VOLUME I - SYNTHESIS
               Al B. Garlauskas
             Water Quality Program
       Division of Utilities Engineering
        Department of Public Utilities
               City of Cleveland
              EPA Project G005107
                Project Officer

                   Max Hanok
      Office of Research and Development
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V
            Chicago, Illinois 60606
      Prepared by the City of Cleveland
in cooperation with John Carroll University
Cleveland State University, and Case Western
      Reserve University in Cleveland
                 Prepared for
            CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60606
                 May 30, 1974

          Library, Region V
          1 North Wacker Drive
          Chicago, Illinois 60606

U.S.E.F.A. Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency and approved for publication.  Approval does not signify that
the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the
Environmental Protection Agency, nor does the mention of trade names
or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for
                  PROTECTION AGZ:;-


This report presents the results of the first phase of a three phase
program in environmental impact assessment, planning and evaluation in
urban water pollution abatement for the Cleveland metropolitan area.
The first phase investigated the water quality of near shore waters of
Lake Erie in the Cleveland area and of the streams in the same area to
establish a baseline to measure the progress and restorative value of
water pollution abatement programs.

The project was accomplished through a scientific consortium between the
City of Cleveland and three area universities - John Carroll, Case
Western Reserve, and Cleveland State.  Seven major investigations were
performed dealing with fish population, phytoplankton, zooplankton and
benthic organisms, benthic sediment chemistry, water chemistry, cation
reactions with suspended river sediments, and hydrodynamic modeling of
river and thermal discharge flow into Lake Erie.  Additional work was
performed in library research and coordination.

The field investigations were conducted from September of 1971 through
December of 1972.  The area of investigation included Lake waters from
the mouth of Chagrin River along the shore to the mouth of the Rocky
River, 35.5 kilometers.  The area included the Cleveland Harbor and
lower 20 kilometers of the Cuyahoga River.

The study established a rough water quality baseline demonstrating areas
of water quality degradation, possible restoration avenues, and need
for future research.  A gradation from grossly and heavily polluted
water zones in the near shore areas to progressively less polluted zones
further out into the lake is established based on biological and
chemical data.  Fish population diversity, distribution and changes are
documented.  Areas of ecosystem stress are delineated and priorities
for ameliorative measures are established.  Framework for management of
water quality through systems approaches is presented.

Study shows correlation of point sources and water quality depression
zones, and biological data indicates that study area waters are
undergoing similar degradation as other areas in the Lake Erie Basin.
Study also, demonstrates that water quality degradation in the study
area started before the industrialization era (circa 1850) resulting
initially from alteration of the physical environment.  The close tie
between land use and water quality shows that other measures besides
control of point sources will be required to restore the waters of the

This report is submitted in fulfillment of Project Number G005107 under
the sponsorship of the Office of Great Lakes Coordinator, Section 108A,
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V, Chicago, Illinois.


VOLUME I - SYNTHESIS by A, B, Garlauskas

Abstract                                                             iii

Figures                                                               vi

Tables                                                              viii

Acknowledgements                                                      xi

ERTS Satellite Photo                                                 xiv

Three Rivers Watershed and Vicinity Map                              xvi

Study Area Map                                                     xviii


I        Conclusions                                                   1

II       Recommendations                                               7

III      Introduction and Summary                                     13

IV       Methodology of Data Acquisition                              51

V        Study Results and Discussion                                 65

VI       Needs                                                       119

VII      Glossary                                                    131

VIII     Bibliography                                                135

            INCLUDING THE LAKE ERIE SHORELINE by Andrew M. White


No.                                                                Page

 1.    Three phase program flow and continuity chart                 15

 2.    Monthly averages of phytoplankton abundances
         for selected years showing the trend                        25

 3.    Segment of the Cuyahoga River flowing through
         downtown Cleveland                                          28

 4.    Sampling industrial outfalls on the Cuyahoga
         River                                                       32

 5.    Industrial discharge to streams abatement
         program flow chart                                          35

 6.    Nine month total precipitation                                36

 7.    Inflatable dam                                                38

 8.    Aerial view of the present Cleveland Easterly
         Water Pollution Control Plant                               39

 9.    Aerial view of the present Cleveland Southerly
         Water Pollution Control Plant                               40

10.    Area covered by the study showing sampling
         stations                                                    43

11.    Total precipitation in the Cleveland area for
         five years                                                  48

12.    Pollution intensity zones in the near shore
         Lake area of Cleveland                                      50

13.    Application of results to Cuyahoga River entering
         Lake Erie                                                   71

14.    Predicted response of the Cuyahoga River to a
         Lake current                                                72

15.    Predicted response of the Cuyahoga River to a
         current behind the breakwall                                73

16.    Typical flow pattern of the Cuyahoga River with
         the dominant southwest, west, and northwest
         wind directions                                             75


17.     Cross section of lake water intrusion into the
         Cuyahoga River from conductivity and dissolved
         oxygen measurements                                         76

18.     Comparison of sediment and supernatant total N                78

19.     Comparison of sediment and supernatant total P                80

20.     Sediment composition variation                                81

21.     Cuyahoga River (mgd) discharge above and below
         Southerly Waste Treatment Plant in 1972                     88

22.     The inverse relationship between temperature
         and dissolved oxygen in the Cuyahoga River                  89

23.     Street salting impact on the Cuyahoga River                   90

24.     Concentration and total phosphorus load vs flow
         in the Cuyahoga River at 11.15 miles upstream
         from the mouth of the River                                 92

25.     Fecal coliforms vs geometric means monthly
         average in the effluent of the two wastewater
         treatment plants on Lake Erie                               96

