U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    Region Ill/Mid-Atlantic States

U.S. Enwrownental Protection Aft**
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                                            ISBN 0-16-049981-X
 Annual report photographs by S. C. Delaney/EPA. Attribution for additional photos is noted.

1  i
vstrator  2
      following the first Earth Day, in 1970,
      President Nixon made a commitment
      to protect our environment by
      creating the Environmental Protection
      Agency.  On December 1 of that year,
      more than 5,500 people from five
      federal organizations were brought
      together to protect our environment
      and help make our country a better,
      safer and healthier place to live, work
      and play.

      The Region III headquarters in
      Philadelphia is one of 10 EPA offices
      strategically located throughout the
      United States. For more than 25
      years, the office has partnered with
      environmental agencies in Delaware,
      Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West
      Virginia and the District of Columbia
      to protect public health and the
      environment in the mid-Atlantic

      There have been many significant
      accomplishments.  Yet, every year,
      there are new challenges that
      threaten public health and the
      environment. The region's
      management identified five priority
      issues for 1999 — ozone smog; cities
      and the urban environment; bays and
      estuaries; acidification; and climate
      change.  These priorities are featured
      in this report.

      As regional teams beg'an to address
      problems in these five areas, three
      other challenges emerged — how to
      environmentally handle animal waste;
      problems associated with mountaintop
      mining; and a multitude of water
      issues. Each of these challenges also
      is highlighted in this report.

                    VERY   DAY
The Environmental Protection Agency's Region III continued to provide leadership on those
environmental and public health challenges confronting the mid-Atlantic states in 1998. As with
the nation in general, this region reaped the rewards of the greatest economic progress in a
generation.  America's economy is strong due to the longest peacetime expansion in history, record
productivity, and the lowest unemployment rate in four decades.

This healthy and robust economy — the top priority of the Clinton/Gore Administration — has
been accomplished while maintaining a strong commitment to public health and environmental
protection.  Balancing the dual objectives of economic growth and environmental protection during
this period of prosperity has never been more challenging nor more rewarding.

As we work with our partners in state government to implement and enforce environmental laws in
resourceful ways, new challenges inevitably arise that demand increased attention and ingenuity.

While old manufacturing industries pollute less,  expanding businesses  like large-scale poultry and
hog farms overload already stressed watersheds. Rivers and bays beginning to recover from
decades of pollution face unforeseen new pressures.

 Cities sprawl farther, consuming  green space and farmland, and increasing the need for clean water
 and proper sewage treatment. At the same time, there is more competition for limited funds to
 repair decaying urban centers.

 Superfund sites, where our nation's worst pollution occurred, are being cleaned — 68 so far in the
 Mid-Atlantic  region — and old industrial sites are being decontaminated  and returned to use as
 brownfields.  But groundwater impaired by toxic wastes leaching through the soil will  need
 monitoring and remediation far into the future.

 While our air contains less smoke from mills and factories, problems still remain from ozone-
 forming ingredients and microscopic particles being transported into our region from distant
 industrial boilers and power plants.

 Progress is slowly being made in cleaning acid drainage from hundreds of miles of mining streams.
 But new protections are needed  from strip mining methods that remove entire mountaintops and
 cover adjacent valleys with the spoils, destroying headwaters and anything living in  them.

 To meet these growing challenges, EPA's mid-Atlantic region has been  working harder and smarter
 to protect public health and the  environment. And the  regional office is  steadily fulfilling the
 Administration's directive to protect public health and improve environmental compliance through
 more flexible, cost-effective, and common-sense regulation.  Regional  staff has advanced results-
 oriented approaches for environmental protection, and  Region III leads all others in  developing
 innovative regulatory pilot projects under Project XL.

 America has come  a  long way from the days  of Donora, a Western Pennsylvania mill town where
 the clean air movement was born 50 years ago in a cloud of toxic fumes that killed 20 people and
 hospitalized 7,000.  Last year, we honored the memory of those who tragically perished before
 there was an EPA, as we recalled their legacy of laws and programs enacted later to protect public
 health and the environment.

 We  take heart at our accomplishments to date and thank the public for entrusting us with this
 mission.  This annual report showcases our best achievements in  1998. And it aspires to point
the way to a  clean, healthy future for  us all.  On behalf of the  many dedicated employees of
 Region III, I offer this report on our progress in the past year and the challenges ahead.

W. Michael McCabe
Regional Administrator
U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency

Sonny  Jurgensen was born in Wilmington,  North Carolina, attended  Duke  University,  played  quarterback  for
the Philadelphia  Eagles and Washington Redskins, and is  in the Pro Football Hail of Fame   He  now resides  m
northern Virginia

 I PA Region III faced one of its
 biggest challenges in working with
 the poultry industry to accept
 responsibility for farm runoff, and to
 help develop tougher state rules to
 protect waterways from rapidly
 growing factory farms in this region.

 It's been a long time coming.  In
 1997, the health of the Chesapeake
 Bay received national media
 attention  when the toxic micro-
 organism  Pfiesteria piscida killed tens
 of thousands of fish  in the Pocomoke
 River and  several other bay tributaries
 on the lower Eastern  Shore of
 Maryland.  Tests linked the single-cell
 organism to lesions found on fish,
 and skin rashes and memory loss in
 fishermen and other people  exposed
 to the  microbe.  These Pfiesteria
 outbreaks caused increased concern
 about the effects of agricultural waste
 runoff —  manure and other nutrient
 sources draining from rural areas into
 streams and rivers.

 Fifteen percent of the nation's
 chickens are grown and  processed in
 the mid-Atlantic states. Annually, it
 is a $1.5 billion  industry.  The chicken
 industry is the largest agribusiness in
 Virginia. The industry makes a
 tremendous contribution to the
 region's economy, especially on the
 Delmarva Peninsula, where more than
 250 million chickens are raised in
 Delaware alone.  Attention turned to
 the impacts of nutrients from
 hundreds of millions  of pounds of
 manure which is used as fertilizer and
 then seeps into nearby waterways,
 harming water quality and aquatic
 life.  Finding practical and economical
ways to better manage the industry's
 common use of nitrogen and
 phosphorous nutrients became a
regional and national  priority.
In October 1997, EPA Administrator
Carol M. Browner asked Region III

 15 j— Number of Farms (thousands)
                              Source: Census of Agriculture
Administrator W. Michael McCabe to
represent the agency in  national talks
with the major poultry producers.
The National Poultry and Egg
Environmental Dialogue  became the
means for dealing with environmental
problems from poultry production,
and gave the industry a unique
opportunity to design creative
solutions.   Led by the National Broiler
Council  — now the National Chicken
Council  — the talks helped define
what needs to be done to correct and
avoid further environmental damage.

As EPA's chief representative on the
dialogue committee, McCabe also
sought to increase the public's
awareness about the harmful impacts
of poultry waste pollution. In
newspaper editorials and interviews
with the press, McCabe and staff
experts  warned about the hundreds of
millions of pounds of poultry waste
generated each year, and the inability
of crops to absorb the nutrients
applied  to farmland.
Most of this manure is spread as
fertilizer on farmland near where
it was produced, creating an
imbalance in the amount of beneficial
nutrients that  can  be absorbed by
crops.  The U.S. Department of
Agriculture estimates that phosphorus
and nitrogen in manure  exceeded
Delmarva crop needs by more than
twice the load that could be
absorbed.   Excess nutrients, such as
nitrogen and phosphorus, feed
organisms that rob waterways of
life-giving  oxygen, leaving  little
room for diverse species of fin fish,
shellfish and aquatic plants.  Instead,
undesirable plants, like  algae and sea
lettuce, proliferate; and other species,
such as Pfiesteria,  turn toxic.  This not
only adversely affects our waterways,
but also has the potential to  cause
human health  problems.

In the spring of 1998, a new
Maryland law required virtually all of
the state's farms to manage nutrients.
The state  law is  designed to protect
citizens and waterways  by  reducing
nutrient levels in rivers and streams.
Maryland also will test a four-year
program to help poultry farmers
transport manure from farms in areas
where the land  is over-enriched with
phosphorus. Virginia also is moving
toward adoption of a  state-based
regulatory program  to require the
nutrient management program on
poultry farms.

After months of talks with the
national dialogue committee, industry
leaders crafted  a comprehensive
program to manage poultry waste and
reduce associated environmental
problems with many initiatives
supported by EPA and consistent with
the President's  Clean Water Action
Plan. Areas of the  plan which need
more emphasis are  cost-sharing with
poultry industry integrators and
measures to monitor and assure

In September 1998, as part of the
President's Clean Water Action Plan,
the agency and the U.S. Department
of Agriculture proposed  a new
national strategy to control animal
waste pollution. The strategy offers
fairness across  the  board in
requiring the nation's largest animal
feeding operations  to obtain
permits and develop plans to
manage nutrients from animal waste.
Smaller operations will be encouraged
to manage nutrients to  minimize
water quality threats through  state
programs such  as in Maryland and
Virginia or effective voluntary
programs.  Nationally, animal waste
from farms that raise cattle, hogs,
poultry and dairy cows produce 1.37
billion tons of  manure each year, or
the  equivalent of 5 tons for every
person in the  U.S.  This is  more than
130 times the  amount of human
waste produced in the country.

 A major breakthrough came in early
 1999 when Perdue announced it
 would build a fertilizer plant in
 Delmarva that will pelletize 120,000
 tons of chicken  litter a year for
 transport to farms in other parts of
 the country that need fertilizer.

 Implementing this strategy is a key
 environmental priority of the  Clinton
 Administration  aimed at protecting
 water quality. EPA and USDA  are
 working  together with state agencies,
 agricultural organizations and local
 conservation and watershed groups
 in understanding the strategy and
 assisting farmers with nutrient
 management work. In addition, EPA
 has received additional funding under
the Clean Water Action Plan and will
distribute about $18 million to states
in the region to address problems of
farm runoff and  other non-point-
source pollution.
                                               the United States
                                                                        Source: National Chicken Council

beauty I dreamed about in West Virginia
             Roads' is now disappearing.
tops are being cut off and the valleys and
!                               ..- 'ซ#%•ป". -
                                   • •-"-
                          no longer wi

ft great deal of the region's
resources in 1998 went to one
of the least-populated, but
naturally scenic areas,
southern West Virginia. During
the past year, the agency
reached a major milestone in
lessening the environmental
impact of a  new coal mining
technology called mountaintop

A legal settlement in the last
week  of 1998 calls for  a
comprehensive study by four
federal agencies on the
cumulative environmental
impacts of mountaintop
mining.  During the two-year
study, tough  new  rules will
limit valley fills to better
protect the environment and
reduce destruction of streams.

For the first time, mining fills
that drain more than 250 acres
of watershed will  be required
to undergo an environmental
review —  and minimize harm
to the environment —  before
they can be  permitted.

Regional Administrator McCabe
was quoted by the Associated
Press  describing the long-range
effects of this sweeping
agreement: "I think it's really
going  to change the way
mountaintop mining is
conducted in the Appalachian

Solving this  problem involved
a team of EPA regional and
headquarters employees and
four federal  agencies — EPA,
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Office of Surface Mining, and
Fish and Wildlife Service.

The controversy has been reported
by national media including U.S.
News & World Report, The
Washington Post, The New York
Times, CNN and other networks,
and almost daily by news media
in the state.

In this form of surface  mining,
entire mountaintops are cut away
by gigantic machinery,  and waste
soil and rocks  are dumped into
adjacent valleys, burying hundreds
of miles of streams. Giant
machines costing as much as  $100
million, 20-stories  high with
buckets large enough to hold  a
dozen or more automobiles, work
24 hours  a day, seven days a
week.  One man operating the
machine can move  over a million
cubic yards of earth each month.
Some of the valley fills are 1,000
feet wide, 500 feet deep and  a
mile long.  Mining  companies set
production records  in 1996 and
1997, relying increasingly on
mountaintop removal/valley fill
methods, as demand for West
Virginia's low sulphur coal
Miners, local residents and EPA talk outside. Over 1,000 people came to LIWM We si Vnq '
comments on two mountaintop mining permits. Photo by Dave Rider, FPA
By October 1998, there were 21
pending permits for 90 new
projects that would bury 50 miles
of streams with mining rubble.
Since 1986,  more than 480 miles
of West Virginia streams have
been buried  with millions of tons
of rock and soil waste from this
"West   Virginia's   greatest   natural   resource   is  its

fantastic beauty.   I  love those  hills,  clean  air, fresh

water and  green trees — as far as you  can see.  Let's

keep it that way for our children and  their future."

                                                     —  Sam Huff
Sam Huff, born in Jameson Mine No 9, West Virginia, was a consensus AU-Amencan tackle at West Virginia
University, played for the New York Giants and Washington Redskins and is in the Pro Football Hall of Fame
type of coal mining.  EPA was
concerned about the  streams
being lost, the environment being
harmed and water quality

Echoing the concern  of citizens
in  the state who filed suit
challenging these valley fills,  EPA
held a public hearing in Logan in
October.  More than 1,000 people
attended and 100 testified during
the seven-hour meeting.

The interagency agreement
announced in late December 1998
responded to  citizen  concerns
about the cumulative effects of
mountaintop mining  as it has
come to be practiced in southern
West Virginia coal fields.

Changes in the topography leave
some regions more vulnerable to
flooding, while others lose

 underground supplies of drinking
 water.  Even the governor
 admitted that no one knows the
 long-term impact on streams,
 wildlife and supporting

 A 1994 survey by the West
 Virginia  Department of  Water
 Resources reported that 76
 percent of all streams and rivers
 in the state are polluted.  The
 economic impact on the state's
 growing  tourism business and the
jobs it creates has  not  been
 evaluated, although there is
 widespread belief that tourism is
 the economy of the future in West
 Virginia.  The state's former
 director  of forestry, Bill Maxey,  an
 opponent of surface mining, said
 that mountaintop removal had
 "destroyed" 250,000 acres of
 forest.  He noted that timber is
 the state's only  renewable natural
 resource, and the industry
 employs  more than 30,000  people,
 compared to less than 18,000 by
the coal industry.

An article in the October 1998
"National Coal"  issue of the West
 Virginia University Law Review
 notes that valley fills create a
flattened and virtually treeless
topography.  "As a  result, the
tourist industry  will suffer greatly
because  many tourists travel to
West Virginia to see the
mountains, valleys, streams and
colorful trees," the writer, Jeffrey
W. Lilly, added.

