&EPA
         United States
         Environmental Protection
         Agency
            Office oT Water
            4304T
EPA 822-R-03-031
December 2003
Ambient Aquatic Life
Water Quality Criteria
for Tributyltih (TBT) -

-------
AMBIENT AQUATIC LIFE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR

                   TRIBUTYLTIN

            CAS Registry Number (See Text)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
            77 West Jackson Boulevard, 12th Root
            Chicago, IL  60604-3590
                   December 2003
     U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                OFFICE OF WATER
       OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA DIVISION
                WASHINGTON D.C.

-------
                                          NOTICES
This document has been reviewed by the Health and Ecological Criteria Division, Office of Science
and Technology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and is approved for publication.

Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation
for use.

This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS),
5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.  It is also available on EPA's web site:
http: //www. epa. gov. / waterscience/criteria/tributvltin.
                                             11

-------
                                          FOREWORD
        Section 304(a)(l) of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-217) requires the Administrator of
the Environmental Protection Agency to publish water quality criteria that accurately reflect the latest
scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare that might
be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water, including ground water. This final
document is a revision of proposed criteria based upon consideration of scientific input received from
U.S. EPA staff, the public and independent peer reviewers.  Criteria contained in this document
replace any previously published  EPA aquatic life criteria for tributyltin (TBT).

        The term "water quality criteria" is used in two sections of the Clean Water Act, section
304(a)(l) and section 303(c)(2).   The term has a different program impact in each section. In section
304, the term represents a non-regulatory, scientific assessment of ecological effects.  Criteria
presented in this document are such scientific assessments.  If water quality criteria associated with
specific stream uses are adopted by a state as water quality standards under section 303, they become
enforceable maximum  acceptable pollutant concentrations in ambient waters within that state.  Water
quality criteria adopted in state water quality standards could have the same numerical values as criteria
developed under section 304.  However, in many situations states might want to adjust water quality
criteria developed under section 304  to reflect local environmental conditions and human exposure
patterns. Alternatively, states may use different data and assumptions than EPA in deriving numeric
criteria that are scientifically defensible and protective of designated uses. It is not until their adoption
as part of state water quality standards that criteria become regulatory.  Guidelines to assist the states
and Indian tribes in modifying the criteria presented in this document are contained in  the Water
Quality Standards Handbook (U.S. EPA, 1994). This handbook and additional guidance on the
development of water quality standards and other water-related programs of this Agency have been
developed by the Office of Water.

        This final document is guidance only.  It does not establish or affect legal rights or obligations.
It does not establish a binding norm and cannot be finally determinative of the issues addressed.
Agency decisions in any particular situation will be made by applying the Clean Water Act and EPA
regulations on the basis of specific facts presented and scientific information then available.
                                             Geoffrey H. Grubbs
                                             Director
                                             Office of Science and Technology
                                               m

-------
                                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

BACKGROUND:

        Tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic biocide that has been used extensively to protect the hulls of
large ships. It is a problem in the aquatic environment because it is extremely toxic to non-target
organisms, is linked to imposex and immuno-supression in snails and bivalves, and can be persistent.
EPA is developing ambient water quality criteria for TBT through its authority under Section 304(a) of
the Clean Water Act (CWA).  These water quality criteria may be used by States and authorized Tribes
to establish water quality standards for TBT.

CRITERIA:

Freshwater:

        For TBT, the criterion to protect freshwater aquatic life from chronic toxic effects is 0.072
//g/L.  This criterion is implemented as a four-day average, not to be exceeded more than once every
three years on the average.  The criterion to protect freshwater aquatic life from acute toxic effects is
0.46 /^g/L.  This criterion is implemented as a one-hour average,  not to be exceeded more than  once
every three years on the average.

Saltwater:

        For TBT, the criterion to protect saltwater aquatic life from, chronic toxic effects is 0.0074
/^g/L.  This criterion is implemented as a four-day average, not to be exceeded more than once every
three years on the average. The criterion to protect saltwater aquatic life from acute toxic  effects is
0.42 //g/L. This criterion is implemented as a one-hour average,  not to be exceeded more than  once
every three years on the average.

The saltwater chronic criterion for TBT differs from the criterion  float was originally proposed for
public review (0.010 /^g/L). The development of the saltwater chronic criterion for TBT considers four
lines of evidence:
                                               IV

-------
(1)    the traditional endpoints of adverse effects on survival, growth, and reproduction as
       demonstrated in numerous laboratory studies;
(2)    the endocrine disrupting capability of TBT as observed in the production of imposex in field
       studies;
(3)    that TBT bioaccumulates in commercially and recreationally important freshwater and saltwater
       species; and
(4)    that an important commercial organism already known to be vulnerable to a prevalent pathogen
       was made even more vulnerable by prior exposure to TBT.

For these reasons, the criterion to protect saltwater aquatic life from chronic toxic effects is set at
0.0074 //g/L.

       This document provides guidance to States and Tribes authorized to establish water quality
standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic effects of
TBT. Under the CWA, States and  Tribes are to establish water quality criteria to protect designated
uses. While this document constitutes U.S. EPA's scientific recommendations regarding ambient
concentrations of TBT, this document does not substitute for the CWA or U.S. EPA's regulations; nor
is  it a regulation itself.  Thus, it cannot impose legally binding requirements on U.S. EPA, States,
Tribes, or the regulated  community, and it might not apply to a particular situation based upon the
circumstances.  State and Tribal decision-makers retain the discretion to adopt approaches on a case-
by-case basis that differ  from this guidance when appropriate.  U.S. EPA may change this guidance in
the future.

-------
                                  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 Larry T. Brooke (freshwater)
 University of Wisconsin-Superior
 Superior, Wisconsin and Great
 Lakes Environmental Center,
 Traverse City, Michigan

 Gregory J. Smith
 Great Lakes Environmental Center
 Columbus, Ohio

 Frank Gostomski
 (document coordinator)
 U.S.  EPA
 Health and Ecological Criteria Division
 Office of Water
 Washington, D.C.
                    David J. Hansen (saltwater)
                    U.S.  EPA, Atlantic Ecology Division
                    Narragansett, Rhode Island and
                    Great Lakes Environmental Center,
                    Traverse City, Michigan
Herbert E. Allen
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND PEER REVIEW

                   Rick D. Cardwell
                   Parametrix, Inc.,
                   Redmond, Washington
Peter M. Chapman
EVS Environmental Consultants
North Vancouver, British Columbia

Michael H. Salazar
Applied Biomonitoring
Kirkland, Washington

Robert L. Spehar
U.S. EPA
Mid-Continent Ecology Division
Duluth, Minnesota
                   Lenwood W. Hall
                   University of Maryland
                   Queenstown, Maryland

                   Peter F. Seligman
                   U.S. Navy SSC SD
                   San Diego, California

                   Glen Thursby
                   U.S. EPA
                   Atlantic Ecology Division
                   Narragansett, Rhode Island
                                            VI

-------
                                     CONTENTS




                                                                                Page




 NOTICES  	ii




 FOREWORD 	  iii




 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  	iv




 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  	  vi




 TABLES	  viii




 TEXT TABLES   	viii




 FIGURES  	viii




 Introduction  	  1




 Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals 	6




 Chronic Toxicity to Aquatic Animals	8




 Toxicity to Aquatic Plants  	  11




 Endocrine Disruption Effects Data  	  12




 Bioaccumulation  	  17




 Other Data	  18




 Unused Data	  26




 Summary	29




National Criteria	  33




Implementation	  33




References	78
                                        VII

-------
                                          TABLES'

                                                                                        Page

1. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals ..............................  38

2a. Chronic Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals  ............................  46

2b. Acute-Chronic Ratios  ...............................................  47

3 . Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values with Species Mean Acute-Chronic Ratios  ............  48

4. Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Plants   ...................................  52

5. Bioaccumulation of Tributyltin by Aquatic Organisms    ..........................  55

6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms   .......................  59


                                       TEXT TABLES

A. Summary of available laboratory and field studies relating the extent of imposex of female
   snails, measured by relative penis size (RPSI =  ratio of female to male penis volumes x 100 )
   and the vas deferens sequence index (VDSI), as a function of tributyltin concentration in water
   and dry tissue [[[  14

B. Summary of laboratory and field data on the effects of tributyltin on saltwater organisms at
   concentrations less than the Final Chronic Value of 0.0658 yug/L  ....................  24
C. Effect and no-effect tributyltin concentrations in laboratory studies with the Atlantic
   dogwhinkle (Nucella lapillus)   ..........................................  25
                                          FIGURES



1. Ranked Summary of Tributyltin GMAVs - Freshwater ...........................  35

2. Ranked Summary of Tributyltin GMAVs - Saltwater  ............................  36


-------
 INTRODUCTION1

         Organotins are compounds consisting of one to four organic components attached to a tin atom
 via carbon-tin covalent bonds.  When there are fewer than four carbon-tin bonds, the organotin cation
 can combine with an anion such as acetate, carbonate, chloride, fluoride,  hydroxide, oxide, or sulfide.
 Thus a species such as tributyltin (TBT) is a cation whose formula is (C 4H9)3Sn+.  In sea water, TBT
 exists mainly  as a mixture of the chloride, the hydroxide, the aquo complex, and the carbonate
 complex (Laughlin et al. 1986a).
         The principal use of organotins is as a stabilizer in the manufacturing of plastic products, for
 example, as an anti-yellowing agent in clear plastics and as a catalyst hi poly (vinyl chloride) products
 (Piver 1973).  Another and less extensive use of organotins is as a biocide (fungicide, bactericide,
 insecticide) and as a preservative for wood, textiles, paper, leather and electrical equipment.  Total
 world-wide production of organotin compounds is estimated  at 50,000 tons per year with between 15
 and 20% of the production used hi the biologically active triorganotins (Bennett 1996).
        A large market exists for organotins in antifouling paint for the wet bottom of ship hulls. The
 most common organometallics used in these paints are TBT oxide and TBT methacrylate. Protection
 from fouling with these paints lasts more  than two years and  is superior to copper- and mercury-based
 paints.  These paints have an additional advantage over other antifouling paints, such as copper sulfate
 based paint, by not promoting bimetallic corrosion.  The earliest paints containing TBT were "free
 association" paints that contained a free suspension of TBT and caused high concentrations of TBT to
 be leached to the  aquatic environment when the paint application was new. A later refinement was the
 "ablative" paint that shed the outer layer when in contact with water but at a slower rate than the free
 association paint.  Further development of organometallic antifouling paints have been in the
 production of paints containing copolymers that control the release of the organotins and result in
 longer useful life  of the paint as an antifoulant (Bennett 1996; Champ and  Seligman 1996; Kirk-Othmer
 1981). The U.S. Navy (1984) proposed application of some paints containing TBT to hulls of naval
 ships.  Such paint formulations have been shown to be an effective and relatively long-lived deterrent
 to adhesion of barnacles and other fouling  organisms.  Encrustations on ships' hulls by these organisms
       *A comprehension of the "Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the
Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses" (Stephen et al. 1985), hereafter referred to as the Guidelines,  is
necessary to understand the following text, tables and calculations.
                                               1

-------
reduce maximum speed and increase fuel consumption. According to the U.S. Navy (1984), use of
TBT paints, relative to other antifouling paints, would not only reduce fuel consumption by 15% but
would also increase time between repainting from less than 5 years to 5 to 7 years.  Interaction
between the toxicities of TBT and other ingredients hi the paint apparently is negligible, but needs
further study (Davidson et al. 1986a).  The use of TBT in antifouling paints on ships, boats, nets, crab
pots, docks, and water cooling towers probably contributes most to direct release of organotins into the
aquatic environment (Clark et al. 1988; Hall and Pinkney 1985; Kinnetic Laboratory 1984).
        A non-toxic alternative to TBT is the non-stick paint system available from several of the
major paint manufacturers.  When the paint is applied properly, the ship's hull becomes too smooth for
algae, barnacles and other marine organisms to attach themselves to the surface (Greenpeace 1999)
        The solubility of TBT compounds hi water is influenced by such factors  as the oxidation-
reduction potential, pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration and composition of the
dissolved organic matter (Clark et al. 1988; Corbin 1976).  The solubility of tributyltin oxide hi water
was reported to be 750 ^g/L at pH of 6.6, 31,000 /zg/L at pH of 8.1, and 30,000 //g/L at pH 2.6
(Maguire et al.  1983). The carbon-tin covalent bond does not hydrolyze in water (Maguire et al.
1983,1984), and the half-life for photolysis due to sunlight is greater than 89 days (Maguire et al.
1985; Seligman et al. 1986).  Biodegradation is the major breakdown pathway for TBT in water and
sediments with half-lives of several days to weeks in water, and from several days to months or more
than a year in sediments (Clark et al. 1988; de Mora et al. 1989;  Lee et al. 1987; Maguire 2000;
Maguire and Tkacz 1985; Seligman et al. 1986,  1988, 1989; Stang and Seligman 1986; Stang et al.
1992).  Breakdown products include dibutyltins (DBT), monobutyltins (MET) and tin with some
methyltins detected when sulfate reducing conditions were present (Yonezawa  et al. 1994). Porous
sediments with aerobic conditions decrease degradation time (Watanabe et al. 1995).
        Several review papers have been written which cover the production, use, chemistry,  toxicity,
fate and hazards of TBT hi the aquatic environment (Alzieu 1996; Batiey 1996; Clark et al. 1988;
Eisler 1989; Gibbs and Bryan 1996b; Hall and Bushong 1996; Laughlin 1996; Laughlin et al.  1996;
Maguire 1996; Waldock et al. 1996; WHO 1990). The toxicities of organotin compounds are related
to the number of organic components bonded to the tin atom and  to the number of carbon atoms in the
organic components.  Toxicity to aquatic organisms generally increases as the number of organic
components increases from one to three and decreases with the incorporation of a fourth, making
triorganotins more toxic than other forms.  Within the triorganotins, toxicity increases as the number

-------
of carbon atoms in the organic moiety increases from one to four, then decreases. Thus the organotin
most toxic to aquatic life is TBT (Hall and Pinkney 1985; Laughlin and Linden 1985; Laughlin et al.
1985).  TBTs inhibit Na + and K+ ATPases and are ionophores controlling exchange of Cl", Br",  Fl" and
other ions across cell membranes (Selwyn 1976).
        Metabolism of TBT has been studied in several species. Some species of algae, bacteria, and
fungi have been shown to degrade TBT by sequential dealkylation, resulting in dibutyltin, then
monobutyltin, and finally inorganic tin (Barug 1981; Maguire et al.  1984).  Barug (1981) observed the
biodegradation of TBT to di- and monobutyltin by bacteria and fungi only under aerobic conditions and
only when a secondary carbon source was supplied.  Inorganic tin can be methylated and demethylated
by estuarine microorganisms (Jackson et al.  1982). Maguire et al. (1984) reported that a 28-day
culture of the green alga, Arikistrodesmus falcatus, with TBT resulted in 7% inorganic tin.  Maguire
(1986) reported that the half-life of TBT exposed to microbial degradation was five months under
aerobic conditions and 1.5 months under anaerobic conditions.  TBT is also accumulated and
metabolized by an eel grass, Zostera marina (Francios et al. 1989).  Chiles et al. (1989) found that
much of the TBT accumulated on the surface of saltwater algae and bacteria as well as within the cell.
The major metabolite of TBT in saltwater crabs, fish, and shrimp was dibutyltin (Lee 1985, 1986).  A
review of the metabolism of TBT by marine aquatic organisms has been provided by Lee (1996).
        TBT is an endocrine-disrupting  chemical (Matthiessen and Gibbs 1998).  The chemical causes
masculinization of certain female gastropods. It is likely the best studied  example of endocrine-
disrupting effect. The metabolic mechanism is thought to be due to elevating testosterone titers hi the
animals and over-riding the effects of estrogen.  There are several theories of how TBT accomplishes
the buildup of testosterone.  Evidence suggests that competitive inhibition of cytochrome P450-
dependent aromatase  is probably occurring in TBT exposed gastropods  (Matthiessen and Gibbs 1998).
TBT may also interfere with sulfur conjugation of testosterone and its phase I metabolites and then-
excretion resulting in a build-up of pharmacologically active androgens hi some annual tissues (Ronis
and Mason 1996).
        TBT has been measured hi the water column and found highly (70-90%)  associated with the
dissolved phase (Johnson et al. 1987; Maguire 1986; Valkirs et al. 1986a), but TBT readily adsorbs to
sediments and suspended solids where it may persist (Cardarelli and Evans 1980; Harris et  al.  1996;
Seligman et al. 1996). TBT accumulates hi sediments with adsorption coefficients which range from
l.lxlO2 to 8.2xl03 L/Kg; desorption appears to be a two step process (Unger et al. 1987,1988).

-------
Langston and Pope (1995) found that at environmentally realistic concentrations of 10 ng/L, TBT
partitioning coefficients were closer to 2.5 xlO4.
        In a modeling and risk assessment study of TBT in a freshwater lake, Traas et al. (1996)
predicted that TBT concentrations in the water and suspended matter would decrease rapidly and TBT
concentrations in sediment and benthic organisms would decrease at a much slower rate.  Dowson et
al. (1996) measured the half-life of TBT in the top 5 cm of aerated freshwater and estuarine sediments.
They measured half-lives of 360 days at 450 ng/g TBT to 775 days at 1300 ng/g TBT. No degradation
of TBT occurred during 330 days in anaerobic sediments.
        A more rapid biotic and abiotic degradation of TBT was reported by Stang et al. (1992) in
fine-grained sediments at the sediment-water interface.  Sediments in these studies were observed to
degrade 50 percent or more of the TBT to DBT and MET in both sterile and unsterilized sediments in
a period of days, suggesting both chemical and biological degradation processes.  The authors
speculated that it is likely that much of the residual TBT measured in harbor and estuarine sediments is
either in particulate form from paint chips, making it less available, or has been mixed into the
sediment in anoxic layers with reduced degradation.
        The water surface microlayer contains a much higher concentration of TBT than the water
column (Cleary and Stebbing 1987; Hall et al.  1986; Maguire 1986; Valkirs et al. 1986a). Gucinski
(1986) suggested that this enrichment  of the surface microlayer could increase the bioavailability of
TBT to organisms in contact with this layer.
        Elevated TBT concentrations in fresh and salt waters, sediments, and biota are primarily
associated with harbors and marinas (Cleary and Stebbing 1985; Espourteille et al. 1993; Gibbs and
Bryan 1996a; Grovhoug et al. 1996; Hall 1988; Hall et al. 1986; Langston et al. 1987; Maguire
1984,1986; Maguire and Tkacz 1985; Maguire et al. 1982; Minchin and Minchin 1997; Peven et al.
1996; Prouse and Ellis 1997; Quevauviller et al. 1989; Salazar and Salazar 1985b; Seligman et al.
1986,1989; Short and Sharp 1989; Stallard et al. 1986;  Stang and Seligman 1986; Unger et al. 1986;
Valkirs et al. 1986b; Waite et al.  1996; Waldock and Miller 1983; Waldock et al. 1987).  Several
studies have been conducted in harbors to measure the effects of TBT on biota.  Lenihan et al. (1990)
hypothesized that changes in faunal composition hi hard bottom communities in San Diego Bay were
related to boat mooring and TBT.  Salazar and Salazar (1988) found an apparent relationship between
concentrations of TBT hi waters of San Diego Bay and reduced growth of mussels. No organotins
were detected in the muscle tissue of feral Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, caught near

-------
Auke Bay, Alaska, but concentrations as high as 900 //g/kg were reported in muscle tissue of chinook
salmon held in shallow-water pens treated with TBT (Short 1987; Short and Thrower 1986a).
Organotin concentrations in European coastal waters in the low part per trillion range have been
associated with oyster shell malformations (Alzieu et al. 1989; Minchin et al. 1987).
        Reevaluation of harbors hi the United Kingdom revealed that since the 1987 restrictions which
banned the retail sale and use of TBT paints for small boats or mariculture purposes, oyster culture has
returned in the harbor areas where boat traffic is low and water exchange is good (Dyrynda 1992;
Evans et al. 1996; Minchin et al. 1996,1997; Page and Widdows 1991; Waite et al.  1991).  Tissue
concentrations of TBT in oysters have decreased in most of the sites sampled in the Gulf of Mexico
since the introduction of restrictions  (1988-1989) on its use (Wade et al. 1991).  Canada restricted the
use of TBT-containing boat-hull paints in 1989, and there has been a reduction in female snail
reproductive deformities (imposex) hi many Canadian west coast sampling sites since the action (Tester
et al. 1996). In a four-year (1987-1990) monitoring study for butyltins in mussel tissue on the two
U.S. coasts, a general decrease in tissue concentrations was measured on the west coast, and east coast
sites showed mixed responses (Uhler et al.  1989,1993).  Some small ports hi France have not seen a
decline in imposex since the ban on TBT hi boat hull paints (Huet et al. 1996).  Suspicions are that the
legislation banning the paints is being ignored. Several freshwater ecosystems were studied since the
ban on antifouling paints in Switzerland hi 1988.  By 1993 TBT concentrations were decreasing in the
water, but declines were not seen hi  the sediment or hi the zebra mussel,  Dreissena pofymorpha
(Becker-van Slooten and Tarradellas 1995;  Pent and Hunn 1995).
       Because of the assumption that certain anions do not  contribute to TBT toxicity, only data
generated hi toxicity and bioconcentration tests on TBTC1 (tributyltin chloride; CAS 1461-22-9),
TBTF (tributyltin  fluoride; CAS 1983-10-4), TBTO [bis(tributyltin) oxide; CAS 56-35-9], commonly
called "tributyltin  oxide" and TBTS [bis(tributyltm) sulfide; CAS 4808-30-4], commonly called
"tributyltin sulfide" were used in the derivation of the water quality criteria concentrations for  aquatic
life presented herein. All concentrations from such tests are expressed as TBT, not as tin and not as
the chemical tested. The conversion factors are 0.8911 for TBTC1, 0.9385 for TBTF, 0.9477  for
TBTO, 0.9005 for TBTS, and 2.444 for Tin (Sn). Therefore, many concentrations listed herein are
not those in the reference cited but are concentrations adjusted to TBT. A comprehension of the
"Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic
Organisms and Their Uses" (Stephan et al. 1985), here after referred to as the Guidelines, and the

-------
 response to public comment (U.S. EPA 1985a) is necessary to understand the following text, tables,
 and calculations. Results of such intermediate calculations as recalculated LC50s and Species Mean
 Acute Values are given to four significant figures to prevent roundoff error in subsequent calculations,
 not to reflect the precision of the value. The Guidelines require that all available pertinent laboratory
 and field information be used to derive a criterion consistent with sound scientific evidence.  The
 saltwater criterion for TBT follows this requirement by using data from chronic exposures of copepods
 and molluscs rather than Final Acute Values and Acute-Chronic Ratios to derive the Final Chronic
 Value. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FDFRA) data base of information
 from the pesticide industry was searched and some useful information was located for deriving the
 criteria.  The latest comprehensive literature search for information for this document was conducted in
 January 1997 for fresh- and saltwater organisms.  Some more recent data have been included in the
 document.

 ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ANIMALS

        Data that may be used, according to the Guidelines, in the derivation of Final Acute Values for
 TBT are presented in Table 1. Acute values are available for thirteen freshwater species representing
 twelve genera.  For freshwater Species Mean Acute Values, 23% were  <2.0 //g/L, 38% were <4.0
 Aig/L, 69% were <8.0 /u.g/L, and 92% were < 12.73 /^g/L. A freshwater clam, Elliptio complanatus,
 had an LC50 of 24,600 //g/L. The relatively low sensitivity of the freshwater clam to TBT is
 surprising due to the mollusicidal qualities of TBT. The organism likely closes itself to the
 environment, minimizing chemical intake, and is able to temporarily tolerate high concentrations of
 TBT.
       The most sensitive freshwater organisms tested are  from the phylum Coelenterata (Table 3).
 Three species of hydras were tested and have Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVs) ranging from 1.14
 to 1.80 /^g/L.  Other invertebrate species tested  in flow-through measured tests include an amphipod,
 Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and an annelid, Lumbriculus variegatus, and in a static measured test,
larvae of a mosquito, Culex sp (Brooke et al. 1986). The 96-hr LC50s and SMAVs are 3.7, 5.4 and
 10.2 /^g/L, respectively. Six tests were conducted with the  cladoceran, Daphnia magna. The 48-hr
EC50 value of 66.3 jug/L (Foster 1981) was considerably less sensitive than those from the other tests
which ranged from 1.58 //g/L (LeBlanc 1976) to 18 //g/L (Crisinel et al. 1994).  The SMAV for D.

-------
 magna is 4.3 //g/L because, according to the Guidelines, when test results are available from flow-
 through and concentration measured tests, these have precedence over other types of acute tests.
        All the vertebrate species tested are fish.  The most sensitive species is the fathead minnow,
 Pimephales promelas, which has a SMAV of 2.6 /wg/L from a single 96-hr flow-through measured test
 (Brooke  et al. 1986).  Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were  tested by four groups with good
 agreement between them.  The 96-hr LC50s ranged from 3.45 to 7.1 //g/L with a SMAV of 4.571
 //g/L for the three tests (Brooke et al. 1986; Martin et al. 1989; ABC Laboratories, Inc. 1990a), which
 were conducted using flow-through conditions and measured concentrations. Juvenile catfish, Ictalurus
punctatus,  were exposed to TBT in a flow-through and measured concentration test and resulted in a
 96-hr LC50 of 5.5 fig/L which is in good agreement with the other tested freshwater fish species
 (Brooke et al. 1986).  Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, were tested by three groups.  The value of 221.4
 ^gfL (Foster 1981) appears high compared to those of 7.2 ^g/L (Buccafusco 1976b) and 8.3  ^g/L
 (ABC Laboratories, Inc. 1990b). Only the flow-through measured test (ABC Laboratories, Inc.
 1990b) can be used, according to the Guidelines, to calculate the SMAV of 8.3 /ug/L.
       Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) are available for twelve genera which vary
by more  than 21,000 times from  the least sensitive to the most sensitive. However, eleven of the
 twelve genera differ from one another by a maximum factor of 11.2 times  (Figure 1). Based  upon the
twelve available GMAVs the Final Acute Value (FAV) for freshwater organisms is 0.9177 //g/L.  The
FAV is lower than the lowest freshwater SMAV of 1.14 //g/L. The freshwater Criterion Maximum
Concentration is 0.4589 /ug/L which is calculated by dividing the FAV by  two.
         Tests of the acute toxicity of TBT to resident North American saltwater species that are
useful for deriving water quality criteria concentrations have been performed with 26 species  of
invertebrates and seven species of fish (Table 1).  The range of acute toxicity to saltwater animals is a
factor of about 1,176.  Acute values range from 0.24 //g/L for juveniles of the copepod, Acartia tonsa
(Kusk and Petersen 1997) to 282.2 //g/L for adult Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas (Thain 1983).
The 96-hr LCSOs for seven saltwater fish species range from 1.460 /^g/L for juvenile Chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Short and Thrower 1986b, 1987)  to 25.9 //g/L for subadult sheepshead
minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus (Bushong et al. 1988).
         Larval bivalve molluscs and juvenile crustaceans appear to be much more sensitive than
adults during acute exposures.  The  96-hr LC50 for larval Pacific oysters,  Crassostrea gigas, was
1.557 //g/L, whereas the value for adults was 282.2 ^g/L (Thain 1983).  The 96-hr LCSOs for larval

-------
and adult blue mussels, Mytilus eduUs, were 2.238 and 36.98 /ig/L, respectively (Thain 1983).  The
96-hr LC50 of 0.01466 /wg/L reported by Becerra-Huencho (1984) for post larvae of the hard clam, M.
mercenaria, was not used because results of other studies with embryos, larvae, and post larvae of the
hard clam where acutely lethal concentrations range from 0.6 to 4.0 /^g/L (Tables 1 and 6) cast doubt
on this LC50  value. Juveniles of the crustacean Acanthomysis sculpta were slightly more sensitive to
TBT than adults (Davidson et al. 1986a,1986b; Valkirs et al. 1985).
         Genus Mean Acute Values for 30 saltwater genera range from 0.61 ^g/L for Acanthomysis to
204.4 ^g/L for Ostrea (Table 3). Genus Mean Acute Values for the 10 most sensitive genera differ by
a factor of less than four (Figure 2). Included within these genera are four species of molluscs, six
species of crustaceans, and one species of fish. The saltwater Final Acute Value (FAV) for TBT was
calculated to be 0.8350 /^g/L (Table 3), which is greater than the lowest saltwater Species Mean Acute
Value of 0.61 /ig/L. The saltwater Criterion Maximum Concentration is 0.4175 /^g/L and is calculated
by dividing the FAV by two.

CHRONIC TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ANIMALS

         The available data that are usable, according to the Guidelines, concerning the chronic
toxicity of TBT are presented hi Table 2. Brooke et al. (1986) conducted a 21-day life-cycle test with
a freshwater cladoceran and reported that the survival of adult D. magna was 40% at a TBT
concentration of 0.5 ^g/L, and 100% at 0.2 //g/L. The mean number of young per adult per
reproductive day was reduced 30% by 0.2 ^g/L,  and was reduced only 6% by 0.1 //g/L.  The  chronic
limits are 0.1  and 0.2 //g/L based upon reproductive effects on adult daphnids.  The chronic value for
D. magna is 0.1414 ptg/L (geometric mean of the chronic limits), and the acute-chronic ratio of 30.41
is calculated using the acute value of 4.3 ^g/L from the same study.
        D. magna were exposed hi a second 21-day  life-cycle test to TBT (ABC Laboratories, Inc.
1990d). Exposure concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 1.27 //g/L as TBT.  Survival of adults was
significantly reduced (45 %)  from the controls at >0.34 pg/L but not at 0.19 ngfL.  Mean number of
young per adult per reproductive day was significantly reduced at the same concentrations affecting
survival. The  chronic limits  are 0.19 ^g/L where no effects were seen and 0.34 /ug/L where survival
and reproduction were reduced.  The Chronic Value is 0.2542 ^g/L and the Acute-Chronic Ratio is
44.06 when calculated from the acute value of 11.2 //g/L from the same test. The Acute-Chronic Ratio

-------
 for D. magna is 36.60 which is the geometric mean of the two available Acute-Chronic ratios (30.41
 and 44.06) for this species.
         In an early life-stage test (32-day duration) with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas,
 all fish exposed to the highest exposure concentration of 2.20 //g/L died during the test (Brooke et al.
 1986).  Survival was not reduced at 0.92 //g/L or any of the lower TBT concentrations.  The mean
 weight of the surviving fish was reduced 4%  at 0.08 //g/L, 9% at 0.15 //g/L, 26% at 0.45 //g/L, and
 48 % at 0.92 //g/L when compared to the control fish. Mean length of fry at the end of the test was
 significantly (p<0.05) reduced at concentrations ^0.45 //g/L. The mean biomass at the end of the test
 was higher at the two lowest TBT concentrations (0.08 and 0.15 //g/L) than in the controls, but was
 reduced by 13 and 52%  at TBT concentrations of 0.45 and 0.92 //g/L, respectively. Because the
 reductions in weight of individual fish were small at the two lowest concentrations (0.08 and 0.15
 //g/L) and the mean biomass increased at these same concentrations, the chronic limits are 0.15 and
 0.45 //g/L based upon growth (length and weight). Thus the chronic value is 0.2598  //g/L and the
 acute-chronic ratio is 10.01 calculated using the acute value of 2.6 //g/L from the  same study.
         A partial life cycle test (began with  egg capsules  and ended before egg capsules were
 produced by the Fl generation) was conducted with the saltwater stenoglossan snail Nucella lapillus
 (Harding et al. 1996). The study was conducted for one year with observations of egg capsule
 production, survival, and growth.  The study  by Harding et al. (1996) was a continuation of a study by
 Bailey et al. (1991) during which they exposed eggs and juvenile snails for one year to TBT. The
 study by Harding et al. (1996) began with egg capsules produced by  adults at the end of the study by
 Bailey et al. (1991).  Negative effects due to TBT were only  observed in egg capsule production from
 the adults of the previous study. Females that had not been exposed for one year to TBT produced
 14.42 egg capsules per female. Females that  had been exposed to  <0.0027, 0.0074, 0.0278,  and
 0.1077 //g TBT/L for one year produced 135.6, 104.6, 44.8, and 23.4% as many  egg capsules as the
 controls for the respective TBT concentrations.  The chronic value is based upon reproductive effects
 and is the geometric mean of the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of 0.0278 //g/L and the
no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.0074 //g/L which is 0.0143 //g/L.  Survival and growth
were not affected  at any TBT concentration tested.  An acute-chronic ratio of 5,084 can be calculated
using the acute value from this test of 72.7 //g/L.  The acute-chronic ratio for N. lapillus is about 139
times higher than the next lower acute-chronic ratio for D.  magna (36.60).  It is not used to calculate a
final acute-chronic ratio because it is more than ten times higher than any other ratio.