26.     Total biomass of phytoplankton for all stations
         for all months                                             100

27.     Mean total biomass of four different groups of
         algae for all stations for all months                      101

28.     Distribution of the major groups of algae                    102

29.     Relative abundance of the major benthic groups
         at the fourteen regular sampling stations                  105

30.     Water quality management interrelationships                  121

31.     Water quality management functions                           123

32.     The hierarchical multilevel systems decomposition            126

33.     An example of the hierarchical multilevel decision
         layer structure as applied to a regional
         phosphorus control program                                 128

 No.                                                                 Page

 1.      Water quality of Lake Erie and the Cuyahoga
          River in 1852                                               19

 2.      Water quality of Lake Erie in 1865                            19

 3.      Water quality of Lake Erie in 1873-1874                       21

 4.      Water quality of Lake Erie in 1887                            21

 5.      Comparison of changes in water quality reported
          in commercial fishing reports                               23

 6.      Chloride levels of Lake Erie tributaries in 1904              23

 7.      Sources and discharges to the Cuyahoga River                  27

 8.      Loads to receiving water from streams                         30

 9.      Pollution loadings from combined sewer overflows              31

10.      Sampling stations                                             44

11.      Sampling stations                                             45

12.      Loadings to Lake Erie from Cleveland Harbor and
          River dredging                                              68

13.      Comparison of Harbor to average near shore
          sediments                                                   84

14.      Comparison of Harbor (filtered) to average
          supernatant                                                 84

15.      Cuyahoga River water quality in 1972                          86

16.      Performance of Cleveland Wastewater Treatment
          Plants in meeting discharge criteria for heavy
          metals during period from February 15 to July 6
          of 1972                                                     87

17A.     Cleveland Wastewater Treatment Plant pollution
          loadings in the effluent for 1972                           93

18.      Number of sampling days  of chlorination or
          non chlorination for 1971 and 1972                          95


ISA.   Species of fishes collected in/or near the
         Cleveland Harbor                                           109

19.    Average concentrations of sediment constituents              112

20.    Viruses possibly present in sewage and resulting
         diseases                                                   114

21.    Plankton analysis of tap water 3200 liter sample
         taken August 8, 1973                                       115

22.    Regional water quality management programs at
         Case Western Reserve University                            127



Dr. Norman A. Alldridge, Professor of Biology, Case Western Reserve

Denis Case, Former Project Director, Water Quality Program, City of
    Cleveland (presently Chief of Research, Ohio Department of Natural

Algirdas B. Garlauskas, Project Director, Chief of Laboratories, Water
    Quality Program, City of Cleveland.

Dr. John Hower, Professor of Geology, Case Western Reserve University.

Dr. Wilbert Lick, Professor of Geophysics and Engineering, Case Western
    Reserve University.

Dr. Paul Olynyk, Associate Professor of Chemistry, Cleveland State

Dr. Robert G. Rolan, Associate Professor of Biology and Health Sciences,
    Cleveland State University.

James P. Schafer, Former Chief of Laboratories, Water Quality Program,
    City of Cleveland  (presently Deputy Director, Ohio Department of
    Natural Resources),

Dr. Andrew White, Associate Professor of Biology, John Carroll


The author wishes to acknowledge key contributions of the many people
involved in this program and in carrying out the first phase.

The project could have not been carried to completion without the
support of Ralph J. Perk, Mayor of Cleveland, Raymond Kudukis, Director
of Department of Public Utilities, and Richard A. Labas, Commissioner
of Utilities Engineering.

Without federal support through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Region V, this project may have not been implemented,  A special
recognition goes to Dr. Norbert Jaworski, Director, Pacific Northwest
Laboratory (formerly of Grosse lie Field Laboratory) for assistance in
program planning and to Mr, Curtis Ross, Director of Indiana District
Office  (formerly Chief of Surveillance, Ohio District Office) for
technical assistance and support.  The successful completion of the
project was to a large degree due to the guidance and assistance


provided by Mr. Max Hanok, the Project Officer, and Mr. Ralph
Christensen, Section 108A Program Coordinator.

Mr. Denis Case, former Project Director, managed the project during the
research phase.  Many of his ideas and interpretations are included in
the final report.

In providing expertise and support, the Water Quality Program scientists
were of great help.  Mr. Charles Hina, biologist, Mr. Algis Pliodzinskas,
aquatic ecologist, and Mr. Vernon Edwards, chemist, reviewed the
individual investigator reports, and helped the author in interpretation
and synthesis of the fragmented data.

Miss Janet Friedlander of Sears Library, Case Western Reserve University
conducted the very valuable library research and compilation.  Her full
report is included in Section IV.

A special thanks goes to Miss Elinor Edmunds who typed and guided the
final manuscript and to Mr. Vydas Brizgys who prepared the many visuals.

Also, acknowledgements go to Mrs. Sharon Morkunas and Miss Kerrin
Brigham, who toiled over the lengthy first draft of the report.


All the data obtained on this project is being transcribed into STORET
at the time of the writing of this report.  The transcription is
expected to be completed in the second half of 1974.

This study is presented in two reports.  The first report written by
A. B. Garlauskas and titled Water Quality Baseline Assessment for
Cleveland Area - Lake Erie with subtitle Volume I, Synthesis,
summarizes and interprets all information obtained in the study.  The
second report with the same title subtitled Volume II, The Fishes of
the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area Including Lake Erie Shoreline
is written by Andrew White covering his fish population investigations.

Two of the investigators have published their findings through other
entities.  These are listed as follows:

Lick, W. and Paul, J.F.  A Numerical Model For a Three-Dimensional
Variable Density Set.  Proc. 16th Conf. Great Lakes Res. 1973.