Thanks to EPA's  watchfulness,
mountaintop mining will be forced
to take responsibility for repairing
the damage it creates.
         In southern West Virginia, coal companies are using a type of strip
      mining called mountaintop removal to get at thin, low-sulfur coal seams.
     Average heights: 800 to 1,000 feet from
     the valley floor to the mountaintop
            COAL SEAMS As many as six or
            seven layers of coat, from two to four
            feet thick, may be in the mountain.
 and valleys
 Valley is filled
 with excess
 rock and soil
This time, the
excess rock
fills in the area
just mined
The area is
and planted
with grass
                  VALLEY FILLS Up to 300 feet deep and a mile long.

"The locals call the state of West Virginia 'Almost Heaven/ and if you've ever
experienced the breathtaking physical beauty of the place, you'll know why.
I grew up in the Kanawha Valley,, where we took pride in being called "the
Chemical Capital of the World.'  We could literally smell the river, and were
not allowed to swim in it or eat its fish.  In the years since, there have been
massive cleanup efforts, and the Kanawha River is now a source of pride for
the local residents.  Our environment is our most valuable and irreplaceable
asset, and we must remember that it is our responsibility to protect and
take care of our home, and Mother Earth."
                                                        — Kathy Mattea

 I he mid-Atlantic region is one of
the most industrialized areas of the
country — from the chemical giants
of West Virginia's Kanawha Valley
and the oil refineries in Philadelphia
to the massive paper mills that dot
Virginia's rivers and the sprawling
vacant lots where Pittsburgh's
once-booming mills made steel.
Industry's hazardous waste and toxic
chemicals are  facts  of life in  this
part of the country.

The mid-Atlantic states are home to
10 percent of  the U.S. population
and produce 10 percent of the gross
national product. A byproduct of
that productivity is 50,000 tons of
hazardous waste every day.  With
such a great concentration of
people and production, protecting
public health and the environment
from the risks  of hazardous waste
and toxic chemicals is a constant
and complicated challenge.

Enforcement, hazardous waste
cleanups, emergency responses,
underground storage tank
requirements,  chemical use
reporting, spill prevention and
pollution prevention —  all
providing overlapping protection.

Superfund - Cleanups
and Emergencies
The region's Superfund program
handles emergency spills,  leaks and
fires,  and short-term and long-term
cleanup of hazardous waste sites,
usually where  the polluters have
abandoned the sites or are unwilling
or financially unable to clean
them  up.

Out of the 183 long-term cleanup
sites in the region,  also known as
National Priorities List sites,  68
cleanups were  completed and 55

were underway in 1998.  Local
authorities called on the agency
160 times when crews had to take
emergency action to eliminate a
threat to human  health.

At these emergency cleanup sites
throughout the region, more than
10.5 million  gallons of liquid
hazardous waste, about the same
quantity as the Exxon  Valdez oil
spill, have been disposed of safely.
Some 351,535 cubic yards  of soil,
enough to fill 22,000  18-wheeler
dump trucks,  have been taken away
to prevent human exposure.
Fortunately, emergency spills
dropped 30 percent in Pennsylvania
and 49 percent in Maryland this
past year compared to 1997.
Environmental engineers have
used innovative and unorthodox
techniques to clean up many sites.
An agency dive crew donned
wetsuits and air tanks to recover
dozens of  unmarked hazardous
waste drums from the  bottom of a
water-filled quarry in Wilmington,
Delaware.  At the Drake Chemical
site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania,
an on-site incinerator  is burning
630 tons of contaminated soils each
day until all 260,000 tons are
burned. And at the Whitmoyer
Laboratories site in Jackson
Township,  Pennsylvania, engineers
are using the wastewater from steel
production, known as  pickle liquor,
to treat groundwater contaminated
with arsenic.
At the Naval Weapons Station in
Yorktown, Virginia, the agency is
overseeing the use of a unique
technology and a unique funding
arrangement to clean up leftover
explosives. A three-way deal among
the Navy, the Canadian Ministry of
Environment and Grace Bio-
Remediation Technologies will
finance a technology which uses
heavy oils for cleanup.

Wergroond Storage Ms
A decade ago,  Congress recognized
that leaking underground storage
tanks were threatening our nation's
groundwater, which more than half
of Americans use for drinking water.
So, Congress gave tank owners 10
years to upgrade, remove or seal  off
their tanks.  In December 1998, the
time was up.

EPA and its counterpart agencies
in the mid-Atlantic states are
beginning the  process of locating
tank owners who missed the
deadline.  However, many of the
roughly 106,000 active tank  owners
in the region have made the
necessary investment or used
state  assistance to comply with
the new regulation.

Toxic Release  Inventory
The Toxic Release Inventory was
established by the 1986 Emergency
Planning  and Community Right-to-
Know Act. It contains information
about the releases of more than 650
toxic chemicals in to the air, water
and land, and tracks how wastes  are
recycled,  used  as fuel, treated and
disposed  of. The public uses  the
on-line inventory to  learn about the
potential health and environmental
risks in their neighborhoods.

When the feature film "A Civil Action" began
playing in theaters Christmas Day 1998, it
may have left moviegoers wondering what the
EPA is doing to protect drinking water near
their homes.

The motion picture dramatizes the lengthy and
complex lawsuit surrounding the contamination
of drinking water wells in Woburn,
Massachusetts and the subsequent illnesses,
including eight childhood leukemia deaths,
among the families living there.

Problems like Woburn were  the reason Congress
created the Superfund in 1980, and gave EPA
authority to address the health risks from
improper disposal of hazardous waste.

In 1990, the  agency negotiated a landmark
$69.45 million settlement for the cleanup of
municipal wells G and H, the sources of the
contaminated  drinking water in Woburn.

According to the settlement, the parties
responsible for the cleanup — W. R. Grace &
Co., UniFirst Corp., New England Plastics,
Beatrice Co.,  Wildwood Conservation Corp. and
John 3. Riley, Jr. — must decontaminate their
properties, finance EPA's oversight, perform a
study of the area surrounding wells G and H,
and reimburse the EPA for past site
investigation costs.

The conflicts  and challenges played out in the
movie are part of everyday life at the agency
charged with  protecting  America's environment
and public health, including drinking water.

EPA approaches the problem of potential
drinking water contamination  from many
angles, including the cleanup  of Superfund
hazardous waste sites, such as Woburn; the
protection of groundwater from leaking
underground petroleum storage tanks;  and a
new regulation that says water suppliers
must provide annual reports to customers
on the quality of each community's public
water supply.

At the  end of 1998, the mid-Atlantic regional
office provided drinking water to nearby
residents at 80 Superfund sites where
contaminated water was not potable.
Nationwide, drinking water wells have been
shut down at about 360 Superfund sites and
alternative water sources were supplied.  At
another 500 sites, wells located nearby are at
risk, but still unaffected by contamination
plumes moving through the groundwater.

Another source of widespread groundwater
contamination is leaking underground
petroleum storage tanks. Just a few  drops of
gasoline in an underground aquifer can taint a
whole community's water supply.

An EPA rule gave tank owners 10 years to put
safeguards onto their tanks to prevent leaks
and spills.  The 10-year  deadline was up in
December 1998, and inspectors  have  started
looking for tanks that are not up to snuff.  If a
tank owner was not willing  to upgrade tanks or
install  new ones, the tanks had to be shut
down or removed from the ground.

Another new EPA rules goes into effect in
1999, requiring  public water suppliers to
include with their bills an annual water quality
summary, known as a Consumer  Confidence
Report.  This report must divulge the source of
the drinking water, any contaminants that may
be found in the water, and their potential
health effects.

Anyone suspecting a property or groundwater of
being contaminated  can call the  Region III
Emergency Response Center at (215) 814-9016.
For states outside the mid-Atlantic region, the
National Emergency Response Center can be
called at  (800)424-8802.

                                                                                                Hr. Guy  Bluford
Since industries began tracking
their toxics and wastes, they have
[earned it makes better business
sense to reduce these chemicals
up-front, or at Least find ways  to
recycle them more effectively.  Their
efforts are  beginning to  pay off.
The most recent inventory in 1996
revealed that, since 1988, plants in
the region  have cut their toxic air
emissions by nearly 54 percent.  It
also showed that from 1992 to
1996, the amount of toxic waste
created has decreased by nearly 29

Speakers such as Mark Singleton from General
Electric, focused on a range of topics including
global chemical management  and  pollution
prevention  at the regional waste minimization
conference. The conference brings together
technical and non-technical audiences to discuss
pollution solutions. Photo by Tad Radzinski, EPA.
percent, and 46 percent of that
waste was recycled.
Many of the huge industrial
facilities throughout the region
succeeded in reducing their toxic
releases, according to the 1996
inventory reporting.  By using
methanol waste as fuel on-site, the
Westvaco Corporation in Luke,
Maryland was able to reduce its
toxic output by 74  percent from
1988 to 1996.  The Allied-Signal
plant in Hopewell, Virginia managed
94 percent of its toluene waste by
recycling on-site.  Before nitrate
compounds  were added to the list
of reportable chemicals in 1995,
the Bayer corporation in New
Martinsville, West Virginia had
reduced releases by 51 percent
through 1994.

The Toxic Release Inventory is under
constant scrutiny and revision. New
chemicals and  new industries are
added to the list every year.  In
1998, seven new industries were
added — metal mining, coal
mining, electric generating  plants,
petroleum bulk terminals, chemical
distribution, hazardous waste
treatment, and commercial solvent
recovery.  They begin  reporting their
1998 data in July 1999.
Ciiemical Eifieriency Planning
The agency responds well to
emergencies,  frequently mobilizing
personnel on  the first day of a
response.  However, EPA also is
dedicated to  educating industry,
local firemen, police, paramedics,
governments  and emergency planners
on preventing and  preparing for

For the past five years, Region III
has sponsored the  national Chemical
Emergency Prevention and
Preparedness  Conference, held  in a
city in the mid-Atlantic states.  The
conference attracts attendees from
every state and several foreign
nations.  More than 1,000 people
attended the  last conference, which
was held in December 1997 in
Pittsburgh. It featured  a series of
lectures and workshops, including a
relatively  new session on counter-
terrorism.  The conference provides
hands-on  training, from a mock
overturning of a tractor-trailer
hauling  toxic chemicals to the
tabletop simulation of a town
experiencing  a real emergency.  The
1999  conference is scheduled for
September 20-23 in Washington,  D.C.

The hazardous waste a company generates
can cut into the profit margin.  Not only do
companies pay to manage, transport and
dispose of waste, they also may be throwing
away valuable resources while incurring
potential liabilities.  More and more,
companies are taking steps to generate less
hazardous waste, not only to  save money, but
also to reduce the financial burden of
complying with hazardous waste regulations.

Across the nation, a long-term national
effort is under way to reduce the quantity
and toxicity of the most persistent,
bioaccumutative, and toxic chemicals.
Minimizing waste also reduces long-term
threats to human health and the environment.

EPA developed a national plan to help
companies reduce by half the amount of
chemicals by the year 2005.  This voluntary
effort involves reducing waste at the source,
recycling, and preventing chemical releases to
air, water or soil, which can occur when wastes
are managed  rather than reduced.

The agency is working closely with the  states
in the mid-Atlantic region to  help companies
reduce their hazardous waste  and to provide
technical assistance to companies as it did
when it sponsored a waste minimization
pollution prevention technical conference in
August 1998  in Philadelphia.  More than 500
businesses from  across the nation attended the
conference to hear industry leaders describe
waste minimization techniques and success
stories.  A highlight of the conference was the
Mobile Outreach  for Pollution Prevention
Vehicle that demonstrated the latest waste
minimization techniques by auto body,  auto
repair,  and coating and surface-finishing
An example of a company that has reduced
wastes, Community Light and Sound, Inc.
of Chester, Pa., which manufactures speakers
and sound-projecting fiberglass  horns, shared
with the attendees at the conference how it
used waste minimization techniques in spray
painting to eliminate 421,180 pounds of waste,
improve productivity, and save on workers'
compensation and insurance premiums.

Businesses interested in reducing waste can
get additional information by phoning

"There is(TO"reason today that anybody should
get sick from bad water.  Six summers ago, 34
people suffered  encephalitis  and a  little girl
died  in  Cabin  Creef^cause  there  were no
sewers.  Everybody deserves to livajjx a  safe
and healthy environment.'
                                     — Jerry West
Born in Cabin Creek, West Virginia, Jerry West was an All-American at West Virginia University and became one
of basketball's all-time greats with the Los Angeles Lakers He now is vice president and general manager of the Lakers

 In  his State of the Union Address
 in January 1998, President Clinton
 announced an initiative to speed
 the restoration of the nation's
 rivers, lakes and coastal waters,
 and to ensure that all Americans
 have  safe drinking water.  A month
 later, building upon the work done
 by Vice President Gore, the
 President announced the Clean
 Water Action Plan.

 This year marks the  25th
 anniversary of the Safe Drinking
 Water Act, and since it first became
 law, there has been  tremendous
 progress to  restore and clean the
 nation's  waterways.  Clean waters
 provide environmental, recreational
 and economic benefits throughout
 the country, yet 40 percent of
 America's surface waters are still not
 safe for fishing and  swimming.
 About half of the country's 2,000
 major watersheds, including the
 Chesapeake Bay, have water quality
 problems that threaten living
 creatures and plant life and  pose a
 public health risk.

 While more than 85  percent of all
 Americans receive  safe, healthy
 drinking  water from  water supply
 systems that comply with  federal
 standards for drinking water, the
 President has challenged EPA to
 raise this to 100 percent.

 Water pollution in  the region once
 was controlled factory-by-factory.
Through  the agency's enforcement
 of environmental laws with our
state  partners, most of the pollution
from local factories has been
controlled.  But there are serious
 new threats, such as polluted
stormwater runoff, overflowing
sanitary sewers, and excess nitrogen
and phosphorus from farm runoff.

To protect the sou
The Clean Water Action Plan
identifies initiatives to curb water
pollution from a variety of sources.
Agricultural runoff is the biggest
source of pollution to  the nation's
waters, affecting 70 percent of
rivers and streams, and 49 percent
of lakes  assessed by the states.  The
administration's plan targets poor
land management and  agricultural
practices as areas of improvement
   Funds Awarded to Region III States
     for Drinking Water Treatment
        Facilities in FY '97 & '98

West Virgi
            $ Awarded (millions)
where reductions can be made in
farm nutrients and animal waste
which degrade water quality and
harm public health.  About 450,000
agricultural operations in this
country keep and raise animals in
confined conditions.  These so-
called animal feeding operations
can range in size from small farms
with fewer than 250 animals up to
large farms with more than 1,000.
A common practice by the farmers
is to spread the manure on fields as
fertilizer to help crops grow.  Over
the years,  farmland  has  become
saturated with nutrients which far
exceed  the ability of crops to
absorb  them. The excess nutrients
then flow into rivers and streams,
choking off the growth of bountiful
aquatic life.

