Purchasing Recycled Paper:
A Guide for Purchasing Officials

         Great Lakes Region
      Waste Paper Work Group
                          May 1991

   Printed on recycled paper
      Inks are non-toxic
       Please recycle this
handbook instead of discarding.

 This handbook was developed by A.T. Kearney, Inc., with technical contributions by E.H.
Pechan & Associates, Inc., under contract to Region V of the U.S. Environmental Protection
             Agency for die Great Lakes Region Waste Paper Work Group.

Mention of companies, trade names, products or services is not, and should not be interpreted
       as conveying official U.S. EPA approval, endorsement or recommendation.

This document and its contents do not necessarily reflect the position or
  opinions of either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the
  Great Lakes Region Waste Paper Work Group. This handbook is
  intended to provide information to purchasing officials in the Great
 Lakes region. The members of the Great Lakes Region Waste Paper
  Work Group should be recognized for their outstanding efforts in
                    helping develop this manual.
                  Great Lakes Region Waste
                Paper Work Group Members
     Work Group Chairman
     Roger P. Hoffinan
     Executive Vice President
     Green Bay Packaging

     Richard J. Mason
     Vice President
     Perry H. Koplik & Sons

     Keith B. Tice
     National Director,
     Packaging and Labeling

     Anthony M. Schultz
     Manager, Corporate Purchasing
     R.R. Donnelley & Sons

     Thomas A. Cihlar
     General Manager
     Packaging Corp. of America
Tim Warren
Office of Solid Waste &
Renewable Resources
Illinois Dept. of Energy
& Natural Resources

Jay Bergamini
SEEP Contractor
USEPA Region V

Virgil K. Horton, Jr.
Vice President
American Paper Institute, Inc.

Albert H. Toma, III
Assistant to the President
Fort Howard Corporation

Why Purchase Recycled Products?        1
  Closing the Loop                    1
  Purchasing Power                    2
  Providing a Model                   3

Getting Started                       4
  Take Inventory                      5
  What's On the Market                6
  Evaluate Specifications                7

Purchasing Recycled Paper              9
  Handling Cost Differentials           11
  Cooperative Purchasing              13
  Promote Your Purchasing Program     14
  Monitor User Acceptance             15

Success Stories: Private Recycled        16
Paper Purchasing Programs
  Esprit                            16
  The Body Shop                     17
  Fort Howard                       18

Information Sources                  19

Appendices                          23

Sources                            35

Why Purchase Recycled Products?
  THE CHASING ARROWS of the recycling symbol may be familiar,
but not everyone knows what they represent. Many people think
that the arrows represent the buzzwords of waste minimization
and recycling -- reduce, reuse, recycle. Actually, the arrows
represent the three necessary steps in recycling — collection,
manufacturing, and purchasing.
  The number of municipal and commercial collection programs
has recently increased dramatically. Through purchasing pro-
grams, there is a unique opportunity to guarantee the continued
success of these collection efforts by creating demand for products
containing recycled materials.
  This handbook is designed for use by purchasing officials and
provides practical information and guidelines for purchasing
recycled paper  prod-
ucts. The methods pre-
sented  here can be
adopted by  anyone,
whether you  are  pur-
chasing for a govern-
ment agency  or a pri-
vate sector organization.
The  purchase  of re-
cycled products  pro-
motes community good-
will as well as the con-
servation of natural re-
                            Purchasing is the key
                              to completing the
                                recycling loop
Closing the Loop
  IT IS NO LONGER enough
to separate garbage into
components and deposit
separated materials in a recycling bin or at the curb. Without
markets, the separated cans, bottles and paper will simply end up
as discrete piles in the local landfill. The markets are manufactur-

ers who use the cans, bottles and paper to produce new products.
These manufacturers, in turn, need markets for their end prod-
ucts. By purchasing recycled products, a market is provided
which is necessary to close the recycling loop. Buying recycled
products is a vital component of the recycling system.

Purchasing Power
  ACCORDING TO THE  National Institute of Governmental Pur-
chasing (NIGP), purchases by state and local governments ac-
count for approximately 13% of the gross national product. This
market share enables government agencies to exert significant
influence on product supply.  When businesses join with govern-
ment, the influence is even greater.
  Purchasing recycled products can have an incredible impact on
the availability and price of recycled products. Currently, the
            Supply                      Cost ($)
supply is limited and the price of some products is higher than
virgin products because recycled products are often produced by
small manufacturers.  Purchasing recycled products supports
small manufacturers and encourages additional manufacturing.
Ultimately prices will decline as supply is increased.

Providing a Model
  MANY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES and businesses are interested in
purchasing recycled products because "it is the right thing to do"
and helps them to project an image of concern for the environ-
  Commitment by government, corporate, and agency manage-
ment is essential to begin a recycled paper procurement program.
This commitment may be reflected in state laws, local ordinances,
executive orders, and corporate management directives.  Ideally,
directives should include a  commitment to purchase recycled
paper, reusable and recyclable paper products, and compatible
equipment. This commitment must then be translated into pro-
curement regulations and policy.  Purchasing officials may be
required to revise  existing paper specifications to include the
purchase of recycled paper.
  Each of  the  states in the  Great  Lakes area has a recycled
products procurement law. The laws of Illinois, Indiana, Michi-
gan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin specifically address procurement
of recycled paper, as does the Ohio governor's Executive Order
90-22. Similarly, local jurisdictions such as Chicago and Milwau-
kee have adopted recycled paper procurement ordinances, city
council resolutions, or other  directives.
  As government agencies and businesses  purchase and use re-
cycled products, they set an example for everyone and promote
the merits of purchasing recycled products.

