14.1
87/49/233.8
87/52/16.6
87/52/40.4
87/53/30.9
                                       -32-

-------
STORE! Station Code Number
  Latitude
(deg./min./sec.)
   Longitude
(dee./min./sec.)
053432
053433
053434
053435
053436
053437
053438
053439
053440
053441
053442
053443
053444
053445
053446
053447
053448
153098
153099
153100
153101
153102
153103
153104
153105
153106
153107
153108
153109
153110
433226
433233
433234
433235
433236
433237
433238
433239
433240
433241
STORE! Parameter Code Number
10
80
300
301
310

400
410
500
505
613
618
625
44/38/27.4 87/53/30.9
44/38/46.7 87/53/51.7
44/37/20.1 87/55/32
44/34/44.1 87/58/54.1
44/34/30.2 87/58/57.2
44/33/04 87/56/52.1
44/35/47 87/57/06.6
44/35/43 87/55/44.7
44/35/01 87/56/18.2
44/34/20.5 87/57/09.7
44/39/44.1 87/49/30.4
44/39/11.6 87/50/26.9
44/40/00 87/51/48.7
55/50/22 87/45/00
44/32/48.8 87/59/49.5
44/32/00 87/58/38
44/32/40 87/59/34.3
44/46/57.6 87/41/04.3
44/41/34 87/50/16
44/43/15.1 87/49/33.6
44/41/50.9 87/47/09.1
44/44/30.5 87/47/50.3
44/43/03.4 87/45/50.7
41/41/37.3 87/43/42.8
44/45/58.8 87/46/07.1
44/44/50.9 87/44/48.6
44/43/57.2 87/43/20
44/45/24.3 87/52/11.8
44/46/19.1 87/43/28.6
44/47/13.8 87/44/45.7
44/45/07.3 87/51/23.5
44/42/11 87/51/07.4
44/43/57.8 87/53/40.5
44/41/44.7 87/56/58.9
44/40/45 87/53/14
44/42/41.3 87/55/32.8
44/45/10.1 87/52/19.6
44/45/45.6 87/49/34.3
44/47/04.7 87/47/51.4
44/48/22.7 87/46/15.7
Parameter tested
Water Temperature (C)
Color (platinum-cobalt units)
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1)
Dissolved Oxygen (% saturation)
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(mg/1/5 day)
pH (standard units)
Alkalinity (mg/1 as CaC03)
Residue (mg/1)
Residue-volatile (mg/1)
Dissolved Nitrite (mg/1 as N)
Dissolved Nitrate (mg/1 as N)
Nitrogen-Kjeldahl (mg/1)
                            -33-

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                                    SECTION 5

                            PROPOSED SAMPLING NETWORK

     The sampling effort used in a Green Bay monitoring program should be
constructed to give an adequate, efficient coverage of the water quality of
the area.  Representation of the different physical, chemical and biological
regions of Green Bay must be achieved.  Physical regions are shown (Figure 9)
and described (Table 3}.  The biological and chemical regions of Green Bay
(defined by previous biological and chemical sampling) can be identified from
the data base (Table 2, A-L).

                      TABLE 3.  PHYSICAL AREAS OF       BAY
     Figure 9
      Number

     1)
     2)
     3)

     4)
     5)
     6)
     7)
     8)
     9)

    10)
    11)

    12)
    13)
    14)
    15)
    16)
    17)
     Description

Fox River mouth
Fox River mouth to near Bay Beach Park
Navigational channel to east shore and
Long Tail Point - Point Sable bar
Dead Horse Bay and Duck Creek area
Point Sable to navigational channel
East shore near Red Banks
East shore near Dyckesville
Near 10 mile entrance light
West shore, Long Tall Point to Little
Suamico mouth
West shore near Pensaukee River mouth
10 mile entrance light to Little Sturgeon
Bay
East shore southwest of Little Sturgeon Bay
East shore near Little Sturgeon Bay
West shore near Oconto River mouth
West shore near Peshtlgo River mouth
West shore of Sturgeon Bay
Little Sturgeon Bay to Green Island
     The network design must be simple to allow dependability of sampling under
various weather conditions and increase time and cost efficiency.  The safety
of personnel and equipment should not be compromised, by sampling stations
located near navigational hazards such as reefs and shoals or by water too
shallow to be accessable in low water years.  Accuracy can be within 100 feet
in or near navigational channels, in inner Green Bay or nearshore areas within
500 feet, and in outer Green Bay within 2500 feet.