The average size of a U.S. farm is
491 acres, while the average size in
the mid-Atlantic region is 189 acres.
States in  this region have only two
percent of the total U.S. farmland,
but six percent of the total number
of farms.  Since  less land is
available, controlling and  properly
managing the application  of huge
amounts of animal waste on
farmland in this region is  critical.

As part  of the President's Clean
Water Action Plan, last September,
EPA and the U.S. Department of
Agriculture released  a national
strategy to minimize water
pollution from animal feeding
operations.  Farmers will benefit
from site-specific plans which
improve feed management,  manure
handling and storage, Land
application of manure, and  overall
land stewardship based on their
own needs and operating
conditions.  This national strategy
offers a way to gain significant
environmental, public health and
natural  resources benefits, and also
considers the importance of the
nation's agricultural economy and
sustaining a  healthful food supply.

Sewer systems that combine
wastewater and stormwater in one
system are another problem.  In a
rainstorm or heavy snowmelt, the
volume of water sometimes exceeds
the capacity of the combined
sewer systems or treatment plants,
which overflow, discharging  raw
wastewater directly into rivers and
streams.  Modern sewer systems are
separated, with wastewater in one
system and storm  water in another.
Pennsylvania  has the largest number
of combined sewer overflows, not
only in the  region, but in  the U.S.
The District of Columbia has 60
outfalls to address.  Seaford  and
Wilmington are the affected  cities
in Delaware, and Alexandria,
Covington, Lynchburg and Richmond
in Virginia.

Since 1994, the EPA has worked
with states  to help communities
implement strategies, policies
and controls to deal with combined
sewer system  overflows.
    '••'•  '.;K\y -J^V the  garr.e. all  Americans have a  stake

    preserving  our  outdoor treasures."

                                                —  Arnold  Palmer
Pennsylvania and West Virginia have
developed their own strategies.
Maryland has adopted nine controls
as part of its statewide
enforcement.  A task force in
Delaware completed a report in May
1998 that will be used in drafting
new permits.  EPA is  providing
financial support to the District of
Columbia and Virginia.  The four
Virginia cities are receiving a
combination of federal and state
money to separate their sewer
systems. Richmond is targeted to
receive $20 million, and  Lynchburg
will get $2.5 million and an
additional $20 million from the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for
a project that may take 20 years
to complete.

Involving All Stakeholders
The administration's clean water
plan calls for local, state and
federal partners to work closely with
citizens, businesses and industry
leaders to assess the  health of each
watershed and  set priorities to
restore and protect them. This
cooperative approach considers the
characteristics  of individual

.vateisheds for planinng restoiatior.
goals.  For example, comprehensive
efforts to  reduce polluted  runoff,
protect drinking  water sources,
restore wetlands, and  control point-
source pollution  will incorporate
solutions developed by stakeholders.

To begin the important dialogue to
meet this  and other goals of the
plan, the agency initiated meetings
with each  state in  the region.
These meetings brought together
state and  federal agencies, local
organizations,  and environmental
advocates to discuss strategies for
improving water quality and
sustaining the existing healthy

In October 1998, each state
submitted a unified watershed
assessment which identified the
watersheds where work will begin
during 1999-2000.  Based on these
priorities,  EPA will provide states
additional funding in  fiscal year
1999 to start their restoration
actions. The assessments also will
be used to develop a  national map
depicting  impaired waters across
the country and  priorities for
cleaning them up.
Agricultural runoff results in nutrient over-
enrichment of rivers, bays and streams.
The EPA and its state counterparts
today look at all of the pollutants
entering a watershed and who
contributes what.  A water quality
management plan called Total
Maximum  Daily Loads, or TMDL, is
used now. The total amount of
pollutants is calculated with the
sum of all individual reductions
needed from point sources  that
dump into a river,  such as factories
or sewage plants, plus nonpoint
sources, such as agriculture and
urban runoff, plus  an additional
margin for safety.  This will result
in healthier and more productive
watersheds by controlling pollution
and restoring streams and lakes on
a much larger  scale than has been
done traditionally.

Safe Drinking Water
Safe drinking water is the
cornerstone of public health
protection.  One of the primary
goals of the Environmental
Protection Agency is to ensure safe
drinking water for all Americans.
The agency's  responsibility is to
oversee the state programs, help
pay to build new systems, upgrade
old systems, set new drinking water
standards, and deal with the worst

There are 20,742 water  systems in
the mid-Atlantic states  providing
drinking water to 25.7 million
consumers every day. Only 17
percent of public water  is supplied
by the 19,844 small systems that
serve 50,000 or fewer customers.
Most violations are committed by
small water suppliers who sell water
to 100 or fewer  customers.  Many
are monitoring violations, which are
critical, because the first step in
clean water is knowing  what is
in the water. To ensure that no
problem goes unnoticed, federal
and  state regulators require water
suppliers to  monitor and report
all types and quantities of
contamination, including bacteria.


                 Ground Water Grants Began
                                                                 \ •>*
                                                 Nonpomt Source Grants Began
 minerals like lead and copper,
 and hundreds of chemicals.

 The last step in ensuring safe,
 healthy drinking water is President
 Clinton's recent announcement of
 the Consumer Confidence Rule,
 which requires all community water
 suppliers to annually tell
 customers— on their bills, via  the
 Internet, or by other means —
 what is in their water; the source of
 their water;  the quality of their
 water source; possible sources of
 any contaminants; health education
 statements for children, the elderly
 and people with immune system
 disorders such as leukemia  and
 AIDS; and phone numbers for
 additional sources of information,
 including the EPA's Safe Drinking
 Water Hotline, (800)426-4791.

 Teamwork the Key
Teamwork is the principal focus of
the President's Clean Water Action
 Plan — getting the myriad of
federal, state and local
governments, environmental
partnerships, businesses and
industry groups to tackle the
nation's remaining water pollution
problems as a team.
 While independent approaches may
 have worked in  the past, the
 President's plan provides an
 opportunity for  organizations to
 combine resources, leverage
 funding, and develop solutions on a
 watershed basis. Congress approved
 $145 million in  EPA fiscal '99
 spending to carry out the 111 key
 actions in the plan. In the mid-
 Atlantic region,  EPA and the Natural
 Resources Conservation Service are
 leading efforts to strengthen
 partnerships and build on the
 success of clean water programs in
 the states.  The two agencies will
join with other federal partners  as
 an interagency team to work closely
 with state and community
 representatives.   The regional
 interagency  team will improve
 coordination and communication,
 and serve as a direct link between
 the national action teams, states,
 and locally led watershed groups.
                                         Reservoirs, like Springton Reservoir in Pennsylvania store water for residential and commercial use.


Another of EPA's most sweeping
challenges came from President
Clinton, who negotiated a treaty
signed in December 1997 in Kyoto,
Japan, to reduce greenhouse gases
and slow global climate change.
All developed nations agreed to
reductions by the years 2008-2012.

The regional office responded to the
President's call  to think globally and
act locally by hosting several
conferences on  climate change that
included satellite television links to
The College  of William & Mary and
Carnegie Mellon University from a
White House conference, and a
February symposium in Philadelphia.
The conferences, which emphasized
solutions, received extensive media
coverage.  The agency outlined
how businesses and families are
successfully participating in many
voluntary programs, and how its
Business Assistance Center provides
technical assistance to help small- and
medium-sized businesses reduce costs
while protecting the environment.

The primary greenhouse gases and
their sources are carbon dioxide from
fossil fuel combustion — automobiles
and trucks, and electric  power plants.
Energy use  accounts for at least half
of the world's greenhouse  gases. This
country is the largest energy consumer
in the world, and accounts for 22
percent of carbon dioxide emissions.

Other greenhouse gases include
methane from landfills, coal mines,
natural gas systems and livestock;
and hydrofluorocarbons and
petrofluorocarbons from various
industrial processes.  The combustion
of fossil fuels also results in other
pollution, including nitrogen oxides,
which in addition to  being
greenhouse  gases, are also involved









                              1970 to 2010
Population ^___—————"
          Source: U.S. Census Bureau and EPA Region III (Projected from 1994 to 2010)
in acid rain and ground-level ozone.
These gases prevent the sun's energy
from escaping back into space,  and
trap heat close to the Earth's surface,
raising global temperatures and
turning the planet into a greenhouse.

Those skeptics who still questioned
global climate change after 1997,
should pause to reconsider 1998.
Mother Nature unleashed all of her
    devastating fury, leaving almost no
    geographic area unscathed.  July 1998
    was the hottest month ever recorded,
    and the seventh consecutive month in
    which global temperatures set records.
    The 10 hottest years in history have
    all occurred in the past 12 years, with
    1998 the hottest since record-keeping
    began in 1880.  And, every year sees
    a new record for Land and water
    temperatures.  Nobel Prize-winning
scientists and members of the
National Academy of Sciences tell us
these extreme weather changes are
consistent with global warming.

Extreme and erratic weather has
brought more frequent and more
severe hurricanes and tornadoes;
flooding; drought; deadly heat waves;
fire storms; and violent electrical, ice,
snow and hail storms, and blizzards.
Thousands of people were left
homeless; and since 1992, damage
to property and agricultural crops
is approaching $100 million.

Catastrophic wildfires in Florida,
Mexico, Brazil and Indonesia only
made matters worse, by releasing
carbon  dioxide into the atmosphere
from burning forests. The Indonesian
fires alone released more carbon
dioxide in three months than all of
Europe's industry does in a year.

Over the past century, the average
global temperature has increased by
about 1ฐ Fahrenheit. Carbon dioxide
concentrations in the atmosphere are
the highest they have been in the last
160,000 years.  Temperatures have
also risen and fallen during that
period as a result of carbon dioxide
"Ozone smog  is dangerous  to just  about  everyone,  regardless  of  how  healthy we

are.   People who spend a lot  of time exercising,  playing or working  can experience

fatigue and  breathing  problems  from  ozone smog.   Before  using  a  car on  those

ozone-alert days,  ask yourself, Is this trip necessary?'"

                                                                                   — Mary  Lou Retton
Olympic champion Mary Lou Retton was born and raised in Fairmont, West Virginia.

 levels, which  may double or triple
 in the next 100 years, with a
 corresponding rise in temperature
 from 1.8ฐ to 6.3ฐ Fahrenheit.  Global
 sea  level has  risen 4-10 inches and is
 projected to rise another 20 inches in
 the  next century.  Mountain glaciers
 are  melting worldwide.  Glacier
 National Park has lost 70 percent of
 its ice area in the last 100 years.

 A warmer atmosphere absorbs  more
 water from  the oceans and makes
 more moisture available to storms,
 increasing  the likelihood of floods and
 crop damage in some places. On
 land, moisture evaporates quickly in
 warm weather, and droughts are  likely
 to be more  severe. Changes in rain
 and  snowfall combined with  increased
 evaporation from higher temperatures
 can  affect water supplies and water
 quality, threatening hydropower,
 irrigation, fish migration and
 spawning, other wildlife, and
 drinking water.

 Every time a light, a computer, an
 appliance or a motor is turned on, a
 utility power plant burns fuel to
 generate electricity, and releases large
 quantities of carbon dioxide  and
 nitrous oxide into the atmosphere.
 Utilities  are responsible for 35  percent
 of carbon dioxide emissions.  Reduced
 energy use and conservation are
 essential to reduce greenhouse gases.
 Almost 99 percent of carbon  dioxide
 emissions are  associated with
 converting fossil fuels to energy.
 More than 96  percent of nitrogen
 oxide emissions and 88 percent of
 sulfur dioxide  emissions  are
 associated with  energy for utility
 companies, furnaces and boilers,  and

Cars, trucks, minivans, sport  utility
vehicles  and other forms of
transportation account for 32 percent
of all carbon dioxide Americans put
                 • i'  wet as  many trees ,is possible when covering landfills. Pictured here near
                 >•',* Pennsylvania trees make the area an attractive habitat for wildlife, and protect
                 . I cn>c,ion  Photo by R.A. Roman, EPA.
into the atmosphere.  Every gallon of
gasoline burned releases 22 pounds of
carbon  dioxide into the air. While
autos have become more fuel
efficient, more people are driving
more cars more often. Seventy
percent of all trips today in a car or
van  are with only one or two  people.
Increased use of  mass transit  and  car
pools is  needed to reduce vehicle  use.
Oceans  and  plants live on carbon
dioxide.  Planting trees and keeping
oceans free  of pollution will help
these carbon dioxide  users better
absorb carbon dioxide.

Voluntary Programs
Three successful EPA voluntary
programs that help conserve energy
and  reduce greenhouse gases  are
WasteWi$e, Energy Starฎ and Green
Lightsฎ. WasteWi$e encourages
businesses to reduce solid waste
through  waste prevention,  recycling,
and  buying or manufacturing products
with recycled content.

New homes and buildings with Energy
Starฎ products use 20 to 40 percent
less  energy than those with standard
new  products, and considerably less
than with older products.  Products
that bear the Energy Starฎ label
include computers, copiers and
many types of office equipment;
refrigerators, washers,  dryers and
other home appliances; furnaces and
air conditioners; and lighting fixtures.
Television sets and VCRs with the
Energy Starฎ label use up to 75
percent less energy than conventional
models when switched off, without
any sacrifice in quality or reliability.

Energy Starฎ Buildings & Green
Lightsฎ Partnership is a voluntary
program  where business  and
organizations upgrade their buildings
with energy-efficient lighting.  A total
of 506 participants in the mid-
Atlantic states represent 975 million
square feet of space and save $32
million a year in energy costs.  The
yearly elimination  of 768 million
pounds of carbon dioxide, 8.5 million
pounds of sulfur dioxide  and 92.7
million pounds of nitrogen oxides has
the same environmental  benefit as
planting  100,000 acres of trees and
removing 75,000 cars from highways
each year.

If every commercial and industrial
building in the country between now
and 2010  adopted Energy Starฎ,
utility bills would be cut $130 billion
and greenhouse gas emissions would
be reduced from 350 to 500 million
metric tons of carbon equivalent.  This
is equal to the pollution  produced by
20 million automobiles.

Businesses and industries are
becoming more energy-efficient.  Here
are other solutions to the greenhouse
gas problem:

Alternative Sources of Energy —
Choose green  power, which is
electricity that comes mostly or
entirely from renewable sources such
as solar, wind and geothermal. Used
now in California, the Pacific
Northwest and New England,
homeowners there can cut at least 50
percent of the carbon dioxide from
their consumption and slash  utility
bills. Another source is biomass,
which uses crops and trees specifically
grown as fuel sources or converts
waste products from agricultural crops,
forestlands and municipal solid wastes
into liquid and gas fuels for heat or
electricity generation. As production
and availability increase, and prices of
solar and photovoltaic cells and fuel
cells become more competitive, there
needs to be  widespread acceptance
and greater use.