Getting Started

  END USERS AND printers probably remember the poor quality
of the recycled papers available in the 1970s and, as a result, are
reluctant or opposed to using recycled paper today. Technologi-
cal advances have made high quality recycled products available
which are similar in quality and performance to products made
from virgin materials. Today, recycled paper is available from a
number of sources in a variety of grades. Choosing the grade or
quality of recycled paper is dependent on particular needs and
ultimate uses of the paper.
  As  the interest in procuring  recycled paper increases, it is
particularly important to collect as  much information on the
subject as possible.  This is necessary in order to make cost-
effective and responsible decisions.
  Begin the education process by discussing recycled paper with
recycling coordinators. Information is also available from state
purchasing and solid waste agencies, vendors, and manufactur-
ers. Ask about recycled paper performance, price, and availabil-
ity.  The  range  of available recycled paper products changes
monthly as manufacturers introduce new products in response to
demand. Staying informed of market developments either through
recycling coordinators, vendors, or  industry publications will
facilitate the procurement process. Lists of mills and vendors
producing recycled paper are available from the U.S. EPA, the
American Paper Institute, and from some state governments.
  Appendices  A and B also present lists of contacts who can
provide useful information about  recycling procurement pro-
grams. Appendix C provides a list of recycling industry publica-
tions .

Take Inventory
  AFTER THE RESEARCH and fact-finding stage, there are a number
of logical steps to follow in order to determine which recycled
paper products to purchase.

  TAKE INVENTORY. Determine both the types and quantities of
paper products currently used. This information will be used in
conjunction with information about recycled paper availability to
phase in purchasing recycled paper. This approach allows mills
and converters time to produce recycled paper products, vendors
time to stock them, and users time to become  familiar with
recycled paper performance.

  REVIEW PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS. For example, computer print-
out paper (CPO) is used both for printing drafts or data which are
retained for short periods of time and for printing data which are
retained for years. Recycled CPO containing groundwood fibers
(e.g., old newspaper) is  suitable for drafts and short retention
periods but not for records to be retained for years.
  Identify requirements which are overly stringent  or unneces-
sary. For example, a brightness requirement for office pads is
probably unnecessary.  In addition,  many brightness require-
ments for office stationery are higher than necessary.

and  converters are  now producing a broad range  of recycled
paper products, not all of these products are available in every
area. Note  that although a product is currently unavailable, it
may become available in  the future. Inquiries help to assure that
product availability will  increase.

Take A Closer Look At What's On The Market Now!
            Currently Available Recycled Paper Products
           Q  Bond and other stationery
           Q  Text and cover stock, including offset printing papers
           Q  Copier/xerographic paper
           Q  Computer printout paper
           Q  Forms
           Q  Office paper, including note pads, telephone message
              pads, index cards, Post-it™ notes, steno books, notebooks
              and journals, and easel pads
           Q  File folders, including manila folders, hanging file folders,
              and accordion files
           Q  Report covers
           Q  Calculator tape
           Q  Adding machine and cash register rolls
           Q  Facsimile paper
           Q  School supplies, including note paper and construction
           Q  Railroad board
           Q  Posterboard
           Q  Boxes, including shipping and storage boxes
           Q  Bags
           Q  Labels
           Q  Industrial wipers and janitorial  supplies
           Q  Napkins and toweling
           Q  Toilet tissue
           Q  Facial tissue

Evaluate Specifications
  BEFORE PURCHASING RECYCLED paper it is critical to evaluate
specifications so that the recycled paper meets your needs. Devel-
oping specifications need not be a difficult or complicated task.
New paper specifications may not be necessary in order to buy
recycled paper. Instead, review existing paper specifications and
in most cases,  revising these  specifications will be all that is
  Tailoring specifications (brightness, weight, strength, opacity)
requires a thorough review of the existing specs with particular
attention paid to language that can create barriers to purchasing
recycled paper or that can limit its use. In general, some of the
requirements to be aware of are:

  • Clauses that limit the materials to be used (e.g., only
    virgin materials can be used)
  • Minimum content standards
  • Aesthetics requirements which are too stringent or
  • Paper color matching requirements (e.g., envelopes and

  Not all paper products require the same level of quality or
brightness, nor is it necessary for all paper products to match the
paper currently in use. There are a number of paper products,
such as note pads and paper used for draft reports, which need not
meet the same brightness standards or aesthetics requirements as
letterhead or paper used in printing processes.
  In developing specifications, it is necessary to understand what
is considered a recycled fiber and what postconsumer materials
refer to. To familiarize yourself with these terms, refer to com-
monly used recycling terms on page 8 or to Appendix G for a more
complete glossary of terms.

  In addition, U.S. EPA has developed guidelines and recom-
mendations for paper specifications.  Appendix D provides U.S.
EPA recommended standards and Appendix E presents a sum-
mary of recycled paper  specifications recently adopted by the
Congressional Joint Committee on Printing for use  in federal
              Key Recycling Terms
    The key terms to consider are recycled fiber, recovered materials,
  postconsumer, waste paper, and groundwood.

