United States      Office of Solid Waste and Office of Research
         Environmental Protection Emergency Response  and Development
         Agency         Washington DC 20460  Cincinnati OH 45268
September 1989
&EPA   Abstract  Proceedings:

         Forum  on Innovative
         Hazardous Waste
         Treatment Technologies:
         Domestic  and

         Atlanta, Georgia
         June 19-21,  1989

                                            September 1989
         Atlanta,  Georgia, June 19-21, 1989
                WASHINGTON, DC 20460
                 CINCINNATI. OH 45268


The abstracts contained in this Proceedings do not necessarily reflect the
views of the Agency, and no official endorsement should be inferred.
Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.

The Forum on Innovative Hazardous Waste Treatment Technologies:
Domestic and International was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Program Management and Technology
- Margaret Kelly,  Director, Technology Staff.

The Forum programs and activities were planned by  a committee
consisting of the following  members:

       Thomas Pheiffer, U.S. EPA,  Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
       Response (OSWER),  Washington, DC
       Walter Kovalick, U.S. EPA,  OSWER, Washington, DC
       Ronald Hill, U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
       (RREL), Cincinnati, OH
       Chris Corbett, U.S. EPA, Region III. Philadelphia. PA
       Fran Kremer and Clarence demons,  U.S. EPA,  Center for
       Environmental Research Information (CERI), Cincinnati, OH
       Lisa Moore,  JACA Corporation, Fort Washington, PA

The conference was coordinated by JACA Corp., Ft.  Washington, PA 19034
under Contract No.  68-01-7481.  The Project Officer was Thomas Pheiffer,
Office of Program Management and Technology.


On June 19-21, 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office
of Program Management and Technology hosted an international
conference in Atlanta, GA, to exchange solutions to hazardous waste
treatment  problems. This conference, the Forum on Innovative Hazardous
Waste Treatment Technologies: Domestic and International,  was attended
by approximately 530 representatives from the U.S. and seven foreign
countries.  During the conference, scientists and  engineers representing
government agencies, industry, and academia attended 30 presentations
describing successful  case studies of physical/chemical, biological,
thermal, and stabilization treatment methods. In  addition, domestic and
international scientists and vendors presented over 40 posters explaining
their treatment methods and results.  This document contains abstracts of
many of the presentations and posters from the conference.

                                        TABLE  OF CONTENTS
Remediation and Treatment of RCRA Hazardous
Wastes by Freeze Crystallization                                      2
Purification by Froth Flotation                                         2
SITE: Extraction of Organic Material from Sludges.
Soils,  and Liquids                                                   3
Reverse Osmosis: On-Site Treatability Study of
Landfill Leachate at PAS Site in Oswego,  NY                           4
Electro-Reclamation in Theory and Practice                            4
Physical/Chemical Soil Treatment in the Netherlands:
A Technique in Progress                                             6
Vacuum Extraction Technology:  SITE Program Demonstration
at Groveland Wells Superfund Site                                    7
In  Situ Removal of VOC from Soil and Groundwater
by Vapor Extraction and Groundwater Aeration                          8
In Situ Cadmium Removal                                            9
Ultrox® UV/Oxidation of Organic  Contaminants in Ground, Waste,  and
Leachate Waters                                                   9
In Situ Steam/Air Stripping                                          10
The Simplest Way to Clean Contaminated Water                       11
Regional Biological Decontamination Centers  for the Clean-Up of
Contaminated Soil, Sludges, and Industrial Waste  Waters               14
Biological Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil —
Concepts of Remediation and Their Technical Application               15
The Holzmann System of In Situ  Soil Purification                        15
Slurry Phase Biological Treatment of Hazardous Waste                  16

 Table of Contents (Continued)


 SITE: Shirco Infrared Incineration                                     20

 Seven Years' Experience in Thermal Soil Treatment                    21

 Contaminated Soil Remediation by Circulating Bed Combustion           22

 Residues from High-Temperature Rotary Kilns and
 Their Leachability                                                  22

 Recycling of Contaminated  River and Sediments Demonstrated
 by the Example of Neckar Sludge                                    23

 SITE: Oxygen Enhancement of Hazardous Waste Incineration
 with the Pyretron Thermal Destruction System                         24

 Process Description and Initial Test Results with  the
 Plasma Centrifugal Reactor                                          25

 Hazardous Waste Incineration and Thermal
 Decontamination of Soils                                            26


 HAZCON, Inc. Superfund Innovative Technology  Evaluation
 Findings and Conclusions                                           28

 SITE: Fixation of Organic and Inorganic Waste/Intimate
 Mixing Technique                                                  29


 Aerobic Degradation of Benzene,  Toluene, and the Isomeric
 Xylenes by Microorganisms Immobilized on
 Gas-Permeable Membranes                                        32

 Bentonite - Cement - Foil Containment System                        32

 The  3-R Process                                                  33

 Mechanical Separation and  Thermal Treatment of Dredged
 Material from Hamburg Harbor                                      34

                                   Table of Contents (Continued)
PACT® System for Groundwater, Leachates, and Process
Wastewaters and the Wet Air Oxidation System for Sludge
Destruction/Stabilization                                            34
Pyroplasma Process for Organic Waste Destruction                    35
EPA SITE Program:  Separation and Recovery Systems
Fixation Technology                                               37
B.E.S.T.® Solvent Extraction System                                38
In Situ Vitrification Technology                                      40
Microfiltration for Removal of Heavy Metals and Suspended Solids       41
Biological Treatment of Chlorophenol-Contaminated  Groundwater       42
BioTrol Soil  Washing System                                        42
XTRAX® -  Transportable Thermal Separator for Organic
Contaminated Solids                                               42
Computerized On-Line Search and Retrieval of Information from
EPA's SITE Program Applications Analysis Reports                     43
ATTIC: The Alternative Treatment Technology Information  Center        44
The SITE Emerging  Technology Program                             45
Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE)
Demonstration Program                                             45



James A. Heist
Freeze Technologies Corp.
Raleigh, NC 27629

Freeze crystallization Is a general separation  process used to remove pure
components from solutions by crystallizing the  materials to be removed.
This process has been used for  applications  as diverse as organic chemical
refining and fruit juice concentration, and is especially suited for treating
hazardous wastes. This paper will illustrate how the process  can be used in
site remediation activities, Including treated contaminated  soils, where it
can be used to  recover valuable by-products from RCRA  and other
industrial waste  streams, and the basis for its utility in mixed (hazardous
and radioactive) wastes.

Freeze Technologies Corp. has built a mobile site  remediation prototype
commercial plant to demonstrate the field remediation  aspects of  this
technology. The capacity of the  units is  nominally  10 gpm of ice production
from a leachate or groundwater, at 90 percent water recovery. It  is
contained in two modules that are transported  on standard low-boy trailers,
and requires less than  one week to  set up.

Freeze crystallization has several advantages for remediation and waste
recovery applications.  It is a very efficient volume reduction process,
producing a concentrate that has no additional  chemicals added to it.  If
disposal in  a hazardous waste landfill or incinerator destruction is required
this will reduce these costs substantially. When a large fraction of the
solvent (usually  water) is removed from a waste, the remaining impurities
often begin to crystallize as well. They are often sufficiently pure to have
byproduct value for  resale. Processing costs with freezing are generally
low, ranging from $.03 to $.15 for 40 and 5 gpm plants, respectively.

Cas Mosmans
Mosmans Mineraaltechniek
The Netherlands

The purpose of this paper is to describe froth flotation and the guiding
principles in the field of purification of contaminated soil and waste.

The Mosmans Method has been used for the decontamination of soil and
waste in the Netherlands since 1983. This method is effected by well

chosen mineral separation techniques which together result in a complete
purification process. The most important, but also the most complex part
of the Mosmans Method is the froth flotation technique.

To achieve a separation between the contaminants and  soil in a soil-water
mixture, the surfaces of the particles have to be adequately manipulated in
such a way that the former will be hydrophobic and the  latter hydrophybic.
The manipulation is not related to changing the  chemical structure of the
particles, but to modifying the surfaces by selective adsorption. The
hydrophobic particles glue themselves to air bubbles produced in the
soil-water mixture.

Thomas J. Cody, Jr.
CF Systems Corp.
Waltham, MA 02154

CF Systems Corporation manufactures solvent extraction equipment that is
used to  extract organics from liquids, sludges,  and soils. The equipment is
unique in that ft uses a compressed gas or so-called critical fluid as the
extracting solvent.

The company has three commercial units: one that is designed as a
pretreatment for an incinerator; one that is a wastewater extraction unit
owned by Clean Harbors, Inc. of Braintree, MA; and one that is a unit for
the extraction of organics from sludges. The latter is in operation at the
Texaco  refinery in Port Arthur, TX.

The presentation dealt with a demonstration that CF Systems completed
under the EPA's SITE  Program at New Bedford Harbor In New Bedford, MA.
The goal of the demonstration was to extract PCBs to an acceptable level
from contaminated harbor bottom silts.  The demonstration was an
unqualified success and technical data and cost information were included
in the presentation.

A video  tape was prepared by the EPA  concerning the demonstration and,
in addition,  a two-volume technical report was  prepared by EPA's
subcontractor, SAIC. Either one or both can be obtained by writing to: CF
Systems Corporation. 140 Second Avenue, Waltham, MA 02154-1100,
Attention: Mr. Thomas J. Cody, Jr.,  Vice President.