Fuel-Efficient Automobiles
and Trucks — The average new
vehicle today gets double the number
of miles per gallon that cars  got in
1973.  Manufacturers are working to
produce automobiles three times more
fuel-efficient than today's models.
Many businesses and individuals are
beginning to rely on vehicles that
run efficiently on natural gas or
electricity.   Driving less and driving
more efficiently and keeping  a vehicle
properly tuned  will substantially
reduce pollution.

Reforestation —  Trees absorb carbon
dioxide, and leaves filter dangerous
pollutants from the air. Trees shade
homes,  buildings and pavements in
hot weather and shield them from
winds in cold weather, cutting energy
costs for heating and cooling.  A
reforestation strategy also offers many
valuable ecological and economic
benefits, including  production of
forest products,  maintenance of
biodiversity, watershed protection
and recreation.

Regardless of what happens in the
decades ahead, people will have to
change  lifestyles.  Decisions and
commitments now will affect the
quality of life for their children,
grandchildren and future generations
of all living things.  Otherwise,
changes most will consider
unacceptable may occur in a world
disrupted by climate change.
                      Public Concerned About Global Warming
   TmrTK ftartwul tfretts Wflt occUf In Next 75 rears.
           exnatisvwtfie tause.
   TMSrSvibat Warming is a settoUsThreaC
   U.S. Takes Steps to Reduce Global Warming.
   Global Warming.
          10         20        30        40        50

                               Percentage of People

                               Source: Gallup Organization

If Earth's climate continues changing, with
increasing temperatures, precipitation and rising
sea levels, the mid-Atlantic states may be
severely affected in many ways.

Bays and Coastal Areas — Rising sea levels may
erode beaches, inundate coastal lands and
wetlands, and threaten resort communities along
the Atlantic coast and Chesapeake Bay. The barrier
islands  and their natural resources and economies
would be threatened. A  one-foot rise in sea level
at Ocean City, Maryland  would  put under ocean
surf more than 200 feet of shoreline. Projects
needed  to maintain the  beach  would cost between
$60 and $85 million. Many recreational areas may
be lost.  By  2100, 5,000 square miles of dry land
and many coastal wetlands would  no longer exist.

Flooding of Cities — The nation's  capital, built on
former swampland adjacent to  the Potomac River,
is especially vulnerable  to flooding from changing
sea levels.  National Airport, the Jefferson
Memorial, the Mall, the  Reflecting Pool and other
landmarks are all susceptible to flooding.  Severe
flooding in 1985 led to  the deaths of 47 people
in the region and cost more than $900 million
in damages.

Health Impacts — Global warming means more
prolonged heat waves.  Heat-related illnesses and
deaths would increase.  The very young, the
elderly and the poor will be most  at risk.
Increased temperatures may  lead to  greater risk
of hantavirus, a fatal respiratory infection, and
exotic mosquito-borne diseases associated with
the tropics, including malaria,  dengue fever and
eastern  equine encephalitis,  which attacks both
horses and humans.

Agriculture — Crop yields and  geographic
distribution  of crops would change.  Some states
may gain, but others would lose.   It would be
expensive for farmers to adapt, and may alter
land-use patterns by converting forests into
farmlands.  Reduced crops would mean increased
prices and a drop in exports that could be
expensive for consumers, U.S. trade balances
and global food security.

Water Resources — Changes in water flow and
water quality could occur with the  potential for
more  severe water shortages in some areas. An
increased demand for irrigation from farmers
could further exacerbate current water shortages.

Loss of Forests and Species — A temperature
increase  of 3ฐF could threaten between 7 and 11
percent of North America's plant species. There
would be a shift in ecological zones for birds, fish
and other wildlife.  Natural and man-made
barriers would block migration for  some animals.
Recreational hunting and fishing could dwindle in
certain parts of the country. Fish and shellfish
recovering in the Chesapeake Bay would be
decimated.  If coldwater streams become too
warm, it  would mean the end of trout fishing  in
most  mid-Atlantic states.  Red spruce, hemlock,
beech and other trees would grow only in Canada.
Trees  and vegetation in forests in drier areas
would die from drought, insects and increased
disease.  Projected summer heat would increase
the risk of forest fires, especially where forests
are already under stress. Commercial timber
production, recreational areas and wildlife habitat
are all threatened.

For more  information:
Access EPA's global warming  Internet site at

"Breathing deeply and freely is especially important to me, and ozone can
create serious problems. Industrial and automobile pollution combine with
sunlight in hot weather to produce ozone, which can cause permanent lung
damage and aggravate heart disease, emphysema and asthma.  On ozone alert
days, help us all breathe easier and sing better by limiting daytime driving
and combining errands.'
                                                     — Jessye Norman

 Another area in which the mid-
 Atlantic region excelled during the
 past year was in taking bold action
 against air pollution through a
 regional approach to reducing
 nitrogen oxide emissions, by
 aggressive enforcement and
 requiring cleaner vehicles.

 The agency fights to protect the air
 we breathe by enforcing the Clean Air
 Act.  EPA has established air quality
 standards for six pollutants —
 carbon  monoxide,  lead, nitrogen
 dioxide,  ozone, particulate matter
 and sulfur dioxide — to prevent
 harmful impacts to public  health
 and the environment.  More than
 13 million people  in the mid-
 Atlantic  states live in areas that
 don't meet the health-based
 standard for ozone.

 On September 24,  1998, EPA
 Administrator Carol Browner
 announced new and tougher,
 health-based smog controls for 22
 states from Missouri to
 Massachusetts. The new
 regulations, designed to  reduce air
 pollution  that blows from the
 Midwest into the mid-Atlantic and
 the Northeast states, will help
 prevent thousands of cases each
year of smog-related illnesses  like
 bronchitis and exacerbated cases of
 childhood asthma.

The new controls were based on
research  and  analysis done by the
Ozone Transport Assessment Group,
a group of representatives from 37
states, industry and environmental
organizations.  Under the plan,
nitrogen oxide emission limits were
assigned to the states.

By 2007, the states involved must
reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide
by 1.1 million tons, or 28 percent.

These reductions also will help
reduce acid-rain damage, pollution
in waterways like the Chesapeake
Bay, and greenhouse gases that
contribute to global warming.

States in the mid-Atlantic region
have spent millions of dollars to
reduce unhealthy levels of smog,
only to have pollution from sources
hundreds of miles away blow in and
                           Area Sources
                           Oiy tleaneis,
                            ซit') Bed',
Mobile Sources
  Source  Emission Trends Viewer CD, OAQPS, EPA
make it impossible to meet federal
clean air standards locally.

Under the Browner plan, the states
will have the flexibility to decide
how best to make the reductions
and,  by September 1999, must
submit a state implementation  plan
or "SIP."  EPA urges this be done in
the most cost-effective way.  For
instance, the cost of reducing a ton
of nitrogen oxide from a power
plant is $1,500, compared with
$3,400  per ton from automobile

The Region III office worked  closely
with its partner agencies in the
mid-Atlantic states  to  help further
reduce ozone smog  pollution
through inspection  and
maintenance of motor  vehicles.
Cars  and trucks are  the single
largest source of volatile organic
compounds, called VOCs, that
interact with nitrogen  oxide,  or
NOX, to create smog.
EPA staff helped states develop
programs best suited for their
needs.  Delaware, Maryland,
Pennsylvania and Virginia all have
improved auto inspection and
maintenance programs to see that a
car's emission control system is
working properly.  Poorly
maintained vehicles, or  those with
malfunctioning emission control
systems, are  major polluters. The
District of Columbia will begin
testing in 1999.

With urban sprawl and low-cost
gasoline, vehicle traffic is getting
worse.  Since 1987, the number  of
miles motorists  have driven has
increased 35 percent.  Last year, 70
percent of urban freeways were
clogged during rush  hours,
compared with 55 percent in 1983.
In 1969, 82.7 percent drove  to
work in Washington, D.C., and this
increased to 91.4 percent in  1990,
despite the  fact that the area has
an excellent rapid transit system.
Between 1970 and 1987, the
number of cars on the road more
than doubled, and increased faster
than the number of people.

Suburb-to-suburb commuting now
accounts for 44 percent of all
metropolitan traffic versus 20
percent for  suburb-to-downtown
travel.  Clogged urban freeways  are
projected to spread from  crowded
cities to less developed areas that
do not have traffic jams that
increase air pollution.

New Air Quality Standards
In July 1997, EPA issued new air
quality standards for ground-level
ozone and  particulate matter that
will provide  additional protection
to nearly 133 million Americans,
including 40 million children. The

                                          '•(}\\ we didn't know all of the dangers of ozone,

                                  •   •  ..use  shortness of breath,  congestion,  chest pain,

   •'0:     .    tbmj  ,;re  e--pedj,[ly vulnerable.   When we  have those red-alert days,  we can all

breathe  easier  by limiting  daytime  driving,  combining errands, car pooling  and

riding public transportation."

                                                                               —  Johnny Unitas
new standards are expected to save
as many as 15,000 lives a year, cut
annual serious respiratory-related
problems in children by 250,000
cases, cut overall hospital
admissions by 9,000 per year, and
reduce the number of chronic
bronchitis cases by  60,000 a year.

Particulate matter consists of the
solid particles and liquid droplets
found in the air, invisible to the
naked eye, that appear as clouds or
a fog-like  haze.  These fine
particles come from many different
sources, including industries and

Ozone smog hurts just about
everyone,  regardless of how healthy
they  may be.  Breathing smog  can
cause shortness of breath,
congestion, chest pain, coughing
and wheezing. Especially
vulnerable are children, whose
respiratory systems  are  not fully
developed, the elderly, and people
with  lung  diseases such as asthma,
chronic  bronchitis and emphysema.
Smog is linked to 10 to 20 percent
of all summertime respiratory-
related hospital admissions in the
northeastern United States.  Similar
to a bad sunburn, ozone can cause
permanent lung damage.  Even
relatively low amounts of smog can
affect healthy adults who work or
exercise outdoors. Ozone smog
reduces the body's immune system
defenses, making people more
susceptible to respiratory illnesses,
Vice President Al Gore teaches children about the environment.

   — Tons/Year {millions)
         VOC (man-made sources only)
         Carbon Monoxide
 including bronchitis and
 pneumonia.  The American Lung
 Association,  says that 14.2 million
 people in the U.S. suffer from
 chronic obstructive lung disease,
 the fourth-ranking cause of death.
 Most suffer from either emphysema
 (1.7 million  people) or chronic
 bronchitis (12.5  million people).
 Another 12 million Americans,
 equal to the  population of
 Pennsylvania, suffer from asthma.
 Four million  asthmatics are children
 under 18 years of age.

 Medical and  health care costs
 associated with chronic respiratory
 ailments exceed  $7 billion a  year
 and are rising.  This cost goes  up
 more when the  hours of work
 people  miss  because of such
 illnesses is taken into

  Smog Also Affects Plants
  aod Aoimals
 Ozone impairs the ability of  plants
 to produce and store food.  This
 inhibits growth and reproduction,
 and plants become more susceptible
 to diseases,  insect attacks and
extreme weather. Ozone can  reduce
agricultural yields and damage
economically important  crops.

Adverse affects on plants and
animals disrupt ecological
functions, including water
movement and cycling of mineral
nutrients. Nitrogen oxide is one of
the air pollutants that also causes
acid rain. Nitrogen pollution also
affects the water quality of
streams, rivers, lakes and bays,
robbing oxygen from the water,
which weakens fish populations.
More than 20 percent of the
nitrogen entering the Chesapeake
Bay is linked to air pollution.

flsnsr Programs
EPA is helping control smog in
other ways.  The reformulated
gasoline program  is one of the
most important advances made
against air pollution since  lead
was phased  out of gasoline.
Compared  to conventional gasoline,
reformulated burns more cleanly,
does not evaporate as easily, and
produces 15 to 17 percent  less
pollution.  Since  1995, it has been
sold throughout Delaware  and the
District of Columbia as well as parts
of Maryland, Pennsylvania and
Virginia.  Phase one of the program
is expected  to save 1.3  million tons
of ozone-forming emissions and
reductions will be even  greater
during phase two, beginning
in 2000.

In July 1998, Pennsylvania lowered
the vapor pressure at which
distributors and retailers pump
gasoline, to reduce volatile organic
compound  (VOC)  emissions in
Pittsburgh.  RVP, or Reid Vapor
Pressure, measures a fuel's
volatility, which affects the rate
gasoline  evaporates and emits
VOCs, a major component of smog.
Distributors and retailers pump the
cleaner, low-RVP  gasoline in
Pittsburgh during the summer
months when ozone levels are at
their highest.

Voluntary programs were another
area where  the agency helped
businesses reduce energy  demand
and cut costs. The region's
Business Assistance Center provides
technical assistance to  small- and
medium-size businesses through
trade associations, and  particularly
helped reduce volatile organic

                                                                                there is an alert, avoid strenuous
                                                                                outdoor exercise.  Individuals can
                                                                                help reduce ozone levels by doing
                                                                                the following:

                                                                                Conserve electricity.

                                                                                Wait until evening to use
                                                                                lawnmowers or other gas-powered
                                                                                equipment,  and delay lighting grills
                                                                                and campfires until the cool of the

                                                                                Use latex paint or paint with  low
                                                                                volatile organic compounds when
                                                                                possible.  Avoid oil-based  paints,
                                                                                paint thinners, solvents and
                                                                                charcoal lighter fluids.

                                                                                Limit daytime driving and  combine
                                                                                errands to avoid  unnecessary  trips.

                                                                                Walk, bike, carpool or take public
                                                                                transportation. Wait until  evening
                                                                                to refuel your car, and don't top off
                                                                                the tank.
compounds such as gasoline, oil,
paint and solvents used by dry
cleaners, printers and auto body
shops. GreenLightsฎ and other
voluntary programs are explained in
the section on climate change.
Educating the
Smog levels generally are highest
during the summer months. Now
ozone forecasting  and ozone action
alerts are publicized in all major
cities throughout the region.  This
forecasting provides  timely
information to susceptible people
(asthmatic children and the elderly)
about the dangers of ozone, and
helps them avoid exposure. When
            Number of Vehicles i; Increasing Faster than People
  i—  Millions
                                                                       Source: U.S. Census


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uhallenged with a myriad of complex
environmental problems in its cities and
urban areas, the agency took major steps
during the year to protect the health of
children, ensure environmental justice,
restore economically viable abandoned
buildings and vacant lots that were
contaminated with hazardous waste, and
help cities become Green Communities.