  <$» Recycled Fiber and Recovered Materials - materials generated by
    the forest/lumber industries, paper mills, and intermediate
    manufacturers, such as converters, as well as printed materials that
    have not yet reached the consumer, and postconsumer materials.

  «> Postconsumer materials have gone through their intended end use
    and are being discarded.

  «> Waste paper - both postconsumer materials and some pre-
    consumer materials. EPA uses this term only with respect to the
    content of printing and writing papers.

  *J> Groundwood - wood pulp manufactured by a mechanical process.
    Examples of groundwood uses are newsprint, tissue, towel, and
    paperboard. Some higher grade printing papers also can contain
    groundwood, although not usually because groundwood causes
    paper to yellow and deteriorate.

Purchasing Recycled Paper

  THE DECISION TO purchase recycled paper has been made. In
preparation, information has been collected, paper needs have
been inventoried and specifications have been identified. You are
ready now to accept proposals/bids from vendors.  Preparing a
solicitation for recycled paper is no different from nonrecycled
paper. The only difference may be the paper specifications.  The
specifications should be highlighted in the solicitation in order to
avoid confusion.
  Most purchasing officials require vendors to specify in their
bids the recycled content of the paper offered. To ensure the
content of  the  recycled paper, consider using a  certification
clause. The certification can be provided by either the vendor or
the mill.  Wisconsin, for example, requires offerers to obtain
certifications of recycled content from the supplying mill.
  The federal government requires offerers both to specify and to
certify the recycled content. The certifications are expressed as a
percentage of the total content.
  Although there are many types of recycled paper and paper
products available, not every vendor carries all products. To
maximize availability, do not use "all or none" clauses  in the
solicitation which require vendors to supply all products. In-
stead, allow vendors to offer one or more of the items covered by
a solicitation. When the U.S. Government Printing Office makes
its quarterly paper purchases, each grade of paper required is
assigned a lot number, and offerers can bid on one or more lots.
This procedure has allowed recycled paper vendors to participate
in the bidding.

                Sample Certification*

   The sample certification is from a U.S. Government Printing
Office solicitation.

               The offerer shall certify that all papers supplied under
              ' any contract resulting from this solicitation will meet or
               exceed the minimum percentage of recovered materials
               below (see definitions).

               (Offerer should only make entries that apply to this
                                                     Weight of
                                Minimum %  Offerer's %  Paper

               Waste paper content      50      	    	
               in ofiset and/or
               writing paper

               Postconsumer          40      	„    „	
               recovered materials
               content in newsprint

               The Government reserves the right to require proof of
               such certification prior to first delivery and thereafter as
               may be  otherwise provided for under the provisions of
               the contract.

               The offerer hereby certifies that all papers proposed to
               be supplied under this contract will contain the
               percentage(s) in the column "offerer's percentage"
              1 Bidder's Company	
               Bidder (type or print)	
               Bidder's Signature	
 * The Great Lakes states do not require certification of recycled fiber content,
 although they do require offerors to specify the content of the paper. Wiscon-
 sin also requires offerors to obtain certification of contents from the mills.

Handling Cost Differentials

   RECYCLED PAPER, PARTICULARLY printing and writing paper, can
cost more than comparable products manufactured using virgin
materials. The cost differential varies over time and from grade
to grade.
   Currently, recycled printing and writing paper is often pro-
duced by the smaller mills, which cannot achieve the economies of
scale of large, fully integrated paper mills. Other factors such as
the  supply of virgin paper,  costs  of raw  materials,  and the
international paper market affect price differentials.
   Despite its higher price, some government agencies and busi-
nesses purchase recycled paper. They use preferential purchas-
ing mechanisms, such as price preferences, set asides, and dual
             Examples of Price Preference
                and Set-Aside Legislation
    Wherever feasible, the Depart-
  ment of Central Management Ser-
  vices, with the  assistance of all
  state agencies, shall maximize the
  state's use of recycled paper and
  paperproducts. By June 30,1989,
  at least 10% of the total volume of
  paper and  paper products pur-
  chased by the Department of Cen-
  tral Management Services will
  contain recycled materials; by June
  30,1992, at least 25% of the total
  volume of paper and paper prod-
  ucts purchased by the Department
  of Central Management Services
shall contain recycled materials; and
by June 30,1996, at least 40% of
the total volume of paper and pa-
per products purchased by the
Department of Central Manage-
ment Services shall contain recycled
   To the extent available, all pa-
per products purchased or con-
tracted for by the department shall
be made from recycled paper if the
cost is not greater than 110% of the
cost of paper that docs not contain
recycled fibers.