Charles Goulet                           Robert Evangelista
Seprotech Systems Inc.                   Roy F. Weston, Inc.
Ottawa,  Ontario, Canada                   Edison,  NJ

Harry Whittaker                           Tim Kady
Environment Canada                      U.S. EPA,  ERT
Ottawa,  Ontario, Canada                   Edison,  NJ

In recent years,  the development of new reverse osmosis (RO)
membranes has  opened the application of this technology to on-site
treatment of hazardous wastes.  Today's membranes  offer better resistance
to a wide pH range, higher treatment fluxes, and greater tolerance to
organic solvents and oxidizing agents.  Currently. RO is being explored as a
waste volume reduction technique at hazardous waste sites.  In a series of
demonstrations at Canadian landfills, RO proved effective in concentrating
not only inorganic species but volatile and semi-volatile organic

At the end of the summer of 1988, a study was undertaken to evaluate the
capability of RO  at the Pollution Abatement Services (PAS) site in Oswego,
NY.  The encapsulated site generates approximately 750,000  gal  of
leachate per year. This aqueous solution, contaminated with metals and
solvents in the low parts per million level, is periodically collected and
transported to an off-site treatment facility. The PAS study involved testing
four different spiral-wound membrances in a single-stage RO system.
under varying feed conditioning schemes.

Results showed that all test membranes rejected volatile organic
compounds, semi-volatile organics, and metals with increasing levels of
efficiency from one class of pollutants  to another. Two contaminant
characteristics which affected RO rejection were molecular size  and
polarity.  In addition, membrane brand had a significant effect on
performance. Results indicated that RO is a promising technology for
on-site treatment of hazardous wastes.

Reinout Lageman
Rotterdam, Groningen, The Netherlands

During the last four years, Geokinetics has been developing a method to
remove heavy metals and other contaminants from soil and groundwater.

The method is based on the electrokinetic phenomena of electro-osmosis,
electrophoresis, and electrolysis, which occur when the  soil is electrically
charged by means of one or several electrode-arrays.

The most important applications of these phenomena with respect to the
soil have been the dewatering of clays by  electro-osmosis and
experiments to desalinize arable lands (USA, 1958 and USSR,  1966-1975).
Experiments on a very small scale  to remove heavy metals from soils have
been documented (UK, 1980, 1981. and 1982). Though  promising, the
author reported problems around the electrodes  (precipitates).

Geokinetics has found a solution to these problems by developing an
electrokinetic installation,  which monitors and controls the chemical
reaction environment around the electrodes. The core of such an
installation consists of the electrode-series and their housings, which can
be installed in principle at any depth, either horizontally or vertically. The
housings are interconnected and form two separate  (one for the cathode.
one for the anode) circulation systems, filled with different chemical
solutions. In these solutions the contaminants  are captured and brought to
a container-based water purification facility. The energy  is supplied by a
generating set or taken from the main.

Electro-reclamation can be applied both in situ (soils)  and on- or off-site
(excavated soil, scooped out river slush).  The electrokinetic phenomena
can also be used to fence off hazardous waste sites or potentially
hazardous industrial sites.

The technique has been tested on  the basis of numerous laboratory
experiments,  using different  types of soil (clay, peat, argillaceous sand)
and contaminants (As, Cd, Co, Cr,  Cu, Hg. Ni, Mn, Mo.  Pb, Sb, Zn), Two
in situ field experiments (Cu. Pb. and Zn) have been finished and one in
situ remediation project (As) has been successfully completed.

Reduction of individual heavy metal concentrations can be more than 90
percent, depending on the energy supply and time duration. Remediation
costs  are, therefore, directly related to these two factors. Costs range
from less than $50 per ton. when relatively low energy is supplied over
long periods (several months), to  more than $400, when the time period Is
reduced to  several weeks and the energy supply has to  be increased
accordingly. There is. however, a limit to the  current strength which can
be used.  In practice, therefore, an optimum is calculated for energy supply
and time duration.


M.J.J. Heijmans
Dutch Association of Process-Based Soil Treatment Companies
The Netherlands

This technology is based on particle sizing and soil washing. After
presieving (removal of parts > 4 to 8 mm) the main stream is intensively
mixed with a process liquid. The aim of this mixing process is to
disconnect the pollutants from the soil and transfer them into the
water-phase. Next the cleaned soil fraction is separated from the polluted
process liquid using separators or hydrocyclones (separation limit
approximately 50 to 70 um).  The waste water generated is treated in a
water purification system. After the removal of residual fines
(sedimentation),  the water is treated by means of precipitation,
neutralization, coagulation,  and flocculation. Finally,  the remaining organic
substances are removed by active carbon filters.

The physical/chemical treatment process can be used to clean  pollutated
soil contaminated with:
   Mineral soils
   Heavy metals (Pb, Zn. Ni,  Cr, As.  Hg)
   Inorganic compounds (complex and free cyanides)
   Aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene)
   Polycyclic hydrocarbons
   Chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCBs)
   Pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides
Some treatment results:

Complex cyanides
Polynuclear aromatics
Heavy metals
Input (ppm)
100 - 250
100 - 150
Output (ppm)
15 - 20
75 - 125
The operating costs of a physical/chemical treatment installation depend
mainly on the quantity of fines/sludge (< 63 um). the addition of chemicals.
and the type of the soil. The average costs vary between $60/ton and
$90/ton. Disposal of contaminated fines range up to  $125/ton.


James J. Malot
Princeton, NJ

Vacuum extraction is an in situ or ex situ treatment process for cleanup of
soils and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), liquid-phase hydrocarbons, or semi-volatile compounds.  The
process of removing VOCs from the vadose zone using vacuum extraction
is a patented process. Demonstration of the Vacuum Extraction Technology
was conducted under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation
(SITE) Program at the Groveland Wells  Superfund Site in Groveland, MA.
The demonstration included an eight-week pilot test to remove VOCs
(mostly TCE) from the underlying soil and groundwater.

The subsurface conditions included multi-layered glacial deposits consisting
of sands, silty sands, and clays.  Groundwater was 27  ft deep with a
perched water table at about 10 ft. A multi-layered vacuum extraction and
monitoring system was installed and operated in sub-zero  weather in
northern Massachusetts.

Objectives of the pilot program included testing of soils before,  during, and
after implementation of the vacuum  extraction process. The effectiveness
of the process was monitored by measuring subsurface vacuum, rates of
flow, rates of VOC extraction, and adsorption  on activated carbon. The
system was designed to  operate on the fringe of the contaminant  plume
and to quantify the level of cleanup that could be achieved by the process
by using barrier wells to prevent the migration of contaminants from the
primary source area into the demonstration area.

Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the vacuum extraction process
to clean up contaminated soils. Data from the pilot test also demonstrated
that the contaminant distributions were different than originally suspected
from the Remedial Investigation (Rl). In  the area of the fringe of the
contaminant plume, soil concentrations  were  reduced more than 95
percent to non-detectable levels. Accordingly, evaluation of the process
dynamics and cleanup rates were adjusted to  reflect the actual subsurface
conditions. Additional data from subsequent cleanup work at the site is
presented to further evaluate the demonstration  program.

The objective of evaluating "How clean is clean?"  is addressed with
respect to the vacuum extraction process. Results from other sites where
vacuum extraction has been applied are also presented. Results indicate
that vacuum extraction technology is widely applicable for cleanup of soils
and groundwater that are contaminated with VOCs.


Dieter H. Hiller and Andrew C. Middleton
Harress Geotechnics,  Inc.
Coraopolls, PA 15108

Data gained from more than a thousand cases in Europe confirm vapor
extraction to  be an efficient and cost-effective remedial technique for soils
contaminated by volatile organic compounds  (VOCs). Negative differential
pressure is created in a vapor extraction well, generating a steady flow of
soil gas towards the extraction well. This provides a flushing of the soil with
air undersaturated in respect to the contaminant concentration.
Contaminants will evaporate into the gaseous phase both from the liquid
phase and from the soil.

Concentrations in the discharged air are high  during  an initial period of
about 30 days. Subsequently, they stabilize at a relatively low level,
eventually decreasing  to background levels.  The effective radius of a single
vapor extraction well ranges typically from 20 ft to 150 ft under non-sealed
surfaces and  up to 300 ft under sealed surfaces.

As in any remedial action, efficient application is strongly dependent on a
precise definition of the location and the extent of a contaminant source.
Remediation by vapor extraction operates in situ,  generates minimal
amounts of waste due to the selective removal of volatile contaminants,
and is not disruptive to ongoing production processes. Only a small space
is required for the blower installation.

For the  remediation of sufficiently permeable,  contaminated aquifers,
groundwater aeration in connection with vapor extraction can be applied as
an alternative to or in combination with groundwater extraction.  Oil-free air
is injected into the aquifer at the bottom of the contamination, either
continuously or in a pulsed manner. The air migrates upward along
numerous pathways, taking up volatile contaminants from both the soil and
the groundwater. Upon arrival in the unsaturated zone, the now
contaminated air is drawn to  a vertical vapor  extraction well or a similar,
horizontal installation.  In coarse-grained sediments, groundwater aeration
can be an alternative to pumping,  thus avoiding the  treatment of
contaminated water.