Rolan, R.G. et. al.  Zooplankton Crustacea of the Cleveland Nearshore
Area of Lake Erie, 1971-1972.  Proc. 16th Conf. Great Lakes Res. 1973.

The other  six investigation reports that are summarized and
interpreted in Volume I are not planned to be published separately
within this study.  These unpublished reports are:

Alldridge, N.A.  An Investigation of Methods for Making Quantitative


Estimates of Cladophora Growth in Lake Erie.

Alldridge, N.A.  Phytoplankton of the Inshore Waters of the Cleveland
Metropolitan Area, 1972.

Hower, J., Aronson, J.L., and Kim, H.S.  Cation Exchange Reactions
Involving Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium in Cuyahoga River.

Lick, W. and Prahl, J.  River Discharges and Thermal Plumes.

Olynyk, P.  Chemical Composition of Sediments of the Cleveland
Nearshore Zone of Lake Erie 1971-1972.

Rolan, R.G.  Benthos of the Cleveland Near Shore Area, 1971-1972.

The data in these reports will be available from STORET, and the
individual investigators are encouraged to publish the reports on
their own initiative.  All the investigators may be considered as
contributing co-authors of Volume I, since portions of their reports
are incorporated in the Synthesis.

                  ERTS SATELLITE PHOTO (opposite page)

Lake Erie — A resource for the millions.  Cleveland is below the
center of the picture.  Remote sensing methods such as  this satellite
photograph are used in many areas of environmental and  resource
assessment.  One application is in detecting point and  area sources,
current patterns, and dispersion of thermal and other types of
discharges.  This technique can be a valuable tool in water quality
and resources management.  This photo was taken at an altitude of
48 miles on September 4, 1973.  (Photo was provided through the
courtesy of National Aeronautics and Space Administration)




The Three Rivers Watershed is defined by the drainage basin divides of
the three adjoining river basins - Rocky, Cuyahoga, and Chagrin Rivers,
which comprise an area of about 2,360 square kilometers (1,474 square

               CUYAHOGA  RIVER  BASIN

                   STUDY AREA MAP (opposite page)

The study area map shows the locations of the wastewater treatment plants,
public beaches, and other key geographic locations mentioned in the
report.  The area of study covered an area of about 1400 square
kilometers (840 square miles).

                               _j          ..-•• Sewage Treatment Plants
                              J  cLEry»-J-	 1-Westerly
    4—City of Euclid
,— 6—City of Lakewood
•._„, 7—Cityof Rocky River
                                   	A"-' Scale  in Miles

                                                     3   4


                              SECTION I


The conclusions derived from this study fall into two broad categories.
One category is made up of conclusions that are derived from the
general synthesis of all the individual investigations and the total
project.  The other category presents conclusions as derived in
individual investigations.

I.  The general conclusions are:

    1.  The water quality in the study area is heavily degraded.  The
    streams are filled with debris, sewage, and in places with industrial
    waste.  The near shore waters of Lake Erie are heavily polluted with
    industrial and sewage wastes.

    2.  The near shore waters of Lake Erie in the study area are
    variable in water quality showing pollution zones which have been
    correlated to point sources.

    3.  The most pronounced zone of degraded water quality is at
    Edgewater Park and the Cleveland Harbor.  The Edgewater Park water
    is degraded by the inadequately treated municipal discharges of the
    Westerly Sewage Treatment Plant; whereas the harbor is degraded from
    at least four sources — the Cuyahoga River, river dredgings,
    leaching from old fills and septic tanks, and storm sewer discharges.

    4.  The dilution effects on discharges and general pollutant
    concentrations distorted the data obtained on the project.  The
    dilution resulted from greater volumes of available receiving waters
    from increased precipitation in 1972 and higher lake levels.

    5.  Factors like denudation of land, damming of streams, and
    draining of marshes were the initial steps that led to the
    degradation of water quality in the region.

    6.  Based on all the data obtained, the near shore waters in the
    study area are enriched and are eutrophic, with intermediately
    polluted zones occurring along the shore east of the Cleveland

    7.  The project reevaluated and concluded that the 1968 Havens and
    Emerson MASTER PLAN FOR POLLUTION ABATEMENT can still be an important
    part of a viable base for continued water quality restoration efforts
    in  the Cleveland area.

    8.  A historical review of  the water quality indicates degradation
    occurred before 1850, and the dissolved solids began to increase at
    about the same time.  This  implies that the present Lake Erie
    restoration goals and water quality standards must reevaluate the

    general premise of using 1900 conditions  as the restoration level

    9.   Specific sociological and economic data is not available to help
    evaluate water pollution abatement progress,  and therefore studies
    to  obtain such data must be undertaken.

II.   Conclusions derived from individual investigations are:

    1.   The Cuyahoga River appears to be heavily polluted before it
    reaches Cleveland, and in terms of the cations studied -  calcium,
    sodium, potassium, magnesium, - their addition in the Cleveland
    portion of the river cannot be quantified by buffering reactions of
    the suspended sediment.   The buffering capacity of the suspended
    sediment is nearly exhausted by reactions in the stream above the
    Cleveland area due to upstream pollution.  The buffering  reactions
    involve bottom sediments.

    2.   No pronounced differences in chemical composition of  the near
    shore waters was found as related to the  1968 Lake Erie Report of
    the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    3.   A pronounced water quality depression effect was established
    caused by the Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant discharges on the
    Cuyahoga River.  This depression is characterized by addition of
    nutrients, suspended solids, and bacteria.