  Price preferences allow the purchase of recycled paper prod-
ucts even if they are slightly more expensive than comparable
virgin items. As a general rule, some government agencies use
preferences of 10%, although some jurisdictions have prefer-
ences as low as 5% or as high as 15%. Indiana and Michigan are
the only Great Lakes states that currently have price preferences.
  Set asides are an alternative or complement to price prefer-
ences. By June 30, 1992, 25% of the total volume of paper and
paper products purchased in Illinois must contain recycled mate-
rials whenever feasible. This figure will rise to 40% by June 30,
1996. In Michigan, the recycled paper set aside is 40% of total
paper purchased in 1990, and 50% of total paper purchased in
1991 and thereafter. In Wisconsin, the set asides are 10% of all
purchased paper by 1991, 25% by 1993, and 40% by 1995.
  Dual track bids allow receipt of bids from both vendors offering
recycled paper products as  well as those offering virgin  paper
products. If a recycled paper offer is the low bid, the contract is
awarded to that vendor. If a virgin paper offer is the low bid, the
contract is awarded to that vendor and a contract is awarded to
the lowest priced recycled paper offerors.  Dual bidding will
decrease as recycled paper availability is established and prices

      2  40.0% -

      I"  30.0%-

      •|  20.0% -

      i  10.0% -
'91 '93  '95

Cooperative Purchasing
  WHETHER YOU ARE purchasing virgin paper or recycled paper,
the greater the volume purchased, the smaller the unit cost.
Cooperative purchasing is a useful mechanism for purchasing
larger quantities and obtaining more favorable prices. All of the
states in  the Great  Lakes area  have cooperative purchasing
available to the local governments.
  In addition to  accessing state government  purchasing con-
tracts, local governments can work together to make cooperative
purchases. Similarly, businesses and nonprofit organizations can
make cooperative purchases.
  Illinois and Indiana; In both Illinois and Indiana, local govern-
  ments can purchase recycled paper products from vendors under
  state contracts.

  Michigan:  Michigan has an extended purchasing program which
  makes vendqrs-unUer state contracts available to local governments.
  There is a chkrere for'2fe-~«£ the contracts.
             \  **'          Mlif^   .'

  Minnesota: %Ilrin'iei9Otafte\|&ee W^^jive purchasing mecha-
  nisms. Similar|to Michigan, 1tlSt?^H,.iC'&ei%e4 cooperative purchas-
  ing program \$hich ma^es vendors ppdp sj&td contracts available to
  local governments. L0c^.jpvefflmjmtj; aJbo|kii purchase recycled
  paper productiirorn statest^res. In slddftpn, both^ocal governments
  and private purchasers can'*<|btairt"^ecy;cJcd paj?e'r frprn the state's
  print and communications department"    """'"" ""'"   ;
  Ohio:   Ohio permits local goyem^ients.^f gurcna$fe from state
  contracts. A limited amourlt,of recycled papfe^is Currently available
  under two state contracts. Tntjre is a fee b^ed'o'n fiie population of
  the jurisdiction.
  Wisconsin:   Local governments can access state contracts. In
  addition, under legislation enacted in 1990, the Department of
  Administration  has created a clearinghouse of information about
  recycled products including product availability, price, quality, and

Promote Your Purchasing Program
  ONE OF THE best methods to increase the availability of recycled
paper products is to advertise an interest in purchasing them.
During the past  two years, the quantity and range of recycled
paper products has increased dramatically in response to govern-
ment  and private demand. Promotion  also encourages other
government and private purchasing agents to  consider using
recycled paper products.
  At a minimum, inform existing vendors in advance that future
solicitations will include recycled paper requirements. Announce
your program in industry, recycling,  and solid waste publica-
tions, in trade association newsletters, in state or local recycling/
solid waste newsletters, and in state or local listings of solicita-
  Successful solicitations of recycled paper products should be
announced to  encourage other vendors to stock recycled paper
and to encourage other public and private purchases. Include the
phrase "Printed on Recycled Paper" whenever appropriate.
  Finally, stress the importance of closing the recycling loop by
making a corporate commitment to  purchasing recycled paper
products.  The CEO, or some other top company official, needs to
inform all employees of the company's mission to buy recycled. A
percentage goal  can be made for  fiber content  (e.g., all paper
products must contain 10 percent recycled fiber).  Make this
corporate commitment known to all employees through announce-
ments, memos and/or visible means as illustrated below.
                  CORPORATE COMMITMENT

Monitor User Acceptance
  EXPECT RESISTANCE TO recycled paper use based on misinforma-
tion about the quality and performance of the products available
today. Acceptance of recycled paper is an integral component of
a successful recycled paper procurement program. A survey of
users is a valuable tool to discern if the recycled paper is being
used as well as any problems encountered. It is also important to
determine if the problems identified are real or reflect resistance
to use. For example, a problem with copier malfunctions could be
incorrectly blamed on recycled paper when in fact the problem is
a worn or defective part. Appendix F presents recycled paper
performance tests.
  In addition to identifying  problems, user surveys will also
identify successes and lessons learned. These successes and les-
sons should be publicized in order to educate other potential users
about the quality and performance of recycled paper.
  An annual review of recycled paper purchasing programs will
provide useful information and should include:

Success Stories: Private Recycled Paper
Purchasing Programs
         ESPRIT, A WHOLESALE and  retail women's and
       children's clothing manufacturer converted to re-
       cycled paper for its catalogs, stationery, and other
       office supplies. Because the company is located in
       California, it decided to use that state's definition of
       recycled paper which is 50% secondary waste in-
       cluding 10% postconsumer waste.  It initially en-
       countered confusion in the marketplace about defi-
       nitions and limited availability of recycled paper
       with postconsumer content.
         Esprit persevered in its research of recycled paper
       sources and began working with a supplier of
       recycled paper to meet its needs.  The staff also
       became educated about using recycled paper and
       learned to adjust their graphics and ink specifications
       to the qualities of the paper.  Today, Esprit uses
       recycled paper for its catalogs and other direct mail
       needs. Based on its graphics experience with recycled
       paper, Esprit  also purchases  recycled paper for
       office use, including stationery, postcards, janitorial
       supplies,  intercompany forms, labels,  three-part
       forms, and business cards.