-------
          Two partial life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted using the marine copepod, Eurytemora
 affinis (Hall et al. 1987, 1988a).  Tests began with egg-carrying females and lasted 13 days.  In the
 first test, mean brood size was reduced from 15.2 neonates/female in the control to 0.2
 neonates/female in 0.479 ^g/L after three days. Percentage survival of neonates was 79% less than
 control survival in the lowest tested TBT  concentration (0.088 //g/L),  and 0% in 0.479 //g/L. The
 chronic value is < 0.088 /ug/L in this test.
         In the second copepod test, percentage survival of neonates was significantly reduced (73 %
 less than control survival) in 0.224 /zg/L; brood size was unaffected in any tested concentration (0.018-
 0.224 (Ug/L).  No statistically significant effects were detected in concentrations <0.094 //g/L.  The
 chronic value in this test is 0.145 //g/L. It is calculated as the geometric mean of the NOEC (0.094
 Mg/L) and the LOEC (0.224 ,ug/L). The  acute-chronic ratio is 15.17 when the acute value of 2.2 ^g/L
 from this test is used.
         Life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with the saltwater mysid, Acanthomysis sculpta
 (Davidson et al. 1986a, 1986b).  The effects of TBT on survival, growth, and reproduction of A.
 sculpta were determined in five separate tests lasting from 28 to 63 days.  The tests separately
 examined effects of TBT on survival (1 test), growth (3 tests) and reproduction (1 test) instead of the
 approach of examining all endpoints in one life-cycle test.  All tests began with newly released
juveniles and lasted through maturation and spawning; therefore, they are treated as one life-cycle test.
 The number of juveniles released per female at a TBT concentration of 0.19 //g/L was 50% of the
 number released in the control treatment,  whereas the number released at the next lower TBT
 concentration (0.09 ^g/L) was not significantly different from the control treatment.  Reductions in the
number of juveniles released resulted from deaths of embryos within brood pouches of individual
 females and not from reduced fecundity.  Numbers of females releasing viable juveniles was reduced in
0.19 and 0.33 ^g/L. At concentrations of 0.38 //g/L and above, survival and weight of female mysids
were reduced; all mysids in 0.48 ^g/L died.  The chronic value (0.1308 //g/L) is the geometric mean
of 0.09 /zg/L and 0.19 //g/L and is based  upon reproductive effects.  The acute-chronic ratio  is 4.664
when an acute value of 0.61  //g/L reported by Valkirs et al. (1985) is used (Table 2).  The acute and
chronic tests were conducted in the same laboratory.
         The Final Acute-Chronic Ratio of 12.69 was calculated as the geometric mean of the acute-
chronic ratios of 36.60 for D. magna, 10.01 for P. promelas, 4.664 for A. sculpta and 15.17 for E.
affinis. Division of the freshwater and saltwater Final Acute Values by 12.69 results in Final Chronic
                                              10

-------
 Values for freshwater of 0.0723 pgfL and for saltwater of 0.0658 pgfL (Table 3). Both of these
 Chronic Values are below the experimentally determined chronic values from life-cycle or early life-
 stage tests (0.1414 ftg/L for D. magna and 0.1308 //g/L for A. sculptd).  The close agreement between
 the saltwater Final Chronic Value and the freshwater Final Chronic Value suggests that salinity  has
 little if any affect on the toxicity of TBT.

 TOXICITY TO AQUATIC PLANTS

          The various plant species tested are highly variable in sensitivity to TBT.  Twenty species of
 algae and diatoms were tested hi fresh and salt water. The saltwater species appear to be more
 sensitive to TBT than the freshwater species for which data are available.  No explanation is apparent.
          Blanck et al.  (1984) and Blanck (1986) reported the concentrations of TBT that prevented
 growth of thirteen freshwater algal species (Table 4). These concentrations ranged from 56.1 to 1,782
 Mg/L, but most were between 100 and 250 fj,g/L.  Fargasova and Kizlink  (1996), Huang et al. (1993),
 and Miana et al. (1993) measured severe reduction in growth of several green alga species at TBT
 concentrations ranging from 1 to 12.4 //g/L. Several green alga species appear to be as sensitive to
 TBT as many animal species (compare Table 4 with Table 1).
          Toxicity tests on TBT have been conducted with five species of  saltwater phytoplankton
 including the diatoms, Skeletonema costatwn and Nitzshia sp., and the flagellate green  algae,
Dunaliella tertiolecta, D. salina and D. viridis. The 14-day EC50's (reduction hi growth) for S.
 costatum of > 0.12 but <0.24 ^gfL in one test and 0.06 ^g/L in a second test (EG&G Bionomics
 1981c) were the lowest values reported for algal species. Thain (1983) reported that measured
 concentrations from 0.97 to 17 //g/L were algistatic to the same species hi five-day exposures. The
 results for algal toxicity tests with the same species varied between laboratories by more than an order
 of magnitude. A diatom, Nitzschia sp., and two flagellate green alga of the genus Dunaliella sp. were
less sensitive to TBT than S. costatum, but they were more sensitive than  most species  of freshwater
algae.  No data are available on the effects of TBT on fresh or saltwater vascular plants.
         A Final Plant Value, as defined hi the Guidelines, cannot be obtained because no test hi
which the concentrations of TBT were measured and the endpoint was biologically important has been
conducted with an important aquatic plant species.  The available data do indicate that freshwater and
saltwater plants will be protected by TBT concentrations that adequately protect freshwater and
                                              11

-------
 saltwater animals.

 ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION EFFECTS DATA

         TBT has been shown to produce the superimposition of male sexual characteristics on female
 neogastropod (stenoglossan) snails (Gibbs and Bryan 1987; Smith 1981b) and one freshwater gastropod
 (Prosobranchia), Marisa cornuarietis (Schulte-Oehlmann et al. 1995).  This phenomenon, termed
 "imposex," can result in females with a penis, a duct leading to the vas deferens, and a convolution of
 the normally straight oviduct (Smith 1981a).  Other anatomical changes associated with imposex are
 detailed in Gibbs et al. (1988) and Gibbs and Bryan (1987).  Severity of imposex is quantified using
 relative penis size (RPSI; ratio of female to male penis volume3 x 100) and the six developmental
 stages of the vas deferens sequence index (VDSI) (Bryan et al. 1986; Gibbs et al. 1987).  TBT has
 been shown to impact populations of the Atlantic dogwhinkle (dogwhelk), Nucella lapillus, which has
 direct development.  In neoglossian snails with indirect development (planktonic larval stages), the
 impacts of TBT are less certain because recruitment from distant stocks of organisms can occur.
 Natural pseudohemaphroditism in neoglossans occurs (Salazar and Champ 1988)  and may be caused by
 other organotin compounds (Bryan et al. 1988).  However, increased global incidence and severity of
 imposex has been associated with areas of high boating activity and low to moderate concentrations
 (low parts per trillion) of TBT hi water, sediment or snails and other biota (Alvarez and Ellis 1990;
 Bailey and Davies 1988a, 1988b; Bryan et al.  1986, 1987a; Davies et al.  1987, Durchon 1982; Ellis
 and Pottisina 1990; Gibbs and Bryan 1986, 1987; Gibbs  et al. 1987; Langston et al.  1990; Short et al.
 1989; Smith 1981a, 1981b; Spence et al. 1990a).  Imposex has been observed (12%  of the females) hi
 common whelk, Buccinum undatum, in the North Sea as far as 110 nautical miles from land (Ide et al.
 1997).  The sample from this site averaged 1.4 ^g TBT/kg of wet weight soft tissues. Other samples
 of organisms collected nearer to shore in various places in the North Sea generally had higher TBT
 concentrations.
        Although imposex has been observed hi 45 species  of snails worldwide  (Ellis and Pottisina
 1990, Jenner 1979), definitive laboratory and field studies implicating TBT as the cause have focused
on seven North American or cosmopolitan species; the Atlantic dogwhinkle (N. lapillus),  file
dogwhinkle (N. lima), eastern mud snail [Eyanassa (Nassarius) obsoleta], a snail (Hinia reticutta),
whelks (Thais orbita and T. clavigera), and the European sting winkle (Ocenebra erinacea). Imposex
                                             12

-------
 has been associated with reduced reproductive potential and altered density and population structure in
 field populations of N. lapillus (Harding et al. 1997; Spence et al. 1990a).  This is related to blockage
 of the oviduct by the vas deferens, hence, prevention of release of egg capsules, sterilization of the
 female or change into an apparently functional male (Bryan et al. 1986; Gibbs and Bryan 1986,1987;
 Gibbs et al. 1987,1988). TBT may reduce populations of N.  lima because snails were absent from
 marinas  in Auke Bay, AK. At intermediate distances from marinas, about 25 were caught per hour of
 sampling and 250 per hour were caught at sites distant from marinas (Short et al. 1989).  Snails from
 intermediate sites had blocked oviducts.  Reduced proportions of female /. obsoleta in Sarah Creek,
 VA also suggests population impacts (Bryan et al. 1989a). However, other causes may explain this as
 oviducts which were not blocked and indirect development (planktonic larvae) facilitating recruitment
 from other areas which may limit impacts.
         Several field studies have used transplantations of snails between sites or snails painted with
 TBT paints to investigate the role of TBT or proximity to marinas in the development of imposex
 without defining actual exposure concentrations of TBT.  Short et al. (1989) painted N. lima with
 TBT-based paint, copper paints or unpainted controls. For 21 females painted with TBT paint, seven
 developed penises within one month, whereas, penises were absent from 35 females from other
 treatments.  Smith (1981a) transplanted /. obsoleta between marinas and "clean" locations and found
 that incidence of imposex was unchanged after 19 weeks in snails kept at clean locations or marinas,
 increased in snails transplanted from clean sites to marinas and decreased somewhat in transplants from
 marinas to clean sites.  Snails exposed in the laboratory to TBT-based paints in two separate
 experiments developed imposex within one month with maximum impact within 6 to 12 months (Smith
 198la).  Snails painted with non-TBT paints were unaffected.
         Concentration-response data  demonstrate a similarity in the response of snails to TBT in
 controlled laboratory and field studies (Text Table A). Eastern mud snails, /. obsoleta, collected from
 the York River, VA near Sarah Creek had no incidence of imposex (Bryan et al. 1989a) and contained
 no detectable TBT (< 0.020 //g/g dry weight).  The average TBT concentrations of York  River water
 was 0.0016 //g/L. In contrast, the average TBT concentrations from four locations in Sarah Creek,
 VA were from 0.010 to 0.023 //g/L, snails contained about 0.1 to 0.73 ,ug/g TBT and there was a 40
 to 100%  incidence of imposex. Short et al. (1989) collected file dogwhinkle snails, N.  lima, from
 Auke Bay, AK and did not detect imposex or TBT in snails from sites far from marinas.  Snails from
locations near marinas all exhibited imposex and contained 0.03 to 0.16 ng/g TBT dry wt. tissue.
                                              13

-------
Text Table A.  Summary of available laboratory and field studies relating the extent of imposex of female snails, measured by relative penis
              size (RPSI = ratio of female to male penis volumes x 100 ) and the vas deferens sequence index (VDSI), as a function of
              tributyltin concentration in water and dry tissue.
TBT Concentration


Species
Eastern mud
snail,
Ityanassa
obsolete
File
dogwhinkle.
Nucella lima
Atlantic
dogwhinkle,
(adults).
Nucella lapillus

Atlantic
dogwhinkle,
Nucella lapillus
Atlantic
dogwhinkle,
(egg capsule to
adult),
NuceUa lapillus

Atlantic
dogwhinkle,
Nucella lapillus
Atlantic
dogwhinkle,
Nucella lapillus


Atlantic
dogwhinkle,
Nucella lapillus








Atlantic
dogwhinkle,
Nucella lapillus





Experimental
Design
Field- York River, UK
-Sarah Creek


Field-Auke Bay, AK
-Auke Bay, AK

Crooklets Beach, UK
Laboratory: 2 year
exposure


Laboratory, spires
painted, 8 mo.

Crooklets Beach, UK

Laboratory; 2 year
exposure


Transplants,
Crooklets Beach to
Dart Estuary, UK
Port Joke, UK
Crooklets Beach
Meadfoot
Renney Rocks
Batten Bay
Laboratory, flow-
through, one year









Laboratory, flow-
through, one year






Water
uzfL
0.0016
0.01-0.023


-
-

< 0.0012*
=0.0036*
0.0083*
0.046*
0.26*
-


< 0.0012

0.0036
0.0093
0.049
0.24
0.022-
0.046

-
-
-
-
-
<0.0015
<0.0015

< 0.0027

0.0077

0.0334

0.1246

<0.0015
<0.0015

0.0026
0.0074
0.0278
0.1077
Snail
Tissue
UR/R dry
<0.02
-0.1-0.73


ND(<0.01)
0.03-0.16

0.14-0.25*
0.41*
0.74*
4.5*
8.5*
-5.1*


0.19

0.58
1.4
4.1
7.7
9.7


0.11*
0.21*
0.32*
0.43*
1.54*
<0.10*
<0.10*

0.35*

1.10*

3.05*

4.85*

<0.10
<0.10

<0.10
0.38
1.12
3.32


RPSI
.
-


0.0
14-34

2-65
10/14.2
43.8
56.4
63.3
10-50


3.7

48.4
96.6
109
90.4
96.3


0.0
2.0
30.6
38.9
22.9
0.10
0.04

5.33

20.84

42.08

63.40

0.07
0.04

64.04
88.57
90.96
117.70
Imposex


VDSI

-


0.0
2.2-4.3

2.9
3.7/3.7
3.9
4.0
4.1
.


3.2

4.4
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.0


-
-
-
-
-
1.06
0.70

3.15

3.97

4.33

4.25

1.28
1.14

3.98
4.96
5.00
4.99


Comments
No imposex
40-100% incidence


0% incidence
100% incidence, reduced
abundance
.
-
.
-
Some sterilization
_


Normal females

1/3 sterile, 160 capsules
All sterile, 2 capsules
All sterile, 0 capsules
All sterile, 0 capsules
All sterile


0% aborted egg capsules
0% aborted egg capsules
15% aborted egg capsules
38% aborted egg capsules
79% aborted egg capsules
Control, 37.1% imposex
Solvent control, 24.3%
imposex
5.3% reduced growth,
92.3 % imposex
11.0% reduced growth,
100% imposex
17.1% reduced growth,
100% imposex
18.9% reduced growth,
100% imposex
Control, 42.2% imposex
Solvent control, 37.5%
imposex
98.9% imposex
98.8% imposex
100% imposex
98.7% imposex


Reference
Bryan et al.
1989a


Short et al.
1989

Bryan et al.
1987a



Bryan et al.
1987b

Gibbs et al.
1988




Gibbs et al.
1988

Gibbs and
Bryan 1986;
Gibbs et al.
1987

Bailey et al.
1991









Harding et
al. 1996





                                                             14

-------
 Text Table A. Continued



Species
Snail,
Hinia reticulaia
Whelk,
Thais orbita










Whelk,
Thais clavigera







Common whelk,
(juvenile),
Bucanum
undatum

European sting
winkle,
Ocenebra
erinacea

















Experimental
Design
Field-32 sites N and
NW France
Field-Queensdiff, UK
-Sandringham
-Brighton
-Portarlington
-Mornington
-Williamstown
-Martha Point
-Kirk Point
-Cape Schanck
-Cape Schanck
-Barwon Heads
-Barwon Heads
Fidd-32 sites Japan








Laboratory; 10 month
exposure with
Wadden Sea water


Field-19 sites SW UK


















TBT Concentration
Snail
Water Tissue
^g/L £ig/g dry
<1.5
>1.5
0.365*
0.224*
<0.002*
0.255*
0.045*
<0.002*
0.031*
0.011*
0.108*
0.095*
ND
0.071*
0.005
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.050
0.060
0.070
0.080
Control
0.01
0.10
1.0 a40.1

0.185
<0.024
0.187
0.773
2.313
0.976
1.057
1.200
0.303
0.122
0.703
0.764
0.527
0.488
0.366
0.253
0.832
1.010
0.510



RPSI
<10
>30
19.55
12.16
7.34
3.67
2.55
1.25
0.03
0.02
0
0
0
0
<10
1-42
30-75
30
75
80
80
40
40
-
-
-
-

0
0
16.3
66.9
88.2
71.1
53.4
84.2
7.4
7.0
36.0
52.7
46.5
42.3
0.04
33.9
58.0
79.3
59.7
Imposex


VDSI Comments
< 3 . 0 Low imposex incidence
> 3 . 0 High imposex incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
92.3 % incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
25% incidence
35.7% incidence
0% incidence
0% incidence
0% incidence
0% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
100% incidence
17% some imposex
22% some imposex
80% some imposex
98% severe imposex; 88%
developed vas deferens
No imposex
No imposex
Females somewhat deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females somewhat deformed
Females somewhat deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females somewhat deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed
Females highly deformed



Reference
Stroben et
al. 1992a
Foale 1993











Horiguchi et
al. 1995







Mensink et
al. 1996



Gibbs et al.
1990

















* Concentrations changed from //g Sn/L or fig Sn/g wet tissue to ^g TBT/L or /^g TBT/g dry weight tissue.  Dry weight estimated as 20%
  of wet weight (or 80% water content).
                                                           15

-------
         Gibbs et al. (1988) conducted a laboratory study with the Atlantic dogwhinkle, Nucella
lapillus,  exposed to a dilution water control and four TBT exposures. Since the dilution water control
collected nearby had low levels of TBT, organisms were also collected from a nearby uncontaminated
site. Concentrations of TBT in females were 0.19 /zg/g dry wt. in the field, 0.58 //g/g dry wt. in the
0.0036 Mg/L laboratory water treatment and from 1.4 to 7.7 /zg/g dry weight in  > 0.0093  //g/L
laboratory water treatments. Similar concentrations of TBT (9.7 /zg/g dry wt.) were found in snails
which became sterile after they were placed in the Dart Estuary, UK where TBT concentrations range
from 0.022 to 0.046 //g/L (Gibbs et al. 1988).  Gibbs and Bryan (1986) and Gibbs et al. (1987) report
imposex and reproductive failures at other marine sites where TBT concentrations in female snails range
from 0.32 to 1.54 /zg/g dry wt. tissue.  In two studies conducted concurrently with H. lapillus for one
year each, imposex was observed.  In the first study (Bailey et al.  1991), imposex (> stage 2) was
observed in >92.3% of the females exposed to TBT at near 0.0027 ^g/L or greater (up to  0.1246 //g/L)
at the end of the study. Harding et al. (1996) exposed the offspring from parents exposed hi the study
by Bailey et al. (1991) for one  additional year to similar TBT concentrations. In the second generation
of TBT-treated snails, body burdens of TBT were lower in the second generation at similar treatment
concentrations used in the first generation, but the RPSI and VDSI values were higher.  Harding et  al.
(1996) found >98.7% imposex in females at TBT concentrations 2:0.0026 /zg/L.
        Four species of snails (Hinia reticulata, Thais orbita, T. clavigera and Ocenebra erinaced) not
resident to North America also demonstrated imposex effects when exposed to TBT in field studies
(Text Table A). The snail H. reticulata is less sensitive to TBT than other snails having higher body
burdens (> 1.5 //g/g dry wt.) before showing affects of imposex.  Thais sp. showed high imposex
incidence at tissue concentrations as low as 0.005  //g/g dry wt. and no imposex at other locations with
tissue concentrations of 0.108 //g/g dry wt.  Ocenebra erinacea did not show imposex hi a field study at
body burdens as high as 0.185  /zg/g dry wt., but females were deformed at all higher concentrations.
        In summary, hi both field and laboratory studies,  concentrations of TBT  hi water of about
0.0015 fig/L or less and in tissues of about 0.2  //g/g dry wt. or less do not appear to cause imposex in
N. lapillus.  Imposex begins to occur at about 0.003 ^g TBT/L, and some reproductive failure at
concentrations greater than 0.005 /zg/L, with complete sterility occurring after chronic exposure of
sensitive early life-stages at 2:0.009 /zg/L (for less sensitive stages, imposex does not occur until about
0.02 /ug/L in some studies and greater than 0.2 //g/L hi others).
                                               16

-------
 BIOACCUMULATION

        Bioaccumulation of TBT has been measured in one species of freshwater mollusc and four
 species of freshwater fish (Table 5).  Adults of the zebra mussel, Dreissena pofymorpha, were placed in
 cages at a freshwater marina and at an uncontaminated site in a lake for 105 days (Becker-van Slooten
 and Tarradellas 1994). Subsamples of the organisms were periodically monitored for TBT tissue
 concentrations. They reached steady-state concentrations after 35 days. The BCF/BAF was 17,483
 when adjusted for wet weight and lipid normalized to 1 % for TBT at an average water exposure
 concentration of 0.0703 //g/L.  Growth of the TBT-exposed organisms may have been slightly reduced.
 Martin et al. (1989) determined the whole body bioconcentration factor (BCF) for rainbow trout,
 Oncorhynchus my kiss to be 406 after a 64-day exposure  to 0.513 ^g TBT/L. Equilibrium of the TBT
 concentration was achieved in the fish in 24 to 48 hrs. In a separate exposure to 1.026 //g TBT/L,
 rainbow trout organs were assayed for TBT content after a 15-day exposure. The BCFs ranged from
 312 for muscle to 5,419 for peritoneal fat. TBT was more highly concentrated than the metabolites of
 di- and monobutyltin or tin. Carp, Cyprinus carpio, and guppy, Poecilia reticulatus, demonstrated
 plateau BCF's in 14 days.  BCFs were 501.2 based on carp muscle  tissue, and from approximately
 1,190 to 2,250 based on whole body tissue (Tsuda et al.  1990a).  BCFs based on whole body guppy
 tissue were somewhat lower ranging from 240 to 460 (Tsuda et al. 1990b).  Goldfish, Carassius
 auratus, reached a BCF in the whole body after 28 days  of 1,976.
        The extent to which TBT is accumulated by saltwater animals from the field or from laboratory
 tests lasting 28 days  or more has been investigated with four species of bivalve molluscs,  two species of
 snails (Table 5). Thain and Waldock (1985) reported a BCF of 6,833 for the soft parts of blue mussel
 spat exposed to 0.24 fj,g/L for 45 days.  In other laboratory exposures of blue mussels, Salazar et al.
 (1987) observed BCFs of 10,400 to 37,500 after 56 days of exposure.  BAFs from field deployments of
mussels were similar to the BCFs from laboratory studies: 11,000 to 25,000 (Salazar and Salazar
 1990a) and 5,000 to  60,000 (Salazar and Salazar 1991).  In a study by Bryan et al. (1987a), laboratory
BCFs for the snail Nucella lapillus (11,000 to 38,000) also were similar to field BAFs (17,000). Year-
long laboratory studies by Bailey et al. (1991) and Harding et al. (1996) produced similar BAFs  in N.
lapillus ranging from 6,172 to 21,964. In these tests, TBT concentrations ranged from 0.00257  to
0.125 Mg/L,  but there was no increase in BAFs with increased water concentration of TBT.
       The  soft parts of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, exposed to TBT for 56 days contained
                                             17

-------
 11,400 times the exposure concentration of 0.146 ^g/L (Waldock and Thain 1983).  A BCF of 6,047
 was observed for the soft parts of the Pacific oyster exposed to 0.1460  ^g/L for 21 days (Waldock et al.
 1983).  The lowest steady-state BCF reported for a bivalve was 192.3 for the soft parts of the European
 flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, exposed to a TBT concentration of 2.62 pgfL for 45 days (Thain and
 Waldock 1985; Thain 1986). Other tests with the same species (Table 5) resulted in BCFs ranging
 from 397 to 1,167.
        In a field study conducted in the Icelandic harbor of Reykjavik with the blue mussel,  M. edulis,
 and the Atlantic dogwhelk,  N. lapillus, seasonal fluctuations were seen in body burdens of TBT and
 DBT (Skarphedinsdottir et al. 1996). They did not report the water concentrations for TBT, and
 speculated that because shipping did not vary seasonally, the fluctuations hi body burdens were due to
 seasonal feeding and resting activities. They demonstrated that body burdens of TBT and DBT were
 highest at high latitudes during late summer or early autumn.
        No U.S. FDA action level or other maximum acceptable concentration hi tissue, as defined in
 the Guidelines,  is available for TBT, and, therefore, no Final Residue Value  can be calculated.

 OTHER DATA

        Many tests with TBT and various freshwater or saltwater  organisms have been conducted either
 for a different duration or by different protocols than those specified in  the Guidelines for inclusion in
 Tables 1, 2, 4 and 5. These data, presented in Table 6, are potentially useful and sometimes support
 data in other tables. For example, plant tests were included in Table 6 rather than Table 4  if the test
 duration was less than 4 days or the exposure concentrations were not measured.  Tests with animals
 were included in Table 6 for a number of reasons, including considerations of test duration, type of test,
 and test endpoints other than those of toxicity or bioaccumulation.  The data  in this section are used to
 lower the saltwater CCC value.
        Several studies report the effects of TBT on natural groups of organisms in laboratory
microcosms.  In most of these studies, the effects of TBT administered to the water were rapid. Two
microcosm studies were conducted with freshwater organisms (Delupis and Miniero, 1989; Miniero and
 Delupis, 1991) hi which single dose effects were measured on natural assemblages of organisms.  In
both studies, the effects were immediate.  D. magna disappeared soon after an 80 /^g/L dose of TBT,
ostracods increased, and  algal species increased immediately then  gradually disappeared during the 55-
                                              18

-------
day study. In the second study (Miniero and Delupis, 1991), metabolism was monitored by measuring
oxygen consumption and again the effects were rapid. Doses of TBT (4.7 and 14.9 /^g/L) were
administered once and metabolism was reduced at 2.5 days and returned to normal in 14.1 days in the
lower exposure. In the higher exposure, metabolism was reduced in one day and returned to normal in
16 days.  Kelly et al. (1990a) observed a similar response in a seagrass bed at 22.21 /j.g/L of TBT. The
primary herbivore, Cymadusa compta, declined and the sea grass increased in biomass.  Saltwater
microbial populations were exposed for one hour to TBT concentrations of 4.454 and 89.07 /^g/L then
incubated for 10 days (Jonas et al.  1984).  At the lower concentration, metabolism of nutrient substrates
was reduced and at the higher concentration, 50 percent mortality of microbes occurred.
        Several fresh and saltwater algal species were exposed to TBT for various time intervals and
several endpoints determined.  Toxicity (EC50) hi freshwater species ranged from 5 //g/L for a natural
assemblage to 20 //g/L for the green alga Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Wong et al.  1982). Several  salt
water alga, a green alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta; the diatoms, Minutocelluspolymorphic, Nitzshia sp.,
Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema  costatum, and Thallassiosira pseudonana; the dinoflagellate,
Gymnodinium splendens, the microalga, Pavlova lutheri and the macroalga, Fucus vesiculosus were
tested for growth endpoints. The 72-hr EC50s based on population growth ranged from approximately
0.3 to  <1.5 ^g/L (Table 6).  Lethal concentrations were generally more than an order of magnitude
greater than EC50s and ranged from 10.24 to 13.82 //g/L.  Identical tests conducted with tributyltin
acetate, tributyltin chloride, tributyltin fluoride, and tributyltin oxide exposures with 5. costatum
resulted in EC50s from 0.2346 to 0.4693 //g/L and LC50s from 10.24 to 13.82 //g/L (Walsh et al.
1985, 1987).
        The freshwater invertebrates, a rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus) and a coelentrate (Hydra sp.),
showed widely differing sensitivities to TBT.  Hydra sp. were affected at 0.5 ^g/L resulting in
deformed tentacles, but the rotifer did not  show an effect on hatching success until the exposure
concentration reached 72 ,ug/L. The cladoceran, D. magna, has 24-hr EC50s ranging from 3 (Polster
and Halacha 1972) to 13.6 ^g/L (Vighi and Calamari 1985). When the  endpoint of altered phototaxis
was examined in a longer-term exposure of 8 days, a much lower effect concentration of 0.45 ^g/L was
measured (Meador 1986).
        Saltwater invertebrates (exclusive  of molluscs) had reduced survival at concentrations as low as
0.500 /^g/L for the polychaete worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata in a 10 week exposure to TBT (Moore
et al. 1991) and 0.003 //g/L hi a copepod,  Acartia tonsa, hi an eight-day exposure (Kusk and Peterson
                                              19

-------
1997). Other invertebrates were more hardy including an amphipod, Orchestia traskiana, that had an
LC80 and an LC90 of 9.7 ^g/L for nine day exposures to TBTO and TBTF, respectively (Laughlin et
al. 1982). Larvae of the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, tolerated high concentrations of TBT
with one test resulting in an LC50 of 33.6 ^g/L for a 40 day exposure (Laughlin and French 1989).
       A number of studies showed that TBT exposure resulted in developmental problems for non-
mollusc invertebrates. For example, the copepod, A. tonsa, had slower rate of development from
nauplii to copepodid stage at 0.003 //g/L (Kusk and Petersen 1997); the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes
pugio, had retarded telson regeneration at 0.1 ^g/L (Khan et al. 1993); the mud  crab, R. harrisii, had
reduced developmental rate at 14.60 /^g/L (Laughlin et al. 1983); retarded limb regeneration in the
fiddler crab,  Ucapugilator, at 0.5 /wg/L (Weis et al. 1987a); and retarded arm regeneration in the brittle
star, Brevoortia tyrannus, at -0.1 /zg/L (Walsh et al. 1986a).
       Vertebrates are as sensitive to TBT as invertebrates when the exposures are of sufficient
duration. Rainbow trout, O. mykiss, exposed in short-term exposures of 24 to 48 hr have LC50 and
EC50 values  from 18.9 to 30.8 /^g/L (Table 6). When the exposure is increased to  110  days (Seinen et
al. 1981), the LCI00 decreased to 4.46 /c/g/L and a 20% reduction hi growth was seen at 0.18 /^g/L.
de Vries et al. (1991) measured a similar response in rainbow trout growth in another  110 day
exposure. They demonstrated decreased survival and growth at 0.200 ^g/L but not at 0.040 /wg/L.
Triebskorn et al. (1994) found reduced growth and behavior changes in the fish at 21 days when
exposed to 0.5 //g/L. The frog, Ram temporaria, has a LC50 of 28.2 //g/L for a 5-day exposure to
TBT (Laughlin and Linden 1982).
       An attempt was made to measure the bioconcentration of TBT with the green alga,
Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Maguire et al. 1984). The  algae are able to degrade TBT to its di- and
monobutyl forms. As a result, the concentrations of TBT steadily declined during the 28-day  study.
During the first seven days of exposure,  the concentrations declined from 20 to 5.2  Mg/L and the
calculated BCF was 300 (Table 6).  After 28 days of exposure, the TBT concentration had declined to
1.5 fj.g/L and the calculated BCF was 467.  Several studies reported BCFs for fish but failed to
demonstrate plateau concentrations hi the organism.  In these studies, rainbow  trout BCFs ranged from
540 (Triebskorn et al. 1994) to 3,833 (Schwaiger et al. 1992).  Goldfish achieved a BCF of 1,230
(Tsuda et al.  1988b) hi a 14-day exposure and carp achieved a BCF  of 295 hi die muscle tissue in 7
days (Tsuda et al. 1987).
       Reproductive abnormalities have also been observed in the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis
                                              20

-------
 (Thain 1986). After exposure for 75 days to a TBT concentration of 0.24 //g/L, a retardation in the sex
 change from male to female was observed and larval production was completely inhibited. A TBT
 concentration of 2.6 /^g/L prevented development of gonads (Table 6). Salazar et al. (1987) found no
 negative effects in the same species at 0.157 //g/L, but Thain and Waldock (1985) and Thain (1986)
 measured reduced growth at 0.2392 /^g/L and reduced survival (30%) at 2.6 //g/L (Table 6).
        Survival and growth of several commercially important saltwater bivalve molluscs have been
 studied during acute and long-term exposures to TBT. Mortality of larval blue mussels,  Mytilus edulis,
 exposed to 0.0973 /ug/L for 15 days was 51 %; survivors were moribund and stunted (Beaumont and
 Budd 1984). Similarly, Dixon and Prosser (1986) observed 79% mortality of mussel larva after 4 days
 exposure to 0.1 /ug/L.  Lapota et al. (1993) reported reduced shell growth in the blue mussel, Mytilus
 edulis, at 0.050 /^g/L and no reduction of shell development at 0.006 ^g/L hi a 33-d study.  The test
 had exposure solutions renewed every third or fourth day during which time TBT concentrations
 declined 33 to 90%. Growth of juvenile blue mussels was significantly reduced after 7 to 66  days at
 0.31 to 0.3893 /zg/L (Stromgren and Bongard 1987; Valkirs et al. 1985). Growth rates of mussels
 transplanted into San Diego Harbor were impacted at sites where TBT concentrations exceeded 0.2
 yUg/L (Salazar and Salazar 1990b).  At locations where concentrations were less than 0.1  //g/L, the
 presence of optimum environmental conditions for growth appear to limit or mask the effects  of TBT.
 Less than optimum conditions for growth may permit the effect of TBT on growth to be expressed.
 Salazar et al. (1987) observed that 0.157 /^g/L reduced growth of mussels after 56 days exposure in the
 laboratory; a concentration within less than a factor of two of that reducing growth in the field.
 Similarly, Salazar and Salazar (1987) observed reduced growth of mussels exposed to 0.070 figfL for
 196 days in the laboratory.  The 66-day LC50 for 2.5 to 4.1 cm blue mussels was 0.97 //g/L (Valkirs et
 al.  1985,1987). Alzieu et al. (1980) reported 30%  mortality and abnormal shell thickening among
 Pacific oyster larvae exposed to  0.2 //g/L for 113 days. Abnormal development was also observed in
 exposures of embryos for 24 hrs or less to TBT concentrations ^0.8604 /j-g/L (Robert and His 1981).
 Waldock and Thain (1983) observed reduced growth and thickening of the upper  shell valve of Pacific
 oyster spat exposed to 0.1460  fJ-g/L for 56 days.  Abnormal shell development was observed in an
 exposure to 0.77 //g/L that began with embryos of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and lasted
 for  48 hours (Roberts 1987). Adult eastern oysters were also sensitive to  TBT with reductions in
condition index after exposure for 57 days to £0.1 ^g/L (Henderson 1986). Salazar et al. (1987) found
no effect on growth after 56 days exposure to 0.157 uglL to the oysters C. gigas, Ostrea edulis and O.
                                              21