    4.   The Cuyahoga River exhibits a seasonally related and  temperature-
    flow dependent sinusoidal fluctuation of  dissolved oxygen.

    5.   The fish fauna of the Cleveland-Lake  Erie shoreline is, at
    present, markedly different than  in former times.  The species
    composition has changed from one of highly valuable food  species
    and clean water forms (i.e. Muskellunge,  Walleye, Lake Trout, Silver
    Chub, Burbot), to one of a predominance of rough fish and low food
    value species such as the Goldfish, Carp, Gizzardshad and Perch.
    The dominant species have changed from large piscivorous  species to
    primarily plankton and bottom feeding species such as the Gizzardshad
    and Carp.

    6.   The fish populations of the Cleveland metropolitan area are under
    stress from the degradation of the ecosystem and that the stress
    varies significantly within the study area.  The most highly
    distressed area is the lower seven miles  of the Cuyahoga River and
    the least distressed area is the middle and upper portions of the
    Chagrin River drainage.  Other areas display various degrees of

    7.   In the entire study area, including the lower Cuyahoga River,
    there were no areas found where a fish fauna was completely absent.
    While the fauna of the most distressed reaches of the Cuyahoga River
    is meager, consisting of only occasional individuals of only a

few species, it is concluded that fishes routinely enter the lower
reaches of this stream from the Cleveland Harbor.  The fishes are
almost exclusively pollution tolerant "rough" fishes, primarily

8.  The most recent period of game fish decline in Lake Erie occurred
in the 1950's when the Blue Pike (Walleye), the Yellow Walleye, the
Burbot and many others suffered a sudden and drastic reduction in
numbers.  While the Yellow Walleye appears to have made a partial
recovery in other portions of Lake Erie, its numbers in the Cleveland
area remain critically low, primarily due to pollution loadings from
sewage and other discharges.  The Blue Walleye is considered by many
to be extinct.

9.  Literature, museum and present survey records indicated that a
total of 105 species and subspecies of fishes have at  one time
inhabited the study area.  Presently, our survey indicates that
46 (44%) of these are either rare or probably extirpated within
the study area.  Of the 105 species, we have documented the presence
of 84 within the area and it is probable that several more exist
in very small numbers.

10.  The Cleveland area can be restored to its former position as a
viable fishery, although it is obvious that certain species will be
very difficult if not impossible to restore.  Should the conditions
along the shoreline and in the rivers improve, we are of the opinion
that most of the species would recover quickly.

11.  The principal areas which must be restored are those which
formerly served as major spawning areas.  The area which apparently
served as the most important area of fish reproduction is the lower
Cuyahoga River and the adjacent shoreline.

12.  The principal cause of the decline of fish populations in the
area was the destruction of spawning areas and the elimination of
access to such areas by the activities of man in the study areas.
The sport or commercial removal of fishes played a minimal part in
the reduction of the area fish fauna.

13.  Those species which spawn in the offshore, deeper portions of
Lake Erie have shown the least reductions in number, indeed many of
these have increased greatly in number.   Successful reproduction of
at least 12 species of  fishes has been documented within the
Cleveland Harbor and the adjacent marinas.  A single species, the
Goldfish, is probably reproducing in the lower five miles of the
Cuyahoga River.  Records show that a number of different game fishes
used to reproduce in the River, such as perch, trout, etc.

14.  The major nursery  zones along the Lake Erie shoreline are (in
order of decreasing production), the Cleveland Breakwall and
adjacent marinas,  the lower Chagrin River, the lower Rocky River,

the Lake Erie shoreline, the lower Cuyahoga River.  The Chagrin has
a greater variety of species.

15.  Major areas of fish concentrations appear to be correlated with
either the presence of a pollution source or the presence of
protected waters such as marinas, harbors, or river mouths.  This is
to be expected and has been documented in other studies.

16.  The principal areas of sports fishing are associated with the
preceding areas of pollution input or structures.

17.  The species of fishes which have most severely declined are
those which spawned in the upper sections of the river drainages,
entering each spring from Lake Erie to spawn.  The former spawning
areas of these fishes have either been drained, silted, or blocked
by the construction of dams.  Those species of fishes which formerly
spawned in the lower river mouths or on the gravel bars and beaches
along the shoreline have also declined sharply since 1850.

18.  The decline and change in the fishery both in Lake Erie and in
the rivers did not primarily occur in the past few years.  The first
major decline in the fishery occurred prior to 1850 and included the
nearly complete collapse of the local populations of Muskellunge,
Northern Pike and other stream spawning species.  These species have
not recovered since that time.

19.  The species diversity and relative abundance of fishes changes
seasonally along the Cleveland shoreline due to the seasonal use
of the area by various species.  The diversity is highest in the
late spring, and is lowest in the late summer (July-August).  The
diversity and relative abundance of fishes changes on a more regular
basis in the lower rivers and may change greatly from day to day,
or day to night.

20.  In general, the diversity and abundance of fishes along the
shoreline does not vary during a given season.  This indicates that
little or no avoidance of selected areas occurs with those species
which are highly pelagic.

21.  In general the species diversity index and the species
composition along the Cleveland shoreline is low, probably
reflecting the great preponderance of the Yellow Perch.  Our
collections on the beaches and in the shallow areas of the shoreline
(one to two feet deep) indicate a trend toward cleaner and more
diverse types of fishes both to the east and west of the City of
Cleveland, with a very diverse and abundant fauna in the vicinity
of the beaches at the Chagrin River mouth.

22.  Proposals and early action is essential to the reversal of the
declining fishery in the area.  The early reversal of the
degradation of the shoreline and lower rivers is essential to

restore those spawning areas which have been destroyed.