John Vijgen
TAUW Infra Consult
Deventer, The Netherlands

Due to the discharge of wastewater by a photo paper manufacturer,  about
30,000 m3 of soil was contaminated by cadmium.

TAUW Infra Consult developed an in situ remedial action technique under
the direction of the government of the province of Utrecht. The in situ
treatment method involves three aspects:

•  Cd desorption of the contaminated soil
•  Hydrological infiltration and withdrawal  systems
•  Purification of Cd-containing groundwater

The remedial action took place from June 1987 to October 1988. During
the winter of 1987 to 88, temperatures dropped to -10° C, however no
difficulties occurred because the water treatment  plant was roofed and
kept  free of frost.

The desorption of cadmium from the soil was almost complete, with 90
percent of the soil samples containing Cd levels of < 1 ppm.  Approximately
450 kg of Cd was recovered from the soil.

David Fletcher. Eriks Leitis, and Due Nguyen
Ultrox International
Santa Ana, CA 92704

The removal of low levels  of organic contaminants from groundwaters and
industrial wastewaters presents a challenge to environmental professionals.
Well-known and commonly used treatment processes such as granular
activated carbon (GAC) and air-stripping transfer pollutants from one
medium to another. With increasing public and regulatory concern over the
final fate of pollutants, such transference technologies are not optimal.

Conventional chemical oxidation has been used in the treatment of various
waters polluted by organic chemicals for a number of years. Potassium
permanganate, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide have been used for treating
organics such as phenol and its homologs in wastewaters. Hydrogen
peroxide with a catalyst such as ferrous sulfate (Fenton's Reagent)  has
been used for oxidizing phenol and other benzene derivatives.  Processes

utilizing Iron-catalyzed peroxides and chlorine compounds are attractive in
that they utilize relatively low-cost treatment equipment.  The disadvantages
of these processes are that they can attack only a limited number of
refractory organics. Ozone alone has been used to treat phenolic wastes,
cyanides,  and certain pesticides. Ozone treatment is a very clean process
but Is limited in the number of compounds which can be  treated. These
oxidation processes have been  used and are continuing to be used in a
number of situations.

The use of ultraviolet light catalyzed ozone plus hydrogen peroxide
(UV/oxidation) as a water treatment technique is rapidly expanding. It
offers a means of solving many  of the problems created  by the toxic water
soluble chemicals that are found today in groundwater, wastewater,
leachate,  and drinking water supplies without many  of the disadvantages of
more conventional treatment techniques.

UV/oxidation, when used as a stand-alone treatment process, or in tandem
with some of the above  mentioned processes, can cost  effectively destroy
or render  non-toxic the  organic chemicals found on the EPA's priority
pollutant list.

This paper describes the experience of Ultrox International in developing
and applying  the ULTROX UV/oxidation process to the full-scale treatment
of organic chemicals in wastewaters, drinking waters,  leachates, and
groundwaters. The oxidants used in these applications are ozone and
hydrogen  peroxide.  Ultrox International was issued a process patent in
1988 covering the application of UV light, ozone, and hydrogen  peroxide  to
the treatment of a broad range  of organic compounds in water. The
process can successfully treat chlorinated solvents (such as TCE  and vinyl
chloride),  BTX compounds,  pesticides,  PCBs, and  explosives in water.

Phillip La Mori
Toxic Treatments (USA),  Inc.
San Mateo, CA 94404

This paper reports on work in progress on the use and development of a
new in situ soil treatment  technology. The technology treats soil by
injecting steam and hot air into soil below the ground surface while
vigorous mixing occurs using two 5-ft-diameter drills. Volatile organic
compound (VOC) hydrocarbons are evaporated to the surface, captured in
a containment vessel, and condensed for subsequent disposal. This
technology Is currently  being applied to a chlorinated hydrocarbon
contaminated site in California.

The test results to date have shown removal efficiencies from 96 to 99
percent VOC using EPA 8240 analytical methodology. Silly soils containing a
broad mixture of VOC (up to 15 compounds) had their soil concentration
reduced well below the target of 100 ppm (e.g., starting range 824 to
1,872 ppm,  and after treatment range of 7 to 55 ppm). The results in
moist clay soils containing tetrachloroethylene obtained similar efficiencies,
96 to 98 percent, but were  not as successful in absolute removal (e.g.,
starting range of 2.305 to 5,838 ppm, and after treatment range of 53 to
203 ppm).

The process also  removed significant quantities of semi-volatile compounds
(SVCs)  as listed in the EPA 8270 protocol. About 85 percent of the SVCs
found on the site are phthalate esters of various aliphatic radicals (e.g.,
ethyl hexal). We believe that the phthalate esters hydrolylze to a phthallc
acid salt and alcohol. The phthalate acid radical binds tightly to the clays
and the alcohol appears to mostly dehydrate to olefins. The soil chemical
analysis and recovered fluid chemical analysis support these ideas.
SVC-like isophrone and phenol are quantitatively removed by distillation  or

The mass balance of recovered and remaining VOC is close to the starting
calculated mass. The field chemical monitoring and the lab chemical data
show little or no escape of VOC to the surroundings,  either  below the
surface or to the atmosphere. We believe that for the volatile materials  the
process is quite effective in quickly remediating the soil. The treatment
rates average about 6 to 8 yds/h. The process appears  effective for some
semi-volatile compounds, but the mechanism for this must clearly be
evaluated on a compound-by-compound basis.

Ralf F.  Piepho
Ralf F.  Piepho Abwassertechnik GmbH
Bredenbeck, West Germany

Philip Nickles
The Piepho Corporation
Great Falls, VA

Ralf F.  Piepho Abwassertechnik GmbH has been in the waste water
treatment business in Europe for over 10 years. The Corporation has
developed a chemical-physical process for the treatment of contaminated
water and has sold this treatment process to thousands of firms all over
the world.  The Piepho technology is well suited to deal with many of the
remediation problems faced in the U.S.  The Piepho system can be used
not only to treat contaminated surface water or ground water, it can also

clean contaminated soil in conjunction with a soil washing or soil flushing
process. The system has three main advantages in the remediation market:

•   Its cost - relatively inexpensive when compared with other methods of
•   Easily transportable - can be installed or removed in less than a full
•   Most Important, the company has developed a reaction/ separation
    agent which removes the contaminants from the waste water, and at
    the same time  it encapsulates these contaminants in a sludge that is
    resistant to leaching. In Germany, this has  allowed the  corporation to
    dispose of most of the concentrated  waste on normal landfills, thus
    saving considerable expense.



Hein Kroos
Biodetox GmbH
3061 Ahnsen, West Germany

Due to a lack of landfill capacity, biological treatment of contaminated soils
is becoming more and more important in West Germany. The Biodetox
Company has developed and successfully applied various in situ and
on-site technologies for the biological decontamination of mineral oil and
related pollutants, light aromatics, and PAH.

An interesting technology which has found large attention lately is the
Biodetox Bio-Pit Process. The polluted soil is excavated and brought to
treatment pits specifically built for this purpose under government
surveillance. Microbes and nutrients are added to the contaminated soil via
a foamborne pre-inocculation and by regular distribution through a specially
devised spraying system. Biodegradation takes place in the soil itself and in
a submerged fixed-film bioreactor, assisted by specially selected and
adapted naturally-occurring microorganisms. The dissolved soil pollutants
are pumped into the bioreactor after having been washed out by the
trickling water. The spraying system is also  used to prevent the stripping of
volatile pollutants.

With this proven process, more than 50,000 m3 of contaminated soil were
treated successfully, reaching the decontamination levels required by law
within 6 to 12 weeks (average diesel fuel contamination before treatment:
30,000 ppm, after treatment: 500 ppm). The bio-process was approved
by the German federal and  state authorities.  It is widely accepted by the
public and does not present any hazard to  the environment.

The Biodetox Company is presently building up a franchise network of
regional biological decontamination centers  where this specific technology
Is being applied. Presently,  three biological  decontamination centers are
operating and seven are under construction in close cooperation with the
regulatory authorities.

Regional biological decontamination  centers are economically feasible with
primary investment  costs between $500,000 and $1.5 million. Very
competitive treatment rates and consistently high quality performance
nationwide are being ensured by the Biodetox franchise system.


M. Kastner
Technical University of Hamburg - Harburg
Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany

K. Hoppenheidt and H.H. Hanert
Technical University of Braunschweig Biocenter
Braunschweig, Federal Republic of Germany

In this paper different ways to develop biological processes for the
remediation of contaminated  soil and groundwater are discussed. With
dichloromethane as an example, it is shown how elimination processes can
be developed which are designed for a specific organic pollutant and
specific bacteria. The fixed-bed reactor process presented here is able to
achieve decomposition of dichloromethane from groundwaters of 4.2 kg/m3
x d. These results could be maintained for more than six months. As in
many contaminated sites, bacteria adapted  to the organic pollutants
already exist. The example of contamination with complex organic
compounds will be used to show the activation of the microflora from the
site to degrade the organic compounds and its technical application in
remediation as another way to develop processes. From these
investigations a concept of action was developed which permits statements
about the possibility of biological remediation of a contaminated  site and
the processes which can be  used, even with relatively few experiments.
This concept facilitated the application of biological processes to different
organic pollutants in all cases examined until now.