Cities have unique problems because
environmental problems are concentrated
in densely populated areas — smog,
indoor and outdoor air quality, asbestos,
radon, lead, drinking water, sewer
overflows and pesticides. Nearly two-
thirds of the people who reside in the
region's cities are especially vulnerable to
health problems caused by poor
environmental practices — including
children, the elderly,  minorities and those
at the poverty level.

Children's Health — Many factors impact
the health of children growing up in
cities.   Asthma is a severe problem
among school-age children who are
particularly affected by smog and air
quality.  The agency helped create an
asthma task force in  Philadelphia to study
conditions that cause high incidents of
asthma attacks. Additionally, a
community-based environmental project
with minority asthmatic children  in 20
Philadelphia homes is studying indoor
factors such family pets, molds
and roaches.

The agency recommended that a  bus
staffed by trained medical professionals be
equipped with the latest medical devices
and educational information  about
asthma and sent to tour schools  in
Pittsburgh  and Philadelphia.   Private
funding is being sought through
medical colleges.

Children also risk lead poisoning  as well
as the hazards of asbestos and radon.
Older urban housing that contains high

concentrations of deteriorating lead-based
paint represents the single greatest source
of lead exposure to children.  Children six
years and younger are most vulnerable to
lead poisoning, and there are more than
two million living in the region, 16
percent of whose families live below the
poverty level.  There are more than 7.5
million houses in the mid-Atlantic states
that have lead-based paint. Cities with
the highest numbers include Philadelphia,
524,008; Baltimore, 240,115;
Washington, D.C., 220,523; and
Pittsburgh, 154,249.

The agency issued civil complaints against
two Philadelphia area  landlords over lead
disclosure violations. The complaints
were two of the first four to be issued in
the nation under a new requirement, and
involved landlords who did not disclose
the presence of lead to tenants, whose
children became lead-poisoned from living
in the rented apartments. In addition to
enforcement, EPA joined the Philadelphia
Department of Public Health in mailing
information about the regulations to
35,000 licensed landlords in the city.
The new Real Estate Notification and
Disclosure Rule requires landlords and
owners to provide tenants and buyers of
pre-1978 properties with lead-based paint
information to prevent exposure of
children six years and younger to Lead-
based paint hazards.
Lead poisoning damages children's brains
and nervous systems, stunts growth,
affects hearing, and causes a number of
developmental difficulties.  In adults, high
lead levels can cause high blood pressure,
headaches, digestive problems, memory
and concentration problems, kidney
damage, nerve disorders, and other health
problems, such as affecting the ability
of both men and women to have
healthy children.

Another hazard is radon, a colorless,
odorless gas formed by the radioactive
decay of radium atoms.  While it is a
problem in some cities, it also is prevalent
throughout many parts of the mid-
Atlantic states. Some 2.6 million people
are in areas of potentially high exposure.
Radon is the second leading cause of lung
cancer, and is responsible for 12 percent
of lung cancer deaths.

Grants for radon education and services
have been given to state radon offices to
reduce levels of unacceptable indoor
radon and to educate both parents and
children about the dangers of radon. All
Region ITJ states except Maryland have
radon programs underway. Efforts have
included extensive public outreach at
health fairs and PTA meetings.  Radon
activities have been coordinated with the
Tools for Schools program, a voluntary
pilot program that offers technical
 "Urban   sprawl   has   been   a   major   contributor  to

 polluting  our  environment.    We  need  to  green  our

 cities   and  guarantee  everyone  clean  air to   breathe
 and safe  water to drink."
                                                              ..    .    n
                                                         — Kevin  Bacon
 Actor and director Kevin Bacon was born in Philadelphia, where he trained at the Manning Street Actor's Theatre
 His career includes both stage and feature films
assistance to schools to assess, maintain
and improve indoor environmental quality.
More than 200 schools in all states in the
region are now involved with some type
of program. EPA has cooperative
partnerships with organizations including
the American Lung Association, National
Environmental Health Association and
National Parents and Teachers Association.

Recycling Land — In the region's largest
communities, there are acres of
abandoned  land and decrepit buildings
where vital  industries once stood, left
behind by urban sprawl. Most hazardous
waste sites  that require Superfund
cleanup actions are right in the middle of
places where people live and work: the
auto repair  shop down the street that
used toxic solvents to clean engines; the
dry cleaner  in a ground-floor apartment
building who used volatile chemicals in
the laundering process; the plant that
manufactured metal goods; or the
garbage dump just outside of town that
accepted industrial waste before it was
more strictly regulated.

Historically, these sites did not appeal to
developers  and lenders because of the
perceived liability for potential
contamination.   At the end of 1998, the
agency awarded 17 pilot grants of
$200,000 to cities in the region to
inventory and assess abandoned industrial
sites for potential redevelopment. In the
last year, 37 assessments were completed
at sites where contamination hindered
redevelopment.  The long-term benefits
of the program include eliminating
environmental hazards and making the
property usable, which generates new
jobs, an increased tax base and a better
partnership between public and
private sectors.

Most large  cities received grants, including
 Baltimore,  Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
 Richmond and Washington, D.C.  Smaller
rural communities have also received pilot
 money —  places like Phoenixville,

  Pennsylvania, where the borough
  government plans to transform
  abandoned industrial properties into a
  recreational greenway.  In Shenandoah,
  Virginia, the Big Gem Cast Iron  Furnace,
  once the principal producer of iron in the
  area, shut down, leaving a vacant tract in
  the town center. Shenandoah aims to
  develop a recreational center and
  historical park on the land.

  In addition to the pilot grants, in March
  1998, Vice President Gore announced
  16 communities to be designated
  Brownfields Showcase Communities.  In
 the mid-Atlantic states, Baltimore was
 chosen as a showcase community to
 receive $1.6 million in federal funding.
 To date, the city has inventoried 1,000
 acres of potential Brownfields ranging in
 size from less than  an acre to 60 acres.
 The city has done environmental testing
 on more than 30 sites in three years and
 is working to redevelop four city-owned
 sites. Several private investors have
 shown interest in 48 vacant waterfront
 acres, a  14-acre former meat processing
 plant, and a former incinerator that sits
 on 19 acres in  east Baltimore. More
 information about Brownfields can be
 obtained by phoning 215/814-3129.

 The region is currently developing a
 partnership program involving 15 other








                                                              Virginia     Pennsylvania
                                   Source: U S Census Bureau
Improving air quality, reducing  lead-poisoning,
and providing safe drinking water will add to the
quality of life in urban neighborhoods.
 federal agencies to serve as a model for
 regional-level cooperation. Creating
 partnerships between federal and state
 agencies and the private sector to
 redevelop formerly contaminated sites is
 one of the greatest challenges faring the
 region's cities. The closure of military
 bases in urban  areas is another cleanup
 challenge because of the contaminants
 that were left behind.  The region's
 Superfund federal facilities team is
 assisting with this process at 32
 closed bases.

 Environmental Justice — Through
 enforcement and grant programs, the
 agency has helped protect children,
 elderly and minorities from high-density
 sources of industrial activity that
 concentrate pollution, including toxic
 chemical releases that contaminate urban
 air, water and Land.

 The region has had long and continuing
 relationships with the citizens of Chester,
 Pennsylvania, and is actively addressing
 environmental justice issues there.
 Using an innovative settlement of a
 Lawsuit called a supplemental
 environmental project, EPA reached
agreement with the former Westinghouse
 Electric Corp. In addition to paying a fine
to reduce lead paint hazards in the
playground equipment in Chester,
                               Westinghouse will remove contaminated
                               soil, plant shrubbery to prevent children
                               from playing in suspected soil, and
                               repaint equipment at several public parks
                               and playgrounds.

                               In addition to 28 enforcement actions
                               taken, the agency is pursuing positive
                               environmental results through grant

                               Green Communities — The region
                               developed the Green Communities
                               Program to help local communities
                               protect their environmental resources.  A
                               Green Community strives to be
                               environmentally correct, promote
                               economic vitality and a high quality of
                               life, and incorporate local values in the
                               government-community decision-making

                               The regional office has developed an
                               assistance kit, provides tools and
                               information, and develops partnerships
                               with community-based service providers
                               to help create sustainable Green
                               Communities.  The partnership coalition
                               includes financial institutions, economic
                               development organizations, and
                               educational and environmental
                               organizations.   The complete package
                               can be accessed on the  Internet at

Motion picture, television and stage actor Don Knotts was born in Morgantown, West Virginia, and graduated from
West Virginia University

I he  mid-Atlantic states have more
acid  rainfall than any other region
in the United States, and  EPA has
been working to significantly reduce
the greatest source of pollution.
Since 1990, 25 power plants in the
mid-Atlantic states have reduced
emissions of sulfur dioxide by 40
percent.  Beginning in 2000,
another 50 energy-producing plants
will provide additional reductions.
This  downward  trend is expected
to continue providing cost and
environmental benefits.

Acid rain forms when sulfur,
nitrogen  and  other substances
combine  in the atmosphere, get
carried far from their original
sources, and then  fall on rivers,
lakes, bays, forests, wetlands and
even urban environments.  When
the compounds fall as rain, snow
and fog,  it is called "acid  rain." In
a dry form, they are acidic gases or

This  fallout kills trees and
vegetation in forests, destroys
habitat for wildlife, and creates an
imbalance in  surface water, killing
and endangering plant and fish life.

Through its outreach and education
programs, the agency is working to
reduce demands for energy.
Consumers are encouraged  to
become  more conscious of reducing
utility use and  costs in their homes.
Business, industry and other
organizations are encouraged to
participate in voluntary energy-
saving programs including  Energy
Starฎ and GreenLightsฎ.  Any
reduced  burning of fossil fuels by
utility power plants will also  help
achieve goals in two other regional
priorities — ozone smog and
climate change.

Urban Ro/SS
Municipal PS
Land Disposal
Septic Systems

i i i i i i
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000
Stream Miles
By switching to low-sulfur coal or
installing smokestack scrubbers,
power plants have significantly
reduced the hazards of acid rain and
deposits on land and water. Some
companies even found they could
buy low-sulfur  coal at prices less
than they had  been paying under
older, existing  contracts.  The
challenge now  is to reduce demands
for energy.
 Reducing emissions from power plants helps to
 reduce acidification of rivers, lakes and streams,
 and slow global climate change.
The agency also works with the
states and local agencies to
routinely audit air monitoring
systems at air pollution sources and
to ensure that the data tracking
these reductions is valid.

Closed Mines Create A
Serious  Problem
Acid pollution comes in many forms.
Abandoned coal mines are a major
problem  in many areas of
Appalachia.  When these  mines
close, they frequently flood. Acid
water drains  out of these mines into
neighboring streams and rivers,
turns them orange, red and yellow,
and often kills fish, vegetation and
all other forms of life. These mines
account for approximately 70
percent of existing acid  mine
drainage in Appalachia.  Some
3,239 miles of streams in
Pennsylvania and  1,100  miles in
West Virginia are polluted from
acid water flowing from  mines.

EPA created the Eastern  Mine
Drainage  Federal Consortium, a
coalition of 14 federal agencies and
bureaus that have a common
interest in water quality and
the problems created by mine
drainage.  The coalition identified a
potentially serious problem with the
once heavily polluted Monongahela
River.  Today, the river is used for
recreation and fishing. The group
is studying thousands of acres of
flooded underground mines to get a
handle on this problem before the
polluted water breaks out into
surface waters.

During the mining process, the
mineral pyrite is exposed to oxygen
and water.  The oxygen, water and
pyrite  react to form sulfuric acid
that dissolves toxic concentrations
of metals, including iron  and
aluminum, from the surrounding
soil. As large underground mines
close and shut down their water
treatment facilities, the mine shafts
fill with water and overflow.  The
exact locations  and environmental
consequences of these discharges
cannot always be  predicted.  Some
coal companies  are  planning to
install large acid treatment facilities
and may have to operate them
                                                                                      SO? Emissions by Source — 1996
                                                                                                             ., electricity,
                                                Source: EPA's National Air Quality and
                                                 Emissions Trends Report — 1996

Source: EPA Website
There are success stories from
grants made by the regional office.
EPA granted money to some Cheat
River Watershed groups in  West
Virginia to help  restore a portion of
a watershed.  Acid runoff from a
mine  abandoned 50 years ago was
pouring into Sovereign Run, which
emptied into the Big Sandy Creek
River and ultimately into the Cheat
River.  Fish were unable to  live  and
breed in  20 miles of the stream
because of the high aluminum
content in the water from  the mine.
A $50,000 reclamation project
constructed a  small dam at the
mine  opening, creating a pond  that
backed the water level up  into the
mine. Water from the mine now
flows over the dam and runs down a
hill through a rock-filled channel
that filters out the acid and other
impurities.  Fish are now returning
to their native habitat.

West  Virginia  has more than 5,000
mine sites that present public
health and safety threats in various
ways, including  subsidence,
underground fires, and acid mine
drainage affecting water quality.

Based on the  local approach the
region was taking to restore streams
and rivers  polluted by acid mine
drainage, the Western  Pennsylvania
Conservancy has partnered with
other committed  conservation
groups, the  Pennsylvania Coal
Association, and the United Mine
Workers to push for funding of
projects in Pennsylvania.  The state
has 250,000 acres of unreclaimed
lands,  and 45  of the state's 67
counties are affected by abandoned
mine lands. The  cleanup cost is
estimated at $15 billion.

The coalition is seeking at least $75
million a year from the $1.6 billion
surplus in the Abandoned Mine
Reclamation Fund.  Established  in
1977 with the  federal Office of
Surface Mining and Reclamation
Enforcement, this fund was
designed to remove safety and
health problems at old mines, but
has been  under-used.  Companies
pay fees for every ton of coal
mined, and  this fund is growing
                                                                                 e g , solvents
                                                                                   49.6% —
      Source EPA's National Air Quality and
        Emissions Trends Report — 1996
at the rate of $300 million a year.
In recent years, the director of the
Office of Surface Mining changed
policies to allow this fund to
address environmental problems.
                                          Drainage from abandoned mines turns rivers orange, red and yellow, and often kills fish and vegetation.
                                          Photo by Region III Acid Mine Drainage Program.

          Walter Cronkite was considered America's most trusted joinnalict ivhen  h
          He is an award winning author and radio :nuj ^elevjior, 'i^\ : f o?!v >r>  I*'!'1
          Peabody award ^nd sc^e-d!  hin;ii.,i

The EPA is charged with
protecting some of the nation's
most important and historic
bodies of water.  The Chesapeake
and  Delaware bays and their
tributaries, and the coastal waters
of the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia
peninsula are important
waterways for commercial
navigation and shipping,
productive and bountiful resources
for fish and shellfish,  and a
habitat for abundant wildlife.
These waters also are enjoyed
each year by millions of
recreational boaters, fishermen
and other visitors.  But they  have
experienced major ecosystem
changes due to a variety of
activities, including urban  sprawl
and changing land uses, habitat
and wetland destruction, pollution
from agriculture and urban areas,
overfishing, and the discharge  of
toxics from point sources.