     Much of the historical data Is taken along the navigational areas for
accuracy of station location, and safe access when deeper draft boats are
used.  While nearly all of the proposed network would be out of navigational
areas, some stations should be sampled in the channel to allow a connection
with the historical record.
                                       -34-

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     Winter sampling has a different set of criteria.  The tracing of the low
dissolved oxygen plume along the eastern shore of Green Bay is the main
objective.  A transect of stations parallel to the shore would be an important
part of the network.  Stations would be located in safe ice areas with
commercial fishermen a possible source of ice information.

     With the above factors taken into consideration, stations for the
proposed network were selected (Figure 10, Table 4} that had the best possible
data base.  For purposes of water chemistry sampling, they were almost all
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources stations.  These stations were
frequently used (albeit unknowingly) by Doctors Sager and Wiersma (1972, 1975, 1977)
Very little biological data has been collected at these stations.  There are
several stations, especially in inner Green Bay, which have biological data and
nearly overlap with the selected chemical stations.  They are listed (Table 4)
and could be used in future comparisons:  either sampling biological stations and
assuming the chemistry is the same as the nearby chemistry station or by
sampling the chemical station and using the computerized biological station
for historical reference.

     Far more controversial than the question of where to sample is the
question of how often.  Every experienced sampler interviewed gave a different
answer.  Nearly all of the parameters received a wide range of suggested sampling
frequencies.

     Modelers wanted nutrients sampled six times yearly, but suggested biological
samples could be taken every five years.  Biologists wanted all biological samples
taken a minimum of four times a year.  Because of this diversity of opinion,
it is obvious why the sampling of Green Bay "appears to have been done in a
haphazard manner.  It is important to note that  the modelers' and biologists1
answers are not totally conflicting, but merely show a different orientation.

     Parameters chosen (Table 5,  A-H) are those that are 1) dependable, 2) contain
large quantities of implicit data (such as dissolved oxygen), and 3) reflect
some critical aspects of Green Bay water quality. If all of the parameters were
sampled every year on the monthly basis suggested by some scientists, the
costs in manpower, time and money would be prohibitive.  While many of the
parameters should be sampled several times a year, relatively few of them
need to be sampled every year.

     Only minimal sampling of toxics is suggested here, but there will be an
ever increasing need to sample for this aspect of the water quality Program.
A more comprehensive toxic sampling scheme may be required and devised in the
future and should include present sampling stations.

     At least once during the summer, an effort should be made to do both
vertical  (depth) and diurnal profiles.  This should be done in the years
nutrient sampling is done.
                                        -35-

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FIGURE 9. PHYSICAL AREAS OF GREEN BAY
                  -36.

-------
                       STORET  STATION
FIGURE 1Q  PROPOSED SAMPLING  NETWORK
                    -37-

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             TABLE 4.  RECOMMENDED STATIONS FOR       BAY MONITORING
Chemical Sampling
     Station

     053003
     053020
     053006
     053007
     053009
     053022
     053023
     053024
     053027
     053014
     053028
     053025
     053015
     053263
     053029
     153008
     153015
     153018
     153016
     383004
     433011
     433014
     153006
Nearby Biological   DNR station    Latitude
	station           number   deg./min./sec.
     053241

     053242
     053244
     053250

     153043

     153047
     433214
     433217, 433218
     433212, 433213
 2
10
 4
 5
 6
12
13
13a
15
8c
16
14
 9
23
16a
32
40
45
43
42
29
34
31
44/32/25
44/32/10
44/23/53
44/34/48
44/35/46
44/32/27
44/33/04
44/33/26
44/35/44
44/37/08
44/37/34
44/34/16
44/39/22
44/40/41
44/39/11
44/43/51
44/51/18
44/53/44
44/55/08
44/57/05
44/48/15
44/53/15
44/45/30
 Latitude
deK./min./sec.