H. Balthaus
Philipp Holzmann AG
Frankfurt, West Germany

In West Germany numerous sites of former gasworks and coking plants are
contaminated with tar oils,  polycyclic aromatic carbons,  and cyanides.

On a former gaswork site in Bremen, a new method of in situ soil washing
has been applied for the first time. The new method can be used
economically under space  limitations for high degrees of contamination,
high contents of silt,  and low permeabilities of the natural ground. The
obtainable degrees of purification are very high.

The purification system with mobile plant components, using a
high-pressure Injection technique for the first purification step within an
Impermeable casing lowered into the ground, allows for simultaneous
removal of organic and inorganic as well as soluble and insoluble pollutants
down to great depths. No lowering of the groundwater table is necessary;
the groundwater within the contaminated soil volume is also purified.
Borings are brought down one by one, finally forming a pattern of
overlapping borings with complete treatment of the contaminated soil.

The mixture  of soil components, water, and pollutants produced by the
high-pressure injection is pumped from the borehole  and treated in a
separator  unit.  The purified soil is returned to the open borehole after an
exchange  of contaminated against clean water. The original permeability of
the ground is restored.

Water passing  the separator unit is treated  consequently to gain potable
water suitable as process water and for re-infiltration through injection

Sludge as  a side-product of the purification process is treated
microbiologically in composting piles.

John R.  Ryan, Randolph Kabrick, and Men/in Coover
Remediation Technologies, Inc.
Kent, WA and Austin, TX

This process involves the biological treatment of sludges and soils in a
slurry form  within a high energy environment. The process is referred to as
Liquid/Solids Contact (LSC), and is carried out in a series of sequenced
batch reactors on organic slurries containing less than 20 percent solids.

Remediation Technologies Inc. has a patent on the system and has
completed  a broad variety of bench- and pilot-scale studies as well as
full-scale remediations. Examples of materials which have been tested

•  Re'finery sludges including API Separator Sludge, DAF Float, and
   wastewater lagoon sludges which contain aromatic and polynuclear
   aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).
•  Wood preserving sludges containing pentachlorophenol and PAH
•  Petrochemical sludges containing halogenated aromatics and PAH

•   Soils contaminated with a variety of petroleum and coal tar derived

The system has been used at over 10 sites for the closure of RCRA
impoundments. The process is adapted for use in both tanks and
impoundments. In the primary biostabilization step, volatiles are completely
removed with residence times less than three days. Air emissions can be
controlled by treating the off gas in a scrubber. Additional biostabilization
steps are carried out for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds if
needed.  Over 90 percent destruction of PAH compounds has been
achieved with residence times less than 30 days. The actual degradation
rate is waste- and  matrix-specific but in general, petroleum refining
sludges  are the most rapidly degraded of the substances tested.

The LSC process Is an extention of conventional  (aerobic) biological
wastewater treatment technology. It offers the following advantages:

•   It  is  applicable  to a wide variety of contaminated soils  and sludges.
•   The  process can be used in situ (e.g., in sludge impoundments) or in
    engineered containment systems.
•   The  reaction rates are 3  to 10 times faster than observed  in  the land
    treatment of similar materials.
•   It  provides for destruction of toxic chemicals  at significantly lower costs
    than incineration or thermal treatment.



Stephen C. James
Cincinnati, OH 45268

The electric infrared incineration technology is a mobile thermal processing
system which uses electrically powered silicon carbide rods to bring the
organic waste to combustion temperatures and then, to  incinerate any
remaining combustibles in an afterburner. The mobile system is comprised
of four components: the electric-powered infrared primary chamber,  a
gas-fired secondary combustion chamber,  an emission control system, and
a process management and monitoring control center.

Waste  is fed into the primary chamber on a wire mesh conveyor belt and
exposed  (at temperatures of up to 1,850°  F) to infrared radiant heat
provided by the horizontal rows of electrically-powered silicon  carbide rods
above  the belt.  A blower provides air at selected  locations along the belt
and can be used to control the burning rate of the waste feed  and its
location while burning on the belt.

The ash material which drops off the belt in the primary chamber is
quenched by water sprays utilizing scrubber effluent. The ash is held until
the PCB content is determined to be less than 1 ppm.

Gaseous volatiles from the primary chamber are destroyed in the fired
secondary chamber. Gases are ducted through the emissions control
system, which consists of a venturi scrubber  for paniculate matter and  a
packed tower to neutralize acid vapor. An induced draft blower draws the
cleaned gases from the scrubber into the free standing exhaust stack.

The scrubber liquid effluent then flows into a clarifier where scrubber
sludge  settles out for disposal. Finally,  the scrubber effluent flows to an
effluent tank,  through an activated carbon filter  for reuse, or to a POTW
tank for disposal.

This technology is suitable for organic wastes contained  in soils or
sediments.  Liquid organic wastes can also be handled once they are mixed
with sand or soil.

Demonstration of the electric furnace was carried out at  full-scale at an oil
refinery site near Tampa,  FL, from August 1 to 4,  1987.  As part of the
removal operation by EPA Region IV, a nominal  100-per-day Shirco Infrared
System was set up at the site. The site was contaminated with nearly
7,000 cubic yards of waste oil sludge containing PCBs and lead. During  the
demonstration, the SITE Program evaluated the system for reliability of PCB
destruction and  to determine if the solubility of lead compounds could be

reduced. A second demonstration of the system,  at pilot-scale, took place
at the Rose Township Dump Site  in Michigan, from November 2 to 11,
1987. Organics,  PCBs, and metals in soil were the target waste compounds
to be destroyed  or immobilized. The pilot-scale operation allowed the
evaluation of several different operating conditions. Results of the two tests
were similar:

•   In both tests, at standard operating conditions, PCBs were reduced to
    less than 1 ppm in the ash with a ORE greater than 99.99 percent
    (based on  detection limits).
•   In the full-scale demonstration,  the air pollution control system did not
    reduce particulate emissions to the regulatory level and several
    adjustments were needed to bring it into compliance with regulations.
•   Lead was not immobilized;  however, it remained in the ash and was not
    transferred to the scrubber water or emitted to the atmosphere.
•   The pilot-scale unit demonstrated that blending fuel oil with the  feed
    reduced the  primary chamber temperature and thus lowered energy
    costs without decreasing performance.
•   The unit requires  a feed having  a diameter of one  inch or less,  and
    care must be exercised in  design and construction of material handling
    systems prior to feeding the material to the unit.

R.C. Reintjes and C. Schuler
Utrecht. The Netherlands

Ecotechniek, a Dutch company for environmental works, has used a
thermal decontamination process for contaminated soil  since 1981. Two
plants are in full operation in the Netherlands and one is under construction
in Germany.

The plants are based on a two-step process. In  the first step the soil is
heated to the temperature required to evaporate water and polluting
substances  (up  to 350° C). The poisonous gases which develop are
separated from the soil and destroyed in the second step, the incinerator.
The heat developed in the incinerator in turn is used in  the first step.
Following treatment, the cleaned soil is cooled,  moisturized with water, and
fully re-used in sites.

The plants can process contaminated soil at a maximum rate of 50
tons/hour. At the present time, over  600,000 tons of soil  have been
decontaminated by this process.


Robert G. Wilbourn and Brenda M.  Anderson
Ogden Environmental Services, Inc.
San Diego, CA 92121

The Circulating Bed Combustor (CBC) is an advanced generation of
incinerator that utilizes high velocity air to entrain circulating solids in a
highly turbulent combustion loop. Because of its high thermal efficiency,
the CBC is ideally suited to treat organic wastes with low heat content,
including contaminated soil. This paper discussed the development of CBC
contaminated soil treatment technology and its application to  site
remediation. The CBC process, pilot plant, and transportable  field
equipment units were described. In March of 1989, a Superfund Innovative
Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration test burn of McColl Superfund
Site soil was conducted in  Ogden Environmental Services'  (OES)
Circulating Bed Combustion research facility. The results of the successful
test were presented. The paper also reviewed the on-going site
remediation activities in Alaska and California using OES  designed,
fabricated, and deployed transportable CBC units.

Ronald Schlegel
W&E Umwelttechnik AG
Zurich. Switzerland

The characteristics of the residues generated by the combustion of
hazardous waste obviously vary depending on where in the plant they were
obtained. Since the largest portion of all residues are obtained in the form
of slags,  it is of great interest whether the composition of the slags allows
for normal land disposal or recycling.Tests were carried out in cooperation
with AVR-Chemie and our U.S. licensee, Combustion Engineering, in
September 1988 in AVR Chemie's hazardous waste incineration  plant at
Rijnmond in the  Netherlands. During all tests, the plant was operated under
normal operating conditions and did not deviate  from the usual,  commercial
operations.The teachability tests were carried out using the following three

•  Toxicity Test (EPA SW 846, Method 1310)
•  Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure  (TCLP)
•  Total  Extractable Metals

The consideration of all tests revealed that 90 percent of the solids' Input
volume is discharged in the form of slags, whereas only 10 percent verge
into other output flows.

The leachability tests according to the TCLP Method show that all values fall
short of the threshold limits by at  least a factor of 100.