-------
lurida.  Condition of adult clams, Macoma nasuta, and scallops, Hinnites multirugosus were not
affected after 110 days exposure to 0.204 //g/L (Salazar et al. 1987).
        Long-term exposures have been conducted with a number of saltwater crustacean species.
Johansen and Mohlenberg (1987) exposed adult A. tonsa for five days to TBT and observed impaired
(25% reduction) egg production on days 3, 4 and 5 in 0.1 //g/L. Impaired egg production to a lesser
amount was observed on day 5 in 0.01 and 0.05 //g/L. Davidson et al. (1986a,1986b), Laughlin et al.
(1983,1984b), and Salazar and Salazar (1985a) reported that TBT acts slowly on crustaceans and that
behavior might be affected several days before mortality occurs. Survival of larval amphipods,
Gammarus oceanicus, was significantly reduced after eight weeks of exposure to TBT concentrations
£0.2816 //g/L (Laughlin et al.  1984b). Hall et al. (1988b) observed no effect of 0.579 //g/L on
Gammarus sp. after 24 days. Developmental rates and growth of larval mud crabs, Rhithropanopeus
harrisii, were reduced by a 15-day exposure to ^14.60 //g/L. R. harrisii might accumulate more TBT
via ingested food than directly from water (Evans and Laughlin 1984).  TBTF, TBTO, and TBTS were
about equally toxic to amphipods and crabs (Laughlin et al. 1982,1983,1984a).  Laughlin and French
(1989) observed LC50 values for larval developmental stages of 13 //g/L for crabs (R. harrisii) from
California vs 33.6 //g/L for crabs from Florida. Limb malformations and reduced burrowing were
observed in fiddler crabs exposed to 0.5 //g/L (Weis and Kim 1988; Weis and Perlmutter 1987; Weis et
al.  1987a). Exposure to  ^0.1 //g/L during settlement of fouling organisms reduced number of species
and species diversity of communities (Henderson 1986).  The hierarchy of sensitivities of phyla in this
test was similar to that of single species tests.
        Exposure of embryos of the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, for ten days to 74 //g/L
caused a 50% reduction in hatching success (Newton et al. 1985). At TBT concentrations between 0.14
and 1.72 //g/L, growth, hatching success, and survival were significantly enhanced.  In contrast,  growth
of inland silverside larvae was reduced after 28 days exposure to 0.093  //g/L (Hall et al. 1988b).
Juvenile Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, avoided a TBT concentration of 5.437 //g/L and
juvenile striped bass, Morons saxatitts, avoided 24.9 //g/L (Hall et al. 1984).  BCFs were 4,300  for
liver, 1,300 for brain, and 200  for muscle tissue of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha,
exposed to 1.49 //g/L for 96 hours (Short and Thrower 1986a,1986c).
        TBT concentrations less than the saltwater Final Chronic Value of 0.0658 //g/L from Table  3
have been shown to  affect the growth of early life-stages of commercially important bivalve molluscs
and survival of ecologically important copepods (Table 6; Text Table B).  Laughlin et al.  (1987,  1988)
                                              22

-------
observed a significant decrease in growth of hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) larvae exposed for 14
days to >0.01 vg/L (Text Table B). Growth rate (increase in valve length) was 75 % of controls in 0.01
Aig/L, 63% in 0.025 Mg/L, 59% in 0.05  /zg/L, 45% in 0.1 //g/L, 29% in 0.25 Mg/L and 2.2% in 0.5
Aig/L.  A five-day exposure followed by  nine days in TBT-free water produced similar responses and
little evidence of recovery.
       Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) spat exhibited shell thickening in 0.01 and 0.05  i^g/L and
reduced valve lengths in 5:0.02 f^gfL (Lawler and Aldrich 1987; Text Table B). Increase in valve
length was 101 % of control lengths in 0.01 pg/L, 12% in 0.02 pgfL, 17% in 0.05 pglL, 35% in 0.1
figfL and 0% in 0.2 //g/L.  Shell thickening was also observed in this species exposed to  >0.02 fig/L
for 49 days (Thain et al. 1987).  They predicted from these data that approximately 0.008 ^g/L would
be the maximum TBT concentration permitting culture of commercially acceptable adults.  Their field
studies agreed with laboratory results showing "acceptable" shell thickness where TBT concentrations
averaged 0.011 and 0.015 f^gfL, but not  at higher concentrations.  Decreased weights of oyster meats
were associated with locations where there was shell thickening.
       Growth of spat of the European oyster (Ostrea edulis) was reduced at >0.02 //g/L (Thain and
Waldock 1985; Text Table B). Spat exposed to TBT hi static-renewal tests were 76-81 % of control
lengths and 75 % of control weights; extent of impact increased with increased exposure. In these static-
renewal and flow-through tests at exposures at about 0.02 fj.g/L, weight gain was identical; i.e., 35% of
controls.  Growth of larger spat was marginally reduced by 0.2392 pg/L (Thain 1986; Thain and
Waldock 1985).  Axiak et al. (1995a) observed a 12% decrease in the height of O. edulis digestive cells
exposed to 0.01  f^g/L TBT.
                                              23

-------
  Text Table B.  Summary of laboratory and field data on the effects of tributyltin on saltwater organisms at
                 concentrations less man the Final Chronic Value of 0.0658 /ug/L.
                          Experimental Design"
  Hard clam (4 hr larvae    R, M, 14-day duration,
  - metamorphosis),
  Mcrcenaria
  mercenaria
  Pacific oyster (spat),
  Crassostrea gigas
 < 150 larvae/50 ml replicate,
three replicates.
Measured = 80-100%
nominal at t = 0.4 hr;
20-30% at t = 24hr
R, N, 48-day duration,
20 spat/treatment
  Pacific oyster (spat),
  Crassostrea gigas
R, N, 49-day duration,
0.7 to 0.9 g/spat
                         Field
Concentration
    fue/U

  Nominal

   control

  0.01-0.5
  Nominal

   control
  0.01-0.05
   control
  0.01-0.2
  0.02-0.2

  Nominal

   control
   0.002
  0.02-2.0

  Measured

0.011-0.015
~0.018-0.060
                                                          Nominal
100% Growth
(Valve length)
~75%-22% Growth
(Valve length)"
Shell thickening
100% Growth
(Valve length)
101 % Growth (Valve length)
0-72% Growth (Valve length)"
No shell thickening
Shell thickening proportional
to concentration increase
                                             No shell thickening
                                             Shell thickening and decreased
                                             meat weight
                                                                                                      Reference
Laughlin et al.
1987,1988
Lawler and
Aldrich 1987
Thain et al.
1987
European oyster (spat),
Ostrea edidis

European oyster
(adult),
Ostrea edidis
R, N, 20-day duration,
50 spat/treatment

R, N, 96-hr duration
control
0.02-2.0
control
0.02-2.0
Nominal
0.010
100% length
76-81% length"
202% weight gain
151-50% weight gain

12% decrease of height of
digestive cells
Thain and
Waldock 1985

Axiak et al.
1995a
1 R = renewal; F = flow-through, N = nominal, M = measured.
b Significantly different from controls.
                                                        24

-------
        TBT concentrations less than the saltwater Final Chronic Value of 0.0658 ^g/L from Table 3
have also been shown to cause imposex (the superimposition of male anatomical characteristics on
females) in seven ecologically important North American species, especially the dogwhinkle, Nucella
lapillus.  A summary of three definitive laboratory studies conducted with N. lapillus are presented in
Text Table C below.
Text Table C. Effect and no-effect tributyltin concentrations in laboratory studies with the Atlantic
             dogwhinkle (Nucella lapillus).
Duration of Study
(Life-stage)
Two year
(Egg capsule to
adult)
One year
(Adults)

One year
(Egg capsule to
adult)
NOEC
(^gTBT/L)
0.0036
0.0077

0.0074
Comment
RPSI = 48.4
VDSI = 4.4
1/3 Sterile
RPSI = 20.8
VDSI = 3.97
11.0% reduced
growth; 100%
imposex
RPSI = 64.0
VDSI = 4.0
Reproduction
104.6% of control
LOEC
(MgTBT/L)
0.0093
0.0334

0.0278
Comment
RPSI = 96.6
VDSI = 5.1
All sterile
RPSI = 42.1
VDSI = 4.3
17. 1 % reduced growth;
100% imposex

RPSI = 88.6
VDSI = 5.0
Reduced reproduction
55.2%
Reference
Gibbs et al.
1988
Bailey et al.
1991

Harding et
al. 19%
NOEC = No-Observed-Effect-Concentration
LOEC = Lowest-Observed-Effect-Concentration
RPSI = Relative penis size index
VDSI = Vas deferens sequence index
Of the three studies listed above, two were initiated with egg capsules and one was conducted with
adults.  As specified by the Guidelines, the one study conducted with adults (Bailey et al. 1991) will not
be considered for criteria derivation since studies conducted with a more sensitive life stage take
precedence over studies with less sensitive life stages. The laboratory study conducted by Gibbs et al.
(1988) did document adverse effects of TBT exposure on egg capsule production of the female dog-
whelk, but a valid laboratory water control was not run with the study (the dilution water control
collected nearby had low levels of TBT).  Thus, this study also  will not be used to derive the saltwater
chronic criterion. The Harding et  al. (1996) study was initiated with egg capsules and had a valid
control.  The NOEC and LOEC values presented are for reproductive effects, which is a direct measure
of this species ability to survive long term.
                                               25

-------
        The National Guidelines (Stephan et al. 1985; pp 18 and 54) requires that the criterion be
lowered if sound scientific evidence indicates that adverse effects might be expected on important
species.  The above data demonstrate that the reductions in growth occur hi commercially or
ecologically important saltwater species at concentrations of TBT less than the Final Chronic Value of
0.0658 Mg/L derived using Final Acute Values and Acute-Chronic Ratios from Table 3.  Imposex
begins to occur at about 0.003 ^g TBT/L, and some reproductive failure begins at concentrations
greater than 0.005 /^g/L, with complete sterility occurring after chronic exposure of sensitive early life-
stages at >0.009 /zg/L. For less sensitive stages of these species imposex does not begin until 0.02
jug/L in some studies and greater than 0.2 yug/L hi others.  The long-term laboratory study by Harding
et al. (1996) demonstrated  a significant reproductive effect on N. lapillus at TBT concentrations
> 0.0074 ngFL.  Therefore, EPA believes the Final Chronic Value should be lowered to 0.0074  /u.g/L
to limit unacceptable impacts on Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis observed
at 0.02 /zg/L, and reproductive effects on N. lapillus  at concentrations greater than 0.0074 /zg/L. At
this criterion concentration, imposex would  be expected hi Ryanassa obsoleta, N. lapillus and similarly
sensitive neogastropods and growth of M. mercenaria might be somewhat lowered.

UNUSED DATA

        Data from some studies were not used hi this document, as they did not meet the criteria for
inclusion as specified in the Guidelines (Stephan et al. 1985).  The reader is referred to the Guidelines
for further information regarding these criteria.

          Studies Were Conducted with Species That Are Not Resident in North America

All et al. (1990)                      de Sousa  and Paulini (1970)            Karande and Ganti (1994)
Allen et al. (1980)                    Pent (1991,  1992)                    Karande et al. (1993)
Axiak et al. (1995b)                   Pent and Hunn (1993)                Kubo et al. (1984)
Batley et al. (1989, 1992)              Pent and Meier (1992)                Langston and Burt (1991)
Burridge et al. (1995)                 Prick and DeJimenez (1964)           Lewis et al. (1995)
Carney and Paulini (1964)              Girard et al. (1996)                  Nagabhushanam et al. (1991)
DaniTchenko (1982)                  Helmstetter and Alden (1995)           Nagaseetal. (1991)
Deschiens and Floch (1968)            Hopf and Muller (1962)              Nias et al. (1993)
Deschiens et al. (1964,1966a, 1966b)     Jantataeme (1991)                 '   Nishuichi and Yoshida (1972)

                                                26

-------
Oehlmann et al. (1996)
Reddy et al. (1992)
Ringwood (1992)
Ritchie etal. (1964)
Ruiz et al. (1994a, 1994b, 1995a)
1995b, 1995c, 1997)
Sarojini et al. (1991, 1992)
Scadding (1990)
 Scammell et al. (1991)
 Seiffer and Schoof (1967)
 Shiffetal. (1975)
 Shirnizu and Kimura (1992)
 Smith et al. (1979)
 Spence et al. (1990b)
 Stebbing  et al. (1990)
 Sujatha et al. (1996)
Tsuda et al. (1986, 1991a)
Upatham (1975)
Upatham et al.  (1980a, 1980b)
Vitturi et al. (1992)
Webbe and Sturrock (1964)
Yaraada et al. (1994)
 Yla-Mononen (1989)
                                Data Were Complied From Other Sources
Alzieu (1986)
Cardarelli and Evans (1980)
Cardwell and Sheldon (1986)
Cardwell and Vogue (1986)
Champ (1986)
Chau (1986)
Eisler (1989)
Envirosphere Company (1986)
Evans and Leksono (1995)
Gibbs and Bryan (1987)
Gibbs et al. (1991a)
Good et al. (1980)
Guard et al. (1982)
Hall (1988, 1991)
Hall and Pinkney (1985)
Hall et al. (1991)
Hodge et al. (1979)
International Joint Commission (1976)
Jensen (1977)
Kimbrough (1976)
Kumpulainen and Koivistoinen (1977)
Lau (1991)
Ixiughlin (1986)
Laughlin and Linden (1985)
T-anghlin et al. (1984a)
McCullough et al. (1980)
Monaghan et al. (1980)
NC Dept. of Natural Resources and
Community Dev. (1983,1985)
Rexrode (1987)
Salazar (1989)
Seligman et al. (1986)
Slesinger and Dressier (1978)
Stebbing (1985)
Thayer (1984)
Thompson et al.  (1985)
U.S. EPA  (1975, 1985b)
U.S. Navy (1984)
von Rumker et al. (1974)
Walsh (1986)
Zuckerman et al. (1978)
           The Test Procedures, Test Material or Results Were Not Adequately Described
Bruno and Ellis (1988)
Cardwell and Stuart (1988)
Chau et al. (1983)
DaiuTchenko and Buzinova (1982)
de la Court (1980)
Deschiens (1968)
EG&G Bionomics (1981b)
Filenko and Isakova (1980)
Holwerda and Herwig (1986)
Kelly et al. (1990b)
Koiosova et al. (1980)
Laughlin (1983)
Mercier et al. (1994)
Nosov and Koiosova (1979)
Smith (1981c)
Stroganov et al. (1972, 1977)
        Studies by Gibbs et al. (1987) were not used because data were from the first year of a two-year
                                                     27

-------
 experiment reported in Gibbs et al. (1988). Data from the life-cycle test with sheepshead minnows
 (Ward et al. 1981) were not used because ratios of measured and nominal concentrations were
 inconsistent within and between tests suggesting problems in delivering TBT, analytical chemistry or
 both.  Results of some laboratory tests were not used because the tests were conducted in distilled or
 deionized water without addition of appropriate salts (e.g., Gras and Rioux 1965; Kumar-Das et al.
 1984). The concentration of dissolved oxygen was too low in tests reported by EG&G Bionomics
 (1981a).  Douglas et al. (1986) did not observe sufficient mortalities to calculate  a useful LC50.

              TBT Was a Component of a Formulation, Mixture, Paint or Sediment

 Boike and Rathburn (1973)            NC Dept. of Natural Resources and      Sherman (1983)
 Cardarelli (1978)                    Community Dev. (1983)               Sherman and Hoang (1981)
 Deschiens and Floch (1970)            Pope (1981)                        Sherman and Jackson (1981)
 Goss et al. (1979)                   Quick and Cardarelli (1977)            Walker (1977)
 Henderson and Salazar (1996)          Salazar and Salazar (1985a,  1985b)       Weisfeld (1970)
 Mattiessen and Thain (1989)           Santos et al. (1977)

        Data were not used when the organisms were exposed to TBT by injection or gavage (e.g.,
 Pent and Stegeman 1991, 1993; Horiguchi et al. 1997; Rice et al. 1995; Rice and Weeks 1990; Rouleau
 et al. 1995).  Caricchia et al.  (1991), Salazar and Chadwick (1991), and Steinert  and Pickwell (1993),
 did not identify the organism exposed to  TBT.  Some studies did not report toxic  effects of TBT (e.g.,
 Balls 1987; Gibbs 1993; Meador et al. 1984; Page 1995; Salazar 1986; Salazar and Champ 1988).
        Results of tests in which enzymes, excised or homogenized tissue, or cell cultures were exposed
 to the test material were not used (e.g., Avery et al. 1993; Blair et al. 1982; Bruschweiler et al. 1996;
 Falcioni et al. 1996; Pent and Bucheli 1994; Pent and Stegeman 1991; Fisher et al. 1990; Josephson et
 al. 1989; Joshi and Gupta 1990; Pickwell and Steinert 1988; Reader et al.  1994,  1996; Rice and Weeks
 1991; Virkki and Nikinmaa 1993; Wishkovsky et al. 1989;  Zucker et al. 1992).
       Data were not used when the test organisms were infested with tapeworms (e.g., Hnath 1970).
Mottley (1978) and Motfley and Griffiths (1977) conducted tests with a mutant form of an alga. Tests
conducted with too few test organisms were not used (e.g.,  EG&G Bionomics 1976; Good et al. 1979).
High control mortalities occurred in tests reported by Rhea  et al. (1995), Salazar  and Salazar  (1989)  and
Valkirs et al. (1985).  Some data were not used because of problems with the concentration of the test
material (e.g., Springborn Bionomics 1984b; Stephenson et al. 1986; Ward et al.  1981) or low survival
                                              28

-------
in the exposure organisms (Chagot et al.  1990; Pent and Looser 1995). BCFs were not used when the
concentration of TBT hi the test solution was not measured (Davies et al. 1986; Laughlin et al. 1986b;
Paul and Davies 1986) or were highly variable (Becker et al. 1992; Laughlin and French 1988).
Reports of the concentrations in wild aquatic animals were not used if concentrations hi water were
unavailable or excessively variable (e.g., Curtis and Barse 1990; Davies et al. 1987, 1988; Davies and
McKie 1987; Gibbs et al. 1991b; Hall 1988; Han and Weber 1988; Kannan et al. 1996; Oehlmann et al.
1991; Stab et al. 1995; Thrower and Short 1991; Wade et al. 1988; Zuolian and Jensen 1989).

SUMMARY

        Freshwater Acute Toxicity. The TBT acute toxicity values for twelve freshwater animal
species range from 1.14  //g/L for a hydra, Hydra oligactis, to 12.73 //g/L for the lake trout, Salvelinus
naymaycush.  A thirteenth species, a clam (Elliptic complanatus), had an exceptionally high toxicity
value of 24,600 //g/L. There was no apparent trend in sensitivities with taxonomy; fish were nearly as
sensitive as the most sensitive invertebrates and more sensitive than others.  When the much less
sensitive clam was not considered, remaining species sensitivities varied by a maximum of 11.2 times.
Plants were about as sensitive as animals to TBT.
        Freshwater Chronic Toxicity. Three TBT chronic toxicity tests have been conducted with
freshwater animals.  Reproduction of D. magna was reduced by 0.2 yug/L, but not by 0.1 ^g/L, and the
Acute-Chronic Ratio is 30.41.  In another test with D. magna reproduction and survival was reduced at
0.34 ^g/L but not at 0.19, and the Acute-Chronic Ratio is 44.06.  Weight of fathead minnows was
reduced by 0.45 //g/L, but not by 0.15  //g/L, and the acute-chronic ratio for this species  was  10.01.
Bioconcentration of TBT was measured hi zebra mussels,  Dreissenapolymorpha, at 17,483 times the
water concentration for the soft parts and hi rainbow trout, Oncorhyncus mykiss, at 406 times the  water
concentration for the whole body.  Growth of thirteen species of freshwater algae was inhibited by
concentrations ranging from 1  to 1,782 ;/g/L.
        Saltwater Acute Toxicity. Acute values for 33 species of saltwater animals range from 0.61
//g/L for the mysid, Acanthomysis sculpta, to 204.4 /^g/L for adult European flat oysters, Ostrea  edulis.
Acute values for the ten most sensitive genera, including molluscs, crustaceans, and fishes, differ by
less than a factor of four. Larvae and juveniles appear to be more acutely sensitive to TBT than adults.
                                              29

-------
         Saltwater Chronic Toxicity.  A partial life-cycle test of one-year duration was conducted with
 the snail, Nucella lapillus. TBT reduced egg capsule production. The chronic value for this species
 was 0.0143 //g/L.  A life-cycle test was conducted with the copepod, Eurytemora affinis.  The chronic
 value is based upon neonate survival and is 0.145 ^g/L and the acute/chronic ratio is 15.17. A life-
 cycle toxicity test was conducted with the saltwater mysid, Acanthomysis sculpta. The chronic value
 for A. sculpta was  0.1308 yUg/L based on reduced reproduction and the acute-chronic ratio was 4.664.
         Bioconcentration. Bioconcentration factors for three species of bivalve molluscs range from
 192.3 for soft parts of the European flat oyster to 60,000 for soft parts of the juvenile blue mussel,
 Mytilus edulis.
        Acute-Chronic Ratio. The Final Acute-Chronic Ratio of 12.69 was calculated as the geometric
 mean of the acute-chronic ratios of 36.60 for D.  magna, 10.01 for P. promelas (the two freshwater
 species), and 4.664 for A. sculpta and 15.17 for E. affinis (the two saltwater species).  Division of the
 freshwater and saltwater Final Acute Values by 12.69 results in Final Chronic Values for freshwater of
 0.0723 pglL and for saltwater of 0.0658 pg/L (Table 3). The  Chronic Values are below the
 experimentally determined chronic values from life-cycle or early life-stage tests with freshwater species
 (0.1414 /Lzg/L for D. magna), but almost five times higher than the chronic value for N. lapillus of
 0.0143 pg/L.
        Tributyltin  chronically affects certain saltwater copepods, gastropods, and pelecypods at
 concentrations less than those predicted from "standard" acute and chronic toxicity tests. The data
 demonstrate that reductions in growth occur in commercially or ecologically important saltwater species
 at concentrations of TBT less than the Final Chronic Value of 0.0658 /ug/L derived using Final Acute
 Values and Acute-Chronic Ratios from Table 3.  Survival of the copepod A. tonsa was reduced in
 >0.023 yUg/L.  Growth of  larvae or spat of two species of oysters,  Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis
 was reduced in about 0.02 //g/L; some C. gigas larvae died  in 0.025 ftg/L.  Shell thickening and
 reduced meat weights were observed hi C. gigas  at 0.01 //g/L.  Reproductive effects were observed
 with N. lapillus at TBT concentrations > 0.0074  //g/L.  Since these levels were ones at which an effect
 was seen, a protective level for these commercially  important species is, therefore, below 0.01 /^g/L.
       Weight of Evidence Considerations. The National Guidelines (Stephan et al. 1985) require
that the criterion be  lowered if sound scientific evidence indicates that adverse effects might be expected
on important species.  The above data demonstrate that the reductions in growth occur in commercially
or ecologically important saltwater species at concentrations  of TBT less than the final chronic value of
                                               30

-------
 0.0658 fj.g/L derived using Final Acute Values and Acute-Chronic ratios from Table 3. Consistent with
 the Guidelines directive to consider other relevant data when establishing criteria, EPA believes the
 Final Chronic Value should be lowered to 0.0074 /ug/L.
        Organometallics, particularly TBT and methyl mercury, have been shown to impair the
 environment in multiple ways.  A major concern with TBT is its ability to cause imposex (the
 superimposition of male anatomical characteristics on females) in a variety of species.  Imposex has
 been observed in 45 species of snails worldwide, with definitive laboratory an field studies implicating
 TBT as the cause in seven North American or cosmopolitan species. As listed in Table 6, adult
 dogwhinkle, Nucella lapillus, exposed to 0.05 //g/L TBT for 120 days showed 41 percent of the
 organisms evidencing imposex.  A six month study of the same species hi 1992 with a concentration of
 0.012 fj.gfL TBT also showed imposex in the organisms.  Other studies showed more than 92 percent of
 the female N.  lapillus exposed to TBT at 0.0027 ^g/L exhibiting imposex; a follow up study of
 offspring  showed almost  99 percent imposex hi females at TBT concentrations of 0.0026  /^g/L. The
 long-term laboratory study by Harding et al. (1996) demonstrated significant reproductive effects on N.
 lapillus at TBT concentrations > 0.0074 y^g/L. Thus, numerous studies show imposex effects at doses
 well below the calculated saltwater Final Chronic Value of 0.0658 /ug/L. Many of the studies did not
 produce a No Observed Effect Level because significant effects were observed at the lowest
 concentration tested. The imposex effect may partially explain the results of the studies hi Tables 2 and
 6 which show abnormal growth patterns seen in other studies, including reduced growth,  shell
 thickening and deformities. Imposex has also been linked with population declines of snails hi Canada
 (Tester et al.  1996) and oysters hi the United Kingdom (Dyrynda 1992 and others); these  declines were
 reversed after restrictions on TBT use went into effect.
        Another factor causing increased concern is the very high bioaccumulation and bioconcentration
 factors associated with TBT. For some species, these factors reach into the thousands  and tens of
 thousands. Data are summarized in Table 5.  They show BCF/BAF factors in the thousands for
rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, where TBT concentrations were approximately  1.0 /ug/L, and in
goldfish, Crassius auratus, where TBT concentrations were approximately 0.1 yug/L.  For saltwater
species, field studies of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis,  at TBT concentrations of < 0.1 //g/L, showed
BCF or BAF concentrations up to 60,000 (Salazar and Salazarl990a, 1991); the eastern oyster,
 Crassostrea virginica, exhibited  factors of 15,000 in TBT concentrations of <0.3 /j.gfL (Roberts et al.
 1996);  and the Pacific oyster,  Crassostrea gigas, had factors in the thousands when exposed to TBT hi
                                              31

-------
 concentrations from 0.24 to 1.5 //g/L.
        Immunological effects nave been observed in eastern oysters exposed to 0.03 //g/L TBT which
 resulted in increased infection intensity and mortality when later exposed to "Dermo", a protozoan
 pathogen.  TBT is widely assumed to enhance the impairment caused by Dermo.  However, data are
 currently insufficient to determine which levels of Dermo and of TBT result in this heightened
 interaction. Because levels of both Dermo and TBT are known to fluctuate widely, it is prudent in the
 face of this uncertainty regarding impact on a commercially important species to be conservative when
 establishing acceptable levels.
        Conclusion. The development of a chronic criterion for TBT in saltwater considers four lines
 of evidence.  It considers the traditional endpoints of adverse effects on survival, growth and
 reproduction as demonstrated in numerous laboratory studies; recognizing that a number of these studies
 have unbounded LOAELs at or near 0.01 ng/L, and recognizing further that only one study included
 levels below 0.01 /wg/L and that study (on Acartia tonsa at 0.003 /wg/L) showed inhibition of
 development. It considers the production of imposex in field studies and the impact of imposex on
 commercially significant species population levels.   It also considers that TBT accumulates and/or
 concentrates in commercially and recreationally important freshwater and saltwater species. Finally, it
 considers the potential immunological effects of TBT, as well as the finding that an important
 commercial organism (eastern oyster) already known to be vulnerable to the prevalent pathogen Dermo
 was made even more vulnerable by prior exposure to TBT.
       Considering the traditional endpoints of adverse effects on survival, growth and reproduction,
 the Final Chronic Value would be set at 0.066 /^g/L. However, the Agency believes that this level
would not be protective for the additional factors cited above. The Agency is faced with the uncertainty
 created by the lack of understanding of the relationship of these factors, the low level at which effects
are occurring, the lack of data below these levels enabling a definitive calculation of an acceptable
 exposure level, and  the commercial viability of some of the species. Therefore, in this situation, the
 Agency is making a decision to establish the Final Chronic Value at 0.0074 ^g/L in the belief that this
level more closely approximates an acceptable level of exposure.
                                              32

-------
 NATIONAL CRITERIA

        The procedures described in the "Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality
 Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses" indicate that, except possibly where a
 locally important species is very sensitive, freshwater aquatic organisms and their uses should not be
 affected unacceptably if the four-day average concentration of tributyltin does not exceed 0.072 /^g/L
 more man once every three years on the average and if the one-hour average concentration does not
 exceed 0.46 /^g/L more than once every three years on the average.
        The procedures described hi the "Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water Quality
 Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses" indicate that, except possibly where a
 locally important species is very sensitive, saltwater aquatic organisms and their uses should not be
 affected unacceptably if the four-day average concentration of tributyltin does not exceed 0.0074 /zg/L
 more than once every three years on the average and if the one-hour average concentration does not
 exceed 0.42 /^g/L more than once every three years on the average.

 IMPLEMENTATION

        As discussed hi the Water Quality  Standards Regulation (U.S. EPA 1983) and the Foreword of
 this document, a water quality criterion for aquatic life has regulatory impact only if it has been adopted
 in a state water quality standard.  Such a standard specifies a criterion for a pollutant that is consistent
 with a particular designated use. With the concurrence of the U.S. EPA, states designate one or more
 uses for each body of water or segment thereof and adopt criteria that are consistent with the use(s)
 (U.S. EPA 1987,1994). Water  quality criteria adopted hi state water quality standards could have  the
 same numerical values as criteria developed under Section 304, of the Clean Water Act.  However, in
 many situations states might want to adjust water quality criteria developed under Section 304 to reflect
 local environmental conditions and human exposure patterns.  Alternatively,  states may use different
 data and assumptions than EPA  hi deriving numeric criteria that are scientifically defensible and
protective of designated uses.  State water quality standards include both numeric and narrative criteria.
 A state may  adopt a numeric criterion within its water quality  standards and apply it either state-wide to
all waters designated for the use the criterion is designed to protect or to a specific site.  A state may
use an indicator parameter or the national criterion, supplemented with other relevant information,  to
                                              33

-------
interpret its narrative criteria within its water quality standards when developing NPDES effluent
limitations under 40 CFR 122.44(d)(l)(vi).2
        Site-specific criteria may include not only site-specific criterion concentrations (U.S. EPA
1994), but also site-specific, and possibly pollutant-specific, durations of averaging periods and
frequencies of allowed excursions (U.S. EPA 1991).  The averaging periods of "one hour" and "four
days" were selected by the U.S. EPA on the basis of data concerning the speed with which some aquatic
species can react to increases in the concentrations of some aquatic pollutants, and "three years" is the
Agency's best scientific judgment of the average amount of time aquatic ecosystems should be provided
between excursions (Stephan et al. 1985; U.S. EPA 1991).  However, various species and ecosystems
react and recover at greatly differing rates.  Therefore, if adequate justification is provided, site-specific
and/or pollutant-specific concentrations, durations, and frequencies may be higher or lower than those
given in national water quality criteria for aquatic life.
       Use of criteria, which have been adopted in state water quality standards, for developing water
quality-based permit limits and for designing waste treatment facilities requires selection of an
appropriate wasteload allocation model.  Although dynamic models are preferred for  the application of
these criteria (U.S.  EPA  1991), limited data or other considerations might require the use of a
steady-state model (U.S. EPA 1986).
       Guidance on mixing zones and the design of monitoring programs is also available (U.S. EPA
1987, 1991).
                                               34

-------
Figure 1.    Ranked Summary of Tributyltin GMAVs - Freshwater.
                Rgure 1. Ranked Surrmary of Tributyttin GMWs
5
2^

.0
1
s
c
o
o
o
IS

.£


K



4
10 -

1000-


100 n
•
10 i
J
'.
•
•J _
-
0.1-
Freshwater
D








• D "
n • D •
D Q •
_ ^ Fr«st»«8r Rial Ante Valus - 0.9177 p^LTribuytin
U

Critarion Mod nun Ccrartraticn - 0.46 (j^LTribu^tin

I I I I I
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.
                               % Rank GMAVs
O Invertebrates
• Rsh
                                    35

-------
Figure 2.    Ranked Summary of Tributyltin GMAVs - Saltwater.
               Figure 2. Ranked Summary of Tributyltin GMAVs
^TUUU :
B> :
c
•2 100 :
(0 :

-------
Figure 3.     Chronic Toxicfty of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals.
            Rgure 3. Chronic Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals
1 •:
"3)
0)
| 0.1 •:
o -
'E
1 '
o
.E 0.01 -
f '•
JO
H
0.001 -
D
A A

Ftashwatar Rnal Chronic Valia « 0.072 pg/L Tributyltin


A

SalWator Final Chronic Value - 0.0074 (jg/L Trifaulyltin


I | | | | 1
          0.00      0.15      0.30       0.45       0.60
                 % Rank Genus Mean Chronic Value
  0.75
0.90
D Freshwater Invertebrates
• Freshwater Fish
A Saltwater Invertebrates
                                         37

-------
Table 1.  Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals
  Method"   Chemical1'
Hardness    LC50     Species Mean
(mg/L as    or EC50    Acute Value
 CaCO,)    (Mg/L)c       (/ug/L)      References
Hydra, S,M
Hydra littoralis
Hydra, S,M
Hydra littoralis
Hydra, S,M
Hydra oligactis
Hydra, S,M
Chlorohydra
viridissmia
Annelid (9 mg), F,M
Lumbriculus
variegatus
Freshwater clam, S,U
(113mmTL; 153 g)
Elliptic complanatus
Cladoceran, S,U
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran (adult), S,U
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran S,U
(<24hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran R,M
(<24hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran S,U
(<24hr),
Daphnia magna
FRESHWATER SPECIES
TBTO 100 1.11
(97.5%)
TBTO 120 1.30
(97.5%)
TBTO 100 1.14
(97.5%)
TBTO 120 1.80
(97.5%)
TBTO 51.8 5.4
(96%)
TBTO - 24.600
(95%)
TBTO - 66.3
TBTC1 - 5.26
TBTO - 1.58
(95%)
TBTO 172 11.2
(97.5%)
TBTC1 250 18
TAI
Environmental
Sciences, Inc.
1989a
1.201 TAI
Environmental
Sciences, Inc.
1989b
1.14 TAI
Environmental
Sciences, Inc.
1989a
1.80 TAI
Environmental
Sciences, Inc.
1989b
5.4 Brooke et al.
1986
24,600 Buccarusco
1976a
Foster 1981
Meador 1986
LeBlanc 1976
ABC
Laboratories,
Inc. 1990c
Crisinel et al.
1994
                         38

-------
Table 1. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals (continued)
                   Method"   Chemical
Hardness    LC50     Species Mean
(mg/L as    or EC50    Acute Value
 CaCQ,)    (ug/L)c       Cug/L)     References

Cladoceran F,M
(<24hr),
Daphnia magna
Amphipod, F,M
Gammarus
pseudotimnaeus
Mosquito (larva), S,M
Culex sp.
Rainbow trout, S,U
(45 mm TL; 0.68g)
Oncorhynchus
ntyldss
Rainbow trout F,M
(juvenile),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.47 F,M
g),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Rainbow trout F,M
(l-4g),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Lake trout (5.94 g), F,M
Salvelinus
naymaycush
Fathead minnow F,M
(juvenile),
Pimephales promelas
Channel catfish, S,U
(65mmTL; 1.9g)
FRESHWATER SPECIES
TBTO 51.5 4.3
(96%)
TBTO 51.8 3.7
(96%)
TBTO 51.5 10.2
(96%)
TBTO - 6.5
(95%)
TBTO 50.6 3.9
(96%)
TBTO 135 3.45
(97%)
TBTO 44 7.1
(97.5%)
TBTO 135 12.73
(97%)
TBTO 51.5 2.6
(96%)
TBTO - 11.4
(95%)