The Body Shop
        THE BODY SHOP produces naturally-based soaps,
      shampoos, moisturizers and related skin and hair
      products. Respect for the environment is a corpo-
      rate principle, and the concepts of waste minimiza-
      tion and recycled are actively practiced.  Since
      expanding to the United States from England three
      years ago, The Body Shop has been purchasing
      many recycled paper products.  Currently, small
      bags contain recycled fiber; corporate stationery,
      By-Mail catalogue, and leaflets are printed on re-
      cycled paper; and, recycled office paper products -
      from copier paper to files - are purchased.  The
      Body Shop is working actively with equipment
      manufacturers and recycledpaper mills and vendors
      to overcome potential barriers. For example, use of
      recycled copier paper was extensively researched
      and The Body Shop requested a letter from their
      copy machine manufacturer stating that recycled
      paper was acceptable for use in a recently purchased
      a copier.  Similarly, after experiencing jams when
      using 100% recycled CPO, the company is trying
      three-part forms comprised of a 50% waste paper
      top sheet and two virgin sheets.
        Cost, availability, and color reproduction also
      have  been barriers to using recycled paper prod-
      ucts. To remove these barriers, a corporate decision
      was made to purchase recycled paper, monitor
      market developments, and minimize/reuse waste.
      The company also  learned to adjust colors and
      graphics as necessary to accommodate the charac-
      teristics of recycled paper.

Fort Howard
         IN 1991, FORT Howard Corporation of Green
       Bay, Wisconsin agreed to recycle large quantities of
       outdated telephone books from Ameritech  Pub-
       lishing/Wisconsin Bell.  Telephone  books, along
       with other grades of waste paper, are recycled into
       various tissue products at Fort Howard's Green
       Bay mill. The recycling of these telephone books
       not only provides a good use for this poor quality,
       low grade paper,  but also prevents unnecessary
       landfilling of bulky telephone books.
         Additionally, Ameritech Services, which is the
       purchasing branch for Ameritech and the five Bell
       Companies surrounding Wisconsin, have begun to
       purchase the  recycled  tissue products manufac-
       tured by Fort Howard.  Purchasing these 100%
       recycled tissue products is what closes the recycling
       loop and decreases the use  of limited virgin  re-

Information Sources

  CURRENTLY THERE ISN'T one comprehensive source of infor-
mation on purchasing recycled products in general or recycled
paper in particular. The following sources can be  useful in
providing information on the various steps in the purchasing

U.S. Conference of Mayors
  The United States Conference of Mayors, in cooperation with
the U.S. EPA, is conducting a "Buy Recycled" campaign to
encourage cities to purchase recycled products. The Conference
of Mayors has established a  task force to develop a  technical
assistance package, which will contain model ordinances, infor-
mation on how to find suppliers in or near jurisdictions, articles
about procurement policies, and information on upcoming work-
shops on local government procurement. They are also establish-
ing a network of cities already purchasing recycled  products to
help other cities form procurement policies and programs. Con-
tact Richard Kochan at (202) 293-7330.

U.S.  EPA Procurement Guidelines Hotline
  The U.S. EPA has issued guidelines for purchasing recycled
products, including a guideline for recycled paper  and paper
products. Copies of the guideline, lists of  manufacturers and
vendors, and other information about purchasing recycled paper
can be obtained at no charge by calling U.S. EPA's procurement
guidelines hotline (703) 941-4452.

Federal Agencies
  The principal federal agencies involved in recycled paper
specifications and procurement are the Congressional Joint Com-
mittee on Printing (JCP), the General Services Administration
(GSA), the Government Printing Office (GPO), and  the U.S.

National Office Paper Recycling Project
  The National Office Paper Recycling Project, a collaborative
effort between private industry and governmental organizations,
is developing a national strategy for office paper recycling. This
includes analysis of markets for office paper waste,  methods to
increase market demand for recycled paper, procurement poli-
cies which insure the maximum reuse of the nation's office waste
paper and efforts to coordinate private and public sector initia-
tives in office paper recycling. For further information contact

Brian Day or Christine Denniston at (202) 293-7330.
Official Recycled Products Guide (RPG)
  The RPG is a unique publication that lists thousands of re-
cycled products in hundreds of product categories. Information
is indexed by product, brandname, geographic area, and company.
A telephone directory is included to assist users to find recycled
products. It also provides a list of useful references, including
contacts, definitions, and information about the U.S. EPA re-
cycled paper procurement guideline and the Canadian EcoLogo
standard. It is available on a subscription basis. Call (800) 267-

Peer Match Programs
  The Governmental Refuse Collection and Disposal Association
(GRCDA) (now known  as the Solid Waste Association of North
America or SWANA) and the National Recycling Coalition, with
funding from the U.S. EPA, provides advisors on all aspects of
solid waste management, including purchasing through a  peer
match program. The program is designed to provide technical
assistance to state and local governments and includes provisions
for 50% of the advisors' travel cost to local communities. Call
(800) 456-4723.