23.  The Chagrin River system should be protected by all agencies,
Federal, State and Local.  This is essential since the primary
source of repopulation stocks of fishes is this river drainage.

24.  The highest average phytoplankton biomass occurred during
September.  At no time did the blue-green algae constitute a
major portion of the biomass.  The highest computed proportion was
20% of the total.  During the summer months the green algae
accounted for the greatest proportion of biomass, with the single
dinoflaggelate genera, Ceratium being second.   During the winter
months, the diatoms  comprised the major portion of the biomass.

25.  Zooplankton crustacean communities, especially the Copepoda
and Cladocera components, have increased in abundance since the
early 1950's.  This increase suggests that the Cleveland lake front
area is undergoing changes similar to those of the Lake Erie
western basin due to eutrophication.  This study did not clearly
delineate benthic seasonal trends, except for a general population
decline in June, 1972, due in part to the emergence of chironomid
larvae as adult midges.  The benthos indicates that the Cleveland
lake front ranges from grossly polluted to eutrophied areas.

26.  The benthic sediments are highly polluted containing toxic
metals and nutrients characterized by phosphorus and nitrogen
compounds.  Comparisons with data from other reports show that
phosphorus is accumulating in the near shore sediments.


                               SECTION II


All the recommendations are based on the premise that the Program
(Figure 1) will continue with Phase II.  The recommendations are
presented in the interdisciplinary network shown by the  "Environmental
Management of Water Quality" diagram (Figure 30).  Only high priority
areas are covered by recommendations which are given by category.


In obtaining additional vital information on the natural environment
these recommendations must be implemented:

    1.  Derive a quantitative balance of the hydrologic cycle (water
    budget) of the area through the watershed approach, which includes
    stream hydrology (flood stage, low flow, hydrographic analysis),
    micro-precipitation patterns, total hydrogeology, including
    groundwater table, infiltration, recharge, discharge areas, runoff,

    2.  Determine the near shore lake currents, and physical character-
    istics of the lake influence of the Cuyahoga River, which can be
    classed as an estuary.

    3.  Develop a physical inventory of the region, including the
    surficial geology and topography and pinpoint areas of instability,
    erosional potential, and natural sedimentation patterns.

    4.  Develop a detailed viable clean water index, incorporating
    chemical, biological, and physical parameters.   It must be usable
    for continuous monitoring of water quality in this geological


In the area of environmental disruptions these recommendations must
be implemented:

    1.  Develop  a comprehensive mass balance of point source
    pollution loadings, integrated with area sources and total
    receiving and discharge loadings.   This mass balance should be
    compared to  natural pollution loadings and total water budget.
    Atmospheric  washout of air pollutants must be included.

    2.  Develop  a pollutant profile to map the dispersion pattern of
    the Cuyahoga River discharge into  Lake Erie, including data on
    pollutant types,  concentrations in the sediments,  thicknesses of
    sediments coordinating this profile with deposition and erosion


    3.  Assess previously used open lake dredge dumping sites
    ecologically as to the regenerative ability of such areas.  This
    would be valuable information in the consideration of open lake
    dumping as an alternative once the ten year ban by the
    Environmental Protection Agency on open lake dumping expires.

    4.  Determine effects of discharges from filtration plants.
    Materials like aluminum hydroxide, activated carbon and back-
    flushing matter from the area filtration plants are discharged into
    streams and ultimately the lake.  The rationale is that the
    aluminum hydroxide and carbon are not very harmful and that the
    backflushing material came from the lake originally.

    5.  Minimize impacts of dredging in the marinas and harbor on
    spawning areas as shown by the fish population study.

    6.  Develop a computerized comprehensive instantaneous readout
    water quality monitoring system to provide immediate information
    on request of possible health hazards and pollution loadings near
    public water supply intakes.

    7.  Develop, based on quantity and impact, a classification of
    environmental disruptions related to water quality in the area
    including the mode, the scale, and relative rank.

    8.  Develop and begin an integrated, consistent monitoring network
    of water quality in the area waters.


In the area of effects the major recommendations that  must be acted
on are:

    1.  Develop and implement research and testing on  biological and
    chemical hazards in the waters of the lake near shore area and
    streams to determine possible paths and effects on public health.
    This must include testing for viruses, and toxins  from algae in
    the public water supply; determine mobilization of heavy metals
    in the aquatic food chain where the top consumer is man, especially
    as related to fishes caught in the Cleveland waters.

    2.  Develop a detailed historical reconstruction of the ecology
    of the area relating the changes to pollution and  other environ-
    mental disruptions caused by human activities.

    3.  Determine the economic impact of water quality degradation in
    the Cleveland area.  This must include increased cost of water
    treatment, loss in commercial fish, direct damage  to property, loss
    of aesthetic and recreational aspects, etc.



 In the socio-political areas, these recommendations must be implemented:

    1.  Determine through surveys public awareness of water quality
    problems in the Cleveland area; determine the relationship of
    environmental values to socio-economic conditions, cultural
    patterns, and geographic location.

    2.  Establish within the area an Institute for Environmental
    Studies which would be composed of industrial and civic leaders,
    government and area university top representatives.  This
    institute would serve to define problems of environmental concern,
    design objectives, develop programs for consideration, involve the
    public in program planning, approval, and implementation.

    3.  Conduct a survey in all phases of human activity in the area
    to determine the extent and effectiveness of the blending of the
    social and physical sciences as related to environmental problems;
    and determine also the interdisciplinary exchange especially as
    related to area educational programs in environmental areas.