4.3 Brooke et al.
1986
3.7 Brooke et al.
1986
10.2 Brooke et al.
1986
Buccafusco et
al. 1978
Brooke et al.
1986
Martin et al.
1989
4.571 ABC
Laboratories,
Inc. 1990a
12.73 Martin et al.
1989
2.6 Brooke et al.
1986
Buccafusco
1976a
 Ictalurus punctatus
                                             39

-------
Table 1. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals (continued)
 Species
Method"   Chemicalb
Hardness    LC50     Species Mean
(mg/L as    or EC50    Acute Value
 CaCCX)    fog/L)c       (ue/L)
                                                           References

Channel catfish F,M
(juvenile),
Ictalurus punctatus
BluegUl, S,U
Lepomis
macrochirus
BluegUl, S,U
(36 mm TL: 0.67 g)
Lepomis
macrochirus
BluegUl (1.01 g), F,M
Lepomis
macrochirus
Species Method*
Lugworm (larva), S,U
Arenicola cristata
Lugworm (larva), S,U
Arenicola cristata
Polychaete (adult), S,M
Neanthes
arenaceodentata
Polychaete S,M
(juvenile),
Neanthes
arenaceodentata
Polychaete (adult), R,M
Armandia brevis
FRESHWATER SPECIES
TBTO 51.8 5.5
(96%)
TBTO - 227.4
TBTO - 7.2
(95%)
TBTO 44 8.3
(97.5%)
LC50
Salinity or EC50
Chemical b (g/kg) (wfi/L)c
SALTWATER SPECIES
TBTO 28 -2-4

TBTA 28 -5-10

TBTO 33-34 21.41"
TBTO 33-34 6.812
TBTC1 28.5 25
(96%)

5.5 Brooke et al.
1986
Foster 1981
Buccafusco
1976b
8.3 ABC
Laboratories,
Inc. 1990b
Species Mean
Acute Value
Cue/L) References
Walsh et al.
1986b
-4.74 Walsh et al.
1986b
Salazar and
Salazar 1989
6.812 Salazar and
Salazar 1989
25 Meador 1997
                                           40

-------
Table 1.  Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals (continued)
 Species
                    Method"    Chemical1*
             LC50
Salinity     or EC50
 (g/kg)      (us/LY
Species Mean
 Acute Value
    dug/L)      References
 Blue mussel (adult),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel (adult),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel (larva),
 Mytilus edulis

 Pacific oyster
 (adult),
 Crassostrea gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (larva),
 Crassostrea gigas

 Eastern oyster,
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 European flat oyster
 (adult),
 Ostrea edulis

 Atlantic dogwhinkle
 (<24hr-old),
 Nucella lapillus

 Hard clam (larva),
 Mercenaria
 mercenaria

 Copepod (juvenile),
 Eurytemora affinis

 Copepod (subadult),
 Eurytemora affinis

 Copepod (subadult),
 Eurytemora affinis

 Copepod (adult),
 Acartia tonsa

 Copepod
 (10-12-d-old),
 Acartia tonsa
                                       SALTWATER SPECIES
R,-
S,M
R,-
R,-
R,-
R,U
R,-
R,M
R,U
F,M
F,M
F,M
R,U
S,U
TBTO
TBTO
TATO
TBTO
TBTO
TBTC1
TBTO
TBTO
TBTC1
TBTC1
TBT
TBT
TBTO
(95%)
TBTC1
(99.3%)
  33-34
  18-22
  34-35



  18-22



   10.6


    10


    10
    18
ES
36.98"
34.06"

2.238
282.2"
1.557
3.96
204.4
72.7

1.65
2.2

2.5
IA
0.6326
0.47

Thain 1983
Salazar and
Salazar 1989
2.238 Thain 1983
Thain 1983
1.557 Thain 1983
3.96 Roberts 1987
204.4 Thain 1983
72.7 Harding et al.
1996
1.65 Roberts 1987
Hall et al.
1988a
Bushong et al.
1987;1988
1.975 Bushong et al.
1987;1988
U'ren 1983
Kusk and
Petersen 1997
                                                 41

-------
Table 1. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals (continued)
                  Method"   Chemical11
           LC50     Species Mean
Salinity     or EC50    Acute Value
           (usfLY        (ue/L)     References
SALTWATER SPECIES
Copepod S,U TBTC1 28 0.24
(10-12-d-old), (99.3%)
Acartia tonsa
Copepod (subadult), F,M TBT 10 LI
Acartia tonsa
Copepod (adult), S,U TBTF 7 1.877
Nitocra spinipes
Copepod (adult), S,U TBTO 7 1.946
Nitocra spinipes
Mysid (juvenile), R,M -e - 0.42
Acanthomysis
sculpta
Mysid (adult), F,M -e - 1.68d
Acanthomysis
sculpta
Mysid (juvenile), F,M -" - 0.61
Acanthomysis
sculpta
Mysid (subadult), S,M TBTO 33-34 1.946
Metamysidopsis
elongata
Mysid (adult), S,M TBTO 33-34 2.433
Metamysidopsis
elongata
Mysid (adult), S,M TBTO 33-34 6.812
Metamysidopsis
elongata
Mysid (<1 day), F.M TBTC1 19-22 1.1
Americamysis bahia
Mysid (5 day), F,M TBTC1 19-22 2.0
Americamysis bahia
Mysid (10 day), F,M TBTC1 19-22 2.2
Americamysis bahia
Amphipod (adult), F,M TBT 10 5.3
Gammarus sp.

Kusk and
Petersen 1997
1.1 Bushongetal.
1987; 1988
Linden et al.
1979
1.911 Linden et al.
1979
Davidson et al.
1986a,1986b
Valkirs et al.
1985
0.61 Valkirs et al.
1985
Salazar and
Salazar 1989
Salazar and
Salazar 1989
3.183 Salazar and
Salazar 1989
Goodman et al.
1988
Goodman et al.
1988
1.692 Goodman et al.
1988
5.3 Bushongetal.
1988
                                           42

-------
Table 1.  Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals (continued)
 Species
                    Method"    Chemical"
                                  LC50      Species Mean
                     Salinity     or EC50     Acute Value
                      (g/kg)      (usfLY         Cug/L)     References
 Amphipod (adult),
 Orchestia traskiana

 Amphipod (adult),
 Rhepoxynius
 dbromus

 Amphipod
 (3-5 mm; 2-5 mg),
 Eohaustorius
 estuarius

 Amphipod (adult),
 Eohaustorius
 washingtoruanus

 Grass shrimp (adult),
 Palaemonetes pugio

 Grass shrimp
 (subadult),
 Palaemonetes sp.

 Grass shrimp (adult),
 Palaemonetes sp.

 Grass shrimp (larva),
 Palaemonetes sp.

 American lobster
 (larva),
 Homarus americanus

 Shore crab (larva),
 Carcinus maenas

 Mud crab (larva),
 Khithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Mud crab (larva),
 Rhithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Shore crab (larva),
 Hemigrapsus nudus

R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
F,U
F,M
R,U
R,U
R,U
R,-
R,U
R,U
SALTWATER SPECIES
TBTO 30 > 14.60f
TBTC1 32.3 108
(96%)
TBTC1 28.8-29.5 10
(96%)
TBTC1 32.7 9
(96%)
TBTO - 20
TBT 10 >31d
TBTO 20 31.41"
TBTO 20 4.07

TBTO 32 1.745'

TBTO - 9.732
TBTS 15 >24.3f
TBTO 15 34.90'


> 14.60 Laughlin et al.
1982
108 Meador 1997
10 Meador 1993;
Meador et al.
1993; Meador
1997
9 Meador 1997
20 Clark et al.
1987
Bushong et al.
1988
Kahn et al.
1993
4.07 Kahn et al.
1993
1.745 Laughlin and
French 1980
9.732 Thain 1983
Laughlin et al.
1983
34.90 Laughlin et al.
1983
R,U       TBTO         32        83.28f        83.28      Laughlin and
                                                           French 1980
                                                43

-------
Table 1. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals (continued)
                                                      LC50     Species Mean
Species Method"
Amphioxus, F,U
Branchiostoma
caribaeum
Chinook salmon S,M
(juvenile),
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
Atlantic menhaden F,M
(juvenile),
Brevoortia tyrannus
Atlantic menhaden F,M
(juvenile),
Brevoortia tyrannus
Sheepshead minnow S,U
(juvenile),
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow S , U
(juvenile),
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow S,U
(juvenile),
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow F,M
(33-49 mm),
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow F,M
Salinity or EC50
Chemical1* (g/kg) (ue/L>c
SALTWATER SPECIES
TBTO - <1Q
TBTO 28 1.460

TBT 10 4.7
TBT 10 5.2
TBTO 20 16.54
TBTO 20 16.54
TBTO 20 12.65
TBTO 28-32 2.315f

TBTO 15 12.31
Acute Value
Cue/L) References

< 10 Clark et al.
1987
1.460 Short and
Thrower
1986b;1987
Bushong et al.
1987; 1988
4.944 Bushong et al.
1987;1988
EG&G
Bionomics
1979
EG&G
Bionomics
1979
EG&G
Bionomics
1979
EG&G
Bionomics
1981d
Walker 1989a
(juvenile),
Cyprinodon
variegatus

Sheepshead minnow
(subadult),
Cyprinodon
variegatus
F,M
TBT
10
25.9
9.037      Bushong et al.
           1988
                                            44

-------
Table 1.  Acute Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals (continued)
 Species
                                                           LC50     Species Mean
                                              Salinity     or EC50     Acute Value
                    Method"    Chemical11      (g/kg)      (uz/LY         Cug/L)      References
                                       SALTWATER SPECIES
 Mummichog (adult),     S,U
 Fundulus
 heteroclitus

 Mumichog              F,M
 (juvenile),
 Fundulus
 heteroclitus

 Mummichog (larva),     F,M
 Fundulus
 heteroclitus

 Mummichog            F,M
 (subadult),
 Fundulus
 heteroclitus

 Inland silverside         F,M
 (larva),
 Menidia beryUina

 Atlantic silverside,       F,M
 Menidia menidia

 Starry flounder          R,M
 (< 1-year-old),
 Platichthys stellatus
TBTO
(95%)


TBTO
 TBT
 TBT
 TBT
 TBT


TBTCl
(96%)
 25
 10



 10




 10



 10


30.2
23.36



 17.2




 23.4



 23.8




 3.0



 8.9


 10.1
21.34
 8.9
 10.1
           EG&G
           Bionomics
           1976

           Pinkney et al.
           1989a,b
           Bushong et al.
           1988
Bushong et al.
1988
 3.0       Bushong etal.
           1987;1988
Bushong et al.
1987;1988

Meador 1997
    S  = static; R = renewal; F = flow-through; M = measured; U = unmeasured.
    TBTCl = tributyltin chloride; TBTF = tributyltin fluoride; TBTO = tributyltin oxide; TBTS  = tributyltin
    sulfide. Percent purity is given in parentheses when available.
    Concentration of (he tributyltin cation, not the chemical. If the concentrations were not measured and the
    published results were not reported to be adjusted for purity,  the published results were multiplied by the
    purity if it was reported to be less than 95 percent. Note; The values underlined in this column were used
    to calculate the SMAV for the respective species.
    Value not used in determination of Species Mean Acute Value because data are available for a more
    sensitive life stage.
    The test organisms were  exposed to leachate from panels coated with antifouling paint containing a
    tributyltin polymer and cuprous oxide.  Concentrations of TBT  were measured and the authors provided
    data to demonstrate the similar toxicity of a pure TBT compound and the TBT from the paint formulation.
    LC50 and EC50 calculated or interpolated graphically based on the authors' data.
                                                 45

-------
                   Table 2a. Chronic Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Animals.
Snprips Test*
J^JCVICJ —••IN
Cladoceran, LC
Daphnia magnet
Cladoceran, UC
Daphnia tnagna
Fathead minnow, ELS
Pimephales
promelas
Hardness Chronic Chronic
(mg/L as Limits Value
Chemical" CaCO,) fug/L)c (W2/L) References
FRESHWATER SPECIES
TBTO 51.5 0.1-0.2 0.1414 Brooke et al. 1986
(96%)
TBTO 160-174 0.19-0.34 0.2542 ABC Laboratories
(100%) inc. 1990d
TBTO 51.5 0.15-0.45 0.2598 Brooke et al. 1986
(96%)
                                       SALTWATER SPECIES
Atlantic ELS
dogwhinkle,
Nucella lapillus
Copepod, LC
Eurytemora
affinis
Copepod, LC
Eurytemora
affinis
Mysid, LC
Acanthomysis
sculpta
TBTO
(97%)
TBTC1
TBTC1
_d
34-35 0.0074-0.0278f 0.0143 Harding et al.
1996
10.3' < 0.088 < 0.088 Hall et al.
1987;1988a
14.6° 0.094-0.224 0.145 Hall et al.
1987;1988a
0.09-0.19 0.1308 Davidson et al.
1986a,1986b
a  LC = Life-cycle or partial life-cycle; ELS = early life-stage.
b  TBTO = tributyltin oxide; TBTC1 = tributyltin chloride. Percent purity is given in parentheses when
   available.
c  Measured concentrations of the tributyltin cation.
"  The test organisms were exposed to leachate from panels coated with antifouling paint containing a tributyltin
   polymer and cuprous oxide. Concentrations of TBT were measured and the authors provided data to
   demonstrate the similar toxicity of a pure TBT compound and the TBT from the paint formulation.
'  Salinity (g/kg).
f  TBT concentrations are those reported by Bailey et al. (1991).  See text for explanation.
                                                46

-------
                                Table 2b. Acute-Chronic Ratios
                                      Acute-Chronic Ratios
Species
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Copepod,
Eurytemora affinis
Copepod,
Eurytemora affinis
Mysid,
Acanthomysis sculpta
Snail,
Nucella lapilhis
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO,)
51.5
160-174
51.5
-
-
-
34-35"
Acute
Value
(we/L)
4.3
11.2
2.6
2.2
2.2
0.611
72.7
Chronic Value
(U2/L)
0.1414
0.2542
0.2598
< 0.088
0.145
0.1308
0.0143
Ratio
30.41
44.06
10.01
> 25.00
15.17
4.664
5,084
Reference
Brooke et al. 1986
ABC Laboratories,
Inc. 1990d
Brooke et al. 1986
Hall et al.
1987;1988a
Hall et al.
1987;1988a
Davidson et al.
1986a,1986b
Harding et al. 1996
3 Reported by Valkirs et al. (1985).
b Salinity (g/kg).
                                               47

-------
Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values with Species Mean Acute-Chronic Ratios
ank"
Genus Mean
Acute Value
Species
Species Mean Species Mean
Acute Value Acute-Chronic
(u&fL) b Ratio c
FRESHWATER SPECIES
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

24,600
12.73
10.2
8.3
5.5
5.4
4.571
4.3
3.7
2.6
1.80
1.170

Freshwater clam,
Elliptic camplanatus
Lake trout,
Salvelinus naymaycush
Mosquito,
Culex sp.
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Annelid,
iMmbriculus variegatus
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mytdss
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Amphipod,
Gammarus pseudolimnaeus
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Hydra,
Chlorohydra viridissmia
Hydra,
Hydra littoralis
Hydra,
Hydra oligactis
24,600
12.73
10.2
8.3
5.5
5.4
4.571
4.3 36.60
3.7
2.6 10.01
1.80
1.201
1.14
                                   48

-------
Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values with Species Mean Acute-Chronic Ratios (continued)


Lank"

30

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

19



18

17


Genus Mean
Acute Value
fcte/L)

204.4

108

83.28

72.7

34.90

25

21.34

> 14.60

10.1

<10

9.732

9.487



9.037

9.022


Species Mean Species Mean
Acute Value Acute-Chronic
Species
SALTWATER SPECIES
European flat oyster,
Ostrea edulis
Amphipod,
Rhepoxyrdus abronius
Shore crab,
Hemigrapsus nudus
Atlantic dogwhinkle,
Nucella lapillus
Mud crab,
Rhithropanopeus harrisii
Polychaete,
Armandia brevis
Mummichog,
Fundulus heteroclitus
Amphipod,
Orchestia traskiana
Starry flounder,
Platichthys stellatus
Amphioxus
Branchiostoma caribaeum
Shore crab,
Carcinus maenas
Amphipod,
Eohaustorius estuarius
Amphipod,
Eohaustorius washingtonianus
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon variegatus
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes pugio
Grass shrimp,
(tte/L)11 Ratio'

204.4

108

83.28

72.7

34.90

25

21.34

>14.60

10.1

<10

9.732

10.0

9

9.037

20

4.07
                           Palaemonetes sp.
                                             49

-------
Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values with Species Mean Acute-Chronic Ratios (continued)
Rank8
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Genus Mean
Acute Value
(we/L)
6.812
5.3
5.167
4.944
-4.74
3.183
2.483
2.238
1.975
1.911
1.745
1.692
1.65
1.460
                                       Species
Species Mean
Acute Value
   (ug/L)b
 Species Mean
Acute-Chronic
    Ratioc
                                     SALTWATER SPECIES
                             Polychaete,                         6.812
                             Neanthes arenacedentata

                             Amphipod,                          5.3
                             Gammarus sp.

                             Inland silverside,                      3.0
                             Menidia beryttina

                             Atlantic silverside,                    8.9
                             Menidia menidia

                             Atlantic manhaden,                   4.944
                             Brevoortia tyrannus

                             Lugworm,                          -4.74
                             Arenicola cristata

                             Mysid,                             3.183
                             Metamysidopsis elongata

                             Pacific oyster,                       1.557
                             Crassostrea gigas

                             Eastern oyster,                       3.96
                             Crassostrea virginica

                             Blue mussel,                         2.238
                             Mytilus edulis

                             Copepod,                           1.975
                             Eurytemora affinis

                             Copepod,                           1.911
                             Nitocra spinipes

                             American lobster,                    1.745
                             Homarus americanus

                             Mysid,                             1.692
                             Amerdcamysis bahia

                             Hard clam,                          1.65
                             Mercenaria mercenaria

                             Chinook salmon,                     1.460
                             Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
                         15.17
                                               50

-------
 Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values with Species Mean Acute-Chronic Ratios (continued)


              Genus Mean                                    Species Mean         Species Mean
              Acute Value                                    Acute Value        Acute-Chronic
  Rank*         (ug/L)                  Species                  (ug/L)b              Ratioc


                                      SALTWATER SPECIES
2
1
1.1
0.61
Copepod,
Acartia tonsa
Mysid,
Acanthomysis sculpta
1.1
0.61
~
4.664
 *  Ranked from most resistant to most sensitive based on Genus Mean Acute Value. Inclusion of "greater
   than" value does not necessarily imply a true ranking, but does allow use of all genera for which data are
   available so that the Final Acute Value is not unnecessarily lowered.
 b  From Table 1.
 c  From Table 2.
 Fresh Water

      Final Acute Value = 0.9177 ^g/L

      Criterion Maximum Concentration = (0.9177 Aig/L) H- 2 = 0.4589,wg/L

        Final Acute-Chronic Ratio = 12.69 (see text)

      Final Chronic Value = (0.9177/^g/L) -5- 12.69 = 0.0723 ^g/L



 Salt Water

      Final Acute Value = 0.8350^g/L

      Criterion Maximum Concentration  = (0.8350/ug/L) •*• 2 = 0.4175Mg/L

        Final Acute-Chronic Ratio = 12.69 (see text)

      Final Chronic Value = (0.8350//g/L) -H 12.69 = 0.0658 pg/L


Final Chronic Value = 0.0074 /^g/L (lowered to protect growth of commercially important molluscs, survival
of the ecologically important copepod Acartia tonsa, and survival  of the ecologically important gastropod
NuceUa lapilhis; see text)
                                                51

-------
                          Table 4. Toxicity of Tribntyltin to Aquatic Plants
Species
Chemical"
Hardness
(mg/L as   Duration
 CaCCs)    (days)    Effect
Concentration
   CuE/L)b     Reference

Alga, TBTC1
Bumilleriopsis
filiformis
Alga, TBTC1
Klebsormidium
marinum
Alga, TBTC1
Monodus
subterraneus
Alga, TBTC1
Raphidonema
longiseta
Alga, TBTC1
Tribonema
aequale
Blue-green alga, TBTC1
Oscillatoria sp.
Blue-green alga, TBTC1
Synechococcus
leopoliensis
Green alga, TBTC1
Chlamydomonas
dysosmas
Green alga, TBTC1
ChloreUa
emersonii
Green alga, TBTC1
Kirchneriella
contorta
Green alga, TBTC1
Monoraphidium
pusillum
Green alga, TBTC1
Scenedesmus
obtusiuscuUis
FRESHWATER SPECIES
14 No growth
14 No growth.
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth
14 No growth

111.4
222.8
1,782
56.1
111.4
222.8
111.4
111.4
445.5
111.4
111.4
445.5

Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
Blanck 1986;
Blanck et al. 1984
                                             52

-------
Table 4. Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Plants (continued)
 Green alga,
 Scenedesmus
 quadricauda

 Green alga,
 Scenedesmus
 quadricauda

 Green alga,
 Scenedesmus
 quadricauda
 Green alga,
 Scenedesmus
 obliquus

 Green alga,
 Selenastrum
 capricornutum

 Green alga,
 Selenastrum
 capricornutum
                  Chemical*
TBTC1
TBTO
TBTO
           Hardness
           (mg/L as   Duration
            CaCO,)     (days)    Effect
                     Concentration
                        dug/L)b     Reference
 TBT
TBTC1
TBTC1
-

0.67
72.7
FRESHWATER SPECIES
12 Reduced
growth
(87.6%)
7 EC50
chlorophyll
production
12 Reduced
growth
87.6%
95.9%
100%
4 EC50
(reduced
growth)
1 Fargasova and
Kizlink 1996
5.0 Fargasova 1996
Fargasova and
Kizlink 1996
1
10
100
3.4 Huang et al. 1993
14      No growth        111.4       Blanck 1986;
                                    Blanck et al. 1984
       EC50             12.4       Miana et al. 1993
                                     SALTWATER SPECIES
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Nitzschia sp.
TBTO

TBTO 30°
(BioMet
Red)
TBTO 30"
TBTO
5 Algistati<
Algicidal

14 EC50
(dry cell
weight)
14 EC50
(dry cell
weight)
8 EC50
(reduced
growth)
                                                                 0.9732-17.52    Thain 1983
                                                                    > 17.52
                                                                   > 0.1216;     EG&G Bionomics
                                                                   < 0.2433     1981c
                                                                   0.06228      EG&G Bionomics
                                                                                1981c


                                                                     1.19        Delupisetal. 1987
                                              53

-------
Table 4. Toxicity of Tributyltin to Aquatic Plants (continued)
 Species
Chemical8
Hardness
(mg/L as
 CaCO,)
Duration
  (days)    Effect
Concentration
    (ug/L)b      Reference
                                        SALTWATER SPECIES
Flagellate alga, TBTO
Dunaliella
tertiolecta
Mixed algae, TBT
Dunaliella
salina and
D. viridis
8 EC50
(reduced
growth)
4 EC50
(reduced
growth)

4.53 Delupis et al


0.68 Huang et al.



. 1987


1993



 1  TBTC1 = tributyltin chloride; TBTO = tributyltin oxide. Percent purity is given hi parentheses when
   available.
 b  Concentration of the tributyltin cation, not the chemical. If the concentrations were not measured and the
   published results were not reported to be adjusted for purity,  the published results were multiplied by the
   purity if it was reported to be less than 95 %.
 c  Salinity (g/kg).
                                                 54

-------
Table 5.  Bioaccumulation of Tributyltin by Aquatic Organisms


Species

Zebra mussel
(1.76 ±0.094 cm),
Dreissena
pofymorpha
Rainbow trout
(13.8 g),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Rainbow trout
(32.7 g),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss





Carp
(9.5-11.5 cm;
20.0-27.5 g);
Cyprinus carpio
Carp
(8.5-9.5 cm;
16.5-22.1 g);
Cyprinus carpio


Goldfish
(3. 5-4.0 cm;
1. 6-2.9 g);
Carassius auratus
Guppy
(¥ ; 2.4-2.7 cm;
0.41-0.55 g);
Poedlia
retiadatus
Guppy
(2.4-2.7 cm;
0.41-0.55 g);
Poedlia
retiadatus


Chemical"

TBT



TBTO
(97%)


TBTO
(97%)







TBTO



TBTO





TBTC1



TBTC
(95%)



TBTO
(95%)



Hardness Cone.
(mg/L as in Water Duration
(CaCo,) (Me/L)b (days) Tissue
FRESHWATER SPECIES
0.0703 105 Soft parts



135 0.513 64 Whole body



135 1.026 15 Liver
Gall bladder/bile
Kidney
Carcass
Peritoneal fat
Gill
Blood
Gut
Muscle
2.1 14 Muscle



34.5-39.0 1.8 14 Whole body
(pH=6.0)
1.6
(pH=6.8)
1.7
(pH=7.8)
36 0.13 28 Whole body



0.28 14 Whole body




0.54 14 Whole body




BCF
or
BAF

17,483d



406



1,179
331
2,242
1,345
5,419
1,014
653
487
312
501.2



-1190

-1523

-2250

1,976



240




460






Reference

Becker-van
Slooten and
Tarradellas 1994

Martin et al.
1989


Martin et al.
1989







Tsuda et al.
1988a


Tsuda et al.
1990a




Tsuda et al.
1991b


Tsuda et al.
1990b



Tsuda et al.
1990b



                         55

-------
Table 5.  Bioaccumulation of TributyKin by Aquatic Organisms (continued)


Species

Snail (adults),
Littorina littorina
Atlantic
dogwhinkie
(female),
Nucella lapillus
Atlantic
dogwhinkie
(female),
Nucella lapillus
Atlantic dog
whinkle
(18-22 mm),
Nucella lapillus
Atlantic
dogwhinkie
(1 year-old),
Nucella lapillus
Atlantic
dogwhinkie
(1 year-old),
Nucella lapillus
Blue mussel
(spat),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(adult),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(juvenile),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis


Blue mussel
(juvenile),
Mytilus edulis
Cone.
Salinity in Water
Chemical" (g/kg) (us/L)b

Duration
(days)


Tissue
BCF
or
BAF


Reference
SALTWATER SPECIES
TBTC1 - 0.488
0.976
TBT - 0.0038 to
0.268


Field - 0.070



TBTC1 35 0.0205



TBTO 34-35 0.0027
0.0077
0.0334
0.1246
TBTO 34-35 0.0026
0.0074
0.0278
0.1077
28.5-34.2 0.24


Field - <0.1


Field - <0.1


0.452
0.204
0.204
0.079
Field - < 0.105


182
182
249 to
408


529 to
634


49



365
365
365
365
365
365
365
365
45


60


60


56



84


Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts



Soft parts



Soft parts



Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts
Soft parts


-


-


Soft parts



Soft parts


1,420
1,020
11,000
to
38,000

17,000



30,000



18,727
21,964
16,756
7,625
<7782
10,121
8,088
6,172
6,833f


11,000


25,000


23,000
27,000
10,400
37,500
5,000-
60,000

Bauer et al. 1997

Bryan et al.
1987a


Bryan et al.
1987a


Bryan et al.
1989b


Bailey et al.
1991


Harding et al.
1996


Thain and
Waldock 1985;
Thain 1986
Salazar and
Salazar 1990a

Salazar and
Salazar 1990a

Salazar et al.
1987


Salazar and
Salazar, 1991

                                              56

-------
Table 5. Bioaccumulation of Tributyltin by Aquatic Organisms (continued)


Species
Cone.
Salinity in Water
ChemicaP (a/kg) (M2/L)"

Duration
(days)


Tissue
BCF
or
BAF


Reference
SALTWATER SPECIES
Blue mussel
(3.0 -3.5 cm),
Mytihts edulis

Eastern Oyster
(6-9 cm length),
Crassostrea
virginica
Pacific oyster,
Crassostrea gigas
Pacific oyster,
Crassostrea gigas
Pacific oyster,
Crassostrea gigas

Pacific oyster,
Crassostrea gigas
Pacific oyster,
Crassostrea gigas
Pacific oyster
(spat),
Crassostrea gigas
European flat
oyster,
Ostrea edulis
European flat
oyster,
Ostrea edulis
European flat
oyster,
Ostrea edulis
European flat
oyster,
Ostrea edulis
TBTC1 25.1-26.3 0.020



18±1 0.283



TBTO 28-31.5 1.216

TBTO 28-31.5 0.1460

28.5-34.2 ' 0.24


TBTO 29-32 1.557

TBTO 29-32 0.1460

TBTO - 0.29
0.92
2.83
TBTO 28-31.5 1.216


TBTO 28-34.2 0.24


TBTO 28-34.2 2.62


28.5-34.2 0.24


60



28



21

21

45


56

56

30


21


75


75


45


Muscle and
mantle
Muscle and
mantle
Soft parts



Soft parts

Soft parts

Soft parts


Soft parts

Soft parts

Soft parts


Soft parts


Soft parts


Soft parts


Soft parts


7,700

11,000

15,460



l,874f

6,047f

7,292f


2,300

11,400

2275
1369
621
960f


875f


397f


l,167f


Guolan and
Yong 1995


Roberts et al.
1996


Waldock et al.
1983
Waldock et al.
1983
Thain and
Waldock 1985;
Thain 1986
Waldock and
Thain 1983
Waldock and
Thain 1983
Osada et al.
1993

Waldock et al.
1983

Waldock et al.
1983

Thain 1986


Thain and
Waldock 1985;
Thain 1986
                                             57

-------
Table 5.  Bioaccumulation of Tributyltin by Aquatic Organisms (continued)
      Species
                     Chemical"
             Cone.
Salinity    in Water    Duration
 (g/kg)       (MC/L)"     (days)
Tissue
BCF
 or
BAF
Reference
                                              SALTWATER SPECIES
European flat
oyster,
Ostrea edulis
-" 28.5-34.2 2.62 45 Soft parts
192.3' Thain and
Waldock 1985;
Thain 1986
 1TBTO = tributyltin oxide; Field = field study.  Percent purity is given in parentheses when available.
 b Measured concentration of the tributyltin cation.
 c Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) are based on measured concentrations of TBT in water
  and tissue.
 d BCF normalized to 1 % lipid concentration and converted to wet weight estimate based upon 85% moisture.
 e Test organisms were exposed to leachate from panels coated with antifouling paint containing tributyltin.
 f BCFs were calculated based on the increase above the concentration of TBT in control organisms.
                                                     58

-------
                     Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms
    Species
Microcosm
natural
assemblage
Microcosm
natural
assemblage
                  Chemical"
TBTO
          Hardness
          (mg/Las
           CaCOJ     Duration
                    Effect
Concentration
    (ug/L)b      Reference
TBTO
FRESHWATER SPECIES

55 days     Daphnia magna
           disappeared; Ostracoda
           increased; algae increased
           immediately then gradually
           disappeared

24 days     Metabolism reduced
           (2.5 days)
           Metabolism returned to
           normal (14.1 days)
           Metabolism reduced
           (1 day)
           Metabolism returned to
           normal (16 days)
     80
     4.7
                                                                                      14.9
Delupis and
Miniero 1989
Miniero and
Delupis 1991
Alga,
Natural
assemblage
Blue-green alga,
Anabaena
flos-aquae
Green alga,
Antestrodesmus
fedcatus
Green alga, TBTO
Artastrodesmus (97%)
falcatus

Green alga,
Scenedesmus
quadricauda
Hydra, TBTO
Hydra sp. (96%)
Rotifer, TBTC1
Braddonus -
catyciflorus
Asiatic clam TBTO
(larva),
Corbiada
ftumwea
4hr


4hr


4hr


7 days
14 days
21 days
28 days
4hr


51.0 96hr

24hr


24hr



EC50
(production)

EC50
(production)

EC50
(production)
(reproduction)
BCF = 300
BCF = 253
BCF = 448
BCF = 467
EC50
(production)

EC50
(clubbed tentacles)
EC50 (hatching)


EC50



5


13



20
5
5.2
4.7
2.1
1.5
16


0.5

72


1,990



Wong et al.
1982

Wong et al.
1982

Wong et al.
1982

Maguire et al.
1984


Wong et al.
1982

Brooke et al.
1986
Crisinel et al.
1994

Foster 1981



                                                  59

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
     Species
            Hardness
            (mg/Las
Chemical'   CaCCX.)    Duration
                                                                             Concentration
Effect
FRESHWATER SPECIES
Cladoceran, TBTO
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran TBTC
(<24hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran TBTO
(<24hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran TBTC1
(adult),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran TBTC1
(14-d-old),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran TBTC1
(<24-hold),
Daphnia magna
Fairy shrimp TBTC1
(cysts),
Streptocephalus
texanus
Rainbow trout TBTO
(yearling),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Rainbow trout, TBTO
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Rainbow trout TBTC1
(embryo, larva),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Rainbow trout TBTC1
(fry),
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
24hr
200 24hr
200 24hr
8 days
150 7 days
312.8 48 hr
250 24hr
24hr
48 hr
24hr
94-102 110 days
96-105 110 days
LC50
EC50
(mobility)
EC50
(mobility)
Altered phototaxis
Altered behavior
Reproductive failure
Digestive storage cells
reduced
EC50
(mobility)
EC50 (hatching)
LC50
EC50
(rheotaxis)
20% reduction in growth
23 % reduction in growth;
6.6% mortality
100% mortality
NOEC (mortality and
growth)
LOEC (mortality and
growth)
3
11.6
13.6
0.45
1
1
5
9.8
15
25.2
18.9
30.8
0.18
0.89
4.46
0.040
0.200
Polster and
Halacha 1972
Vighiand
Calamari 1985
Vighi and
Calamari 1985
Meador 1986
Bodar et al.
1990
Miana et al.
1993
Crisinel et al.
1994
Alabaster
1969
Chliamovitch
and Kuhn
1977
Seinen et al.
1981
de Vries et al.
1991
                                                 60

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
     Species
            Hardness
            (mg/L as
Chemical"    CaCOQ    Duration
                              Effect
                                      Concentration
                                         (ue/L)"
           Reference
                                            FRESHWATER SPECIES
 Rainbow trout,
 Oncorhynchus
 mykiss
 Rainbow trout,
 Oncorhynchus
 mykiss
 Rainbow trout
 (3 wk),
 Oncorhynchus
 mykiss
 Goldfish
 (2.8-3.5 cm;
 0.9-1.7 g),
 Carassius
 auratus