  The International City Management Association (ICMA) also
operates a peer match program, with U.S. EPA funding, which
provides advisors to local governments on all aspects of solid
waste management.  The ICMA program covers up to 50% of

travel costs. Call Sarith Guerra, (202) 962-3649.
  The American Paper Institute (API) recently introduced a
directory which lists by state, paper mills that use recycled fiber,
waste paper dealers, and recycling centers. PaperMatcher is free
and  can be obtained by calling API's Solid Waste Resource
Center, (800) 878-8878, or by writing to the American Paper
Institute, Suite 210, 1250 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washing-
ton,  DC 20036.

Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse
  The Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse (SWICH) is funded
by the U.S. EPA,  Office of Solid Waste for the purpose of
increasing the availability of information on solid waste manage-
ment.  SWICH may provide assistance to government agencies,
professional associations, industry, citizens groups and anyone
else interested in any aspect of solid waste management. SWICH
operates an Electronic Bulletin Board (EBB) to provide cm-rent
information on solid waste issues such as meeting and conference
information, new publications, expert contact information, tech-
nical information, and state and federal legislative and regulatory
changes. SWICH also provides a Library System which includes
j ournals, reports, studies, proceedings, curricula, films and video
  Both the SWICH EBB and Library System may be accessed by
modem (call 1-800-677-9424 for access information), by faxing a
request to SWICH (301-585-0297) or by calling SWICH directly
at 1-800-677-9424.

     These appendices were developed as a service to purchasing
officials. Companies listed are not endorsed by U.S. EPA or the Great
   Lakes Region Waste Paper Work Group, nor are any exclusions
    intentional. Information contained herein was obtained from
            industry-wide sources, as cited on page 35.

                      Appendix  A
                  Federal Contacts
Joint Committee on Printing (JCP)
       Faye Padgett         JCP specifications

General Services Administration (GSA)
       Benny Wong          Specifications

Government Printing Office (GPO)
       Caseeda Moody

       Tony Valentine

       Sylvia Subt
Quarterly GPO solicitations

Printing contracts

Paper testing
Environmental Protection Agency
       Richard Braddock      Procurement guidelines
       Randy Bacon
Paper performance

                       Appendix B
                     State  Contacts
Charles Rogers
Manager, Procurement
Services Division
Illinois Dept. of Central
 Management Services
801 Stratton Office Building
Springfield, IL 62706
(217) 785-3868

Eric Swedberg
Dept. of Administration
Procurement Division
Indiana Government Center South
402. W. Washington Street,
Room 468
Indianapolis, IN 46204
(317) 232-3198

William Warstler
Purchasing Director
Michigan  State Office of Purchasing
P.O. Box 30026
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-0300
Lynne Markus
Materials Management Division
Purchasing Department,
Room 112
State Administration Bldg.
St. Paul, MN 55155
(612) 296-9084

Steve Morbitzer
Administrative Services
State Purchasing Department
364 South 4th Street
Columbus, OH  43266-0364
(614) 466-0530

Dan Wehrinan
Bureau of Procurement
Wisconsin Department of
P.O. Box 7867
Madison, WI 53707
(608) 267-6922

                      Appendix C
               Recycling and Paper
               Industry  Publications
  The following list is not intended to be a compendium of recycling and paper
industry publications. Instead, it identifies magazines and newspapers that
cover developments in recycled paper markets and products.
Resource Recycling
1206 N.W. 21st Avenue
P.O. Box 10540
Portland, OR 97210
(503) 227-1319

P.O. Box 351
Emmaus,PA 18049
(215) 967-4135

Recycling Today
G.I.E. Inc. Publishers
4012 Bridge Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44113
(216) 961-4130

Waste Age
1730 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W.
Suite 1000
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 861-0708

Old House Journal  Corp.
435 Ninth Street
Brooklyn, NY 11215
(718) 788-1700
Pulp & Paper Magazine
Circulation Dept.
500 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415) 397-1881

Pulp & Paper Week
Miller Freeman Publications
500 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415) 995-2424

Fibre Market News
G.I.E. Inc. Publishers
4012 Bridge Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44113
(800) 456-0707

The Paper Stock Report
McEntee Media Corp.
13727 Holland Road
Cleveland, OH 44142-3920
(216) 923-8042

Recycled Paper News
5528 Hempstead Way
Springfield, VA 22151
(703) 642-1120, ext. 116

                     Appendix D
   Federal Minimum  Content Standards
  U.S. EPA recommended minimum content standards for paper and paper

                                       Waste Paper
Fine Paper
    Offset printing                            50%
    Mimeo and duplicator paper                 50%
    Writing (stationery)                        50%
    Office paper (e.g., note pads)                50%
    Paper for high speed copiers                 50%
    Envelopes                               50%
    Form bond, including computer              50%
    paper and carbonless
    Book paper                              50%
    Bond paper                              50%
    Ledger                                  50%
    Cover stock                              50%
    Cotton fiber paper                        50%
    (Must contain 25% recovered cotton fiber or
     linen fiber and 50% waste paper)
Tissue and Towel
   Toilet tissue
   Paper towels
   Paper napkins
   Facial tissue
   Corrugated boxes
   Fiber boxes
   Brown papers (e.g., bags)
   Recycled paperboard products
    including folding cartons
   Pad backing
Postconsumer Material