The TCLP tests carried out on the slag samples obtained from a high
temperature rotary kiln incineration system show that the leachability of
heavy metals of this slag is considerably lower than the theshold limits for
landfill disposal that are in force in the U.S. The fact that all these results
were achieved with regular residues and under normal commercial  plant
operation conditions indicates that there is a probability that this slag may
be delisted.

M. Nussbaumer and E. Bellinger
Ed. Zublin AG
Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

The Neckar is 370-km-long tributary of the Rhine,  its confluence with the
same being not far downstream from Heidelberg. The river was made
navigable over a length of 202 km during the decades following World War
II (I.e., weirs with locks were constructed at 20-km intervals along the river
to regulate the water-level).  Primarily finegrained,  suspended,  and
sedimentary materials are deposited in the storage ponds and necessitate
river dredging.

The purposes of the dredging are:

•  To keep the navigation lane open
•  To maintain the required river cross-section for flood control
•  To maintain water quality

The dredged material has become contaminated by heavy metals due to
the expansion of industry in the area, cadmium being the prime
contaminant. The sometimes  high cadmium  contamination precludes the
use of the dredged materials  for agricultural purposes. It was therefore
initially proposed that the dredged sludge be dried and dumped at waste
disposal sites. Since sites for waste disposal are rare and expensive to put
into operation in the  Federal Republic, economic means of recycling had to
be sought.

Toward this end one of the largest civil engineering contractors in the FRG,
Ed. Zublin AG of Stuttgart, has developed a process whereby dredged
material is converted into spherical, porous,  lightweight aggregate for the
production of masonry blocks and lightweight concrete.

Ed Zublin AG has been awarded a contract to construct and operate a
plant for the thermal treatment of 500,000 m3 of sludge dredged out of the
Neckar over a period of 10 years. In order to enable the thermal procedure
involving temperatures of up to 1,150° C to  be successfully put into
service in an environment-friendly manner, a new  concept for outlet-gas
treatment had to be developed and tested.

Gregory Gitman, Mark Zwecker, and Fred Kuntz
American Combustion,  Inc.
Norcross, GA 30071

A SITE Program demonstration of the PYRETRON Thermal Destruction
System  (TDS)  was  conducted at the EPA's Combustion Research Facility
(CRF). The PYRETRON TDS,  developed by American Combustion, Inc.
(ACI)  of Norcross, GA, was installed on the pilot-scale rotary kiln
incinerator.  The demonstration tests were conducted using waste material
from the Stringfellow Superfund  Site near Riverside, CA. To increase test
difficulty, the Stringfellow soil was combined with a high heating value
decanter tank tar sludge waste from coking operations. The test objectives
were to evaluate ACI's claims that the  PYRETRON  TDS  is capable of

•   Control  of transient discharges of POHCs and PICs  during operational
    upset conditions.
•   Higher waste feedrates than conventional incineration.
•   Economic system operation.

The demonstration test results showed that ACI's PYRETRON TDS achieved
the RCRA 99.99 percent POHC ORE at  a waste feedrate which was 100
percent greater than the  maximum  rate established under conventional
incineration. Measured particulate emissions from the PYRETRON testing
were  significantly less than the required 180 mg per dscm corrected to 7
percent oxygen.

The PYRETRON TDS was  also treated at the maximum  conventional system
feedrate but with a 60 percent increased mass charge size. During these

tests the PYRETRON was capable of handling the increased charge mass
without generating unacceptable levels of "puffs".

The concentration of POHCs in the ash residue was consistently below
detection limits.

B.C. Eschenbach, R.A. Hill, and J.W. Sears
Retech, Inc.
Ukiah, CA 95482

During the last few years Retech, Inc.  has  developed the Plasma
Centrifugal Reactor (PCR) to stabilize solid  waste material while
decomposing any toxic hydrocarbons into  relatively innocuous, simple
molecules. The PCR uses heat from an arc to melt and vitrify, thereby
accomplishing the decomposition and stabilization of the waste. Plasmas
can produce temperatures in excess of 10,000° C although the expected
temperature  to be produced in the molten  glass is about  1,600° C.

The development of this  furnace has been  achieved through a three-stage
program. Initial tests were performed at Ukiah in Retech's 100-kW
lab-scale plasma furnace, followed by demonstrations on surrogate
materials in a titanium production furnace located at Oregon Metallurgical
Corporation,  Albany, OR. This demonstration showed the  effectiveness of a
transferred-arc plasma to reduce the volume of simulated wastes. In stage
two of this program, a quarter-scale PCR was designed, built, and tested
at the Retech facility. During this phase, the first patent covering the
plasma centrifugal furnace was issued  (U.S. Patent 4.770,109). The final
stage of this  program will be to evaluate the performance of a full-size
furnace  (PCR-6). The preliminary tests of this reactor were conducted in
cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Agency (EPA)  on a Simulated Soil
Matrix (SSM)  at Ukiah. Further tests will be run at the U.S. Department of
Energy (DOE)  Magnetohydrodynamics  (MHD) facility at Butte, MT, as part
of EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology  Evaluation (SITE) Program.
Following the  SITE Program,  DOE plans to further test the capabilities of the


Rudiger Schmidt
Deutsche Babcock Anlagen AG
D-4150 Krefeld II, West Germany

Incineration in a rotary kiln with a subsequent combustion chamber
doubtlessly is the most technically and ecologically safe method for
hazardous waste disposal, equally well suited for the  treatment of  liquid,
pasty,  and solid waste. Through its affiliate company, Ford, Bacon & Davis
Inc., Deutsche Babcock Anlagen AG (DBA) so far has built 10 hazardous
waste treatment plants based on this principle in the  U.S. One of them
serves exclusively for the disposal of 2 t/h of material containing PCBs,
which are being destroyed at a high rate of efficiency.

Another kind of rotary kiln heating is  being used  in the DBA pyrolysis
process for thermal decontamination of soils, which has already been
applied in a technical-scale plant in the Federal  Republic of Germany. Soils
are being treated at the lowest possible temperatures (500 to 700° C) with
long residence times  in an indirectly heated rotary kiln. The resulting
gaseous, organic compounds are being burnt in a subsequent combustion
chamber at high temperatures (1,000 to 1,300° C).  More than 20,000 m3
of soils of a shut-down coke oven territory have been backfilled after
successful decontamination in the DBA plant.



Timothy E. Smith
Brookshire, TX 77423

In October 1987, the EPA initiated its first field test of a solidification/
stabilization (s/s) process under the Superfund Innovative Technology
Evaluation (SITE) Program. The emerging technology demonstrated was
developed by founders of HAZCON,  Inc.,  based in Texas. The solidification
technology was chosen for its potential to effectively stabilize and solidify
highly organic waste streams using a cement-based process.

The author described the test criteria established jointly by the EPA and
HAZCON, how the field test was conducted, actual test findings,  and how
these findings might impact the future of landfilling.

The test site was a former oil reprocessing facility located in Douglassville,
PA.  The site was placed on the NPL In 1985 due to the presence of high
levels of organic and inorganic contaminants in site soils. Contaminants
included PCBs. heavy metals, volatile and semi-volatile organics, base
neutral acids,  and other toxic materials.

Without knowing the organic content or chemistry of the soils to  be  tested,
HAZCON received the materials from six locations on the site. Each batch
was processed by HAZCON's Mobile Field Blending Unit (MFU), then
extruded into forms for curing. The blocks were allowed to cure  for 24
hours before being removed from the forms and buried on-site.

Samples were collected both before and  after treatment. These  samples
were subjected to an extensive testing protocol, to include TCLP leachate
analysis, permeability, weathering and strength tests, and micro-structural
analysis. The results indicated that HAZCON's  "Chloranan" treatment
process effectively solidified both organics and inorganics. The heavy
metals were immobilized,  PCBs were not  detectable  in leachates, and  the
structural integrity of  the mass was sound.


Carl L. Brassow, J.T. Healy, and Rod Bruckdorfer
Solidification, Inc.
Houston, TX 77036

Solidification/Stabilization methods are increasingly being developed to
physically/chemically fix and immobilize a wide range of industrial waste.
These methods can  include in situ techniques where the wastes are treated
in-place without removal and intimate mixing techniques where the waste
streams  are removed and mixed with additives in specific proportions. The
Soliditech process is an intimate mixing process whereby wastes, organic
or inorganic, are mixed with pozzolanic material, URRICHEM, and other
additives to form an  immobilized mass with structural strength and low
leaching potential.  Data indicates unconfined compressive strength ranging
between 400 and 850 psi, permeability between 10 -8and  10-9 cm/sec, no
noticeable effect of wet-dry or  freeze/thaw cycles, and significant
reductions of organic and inorganic constituents  in leachate.