The most significant problems
affecting the region's estuaries
are excess nutrients that cause
excess growth  of algae; toxics in
localized areas  that affect the
ecological health  of the water
and result in fish consumption
advisories; and sprawl  and  land
use changes which increase non-
point-source pollution  and  destroy
habitat and wetlands.

In cooperation  with the EPA's
Office of Research and
Development and  a  host of
federal, state and academic
scientists, Region III published
a ground breaking report on the
condition  of estuaries in the
region.  In late November, the
agency sponsored the Mid-
Atlantic Integrated Assessment
Conference in Baltimore to
publicly report on its findings and

look at a wide range of ecological
features in the region.

The report also noted that smaller
yet significant estuaries are the
least degraded in the region, but
are threatened by encroaching
urbanization of barrier islands at
Rehoboth  Beach and Bethany
Beach, Delaware; Ocean City and
Assateague Island, Maryland; and
the eastern shore of Virginia.

Further threatening the
Chesapeake is  a  new finding —
the bay waters are rising more
than one inch  per decade,  which
is twice as fast as sea  levels  are
rising due to global warming.

Estuaries are transitional coastal
areas such as bays, mouths of
rivers, salt marshes, wetlands and
lagoons,  where salt water from
the ocean mixes with  fresh water
from streams and rivers.  There
are more than 5,467 square miles
of estuaries in the mid-Atlantic
states that are constantly being
affected  by inflowing  rivers,  the
ocean, the shoreline and air,  and
the changes of seasons and tides.
                         Delaware Estuary Watershed
    Delaware River Drainage Basin
Scientists have long recognized
the importance of estuaries for
both their biological and habitat
values.  Estuaries also  provide
for many diverse  human uses,
supplying water for
municipalities, industry
and agriculture; supporting
commercial and sport fishing;
and supporting tourism and

This year, President Clinton
designated as American Heritage
rivers the Upper Susquehanna and
Lackawanna,  which supply  about
half of the Chesapeake Bay's
fresh water, and the Potomac,
which also flows  into the bay.
Communities along these rivers
will receive  priority federal
assistance to restore and protect
the adjacent watersheds and

To many observers, the steady
restoration of the Chesapeake
system over the past 15 years is
a success story, although there
clearly is a great  deal  more to do
to meet the region's Year 2000
goals to reduce by 40  percent
levels of nitrogen and  phosphorus
nutrients that flow into the bay.
Impressive progress  has been
made toward meeting the goals
set 10 years ago.  Maintaining the
reduced levels beyond  2000 will
be a huge challenge in the face of
predicted population growth for
the region.

To filter out nutrients  that might
reach the bay, a  Riparian  Forest
Buffer Initiative  is committed to
planting new trees to  restore
forests on 2,010  miles of stream
and shoreline by  the year 2010.
The ultimate measure of success
will be determined by  increased

water quality that allows fish,
oysters, the  $60 million crab
harvest, waterfowl, bay grasses
and other living resources to
return to abundance.

In early November, EPA
Administrator Carol M. Browner
announced an important initiative
where 19 federal agencies pledged
to match steps being  taken by
states, local  government and
private landowners throughout the
region.  The  government agencies
agreed to write plans  by 2000 to
reduce fertilizers flowing into
the bays from farm fields,  golf
courses, parade grounds and
construction  sites  on  federal
lands.  They  also pledged to
create 100 acres of wetlands
per year on their lands and
open 200 miles of  bay shoreline
to the public.
                                     Agricultural runoff and municipal
                                     point sources are the two largest
                                     contributors of nitrogen and
                                     phosphorus nutrients and
                                     pollution to the bays and
                                     estuaries.  Virtually all individuals
                                     and many industries in the
                                     watershed  also  contribute to the
                                     problem. The large rivers that
                                     drain the watershed dump
                                     increasing volumes of wastewater
                                     into the bays from a growing

                                     Scientists continue to investigate
                                     a toxic  microorganism, Pfiesteria
                                     piscicida, which killed tens of
                                     thousands of fish in the Pocomoke
                                     River and several other tributaries
                                     on  the lower eastern shore of
                                     Maryland in 1997.  Fish suffered
                                     from lesions, and the organism was
                                     linked to human health problems,
                                     including skin rashes and memory
                                     loss.  In 1998, however, there were
                                     no  confirmed cases of fish kills
"Growing  up  in Baltimore, I had a great love for the

ocean, beaches and bay waters long before Baywatch.

These  waters were my recreational  playground  and

gave  us  fish,  oysters,   crabs   and  other  fabulous

seafood.   We've got to protect them from  pollution."

                                          —  David  Hasselhoff
David Hasselhoff, a Baltimore native, is a television, motion picture and recording star He is best known for his
Kmght Rider and Baywatch television series, and was named by TV Guide as one of "TV's ten most powerful stars "

                   1    !
        from Pfiestetia in the Chesapeake
        Bay watershed or anywhere else in
        the region's coastal waters.

        Delaware requested $6.4 million
        of the more than $200 million
        of Department of Agriculture
        funds released by the Clinton
        administration to control animal
        waste and pesticide runoff from
        fields.  The funds will be used to
        rent farmland near ditches and
        streams and take the  land out
        of production.
        Urban sprawl and development of
        waterfront acreage have further
        threatened inland waters,
        estuaries and  bays.  Concrete,
        asphalt, houses and other
        buildings  cover large areas of
        land, forcing water to run off into
        rivers and streams instead of
        letting it  soak naturally into the
        ground.  Lost are the  buffer zones
        of forests and vegetation to filter
        out nutrients.  Runoff from
        rainstorms is one of the nation's
        leading causes of water pollution.
        This runoff from parking  lots,
streets, farms  and lawns contains
many pollutants,  including
nitrogen, phosphorus and other
chemicals.  Three of the region's
Largest metropolitan areas —
Washington, Baltimore and the
Hampton Roads area of Virginia —
were on the Sierra Club's  national
"worst" list for urban sprawl.

Population growth is the single
most important factor  underlying
various impacts on the mid-
Atlantic estuaries. The population
of the region  has grown  from 13
million residents in 1950 to 21
million in  1990,  and is estimated
to be at 25 million  by  2020.

The  coastal bays of Delaware,
Maryland and  Virginia on the
Delmarva  Peninsula are threatened
by encroaching development and
urbanization.   These bays and
their adjacent oceanfront barrier
islands are a  major vacation
destination for many in the mid-
Atlantic region, and are  attracting
many year-round retirees.
                                       Coastal Environments Tops in Value
         Seagrass/Algae Beds
        Tidal Marsh/Mangroves
                Coral Reefs
            Continental Shelf
               Open Ocean
         Tropical/Boreal Forest

                                         Value in thousands of dollars/acre/year

                               Source- Bay Journal, June 1998 Institute for Ecological Economics, Costanza et at

                                              V   \      \
To further protect the
environment, the state of
Maryland paid a private developer
$25.3 million for 1,850 acres of
land on a Chesapeake Bay
tributary. This eliminated  500
houses that would otherwise have
been built on a riverside tract at
the Chapman's  Landing housing
project.  Environmental groups
have a one-year option to  buy an
additional 375  acres for $2 to $4
million.  The state also  has
launched a Smart Growth program
to slow the  advance of
development to the suburbs and
at the same time rebuild older,
decaying neighborhoods.
Working in  the  eastern shore
counties of Virginia, the  Nature
Conservancy is  pioneering
innovative efforts to help protect
seaside  farmlands, rural fishing
villages and the barrier islands
from ill-planned suburban sprawl.
The core areas  of their efforts
have been designated as an
international biosphere reserve
by the United Nations.

The Anacostia
Also on the  region's priority list is
the restoration  of the Anacostia
River and its watershed. The
Anacostia, which flows in the
backyard of  the nation's capital
and through an economically
depressed, minority-populated
neighborhood, has been called
the "forgotten river."  It empties
into the Potomac River and
eventually the Chesapeake  Bay.
In 1993, the American Rivers
organization listed it as one of
the nation's "top 10 degraded
rivers."  No portion of the tidal
Anacostia meets Clean Water Act
quality standards.
                        Chesapeake Bay Watershed
                              Pittsburgh^- u"v'-'
                                                               • Philadelphia
                                                          :, • Wilmington
                                      Washington o.C. •
                                        /">•  .
                                      / r
   /v  -
      ,:-'  Richmond *
With an urban watershed in the
District of Columbia and in
Montgomery and Prince Georges
counties in Maryland, during
heavy rainstorms, the Anacostia
receives most of the runoff from
streets, combined with raw
sewage.  There are 60 overflow
drains releasing the discharge
into the city's surface streets.
This is combined with trash,
erosion of stream banks,
sediment, toxics and high
bacteria counts.  Trash and
visual pollution are a drain on
community pride.  The community
cannot use the river either as a
source of recreation or for
sustenance fishing.
"Because of, the; dti,
             *    i •ป *,
environmental nsks
              '•'  -
 nmericans expect their fellow
 citizens to obey the nation's air,
 water and hazardous waste laws,
 and they  expect the EPA to enforce
 the laws.   Compliance  with the laws
 not only protects  public health and
 the environment, it's also a matter
 of fairness. Companies that do not
 spend money to control pollution
 gain an unfair economic advantage
 over their law-abiding  competitors.
 EPA's job  is to take the profit out
 of pollution through aggressive
 enforcement of environmental laws.

 EPA and its state partners obtain
 compliance from the hundreds of
 thousands of pollution sources in
 the  region through both voluntary
 programs  and enforcing the law.
 Fortunately, most companies want
 to comply with environmental

 The agency has greatly expanded
 information available,  particularly
 on the Internet, to help businesses
 comply.  Region III posts updates
 on compliance assistance resources
 on its website and provides hotlinks
 to small business information. The
 region's Business Assistance Center
 networks with many organizations
 and  helped promote a dry-cleaning
 mentoring program this year.

 An audit policy encourages
 businesses to conduct regular
 environmental self-audits. This
 policy allows reduced or no
 penalties for companies that
 promptly report and correct
violations uncovered during self-
 reviews. In 1998, the  region
waived nearly $400,000 in penalties
for such cases.

The agency also had a strong
enforcement presence during the
year.  Preliminary figures show that

the region filed 115 administrative
complaints, 23 more than in 1997.
During 1998,  as a result of the
region's enforcement efforts, parties
responsible for contamination at
Superfund sites signed on to do
cleanups valued at $63 million and
reimbursed the agency for $35
million in Superfund expenditures.
The agency also resolved 131
penalty cases against  companies,
government agencies,  and
individuals, resulting in $2,543,592
in penalties and another $4,683,448
in supplemental environmental

On the criminal side, successful
environmental prosecutions in the
mid-Atlantic states  resulted in 23
defendants being sent to prison  or
sentenced to probation, fined
$215,500, and ordered to pay $8.1
million in fines,  restitution and
environmental restoration costs.

Summaries of some of this year's
diverse cases tell more of the story
about how enforcement is used to
address environmental issues.

• The region  collected $125,000
from  Star Enterprises, Delaware City,
for discharging oil, grease, solids,
chlorine, ammonia and other
refinery pollutants into the
Delaware River.

• BFI Services Group, a subsidiary
of Browning Ferris Industries, and
six employees were charged in a  23-
count indictment with conspiracy,
mail fraud and Clean Water Act
violations involving the disposal of
wastewater treatment sludge and
grease at five municipal sewage
treatment plants in northern
Delaware and southeastern
Pennsylvania. In  addition to the
individuals who paid fines,  BFI  paid
$3 million in fines,  $642,000 in
restitution to four treatment plants,
and $1.5 million to  programs or
organizations which address
environmental concerns in the
local area.

• EPA reached a settlement with
Nipa Laboratories of Wilmington for
violations of the federal pesticide
law.  The settlement includes a
project to reduce air emissions  by
at least 50 percent  and a $26,500

• In the largest Clean Water Act
settlement in Maryland history,
Hudson Foods Inc.,  a subsidiary of
Tyson Foods, agreed to spend $2
million to control water pollution
at poultry farms and processing
facilities on the Delmarva Peninsula,
and paid a $4 million penalty.

• The salvager  of two former navy
vessels, Kerry Ellis of Pasadena,
Maryland, and his company,
Seawitch Salvage, Inc. were
sentenced to 30 months'
imprisonment and fines for
knowingly violating asbestos

• Domino Sugar Corporation spent
nearly $500,000 to reduce its
discharge and agreed to pay a
$35,000 penalty in  settlement  for
spilling raw sugar into the Patapsco
River.  The EPA coordinated its
enforcement efforts with the
Maryland Department of

•  Working with the state,  industry,
and local citizens' groups,  EPA
resolved two cases  in economically
distressed Chester.  The U.S.  and
Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Protection settled
their cases against Westinghouse
Electric Corp. for air  pollution
violations at two waste incinerators
with a $100,000 penalty and
$300,000 in environmental projects
in the  affected communities,
including a project to clean up
possible lead contamination in
three of the city's playgrounds. The
EPA helped settle a lawsuit brought
by a Chester citizens' group against
the Delaware County Regional Water
Quality Control Authority for
violations at its incinerator.
Negotiations involving EPA, the
Pennsylvania and Delaware County
agencies, and  the Chester residents
group  resulted in a consent decree
that corrected the violations,
assessed a $120,000 penalty, and
provided $200,000 to fund a lead-
poisoning and prevention project
focusing on newborns.

• The  U.S. and Pennsylvania
resolved a joint action against the
Municipality of Penn Hills for
diverting raw  sewage and excess
pollutants from its treatment
plant into the Allegheny and
Monongahela  Rivers.  The
municipality must spend $50 million
to upgrade its sewer system, pay a
$525,000 penalty, and perform
three environmentally beneficial

• The  agency  settled an
administrative case against the U.S.
Mint in Philadelphia, the first Clean
Air Act penalty action filed against
a federal facility.  The Mint paid a
$16,000 penalty and spent $90,427
to upgrade  pollution control from
its chromium  electroplating
operations, used in  production
of commemorative coins.

                 • n>> ;•/ tttth environmental laws too.
• As part of the settlement over
cleanup costs at the Keystone
Sanitation Landfill Superfund site in
Union  Township, Adams County, the
government resolved the potential
liability of third- and fourth-party
defendants brought into the
litigation by  the big polluters.  The
U.S. settled for  $4.25 million with
376 such  parties, many of which are
small businesses — including
apartment buildings, pizza shops,
and theaters  — that could  not
afford  the expense of litigation.
A further settlement in  December
1998 removed 34 other parties that
sent very small amounts of  trash to
the site.  They paid $1 apiece.  This
brought to 577 the number of third-
and fourth-party claims settled.
• Sun Company Inc. agreed to
pay $125,000 for hazardous waste
storage violations at its Philadelphia
refinery for violating leak detection
regulations for underground fuel
storage tanks. Sun also agreed to
spend $50,000 to plant trees  along
city streets in the Girard Estates and
Packer Park neighborhoods, and to
construct a park in the Passyunk
Homes Housing Project.