JCP Code
          Appendix E
Selected Joint Committee
  On Printing Standards
                 Title & Description
          Recycled Offset Book (5/2/90)
          • 50% waste paper content required
          • Postconsumer content encouraged
          • 25% groundwood allowed

          Recycled Groundwood Forms Bond (6/29/90)
          • 50% waste paper content required
          • Postconsumer content encouraged
          • 100% groundwood allowed

          Recycled 25% Bond (6/29/90)
          • 75% recovered material content required, of
            which not less than 25% must be cotton or
            linen fibers, the remainder bleached
            chemical wood pulp
          • Postconsumer content encouraged
          • 5% groundwood allowed

          Recycled Plain Copier Xerographic (6/29/90)
          • 50% waste paper content required
          • Postconsumer content encouraged
          • 5% groundwood allowed

                       Appendix F
    Recycled Paper Performance Tests
  The Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR) tested
computer printout paper made from 100% old newspapers by FSC Paper
Co. The CPO was tested on IBM 3800s, IBM 4248 impact printers, and
Sperry 077 laser printers. No problems were experienced with the IBM
3800s and Sperry 077s. Some problems with paper ripping were experi-
enced with the IBM 4248, although it was later concluded that the machine
needed tuning. ENR has recommended the recycled COP for short term
(i.e., nonarchival) uses. Both 18# and 15# are recommended, but ENR
found that the 18# paper performs better than the 15# paper. ENR also
tested multi-part forms and concluded that they worked better on slower
equipment. For further information, contact Mitra Khazai at (217)524-

Northwest Municipal Conference
  The Northwest Municipal Conference (NWMC) is a nonprofit organiza-
tion supported by 34 municipalities and six townships in the north and
northwest Chicago suburban area.  Under a grant from the Illinois Depart-
ment of Energy and Natural Resources, NWMC members tested recycled
paper in 62 copier machines over a one-year period.  The copiers included
several large and small Xerox models, as well as models from Mita, Sharp,
Savin, Minolta, Royal, Toshiba, IBM, Canon, Ricoh, Kodak, 3M, and AB
Dick. The majority of testers rated quality and performance of the papers
as adequate. Only two of the NWMC members identified problems with
double-sided copying or misfeeds.

  Minnesota has conducted informal tests of recycled paper as brands have
been submitted. No written reports are available.  Contact Lynne Markus
at (612) 296-9084.

   Wisconsin has been conducting informal customer acceptance testing of
recycled paper in anticipation of a major copier paper purchase. It is
seeking paper containing 50% waste paper including 10% postconsumer
fiber. Pallet quantities of the following brands were tested: Badger
Envirographic, Hammermill WP 50 DP, Nekoosa Ardor, and Xerox
Recycled, which is produced by Domtar. Xerox 9900 and 1590 high-speed
copiers were used.  A formal report should be available by the end of
February 1991. Preliminary findings include relatively few jams of any of
the papers tested, some performance problems with collating, duplexing,
and folding, and potentially higher maintenance costs due to increased dust.
Contact Dan Wehrman, (608) 267-6922.

U.S. Government Printing Office
   As of January 1991, the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) had
tested 14 brands of recycled copier paper.  Ten thousand sheets of each
brand were tested on a Xerox 9000 series or 5090 copier, a Kodak 300
series,  or an IBM Series 3. The brands were tested against the Joint
Committee on Printing specification 0-65.  GPO has established a Qualified
Products List for papers meeting O-65; it currently includes the following
   Brand Name
   Emblem Xerographic
   Harmony ™ Recycled Xerographic
   Savings WP 50 DP
   Weyerhaeuser Recycled Laser Copy
Simpson Paper Co.
Mead Papers
Hammermill Papers
Weyerhaeuser Co.
   GPO rejected brands from Nekoosa Paper, Eastern Fine Paper, Badger
Paper Mills, Kimberly Clark de Mexico, Barton, Duer & Koch, Patriot
Paper, Simpson Paper, International Paper, and Union Camp for one or
more of the following characteristics: stiffness, Sheffield smoothness,
cleanliness, fiber content, moisture content, and basis weight. Any or all of
these brands can be resubmitted for testing at a  later date.  A report is not
available but general information can be obtained by contacting Sylvia
Subt, (202) 275-2966.

New York City
   The City of New York has run extensive tests of four brands of recycled
paper in Xerox 5090, Xerox 1090, and Kodak 300 copiers.  Three of the
four brands were found to be acceptable.  A written report discussing the
test results will be available in the spring of 1991.  For information, contact
Barbara Belasco, (212) 669-8949.

Copier Manufacturers
   As part of a study for the County of San Diego, Recovery Sciences, Inc.,
contacted several copier manufacturers about recycled copier paper
performance. The following information is a summary of their findings.
For the original information, contact Steve Greely of Recovery Sciences,
Inc., at (619) 481-1980.
   Xerox, Kodak, and Pitney Bowes have extensive testing programs for
recycled copier paper.  Xerox, Ricoh and Canon have put their own label
on recycled paper in the Japanese market, and Xerox and Kodak are both
working with recycled paper manufacturers to produce recycled paper
bearing their labels for the American market.
   Kodak has tested Hammermill Savings WP 50 DP and Nekoosa Ardor
Recycled Xero/Bond across its copier-duplicator and printer product lines.
They were chosen based on their physical properties, performance, nation-
wide availability and recycled content (50% waste paper and 10%
postconsumer). The results of the extensive testing were satisfactory.
Kodak also has noted that its customers have used other brands satisfacto-
rily, including Simpson Emblem Xerographic Paper.
   Pitney Bowes also ran extensive physical and handling tests of ten brands
of recycled paper, including Nekoosa Next Generation, Butler Springhill,
IPCO Springhill Recycled DP, James River, Ecology, Fox River 25%
Cotton, Recyclesource, Cross Pointe, and  Recyconomic.  All but the last
three passed the physical evaluation, and the Nekoosa, Butler and Ecology
lines passed the feeding test as well.  Feed testing was not completed on the
IPCO, James River, Fox River, Recyclesource, Cross Pointe, and
Recyconomic lines, and the Cross Pointe paper jammed. It should be noted
that these test results are at least a year old, and it is unknown if additional
testing has been conducted.