 Carp
 (10.0-11.0 cm;
 22.9-30.4 g),
 Cyprinus carpio

 Guppy (3-4 wk),
 Poecilia
 reticulata
Guppy (4 wk),
Poecilia
reticulata

Frog
(embryo, larva),
Rana temporaria
  TBTO
  TBTO
 TBTO
 (98%)
400
 TBTO
 (reagent
 grade)
 TBTO
 TBTO
28 days    BCF = 3,833 (whole body)
           BCF = 2,850 (whole body)
           BCF = 2,700 (whole body)
           BCF = 1,850 (whole body)
           Cell necrosis within gill
           lamellae

28 days    BCF = 3,833 (whole body)
           BCF = 2,850 (whole body)
           BCF = 2,700 (whole body)
           BCF = 1,850 (whole body)
           Cell necrosis within gill
           lamellae

21 days    Reduced growth
           Reduced avoidance
           BCF = 540 (no head;
           no plateau)
           BCF = 990 (no head;
           no plateau

14 days    BCF = 1230 (no plateau)
209
 TBTO
 TBTO
 TBTF
 TBTO
 TBTF
           7 days     BCF in muscle = 295
                     Half-life =  1.67 days
 3 mo      Thymus atrophy
           Hyperplasia of kidney
           hemopoietic tissue
           Marked liver vacuolation
           Hyperplasia of corneal
           epithelium

 1 mo      NOEC
 3 mo      NOEC
          5 days     LC40
                     LC50
                     Loss of body water
                     Loss of body water
                                                      0.6
                                                      1.0
                                                      2.0
                                                      4.0
                                                      4.0
0.6
1.0
2.0
4.0

4.0

0.5
           Schwaiger et
           al. 1992
                                                      2.0
                                           1.80
                                                                   0.32
                                                                    1.0

                                                                    1.0
                                                                   10.0
                                                                   1.0
                                                                   0.32
                                          28.4
                                          28.2
                                          28.4
                                          28.2
                                                                 Schwaiger et
                                                                 al. 1992
Triebskorn et
al. 1994
           Tsuda et al.
           1988b
           Tsuda et al.
           1987
                                                                 Wester and
                                                                 Canton 1987
                                                                Wester and
                                                                Canton 1991
           Laughlin and
           Linden 1982
                                                   61

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
     Species
Chemical*
Salinity
(g/kg)
Duration
                                           Effect
Concentration
    (ug/L)b      Reference
SALTWATER SPECIES
Natural
microbial
populations
Natural
microbial
populations
Fouling
communities
Fouling
communities
Microcosm
(seagrass bed)
Microcosm
(seagrass bed)
Periphyton
communities
Periphyton
communities
Green alga,
Dunaliella
tertiolecta
Green alga,
Dunaliella sp.
Green alga,
Dunaliella sp.
Green alga,
Dunaliella
tertiolecta
Diatom,
Phaeodoctylum
tricomutum
Diatom,
Nitzsctua sp.
Diatom,
Nitzschia sp.
TBTC1 2 and 17 1 hr
(incubated
10 days)
TBTC1 2 and 17 1 hr
(incubated
10 days)
33-36 2 months
126 days
TBT 21.5-28.9 6 wks
TBTC1 - 6 wks
TBTC1 - 15 min
TBTO - 15 min
TBTO 34-40 18 days
TBTO - 72 hr
TBTO - 72 hr
TBTO - 8 days
TBTO - 72 hr
TBTO - 8 days
TBTO - 8 days
Significant decrease in
metaboli sm of nutrient
substrates
50% mortality
Reduced species and
diversity; no effect at 0.04
No effect
Fate of TBT
Sediments 81-88%
Plants 9-17%
Animals 2-4%
Reduced plant material loss;
loss of amphipod Cymadusa
compta
EC50 (reduced
photosynthesis
EC50 (reduced
photosynthesis
Population growth
Approx. EC50 (growth)
100% mortality
EC50
No effect on growth
EC50
EC50
4.454
89.07
0.1
0.204
0.2-20
22.21
28.7
27.9
1.0
1.460
2.920
4.53
1.460-5.839
1.19
1.19
Jonas et al.
1984
Jonas et al.
1984
Henderson
1986
Salazar et al.
1987
Levine et al.
1990
Kelly et al.
1990a
Blanckand
Dahll996
Blanckand
Dahll996
Beaumont and
Newman 1986
Salazar 1985
Salazar 1985
Delupis et al.
1987
Salazar 1985
Delupis et al.
1987
Delupis et al.
1987
                                                  62

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                                Salinity
     Species        Chemical*     (g/kg)     Duration
Effect
Concentration
    (Mg/L)b      Reference
SALTWATER SPECIES
Diatom,
Nitzschia
closterium
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skektonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Chaetoceros
debilis
TBTC1 - 7 days


TBTA 30 72 hr


TBTA 30 72 hr


TBTO 34-40 12-18 days


TBTO 30 72 hr


TBTO 30 72 hr


TBTC1 30 72 hr


TBTC1 30 72 hr


TBTF 30 72 hr


TBTF 30 72 hr


TBTC1 30.5 96 hr


TBTC1 - 7 days


TBTC1 - 7 days


EC50 (growth)


EC50
(population growth)

LC50


Population growth


EC50
(population growth)

LC50


EC50
(population growth)

LC50


EC50
(population growth)

LC50


NOEC


EC50 (growth)


EC50 (growth)


1.16


0.3097


12.65


1.0


0.3212


13.82


0.3207


10.24


> 0.23 46,
> 0.4693

11.17


1


3.48


1.16


Nakagawa and
Saeki 1992

Walsh et al.
1985;1987

Walsh et al.
1985; 1987

Beaumont and
Newman 1986

Walsh et al.
1985;1987

Walsh et al.
1985

Walsh et al.
1985; 1987

Walsh et al.
1985; 1987

Walsh et al.
1985;1987

Walsh et al.
1985

Reader and
Pelletier 1992

Nakagawa and
Saeki 1992

Nakagawa and
Saeki 1992

                                                  63

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
Species
                  Chemical8
Salinity
(g/kg)
                                          Duration
                                                         Effect
Concentration
    (Mg/L)b      Reference
SALTWATER SPECIES
Diatom, TBTC1
ChattoneUa
antiqua
Diatom, TBTC1
Tetraselmis
tetrathele
Diatom, TBTO
Minutocellus
polymorphic
Diatom, TCTC1
Minutocellus
potymorphus
Diatom, TBTA
Thalassiosira
pseudonana
Diatom, TBTO
Thalassiosira
pseudonana
Alga, TBTO
Pavlova lutheri
Alga, TBTO
Pavlova lutheri
Dinoflagellate, TBTO
Gymnodinium
splendens
Macroalgae, TBT
Fucus
vesiculosus
Giant kelp TBT
(zoospores),
Macrocystis
pyrifera
Polychaete worm TBTC1
(juvenile), (96%)
Neanthes
arenaceodentata
Polychaete worm TBTC1
(adult), (96%)
Armandia brevis
1 days
7 days
48 hr
48 hr
30 72 hr
30 72 hr
34-40 12-26 days
16 days
72hr
6 7 days
32-33 48 hr
30 10 wks
28.5 10 days
EC50 (growth)
EC50 (growth)
EC50
EC50
EC50
(population growth)
EC50
(population growth)
Population growth
NOEC
LOEC
100% mortality
Photosynthesis and nutrient
uptake reduced
EC50 (germination)
EC50 (growth)
NOEC (survival)
LOEC (survival)
BCF = 5,100 (no plateau)
2.05
6.06
-340
-330
1.101
1.002
1.0
5.36
21.46
1.460
0.6
11.256
13.629
0.100
0.500
233
Nakagawa and
Saeki 1992
Nakagawa and
Saeki 1992
Walsh et al.
1988
Walsh et al.
1988
Walsh et al.
1985
Walsh et al.
1985; 1987
Beaumont and
Newman 1986
Saint-Louis et
al. 1994
Salazar 1985
Lindblad et al.
1989
Brix et al.
1994a
Moore et al.
1991
Meador 1997
                                                 64

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
             Salinity
Chemical8    (g/kg)
                                            Duration
Effect
Concentration
    (ug/L)b      Reference
                                             SALTWATER SPECIES
 Rotifer
 (neonates),
 Brachionus
 pticatitis

 Hydroid,
 Campanularia
 flexuosa

 Pale sea
 anemone
 (1-2 cm oral
 disc),
 Aiptasia pattida

 Sand dollar
 (sperm),
 Dendraster
 excentricus

 Starfish (79 g),
 Leptasterias
 polaris

 DogwMnkle
 (adult),
 Nucella lapillus


 Dogwhinkle
 (adult),
 Nucella lapillus

 DogwMnkle
 (subadult),
 Nucella lapillus

 Mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytilus sp.
  TBT         15        SOmin     Induction of the stress             20-30
                                    protein gene SP58
                                  Cochrane et
                                  al. 1991
 Blue mussel
 (larva),
 Mytilus edutis

 Blue mussel
 (larva),
 Mytilus edutis
  TBTF        35        11 days    Colony growth stimulation;
                                    no growth
                       0.01        Stebbing 1981
                       1.0
  TBT          -         28 days     Reduced (90.4%) symbiotic
                                    zooxanthellae populations;
                                    incresed bacterial
                                    aggregates; fewer
                                    undischarged nematocysts

  TBT        32-33       80 min     EC50 (mortality)                  0.465
 TBTC1       25.9        48 hr      BCF = 41,374 (whole             0.072
                                    body)


                        120 days    41% Imposex                     0.05
                                    (superimposition of male
                                    anatomical characteristics
                                    on females)

 TBTC1        35       6 months    Imposex induced                 iO.012
 TBTC1        35          22       BCF = -20,000                 0.019
 Field         -        12 weeks    NOEC tissue concentration
                                    growth = 0.5 ^g/g
                                    LOEC tissue concentration
                                    growth = 1.5 ,ug/g
                                    NOEC (growth)              '    0.025
                                    LOEC (growth)                  0.100
                                    BAF = 5,000-100,000          < 0.105

 TBTO         -         24 hr      No effect on sister                  1.0
                                    chromatid exchange


 TBTO         -         4 days      Reduced  survival                  iO.l
                       0.05        Mercier et al.
                                  1997
                                  Brix et al.
                                  1994b
                                  Rouleau et al.
                                  1995
                                  Bryan et al.
                                  1986
                                  Stroben et al.
                                  1992b
                                  Bryan et al.
                                  1993
                                  Salazar and
                                  Salazar 1990b,
                                  1996
                                  Dixon and
                                  Prosser 1986
                                  Dixon and
                                  Prosser 1986
                                                    65

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                    Chemical"
            Salinity
             (g/kg)
          Duration
Effect
Concentration
    (ug/L)b      Reference
                                              SALTWATER SPECIES
 Blue mussel
 (spat),
 Mytilus edulis


 Blue mussel
 (larva),
 Mytilus editlis

 Blue mussel
 (larva),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytihts edulis

 Blue mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (juvenile),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (2.5 to 4.1 cm),
 Mytilus edulis

 Blue mussel
 (2.5 to 4.1 cm),
 Mytilus edulis
TBTO
TBTO
 TBT
(field)


 TBT
(field)


 TBT
(field)
           28.5-34.2    45 days     100% mortality
 33        15 days    51% mortality; reduced
                      growth


           45 days    Reduced growth
33.7       7 days     Significant reduction in
                      growth
           1-2 wk     Reduced growth; at <0.2
                      Mg/L environmental factors
                      most important

           12 wks     Reduced growth
           12 wks     Reduced growth at tissue
                      cone. of2.Qfj.glg
                        56 days    Reduced condition
                       196 days    Reduced growth (no effect
                                   at day 56 of 0.2
                        56 days     No effect on growth
                        66 days     LC50
                        66 days     Significant decrease in shell
                                   growth
                                                        2.6
                      0.0973
                                                                    0.24
                      0.3893
                        0.2
                                                      0.157
                                                      0.070
                                                      0.160
                                                       0.97
                                                       0.31
                 Thain and
                 Waldock
                 1985; Thain
                 1986

                 Beaumont and
                 Budd 1984
                                   Thain and
                                   Waldock 1986
                 Stromgren and
                 Bongard 1987
                 Salazar and
                 Salazar 1990b
                                   Salazar and
                                   Salazar 1988
                                   Salazar and
                                   Salazar 1988
                                   Salazar et al.
                                   1987
                                   Salazar and
                                   Salazar 1987
                                   Salazar and
                                   Salazar 1987
                                   Valkirs et al.
                                   1985, 1987
                                   Valkirs et al.
                                   1985
                                                     66

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                                  Salinity
      Species        Chemical8    (g/kg)      Duration
                                              Effect
                                        Concentration
                                            (ug/LV
                                              Reference
                                               SALTWATER SPECIES
 Blue mussel
 (juveniles and
 adults),
 Mytihis sp.

 Blue mussel
 (3.0-3.5 cm),
 Mytihis edutts

 Blue mussel
 (4 cm),
 Mytihis eduJis


 Blue mussel
 (8-d-old larvae),
 Mytilus edulis

 Scallop (adult),
 Himites
 multirugosus

 Pacific oyster
 (larva),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (larva),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (spat),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (spat),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (spat),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (spat),
 Crassostrea
 gigas
 TBT
 (field)
 TBT
TBTC1
 TBT
TBTO
TBTO
14 days
           28.5-34.2     45 days
 84 days     BCF
 2 days     Reduced ability to survive
            anoxia
2.5 days     Increased respiration 0.15
            fj.glg tissue
            Reduced food absorption
            efficiency 10 ^g/g

33 days     NOEC (growth)
            LOEC (growth)
                        110 days    No effect on condition
                         30 days     100% mortality
                        113 days    30% mortality and
                                    abnormal development
48 days    Reduced growth
Reduced oxygen
consumption and feeding
rates
           40% mortality; reduced
           growth
                             3,000-100,000    Salazar and
                                              Salazar 1996
                                              Wang et al.
                                              1992
                                              Widdows and
                                              Page 1993
           28.5-34.2     45 days    90% mortality
                                 0.006
                                 0.050
                                            0.204
                                             2.0
                                             0.2
                                 0.020
0.050
                                 0.24
                                             2.6
             Lapota et al.
             1993
                                              Salazar et al.
                                              1987
                                              Alzieu et al.
                                              1980
                                              Alzieu et al.
                                              1980
                                                                                 Lawler and
                                                                                 Aldrich 1987
Lawler and
Aldrich 1987
             Thain and
             Waldock 1985
                                             Thain and
                                             Waldock 1985
                                                      67

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                               Salinity
                  Chemical"    (g/kg)     Duration
Effect
Concentration
    (qg/L)b     Reference

Pacific oyster
(spat),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(spat),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(spat),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(spat),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(adult),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(larva),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(larva),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(embryo),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(embryo),
Crassostrea
gigas
Pacific oyster
(larva),
Crassostrea
gigas

__c

TBT

TBTO

TBTO

TBT
(field)

TBTF

TBTF

TBTA

TBTA

TBTA

SALTWATER SPECIES
45 days Reduced growth

49 days Shell thickening

29-32 56 days No growth

29-32 56 days Reduced growth

Shell thickening

18-21 21 days Reduced number of
normally developed larvae

18-21 15 days 100% mortality

28 24 hr Abnormal development;
30-40% mortality

24 hr Abnormal development

24 hr Abnormal development


0.24 Thain and
Waldock 1986

0.020 Thain et al.
1987

1.557 Waldock and
Thain 1983

0.1460 Waldock and
Thain 1983

^0.014 Wolniakowski
etal. 1987

0.02346 Springborn
Bionomics,
Inc. 1984a

0.04692 Springborn
Bionomics,
Inc. 1984a

4.304 His and
Robert 1980

0.8604 Robert and
His 1981

^0.9 Robert and
His 1981

                                                  68

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                                  Salinity
      Species        Chemical'    (g/kg)      Duration
                                              Effect
                                         Concentration
                                            (Mg/L)b      Reference
                                               SALTWATER SPECIES
 Pacific oyster
 (larva),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster  -
 (150-300 mg),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (3.5-25 mm),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (fertilized eggs),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (straight-hinge
 larvae),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (spat),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Pacific oyster
 (24-h-old),
 Crassostrea
 gigas

 Eastern oyster
 (2.7-5.3 cm),
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 Eastern oyster
 (2.7-5.3 cm),
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 Eastern oyster
 (adult),
 Crassostrea
 virginica
 TBTA
 TBT
 (field)
TBTO
TBTO
TBTO
TBTA
 48 hr      100% mortality
                         56 days    No effect on growth
2-5 mo     Reduced growth rate
            Normal growth rate
 24 hr     LC50
           Delayed development
 24 hr     LC50
 48 hr     LC50
12 days     LC50
                        67 days     Decrease in condition index
                                    (body weight)
                        67 days     No effect on survival
            33-36       57 days    Decrease in condition index
2.581
                                             0.157
0.040
0.010
 7.0
 1.8
 15.0
35.0
0.04
                                             0.73
                                             1.89
                                             0.1
                                                                                  Robert and
                                                                                  His 1981
             Salazar et al.
             1987
Stephenson
1991
Osada et al.
1993
Osada et al.
1993
Osada et al.
1993
                                                                                 His 19%
            Valkirs et al.
            1985
            Valkirs et al.
            1985
            Henderson
            1986
                                                      69

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                                  Salinity
                    Chemical"    (g/kg)      Duration
                                              Effect
                                       Concentration
                                           (x/g/L)b       Reference
                                               SALTWATER SPECIES
 Eastern oyster
 (adult),
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 Eastern oyster
 (embryo),
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 Eastern oyster
 (juvenile),
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 Eastern oyster
 (adult),
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 Eastern oyster
 (adult),
 Crassostrea
 virginica

 European flat
 oyster (spat),
 Ostrea edulis

 European flat
 oyster (spat),
 Ostrea edulis
 European flat
 oyster (spat),
 Ostrea edulis
 European flat
 oyster (spat),
 Ostrea edulis

 European flat
 oyster (adult),
 Ostrea edulis

 European flat
 oyster (adult),
 Ostrea edulis
             33-36       30 days     LC50
TBTC1       18-22
48 hr
Abnormal shell
development
TBTO       11-12        96 hr      EC50; shell growth
                         8 wks      No affect on sexual
                                    development, fertilization
 TBT          -         21 wks     Immune response not
                                    weakened
TBTO        30        20 days     Significant reduction in
                                    growth
           28.5-34.2     45 days     Decreased growth
           28.5-34.2     45 days     70% mortality t
                        20 days     Reduced growth
             28-34      75 days     Complete inhibition of
                                    larval production
             28-34      75 days     Retardation of sex change
                                    from male to female
                                            2.5
0.77
                                            0.31
                                           1.142
                                            0.1
                                          0.01946
                                           0.2392
                                                                                            2.6
                                                                                           0.02
                                            0.24
                                             Henderson
                                             1986
Roberts 1987
                                             Walker 1989b
                                             Roberts et al.
                                             1987
                                              Anderson et
                                              al. 1996
                                             Thainand
                                             Waldock 1985
                                              Thain and
                                              Waldock
                                              1985; Thain
                                              1986

                                              Thain and
                                              Waldock
                                              1985; Thain
                                              1986

                                              Thain and
                                              Waldock 1986
                                              Thain 1986
                                            0.24        Thain 1986
                                                       70

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
Species
                    Chemical'
            Salinity
             (g/kg)
Duration
Effect
                                                                                    Concentration
Reference
                                              SALTWATER SPECIES
 European flat
 oyster (adult),
 Ostrea edulis

 European flat
 oyster
 (140-280 mg),
 Ostrea edulis

 Native Pacific
 oyster
 (100-300 mg),
 Ostrea hiricla

 Quahog clam
 (embryo, larva),
 Mercenaria
 mercenaria

 Clam (adult),
 Macoma nasuta

 Quahog clam
 (veligers),
 Mercenaria
 mercenaria

 Quahog clam
 (post larva),
 Mercenaria
 mercenaria

 Quahog clam
 (larva),
 Mercenaria
 mercenaria

 Common Pacific
 Littleneck
 (adult),
 Protothaca
 stamina

 Copepod
 (subadult),
 Eurytemora
 qffinis

 Copepod
 (subadult),
 Eurytemora
 affinis
                            28-34      75 days
                                    Prevented gonadal
                                    development
                TBTO
               TBTO
               TBTO
TBTC1
               TBTO
                TBT
                TBT
                                       56 days    No effect on growth
                                       56 days    No effect on growth
                        14 days    Reduced growth
                                       110 days    No effect on condition
                         8 days     Approx. 35% dead;
                                   reduced growth;
                                   2:1.0 jig/L 100 mortality
                        25 days    100% mortality
                            18-22       48 bi      Delayed development
             33-34        96 hr      100% survival
              10         72 hr      LC50
              10         72 hr      LC50
                                             2.6
                                            0.157
                                                                   0.157
                                                                   0.204
                                             0.6
                                             10
                                            0.77
                                           ^2.920
                                            0.5
                                            0.6
                                   Thain 1986
                                                                                Salazaretal.
                                                                                1987
                                                        Salazar et al.
                                                        1987
                                           sO.010       Laughlin et al.
                                                        1987; 1988
                                   Salazar et al.
                                   1987

                                   Laughlin et al.
                                   1987; 1989
                                   Laughlin et al.
                                   1987;1989
                                   Roberts 1987
                                   Salazar and
                                   Salazar 1989
                                  Bushong et al.
                                  1988
                                  Bushong et al.
                                  1988
                                                     71

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
Salinity
Species Chemical" (g/kg)
Copepod, TBTO
Acartia tonsa
Copepod (adult), TBTO 28
Acartia tonsa
Copepod TBTC1 10-12
(nauplii),
Acartia tonsa
Copepod TBTC1 10-12
(nauplii),
Acartia tonsa
Copepod TBTC1 10-12
(nauplii),
Acartia tonsa
Copepod TBTC1 18
(nauplii),
Acartia tonsa
Amphipod TBTO 7
(larva, juvenile),
Gammarus
oceanicus
Amphipod TBTF 7
(larva, juvenile),
Gammarus
oceanicus
Amphipod TBTO 7
(larva, juvenile),
Gammarus
oceanicus
Amphipod TBTF 7
(larva, juvenile),
Gammarus
oceanicus
Amphipod, TBTC1 10
Gammarus sp.
Amphipod TBTO 30
(adult),
Orchestia
traskiana
Duration Effect
SALTWATER SPECIES
6 days
5 days
9 days
6 days
6 days
8 days
8wk

8wk

8 wk

8wk

24 days
9 days
EC50
Reduced egg production
Reduced survival
Reduced survival; no effect
0.012 Mg/L
Reduced survival; no effect
0.010 fj.gfL
Inhibition of development
EC50 (survival)
100% mortality

100% mortality

Reduced survival and
growth

Reduced survival and
increased growth

No effect
Approx. 80% mortality
Concentration
(«2/L)k

0.3893
0.010
*0.029
0.023
0.024
0.003
0.015-0.020
2.920

2.816

0.2920

0.2816

0.579
9.732
Reference
U'ren 1983
Johansen and
Mohlenberg
1987
Bushong et al.
1990
Bushong et al.
1990
Bushong et al.
1990
Kuskand
Peterson 1997
Laughlin et al.
1984b

Laughlin et al.
1984b

Laughlin et al.
1984b

Laughlin et al.
1984b

Halletal.
1988b
Laughlin et al.
1982
                                               72

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                               Salinity
                  Chemical"    (g/kg)     Duration
Effect
Concentration
   (ug/L)b     Reference
SALTWATER SPECIES
Amphipod
(adult),
Orchestia
trasMana
Amphipod
(adult),
Eohaustorius
estuarius
Amphipod
(adult),
Eohaustorius
washingtonianus
Amphipod
(adult),
Rhepoxynius
abronius
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes
pugio
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes
pugio
Mud crab
(larva),
RMthropanopeus
harrisii
Mud crab
(larva),
RMthropanopeus
harrisii
Mud crab
(larva),
Rhithropanopeus
harrisii
Mud crab
(larva),
RMthropanopeus
harrisii
Mud crab (zoea),
Rhitropanopeus
harrisii
TBTF 30 9 days

TBTC1 28.8-29.5 10 days
(96%)

TBTC1 32.7 10 days
(96%)

TBTC1 32.3 10 days
(96%)
TBTO 9.9-11.2 20min
(95%)

TBTO 20 14 days

TBTO 15 15 days
TBTS 15 15 days
TBTO 15 15 days
TBTS 15 15 days
TBTO 15 20 days
Approx. 90% mortality

BCF = 41,200
(no plateau)

BCF = 60,300
(no plateau)

BCF = 1,700
(no plateau)
No avoidance

Telson regeneration
retarded; molting retarded

Reduced developmental rate
and growth
Reduced developmental rate
and growth
63% mortality
74% mortality
LC50
9.732 Laughlin et al.
1982

0.48 Meador et al.
1993

109 Meador 1997

660 Meador 1997
30 Pinkney et al.
1985

0.1 Khanetal.
1993

14.60 Laughlin et al.
1983
18.95 Laughlin et al.
1983
> 24.33 Laughlin et al.
1983
28.43 Laughlin et al.
1983
13.0 Laughlin and
French 1989
                                                 73

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                                Salinity
      Species       Chemical'     (g/kg)     Duration
                                Effect
                                      Concentration
                                          (Mg/L)b      Reference
                                            SALTWATER SPECIES
 Mud crab (zoea),     TBTO
 Rhithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Mud crab,           TBTO
 Rhithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Mud crab,           TBTO
 Rhithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Mud crab,           TBTO
 Rhithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Mud crab,           TBTO
 Rhithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Mud crab,           TBTO
 Rhithropanopeus
 harrisii

 Fiddler crab,         TBTO
 Ucapugilator

 Fiddler crab,         TBTO
 Uca pugilator


 Fiddler crab,         TBTO
 Ucapugilator


 Blue crab            TBT
 (6-8-day-old
 embryos),
 Callinectes
 sapidus

 Brittle star,          TBTO
 Ophioderma
 brevispina

 Atlantic             TBTC1
 menhaden
 (juvenile),
 Brevoortia
 tyrannus
  15       40 days    LC50
  15        6 days     BCF=24 for carapace
  15        6 days     BCF=6 for hepatopancreas
  15
  15
6 days     BCF=0.6 for testes
  15         6 days     BCF =41 for gill tissue
6 days     BCF= 1.5 for chelae muscle
 25        £24 days    Retarded limb regeneration
                      and molting

 25        3 weeks    Reduced burrowing
 25        7 days     Limb malformation
 28        4 days     EC50 (hatching)
18-22       4 wks      Retarded arm regeneration
 10        28 days     No effect
                                           33.6
                                          5.937
                                          5.937
                                                     5.937
                                          5.937
5.937
                                           0.5
                                           0.5
                                           0.5
                                          0.047
                                          -0.1
                                          0.490
             Laughlin and
             French 1989
Evans and
Laughlin 1984


Evans and
Laughlin 1984


Evans and
Laughlin 1984


Evans and
Laughlin 1984


Evans and
Laughlin 1984


Weis et al.
1987a

Weis and
Perlmutter
1987

Weis and Kim
1988; Weis et
al. 1987a

Lee et al.
1996
            Walsh et al.
            1986a
            Hall et al.
            1988b
                                                   74

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                               Salinity
     Species        Chemical*    (g/kg)      Duration
                 Concentration
Effect
Reference
• I'-l-ll
Atlantic
menhaden
(juvenile),
Brevoortia
tyrarnws
Chinook salmon
(adult),
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
Chinook salmon
(adult),
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
Chinook salmon
(adult),
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
Mummichog
(juvenile),
Fundulus
heteroclitus
Mummichog,
Fundulus
heteroclitus
Mummichog
(embryo),
Fundulus
heteroclitus
Mummichog (5.3
cm; 1.8 g),
Fundulus
heteroclitus
Inland silverside
(larva),
Menidia
beryllina
Three-spined
stickleback (45-
60mm),
Gasterosteus
aculeatus
SALTWATER SPECIES
TBTO 9-11 - Avoidance
TBTO 28 96 hr BCF =4,300 for liver
TBTO 28 96 hr BCF =1,300 for brain
TBTO 28 96 hr BCF =200 for muscle
TBTO 2 6wks Gill pathology
TBTO 9.9-11.2 20min Avoidance
TBTO 25 10 days Teratology
TBTO 15 96 hr LC50
(95%) 16-19.5 6wks NOEC
TBTC1 10 28 days Reduced growth
TBTO 15-35 7.5 mo 80% mortality (2 months)
(painted Histological effects
panels)

5.437 Halletal.
1984
1.49 Short and
Thrower
1986a,1986c
1.49 Short and
Thrower
1986a,1986c
1.49 Short and
Thrower
1986a,1986c
17,2 Pinkney 1988;
Pinkney et al.
1989a
3.7 Pinkney etal.
1985
30 Weis et al.
1987b
17.2 Pinkney et al.
2.000 1989a
0.093 Hall et al.
1988b
10 Holm et al.
2.5 1991
                                                  75

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
      Species
Chemical"
 Salinity
 (g/kg)
Duration
Effect
Concentration
    (Mg/L)b       Reference
                                              SALTWATER SPECIES
 California
 grunion
 (gamete through
 embryo),
 Leuresthes terms

 California
 grunion
 (gamete through
 embryo),
 Leuresthes tennis

 California
 grunion
 (gamete through
 embryo),
 Leuresthes tends

 California
 grunion
 (embryo),
 Leuresthes lewis

 California
 grunion (larva),
 Leuresthes tenuis

 Striped bass
 (juvenile),
 Morone saxatitis

 Striped bass
 (juvenile),
 Morone saxatitis

 Striped bass
 (juvenile),
 Morone saxatilis

 Speckled
 sanddab (adult),
 Citharichthys
 stigmaeus

 Stripped mullet
 (3.2 g);
 Mugil cephahis
  TBTO
  (95%)


  TBT
 (painted
 panels)

  TBT
 (painted
 panels)

  TBTO
  TBTO
  (96%)
  9-11
13.0-15.0
 1.1-3.0
 1.9-3.0
12.2-14.5

  33-34
                          10 days     Significantly enhanced
                                     growth and hatching
                                     success
                          10 days     Significantly enhanced
                                     growth and hatching
                                     success
                          10 days     50% reduction in hatching
                                     success
                          10 days     No adverse effect on
                                     hatching success or growth
                          7 days     Survival increased as
                                     concentration increased
            Avoidance
   14       NOEC (serum ion
            concentrations and enzyme
            activity)

 6 days     NOEC 0.067; LOEC 0.766
 7 days     NOEC 0.444; LOEC 1.498
 7 days     LOEC > 0.514

  96 hr      LC50
              8 wks     BCF 3,000 (no plateau)
                        BCF 3,600 (no plateau)
                                                       0.14-1.71      Newton et al.
                                                                     1985
                                                       0.14-1.72      Newton etal.
                                                                     1985
                                                          74
                                                         Newton et al.
                                                         1985
                                                       0.14-1.72      Newton etal.
                                                                     1985
                                                       0.14-1.72      Newton et al.
                                                                     1985
                       24.9        Hall et al.
                                   1984
                       1.09        Pinkney et al.
                                   1989b
                                   Pinkney et al.
                                   1990
                        18.5        Salazar and
                                   Salazar 1989
                                            0.122
                                            0.106
                                   Yamadaand
                                   Takayanagi
                                   1992
                                                      76

-------
Table 6. Other Data on Effects of Tributyltin on Aquatic Organisms (continued)
                                  Salinity                                              Concentration
      Species        Chemical"    Jg/kgL     Duration              Effect                  (Mg/L)b      Reference


                                               SALTWATER SPECIES
Starry flounder
(< 1-year-old),
Platichthys
stettatus
TBTC1 30.2 10 days BCF 8,700 (no plateau)
(96%)
194 Meador 1997
     TBTA = tributyltin acetate; TBTC1 = tributyltin chloride; TBTF = tributyltin fluoride; TBTO = tributyltin oxide;
     TBTS = tributyltin sulfide.  Percent purity is given in parentheses when available.
     Concentration of the tributyltin cation, not the chemical. If the concentrations were not measured and the published results
     were not reported to be adjusted for purity, the published results were multiplied by the purity if it was reported to be less
     than 95%.
     The test organisms were exposed to leachate from panels coated with antifouling paint containing tributyltin.
     The test organisms were exposed to leachate from panels coated with antifouling paint containing a tributyltin polymer and
     cuprous oxide. Concentrations of TBT were measured and the authors provided data to demonstrate the similar toxicity of a
     pure TBT compound and the TBT from the paint formulation.
                                                       77

-------
                                        REFERENCES
 ABC Laboratories, Inc. 1990a. Acute 96-hour flow-through toxicity of bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide to
 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). ABC study number 38306. Analytical Bio-Chemistry
 Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO. 277 pp.

 ABC Laboratories, Inc. 1990b. Acute 96-hour flow-through toxicity of bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide to
 bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). ABC study number 38307. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories,
 Inc., Columbia, MO. 279 pp.

 ABC Laboratories, Inc. 1990c. Acute toxicity of bis(tributyltin) oxide to Daphnia magna. ABC study
 number 38308. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO. 255 pp.

 ABC Laboratories, Inc. 1990d. Chronic toxicity of bis(tributyltin) oxide to Daphnia magna. ABC
 report number 38310. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO. 318 pp.

 Alabaster, J.S. 1969. Survival offish hi 164 herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, wetting agents and
 miscellaneous substances. Int. Pest Control 11:29-35.

 Ali,  A.A., R.K. Upreti and A.M. Kidwai. 1990. Assessment of di- and tri-butyltin interaction with
 skeletal muscle membranes. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 44:29-38.

 Allen, A.J., B.M. Quitter and C.M. Radick. 1980. The biocidal mechanisms of controlled release
bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide  in Biomphalaria glabrata. In:  Controlled release of bioactive materials. Baker,
R. (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, NY. pp. 399-413.

Alvarez, M.M.S. and D.V. Ellis. 1990. Widespread neogastropod imposex in the Northeast Pacific:
Implications for TBT contamination surveys. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 21:244-247.
                                             78

-------
 Alzieu, C. 1986. TBT detrimental effects on oyster culture in France - Evolution since antifouling
 paint regulation. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine
 Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1130-1134.