  88/00/14
  87/59/00
  87/59/21
  87/58/37
  87/59/46
  87/56/02
  87/57/08
  87/55/37
  87/54/16
  87/52/12
  87/51/02
  87/55/05
  87/53/49
  87/57/16
  87/57/16
  87/43/58
  87/35/55
  87/25/06
  87/35/37
  87/39/16
  87/52/14
  87/48/56
  87/47/35
                                     -38-

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                     TABLE 5A.  PROPOSED OPEN WATER SAMPLING
Storet ParameterCode Number

          10
          78
          94
         300
         301
         310

         400
         940
     Parameter Description

Water Temperature (C)
Transparency, secchi disk (m)
Specific conductance (umhos/cm 225C)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/1)
Dissolved oxygen (% of saturation)
Biochemical oxygen demand
  (mg/1, 5 day -20C)
pH (standard units)
Chloride (mg/1 as Cl)  Sampled at
  Fox River mouth only
Frequency:  Monthly, ice out until November.

Scheduling:  All years.

Stations to be sampled (STORET code number):  053003, 053006, 053007, 053009,
     053015, 053020, 053022, 053025, 053028, 053029, 053263, 153006, 153008,
     153015, 153016, 153018, 383004, 433011, 433014.

Comments:  Open water parameters can be sampled from a small boat with equipment
     onboard.
                                     -39-

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                       TABLE 5B.  PROPOSED WINTER SAMPLING
STORET Parameter Code Number                 Parameter Description

          10                            Water Temperature (C)
         300                            Dissolved oxygen (mg/1)
         301                            Dissolved oxygen (% of saturation)

Frequency:  At least twice during the winter.

Scheduling:  All years.

Stations to be sampled (STORET code number):  053003, 053006, 053007, 053014,
     053015, 053020, 053022, 053023, 053024, 053025, 053027, 053029, 053263, 153008,
     153015, 153016, 153018, 383004, 433011, 433014.

Comments:  Taken in the nearshore area on the east side of Green Bay to measure
     the plume of low dissolved oxygen.
                                     -40-

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                     TABLE 5C.  PROPOSED YEAR ROUND SAMPLING
STORET  Parameter Code Number                Parameter Description

          530                           Residue, total nonfiltrable (mg/1)
          610                           Nitrogen, ammonia, total (mg/1 as N)
          625                           Nitrogen, Kjeldahl, total (mg/1 as N)
          630                           Nitrite plus nitrate, total (mg/1 as N)
          665                           Phosphorus, total (mg/1 as P)
          671                           Phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate
                                          (mg/1 as P)
          900                           Hardness, total (mg/1 as
          956                           Silica, total (mg/1 as SI02)
        32210                           Chlorophyll-A, trichromatic uncorrected
                                          (ug/1)

Frequency:  Monthly during ice-free period along with open water parameters,
     twice during ice cover period.

Scheduling:  Alternate years.

Stations to be sampled (STORET code number):  053003, 053006, 053007, 053009,
     053015, 053020, 053022, 053025, 053028, 053029, 153006,  153008, 153015,
     153016, 153018, 383004, 433011, 433014
                                     -41-

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                 TABLE 5D.  PROPOSED METALS AND TOXICS SAMPLING
STORE! Parameter Code Number                 ParameterDescription

          1002                     Arsenic, Total (ug/1 as As)
          1027                     Cadmium, total (ug/1 as Cd)
          1034                     Chromium, total (ug/1 as Cr)
          1042                     Copper, total (ug/1 as Cu)
          1051                     Lead, total (ug/1 as Pb)
          1067                     Nickel, total (ug/1 as Ni)
          1092                     Zinc, total (ug/1 as Zn)
          1147                     Selenium, total (ug/1 as Se)
         39516                     PCB in whole water sample (ug/1)
         71900                     Mercury, total (ug/1 as Hg)

Frequency:  Once per year.

Scheduling:  Alternate years.

Stations to be sampled (STORET code number):  053003, 053007, 053015, 053025, 053028,
     053263, 153006, 153016.

Comments:  Due to high cost of analysis and slow rate of change, metals may
     not need to be sampled every year, but future developments nay alter
     this schedule.
                                      -42-

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                      TABLE 51.  PROPOSED SEDIMENT SAMPLING
STORET Parameter Code Number

               611
               627

               633

               668
              1003
              1028
              1029
              1043
              1052
              1068
              1093
              1148
             39519
             70511

             71921
               Parameter Description

Nitrogen, ammonia, bottom deposits (mg/kg-N)
Nitrogen, Kjeldahl, total, bottom deposits
  (dry wt-mg/kg-N)
Nitrite plus nitrate, bottom deposits
  (dry wt-mg/kg-N)
Phosphorus, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-P)
Arsenic, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-As)
Cadmium, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Cd)
Chromium, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Cr)
Copper, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Cu)
Lead, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Pb)
Nickel, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Ni)
Zinc, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Zn)
Selenium, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Se)
PCB, bottom deposits (dry solids-mg/kg)
Phosphorus, orthophosphates, bottom deposits
  (dry wt-mg/kg-P)
Mercury, bottom deposits (dry wt-mg/kg-Hg)
Frequency:  Once per year.