In this area the recommendations must be implemented in several
projects.   These are:

    1.  Determine the impact and restoration value of the new Westerly
    physico-chemical treatment plant effluent on the Old Cuyahoga
    River Bed.   Since this new plant will be the largest of its type
    in the world,  this evaluation must include determination of
    baseline conditions - site geology, hydrology, and ecology.  This
    project should provide for monitoring the Edgewater Beach and west
    end harbor area.

    2.  Determine engineering and economic feasibility of converting
    all wastewater treatment plant and water filtration plant
    disinfection facilities from chlorination to ozonation, this being
    a more effective and no residual type method.

    3.  Develop methods of inactivating bottom sediment chemicals in
    the lake to prevent their release into the aquatic environment.
    This would involve the study of the dynamics of various elements
    (phosphorous,  etc.) in the area,  and inactivation techniques
    through use of natural materials such as clays.

    4.  Develop feasibility of establishing breeding areas for stream
    spawning   fish in the old riverbed of the Cuyahoga River.  The
    extremely high quality of water from the proposed Westerly
    physical-chemical treatment plant plus aeration could provide an
    excellent environment for fish populations.

    5.   Develop methods for increasing fish populations around the
    Cleveland area by improvements in feeding and breeding zones.   One
    method which has had success in salt water use is the construction
    of  artificial reefs.  Large objects of clean debris and tires  can
    provide suitable habitats for fish populations.

    6.   Develop procedures, both technical and sociological for
    utilizing materials removed from river and stream channels to
    transform poor land to productive land within the boundaries of
    the Three Rivers Watershed area.  This should include finding  of
    final use for effluent from wastewater treatment plants.

    7.   Develop better dredge material disposal methodology.  Deep well
    disposal of dewatered dredge materials into worked out sections of
    the International Salt mine should be investigated.  Preliminary
    investigation indicates this may be a feasible long term solution
    to  a serious pollution problem.

    8.   Develop an interdisciplinary model for the restoration of  a
    polluted urban watershed based on a real small watershed, and
    carry through on the restoration.

    9.   Develop and carry through a comprehensive restoration program
    of  desirable food fishing commerce.  Based on fish population
    studies, there is evidence that a number of more desirable food
    fish species can repopulate the area waters.


In this area of legal controls the recommendations must be implemented:

    1.   Develop guidelines for land use adjacent to streams and
    subsequent stream use which can be incorporated into a set of
    regulations applicable to the Cleveland and Three Rivers Watershed

    2.   Adopt Ohio State water quality laws for enforcement at local
    and regional levels through the City of Cleveland and Cleveland
    Regional Sewer District water quality and pollution control
    administrative components.

    3.   Develop the legal framework to establish a Regional Water
    Quality Authority based on the Three Rivers Watershed area. This
    regional authority should have control over public water supply,
    waste treatment facilities, all natural waters in the area, and
    land use.

    4.   Develop a legal framework to manage the Lake Erie shoreline.
    The shoreline, being a dynamic interface between lake and land,
    must be allocated for non-intensive uses, primarily recreation.
    The areas where erosion is severe, must be acquired by government


and opened for non-intensive parkland development.

5.  Design specific laws and procedures to minimize soil erosion
from exposed areas during construction and development, and from
areas that are not properly maintained.

6.  Institute immediate legal provision to protect the Chagrin
River, which is the prime breeding area of fish in the Three
Rivers Watershed.

7.  Assign all the legal responsibility and authority to
coordinate and wherever possible carry out all the recommendations
in this report to the Water Quality Program, City of Cleveland.


                               SECTION III

                        INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY


This study was initiated as the first phase of a three phase program in
response to the critical need to develop increased capability in
predicting the environmental impact of pollution abatement projects in
the Cleveland area.  Apart from this three phase program, no other
comprehensive environmental impact assessment programs are planned or
incorporated as part of the water pollution abatement efforts in the
Cleveland area.  As a consequence, unless this three phase assessment
program is carried through as planned, with appropriate and timely
modifications, present and future water pollution control programs
will have no basis for assessment of degree of success and impact in
relation to water quality.

The three phase program is designed to provide sound scientific water
quality assessment techniques and methodology within a dynamic,
continuous, water pollution control program in the Cleveland area as
developed by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, and followed
through by Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, the Cleveland Regional
Sewer District, and the City of Cleveland.   Geared toward predicting
the environmental impact of water pollution abatement programs in the
heavily degraded waters of the Cleveland area, this program can serve
as a planning model for other urban areas experiencing similar combined
industrial, municipal, and urban runoff wastewater loadings to their

The general objective to develop an environmental impact assessment
capability was derived from the basic goal  of aiding in the water
pollution abatement effort in the Cleveland area.  Five major specific
objectives were designed to be achieved over the course of the three
phase program:

    1.   Assess the impact of an urban water pollution control program on
        the aquatic environment and determine its cost-effectiveness in
        reducing pollutional stresses.   Major effort will center on the
        evaluation of the environmental impact of a physical-chemical
        Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant, handling a combined load of
        municipal, industrial,  and urban runoff wastes.

    2.   Develop methodology for interfacing water quality assessments
        and criteria with continued water pollution control planning
        (such as the modification of specific unit treatment processes).

    3.   Develop recommendations for demonstration programs in urban
        water pollution control.


    4.  Develop necessary methodology for assessing changes in the
        aquatic environment as a result of the abatement program,
        including the possibility of recommending specific water quality
        criteria for restoring and protecting the waters of Lake Erie
        with emphasis on the near shore area.