 Alzieu, C. 1996. Biological effects of tributyltin on marine organisms.  In: Tributyltin: case study of
 an environmental contaminant. SJ. de Mora  (Ed.). Cambridge University Press, UK. pp.  167-211.

 Alzieu, C., Y. Thibaud, M. Heral and B. Boutier.  1980. Evaluation of the risks of using antifouling
 paints near oyster zones. Rev. Trav. Inst. Peches Marit. 44:301-348.

 Alzieu, C., J. Sanjuan, P. Michel, M. Borel and J.P. Dreno. 1989. Monitoring and assessment of
 butyltins in Atlantic Coastal waters. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 20:22-26.

 Anderson, R.S., M.A. Unger and E.M. Burreson.  1996. Enhancement of Perkinsus marinus disease
 progression in TBT-exposed oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Mar. Environ. Res. 42:1-4.

 Avery, S.V., G.A. Codd and G.M. Gadd. 1993. Biosorption of tributyltin and other organotin
 compounds by cyanobacteria and microalgae. Appl. Micro. Biotech. 39:812-817.

 Axiak, V., M Sammut, P. Chircop, A. Vella and B. Mintoff. 1995a. Laboratory and field
 investigations on the effects of organotin  (tributyltin) on the oyster, Ostrea edulis. Sci. Total Environ.
 171:117-120.

 Axiak, V., A.J. Vella, D. Micallef, P.  Chircop and B. Mintoff. 1995b. Imposex in Hexaplex trunculus
 (gastropoda: Muricidae): First results from biomonitoring of tributyltin contamination  in the
Mediterranean. Mar. Biol.  121:685-691.

Bailey, S.K. and I.M. Davies.  1988a. Tributyltin contamination in the Firth of Forth (1975-87). Sci.
Total Environ. 76:185-192.
                                             79

-------
Bailey, S.K. and I.M. Davies. 1988b. Tributyltin contamination around an oil terminal in Sullom Voc
(Shetland). Environ. Pollut. 55:161-172.

Bailey, S.K., I.M. Davies, M.J.C. Harding and A.M. Shanks. 1991. Effects of tributyltin oxide on the
dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.). The Scottish Office Agriculture and Fisheries Department Marine
Laboratory, Aberdeen, Scotland. Fisheries Research Services Report. Project No. P14/39/13/2, 11
November. 153p.

Bailey, S.K., I.M. Davies and M.J.C. Harding. 1995. Tributyltin contamination and its impact on
Nucella lapillus populations. Proc. Royal Soc. Edinburgh 1036:113-126.

Rails, P.W.  1987. Tributyltin (TBT) in the waters of a Scottish sea loch arising from the use of
antifoulant treated netting by salmon farms. Aquaculture 65:227-237.

Batley, G. 1996. The distribution and fate of tributyltin in the marine environment. In: Tributyltin:
case study of an environmental contaminant. S.J. de Mora (Ed.). Cambridge University Press, UK. pp.
139-166.

Batley, G.E., C. Fuhua, C.I. Brockbank and K.J. Regg. 1989. Accumulation of tributyltin by the
Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 40:49-54.

Batley, G.E., M.S. Scammell and C.I. Brockbank. 1992. The impact of banning of tributyltin-based
antifouling paints on the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis. Sci. Total Environ. 122:301-
314.

Barug, D. 1981. Microbial degradation of bis(tributyltin) oxide. Chemosphere 10:1145-1154.

Bauer, B., P. Fioroni, U. Schulte-Oehlmann, J. Oehlmarm and W. Kalbfus. 1997. The use of Littorina
Ititorea for tributyltin (TBT) effect monitoring - Results from the German TBT survey 1994/1995 and
laboratory experiments. Environ. Pollut. 96:299-309.
                                             80

-------
Beaumont, A.R. and M.D. Budd. 1984. High mortality of the larvae of the common mussel at low
concentrations of trfbutyltin.  Mar. Pollut. Bull. 15:402-405.

Beaumont, A.R. and P.B. Newmann. 1986. Low levels of tributyltin reduce growth of marine micro-
algae. Mar. Pollut. Bull.  17:457-461.

Becerra-Huencho, R.M. 1984. The effect of organotin and copper sulfate on the late development and
presettlement behavior of the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Master's thesis. University of
Maryland, College Park,  MD. 85 pp.

Becker, K., L. Merlini, N. de Bertrand, L.F. de Alencastro and J. Tarradellas. 1992.  Elevated levels
of organotins in Lake Geneva: Bivalves as sentinel organism. Bull. Environ. Contam.  Toxicol. 48:37-
44.

Becker-van Slooten, K. and J. Tarradellas.  1994. Accumulation, depuration and growth effects of
tributyltin in the freshwater bivalve Dreissena potymorpha under field conditions. Environ. Toxicol.
Chem. 13:755-762.

Becker-van Slooten, K. and J. Tarradellas.  1995. Organotins in Swiss lakes after their ban: Assessment
of water, sediment, and Dreissena potymorpha contamination over a four-year period. Arch. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 29:384-392.

Bennett, R.F. 1996. Industrial manufacture and applications of tributyltin compounds. In: Tributyltin:
case study of an environmental contaminant. S.J. de Mora  (Ed.). Cambridge University Press, UK.
pp. 21-61.

Blair, W.R., G.J. Olson, F.E. Brinckman and W.P.  Iverson. 1982. Accumulation and fate of tri-n-
butyltin cation hi estuarine bacteria. Microb. Ecol. 8:241-251.

Blanck, H. 1986. University of Goteborg, Goteborg, Sweden. (Memorandum to D.J. Call, Center for
Lake Superior Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, WI. March 11.).
                                             81

-------
 Blanck, H. and B. Dahl. 1996. Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) in marine periphyton in
 a gradient of tri-n-butyltin (TBT) contamination. Aquat. Toxicol. 35:59-77.

 Blanck, H., G. Wallin and S.A. Wangberg. 1984. Species-dependent variation in algal sensitivity to
 chemical compounds. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.  8:339-351.

 Bodar, C.W.M., E.G. van Donselaar and H.J. Herwig. 1990. Cytopathological investigations of
 digestive tract and storage cells in Daphnia magna exposed to cadmium and tributyltin. Aquat.
 Toxicol. 17:325-338.

 Boike, A.H., Jr. and C.B. Rathburn, Jr.  1973. An evaluation of several toxic rubber compounds as
 mosquito larvicides. Mosq. News 33:501-505.

 Brix, K.V., P.P. Sweeney and R. D. Cardwell. 1994a. Procedures for conducting germination and
 growth tests to determine the acute toxicity of bis(tributyltin)oxide to the giant kelp Macrocystis
pyrifera. Elf Atochem North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Laboratory Project No. 55-1807-05-
 (02A). 25 pp.

Brix, K.V., P.P. Sweeney and R.D.  Cardwell. 1994b. Procedures for conducting acute toxicity tests
using the echinoderm sperm cell test to determine the acute toxicity of bis(tributyltin)oxide. Elf
Atochem North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Laboratory Project No. 55-1807-05 (02A). 20 pp.

Brooke, L.T., D.J. Call, S.H. Poirier, T.P. Markee, C.A. Lindberg, D.J. McCauley and P.G.
Simonson.  1986. Acute toxicity and chronic effects of bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide to several species of
freshwater organisms. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-
Superior, Superior, WI. 20 pp.

Bruno, D.W. and A.E. Ellis. 1988. Histopathological effects in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.,
attributed to the use of tributyltin antifoulant. Aquaculture 72:15-20.
                                             82

-------
Bruschweiler, B.J., F.E. Wurgler and K. Pent. 1996. Inhibition of cytochrome P4501A by organotins
in fish hepatoma cells PLHC-1. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15:728-735.

Bryan, G.W., P.E. Gibbs, L.G. Hummerstone and G.R. Burt. 1986. The decline of the gastropod
Nucella lapillus around south-west England: Evidence for the effect of tributyltin from antifouling
paints. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K.  66:611-640.

Bryan, G.W., P.E. Gibbs, G.R. Burt and L.G. Hummerstone. 1987a. The effects of tributyltin (TBT)
accumulation on adult dog-whelks, Nucella lapillus: Long-term field and laboratory experiments. J.
Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 67:525-544.

Bryan, G.W., P.E. Gibbs, L.G. Hummerstone and G.R. Burt. 1987b. Copper, zinc and organotin as
long-term factors governing the distribution of organisms in the Fal Estuary hi southwest England.
Estuaries. 10:208-219.

Bryan, G.W., P.E. Gibbs and G.R. Burt. 1988. A comparison of the effectiveness of tri-n-butyltin
chloride and five other organotin compounds in promoting the development of imposex hi the dog-
whelk, Nucella lapillus. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 68:733-744.

Bryan, G.W., P.E. Gibbs, RJ. Huggett, L.A. Curtis, D.S. Bailey and D.M. Dauer. 1989a. Effects of
tributyltin pollution on the mud snail, Hyanassa obsoleta, from the York River and Sarah Creek,
Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 20:458-462.

Bryan, G.W., P.E. Gibbs,  L.G. Hummerstone and G.R. Burt. 1989b. Uptake and transformation of
14C-labelled tributyltin chloride by the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus: Importance of absorption from the
diet. Mar. Environ. Res. 28:241-245.

Bryan, G.W., D.A. Bright, L.G. Hummerstone and G.R. Burt. 1993. Uptake tissue distribution and
metabolism of 14C-labelled tributyltin (TBT) hi the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc.
U.K. 73:889-912.
                                             83

-------
 Buccafusco, R. 1976a. Acute toxicity of tri-n-butyltin oxide to channel catfish (Ictaluruspunctatus),
 the freshwater clarn (Elliptio camplanatus), the common mummichog (Fundulus heteroditus) and the
 eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). US EPA-OPP Registration Standard.

 Buccafusco, R. 1976b. Acute toxicity of tri-n-butyltin oxide to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). U.S.
 EPA-OPP Registration Standard.

 Buccafusco, R., C. Stiefel, D. Sullivan, B. Robinson and J. Maloney, Jr. 1978.  Acute toxicity of
 bis(tri-n-butyl-tin) oxide to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). U.S. EPA-OPP Registration Standard.

 Burridge, T.R., T. Lavery and P.K.S. Lam. 1995. Effects of tributyltin and formaldehyde on the
 germination and growth of Phyllospora comosa (Labillardiere) C. Agardh (Phaeophyta:  Fucales). Bull.
 Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 55:525-532.

 Bushong, S.J., W.S. Hall, W.E. Johnson and L.W. Hall, Jr. 1987. Toxicity of tributyltin to selected
 Chesapeake Bay biota. In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium.
 Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1499-1503.

 Bushong, S.J., L.W. Hall, Jr., W.S. Hall, W.E. Johnson and R.L. Herman. 1988. Acute toxicity of
 tributyltin to selected Chesapeake Bay fish and invertebrates. Water Res. 22:1027-1032.

 Bushong, S.J., M.C. Ziegenfuss, M.A. Unger and L.W. Hall, Jr. 1990. Chronic tributyltin toxicity
 experiments with the Chesapeake Bay copepod, Acartia  tonsa. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9:359-366.

 Carney, T. and E. Paulini. 1964. Molluscicide activity of some organotin compounds. Rev. Bras.
Malariol. Doencas Trop. 16:487-491.

Cardarelli, N.F. 1978. Controlled release organotins as mosquito larvicides. Mosq. News 38:328-333.
                                             84

-------
 Cardarelli, N.F. and W. Evans. 1980. Chemodynamics and environmental toxicology of controlled
 release organotin molluscicides. In: Controlled release of bioactive materials. Baker, R. (Ed.).
 Academic Press,  New York, NY. pp. 357-385.

 Cardwell, R.D. and A.W. Sheldon. 1986. A risk assessment concerning the fate and effects of
 triburyltins in the aquatic environment. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin
 Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1117-1129.

 Cardwell, R.D. and R.E. Stuart. 1988. An investigation of causes of shell thickening and chambering
 in Pacific oysters from Coos Bay, Oregon. Draft Report. Envirosphere Company, pp. 104-125.

 Cardwell, R.D. and P.A. Vogue. 1986. Provisional estimates of water quality criteria for the
 protection of aquatic life and their uses: Tributyltin compounds. Report by Envirosphere Company,
 Bellevue, WA., to M&T Chemicals, Woodbridge, NJ.

 Caricchia, A.M., S. Chiavarini, C.  Cremisini, R. Morabito and R. Scerbo. 1991. Organotin
 compounds in marine mussels collected from Italian coasts. Anal.  Sci. 7:1193-1196.

 Chagot, D., C. Alzieu, J. Sanjuan and H. Grizel. 1990. Sublethal and histopathological effects of trace
 levels of tributyltin fluoride on adult oysters Crassostrea gigas. Aquat. Living Resour. 3:121-130.

 Champ, M.A. 1986. Organotin symposium: introduction and overview. In: Oceans  86, Vol. 4.
 Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society. Washington, DC. 8 pp.

 Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman. 1996. An introduction to organotin compounds and their use hi
 antifouling coatings.  In:  Organotin: Environmental Fate and Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P.  Seligman
 (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 1-25.

 Chau, Y.K. 1986. Occurrence and speciation of organometallic compounds in freshwater systems. Sci.
Total Environ. 49:305-323.
                                             85

-------
Chau, Y.K., R.J. Maguire and P.T. Wong. 1983. Alkyltin compounds in the aquatic environment. In:
Proceedings of the ninth annual aquatic toxicity workshop. Mckay, W.C. (Ed.). Canadian Technical
Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 1163. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa,
Ontario, Canada, p. 204.

Chiles, T., P.D. Pendoley and R.B. Laughlin, Jr. 1989. Mechanisms of tri-n-butyltin bioaccumulation
by marine phytoplankton. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:859-862.

Chliamovitch, Y.P. and C. Kuhn.  1977. Behavior, haemotological and histological studies on acute
toxicity of bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide on  Salmo gairdneri Richardson and Tilapia rendalli Boulenger. J.
Fish Biol. 10:575-585.

Clark, E.A., R.M. Sterritt and J.N. Lester. 1988. The fate of tributyltin in the aquatic environment.
Environ.  Sci. Technol. 22:600-604.

Clark, J.R., J.M. Patrick, Jr., J.C. Moore and E.M. Lores.  1987. Waterborne and sediment-source
toxicities of six organic chemicals to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and amphioxus
(Branchiostoma caribaeum). Arch. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 16:401-407.

Cleary, J.J. and A.R.D.  Stebbing. 1985. Organotin and total tin in coastal water of southwest England.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 16:350-355.

Cleary, J.J. and A.R.D.  Stebbing. 1987. Organotin in the surface microlayer and subsurface waters of
southwest England. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18:238-246.

Cochrane, B.J., R.B. Irby and T.W. Snell. 1991. Effects of  copper and tributyltin on stress protein
abundance  in the rotifer Brachionusplicatilis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 92C:385-390.
                                             86

-------
 Corbin, H.B. 1976. The solubilities of bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO), tributyltin fluoride (TBTF),
 triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), triphenyltin fluoride (TPTF), and tricyclohexyltin hydroxide (TCTH)
 in water as functions of temperature and pH value. Research and Development Technical Memorandum
 R-1145-M. M&T Chemicals Inc., Rahway, NJ.

 Crisinel, A., L. Delaunay, D. Rossel, J. Tarradellas, H. Meyers, H. Saiah, P. Vogel, C. Delisle and
 C. Blaise. 1994. Cyst-based ecotoxicological tests using anastracans: Comparison of two species of
 Streptocephalus. Environ. Toxicol. Wat. Qual. 9:317-326.
 V
 Curtis, L.A. and A.M. Barse. 1990. Sexual anomalies hi the estuarine snail ttyanassa obsolete:
 Imposex in females and associated phenomena hi males. Oecologia. 84:371-375.

 Danil'chenko, O. 1982. A comparison of the reaction offish embryos and prolarvae to certain natural
 factors and synthesized compounds. Vopr.  Dchtiol. (Engl. Transl. -  J. Ichthyol.) 22(1): 123-134.

 Danil'chenko, O. and N.C. Buzinova. 1982.  Effect of pollution on the mollusc Lymnaea siagnalis. I.
 Survival, reproduction and embryonic development. Biol. Nauki 25:61-69.

 Davidson, B.M., A.O. Valkirs and P.P. Seligman. 1986a. Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin on
 the mysid Acanthomysis sculpta (Crustacea, Mysidacea). NOSC-TR-1116 or AD-A175-294-8. National
 Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

 Davidson, B.M., A.O. Valkirs and P.P. Seligman. 1986b. Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin on
 the mysid Acanthomysis sculpta (Crustacea, Mysidacea). In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceeding
 International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1219-1225.

Davies, I.M. and J.C. McKie.  1987. Accumulation of total tin and tributyltin in muscle tissue of
formed Atlantic salmon. Mar. Pollut. Bull.  18:405-407.
                                             87

-------
 Davies, I.M., J.C. McKie and J.D. Paul. 1986. Accumulation of tin and tributyltin from anti-fouling
 paint by cultivated scallops (Pecten maximus) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Aquaculture
 55:103-114.

 Davies, I.M., S.K. Bailey and D.C. Moore.  1987. Tributyltin in Scottish sea locks,  as indicated by
 degree of imposex in the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus (L). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18:400-404.

 Davies, I.M., J. Drinkwater and J.C. McKie. 1988. Effects of tributyltin compounds from antifoulants
 on Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in Scottish sea lochs. Aquaculture 74:319-330.

 de la Court, F.H. 1980. The value of tributyltin fluoride as a toxicant in antifouling formulations. J.
 Col. Chem. Assoc. 63:465-473.

 Delupis, G.D.D. and R. Miniero. 1989. Preliminary studies on the TBTO effects on fresh water biotic
 communities. Riv. Idrobiol. 28:1-2.

 Delupis, G.D.D., P.M.B. Gucci and L. Volterra. 1987. Toxic effects of bis-tributyltinoxide on
 phytoplancton. Main Group Met. Chem. 10:77-82.

 de Mora, S.J., N.G.  King and M.C. Miller. 1989. Tributyltin and total tin in marine sediments:
 Profiles and the apparent rate of TBT degradation. Environ. Technol. Let. 10:901-908.

 Deschiens, R. 1968.  Control of infectious microorganisms with chemical molluscicides. C.R. Hebd.
 Seances Acad. Sci. 266D: 1860-1861.

 Deschiens, R. and H.A. Floch. 1968. Comparison of 6 chemical molluscicides as to their control of
bilharziasis. Conclusions. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 61:640-650.

 Deschiens, R. and H.A. Floch. 1970. Molluscicidal use of polyethylene impregnated with tributyltin
 oxide. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 63:71-78.
                                              88

-------
 Deschiens, R., H. Floch and T. Roch. 1964. The molluscicidal properties of tributyltin oxide and
 acetate for prophylaxis of bilharziasis. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 57:454-465.

 Deschiens, R., H. Brottes and L. Mvogo. 1966a. Field application in Cameroon of the molluscicide
 tributyltin oxide to control bilharziasis. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 59:968-973.

 Deschiens, R., H. Brottes and L. Mvogo. 1966b. Effectiveness of field applications of the molluscicide
 tributyltin oxide (in the control of bilharziasis). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 59:231-234.

 de Sousa, C.P. and E. Paulini. 1970. Absorption of molluscicides by calcium carbonate. Rev. Bras.
 Malariol. Doencas Trop. 21:799-818.

 de Vries, H., A.M. Penninks, N.J.  Snoeij and W. Seinen. 1991. Comparative toxicity of organotin
 compounds to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) yolk sac fry. Sci. Total. Environ.  103:229-243.

 Dixon, D.R. and H. Prosser. 1986. An investigation of the genotoxic effects of an organotin
 antifouling compound (bis(tributyltin)oxide) on the chromosomes of the edible mussel,  Mytilus edulis.
 Aquatic Toxicol. 8:185-195.

 Douglas, M.T., D.O. Chanter, I.E. Pell and G.M. Burney. 1986. A proposal for the reduction of
 animal numbers required for the acute toxicity offish test (LC50 determination). Aquat. Toxicol.
 8:243-249.

Dowson, P.H., J.M. Bubb and J.N. Lester.  1996. Persistence and degradation pathways of tributyltin
in freshwater and estuarine sediments. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 42:551-562.

Durchon, M. 1982. Experimental activation of the neuroendocrine mechanism governing the
morphogenesis of the penis hi the females of Ocenebra erinacea (a dioecious prosobranch mollusc) by
a marine pollutant (tributyltin). C.R. Seances Acad. Sci. 295(EI):627-630.
                                              89

-------
 Dyrynda, E. 1992. Incidence of abnormal shell thickening in the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in
 Poole Harbour (UK), subsequent to the 1987 TBT restrictions. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 24:156-163.

 EG&G Bionomics. 1976. Acute toxicity of tri-n-butyltin oxide to channel catfish (Ictaluruspunctatus),
 the fresh water clam (Elliptio compkmatus}, the common mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and the
 eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Final Report to M&T Chemical Co., Rahway, NJ. EPA Ace.
 No. 136470.

 EG&G Bionomics. 1977. Toxicity of tri-n-butyltin oxide (TBTO) to embryos of eastern oysters
 (Crassostrea virginica}. Final Report to M&T Chemical Co., Rahway, NJ. EPA Ace. No. 114085.

 EG&G Bionomics. 1979. Acute toxicity of three samples of TBTO (tributyltin oxide) to juvenile
 sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Report L14-500 to M&T Chemicals Inc., Rahway, NJ.

 EG&G Bionomics. 1981a. Comparative toxicity of tri-butyltin oxide (TBTO) produced by two
 different chemical processes to pink shrimp (Penaeus duoranari). Report BP-81-4-55 to M&T
 Chemicals Inc., Rahway, NJ.

 EG&G Bionomics. 198Ib. Acute toxicity of BioMet 204 Red to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahid).
 Report BP-81-2-15 to M&T Chemicals Inc., Rahway, NJ.

EG&G Bionomics. 198Ic. Comparative toxicity of tri-n-butyltin oxide (TBTO) produced by two
 different chemical processes to the marine alga Skeletonema costatum. Report BP-81-6-109 to M&T
 Chemcials Inc., Rahway, NJ.

EG&G Bionomics. 1981d. Unpublished laboratory data on acute toxicity of tributyltin to sheepshead
minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus. Pensacola, FL.

Eisler, R. 1989. Tin hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: A synoptic review. U.S. Fish Wildl.
Serv. Biol. Rep. 85(1.15). 83 pp.
                                            90

-------
 Ellis, D.V. and L.A. Pottisina. 1990. Widespread neogastropod imposex: A biological indicator of
 global TBT contamination. Mar.  Pollut. Bull. 21:248-253.

 Envirosphere Company. 1986. A risk assessment concerning potential aquatic environmental and
 public health consequences associated with the use of tributyltin compounds in antifouling coatings.
 Vol. 1 and 2. Prepared for M&T Chemicals Inc., Woodbridge, NJ.

 Espourteille, F.A., J. Greaves and R.J. Huggett. 1993. Measurement of tributyltin contamination of
 sediments and Crassostrea virginica in the southern Chesapeake Bay. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
 12:305-314.

 Evans, D.W. and R.B. Laughlin, Jr. 1984. Accumulation of bis(tributyltin) oxide by the mud crab,
 Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Chemosphere 13:213-219.

 Evans, S.M. and T. Leksono. 1995. The use of whelks and oysters as biological indicators of pollution
 from anti-fouling paints. J. Biol. Edu. 29:97-102.

 Evans, S.M., P.M. Evans and T Leksono. 1996. Widespread recovery of dogwelks, Nucella lapillus
 (L.), from the tributyltin contamination hi the North Sea and Clyde Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32:263-
 269.

 Falcioni, G., R. Gabbianelli, A.M.  Santroni, G. Zolese, D.E. Griffiths and E. Bertoli. 1996. Plasma
 membrane perturbation induced by organotins on erythrocytes from Salmo irideus trout. Appl. Organo.
 Chem. 10:451-457.

Fargasova, A.  1996. Inhibitive effect of organotin compOounds on the chlorophyll content of the green
freshwater alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 57:99-106.

Fargasova, A. and J. Kizlink. 1996. Effect of organotin compounds on the growth of the freshwater
alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety. 34:156-159.
                                             91

-------
Pent, K. 1991. Bioconcentration and elimination of tributyltin chloride by embryos and larvae of
minnows Phoxinusphoxinus. Aquat. Toxicol. 20:147-158.

Pent, K. 1992. Embryotoxic effects of tributyltin on the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus.  Environ. Pollut.
76:187-194.

Pent, K. and T.D. Bucheli. 1994. Inhibition of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system by
organotins in vitro in fresh water fish. Aquat. Toxicol. 28:107-126.

Pent, K. and J. Hunn. 1993. Uptake and elimination of tributyltin in fish-yolk-sac larvae. Mar.
Environ. Res.  35:65-71.

Pent, K. and J. Hunn. 1995. Organotins in freshwater harbors and rivers: Temporal distribution,
annual trends and fate. Environ. Toxicol.  Chem. 14:1123-1132.

Pent, K. and P.W. Looser. 1995. Bioaccumulation and bioavailability of tributyltin chloride: Influence
of pH and humic acids. Wat. Res. 29:1631-1637.

Pent, K. and W.  Meier. 1992. Tributyltin-induced effects on early life stages of minnows  Phoxinus
phoxinus.  Arch. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 22:428-438.

Pent, K. and J.J, Stegeman. 1991. Effects of tributyltin chloride hi vitro on the hepatic microsomal
monooxygenase system in the fish Stenotomus chrysops. Aquat. Toxicol. 20:159-168.

Pent, K. and J.J. Stegeman. 1993. Effects of tributyltin in vivo on hepatic cytochrome P450 forms in
marine fish.  Aquat. Toxicol. 24:219-240.

Filenko, O.F. and E.F. Isakova. 1980. The prediction of the effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms
based on the data of acute toxicity experiments. In: Proceedings of the third USA-USSR symposium on
the effects of pollutants upon aquatic ecosystems. Swain, W.R. and V.R. Shannon (Eds.). EPA-600/9-
80-034. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.  pp. 138-155.
                                             92

-------
Fisher, W.S., A. Wishkovsky and F.E. Chu. 1990. Effects of tributyltin on defense-related activities
of oyster hemocytes. Arch. Environ. Toxicol. 19:354-360.

Foale, S. 1993. An evaluation of the potential of gastropod imposex as a bioindicator of tributyltin
pollution in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 26:546-552.

Foster, R.B.  1981. Use of Asiatic clam larvae in aquatic hazard evaluations. In: Ecological
assessments of effluent impacts on communities of indigenous aquatic organisms. Bates, J.M. and C.I.
Weber (Eds.). ASTM STP 730. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp.
280-288.

Francois, R., F.T. Short and J.H. Weber. 1989. Accumulation and persistence of tributyltin hi
eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) tissue. Environ. Sci. Technol. 23:191-196.

Frick, L.P. and W.Q. DeJimenez. 1964. Molluscicidal qualities of three organo-tin compounds
revealed by 6-hour and 24-hour exposures against representative stages and sizes of Australorbis
glabratus. Bull. W.H.O. 31:429-431.

Gibbs, P.E. 1993. Phenotypic changes hi the progeny of Nucella lapillus (Gastopoda) transplanted
from an exposed shore to sheltered inlets. J. Moll. Stud. 59:187-194.

Gibbs, P.E. and G.W. Bryan. 1986. Reproductive failure hi populations of the dog-whelk, Nucella
lapillus, caused by imposex induced by tributyltin from antifouling paints. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.
66:767-777.

Gibbs, P.E. and G.W. Bryan. 1987. TBT paints and the demise of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus
(Gastropoda). In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium, Marine
Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1482-1487.
                                             93

-------
Gibbs, P.E. and G.W. Bryan. 1996a. Reproductive failure in the gastropod Nucella lapillus associated
with imposex caused by tributyltin pollution: A review.  In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and
Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 259-280.

Gibbs, P.E. and G.W. Bryan. 1996b. TBT-induced imposex in neogastropod snails: masculinization to
mass extinction. In: Trybutyltin: case study  of an environmental contaminant. S. J. de Mora (Ed.)
Cambridge University Press, pp. 212-236.

Gibbs, P.E., G.W. Bryan, P.L. Pascoe and  G.R. Burt. 1987. The use of the dog-whelk,  Nucella
lapillus, as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT)  contamination. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 67:507-523.

Gibbs, P.E., P.L. Pascoe and G.R. Burt. 1988. Sex change in the female dog-whelk,  Nucella lapillus,
induced by tributyltin from antifouling paints. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 68:715-731.

Gibbs, P.E., G.W. Bryan, P.L. Pascoe and  G.R. Burt. 1990. Reproductive abnormalities hi female
Ocenebra erinacea (Gastropoda) resulting from tributyltin-induces imposex. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.
70:639-656.

Gibbs, P.E., P.L. Pascoe and G.W. Bryan.  1991a. Tributyltin-induced imposex hi stenoglossan
gastropods: Pathological effects on the female reproductive system. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
100C:231-235.

Gibbs, P.E., B.E. Spencer and P.L. Pascoe. 1991b. The American oyster drill, Urosalpinx cinerea
(Gastropoda): Evidence of decline in an imposex-affected population (R. Blackwater, Essex). J. Mar.
Biol. Ass. 71:827-838.

Girard, J., C. Christophe, D. Pesando and P. Payan. 1996. Calcium homeostasis and early
embryotoxicity in marine invertebrates. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 113C: 169-175.
                                             94

-------
 Good, M.L., V.H. Kulkarni, C.P. Monaghan and J.F. Hoffman. 1979. Antifouling marine coatings
 and their long-term environmental impact. In: Proceedings of third coastal marsh and estuary
 management symposium: Environmental conditions in the Louisiana coastal zone. Day, J.W., Jr.,
 D.D. Culley, Jr., A.J. Mumphrey and R.E. Turner (Eds.). Division of Continuing Education,
 Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. pp. 19-30.

 Good, M.L., D.S. Dundee and G. Swindler. 1980. Bioassays and environmental effects of organotin
 marine antifoulants. In: Controlled release of bioactive materials. Baker, R. (Ed.). Academic Press,
 New York, NY. pp. 387-398.

 Goodman, L.R., G.M. Cripe, P.H. Moody and D.G. Halsell. 1988. Acute toxicity of malathion,
 tetrabromobisphenol-A and trlbutyltin chloride to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) of three ages. Bull.
 Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 41:746-753.

 Goss, L.B., J.M. Jackson, H.B. Flora, E.G.  Isom, C. Gooch, S.A. Murray, C.G. Burton and W.S.
 Bain. 1979. Control studies on Corbicula for steam-electric generating plants. J.C. Britton (Ed.)
 International Corbicula Symposium, 1st, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX. 1979. pp. 139-
 151.

 Gras, G. and J.A. Rioux. 1965. Structure-activity relationships. Organotin insecticides (effects on
 larva of Culex pipiens pipiens L.). Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis 42:9-21.

 Greenpeace. 1999.  Comments submitted to EPA regarding Ambient Water Quality Criteria document
 for tributyltin.  Amsterdam, September 1999.

 Grovhoug, J.G., R.L. Fransham, A.O. Valkirs and B.M. Davidson. 1996. Tributyltin concentrations
 in water, sediment, and bivalve tissues from San Diego Bay and Hawaiian harbors. In: Organotin:
Environmental Fate and Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London.
pp. 503-533.
                                             95

-------
Guard, H.E., W.M. Coleman, III and A.B. Cobet. 1982. Speciation of tributylttn compounds in
seawater and estuarine sediments. In: Proceedings of the 185th National Meeting of the American
Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry, Las Vegas, NV. 22(1): 180-183.

Gucinski, H. 1986. The effect of sea surface microlayer enrichment on TBT transport. In:  Oceans 86,
Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington,
DC. pp.  1266-1274.

Guolan, H. and W. Yong. 1995. Effects of tributyltin chloride on marine bivalve mussels.  Wat. Res.
29:1877-1884.

Hall, L.W., Jr.  1988. Tributyltin environmental studies in Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 19:431-
438.

Hall, L.W. Jr. 1991. A synthesis of water quality and contaminants data on early life stages of striped
bass, Morone saxatilis. Rev. Aquat. Sci. 4:261-288.

Hall, Jr., L.W. and S.J. Bushong. 1996. A review of acute effects of tributyltin compounds on aquatic
biota. In: Organotin: Environmental Fate  and Effects.  Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman (Eds.).
Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 157-190.

Hall, L.W., Jr. and A.E. Pinkney. 1985. Acute and sublethal effects of organotin compounds on
aquatic biota: An interpretative literature evaluation. Crit. Rev. Toxicol.  14:159-209.

Hall, L.W., Jr., A.E. Pinkney, S. Zeger, E.T. Burton  and M.J. Lenkevich. 1984. Behavioral
responses to two estuarine fish species subjected to bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide. Water Resour. Bull.
20:235-239.

Hall, L.W., Jr., M.J. Lenkevich, W.S. Hall,  A.E. Pinkney and S.J. Bushong. 1986. Monitoring
organotin concentrations hi Maryland waters of Chesapeake Bay. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings
International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp.  1275-1279.
                                             96

-------
 Hall, L.W., Jr., S.J. Bushong, W.S. Hall and W.E. Johnson. 1987. Progress report: Acute and
 chronic effects of tributyltin on a Chesapeake Bay copepod. Johns Hopkins University, Shady Side,
 MD.

 Hall, L.W., Jr., S.J. Bushong, W.S. Hall and W.E. Johnson. 1988a. Acute and chronic effects of
 tributyltin on a Chesapeake Bay copepod. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 7:41-46.

 Hall, L.W., Jr., S.J. Bushong, M.C. Ziegenfuss, W.E. Johnson, R.L. Herman and D.A. Wright.
 1988b. Chronic toxicity of tributyltin to Chesapeake Bay biota. Water Air Soil Pollut. 39:365-376.

 Hall, L.W. Jr., S.A. Fischer and J.A. Sullivan. 1991. A synthesis of water quality and contaminants
 data for the Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus: Implications for Chesapeake Bay. J. Environ.
 Sci. Health. A26:1513-1544.

 Han, J.S. and J.H. Weber. 1988. Speciation of methyl- and butyltin compounds and inorganic tin hi
 oysters of hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal. Chem.  60:316-319.