Scheduling:  Once every four years.

Stations to be sampled (STORE! code number):  053003, 053007, 053015, 053025, 053028,
     053263, 153006, 153016.

Comments:  Due to high cost of analysis and slow rate of change, sediments may
     not need to be sampled every year.
                                     -43-

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                    TABLE 5F.  PROPOSED FISH SAMPLING METHODS
          Method

          Gill net
          Seine
          Electroshocking
          Commercial catch record

Frequency:  Once per year.

Scheduling:  All years.
                                     -44-

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                     TABLE 5G.  PROPOSED BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING
Frequency:  Five times per year.



Scheduling:  Once every four years.



Comments:  Researcher should be familiar with the BIOSTORET system.
                                     -45-

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                 TABLE 5H.  OPTIONAL SAMPLING TO MEET IJC RECOMMENDATIONS
STOIET Parameter Code Number
     39330
     39380
     39350
     39327
     39320
     39315
     39310
     39305
     39300
     39390
     39410
     39420
     39782
     39480
     39400
     39110
     39100
     39755
     39560
     34225
     32730
     1045
     1077
     50064
     1105
     1170

     1078
     945
     937
     929
     916
     927
     955

Frequency:  Once per year.

Scheduling:  Alternate years.
     Parameter Description
                                             Persistent Organic and Toxic Substances
Aldrin (in whole water sample, ug/1)
Dieldrin            "
Chlordane           "
O.P
P,P
0,P
P,P
    DDE             "
    DDE             "
    DDE             "
    DDE             "
0,P DDT             "
P,P DDT             "
Endrin              "
Heptachlor          "
Heptachlor epoxide  "
Lindane             "
Methoxychlor        "
Toxaphene           "
Phthalates, dibutyl "
Phthalates, diethylhexyl  "
Mirex, total (ug/1)
Diazinon (in whole water sample, ug/1)
Asbestos (fibrous) (tot. w. - ug/1)
Phenolics, total recoverable (ug/1)

             Metals

Iron, total (ug/1 as Fe)
Silver, total (ug/1 as Ag)
Chlorine, free available (mg/1)
Aluminum, total Cug/1 as Al)

           Sediment

Iron, bottom deposits (mg/kg as Fe
  dry wgt)
Silver, bottom deposits (mg/kg as Ag
  dry wgt)

            Other

Sulfate, total  (mg/1 as 804)
Potassium, total  (mg/1 as k)
Sodium, total  (mg/1 as Na)
Calcium, total  (mg/1 as Ca)
Magnesium, total  (iag/1 as Mg)
Silica, dissolved  (mg/1 as S102)
                                     -46-

-------
Stations to be sampled (STORET code number);  053003, 053007, 053015, 053025,
     053028, 053263, 153006, 153016.

Comments:  Addition of these parameters would allow a sampling program to meet
     the requirements of sampling for the International Joint Commission as of
     May, 1977.
                                     -47-

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                                    SECTION 6

                                   REFERENCES

Adams, M.S. and W. Stone.  1973.  Field studies on photosynthesis of
     Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta) in Green Bay, Lake Michigan.
     Ecology 54(4)853-862.

Allen, H,E.  1966.  Seasonal variation of nitrogen, phosphorus,  and
     chlorophyll a_ in Lake Michigan and Green Bay, 1965, Contrib. 471
     Great Lakes Fisheries Lab.  Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife:
     Tech. Pap. 70, 23 pp.

Bertrand, G.t J. Lang and J. Ross.  1976.  The Green Bay Watershed, Past/Present/
     Future.  University of Wisconsin Sea Grant College Program.  Tech.  Report
     229.  300 pp.

Howmiller, R.P.  1971.  The benthic macrofauna of Green Bay, Lake Michigan.
     Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 225 pp.

Neustadter, R.  1977.  Unpublished chemical data on the water and sediments  of
     Green Bay.

Sager, P., and J. Wiersma.  1972.  Nutrient discharges to Green Bay, Lake
     Michigan from the lower Fox River.  Proc. 15th Conf. Great Lakes
     Research.  I.A.G.L.R. pp. 132-148.