                        Appendix  G
                   Glossary of Terms
BAG AND SACK PAPER.  Unbleached or bleached kraft paper, generally
converted into bags or sacks, such as grocery bags or merchandise sacks.

BOARD. An abbreviated version of paperboard (see definition). Term often
used in the paper industry.

BOXBOARD.  A general term designating the paperboard used for fabricating
folding cartons, setup boxes, milk cartons, and foodboard.  It may be made
of wood pulp or waste paper or any combinations of these and may be plain,
lined, or clay coated.

Box PLANT. A manufacturing plant where corrugated and/or solid fiber
shipping containers are made by combining linerboard and corrugated
medium into structural blanks.

BRIGHTNESS. The reflectivity of pulp, paper, or paperboard for specified
bluelight measured under standardized conditions.

CARDBOARD. Common name for what the paper industry calls paperboard,
boxboard, or board.

COLOR FASTNESS.  The property of a paper, dye or dyed paper to retain its
color in normal storage or when exposed to light, heat, or other influences.

COLOR SPECIFICATION.  The quantitative description of a color. The color of
papers is often specified in terms of trichromatic coefficients, and sometimes
in terms of matching standardized color chips, or colored papers designated
as standards.

CORRUGATED BOXES.  A box made of corrugated paperboard, which consists
of one or more layers of flat board (linerboard) and corrugating medium
(see Medium).
                             r  32

INTEGRATED PAPER MILL. A paper or board mill that produces substantially
all its own pulp.  A partially integrated mill is one that produces some but
not all of its pulp.

KRAFT. A process for making virgin fiber by a chemical digestion process.
Term is also used to refer to the product, which is used for grocery bags and
the outer layers of corrugated boxes, for example.  The product is brown in
color, but may be bleached, for example, to make milk cartons.

LEDGER. Trade term for a group of high-grade waste papers that usually
come from offices or print shops. Includes copier paper, computer print-
out, envelopes, or other publication papers.  The papers usually have
printing on them, which can be removed by a deinking process.

LlNERBOARD. The flat outer surfaces of corrugated  board.

MEDIUM.  The fluted inner section of corrugated board. More properly
called corrugating medium.

NEWSPRINT. A generic term used to describe paper  of the type generally
used in the publication of newspapers.

OFFICE PAPER. Those papers that are usually discarded in a business office.
Generally refers to forms, envelopes, copy paper, stationery, and other
papers that are normally associated with desk work activity.

OPACITY. The property of a sheet that obstructs the passage of light and
prevents seeing through to objects on the opposite side. This property is
especially important for printing papers.

PAPER. A generic term  for all grades of paper and paperboard.  In the
industry, paper refers to thin products such as printing paper, newspaper,
tissue paper, and wrapping paper.

PAPERBOARD.  In the industry, refers to thicker products such as boxes and
other packaging material.  Also called board in the paper industry.

POSTCONSUMER WASTE PAPER. Paper that has been used by a consumer
(such as the reader of a newspaper) and is available for recycling or dis-
posal.  It should be noted that there is a significant discussion on the
definition of postconsumer waste paper and this is but one definition.

PRECONSUMER WASTE PAPER. Paper that has become a waste paper prior to
being purchased or used by a consumer.  Preconsumer waste paper consists
primarily of trim, cuttings, and rejects from the conversion of paper and
paperboard rolls or sheets into finished products.

PRINTING PAPERS.  Printing papers are those papers utilized by the printing
industry and other end users for mass communications where many copies
are required.  Products include magazines, books, pamphlets, greeting
cards,  etc.
RECYCLED PAPER.  Paper that is wholly or partially made from preconsumer
and/or postconsumer waste paper.

RECYCLING. All activity whereby a secondary material is introduced as a raw
material into a new product in such a manner that its original identity is
lost. Recycling consists of four steps: collection, processing, marketing, and
use of as a raw material.

WASTE PAPER.  Any paper or paper product which has lost its value for its
original purpose and has been discarded. This includes any waste or scrap
created in paper converting operations, such as printing plant waste and
envelope cuttings, as well as discarded products such as boxes or newspa-

Appendix D
"Guideline for Federal Procurement of Paper and Paper
Products Containing Recovered Materials," Volume 53 Federal
Register Page No. 23546, June 22, 1988 (40 CFR Part 250).

Appendix E
E.H. Pechan & Associates, Inc.

Appendix G
Franklin Associates, Ltd.

"The Dictionary of Paper," published by the American Paper
Institute, Inc., 1980