Miguel A. Rubio. Harald Krebs, Peter A. Wilderer, and Oliver Debus
Technical University at Hamburg-Harburg
Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany

Leachate recovered  from the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg contains
significant amounts of volatile organics like benzene, toluene,  and the
isomeric xylenes. Preliminary tests confirmed that these substances are
biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The question, however, was  how
to provide the microorganisms with  oxygen without loosing the volatile
substrates by stripping. In  general, it is possible to transfer oxygen into
water by means of gas permeable membranes which separate the biomass
suspended in a liquid from  an oxygen-containing gas phase. Silicone
rubber appears to be an adequate material for that purpose. Experiments
have been conducted which demonstrate a sufficient oxygen transfer
capacity of silicone tubing  oxygenation systems. Unfortunately, volatile
organics dissolve readily in silicone rubber, and  escape into the gas phase
as the gas flows through the lumen  of the  silicone tubings.  The loss of the
potential substrates can be minimized by allowing microorganisms to
colonize the membrane surface and form a biofilm "barrier" to the
escaping volatile  substances. The poster contains a summary of the results
of experiments which have been conducted to quantify the transfer of
benzene, toluene, and xylenes from  an aqueous solution through the wall
of silicone tubings into the  gas phase. Growth of biofilms  at the
water-membrane interface as well as the resulting reduction of the  overall
mass transfer by  the metabolic activity of the biofilm will be discussed. The
proposed design  of a membrane-biofilm reactor will be presented.

John Vijgen
TAUW Infra Consult
Deventer, The Netherlands

In the period from 1948 to 1952  the insecticide HCH (Hexa
chloro-cyclohexane) was produced in the southern area of the town of
Hengelo. From 1948 to 1949 the total HCH-product was sold as an
insecticide. From 1950 on only a part of the total product, the
gamma-HCH, was sold as an insecticide and the residues  (85 percent)
were stored  on the  factory premises.

During the production of HCH, a contamination of the neighboring area took
place via the chimney of the factory.  From 1950 to 1970 HCH was  illegally
dumped at numerous waste disposal sites and sand and clay pits. It was
also mixed with soil used as landfill material.

In  1977 the first soil contamination with HCH outside the area originally
owned by the company was found. The largest contaminated areas were
situated in the south of the town of Hengelo,  in the northwestern part of
the town of Enschede, and in  Oldenzaal and Borne. The contamination was
often found in combination with mercury contamination  which was
presumably produced during the chloro-alkaline process.

To enable future remedial actions, it was decided to erect a temporary
storage site  with a capacity of 125,000 m3 until an adequate treatment
method can  be  developed. During the selection of the  location the
objective was to find a site already contaminated with HCH, on which the
storage site  could be erected. The most favorable location was found to
be an old refuse site on  the southern  border  of the town of Hengelo near
the village of Beckum.

In order to isolate the area it was decided to  construct a bentonite-
cement-foil wall. The wall was constructed by means of a hollow l-shaped
beam which  was brought down by a vibrator  to the required depth. During
withdrawal of the beam,  the remaining hollow space was filled with  a
bentonite-cement mix. Then the HDPE-foil was attached to a large steel
plate which was dropped into  the bentonite-cement mix. The individual foil
sheets were connected to each other by special  locks. At a later stage the
locks were cleaned up and filled with  a special mix to ensure that they
were watertight.  Thus far about 8,000 m3 of  the bentonite-cement-foil
system have been completed.

Rudiger Schmidt
Deutsche Babcock Anlagen AG
D-4150 Krefeld II, West Germany

Future waste treatment plants shall certainly have to be equipped not only
with efficient flue gas cleaning systems but also with treatment plants for
the solid residues. These residues contain teachable heavy metals,  salts,
and — mainly in the case of  flyash — halogenated aromates, which
prohibit  simple landfilling or recycling of this material.

In the 3-R Process developed by Deutsche Babcock Anlagen AG, the
residues are treated thermally first, with 95 percent of the halogenated
aromates being destroyed at temperatures of 400° C in the absence  of air.

In a second phase, the mobile heavy metals and soluble salts are being
separated from the residues by means of the acid solution produced in the
flue gas treatment system.

H.J.  Hampel
Battelle-lnstitute e.  V.
Frankfurt, West Germany

To be able to treat  the 2 million m3 of material that is dredged each year
from its harbor basins,  the Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, through its
dredging authority,  has built a large-scale plant (1,200 m3/h throughput) to
extract the almost pollutant-free sand and dewater the remaining
fine-grained fraction containing the pollutants. Large-scale experiments are
carried out with this plant to test individual plant components like
hydrocyclones, sieve belt presses, etc.; optimize the entire treatment
process; and establish  design data for the final industrial-scale plant. The
start-up of the industrial-scale plant, which will process the total volume of
dredged material produced, is planned for 1992 at the latest.  With a view
to the further treatment of the dewatered fine-grained fraction, the
Investigations conducted at the laboratories of Lurgi GmbH and
Battelle-lnstitute e.  V.,  in cooperation with Strom- und Hafenbau, the
dredging authority in Hamburg, resulted  in the development of a thermal
treatment process.  The dewatered fine-grained material is formed into
pellets which are subjected to thermal treatment («=< 1,200° C)  on a Lurgi
travelling grate. The resultant  products can be used as construction
material (aggregates).  The main advantages of the thermal treatment over
alternative processes are: (1) organic pollutants are destroyed; (2)
inorganic pollutants  are immobilized; and (3) the products obtained satisfy
building material standards. At present all the  necessary ecological and
technical investigations are under way to support the  engineering work for
the  industrial-scale  plant.

J.K. Berrigan, Jr.,  W.M. Copa, and T.J. Vollstedt
Zimpro/Passavant  Inc.
Rothschild. Wl 54474

Two innovative waste treatment systems from Zimpro/Passavant Inc.. the
PACT® system using powdered activated carbon and the Wet Air Oxidation
(WAO) system, have been selected by EPA for demonstration at the
Syncon Resins Superfund Site in New Jersey.

The PACT system combines biodegradation and adsorption of organic
contaminants by adding powdered activated carbon to biological treatment
processes (in this case, the activated sludge process). PACT systems  and
WAO systems have effectively treated municipal and industrial wastewaters
as well as groundwaters and leachates containing hazardous organic
pollutants. Current installations have successfully treated wastewaters from
the refinery, fuel, chemical, dye production, and pharmaceutical industries
in addition to contaminated groundwater and mixed municipal/industrial

PACT, when coupled with WAO, provides for the complete destruction of
many toxic components and the reduction of solid residuals to a stable,
sterile, inert ash. The insoluble ash separated from the effluent of the WAO
process constitutes the only solid residue for disposal.

The PACT system and WAO system will be demonstrated together to treat
groundwaters contaminated with various levels of organic  chemicals. A
trailer-mounted PACT system will decontaminate and remove  adsorbable
and biodegradable constituents from the groundwater. A skid-mounted
WAO system will demonstrate  destruction of adsorbed pollutants and
bio-solids, while regenerating  the powdered activated carbon for reuse in
the PACT system. At higher temperatures,  the WAO system will
demonstrate conversion of sludges to a stabilized ash.

Bench-scale studies are currently underway at  the Zimpro/ Passavant Inc.
laboratory to determine operating parameters for the PACT system and
WAO system  during the on-site technology demonstration.

M.F. Joseph and W.H. Reed
Westinghouse Environmental Services
Madison,  PA 15663

The Westinghouse Pyroplasma system destroys  and recycles liquid organic
materials  by breaking the molecular  bonds of chemical wastes and
converting hazardous wastes  into non-hazardous, potentially recoverable
substances.  The plasma process is  capable of treating a wide spectrum of
liquid organic wastes. Initially, emphasis was placed on the  design of
mobile units  for  site remediation. Present  designs offer a modular system
that can be utilized for a fixed-base system or a mobile configuration.

Throughput capacities are variable from 1 to 3 gpm single units to
multi-stage units.

The destruction process is based on the concept of pyrolyzing waste
molecules using  a thermal plasma. The heart of the destruction system Is a
plasma torch which was designed by Westinghouse. Similar torches have
been developed  for practical applications ranging from blast furnaces and
boiler ignition, to the  testing of atmospheric reentry vehicle heat shields by
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration  (NASA).

The plasma torch in the current unit uses up to 850 kW of electric power
across a colinear electrode assembly.  This configuration produces an
electric arc which ionizes an injected low pressure gas stream, forming a
thermal plasma  (or superheated gas) with temperatures in the 5,000 to
15,000° C range. Waste molecules are introduced into the superheated
gas exiting the plasma torch. The molecules are dissociated into their basic
elements because the thermal  properties of the plasma enable it to break
the bonds holding molecules together.

These atoms then recomblne in the reaction chamber to form
non-hazardous gases, typically carbon monoxide,  nitrogen, and hydrogen.
along with some  lower molecular weight  hydrocarbons  (i.e.. methane.
ethane, etc.). Acid gas formed from the destruction of halogenated waste
and the subsequent combination of hydrogen and halogen gases,  is
neutralized in a wet scrubber with sodium hydroxide to form a salt water
effluent. Scrubbing also removes any particulate carbon produced. The
product gas, which consists primarily of hydrogen  and carbon monoxide, is
drawn off by an induction fan and flared.

A process computer  automatically controls the entire system through a
series of temperature,  pressure, electrical, and flow sensors.  An
experienced operator monitors and directs the unit's operation; however.
pre-set parameters programmed into the computer logic have overriding
control. There are numerous safety features built into the system,  including
the anticipation of a complete power failure, a worst case scenario.  In
addition, the process is monitored for various gases to keep the system
operating efficiently and according to theoretical models.

The existing Pyroplasma unit is trailer-mounted and requires only power,
water,  inlet and discharge lines, and a flare stack.  This present trailer unit
is configured for processing primarily polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and
may not necessarily be the final configuration recommended for processing
other organic waste materials.