• Grant Paper Co. and its former
general manager were prosecuted for
dumping asbestos-contaminated
debris near an elementary school
in a predominantly African-American
neighborhood in Philadelphia. The
company cleaned up the site at a
cost of $1.5 million.
 • EPA waived all of the $102,000
 potential penalties against Sampson
 Coatings of Richmond, Virginia, and
 all $58,537 against Alcatel
 Telecommunications  in Roanoke,
 Virginia, because both companies
 disclosed the violations and met all
 of the criteria under the audit policy.
 The violations involved failure to
 report the release of certain
 chemicals in various years.

 • Colonial Pipeline agreed to pay
 a $1.5 million fine, to spend up to
 $2.5  million  for new outdoor
 recreation  facilities, and  to restore
 natural resources in and  around
 Sugarland  Run and the Potomac
 River, repairing damage from a
 massive 1993 oil spill from the
 company's pipeline in Reston.

 • EPA worked with the Virginia
 Department of Environmental Quality
 on a  case involving the Washington,
 D.C. correctional facility in Lorton,
 Virginia. Complaints by the two
 agencies alleged hazardous waste, oil
 spill prevention, and underground
 storage tank violations.

 Washington, D.G.
 •  EPA issued a complaint against
 Walter Reed Army Medical Center,
 Washington,  D.C., for alleged
 hazardous waste violations, including
 storage without a permit, receiving
 hazardous waste from a foreign
 source without a permit and without
 proper notifications.  The complaint
 asks for $201,600 in  penalties.
• The EPA settled  complaints
against the  U.S. Navy for alleged
underground fuel tank violations at
the Washington  Navy Yard and
Anacostia Naval Station. The Navy

agreed to remediate any
contamination caused by Leaking
tanks at the installations and to
correct unresolved underground
storage tank violations.

West lirginia
• Frederick  Q. Blizzard was sentenced
to 12 months in jail and two years of
supervised release,  and  his Sisterville
asbestos abatement company, SAK
Environmental, Inc., was fined
$15,000. The criminal conduct
included falsifying state licenses for
workers and failure to properly
remove and dispose of asbestos.
One  of the sites where asbestos was
dumped was an elementary school.
• A West Virginia coal operator,
Wayne  Fortney, president of Valley
Mining, pled guilty to violating the
Clean Water Act.  Fortney admitted
negligently discharging acidic
wastewater. Acid mine drainage is
a major water  quality problem  in
Region III.

• EPA reached a settlement with
a West Virginia air conditioner
repair company which reduced
the proposed $17,000 penalty by
75 percent to  $4,250 because  the
company voluntarily  disclosed its
violations to EPA under the
audit policy.
In February 1994, President Clinton
issued  an  executive order directing
federal agencies to ensure
environmental justice for minority
and low-income citizens.

Both regionally and nationally, the
EPA is  committed to promote
environmental justice and remove
regulatory obstacles to revitalizing
abandoned industrial sites in
blighted urban  communities. In the
field of environmental justice, EPA
realizes that it must listen  to the
concerns of minority and low-
income communities that have too
often borne the brunt of the
nation's pollution.

Employees from the region's
Criminal Investigations Division
helped develop a computer-assisted
"demographic mapper" that will  be
used by EPA regions  nationwide  as a
case-screening  tool to identify cases
implicating environmental justice
concerns.  EPA  also is helping to
restore contaminated industrial sites
in cities to productive economic
use. Through "prospective
purchaser" agreements, the agency
is working with owners and
potential  buyers to address the
liability concerns that sometimes
impede redevelopment.

 The new offices of EPA's mid-Atlantic regional
 headquarters in Center City Philadelphia provided the
 agency with an opportunity to paint the future green.  So
 managers developed environmentally sensible criteria for
 their new space.

 These criteria were included in bids for the new office
 space and  became known as the GreenLease Rider.  EPA
 now recommends the GreenLease to building owners. The
 plan is to reuse as many materials as practical in
 developing the new space, recycle as much construction
 and demolition debris as economically feasible, and use
 low-environmental-impact materials in the process.

 EPA's goal was  to demonstrate to businesses and
 organizations that the design and development of
 valuable commercial and institutional space is feasible
 without sacrificing environmental considerations.

 All solicitations were restricted to Philadelphia's central
 business district to promote the use of public
 transportation  by the regional staff. As it turns out, the
 25-year-old building selected for the new Region III
 offices is located above a major rail transit station, which
 is convenient for employees and encourages use of
 regional rail lines.

 EPA announced the award of the lease to the 1650 Arch
 Street Building in November 1997, and began the hectic
 race to design  and build offices that would occupy  16 of
 the 27 floors of the building by the summer of 1998.

 Care was taken to salvage and reuse as many materials  as
 possible from the existing space.  Some examples

 • Heating, ventilation and air conditioning components
 were retrofitted and reused where feasible.

 • All existing ceiling grid and 70 percent of the existing
 ceiling tiles were  refurbished and reused. This amounted
 to more than 170,000 square feet, or the equivalent of
 four acres of ceiling tile.

 • Approximately 260 oversized solid-core wood doors
 were refinished and reused.

 • Bathroom tiles,  fixtures and stalls were reconditioned
 and reused.

 • Venetian blinds were cleaned and reused.  Each floor is
 encased with floor-to-ceiling windows.

 • 3,000 lighting fixtures — 80  percent of the exsisting
fixtures — were retrofitted with energy-efficent
electronic ballasts and reused.

In cases where  items could not be reused, efforts were
made to recycle. Recycled materials included  11,000
fluorescent tubes  and all of the steel studs removed from
 Photo by ,':-'f ';tper.
 the space that was demolished.  Markets were not locally
 available to recycle the gypsum board.

 Environmental considerations also were included in the
 design of the interior space.  Modular furniture provided
 flexibility and reduced the need to furnish individual
 offices.  To safeguard and enhance indoor air quality,
 low-emission paints and  adhesives were used; no vinyl
 materials were used for wall or floor covering or base
 molding; and copy rooms and spray room were directly
 vented to the outside. Electronic lighting sensors save
 energy by turning lights  off in areas not being used.
 Low-flow plumbing fixtures reduce water use.

 While attempts to use carpet with recycled content were
 thwarted because of a lack of information on the impact
 of these products on indoor air quality, conventional
 three-foot carpet squares were installed, so wear or
 damage could be fixed on a small scale. No endangered,
 tropical woods were used in construction, furniture or
 accents.  The only woods used were from sustainable

 Recycling rooms were located next to all break rooms
to support the office recycling program. To promote
ecologically sensible alternative transportation, secure
interior bicycle parking facilities, with showers, were
also provided.

The new  offices have proved to be efficient and
comfortable.  A brochure  that explains the details of the
GreenLease process is being developed so others can
benefit from  this experience.


hood science is basic to protecting
public health and the environment.
It is an  important and integral
part of all programs in the region.
Science  provides the agency with
important environmental indicators,
environmental data and the  means to
measure the extent of problems.

In early 1999, the mid-Atlantic
region plans to open its new $48
million state-of-the-art environmental
science  center and laboratory at Fort
George G. Meade, Maryland.  The new
facility will house more than 160
scientists and administrators.

The 140,000-square-foot, 2-story
building located on a 24-acre site
consolidates six leased offices into
one government-owned building.  The
new center will house three  groups
from Annapolis, and EPA pesticide
laboratories from  Beltsville,  Maryland
and Cincinnati.

The concrete and  steel structure has
a brick exterior, and aluminum and
glass curtain walls.  Two  laboratory
wings are linked by a central office
block to form an open U-shaped
complex that will have 70 chemistry,
biology  and microbiology
laboratories, a library, conference
rooms, and telecommunications and
computer operations.

The offices and laboratories  are
flexible, and workstations are
designed to be  modified to meet
changing analytical needs.  The
entire complex was  designed using
green construction technology that
includes maximum use of natural
light for labs and  offices, recycled
asphalt  for parking and roadway
surfaces, water-saving innovations,
environmentally friendly heating and
air conditioning systems, natural

         landscaping with a heavy emphasis
         on retaining existing mature trees,
         and wood laboratory cabinets
         manufactured from sustainable
         forests.  The latter also are less
         expensive than comparable metal

         The region also has a laboratory in
         its Wheeling, W. Va. field  office that
         concentrates on freshwater biology.
Additionally, a ship, the Peter W.
Anderson, does marine research along
the eastern seaboard; and low-flying
aircraft are used to study pollution
and habitat changes  along the
Atlantic coast from New Jersey to
North Carolina.
The inherent complexity of even the
best scientific data can detract from
its usefulness as a tool for selecting
and championing environmental
programs. In the courtroom, meeting
room, Congress or the voting booth,
the message carried by scientific
evidence is effective only if that
message is conveyed clearly
and simply.

By visually portraying environmental
relationships, the Office of
Environmental Data creates pictures
and graphs which help people better
understand why environmental
conditions are important to their
personal health and welfare.  In
addition, the information is
                                                                                           formatted to help the region's
                                                                                           environmental managers see existing
                                                                                           problems, select pollution  control
                                                                                           targets and measure the effects of
                                                                                           their decisions.
The region works with state and local
governments, chambers of commerce,
and industry trade  associations  to
help small- and medium-sized
businesses understand and comply
with environmental regulations.
Representatives from the Business
Assistance Center worked with the
Greater Washington, D.C. and
Baltimore chapters of the Korean
Dry Cleaners Association and the
Pennsylvania  Dry Cleaners Launderers
Association to assist and educate the
owners and operators of these
businesses to understand and comply
with federal environmental

The center participated in the first
business  and  industry compliance
assistance workshop held by the
Maryland Department of the
Environment to learn how best to
teach environmental compliance to
workers from  several different
business  sectors in the state.

In cooperation with the
Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Protection, programs
were held to  address a wide range
of topics directed  to the metal
finishing industry.  Seminars titled
"Waste Day — Meet the Regulators"
and "Air  Day  — Meet the Regulators"
were held in  cooperation with the
Northeast Pennsylvania Industrial
Resource Center to  help regional
manufacturers increase their level of
regulatory compliance. Other
seminars and conferences were  held
throughout the region on a variety of
issues for different businesses and


 industries, and representatives
 exhibited at important trade fairs
 and conventions.
 From its headquarters office in
 Philadelphia, the mid-Atlantic
 regional office of EPA organizes
 and administers a comprehensive
 international program that is now
 in its eighth year. The region's
 international office provided technical
 assistance and training in a diverse
 range of environmental areas for a
 number of foreign countries.  Funding
 was made possible by the World  Bank,
 U.S. Agency for International
 Development, U.S. Information
 Agency, and the countries involved.

 In 1998, engineers, scientists and
 other professionals traveled to China,
 Czech Republic, Ghana, Hungary,
 India, Poland, South Africa, Chinese
 Taipei and Thailand to train and  work
 with their counterparts.  The  office
 also coordinated visits to the U.S. for
 representatives from China, Japan,
 Poland,  South Africa and Chinese
 Taipei, arranging  meetings  with
 their counterparts in the region
 in business, industry, government
 and  academia.

 Subjects included hazardous waste
 management; underground  storage
 tank management; brownfields;
 quality assurance and quality control
 laboratory procedures; enforcement
 and  compliance; solid waste
 management (recycling);
 environmental impact assessment;
environmental justice; mining waste
water treatment; pollution prevention
and  cleaner  production;  risk
 management; and risk and crisis
communications. The regional office
continued to be a partner in  two
environmental sister cities, programs
with the city of Philadelphia  and
Li ;H oli i  Hiqii SCHOOL  ihcse pio]ei.Tr.
have a focus on environmental
education and involve student
exchanges between Lincoln  High
School and counterpart  schools in
China and Israel. This year, the
partners hope to begin  an exchange
program with South Africa that will
highlight environmental justice and
pollution prevention.
The region handles more than 30,000
calls a year from the public on the
toll free hotline, (800) 438-2474.
Trained staff members give callers
information on a wide range of
environmental subjects and all
aspects of government programs. If
the staff cannot answer the caller's
question,  an appropriate specialist in
the region is found who can give the
answer. Phone numbers also are
provided for a variety of local, state
and federal programs.
liie region also has hotlines for
its Business Assistance Center,
(800) 228-8711, and  Superfund,
(800) 553-2509.
For the fifth straight summer, the
regional headquarters in Philadelphia
sponsored a community-based, cross-
cultural program to teach inner-city
children about environmental issues
prevalent in urban communities.
Field trips reinforced classroom skills
taught by EPA employees and a
Philadelphia middle school science
teacher.  The program also develops
communications skills.  The goal  is
for the students to take their
knowledge back to their own schools
and communities and teach others,
especially elementary school children,
about environmental issues that
affect their lives.
                                          South African delegation interested in  envnonmentat education learns firsthand from instuctors  and
                                          students at the Lincoln High School's Fnviionmental Academy. Photo provided by: Region Ill's Intt-i national

More than 100 children have
graduated from the summer program.
Based on its success, the agency
plans to expand this  program in 1999
to Chester, Pennsylvania and the
Anacostia area of Washington, D.C.

Through a grants  program, the
agency provides financial support for
projects which design, demonstrate
or disseminate environmental
education practices, methods or
techniques.  This  year, 30 grants
totaling $204,000 were given to
schools and grassroots organizations
throughout the region. The typical
grant was approximately $5,000, with
$25,000 the largest.  The agency also
works with the environmental
education directors in each state to
develop curriculum, find sources of
funding for programs, and provide
assistance where possible.

Additionally, as computers are
replaced and considered excess
government property, they are
donated to public schools, science
centers, museums and other non-
profit organizations.  To date, more
than 250 computers have been
distributed to recipients in every
state in the region.  As part of  an
Earth Day 1998 event, in April,  the
agency  "adopted" Pulaski Middle
School in Chester, Pennsylvania and
donated 10 computers to be used in
two science classes.  Reading and
reference materials were provided to
the library, and flowers, trees and
shrubs from the agency's award-
winning exhibit at the  annual
Philadelphia Flower Show were
given for landscaping.