    5.  Observe, document, and evaluate the restoration value of the
        Cleveland program.

These specific objectives are to be achieved through a program designed
in three overlapping phases (See Figure 1.):

Phase I
The first phase was designed to prepare and execute a baseline study to
evaluate the present pollution load and water quality conditions in the
Greater Cleveland Lake Erie shoreline area.  Insofar as possible, a
preliminary assessment of the pollution load impact was also sought.

Phase II
The second phase deals with a detailed assessment of the Cleveland area
water pollution control abatement impact.  This phase is a long term
segment of the entire program.  Included in this phase are:

    1.  Development of a predictive capability to assist in planning
        water pollution control for specific environmental impacts.

    2.  Development of necessary assessment methodology such that cost-
        effectiveness of control programs can be measured.

    3.  Development and implementation of an effective interface
        between environmental impact assessment and planning-operations

Phase III
The third phase will provide the evaluation of cost-effectiveness for
the entire water pollution abatement efforts in terms of its restorative
environmental impact.  This phase would provide upon termination a water
quality monitoring basis as part of ongoing water resources and water
pollution control planning and management in the Cleveland area.

The three phases, as shown in Figure 1. , are part of a comprehensive
environmental impact assessment, planning and evaluation program in
urban water pollution abatement, with the termination of one phase
overlapping over the initiation of the following phase.

The first phase of the program was carried out by the City of Cleveland
during 1971 and 1972 under a grant from United States Environmental
Protection Agency.   Baseline information was gathered by City of
Cleveland scientists and specialists from a consortium of three
universities—Cleveland State, John Carroll, and Case Western Reserve
under subcontract from the City.


PHASE I:  Baseline
information development and
pollution impact assessment
                          Write Phase I
                (Extended Report
                Field  I
                Data   I
Extended '
Field    I
Studies  I
Establishing water quality
monitoring; surveillance;
continuous planning
                             PHASE  II:  Detailed  assessment of  the Cleveland
                             area water pollution abatement;  impact;
                             implementation of water quality  restoration  efforts
                             Additional field  studies; demonstration
                             projects; computer modeling; intense field
                             and laboratory investigation; pilot plant
                             and new treatment facility evaluations
Phase I
Begin Phase I
1 1 1
June Dec. June Dec
1971 1971 1972 197
Phase II
and Work
Phase III
Continuation of
Phase III
1 1 1 // 1 1 /
:. June June Dec. Dec. Dec.
2 1973 1974 1974 1977 1985
                  Figure 1.  Three phase program flow and continuity chart

The first phase in the collection of baseline information required the
skills of several scientific disciplines:

    aquatic ecology
    aquatic chemistry
    fish biology

Although a broad, comprehensive baseline information collection framework
was attempted, the areas of specific task assignments to the sub-
contractors for specialized information gathering were relatively
narrow.  The City assumed the responsibility to fill in all the gaps
and synthesize all the specialized information into a comprehensive
framework.  Each area of information requiring special expertise was
designated as a specific task.  These tasks were:

Task 1
Pollution input to the lake study area from the Cleveland metropolitan
area was monitored.  Monitoring stations were established on all
continuous point sources of loads to the study area and were sampled
weekly.  In addition, waste input data from other literature sources
were compiled.

Task 2
Ion exchange reactions between suspended particles and water in the
Cuyahoga River were examined.  A determination of the buffering actions
of the particles on major cations was a primary objective.  The cations
studied were sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium.

Task 3
Surveys were undertaken of the zooplanktonic and benthic organisms in
the near-shore area.

Task A
Surveys were undertaken of the phytoplanktonic organisms of the
Cleveland near-shore area.  An attempt was also initiated to determine
the distribution of Cladophora along the shoreline.

Task 5
Surveys of fish populations in the Cleveland area were undertaken.  These
surveys included major stream systems in the Cleveland vicinity, as well
as the lake study area.

Task 6
Surveys of sediment chemistry were undertaken in the lake study area.

Task 7
Modeling studies were initiated to determine parameters for applications
to: (1) the entrance of the Cuyahoga River into Lake Erie, and


(2) thermal discharges from power plants on Lake Erie.

Task 8
Literature survey, collection and cataloging.

Task 9
Interpretation of all individual task reports and the preparation of a
comprehensive baseline information assessment report.

Although the individual tasks for the most part were accomplished
producing valid baseline information, the project did leave information
gaps which prevent a total comprehensive baseline assessment.  The
major areas that were not covered are:

    1.  Hydrology and water budget of the area.

    2.  Benthic chemistry dynamics preserving the in situ conditions.

    3.  Pollution dispersion patterns as related to lake currents.

    4.  Sedimentation contribution and patterns.

These areas will be incorporated in phase II of the program


Historical Review

Water quality problems have been a part of Cleveland's history since
the early nineteenth century.  It is  of practical value  to review this
early history in order to understand  the existing water  quality problems
and proposed corrective measures.  In addition, knowledge of past
conditions can assist in setting water quality  objectives and standards.

Prior to 1850, the only water quality problems  reported  for  the
Cleveland area concerned noticeable  reductions  in the populations of
several fish species, notably muskellunge and pikes  (White,  1973).
These reductions were attributed  to  the construction of  dams on streams
in the area rather than to water pollution,  but it is important to
recognize that water quality changes  in the  Cleveland area are not  all
attributable to introduction of contaminants nor are they all
correctable by reduction or elimination of  the  contaminants.

The first reliable record indicating that water pollution was becoming
a problem for Cleveland occurred  after 1850.   In a report to the
Cleveland Common Council, a special  committee made the following
observations and  recommendations  (Case et.  al., 1853):

    1.  The community's groundwater  was becoming severely contaminated
        as a source  of drinking water.


    2.  The water quality of the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie were
        acceptable as sources of drinking water and chemical analyses
        were presented  (Table !.)•

    3.  It was recommended that a sewer system be developed to protect
        the purity of Lake Erie, although the sewer system was to
        terminate in the Cuyahoga River "below low water mark."