Tests  conducted in December  1988 of the mobile  Pyroplasma system
produced PCS destruction efficiencies well in excess of U.S.  EPA
requirements. The tests, conducted at the Westinghouse Environmental

Services' Waltz Mill facility in Madison, PA,  were performed under a U.S.
EPA Toxic Substances Control Act  (TSCA)  Research and Development
Permit. During the tests, samples were taken for analysis by Entropy, a
member of the U.S. EPA Contract Laboratory Program. Recently received
test results showed destruction removal efficiencies  (DRE) in the range of
seven to  eight  "9s." Specific stack gas results are shown below:

               Test 1        Test 2        Test 3        EPA Criteria

DRE:          (PCB in feed-PCB in gas) / (PCB in feed) x 100  (%)
HCI:           Hydrogen Chloride in gas (pounds/hour)
Particulate:    Particulate concentration  (grains/dry standard cubic foot)
              @ 7% oxygen

In addition to the high PCB destruction efficiency, the hydrochloric acid
concentrations to the stack gas were one and two orders of magnitude
better than EPA standards. The gas particulate emissions were also an
order of magnitude better than the EPA acceptance criteria.  This test was
conducted on 300 gal of transformer askerel fluid with a concentration of
70 to 80 percent PCBs by weight. The feed rate was 1 gpm. The system
performed without problem during these tests. The tests were terminated
when the PCB supply was depleted.

These tests have verified the efficiency and operability of this technology
and constitute a major achievement  in its commercialization for  PCBs and
other liquid organics. Also, the computer models which have been
developed for predicting the operation of the system have been further
refined and verified.  Westinghouse Environmental Services has now verified
that the Pyroplasma  system is ready for commercial markets.

William Sheehan and Joseph de Franco
Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc.
Irvine, CA 92714

The SRS Chemical Stabilization and Solidification Technology provides
lime-based chemical fixation of hazardous organic and inorganic sludges.
Results are better than competing fixation processes because chemical

reactions change and bind the hazardous constituents.  The technology has
been demonstrated at commercial sites and the company has contractually
been responsible for total and permanent site cleanup at major sites on
three continents.

The SRS technology is a lime-based process.  The lime is specially
prepared and contains proprietary non-toxic chemicals that catalyze and
control the reactions between the lime and the waste. The sludge to be
treated is removed from the waste pit by a swing line or crane and placed
in a blending pit. Specially prepared  lime and additives are added to the
sludge  In the blending pit using an excavator. The lime blend  is then mixed
with  the sludge and the first step of neutralization takes place. At the
completion of this step,  black sludge is  changed to a grey paste and any
solid pieces have been dispersed.

After approximately 15 minutes,  a second lime  preparation is  added to the
sludge. This preparation  is different from the first in both  chemical form and
composition. The lime is mixed over a 20-minute period  in the blending pit.
After this time, the reaction is about  80  percent complete.

After the second reaction step has been completed, the  fixed product
undergoes a QA/QC evaluation to determine if the fixation reactions are
proceeding as planned. These tests  include measurement of pH,
unconfined compressive strength,  liquid release, and moisture content.
These tests have been designed to be conducted quickly in the field to
ensure that the final fixed product  will meet the required  fixation criteria.

The treated material is then removed from the blending pit and placed on a
product assembly line. The product is allowed to cure for several days.
This  time is very important because  it allows the reactions to  continue in a
controlled environment. After the product has been sufficiently cured,  it is
placed in a storage area prior to being returned to the original pit for final
compaction. Production  rates  are from 500 to 1,000 yd3  per day.

Paul McGough
Resources Conservation Co.
Bellevue, WA  98004

Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) is a chemical process which
separates sludges and contaminated soils into three parts: oil.  inert solids,
and water. Because B.E.S.T. operates at such low temperatures, it has
low energy requirements. B.E.S.T. achieves  three objectives of  hazardous
waste management: waste  minimization,  detoxification, and resource

The B.E.S.T. process can be used to treat contaminated sediments in lake,
river,  and harbor bottoms. It can also process very thick but pumpable
sludges.  Most recently, RCC modified the process to  treat  soils, sand, or
fine gravel.

At the heart of the process is triethylamine.  Triethylamine is one of a family
of aliphatic  amines with the unusual property that it is  miscible with oils and
water at  temperatures around 40° F and is essentially immiscible with oils
and water at temperatures around 70° F.  At about 170° F,  triethylamine
evaporates from oil and is recycled to the process.

Triethylamine smells like ammonia and has a flammability similar to gasoline.
A caustic similar to household bleach, it is biodegradable in natural
environments. Triethylamine is a commonly used chemical  in the
pharmaceutical, rubber,  resin, and textile industries.  RCC has patented the
use of inversely miscible  solvents such  as triethylamine to  remove water
and oil from sludges and  other mixtures of solids,  water, and oil.

Unlike incineration, which is very  energy intensive  and destroys all the
material,  B.E.S.T. operates at low temperatures, conserves energy, and
recovers valuable resources.  The residual contaminated fraction is reduced
to a very small quantity. When it  is not suitable for reuse,  it can be
incinerated or chemically detoxified at a secure  and protected location.

Because  B.E.S.T. operates at moderate temperature  and pressures, it
uses standard process equipment and  components. When  processing  the
solids, the unit is equipped with  a wash dryer, a heavy duty vessel
commonly used in the food processing industry. In this vessel, steel
paddles or  plows agitate  the material with chilled triethylamine. When the
required  number of "washes" have been  accomplished, the oil, water, and
solvent fractions are drained or pumped into a decanter. The  solids portion
remain in the vessel to be dried and discharged. The  vessel is then
prepared for the next cycle.

The decanted liquid portion is heated to 130° F  and the triethylamine/oil
fraction is separated from the water.

The oil and TEA portion is drawn off the top  of the decanter and pumped
into a TEA recovery system. The recovery system may be an evaporator
alone or  an evaporator combined with a finishing distillation column. Here
the solvent is condensed and reused. The remaining oil can be used as a
fuel or discarded. The water is drawn from the bottom of the  decanter, and
pumped  to a stripping column where the remaining traces  of solvent are
recovered and reused.

The water portion, often  much larger than the oil and  equal to or larger
than the  solids,  is disposed through standard wastewater or sewage

 treatment systems. In some cases, the water will be clean enough to
 require no further treatment.

 Hazardous organic components such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
 are isolated in the  oil fraction.  When PCBs are present, the oil can be
 treated with thermal or chemical processes. If PCBs are not present or are
 present at low levels, the oil may be recycled as fuel.

 Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, chromium, or copper are found
 mostly in the solids. The B.E.S.T. process shifts  the metals into a
 non-leachable state, thus allowing them to pass  Environmental Protection
 Agency's EPTOX and TCLP tests.  Detoxified solids are candidates for
 "delisting," or removal from the EPA list of hazardous  substances.

 In 1986, EPA tested B.E.S.T. at a Superfund Site near Savannah, GA, to
 determine  its suitability as a transportable on-site technology. The test data
 proved the system was capable of separating oily sludges and producing a
 safe product. In addition, comparisons of RCC laboratory simulation data to
 field data indicate that laboratory-scale simulations can be useful in
 predicting  system  performance.

 A 1987 study, funded by EPA and conducted by the  Research Triangle
 Institute of North Carolina, rated B.E.S.T.  number one  out of eight for
 processing sediments contaminated with PCBs.

 In 1988, EPA classified  solvent extraction techniques such as B.E.S.T.  as
 "Best Demonstrated Available Technology" (BOAT) for treating refinery

 In May 1989, a B.E.S.T. Pilot Plant completed on-site  demonstration tests
 at a large oil refinery.

 In June 1989, numerous treatability studies were  conducted in the RCC

James E. Hansen and Vincent F. FitzPatrick
Geosafe Corporation
Kirkland, WA 98033

In Situ Vitrification (ISV)  is a newly commercialized  proprietary technology
capable of satisfying SARA's mandate for permanent reduction  of toxicity,
mobility, and volume of  organic and inorganic contaminants in soil,
sediment, sludge, and/or tailings.  The process involves the on-site and in
situ electric melting of contaminated  materials at temperatures typically

exceeding  1,600° C. Organic contaminants are destroyed by pyrolysis;
typical ORE is > 99.9999 percent (e.g., PCBs and dioxin). Typical inorganic
contaminants (e.g., heavy metals)  are chemically incorporated Into the
glassy residual product which is equivalent to natural obsidian and is
capable of  safe environmental exposure for geologic time periods. Typical
volume reduction is 20 to 40 percent for most soils.

The ISV process is now offered  on  a commercial basis.  It is applicable to
all types  of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed wastes within
site-specific application limits. It may be applied to fully saturated soils,  but
is subject to recharge limitations. Application costs are highly
site-dependent;  typical costs fall in the range of $250 to $350 per ton, not
including treatability testing, permitting, or mobilization/demobilization.

The ISV process has been selected for use at several Superfund and
private sites,  and is being evaluated for potential use on many others.

E. Mayer and H.  Lim
E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.. Inc.
Richmond, VA 23261

A unique microfiltration application for separating sub-micron  particles Is
achieved using sub-denier fibers and a tortuosity structure of Tyvek® as
filter media with the Oberlin Co. Automatic Pressure Filter  (APF).