As a public service, the region sends
an average of 35 speakers every week
to schools, clubs, organizations,
PTAs, environmental groups and
recreational centers to  talk about a
wide variety of environmental

                                              I PI
The region's Public Environmental
Education Center is located in the
lobby of the Region III building.
Visitors — primarily students
and teachers from the greater
Philadelphia metropolitan area —
learn about pollution prevention,
water quality,  wetlands, radon,
pesticides, air quality, biodiversity,
endangered species, household
hazards and cleanup of hazardous
waste sites. Nearly 4,000 students
from some 80  different schools
visited the center at its former
location at 8th and Chestnut Streets.
With the move to a high-traffic area
with even greater exposure to
sidewalk traffic,  this number is
expected to increase in future years.
The center is being redesigned with
state-of-the-art technology.

Lala Rukh Qadir, a high school
student from LaPlata, Maryland,
received the agency's 1997
President's Environmental Youth
Award for her  project that
demonstrated  the use of ultrasound
energy to treat contaminated waste-
water with high  explosives. Under
the direction of Dr. Elizabeth
Atkinson of the Naval Research
Laboratory in Washington,  D.C.,
Ms. Qadir worked with contaminated
synthetic wastewater samples. Her
project resulted in the successful
breakdown of a nitroglycerin
 Region III employees in Philadelphia are setting a
 fine example of environmental protection, with 95
 percent using public transportation to commute to
 work in 1998.

 Of the 909 employees in the Philadelphia office,
 864 took advantage of the Delaware Valley Regional
 Planning  Commission's TransitChek program, a
 fantastic  incentive whereby employers subsidize
 up to $65 per month  of each employee's public
 transportation costs.

 "Now that we receive TransitCheks, I wouldn't
 consider driving to work.  Public transportation
 makes more economic sense than ever, on top of
 its environmental benefit to urban air quality.
 It's important for the EPA to set an example in
 this regard," said Ruth Podems, a public affairs
 specialist in the  Region III press office.

 Employers throughout the Delaware Valley are
 following suit. When the  TransitChek program
 started back in 1992, only 92 companies
 participated.  In  1998, 223 companies were  helping
 employees take mass  transit. A recent TransitChek
 user survey revealed that an additional 15  percent
 of users started taking public transportation as a
 result of the subsidy.  Another 17  percent who said
they used public  transportation only occasionally
 now say they take it every day.

 Until June 2, 1998, TransitCheks were provided to
employees as part of their compensation package, in
addition to salary.  To encourage greater employer
participation, companies may now provide
TransitCheks as a benefit, in lieu of salary, and
deduct the amount — pre-tax — from an employee's
paycheck. Information can be obtained by calling
the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission
at (215)  592-1800.

                                                         AND  HONORS  -  1998
Region III Special Awards
African-American Cultural Exchange
Committee (BSD)

David M. Kargbo (HSCD)

Sonia Maldonado-Jiminez (HSCD)
Anita J. Wright (HSCD)

Virginia J. Cody (ORC)

Joseph J.C.  Donovan (ORC)

Terri A. White (WPD)

Francisco Cruz (WPD)

Clark S. Conover (WPD)

Beverly E. Baker (CBPO)

Judith L. Braunston (OCGR)

Joan M. Johnson (ORC)

Bronze Medals For Group
Air Compliance Data Team
Bernard E. Turlinski (APD)
Paul G. Dressel (APD)
Robert F. Chominski (APD)
James M.  Baker (APD)

ASTM Risk-Based Corrective
Action Team
Deborah R. Goldblum  (WCMD)
Elizabeth  Ann Quinn (WCMD)
Jack C. Hwang (WCMD)
Joel W. Hennessy (WCMD)
Ruth Prince (WCMD)
Baltimore Grants
Negotiation Team
David McAdams (WPD)
Michael Puzdrak (WPD)
Christopher Day (ORC)
Edward J. Hopkins (0PM)
David W. Buntz (HQ-OARM)
Marie M. Cullerton (HQ-OIG)

Bethlehem Steel Environmental
Achievement Team
Robert E. Greaves (WCMD)
JoelW.  Hennessy (WCMD)
Elizabeth Ann  Quinn (WCMD)
Diane B. Schott (WCMD)
Susan T. Hodges (ORC)
Virginia J. Cody (ORC)
Michael I. loff (APD)
Williams Hutchins (DOJ)

CAA Section 112(r)(9) Order
James Kenney  (APD)
John Ruggero  (APD)
Robert Langel  (HSCD)
Bill McHale (HSCD)
William Steuteville  (HSCD)
Mikhal Shabazz (HSCD)
Louis Ramalho (ORC)
Donna Mastro  (ORC)

Comfort Letter Policy Work Group
Heather Gray Torres (ORC)

Controlled Correspondence
Team Leaders
Angela  R. Cochnar (OCGR)
Dionne  L. Stokes (ORA)

Early Total Maximum Daily Load
(TMDL)  Development Team for
Delaware and West Virginia
Matthew T. Murawski (WPD)
Thomas M. Henry (WPD)
Carol Ann Davis (WPD)
Christopher Day (ORC)
Bruce E. Byrd  (ORC)
Charles A. Kanetsky (ESD)
Eastern Mine Drainage Federal
Raymond C. George (OCGR)
Gary V. Bryant (ESD)
Daniel D. Sweeney (WPD)
Deborah A. Storch (OCGR)
Bernard D.  Sarnoski (WPD)

EPA Green  Communities Team
Susan  G. McDowell (ESD)
Nancy A. Grundahl (ESD)
Joan H. Goodis (ESD)
Dominique  Lueckenhoff (ESD)
Mindy Lemoine  (CBP)
Stephanie Wilding (ESD)
Lawrence Martin (HQ-ORD)
Jacques Kapuzinsky (HQ-OARM)

EPCRA Section 312  Emergency
Preparedness Compliance/
Enforcement Sector Initiative
Carole Dougherty (HSCD)

Fairmont Pool Team
Daniel D. Sweeney (WPD)
Gary V. Bryant (ESD)
Anthony D.  Meadows (WPD)
Joyce  A. Howell (ORC)
Catherine Rojko (DOJ)
Robert H. Miller (DOJ)
Kewal K. Kohli (DOI)
Patrick F. McCann (DOI)

CRTS Nonpoint Source Team
Marion Y. White (WPD)
Eugene A.  Mattis (WPD)
Hector Gerena (0PM)
Andrea Parker (0PM)
Raymond Kvalheim (R2)
Donald J. Kunkoski (HQ-OWOW)

Lead-Based Paint Compliance
& Enforcement
Dan Gallo (WCMD)

Lost Source Exercise — Radiation
Emergency Response
William E.  Belanger (APD)
William D.  Steuteville (HSCD)

New National Ambient Air Quality
Standards  (NAAOS) Team
Maria  A. Pino (APD)
Kristeen A. Gaffney (APD)
Thomas Casey (APD)

 Nutrient Goal Reevaluation Team
 Allison P. Wiedeman (CBP)
 Peter J. Marx (CBP)
 Lewis C. Linker (CBP)
 Gary W. Shenk (CBP)
 Richard A. Batiuk (CBP)
 Ana M. Sylvester (CBP)
 Russ Mader (USDA)
 Jim Hannawald (USDA)

 OSi XL Project Team
 Maria Parisi Vickers  (WCMD)
 Beth A. M. Termini  (ORC)
 Cheryl Atkinson  (WCMD)
 Robin M. Moran (APD)
 Michele Aston (OAQPS)
 L. Nancy Birnbaum  (HQ-OR)
 Sherri L. Stevens (HQ-OR)
 Brian P. Grant (HQ-OGC)
 Amey C. Marrella (HQ-OGC)
 John  P. Fogarty (HQ-OECA)
 Charles A. Openchowski (HQ-OGC)

 Regional Emergency and Rapid
 Response Acquisition Team
 Jack L Downie (HSCD)
 Douglas P. Fox (HSCD)
 Harry T. Daw (WCMD)
 Denise L. Harris (ORC)
 Andrew J. Blaney (0PM)
 H. Lorrie Murray (0PM)

 PSD/NSR Training
 Course Workgroup
 Patrick Foley (APD)

 Pfiesteria Rapid Response Team
 Carin P. Bisland (CBP)
 Lois L. Woodward (CBP)
 Lori A. Mackey (CBP)
Jon M. Capacasa (CBP)
 Charles W. App (ESD)
James R. Butch (ESD)
 Dominique Lueckenhoff (ESD)
 Mary G. Zielinski (0PM)
Timothy J. Kasten (HQ-OWOW)
 Betsey Tarn Salter (HQ-OWOW)
 Brian Melzian (HQ-ORD)
John J. Heisler (HQ-OWOW)
 Ronald B. Landy (HQ-ORD)
 Bess Gillelan (NOAA)
 Region III Response Action
 Contract (RAC) Acquisition Team
 Reed E. Grimenstein (0PM)
 James M. Clark (0PM)
 Andrew J. Blaney (0PM)
 David R. Senderling (0PM)
 Alphonse A. Pinero, Jr. (0PM)
 Susan A.  Janowiak (HSCD)
 Walter S. Graham (HSCD)
 Martin T.  Kotsch (HSCD)
 Gerald Heston (HSCD)
 Frederick MacMillan (HSCD)
 Denise L. Harris (ORC)

 SPC Corp./Camden Iron Case
 Settlement Team
 Daniel E.  Lucero (APD)
 Wendy A. Miller (ORC)
 Hilda Burgos (ORC)
 Marilyn May (U.S. Attorney)
 Matthew Morrison (DOJ)

 State Audit Amendment Team
 Neil Bigioni (ORC)
 Janet Viniski (OECEJ)

 State of the Estuaries
 Assessment Team
 Charles W. App (ESD)
 Edward Ambrogio (ESD)
 Thomas B. DeMoss  (ESD)
 Richard A. Batiuk (CBP)
 John Paul(HQ-ORD)
 Brian Melzian (HQ-ORD)
 Jim Latimer (HQ-ORD)
 John Kiddon (HQ-ORD)
 Dan Campbell (HQ-ORD)
 Patricia Gant (HQ-ORD)
 Frederick  Kutz (HQ-ORD)
 Charles Strobel (HQ-ORD)
 Barbara Brown (HQ-ORD)

 Superfund Oversight Billing
Team Leaders
James N. Webb (HSCD)
 Noel Schleifman (0PM)
Veronica Kuczynski  (0PM)
 Bevin Esposito (ORC)
Steven X.  Pandza (0PM)
 EPA Headquarters Honor Awards
 Thomas J. Maslany (WPD)

 Dennis P. Carney  (HSCD)

 Betty Ann Jeffery (ESD)

 Anita J. Wright (HSCD)

 Gold Medal
 Smithfield Litigation Team
 Stephanie Branche (OCGR)
 Maria Goodine (ORC)
 R. Catherine King (OECEJ)
 Leonard Nash (WPD)
 Ruth Podems (OCGR)
 Lorraine Reynolds (WPD)
 Yvette Roundtree (ORC)
 David Sternberg (OCGR)

 Silver Medal
 Merck XL Team
 Robin Moran (APD)
 Cecil Rodrigues (ORC)
 Marcia Spink (APD)
 Hope Williams (ORC)

 Catherine C. Brown (ESD)
 Robert A. Koroncai (WPD)
 Lawrence A. Whitson (0PM)
 Francesca DiCosmo (DRA)
Jeffrey Burke (ESD)
Thomas C. Voltaggio  (DRA)
 Francisco Cruz (WPD)
John Armstead (WCMD)
 Reginald Harris (OECEJ)
 Robert Kramer (APD)
John Krakowiak (0PM)
Stuart H. Kerzner  (OED)

                                             TAL PROTECTION  AGENCY
1650 Arch Street
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103
(215) 814-5000

Office of the Regional Administrator
(215) 814-2900
(215) 814-2901 (Fax)
W. Michael McCabe, Regional
Thomas C. Voltaggio, Deputy Regional

Office of the Assistant Regional
Administrator For Policy and
(215) 814-5200
(215) 814-5108 (Fax)
James W. Newsom, Acting Assistant
Regional Adninistrator
John J. Krakowiak, Acting Deputy
Assistant Regional Administrator

Office of Communications and
Government Relations
(215) 814-5100
(215) 814-5102 (Fax)
Rene A. Henry, Director
Robert J. Mitkus, Deputy Director

Chesapeake Bay Program Office
(410) 267-5700
(215) 814-2200
(410) 267-5777 (Fax)
(215) 814-2201 (Fax)
William Matuszeski, Director
Jon M. Capacasa, Deputy Director

Office of Enforcement, Compliance &
Environmental Justice
(215) 814-2950
(215) 814-2905 (Fax)
Samantha Fairchild, Director
          ital Services Division
(215) 814-2700
(215) 814-2782 (Fax)
Stanley L. Laskowski, Director
Diana Esher, Deputy Director

Hazardous Site Cleanup Division
(215) 814-3000
(215) 814-3002 (Fax)
Abraham Ferdas, Director
Kathryn A. Hodgkiss, Deputy Director

Office of Regional Counsel
(215) 814-2600
(215) 814-2603 (Fax)
William C. Early, Acting Regional
Lydia Isales, Acting Deputy Regional

Office of Environmental Data
(215) 814-5701
(215) 814-5718 (Fax)
Alvin R.  Morris, Director

Waste and Chemicals Management
(215) 814-3110
(215) 814-3114 (Fax)
John A.  Armstead, Director

Water Protection  Division
(215) 814-2300
(215) 814-2301 (Fax)
Thomas J. Maslany, Director
James J. Burke, Deputy Director

Air Protection Division
(215) 814-2100
(215) 814-2101 (Fax)
Judith M. Katz, Director
Elaine B. Wright, Deputy Director
Criminal Investigation Division
(215) 814-2393
(215) 814-2383 (Fax)
Lori A.  Hanson, Special Agent in Charge

(703) 235-1116
(703) 235-1118 (Fax)
R. Scott West, Special Agent in Charge
Washington Area Office -  Region 1200

Office of Reinvention
(215) 814-2714
(215) 815-2782 (Fax)
Barbara Z. D'Angelo, Acting Special

Region III Satellite Offices
Annapolis, Maryland
Environmental Protection Agency
Chesapeake Bay Program  Office
410 Severn Avenue, Suite 109
Annapolis City Marina
Annapolis, Md. 21403
(410) 267-5700
(410) 267-5777 (Fax)
Toll-Free: (800)  968-7229

Fort Meade, Maryland
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Science Center
701 Mapes Road
Fort George G. Meade, Md. 20755-5350
(410) 305-2600
(410) 305-2702 (Fax)

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Environmental Protection Agency
400 Waterfront Drive
Washington's Landing
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15222
(412) 442-4124
(412) 442-4194 (Fax)

Wheeling, West Virginia
Environmental Protection Agency
1060 Chapline Street, Suite 303
Wheeling, W. Va. 26003
(304) 234-0231
(304) 234-0257 (Fax)