                            1975.  Phosphorus sources for lower Green Bay,
     Lake Michigan.  J. Water Poll. Control Fed., 47:504-514.
                            1977.  Trophic status - lower Green Bay 1976-1977.
     Rept. to the Fox River Valley Water Quality Planning Agency.  59 pp.

Sridharan, N.  1972.  Aqueous environmental chemistry of phosphorus in
     lower Green Bay, Wisconsin,  Ph.D. dissertation, Water Chemistry, University
     of Wisconsin.

Surber, E.W. and H.L. Cooley,  1952.  Bottom fauna studies of Green Bay, Wisconsin
     in relation to pollution.  U.S. Public Health Service and Wisconsin State
     Comm. Water Pollution.  77 pp mimeo.

Vanderhoef, L.N., 1. Dana, D. Enerich, R.H. Burris.  1972.  Acetylene reduction
     in relation to levels of phosphate and fixed nitrogen in Green Bay.  New
     Phytol.  71j1097-1105.

Vanderhoef, L.N., C.Y. Huang, R. Musil and J. Williams.  1974.  Nitrogen fixation
     (acetylene reduction) by phytoplankton in Green Bay, Lake Michigan in
     relation to nutrient concentrations.  Limnol and Oceanogr.  19:119-125.

Veith, G.D.  1975.  Baseline concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and
     DDT in Lake Michigan fish, 1971.  Pesticides Monitoring J. 9(1):21-29.

Wisconsin Public Service Corporation.  1974.  Effects of Wisconsin Public
     Service Corporation's Pulliam power plant on lower Green Bay, January 1973 -
     December 1973.  483 pp.

                                     -48-

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Wisconsin Public Service Corporation,  1976.  J.P. Pulliam power plant
     316Ca) demonstration type 1:  Absence of prior appreciable harm.   378 pp.

Wisconsin State Committee on Water Pollution.  1939.  Investigation of
     the pollution of the Fox and East Rivers and Green Bay in the vicinity
     of the city of Green Bay.  Madison, Wisconsin.  242 pp.
                                    -49-

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                                    APPENDIX A
                              COMMENTS ON BIOSTORET

     Because of the problems we encountered with the BIOSTORET system, we feel
that a detailed analysis of that system is appropriate as part of this report.
Our comments should be useful to the people responsible for development of the
system as well as future researchers who may have the opportunity to use BIOSTORET.

     Implicit to the efficient use of BIOSTORET is a commitment to intensive,
well organized, long term biological sampling.  If an organization does not
have the desires, needs or resources for such a commitment or if the implementation
is not well planned, the expected returns will be limited (although possibly
valuable).

     Present information on BIOSTORET is of three types:  1) levels of
chlorinated bi-phenyls in fish 2) nitrogen fixation rates in grab samples, and
3) taxonomic investigations of phytoplankton, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton,
periphyton, and fish.  Numerous concomitant variables were also processed.

     Most of the biological studies date from the early 1970*s and should provide
a strong data base for that period.  By the mid 1970's the biological community
was fairly stable following the long and often rapid series of changes taking
place since before 1910.  This data base should be useful for showing water
quality changes if comparable biological studies are done in the future.  The
narrow time frame in which the data was collected limits its usefulness in
making general qualitative statements.  The only exception to this is
the benthic invertebrate data.  There is a small amount of reliable data
from 1952 (Surber & Cooley, 1952) for comparison to 1969-1970 data (Howmiller,
1971).

     Problems with BIOSTORET are threefold:  1) data processing inefficiencies,
2) loss of information to fit it in the system and 3) reliability of canned
calculations performed on the data in storage.

     The data processing problems could be largely solved by the user agencies,
if quality and quantity of the data justified the expense in time and money.
BIOSTORET attempts to catalog the myriad of variables that affect the collection
and analysis of biological samples.  In cataloging these variables, the filling
out of forms becomes a long and tedious process.  It is unlikely a casual
acquaintance with the system would be successful in storing the data correctly
in a reasonable amount of time.  Personnel whose primary duties lie elsewhere
could not be blamed for giving BIOSTORET a low priority, especially if they have
not seen appreciable returns for their efforts.