This filtration application  has  been capitalized by meeting the  EPA effluent
discharge limits in wastewaters containing heavy metals and suspended
solids,  groundwater leachate, basin leachate and runoff, and oily and
radioactive  wastes with solids concentrations ranging from 10 to 5,000 ppm
and viscosities of waste  as high as 16 cps.

The feed water preparation prior to treatment with the APF comprises
chemical precipitation, polymer flocculation, and filter aid addition. The APF
produces dry and non-leachable filter cake (40 to 60 percent solids) that
is suitable for further treatment (i.e.,  landfilling. storage, incineration, and

This technology has been adopted in  many Du Pont sites and several
companies, and has been  accepted by the EPA for the 1988  Superfund
Innovation Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program.


Thomas J. Chresand
BioTrol, Inc.
Chaska, MN 55318

BioTrol, Inc. has developed a system for the treatment of chlorinated
phenols in wastewater streams. The compounds are degraded by
microorganisms which are immobilized in a submerged, fixed-film
bioreactor. An indigenous consortium of microorganisms is amended by
inoculation of a specific bacterium with the capability to degrade
pentachlorophenol (PCP) as well as tetra- and tri-chlorophenol. BioTrol has
demonstrated  treatment of  groundwater containing up to 90 ppm PCP, and
has achieved effluent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 ppb. The
system is primarily applicable to  groundwater; however, treatment of
process and lagoon waters has also been demonstrated.

Steven B. Valine
BioTrol, Inc.
Chaska. MN 55318

BioTrol, Inc. has developed a soil washing system for the remediation of
soils contaminated with organic  chemicals. The system is based on a
series of intensive scrubbing and physical separation steps  using mineral
processing technology. Water is used as a carrier for the soil and
contaminants and is treated in a fixed film bioreactor using an amended
bacterial consortium prior to recycle in the soil washing system. This
poster presents the results of two years of pilot testing recently completed
at a Superfund Site in Minnesota contaminated with wood preserving

Carl Swanstrom and Carl Palmer
Chemical Waste Management, Inc.
Oak Brook, IL 60601

The remediation of solids such as soils, filter cakes,  and pond sludges that
are contaminated with organic chemicals is a major problem for the
environmental industry. Many of these  wastes can be treated using a

 thermal separator; essentially, by drying them. Chemical Waste
 Management (CWM)  has developed a patented system, trade marked
 X*TRAX®, that thermally separates organics from solids in an indirectly
 heated rotary dryer. The volatilized organics and water are carried to a gas
 handling system with an inert gas (nitrogen), where they are condensed
 and collected as a liquid. The carrier gas is reheated  and  recycled to  the
 dryer in a closed  loop.  Only a small portion of  the carrier  gas is vented to
 the atmosphere through carbon adsorbers to control  noncondensibles in
 the recirculation loop. CWM has  constructed a full-scale transportable
 thermal separator with a nominal capacity of 100 to 125 tons per  day. This
 unit is undergoing startup testing and will be  available  in the third quarter of
 1989. CWM  has been operating both a 5-tons-per-day pilot system and a
 2 to 4 Ib/hr  lab-scale system since early 1988. The pilot unit is slated to
 undergo extensive testing on TSCA and RCRA wastes  in mid-1989 at
 CWM's Kettleman Hills Facility in central California.

Hugh Masters
Edison. NJ 08837

The Applications  Analysis Reports (AARs) may well be the most widely
disseminated and influential output of EPA's Superfund Innovative
Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. They are  basically executive
digests of the more comprehensive Technical Reports from  a SITE
technology demonstration. They are meant to be a clear, concise
statement to potential technology users. The AARs contain SITE technology
information that is needed by individuals responsible for  implementing
remedial  actions  at hazardous waste sites.

To provide quick and easy access to this information, each approved SITE
AAR is placed, in its entirety, on EPA's Technical  Information Exchange
(TIX)  Computerized On-Line Information System (COLIS). The reports can
be searched by entering keywords to  locate those reports and sections
pertinent  to the user's needs.

TIX is maintained  by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in
Edison, NJ. It disseminates technical information involving hazardous waste
technologies and conducts a wide range of support services for the Risk
Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL's) research activities at Edison.
It is operated by  an on-site contractor under EPA sponsorship, and is
managed by RREL's Releases Control  Branch.

 TIX provides immediate access to its collection and assists users in
 locating or obtaining materials  from other sources (e.g., EPA's Center for
 Environmental Research Information). A library of commercial software is
 maintained so users may evaluate packages before purchasing additional

 TIX also pursues research studies of its own into  the computerized retrieval
 and dissemination of information from its collections. In conjunction with
 EPA personnel, TIX  helped to develop and now maintains COLIS, which is
 designed to meet the needs of several specific R&D efforts, such as
 accessing the SITE  AARs. COLIS requires little or  no prior computer
 experience  and can be accessed remotely  using a wide variety of
 computer equipment.

 Michael L. Mastracci
 Washington, DC 20460

 The Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) is a
 comprehensive automated information retrieval  system that integrates
 existing hazardous waste data sources into a unified, searchable resource.
 This system provides access to a wide variety  of technical information
 sources at one central location and serves as a focal point to promote the
 exchange of technical information between members of the user
 community.  The user community that will take advantage of the ATTIC
 system will include EPA staff at the Headquarters and Regional level, but
 more importantly, will also include the EPA contractors actively engaged in
 actual  site cleanup and remediation.  Expanding  the targeted user
 community to  include the various EPA contractors has allowed the overall
 scope of the ATTIC system to incorporate a greater  variety of technical
 information on alternative treatment technologies, including international
 reports, bench- and pilot-scale data, and industrial applications. Through
 ATTIC, 'a user  will be able to access a central resource to collect
 information on various hazardous waste treatment technologies. The center
 can provide searches  of ATTIC resident data  bases,  comprehensive
 searches of on-line databases, and technical evaluations of collected data.
 As  necessary, the center will also serve as an interface between the user
 community and the various  EPA  research laboratories.


Donald E.  Sanning
Cincinnati, OH 45268

The SITE Emerging Technology Program, an integral part of the Superfund
Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, was authorized by the
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorizatlon Act of 1986. The goal of the
total program is to maximize the use of alternatives to land disposal in
cleaning up Superfund sites. The Emerging Technology Program provides
the framework to encourage further testing and evaluation, through
pilot-scale, of technologies already proven at bench-scale. Partial funding
is provided by EPA. through competitively awarded Cooperative
Agreements, to assist technology developers with testing and evaluation of
their technologies for application to hazardous waste cleanups. Seven
technologies were funded from the first Emerging Technology Program
solicitation. Included In the technologies now  being evaluated are:  removal
of dissolved toxic metals by chemical treatment/ultrafiltratlon,
electroacoustic  soil decontamination, a  "biological" ion-exchange resin for
removal and recovery of metal ions from groundwater, constructed
wetlands treatment for toxic metal removal, laser stimulated photochemical
oxidation of toxic organics in water, solvent washing of contaminated soils,
and contained recovery of oily wastes.

Stephen C. James
Cincinnati, OH 45268

Under the  Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act  (SARA)  of 1986,
the Environmental Protection Agency was authorized to conduct a
demonstration/evaluation program for assessing technologies applicable to
hazardous waste  cleanup. The aim of the program is to evaluate
technologies that treat,  recycle,  and separate (e.g., permanent solutions),
rather than to continue to select  remedies that involve excavation/disposal
and containment  options (e.g., temporary solutions). This  program is
called the  Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program.
The technology demonstrations carried out under  this program focus on
technologies at the pilot- or full-scale stage of development. Technology
demonstrations are designed to be conducted on  actual waste in the field,
preferably at an actual Superfund site. The key to the program is
conducting the technology demonstration in the field under actual

 conditions. This may include evaluating pre- and/or post-treatment options
 for the waste feed or residuals from the process.

 While the SITE  Program has developed a process for planning and
 conducting technology demonstrations in the field under the Superfund
 Program, this process is applicable and can provide guidance to develop a
 sound program to evaluate any technology in the field. The main objectives
 of any field demonstration program are to develop reliable performance
 and cost data on the  technology being evaluated. This demonstration
 should provide  detailed performance, cost effectiveness, and technology
 reliability data so that potential users have sufficient information  to make
 sound judgments as to the applicability of the technology to a specific
 situation and to compare the  evaluated technology to other available
 technology options. In the process of collecting  and evaluating data,  it is
 important to  collect data of a known quality. Therefore, the processes of
 sampling and analysis, including quality assurance and quality control,  are
 very important. In addition to  these technical issues,  government policy,
 regulatory requirements,  and  community involvement need to be

 The technologies will be at the pilot- or full-scale. The main objectives of
 demonstration at the field-scale are  development of reliable performance
 and cost data.  Technology demonstrations provide performance, cost
 effectiveness, and reliability data so that potential technology users have
 sufficient information to make effective decisions as to the applicability of
 the technology to a specific situation. The demonstration and evaluation of
 a technology should be conducted with  the purpose of characterizing
 performance, need for pre- and post-processing of the waste feed,  waste
 type and constituents applicable to the technology, system throughput.
 problems and limitations of the technology, and operating and maintenance

 The demonstration/evaluation program will at a minimum address the

 •   Test plan development
 •   Sampling and analytical program
 •   QA/QC program
 •   Health and safety  plan.