 Harding, M.J.C., S.K. Bailey and I.M. Davies. 1996. Effects of TBT on the reproductive success of
 the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. Napier University of Edinburgh and The Scottish Office of Agriculture,
 Environment and Fisheries Department, Aberdeen, Scotland. 75 pp.

 Harding, M.J.C., O.K. Rodger, I.M. Davies and J.J. Moore. 1997. Partial recovery of the dogwhelk
 (Nucella lapillus) in Sullom Voe,  Shetland from tributyltin contamination. Mar. Environ. Res. 44:285-
 304.

 Harris, J.R.W., J.J. Cleary and A.O. Valkirs. 1996. Particle-water partitioning and the role of
 sediments as a sink and secondary source of TBT. In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and Effects.
 Champ, M.A. and P.F. Seligman (Eds.).  Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 459-473.

Helmstetter, M.F. and R.W.  Alden HI. 1995. Passive trans-chorionic transport of toxicants in topically
treated Japanese medaka (Oryzias loupes) eggs. Aquat.  Toxicol. 32:1-13.
                                             97

-------
Henderson, R.S. 1986. Effects of organotin antifouling paint leachates on Pearl Harbor organisms: A
site specific flowtbrough bioassay. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin
Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1226-1233.

Henderson, R.S. and S.M. Salazar.  1996. Flowthrough bioassay studies on the effects of antifouling
TBT leachates.  In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman
(Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 281-303.

His, E. 1996. Embryogenesis and larval development in Crassostrea gigas: Experimental data and
field observations on the  effect of tributyltin compounds. In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and
Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp.  239-258.

His, E. and R. Robert. 1980. Effect of tributyltin acetate on eggs and larvae of Crassostrea gigas. Int.
Counc. Explor. Sea, Mariculture Committee F:27.

Hnath, J.G. 1970. Di-n-butyltin oxide as a vermifuge on Eubothrium crassum (Block, 1779) in
rainbow trout. Prog. Fish-Cult. 32:47-50.

Hodge, V.F., S.L. Seidel and E.D. Goldberg. 1979. Determination of tin(IV) and organotin
compounds in natural waters, coastal sediments, and macro algae by atomic absorption spectrometry.
Anal. Chem. 51:1256-1259.

Holm, G., L. Norrgren and O. Linden. 1991. Reproductive and histopathological effects of long-term
experimental exposure to bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) on the three-spinned stickleback,  Gasterosteus
aculeatus Linnaeus. J. FishBiol. 38:373-386.

Holwerda, D.A. and HJ. Herwig. 1986. Accumulation and metabolic effects of di-n-butyltin
dichloride in the freshwater clam, Anodonta anatina. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 36:756-762.

Hopf, H.S. and R.L. Muller. 1962. Laboratory breeding and testing of Australorbis glabratus for
moUuscicidal screening. Bull. W.H.O. 27:783-389.
                                             98

-------
 Horiguchi, T., H. Shiraishi, M. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki and M. Morita.  1995. Imposex in Japanese
 gastropods (Neogastropoda and Mesogastropoda): Effects of tributyltin  and triphenyltin from
 antifouling paints. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 31:402^05.

 Horiguchi, T., H. Shiraishi, M. Shimizu and M. Morita. 1997. Effects of triphenyltin chloride and
 five other organotin compounds on the development of imposex in the rock shell,  Thais clavigera.
 Environ. Pollut. 95:85-91.

 Huang, G., Z. Bai, S. Dai and Q.  Xie. 1993. Accumulation and toxic effect of organometallic
 compounds on algae. Appl. Organo. Chem. 7:373-380.

 Huet, M., Y.M. Paulet and M. Glemarec. 1996. Tributyltin (TBT) pollution in the coastal waters of
 West Brittany as indicated by imposex in Nucella lapillus. Mar. Environ. Res. 41:157-167.

 Ide, I., E.P. Witten, J. Fischer, W. Kalbfus, A. Zellner, E. Stroben and B Watermann. 1997.
 Accumulation of organotin compounds in the common whelk Buccinum  undatum and the red whelk
 Neptunea antiqua in association with imposex. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 152:197-203.

 International Joint Commission. 1976. Water quality objectives subcommittee.  Task force on scientific
 basis for water quality criteria.  Great Lakes Water Quality Board, Research Advisory Board, pp. 46-
 67.

 Jackson,  J.A., W.R. Blair, F.E. Brinkman and W.P. Iverson. 1982. Gas-chromatographic speciation
 of methylstamnanes in the Chesapeake Bay using purge and trap sampling with a tin-selective detector.
 Environ. Sci. Technol. 16:110-119.

Jantataeme, S. 1991. Some effects of the molluscicide  bis(tri-n-butyltin)  oxide (TBTO) on the snail
 Oncomelania quadrasi and the larval stages of its trematode parasite Schistosomajaponicum. Dissert.
Abst. Internal. 52:1290-B.
                                             99

-------
Jenner, M.G. 1979. Pseudohermaphroditism in Hyanassa obsolete (Mollusca, Neogastropoda). Science
205:1407-1409.

Jensen, K. 1977. Organotin compounds in the aquatic environment. A survey. Biokon Rep. 4:1-8.

Johansen, K. and F. Mohleriberg. 1987. Impairment of egg production in Acartia tonsa exposed to
tributyltin oxide. Ophelia 27:137-141.

Johnson, W.E., L.W. Hall, Jr., SJ. Bushong,  and W.S.  Hall. 1987. Organotin concentrations in
centrifuged vs. uncentrifuged water column samples and  hi sediment pore waters of a northern
Chesapeake Bay tributary. In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4.  Proceedings International Organotin International
Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1364-1369.

Jonas, R.B., C.C. Gilmour, D.L. Stoner, M.W. Weir and J.H. Turtle. 1984. Comparison of methods
to measure acute metal and organometal toxicity to natural aquatic microbial communities. Appl.
Environ, microbiol. 47:1005-1011.

Josephson, D.B., R.C. Lindsay and D.A. Stuiber. 1989.  Inhibition of trout gill and soybean
lipoxygenases by organotin compounds. J. Environ. Sci.  Health. B24(5):539-558.

Joshi, R.R. and S.K. Gupta. 1990. Biotoxicity  of tributyltin acrylate polymers. Tox. Assess. 5:389-
393.

Kannan, K., S. Corsolini, S. Focardi, S.  Tanabe and R. Tatsukawa. 1996.  Accumulation pattern of
butyltin compounds in dolphin, tuna, and shark collected from Italian coastal waters. Arch. Environ.
Contain. Toxicol. 31:19-23.

Karande, A.A. and S.S. Ganti. 1994. Laboratory bioassays of tributyltin toxicity to some common
marine organisms. In: Recent Developments hi Biofouling Control. M-F. Thompson, R.
Nagabhushanam, R.  Sarojini and M. Fingerman (Eds.). A.A. Balkema Press, Rotterdam, The
Netherlands, pp. 115-123.
                                            100

-------
 Karande, A.A., S.S. Ganti and M. Udhayakumar. 1993. Toxicity of tributyltin to some bivalve
 species. Indian!. Mar. Sci. 22:153-154.

 Kelly, J.R., D.T. Rudnick, R.D. Morton, L.A. Buttel and S.N. Levine. 1990a. Tributyltin and
 invertebrates of a seagrass ecosystem: Exposure and response of different species. Mar. Environ. Res.
 29:245-276.

 KeUy, J.R., S.N. Levine, L.A. Buttel, K.A. Carr, D.T. Rudnick and R.D. Morton. 1990b. The effects
 of tributyltin within a Thalassia seagrass ecosystem. Estuaries. 13:301-310.

 Khan, A.T., J.S. Weis, C.E. Saharig and A.E. Polo. 1993. Effect of tributyltin on mortality and
 telson regeneration of grass shrimp, Palaemontetespugio. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 50:152-
 157.

 Kimbrough, R.D. 1976. Toxicity and health effects of selected organotin compounds: A review.
 Environ. Health Perspect. 14:51-56.

 Kinnetic Laboratory. 1984. Status of knowledge concerning environmental concentrations and effects
 of tributyltin in aquatic systems. Final Report to Electric Power Research Institute. KLI-R-84-9. KLI,
 Santa Cruz, CA.

 Kirk-Othmer. 1981. Encyclopedia of chemical technology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. Vol.
 6:578-579.

 Kolosova, L.V., V.N. Nosov and I.Q. Dobrovolskii. 1980. Structure of hetero-organic compounds
 and their effect onDaphnia. Gidrobiol. Zh. (Engl. Transl. - J. Hydrobiol.)  16(3):184-193.

Kubo, Y., H. Asano, H. Kumai and G. Fuse. 1984. Studies on the toxic effects of wood preservatives
on the aquatic organisms (Part 2). Soc. Antibac. Antifum. Agents, Jpn. 12:551-559.
                                             101

-------
 Kumar-Das, V.G., L.Y. Kuan, K.I. Sudderuddin, C.K. Chang, V. Thomas, C.K. Yap, M.K. Lo,
 G.C. Ong, W.K. Ng and Y. Hoi-sen. 1984. The toxic effects of triorganotin(TV) compounds on the
 culicine mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Toxicology 32:57-66.

 Kumpulainen, J. and P. Koivistoinen. 1977. Advances in tin compound analysis with special reference
 to organotin pesticide residues. Residue Rev. 66:1-18.

 Kusk, K.O. and S. Petersen. 1997. Acute and chronic toxicity of tributyltin and linear alkylbenzene
 sulfonate to the marine copepod Acartia tonsa. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.  16:1629-1633.

 Langston, W.J. and G.R. Burt. 1991. Bioavailability and effects of sediment-bound TBT in deposit-
 feeding clams, Scrobiculariapiano.. Mar. Environ. Res. 32:61-77.

 Langston, W.J. and N.D. Pope. 1995. Determinants of TBT adsorption and desorption in estuarine
 sediments. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 31:32-33.

 Langston, W.J., G.W. Bryan, G.R. Burt and P.E. Gibbs. 1990. Assessing the impact of tin and TBT
 in estuaries and coastal regions. Funct. Ecol. 4:433-443.

 Langston, W.J., G.R. Burt and Z. Mingjiang. 1987.  Tin and organotin in water, sediments,  and
 benthic organisms of Poole Harbor. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18:634-639.

 Lapota, D., D.E. Rosenberger, M.F. Platter-Rieger and P.P. Seligman.  1993. Growth and survival of
Mytilus edulis larvae exposed to low levels of dlbutyltin and tributyltin. Mar. Biol. 115:413-419.

 Lau, M.M. 1991. Tributyltin antifoulings: A threat to the Hong Kong marine environment. Arch.
 Environ.  Contain. Toxicol. 20:299-304.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr. 1983. Physicochemical factors influencing toxicity of organotin compounds to crab
 zoea, Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Abstract from Annual Meeting of the American Society of Zoologists,
 Philadelphia, PA. 23:1004.
                                             102

-------
 Laughlin, R.B., Jr. 1986. Bioaccumulation of tributyltin: The link between environment and organism.
 In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society,
 Washington, DC. pp. 1206-1209.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr. 1996. Bioaccumulation of TBT by aquatic organisms.  In: Organotin:
 Environmental Fate and Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P.  Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London.
 pp. 331-335.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr. and W.J. French. 1980. Comparative study of the acute toxicity of a homologous
 series of trialkyltins to larval shore crabs, Hemigrapsus nudus, and lobster, Homarus americanus.
 Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25:802-809.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr. and W. French. 1988. Concentration dependence of bis(tributyltin)oxide
 accumulation in the mussel, Mytilus edulis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 7:1021-1026.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr. and W.J. French. 1989. Population-related toxicity responses to two butyltin
 compounds by zoea of mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Mar. Biol.  102:397-401.

 Laughlin, R. and O. Linden. 1982. Sublethal responses of the tadpole of the European frog, Rana
 temporaria,  to two tributyltin compounds. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 28:494-499.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr. and O. Linden. 1985. Fate and effects of organotin compounds. Ambio 14:88-94.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., O. Linden and H.E. Guard. 1982. Acute toxicity of tributyltins and tributyltin
 leachates from marine antibiofouling paints. Bull. Liaison Comite Int. Perm. Recher. Reser. Mater.
 Milieu Marin 13:3-26.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., W. French and H.E. Guard.  1983. Acute and sublethal toxicity of tributyltin
 oxide (TBTO) and its putative environmental product, tributyltin sulfide (TBTS) to zoeal mud crabs,
Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Water Air Soil Pollut. 20:69-79.
                                            103

-------
 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., W. French, R.B. Johannesen, H.E. Guard and F.E. Brinckman. 1984a. Predicting
 toxicity using computed molecular topologies: The example of triorganotin compounds. Chemosphere
 13:575-584.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., K. Nordlund and O. Linden. 1984b. Long-term effects of tributyltin compounds
 on the Baltic amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus. Mar. Environ. Res. 12:243-271.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., R.B. Johannesen, W. French, H. Guard and F.E. Brinckman. 1985. Structure-
 activity relationships for organotin compounds. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 4:343-351.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., H.E. Guard and W.M. Coleman, HI. 1986a. Tributyltin in seawater: Speciation
 and octanol-water partition coefficient. Environ. Sci. Technol. 20:201-204.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., W. French and H.E. Guard. 1986b. Accumulation of bis(tributyltin) oxide by the
 marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 20:884-890.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., P. Pendoley and R.G.  Gustafson. 1987. Sublethal effects of tributyltin on the hard
 shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Tributyltin
 Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1494-1498.

 Laughlin, R.B., Jr., R.G. Gustafson and P. Pendoley. 1988. Chronic embryo larval toxicity of
 tributyltin (TBT) to the hard shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria.  Mar. Ecol. Progress Ser. 48:29-36.

Laughlin, R.B., Jr., R.G. Gustafson and P. Pendoley. 1989. Acute toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to
early life history stages of the hard shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. Bull. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 42:352-358.

Laughlin, Jr., R.B., J. Thain, B. Davidson, A.O. Valkirs and F.C. Newton, ffl. 1996. Experimental
studies of chronic toxicity of tributyltin compounds.  In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and Effects.
Champ, M.A. and P.P.  Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 191-217.
                                            104

-------
 Lawler, I.F. and J.C. Aldrich. 1987. Sublethal effects of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide on Crassostrea gigas
 spat. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18:274-278.

 LeBlanc,  G. 1976. Acute toxicity of tributyltin oxide to Daphnia magna. US EPA-OPP Registration
 Standard.

 Lee, R.F. 1985. Metabolism of tributyltin oxide by crabs, oysters and fish. Mar. Environ. Res.
 17:145-148.

 Lee, R.F. 1986. Metabolism of bis(tributyltin)oxide by estuarine animals. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4.
 Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp.
 1182-1188.

 Lee, R.F. 1996. Metabolism of tributyltin by aquatic organisms. In: Organotin: Environmental Fate
 and Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman  (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 369-382.

 Lee, R.F., A.O. Valkius and P.P. Seligman. 1987. Fate of Tributyltin in estuarine waters. In: Oceans
 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International  Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington,
 DC. pp. 1411-1419.

 Lee, R.F., K. O'Malley and Y. Oshima. 1996. Effects of toxicants on developing oocytes and embryos
 of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.  Mar. Environ. Res. 42:125-128.

 Lenihan, H.S., J.S. Oliver and M.A.  Stephenson.  1990. Changes in hard bottom communities related
 to boat mooring and tributyltin in San Diego Bay: A natural experiment.  Mar.  Ecol. Prog. Ser.
 60:147-159.

 Levine, S.N., D.T. Rudnick, J.R. Kelly, R.D.  Morton and L.A. Buttel.  1990. Pollutant dynamics as
 influenced by seagrass beds: Experiments with  tributyltin in  Thalassia microcosms. Mar. Environ.
Res. 30:297-322.
                                             105

-------
Lewis, J.W., A.M. Kay and N.S. Hanna. 1995. Responses of electric fish (family mormyridae) in
inorganic nutrients and tributyltin oxide. Chemosphere. 31:3753-3769.

Lindblad, C., U. Kauatsky, C. Andre, N. Kautsky and M. Tedengren. 1989. Functional response of
Fucus vesiculosus communities to tributyltin measured in an in situ continuous flow-through system.
Hydrobiologia 188/189:277-283.

Linden, E., B. Bengtsson, O. Svanberg and G. Sundstrom. 1979. The acute toxicity of 78 chemicals
and pesticide formulations against two brackish water organisms, the bleak (Alburnus albumus) and
the harpacticoid Ntiocra spinipes. Chemosphere 8:843-851.

Maguire, R.J. 1984. Butyltin compounds and inorganic tin in sediments in Ontario. Environ. Sci.
Technol. 18:291-294.

Maguire, RJ. 1986. Review of the occurrence, persistence and degradation of tributyltin in fresh water
ecosystems in Canada. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium.
Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1252-1255.

Maguire, RJ. 1996. The occurrence, fate and toxicity of tributyltin and its degradation products in
fresh water environments. In: Tributyltin: Case study of an environmental contaminant. S.J. de Mora
(Ed.). Cambridge University Press, UK. pp. 94-138.

Maguire. RJ.  2000. Review of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) in
aquatic environments in relation to Canada's Toxic Substances Management Policy. Wat. Qual. Res. J.
Can. 35:633-679.

Maguire, RJ. and RJ. Tkacz. 1985. Degradation of the tri-n-butyltin species in water and sediment
from Toronto harbor. J. Agric. Food Cnem. 33:947-953.

Maguire, RJ., Y.K. Chau, G.A. Bengert, EJ. Hale, P.T. Wong and 0. Kramar. 1982. Occurrence of
organotin compounds in Ontario lakes and rivers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16:698-702.
                                            106

-------
 Maguire, R.J., J.H. Carey and E.J. Hale. 1983. Degradation of the tri-n-butyltin species in water. J.
 Agric. Food Chem. 31:1060-1065.

 Maguire, R.J., P.T.S. Wong and J.S. Rhamey. 1984. Accumulation and metabolism of tri-n-butyltin
 cation by a green alga, Ankistrodesmus falcatus. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41:537-540.

 Maguire, R.J., R.J. Tkacz and D.L. Santor. 1985. Butyltin species and inorganic tin in water sediment
 of the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers. J. Great Lakes Res. 11:320-327.

 Martin, R.C., D.G. Dixon, R.J.  Maguire, P.J. Hodson and R.J. Tkacz. 1989. Acute toxicity, uptake,
 depuration and tissue distribution of tri-n-butyltin in rainbow trout, Salmo gardneri. Aquat. Toxicol.
 15:37-52.

 Matthiessen, P. and P.E. Gibbs.  1998. Critical appraisal of the evidence for tributyltin-mediated
 endocrine disruption in mollusks. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17:37-43.

 Matthiessen, P. and J.E. Thain. 1989. A method for studying the impact of polluted marine sediments
 on intertidal colonizing organisms; tests with diesel-based dwelling mud and tributyltin antifouling
 paint. Hydrobiologia 188/189:477-485.

 McCullough, F.S., P.H. Gayral,  J. Duncan and J.D. Christie. 1980. Molluscicides in schistosomiasis
 control. Bull. W.H.O. 58:681-689.

Meador, J.P. 1986. An analysis of photobehavior of Daphnia magna exposed to tributyltin. In:  Oceans
86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington,
DC. pp. 1213-1218.

Meador, J.P. 1993. The effect of laboratory holding on the toxicity response of marine infaunal
amphipods to cadmium and tributyltin. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 174:227-242.
                                             107

-------
Meador, J.P. 1997. Comparative toxicokinetics of tributyltin in five marine species and its utility in
predicting bioaccumulation and acute toxicity. Aquat. Toxicol. 37:307-326.

Meador, J.P., U. Varanasi and C.A. Krone. 1993. Differential sensitivity of marine infaunal
amphipods to tributyltin. Mar. Biol.  116:231-239.

Meador, J.P., S.C. U'Ren, A.O. Valkirs, M.H. Salazar and S.A. Steinert. 1984. A flow-through
bioassay system to study chronic effects of pollutants: Analysis with bis (tributyltin) oxide (TBTO).
Mar. Environ. Res. 14:501.

Mensink, B.P., J.M. Everaarts, H. Kralt, C.C.  ten Hallers-Tjabbes and J.P. Boon. 1996. Tributyltin
exposure in early life stages induces the development of male sexual characteristics in the common
whelk, Buccinum undatum. Mar. Environ. Res. 42:151-154.

Mercier, A., E. Pelletier and J. Hamel. 1994. Metabolism and subtle toxic effects of butyltin
compounds in starfish. Aquat. Toxicol. 28:259-273.

Mercier, A., E. Pelletier and J. Hamel. 1997. Effects of butyltins on the symbiotic sea anemone
Aiptasiapallida (Verrill). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 215:289-304.

Miana, P., S. Scotto, G. Perin and E. Argese. 1993. Sensitivity of Selenastrum capricomutum,
Daphnia magna and submitochondrial particles to tributyltin. Environ. Tech. 14:175-181.

Minchin, A. and D. Minchin. 1987. Dispersal of TBT from a fishing port determined using the
dogwhelk Nucella lapillus as an indicator. Environ. Technol. 18:1225-1234.

Minchin, D., C.B. Duggan and W. King. 1987. Possible effects of organotins on scallop recruitment.
Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18:604-608.
                                             108

-------
 Minchin, D., E. Stroben, J. Oehlmann, B. Bauer, C.B. Duggan and M. Keatinge. 1996. Biological
 indicators used to map organotin contamination in Cork Harbour, Ireland. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32:188-
 195.

 Minchin, D., B. Bauer, J. Oehlmann, U. Schulte-Oehlmann and C.B. Duggan. 1997. Biological
 indicators used to map organotin contamination from a fishing port, Killybegs, Ireland. Mar. Pollut.
 Bull. 34:235-243.

 Monaghan, C.P., E.J. O'Brien, Jr., H. Reust and M.L. Good. 1980. Current status of the chemical
 speciation of organotin toxicants in antifoulants. Dev. Ind. Microbiol. 21:211-215.

 Miniero, R. and G.D.D. Delupis. 1991. Effects of TBT (tributyltin) on aquatic microcosms. Toxicol.
 Environ. Chem. 31-32:425-431.

 Moore, D.W., T.M. Dillon and B.C. Suedel. 1991.  Chronic toxicity of tributyltin to the marine
 polychaete worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Aquat. Toxicol. 21:181-198.

 Mottley, J. 1978. Studies on the modes of action of n-alkylguanidines and triorganotins on
 photosynthetic energy conservation in the pea and the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
 Dangeard. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 9:340-350.

 Mottley, J. and D.E. Griffiths.  1977. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of a broad range of
 inhibitors for the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard. J. Gen. Microbiol. 102:431-
 434.

 Nagabhushanam, R., P.S. Reddy and R. Sarojini. 1991. Tissue specific alterations in glycogen profiles
by tributyltin oxide induced stress hi the prawn, Caridina rajadhari. J. Anim. Morphol. Physiol.
 38:153-156.
                                             109

-------
Nagase, H., T. Hamasaki, T. Sato, H. Kito, Y. Yoshitada and Y. Ose. 1991. Structure-activity
relationships for organotin compounds on the red killfish  Oryzias latipes. Appl. Organo. Chem. 5:91-
97.

Nakagawa, H. and K. Saeki. 1992. Effects of tri-n-butyltin chloride on growth of five species of
marine phytoplankton. Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ. 46:231-236.

Nell, J.A. and R. Chvojka. 1992. The effect of bis-tributyltin oxide (TBTO) and copper on the growth
of juvenile Sydney rock oysters Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley) and Pacific oysters
Crassostrea gigas Thunberg. Sci. Total Environ. 125:193-201.

Newton, P., A. Thum, B. Davidson, A. Valkirs and P. Seligman. 1985. Effects on the growth and
survival of eggs and embryos of the California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) exposed to trace levels of
tributyltin. NOSC-TR-1040 or AD-A162-445-1. National Technical Information Service,  Springfield,
VA. 17 pp.

Nias, D.J., S.C. McKillup and K.S. Edyvane. 1993. Imposex in Lepsiella vinosa from southern
Australia.  Mar. Pollut. Bull. 26:380-384.

Nishiuchi, Y. and K. Yoshida. 1972. Toxicities of pesticides to fresh water snails. Bull. Agric. Chem.
Insp. Sto.  (Tokyo) 12:86-92.

North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. 1983. Investigation of
the effects and uses of biocides and related compounds in North Carolina. Report No. 83-09. Division
of Environmental Management, Water Quality Section, Raleigh, NC. 60 pp.

North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. 1985. Triorganotin
regulations in North Carolina. Division of Environmental Management, Water Quality Section,
Planning Branch, Raleigh, NC.
                                             110

-------
 Nosov, V.N. and L. V. Kolosova. 1979. Features of a toxicological curve as a function of the chemical
 structure of hetero-organic compounds. Biol. Nauki 22:97-101.

 Oehlmann, J., E. Stroben and P. Fioroni. 1991. The morphological expression of imposex in Nucella
 lapillus (Linnaeus) (Gastropoda: Muricidae). J. Moll. Stud. 57:375-390.

 Oehlmann, J., P. Fioroni, E. Stroben and B. Markert. 1996. Tributyltin (TBT) effects on Odnebrina
 aciculata (Gastropoda: Muricidae): Imposex development, sterilization, sex change and population
 decline. Sci. Tot. Environ. 188:205-223.

 Osada, M., T. Nomura and K. Mori. 1993. Acute toxicity and accumulation of tributyltin oxide in the
 Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Suisanzoshoku 41:439-443.

 Page, D.S. 1995. A six-year monitoring study of tributyltin and dibutyltin in mussel tissues from the
 Lynher River, Tamar Estuary, U.K. Mar. Pollut.  Bull. 30:746-749.

 Page, D.S. and J. Widdows. 1991. Temporal and spatial variation in levels of alkyltins hi mussel
 tissues: A toxicological interpretation of field data. Mar. Environ. Res. 32:113-129.

 Paul, J.D. and I.M. Davies. 1986. Effects of copper- and tin-based anti-fouling compounds on the
 growth of scallops (Pecten maximus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas).  Aguaculture 54:191-203.

 Peven, C.S., A.D. Uhler, R.E. Hillman and W.G. Steinhauer. 1996. Concentrations of organic
 contaminants hi Mytilus edulis from the Hudson-Raritan estuary and Long Island Sound.  Sci. Tot.
Environ. 179:135-147.

Pickwell, G.V. and S.A. Steinert.  1988. Accumulation and effects of organotin compounds in oyster
and mussels: Correlation with serum biochemical and cytological factors and tissue burdens. Mar.
Environ. Res. 24:215-218.
                                             Ill

-------
Pinkney, A.E. 1988. Biochemical, histological and physiological effects of tributyltin compounds hi
estuarine fish. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, MD. 92 pp.

Pinkney, A.E., L.W. Hall, Jr., M.L. Lenkevich, D.T. Burton and S. Zeger.  1985. Comparison of
avoidance responses of an estuarine fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, and crustacean, Palaemonetes pugio,
to bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide. Water Air Soil Pollut. 25:33-40.

Pinkney, A.E., D.A. Wright and G.N. Hughes. 1989a. A morphometric study of the effects of
tributyltin compounds on the gills of the munnichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. J. Fish Biol. 34:665-677.

Pinkney, A.E., D.A. Wright, M.A. Jepson and D.W. Towle. 1989b. Effects  of tributyltin compounds
on ionic regulation and gill ATPase activity in estuarine fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 92C:125-129.

Pinkney, A.E., L.L. Matteson and D.A. Wright. 1990. Effects of tributyltin on survival, growth,
morphometry and KNA-DNA ratio of larval striped bass, Morone saxatilis. Arch. Environ. Contain.
Toxicol. 19:235-240.

Piver, W.T. 1973. Organotin compounds: Industrial applications and biological investigation.  Environ.
Health Perspect. 4:61-79.

Polster, M. and K. Halacha. 1972. Hygenic-toxicological problems of some antimicrobially-used
organotin compounds. Ernaehrungsforschung  16:527-535.

Pope, D.H. 1981. Effect of biocides on algae  and legionnaires disease bacteria. DE81-028768.
National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

Prouse, NJ. and D.V. Ellis.  1997. A baseline survey of dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) imposex hi
eastern Canada (1995) and interpretation in terms of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Environ.
Technol.  18:1255-1264.
                                             112

-------
 Quevauviller, P., R. Lavigne and M. Ostruc. 1989. Organotins in sediments and mussels from the
 Sado estuarine system (Portugal). Environ. Pollut. 57:149-166.

 Quick, T. and N.E. Cardarelli.  1977. Environmental impact of controlled release molluscicides and
 their degradation products: a preliminary report. In: Controlled release pesticides. Scher, H.B. (Ed.).
 ACS Symposium Series No. 53. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. pp. 90-104.

 Reader, S. and E. Pellitier. 1992. Bioabsorption and degradation of butyltin compounds by the marine
 diatom Skeletoneme costatum and the associated bacterial community at low temperatures. Bull.
 Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 48:599-607.

 Reader, S., H.B. Steen and F. Denizeau. 1994. Intracellular calcium and pH alterations induced by tri-
 n-butyltin chloride in isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes: A flow cytometric analysis. Arch. Biochem.
 Biophys. 312:407^13.

 Reader, S., R.S. Louis,  E. Pelletier and F. Denizeau.  1996. Accumulation and biotransformation of
 tri-n-butyltin by isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15:2049-2052.

 Reddy, P.S.,  R.  Nagabhushanam and R. Sarojini. 1992. Retardation of moulting in the prawn,
 Caridina rajadhari exposed to tributyltin oxide (TBTO). Proc. Nat. Acad.  Sci. India. 62:353-356.

 Rexrode, M.  1987. Ecotoxicity of tributyltin. In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International
 Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington,  DC. pp.  1443-1455.

Rhea, M.R., A. Proctor and R.D. Cardwell. 1995. Chronic life-cycle toxicity of bis(tributyltin)oxide
to Mysidopsis bahia. Elf Atochem. North America, Inc., Philadelphia,  PA.  Laboratory Project No.  44-
 1807-16-01-MYSID. 33  pp.

Rice, C.D. and B.A. Weeks. 1990. The influence of in vivo exposure to tributyltin on reactive oxygen
formation in oyster toadfish macrophages. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.  19:854-857.
                                             113

-------
 Rice, C.D. and B.A. Weeks. 1991. Tributyltin stimulates reactive oxygen formation in toadfish
 macrophages. Dev. Comp. Immun. 15:431-436.

 Rice, C.D., M.M. Banes and T.C. Ardelt. 1995. Immunotoxicity in channel catfish, Ictalurus
 punctatus, following acute exposure to tributyltin. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 28:464-470.

 Ringwood, A.H. 1992. Comparative sensitivity of gametes and early developmental stages of a sea
 urchin species (Echinometra maihaei) and a bivalve species (Isognomon californicum) during metal
 exposures. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 22:288-295.

 Ritchie, L.S., L.A. Berrios-Duran, L.P. Prick and I. Fox.  1964. Molluscicidal time-concentration
 relationships of organo-tin compounds. Bull. W.H.O. 31:147-149.

 Robert, R. and E. His. 1981. The effects of tributyltin acetate on the eggs and larvae of the two
 commercially important molluscs Crassostrea gigas  (Thurberg) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Link).
 Int. Counc. Explor. Sea, Mariculture Committee F:42. 16 pp.

 Roberts, M.H., Jr. 1987. Acute toxicity of tributyltin chloride to embyos and larvae of two bivalve
 mollusks,  Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.  Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
 39:1012-1019.

 Roberts, M.H., Jr., M.E. Bender, P.P. DeLisle, H.C. Sutton and R.L. Williams. 1987. Sex ratio and
 gamete production in American oysters exposed to tributyltin  in the laboratory. In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4.
Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp.
 1471-1476.

Roberts, M.H., Jr., R.J. Huggett, M.E. Bender, H.  slone and P.P. DeLisle. 1996. Tributyltin
bioconcentration from solution and suspended sediments by oysters,  with a comparison with uptake in
field experiment. In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P.  Seligman
(Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 357-368.
                                            114

-------
Ronis, M.J.J. and A.Z. Mason. 1996. The metabolism of testosterone by the periwinkle (Littorina
littorea) in vitro and in vivo: Effects of tributyl tin. Mar. Envir. Res. 42(1-4): 161-166.

Rouleau, C., E. Pelletier and H. Tjalve. 1995. Distribution kinetics of trophic and single doses of
methylmercury, tributyltin, and corresponding inorganic ions in the starfish Lepjasterias polaris. Mar.
Ecol. Prog. Ser. 124:143-158.

Ruiz, J.M., G.W. Bryan and P.E. Gibbs. 1994a. Bioassaying the toxicity of tributyltin-(TBT)-polluted
sediment to spat of the bivalve Scrobiculariaplana. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 113:119-130.

Ruiz, J.M., G.W. Bryan and P.E. Gibbs. 1994b. Chronic toxicity of water tributyltin (TBT) and
copper to spat of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana: Ecological implications. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
113:105-117.

Ruiz, J.M., G.W. Bryan and P.E. Gibbs. 1995a. Acute and chronic toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to
pediveliger larvae of the bivalve Scrobiculariaplana. Mar.  Biol.  124:119-126.

Ruiz, J.M., G.W. Bryan and P.E. Gibbs. 1995b. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) exposure on the veliger
larvae development of the bivalve Scrobiculariaplana (da Costa). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 186:53-63.

Ruiz, J.M., G.W. Bryan, G.D. Wigham and P.E. Gibbs.  1995c. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) exposure
on the reproduction and embryonic development of the bivalve  Scobicularia plana. Mar. Environ. Res.
40:363-379.

Ruiz, J.M., J. Szpunar and O.F.X. Donard. 1997. Butyltins in  sediments and deposit-feeding bivalves
Scribicularia plana from Arcachon Bay, France. Sci. Tot. Environ. 198:225-231.

Saint-Louis, R., E. Pelletier, P. Masot and R. Fournier. 1994. Distribution and effects of tributyltin
chloride and its degredation products on the growth of the marine alga Pavlova lutheri in continuous
culture. Wat. Res. 28:2533-2544.
                                             115

-------
 Salazar, M.H. 1986. Environmental significance and interpretation of oragnotin bioassays. Proc.
 Oceans 1986 Conference, Washington, D.C., 23 - 25 September 1986, Organotin Symposium, Vol. 4.