     The problem could be solved by the user agency.  The first step would be
to scrupulously standardize field techniques.  The agency could then build a
program in their computer system to generate the appropriate variables for the
appropriate parameters in response to keys given when the data is processed.
This is a simple concept and shouldn't be difficult to someone familiar with
BIOSTORET.  It would make the system far more accessable to the occasional user.

     The second problem is conceptual and involves minor additions to the
BIOSTORET system.  Taxonomy is a useful tool for cataloging systems, but may not
be useful in the analysis of a system.  Ecologically it may be far more important
                                    -51-

-------
to know, for example, the larva to adult ratio of a family or order rather
than the number of species A versus species B.  The system should be more
sensitive to variables such as life stages.

     Problems also exist with the BIOSTORET taxonomic list.  Spellings and
taxonomic organization are incorrect and often not up to date although it Is
possible this type of problem is currently being corrected.  Another weakness is
that it is not always appropriate to pin a name from such a list on a given
specimen.  An immature collection could only be reliably listed as representing
one of three species or a hybrid collection could not be cataloged as a species.
Furthermore, the constant and rapid changes- in the taxonomy of certain groups
could outdate a species list shortly after it is published.  An override
system allowing for the use of names not on the list would be useful.

     The final problem involves the use of internal BIOSTORET programs to
generate desired values.  The programs may greatly ease the job of the
biologist by performing long, tiresome calculations with far fewer errors.
Unfortunately the calculated values may be of questionable usefulness.  For
example, BIOSTORET produces diversity index values in Shannon-Weiner bits, but
values in bits are not comparable between samples of different sizes while
values in sits (base dependent on sample size) may be comparable.  Users may
not be aware of the difference.  This problem could be avoided by making
available a "blitz" program so that anyone using a data set could look at it
in its entirety.  Emphasis should be placed on making data arrays flexible
and easy to manipulate.  This would encourage user analysis in addition to
automated canned programs.
                                     -52-

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                            APPENDIX B
                      DATA ENTERED ON STOREY
Data is available in STORET tinder Agency code 21 18 using stations
and parameters noted in text.  A copy of the data base is available
at Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago, Illinois.
                                 -53-

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                            APPENDIX C


                    Data Entered on BIOSTORET
Data is available in BIOSTOEET under agency code 21WIS  using stations
and parameters listed in text.  STOREf USER ASSISTANCE in Washington,
B.C. 202-426-7792 should be contacted for data retrieval instruction.
                                -54-

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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
 1. REPORT NO.
   EPA- 905 /4-78-003
                                                            3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO.
 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
   Water Quality Studies of Lower and Middle Green  Bay,
   1938-1977
              5. REPORT DATE
                Septenfcer 1978
              6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
 7, AUTHOH(S)

   Judith Henningson, Tim  Cough!in, Hare Phillips
                                                            8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
  Wisconsin Department of  Natural  Resources
  4610 University Ave.
  Box  7921
  Madison,  WI  53707	
              10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.

               2BA645
              11, CONTRACT/GRANT NO.


               Grant-R005332~01
 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
  Great Lakes Surveillance  &  Research Staff
  Great Lakes National Program Office
  U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
  Chicago,  IL  60605
              13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
              14, SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
               EPA-OGLNP

               Office of Great  Lakes Nationa
                                                                                   Pr
 15, SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
                                        uyrani
 16. ABSTRACT
  Research with quantitative water quality data from  Green Bay was located  and
  evaluated by objective criteria.  Data from  "high priority" studies v/ere  entered
  into  Environmental Protection  Agency computer systems  (chemical data  in STORE?
  and biological  data in BiOSTORET).   A summary of the data stored is presented.

  Using this data base, changes  in Green Bay water quality were examined, but made
  difficult by deficiencies and  inconsistencies in the different researchers' sampling
  locations, frequencies and methods.   A sampling network is proposed that  would
  correct  the deficiencies and efficiently monitor water quality conditions in
  Green Bay.

  The data stored in the computer  systems and the proposed sampling network provide
  background information for future research on Green Bay water quality.
 7.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
b.iDENTlFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS  C. COSATI Field/Group
  water quality,  nutrients, monitoring,
  nitrogen,  phosphorus
   Green Bay
   Lake Michigan
 8. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

   Available through NTIS,
      Springfield,  VA  22161
19. SECURITY CLASS (ThisReport)
   Unclassified
                           21. NO. OF PAGES
                             55
20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)

   Unclassified	
                           22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)
                                        55
                                                                        , GOVERIMErrPMIITNIG OFFICE  I1MII

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