 Salazar, M.H. 1989. Mortality, growth and bioaccumulation in mussels exposed to TBT: Differences
 between the laboratory and the field. Proc. Oceans 1989, Seattle, Washington. 18-21 September,  1989,
 Organotin Symposium, Vol. 2.

 Salazar, M.H. 1992. Use and misuse of mussels in natural resource damage assessment. Proc. '92
 Marine Technology Society, Washington, D.C., 19-21 October, 1992, Vol. 1, Global Ocean
 Resources, pp. 257-264.

 Salazar, M.H. and D.B.  Chadwick. 1991. Using real-time physical/chemical sensors and in-situ
 biological indicators to monitor water pollution. In: L.C. Wrobel and C.A. Brebbia  (Eds.) Water
 Pollution:  Modelling, measuring and prediction. First International Conference on Water Pollution
 Modeling, Measuring and Prediction, 1991. Elsevier  Applied Science, London, pp.  463.480.

 Salazar, M.H. and M.A. Champ.  1988. Tributyltin and water quality: A question of environmental
 significance. In: Oceans 88, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine
 Technology Society, Washington,  DC. 10pp.

 Salazar, M.H. and S.M.  Salazar. 1985a. The effects of sediment on the survival of mysids exposed to
 organotins. Proc. llth U.S./Japan Experts meeting, Management of bottom sediments containing toxic
 substances. T.P. Patin, (Ed.). 4-6 November, 1985, Seattle, Washington.

 Salazar, M.H. and S.M.  Salazar. 1985b. Ecological evaluation of organotin-contaminated sediment.
NOSC-TR-1050 or AD-A160-748-0. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. 22 pp.

Salazar, M.H. and S.M.  Salazar. 1987. Tributyltin effects on juvenile mussel growth. In: Oceans  87,
Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington,
DC. pp. 1504-1510.
                                            116

-------
 Salazar, M.H. and S.M. Salazar. 1988. Tributyltin and mussel growth in San Diego Bay. In: Oceans
 1988, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society,
 Washington, DC. pp. 1188-1197.

 Salazar, M.H. and S.M. Salazar. 1989. Acute effects of (bis)tributyltin oxide on marine organisms.
 Naval Oceans Systems Center Technical Report 1299, San Diego, CA. May 1989. 60 pp -I- appendix.

 Salazar, M.H. and S.M. Salazar. 1990a. Utility of mussel growth in assessing the environmental
 effects of tributyltin. Proc. 3rd International Organotin Symposium April 17-20, 1990, Monaco, pp.
 132-136.

 Salazar, M.H. and S.M. Salazar. 1990b. Mussels as bioindicators: A case study of tributyltin effects
 on San Diego Bay. In:  Chapman, P.M., F.S. Bishay, E.A. Power,  K. Hall, L. Harding, D. McLeay
 and M. Nassichuk (Eds.), Proceedings, 17th annual Aquatic toxicity  workshop, Vancouver, Canada,  5-
 7 November. Can. Tech. Report. Fish. Aq. Sci. 1774:47-75.

 Salazar, M.H.  and S.M. Salazar. 1991. Assessing site-specific effects  of TBT with mussel growth
 rates. Mar. Environ. Res. 32:131-150.

 Salazar, M.H.  and S.M. Salazar. 1996. Mussels as bioindicators: Effects of TBT on survival,
bioaccumulation, and growth under natural conditions. In: Organotins: Environmental Fate and
Effects. Champ, M.A.,  and P.P. Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp.  305-330.

Salazar, S.M. 1985. The effects of bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide on three  species of marine phytoplankton.
NOSC-TR-1039 or AD-A162-115-0. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. 17 pp.

Salazar, S.M. and M.H. Salazar. 1990a. Bioaccumulation of tributyltin in mussels. Proc. 3rd
International Organotin Symposium, April 17-20, 1990, Monaco, pp. 79-83.
                                            117

-------
 Salazar, S.M., B.M. Davidson, M.H. Salazar, P.M. Stang andKJ. Meyers-Schulte. 1987. Effects of
 tributyltin on marine organisms: Field assessment of a new site-specific bioassay system. In: Oceans
 87, Vol 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington,
 DC. pp. 1461-1470.

 Santos, A.T.,  M.J.  Santos, B.L. Bias and E.A. Banez. 1977. Field trials using slow release rubber
 molluscicide formulations. MT-1E (Biomet SRM) and CBL-9B. In: Controlled release pesticides.
 Scher, H.B. (Ed.). ACS Symposium Series No. 53. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. pp.
 114-123.

 Sarojini, R., B. Indira and R. Nagabhushanam, 1991. Effect of antifouling organometallic compounds
 on the brain of mature female prawn Caridina weberi. J. Adv. Zool. 12:93-99.

 Sarojini, R., P.S. Reddy and R. Nagabhushanam. 1992. Acute and chronic tributyltin induced
 alterations in digestive enzymes of the prawn, Caridina rajadhari. Uttar Pradesh J. Zool. 12:20-24.

 Scadding, S.R. 1990. Effects of tributyltin oxide on the skeletal structures of developing and
 regenerating limbs of the axolotl larvae, Ambystoma mexicanum. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
 45:574-581.

 Scammell, M.S., G.E. Bafley and C.I. Brockbank. 1991. A field study of the impact on oysters of
 tributyltin introduction and removal hi a pristine lake. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20:276-281.

 Schulte-Oehlmann, U., C. Bettin, P. Fioroni, J. Oehlmann and e. Stroben. 1995. Marisa comuarietis
 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia): A potential TBT biomdicator  for freshwater environments.
 Ecotoxicology  4:372-384.

 Schwaiger, J.,  F. Bucher, H. Ferling, W. Kalbfus and R. Negele.  1992. A prolonged toxicity study on
 the effects of sublethal concentrations of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO): Histopathological  and
histochemical findings in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat. Toxicol. 23:31-48.
                                             118

-------
 Seiffer, E.A. and H.F. Schoof. 1967. Tests of 15 experimental molluscicides against Australorbis
 glabratus. Public Health Rep. 82:833-839.

 Seinen, W., T. Helder, H. Vernij, A. Penninks and P. Leeuwangh. 1981. Short term toxicity of tri-n-
 butyltin chloride in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri - Richardson) yolk sac fry. Sci. Total Environ.
 19:155-166.

 Seligman, P.P., A.O. Valkirs and R.F. Lee. 1986.  Degradation of tributyltin in San Diego Bay, CA
 waters. Draft Report. Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA. 7 pp.

 Seligman, P.P., A.O. Valkirs, P.M.  Stang and R.F. Lee. 1988. Evidence for rapid degradation of
 tributyltin in a marina. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 19:531-534.

 Seligman, P.P., J.G. Grovhoug, A.O. Valkirs, P.M. Stang, R. Fransham, M.O.
 Stalland, B. Davidson and R.F. Lee.  1989. Distribution and fate of tributyltin in the United States
 marine environment. Appl. Organo. Chem. 3:31-47.

 Seligman, P.P., R.J. Maguire, R.F. Lee, K.R. Hinga,  A.O. Valkirs and P.M. Stang. 1996.
 Persistence and fate of tributyltin in aquatic ecosystems. In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and
 Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 429-457.

 Selwyn, M.J. 1976. Triorganotin compounds as ionophores and inhibitors of ion translocating
 ATPases. In: Organotin Compounds: New Chemistry and Applications. Zuckerman, J.J. (Ed), pp.
 204-226.

Sherman, L.R.  1983. A model for the controlled release of tri-n-butyltin fluoride from polymeric
molluscicides and mosquito larvicides. J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 28:2823-2829.

Sherman, L.R. and H. Hoang. 1981.  The bioassay and analysis of tributyltin fluoride. Anal. Proc.
 18:196-198.
                                             119

-------
Sherman., L.R. and J.C. Jackson. 1981. Tri-n-butyltin fluoride as a controlled-release mosquito
larvicide. In: Controlled Release of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals. Lewis, D.H. (Ed.). Plenum Press,
New York, NY. pp. 287-294.

Shiff, C.J., C. Yiannakis and A.C. Evans. 1975. Further trials with TBTO and other slow release
molluscicides in Rhodesia. In: Proceedings of 1975 International Controlled Release Pesticide
Symposium. Harris, F.W.  (Ed.). Wright State University, Dayton, OH. pp. 177-188.

Shimizu, A. and S. Kimura.  1992. Long-term effects of bis(n-tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) on salt-water
goby Chasmichothys dolichognathus. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. 59:1595-1602.

Short, J.W. 1987. Measuring tri-n-butyltin in salmon by atomic absorption: Analysis with and without
gas chromatography. Bull.  Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 39:412-416.

Short, J.W. and J.L. Sharp. 1989. Tributyltin hi bay mussels (Mytilus edulis) of the Pacific coast of
the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 23:740-743.

Short, J.W. and P.P. Thrower. 1986a. Accumulation of butyltins in muscle tissue of chinook salmon
reared in sea pens treated with tri-n-butyltin. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International
Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1177-1181.

Short, J.W. and P.P. Thrower. 1986b. Tri-n-butyltin caused mortality of chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, on transfer to a TBT-treated marine net pen. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4.
Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington,  DC. pp.
1202-1205.

Short, J.W. and P.P. Thrower. 1986c. Accumulation of butyltins in muscle tissue of chinook salmon
reared in sea pens treated with tri-n-butyltins. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 17:542-545.

Short, J.W. and P.P. Thrower. 1987. Toxicity of tri-n-butyl-tin to chinook salmon,  Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha, adapted to seawater. Aquaculture 61:193-200.
                                             120

-------
 Short, J.W., S.D. Rice, C.C. Brodersen and W.B. Stickle. 1989. Occurrence of tri-n-butyltin-caused
 imposex in the Pacific marine snail Nucella lima in Auke Bay, Alaska. Mar. Biol. 102:291-297.

 Skarphedinsdottir, H., K. Olapsdottir, J. Svavarsson and T. Johannesson. 1996. Seasonal fluctuations
 of tributyltin(TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) in the dogwhelk,  Nucella lapillus (L.), and the blue mussel,
 Mytilus edulis L., in Icelandic waters. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32:358-361.

 Slesinger,  A.E. and I. Dressier. 1978. The environmental chemistry of three organotin chemicals. In:
 Report of the Organotin Workshop. Good, M. (Ed.). University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA.
 pp. 115-162.

 Smith, S.B. 198la. Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling bottom paints. J.
 Appl. Toxicol. 1:22-25.

 Smith, S.B. 1981b. Reproductive anomalies in stenoglossian snails related to pollution from marinas.
 J. Appl. Toxicol. 1:15-21.

 Smith, S.B. 1981c. Tributyltin compounds induce male characteristics on female mud snails Nassarius
 obsoletus = Ilyanassa obsoleta. J. Appl. Toxicol. 1:141-144.

 Smith, P.J., A.J.  Crowe, V.G.  Kumar Das and J. Duncan. 1979. Structure-activity relationships for
 some organotin molluscicides. Pestic. Sci. 10:419-422.

 Spence, S.K., G.W. Bryan, P.E. Gibbs, D. Masters,  L. Morris and S.J. Hawkins. 1990a. Effects of
 TBT contamination on Nucella populations. Funct. Ecol. 4:425-432.

 Spence, S.K., S.J. Hawkins and R.S.  Santos. 1990b.  The mollusc Thais haemastoma -an exhibitor of
 'imposex' and potential biological indicator of tributyltin pollution. Mar. Ecol.  11:147-156.

Springborn Bionomics, Inc. 1984a. Acute and chronic toxicity of tributyltin fluoride to Pacific oyster
(Crassostrea gigas). Report submitted to M&T Chemicals Inc., Rahway, NJ.
                                             121

-------
Springborn Bionomics, Inc. 1984b. Effects of tributyltin fluoride on survival, growth, and
development of sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Report B4-84-7 to M&T Chemicals Inc.,
Railway, NJ.

Stab, J.A., M. Frenay, I.L.  Freriks, U.A. Brinkman and W.P. Cofino.  1995. Survey of nine organotin
compounds in The Netherlands using the zebra mussel (Dreissena pofymorpha) as biomonitor.
Envkon. Toxicol. Chem. 14:2023-2032.

Stallard, N., V. Hodge and E.D. Goldberg. 1986. TBT in California coastal waters: Monitoring and
assessment. Environ. Monit. Assess. 9:195-220.

Stang, P.M. and P.P. Seligman. 1986. Distribution and fate of butyltin compounds in the sediment of
San Diego Bay. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Washington,
DC.  pp. 1256-1261.

Stang, P.M., R.F. Lee and P .F. Seligman. 1992. Evidence for rapid non-biological degradation of
tributyltin in fine-grained sediments. Envkon. Sci. Technol., 26,  1382-1387

Stebbing, A.R.D.  1981. Hormesis - stimulation of colony growth in Campanularia flexuosa
(Hydrozoa) by copper, cadmium and other toxicants. Aquat. Toxicol. 1:227-238.

Stebbing, A.R.D.  1985. Organotins and water quality, some lessons to be learned. Mar. Pollut. Bull.
16:383-390.

Stebbing, A.R.D., S. Soria,  G.R. Burt and J.J. Cleary. 1990. Water quality bioassays hi two
Bermudan harbours using the ciliate Euplotes vannus, in relation to tributyltin distribution. J. Exp.
Mar. Biol. Ecol. 138:159-166.

Steinert, S.A. and G.V. Pickwell. 1993. Induction of HSP70 proteins hi mussels by ingestion of
tributyltin. Mar. Envkon. Res. 35:89-93.
                                            122

-------
 Stephan, C.E., D.I. Mount, D.J. Hansen, J.H. Gentile, G.A. Chapman and W.A. Brungs. 1985.
 Guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms
 and their uses. PB85-227049. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. 90 pp.

 Stephenson, M.  1991. A field bioassay approach to determining tributyltin toxicity to oysters in
 California. Mar. Environ. Res.  32:51-59.

 Stephenson, M.D., D.R. Smith, J. Goetzl, G. Ichikawa and M. Martin. 1986. Growth abnormalities in
 mussels and oysters from areas with high levels of tributyltin in San Diego Bay. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4.
 Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp.
 1246-1251.

 Stroben, E., J. Oehlmann and P. Fioroni. 1992a. The morphological expression of imposex in Hinia
 reticulata (Gastropoda: Buccinida): A potential indicator of tributyltin pollution. Mar. Biol. 113:625-
 636.

 Stroben, E., J. Oehlmann and P. Fioroni. 1992b. Hina reticulata and Nucella lapillus comparison of
 two gastropod tributyltin bioindicators. Mar. Biol. 114:289-296.

 Stroganov, N.S., V.G. Khobotev and L.V. Kolosova. 1972. Study of the connection of the chemical
 composition of organometallic compounds with their toxicity for hydrobionts. PB-208082. National
 Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

 Stroganov, N.S., O. Danil'chenko and E.H. Amochaeva. 1977. Changes in developmental metabolism
of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis under the effect of tributyltin chloride in low concentrations. Biol.
Nauki 20:75-78.

Stromgren, T. and T. Bongard. 1987. The effect of tributyltin oxide on growth of Mytilus edulis. Mar.
Pollut. Bull.  18:30-31.
                                             123

-------
Sujatha, C.H., S.M. Nair and J. Chacko. 1996. Tributyltin oxide induced physiological and
biochemical changes in a tropical estuarine clam. Bull. Environ.  Contain. Toxicol. 56:33-310.

TAI Environmental Sciences Inc. 1989a. Toxicity of tri-butyl tin oxide to two species of Hydra.
Mobile, AL, 15 August. 31 pp.

TAI Environmental Sciences Inc. 1989b. Toxicity of tri-butyl tin oxide to Hydra littoralis  and
Chlorohydra viridissima. Mobile, AL, 13 September. 25 pp.

Tester, M., D.V. Ellis and J.A.J. Thompson. 1996. Neogastropod imposex for monitoring recovery
from marine TBT contamination. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15:560-567.

Thain, J.E. 1983. The acute toxicity of bis(tributyltin) oxide to the adults and larvae of some marine
organisms. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea, Mariculture Committee E:13. 5 pp.

Thain, J.E. 1986. Toxicity of TBT to bivalves: Effects on reproduction,  growth and survival. In:
Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society,
Washington, DC. pp. 1306-1313.

Thain, J.E. and M.J. Waldock. 1985. The growth of bivalve spat exposed to organoun leachates from
antifouling paints. Int.  Counc. Explor. Sea, Mariculture Committee E:28. 10 pp.

Thain, J.E. and M.J. Waldock. 1986. The impact of tributyl tin (TBT) antifouling paints on molluscan
fisheries. Wat. Sci. Tech.  18:193-202.

Thain, J.E.,  M.J. Waldock and M.E. Waite, 1987. Toxicity and degradation studies  of tributyltin
(TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) in the aquatic environment. In: Oceans 87, Vol.  4. Proceedings
International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1398-1404.

Thayer, J.S. 1984. Organometallic compounds and living organisms. Academic Press,  Orlando, FL.
245 pp.
                                             124

-------
 Thompson, J.A.J., M.G. Sheffer, R.C. Pierce, Y.K. Chau, J.J. Cooney, W.R. Cullen and R.J.
 Maguire. 1985. Organotin compounds in the aquatic environment: Environmental quality. NRCC
 22494. National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 287 pp.

 Thrower, P.P. and J.W. Short. 1991. Accumulation and persistence of tri-n-butyltin in pink and chum
 salmon fry cultured in marine net-pens. Aquaculture. 96:233-239.

 Tin. EPA-560/2-75-005. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

 Traas, T.P., J.A. Stab, P.R.G. Kramer, W.P. Cofino and T. Aldenberg. 1996. Modeling and risk
 assessment of tributyltin accumulation in the food web of a shallow freshwater lake. Environ. Sci.
 Technol. 30:1227-1237.

 Triebskorn, R., H. Kohler, J. Flemming, T. Braunbeck, R. Negele and H. Rahmann. 1994. Evaluation
 of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) neurotoxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). I. Behaviour,
 weight increase, and tin content. Aguat. Toxicol.  30:189-197.

 Tsuda, T., H. Nakanishi, S. Aoki and J. Takebayashi. 1986. Bioconcentration of butyltin compounds
 by round crucian carp. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 12:137-143.

 Tsuda, T., M. Wada, S. Aoki and Y. Matsui. 1987. Excretion of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide and
 triphenyltin chloride from carp. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 16:17-22.

 Tsuda, T., H. Nakanishi, S. Aoki and J. Takebayashi. 1988a. Bioconcentration and metabolism of
 butyltin compounds in carp. Wat. Res. 22:647-651.

 Tsuda, T., M. Wada, S. Aoki and Y. Matsui.  1988b. Bioconcentration,  excretion and metabolism of
bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide and triphenyltin chloride by goldfish. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 18:11-20.

Tsuda, T., S. Aoki, M. Kojima and H. Harada. 1990a. The influence  of pH on the accumulation of tri-
n-butyltin chloride and triphenyltin chloride in carp. Comp. Biochem.  Physiol. 95C:151-153.
                                            125

-------
Tsuda, T., S. Aoki, M. Kojima and H. Harada. 1990b. Differences between freshwater and seawater-
acclimated guppies in the accumulation and excretion of tri-n-butyltin chloride and triphenyltin
chloride. Wat. Res. 24:1373-1376.

Tsuda, T., S. Aoki, M. Kojirna and T. Fujita. 1991a. Accumulation and excretion of tri-n-butyltin
chloride and triphenyltin chloride by willow shiner. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 101C:67-70.

Tsuda, T., S. Aoki, M. Kojima and H. Harada. 1991b. Accumulation of tri-n-butyltin chloride and
triphenyltin chloride by oral and via gill intake of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Comp. Biochem.
Physiol. 99C.-69-72.

Uhler, A.D., T.H. Coogan, K.S. Davis, G.S. Dwell, W.G. Steinhauer, S.Y. Freitas and P.O. Boeh.
1989. Findings of tributyltin, dibutyltin and monobutyltin hi bivalves from selected U.S. coastal
waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8:971-979.

Uhler, A.D., G.S. Dwell, W.G. Steinhauer and A.M. Spellacy. 1993. Tributyltin levels in bivalve
mollusks from the east and west coasts of the United States: Results from the 1988-1990 national status
and trends mussel watch project. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.  12:139-153.

Unger, M.A., W.G. Maclntyre, J. Greaves and R.J. Huggett. 1986. GC determination of butyltins hi
natwal waters by flame photometric detection of hexyl derivatives with mass spectrometric
confirmation. Chemosphere 15:461-470.

Unger, M.A., W.G. Maclntyre and R.J. Huggett. 1987. Equilibrium sorption of tributyltin chloride by
Chesapeake Bay sediments. In:  Oceans 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium.
Marine Technological Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1381-1385.

Unger, M.A., W.G. Maclntyre and R.J. Huggett. 1988. Sorption behavior of tributyltin on estuarine
and freshwater sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 7:907-915.
                                            126

-------
 Upatbam, E.S. 1975. Field studies on slow-release TBTO-peRets (Biomet SRM) against St. Lucian
 Biomphalaria glabrata. In: Proceedings of 1975 international controlled release pesticide symposium.
 Harris, F.W. (Ed.). Wright State University, Dayton, OH. pp. 189-195.

 Upatham, E.S., M. Koura, M.A. Dagal, A.H. Awad and M.D. Ahmed. 1980a. Focal control of
 Schistosoma haemrtobium-ttttisinitt.iiig snails, Bulinus (Ph.) abyssinicus, using controlled release tri-n-
 butyltin fluoride and copper sulphate. In: Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. Baker, R. (Ed.).
 Academic Press, New York, NY. pp. 449-459.

 Upatham, E.S., M. Koura, M.D. Ahmed and A.H. Awad. 1980b. Laboratory trials of controlled
 release molluscicides on Bulinus (Ph.) abyssinicus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium
 in Somalia. In:  Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. Baker, R. (Ed.). Academic Press, New
 York,  NY. pp.  461-469.

 U'ren, S.C. 1983.  Acute toxicity of bis(tributyltin) oxide to a marine copepod. Mar. Pollut. Bull.
 14:303-306.

 U.S. EPA. 1975. Preliminary investigation of effects on the environment of boron, indium, nickel,
 selenium, tin, vanadium and their compounds. Vol. V

 U.S. EPA. 1983. Water quality standards regulation. Federal Regist. 48:51400-51413. November 8.

 U.S. EPA. 1985a. Appendix B - Response  to public comments on "Guidelines for deriving numerical
national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses." Federal Regist.
50:30793-30796. July 29.

U.S. EPA.  1985b. Tributyltin support document. Office  of Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Washington, DC.
                                            127

-------
U.S. EPA. 1986. Chapter I - Stream design flow for steady-state modeling. In: Book VI - Design
conditions. In: Technical guidance manual for performing waste load allocation. Office of Water,
Washington, DC. August.

U.S. EPA. 1987. Permit writer's guide to water quality-based permitting for toxic pollutants. EPA-
440/4-87-005. Office of Water, Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA. 1991. Technical support document for water quality-based toxics control. Office of Water,
Washington, DC, March 1991, EPA 505/2-90-001 or PB91-127415, National Technical Information
Service, Springfield, VA.

U.S. EPA. 1994. Water Quality Standards Handbook: 2nd ed. EPA-823-B-94-005a,b. Washington,
DC.

U.S. Navy. 1984. Environmental assessment. Fleetwide use of organotin antifouling paint. U.S. Naval
Sea Systems Command, Washington, DC. 128 pp.

Valkirs, A., B. Davidson and P. Seligman. 1985. Sublethal growth effects and mortality to marine
bivalves and fish from long-term exposure to tributyltin. NOSC-TR-1042 or AD-A162-629-0. National
Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

Valkirs, A.O., P.P. Seligman and R.F. Lee.  1986a. Butyltin partitioning in marine waters and
sediments. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings International Organotin Symposium. Marine
Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1165-1170.

Valkirs, A.O., P.P. Seligman,  P.M. Stang, V. Homer, S.H. Lieberman, G. Vafa and C.A. Dooley.
1986b. Measurement of butyltin compounds in San Diego Bay. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 17:319-324.

Valkirs, A.O., B.M. Davidson and P.P. Seligman. 1987. Sublethal growth effects and mortality to
marine bivalves from long-term exposure to tributyltin. Chemosphere 16:201-220.
                                            128

-------
 Vighi, M. and D. Calamari. 1985. QSARs for organotin compounds on Daphnia magna. Chemosphere
 14:1925-1932.

 Virkki, L. and M. Niknmaa. 1993. Tributyltin inhibition of adrenergically activated sodium/proton
 exchange in erythrocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat. Toxicol. 25:139-146.

 Vitturi, R., C. Mansueto, E. Catalano, L. Pellerito and M.A. Girasolo.  1992. Spermatocyte
 chromosome alterations in Truncatella subcylindrica (L., 1767) (Mollusca, Mesogastropoda) following
 exposure to dibutyltin (IV) and tributyltin (TV) chlorides. Appl. Organo. Chem. 6:525-532.

 von Rumker, R., E.W. Lawless, A.F. Meiners, K.A. Lawrence, G.L. Kelso and F. Horay. 1974.
 Production, distribution, use and environmental impact potential of selected pesticides. PB-238795 or
 EPA-540/1-74-001. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. pp.  334-346.

 Waite, M.E., M.J. Waldock, I.E. Thain, D.J. Smith and S.M. Milton.  1991. Reductions in TBT
 concentrations hi UK estuaries following legislation in 1986 and 1987. Mar. Environ. Res. 32:89-111.

 Waite, M.E., I.E. Thain, M.J. Waldock, J.J. Cleary, A.R.D. Stebbing and R. Abel. 1996. Changes in
 concentrations of organotins hi water and sediment in England and Wales following legislation. In:
 Organotin: Environmental Fate and Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and
 Hall, London, pp.553-580.

 Wade, T.L., B. Garcia-Romero and J. Brooks.  1988. Tributyltin contamination hi bivalves from
 United States  Coastal Estuaries. Envirion. Sci. Technol. 22:1488-1493.

Wade, T.L., B. Garcia-Romero and J.M. Brooks. 1991. Oysters as biomonitors of butyltins in the
Gulf of Mexico. Mar. Environ. Res. 32:233-241.

Waldock, M.J. and D. Miller. 1983. The determination of total and tributyltin in seawater and oysters
in areas of high pleasure craft activity. Int. Counc. Explor. Sea, Mariculture Committee E:12. 14 pp.
                                            129

-------
 Waldock, M.J. and I.E. Thain. 1983. Shell thickening in Crassostrea gigas: Organotin antifouling or
 sediment induced? Mar. Pollut. BuU. 14:411-415.

 Waldock, M.J., J. Thain and D. Miller. 1983. The accumulation and depuration of bis(tributyltin)
 oxide in oysters. A comparison between the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas} and the European fiat
 oyster (Ostrea edulis). Int. Counc. Explor. Sea, Mariculture Committee E:52. 8 pp.

 Waldock, M.J., I.E. Thain and M.E. Waite. 1987. The distribution and potential toxic effects of TBT
 in U.K. estuaries during 1986. Appl. Organo. Chem. 1:287-301.

 Waldock, M.J., J.E. Thain and M.E. Waite. 1996. An assessment of the value of shell thickening in
 Crassostrea gigas as an indicator of exposure to tributyltin. In: Organotin: Environmental Fate and
 Effects. Champ, M.A. and P.P. Seligman (Eds.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 219-237.

 Walker, K.E. 1977. Organotin contact studies. In: Controlled Release Pesticides. Scher, H.B. (Ed.).
 ACS Symposium Series No. 53. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. pp. 124-131.

 Walker, W.W.  1989a. Acute toxicity of bis(tributyltin)oxide to the sheepshead minnow in a flow-
 through system. Final Report to M&T Chemcials, Inc. and Sherex Chemical Co., Inc. 94 pp.

 Walker, W.W.  1989b. Acute effect of bis(tributyltin) oxide on new shell deposition by the Eastern
 oyster (Crassostrea virginica) under flow-through conditions. Draft Report to M&T Chemicals and
 Sherex Chemical Co., Inc.

 Walsh, G.E. 1986. Organotin toxicity studies conducted with selected marine organisms at EPA's
 Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. In: Oceans 86, Vol. 4. Proceedings
 International Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1210-1212.

 Walsh, G.E., L.L. McLaughlin, E.M. Lores, M.K.  Louie and C.H. Deans.  1985. Effects of
 organotins on growth and survival of two marine diatoms, Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira
pseudonana. Chemosphere 14:383-392.
                                            130

-------
 Walsh, G.E., L.L. McLaughlin, M.K. Louie, C.H. Deans and E.M. Lores. 1986a. Inhibition of arm
 regeneration by Ophioderma revispina (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) by tributyltin oxide and
 triphenyltin oxide. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 12:95-100.

 Walsh, G.E., M.K. Louie, L.L. McLaughlin and E.M. Lorez. 1986b. Lugworm (Arenicola cristatd)
 larvae in toxicity tests: Survival and development when exposed to organotins. Environ. Toxicol.
 Chem. 5:749-754.

 Walsh, G.E., C.H. Deans, and L.L. McLaughlin. 1987. Comparison of the EC50s of algal toxicity
 tests calculated by four methods. Environ. Toxicol. Chem 6:767-770.

 Walsh, G.E., L.L. McLaughlin, N.J. Yoder, P.H. Moody, E.M. Lores, J. Forester and P.B.
 Wessinger-Duval. 1988. Minutocelluspotymorphus: A new marine diatom for use in algal toxicity
 tests. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 7:925-929.

 Wang, W.X., J. Widdows and D.S. Page. 1992. Effects of organic toxicants on the anoxic energy
 metabolism of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar. Environ. Res. 34:327-331.

 Ward,  G.S., G.C. Cramm, P.R. Parrish,  H. Trachmanand A. Slesinger. 1981.  Bioaccumulation and
 chronic toxicity of bis tributyltin oxide (TBTO): Tests with a saltwater fish. In: Aquatic Toxicology
 and Hazard Assessment.  Branson, D;R. and K.L. Dickson (Eds.). ASTM STP 737. American Society
 for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 183-200.

 Watanabe,  N., S. Sakai and H. Takatsuki. 1995. Release and degradation half lives of tributyltin hi
 sediment. Chemosphere 31:2809-2816.

 Webbe, G.  and R.F. Sturrock. 1964. Laboratory tests of some new molluscicides hi Tanganyika. Ann.
 Trop. Med. Parasitol. 58:234-239.

Weis, J.S. and K. Kim. 1988. Tributyltin  is a teratogen in producing  deformities hi limbs of the
 fiddler  crab, Ucapugilator. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17:583-587.
                                            131

-------
Weis, J.S. and J. Perlmutter. 1987. Effects of tributyltin on activity and burrowing behavior of the
fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Estuaries. 10:342-346.

Weis, J.S., J. Gottleib and J. Kwiatkowski. 1987a. Tributyltin retards regeneration and produces
deformities of limbs in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.  16:321-326.

Weis, J.S., P. Weis and F. Wang. 1987b. Developmental effects of tributyltin on the fiddler crab,  Uca
pugilator, and the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International
Organotin Symposium.  Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1456-1460.

Weisfeld, L.B. 1970. Evaluation of an accelerated test method for organotin and organolead
antifouling coating: Guppy mortality. J. Paint Technol. 42:564-568.

Wester, P.W. and J.H.  Canton. 1987. Histopathological study of Poecilia reticulata (guppy) after
long-term exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) and di-n-butyltindichloride (DBTC). Aquat.
Toxicol. 10:143-165.

Wester, P.W. and J.H.  Canton. 1991. The usefulness of histopathology in aquatic toxicity studies.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 100C: 115-117.

Widdows, J. and D.S. Page. 1993. Effects of tributyltin and dibutyltin on the physiological energetics
of the mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mar. Environ. Res. 35:233-249.

WHO. 1990. International programme on chemical safety environmental health criteria for tributyltin.
World Health Organization (ICS/EHC/89.29), Geneva, Switzerland. 229 pp.

Wishkovsky, A., E.S. Mathews and B.A. Weeks. 1989. Effect of tributyltin on the chemiluminescent
response of phagocytes from three species of estuarine fish. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.  18:826-
831.
                                             132

-------
 Wolniakowski, K.U., M.D. Stephenson and G.S. Ichikawa. 1987. Tributyltin concentrations and
 Pacific oyster deformations in Coos Bay, Oregon. In: Oceans 87, Vol. 4. Proceedings International
 Organotin Symposium. Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC. pp. 1438-1442.

 Wong, P.T., Y.K. Chau, 0. Kramar and G.A. Bengert. 1982. Structure-toxicity relationship of tin
 compounds on algae. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39:483-488.

 Yamada, H. and K. Takayanagi. 1992. Bioconcentration and elimination of bis(tributyltin)oxide
 (TBTO) and triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) in several marine fish species. Wat. Res. 36:1589-1595.

 Yamada, H., M. Tateishi and K. Takayanagi.  1994. Bioaccumulation of organotin compounds in the
 red sea bream (Pagrus major) by two uptake pathways: Dietary uptake and direct uptake from water.
 Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13:1415-1422.

 Yla-Mononen, L. 1989. The effects of tri-n-butyltin chloride (TBTC) on the early life stages of perch
 (Perca fluviatilis L.) in brackish water. Aqua.  Fenn. 19:129-133.

 Yonezawa, Y. M. Fukui, T. Yoshida, A. Ochi, T. Tanaka, Y. Noguti, T. Kowata, Y. Sato, S.
 Masunaga and Y. Urushigawa.  1994. Degradation of tri-n-butyltin in Ise Bay sediment. Chemosphere
 29:1349-1356.

 Zucker, R.M., E.J. Massaro and K.H. Elstein. 1992. The reversibility of tributyltin-induced toxicity
 in vitro as a function of concentration and duration of exposure (C x T). Environ. Res. 57:107-116.

 Zuckerman, J.J., R.P. Reisdorf, H.V.  Ellis III and R.R. Wilkinson. 1978. Organotins in biology and
 the environment. In: Organometals  and organometaloids, occurrence and fate in the environment.
Brinkman, F.E., and J.M. Bellama (Eds). American Chemical Society, pp. 388-424.

Zuolian, C. and A. Jensen. 1989. Accumulation of organic and inorganic tin hi blue mussel, Mytilus
edulis, under natural conditions. Mar. Pollut. bul. 20:281-286.
                                            133

-------