Between 1850 and 1900, water quality in the Cleveland area deteriorated
drastically.  In 1854 the City had established a drinking water intake
in Lake Erie that was approximately 400 feet offshore and one mile west
of the Cuyahoga River.  (The existing Westerly Wastewater Treatment
Plant rests very nearly on the former intake location.)  Water quality
data published in 1865  (Water Works Trustees, 1865) show that total
solids were beginning to increase in the lake (Table 2).

By 1866, the water drawn through the water intake was badly polluted at
times with industrial wastes, largely from oil refineries established
along the Cuyahoga in 1864 (Water Works Trustees, 1867).  One
investigation reported petroleum wastes to extend one mile out in the
lake from the river.  Also in the 1867 report are remarks by the
superintendent of the Cleveland Water Works concerning the intake
contamination.  His advice was that there were two courses of action
that would alleviate the problem:

    1.  Move the water intake further out in the lake, and

    2.  Strictly enforce the existing water pollution ordinances.

His recommendation was for the latter course of action.

It is not evident that any vigorous water pollution control activities
resulted from the recommendation of the superintendent.  In the winter
of 1869, petroleum wastes were reported to have contaminated the lake
from bottom to surface for a distance of one mile out from the Cuyahoga
and for two miles to the west and one mile to the east of the river
(Water Works Trustees, 1870).

During the 1870's further evidence of continued water quality
deterioration was published.   In 1877 one report stated that whitefish
eggs would be planted in the Cleveland area of Lake Erie, because of
the scarcity of fish (White,  1973).  Also, water quality data indicated
further deterioration.  Cleveland had constructed a new water intake
in the Lake approximately 6,200 feet lakeward of the old intake.  Data
were collected (Water Works Trustees, 1875) to compare water quality of
the new intake with that of the old (Table 3 ).

In 1882, the City of Cleveland experienced its first water supply
problem resulting from a bloom of algae (Water Works Trustees, 1883).
In mid July citizens complained of a disagreeable fishy taste and odor


            Table 1.  WATER QUALITY OF LAKE ERIE
               AND THE CUYAHOGA RIVER IN 1852.
August, 1852
August, 1852
October, 1852
Loss on
Earthly and
saline matter

a  Station 1.  Cuyahoga River near its mouth.
   Station 2.  Lake Erie, 0.5 miles from shore and 1.5 miles east of
   the Cuyahoga River.
   Station 3.  Lake Erie, 10 feet from shore and 1.5 miles east of the
   Cuyahoga River.

These data indicate that Lake Erie had considerably less total solids
than in the year 1900, a year generally considered to be representative
of Lake Erie in an unpolluted state.
              Table 2.  WATER QUALITY OF LAKE ERIE IN 1865.
February 19, 1865
February 19, 1865
Loss on
a  Station 1.  Lake Erie, 400 feet offshore and one mile west of the
   Cuyahoga River.
   Station 2.  Lake Erie, 3,000 feet lakeward of Station 1.

in the drinking water.  An investigation revealed that the taste and
odor were attributable to the "decay of a low form of aquatic
vegetation, resulting subsequently in fermentation of the water."  It
was also stated in this account that Cleveland had been previously
exempt from such a problem.

The first in-depth water quality study in the Cleveland area was
conducted in 1887 (Water Works Trustees, 1887).  Samples were collected
from the lake during the months of July, August, September,  October,
and November, on four lines running outward from the shore.   The first
line ran outward from West 117th Street, the second from West 58th
Street, the third from Marquette Avenue and the fourth from Doan Brook.
On each monthly run, samples were collected every half mile out from
two depths; four feet below the surface and five feet from the bottom.
The samples on the four lines were all taken on the same day and usually
after a heavy wind, in order to sample the lake in its worst condition.
Samples were also taken from ten miles offshore and 15 miles offshore.

The data are summarized in Table 4.  The general impact of the city on
Lake Erie was similar to the existing impact pattern.  Water quality
deteriorated from west to east across Cleveland and improved with
distance offshore.  The completeness of the 1887 data further show that
Cleveland has had a general depressing effect on the near shore water
quality of Lake Erie for nearly 90 years.

During the 1890's, two significant developments occurred concerning the
Cleveland sewer system.  First, plans were completed for several major
interceptors which established the present basic wastewater flow pattern
for the city.  Of most significance however is the year 1892 in which
the city constructed its first sewer overflow.  The first overflows
were built on an experimental basis to see if undercapacity sewers
could be relieved during heavy rains.  The experiment was considered
successful and it was stated that "The policy has now been adopted of
building these overflows wherever a proper outlet for the discharge can
be made available."  The Cleveland sewer system presently has over 600

From 1900 up to the present, the general types of problems and water
quality consequences that became evident in the 1850-1900 period
persisted.  Even with the construction and periodic upgrading of sewage
treatment plants in Cleveland, municipal wastes continued to be a
problem because of the sewer overflows.  Dredge material disposal was
considered a problem as early as 1886, especially where contamination
of the water supply was concerned.  The Cuyahoga River was evidencing
oxygen depletion late in the 19th century, and the existence of an
industrial waste problem has already been discussed.  Algal blooms were
taking place, and discussions were held in 1904 concerning possible
sanitary contamination of the water supply from watercraft.

A number of events marked the deterioration of water quality in the
Cleveland area between 1900 to the present.  One indication is the types


          Table 3.  WATER QUALITY OF LAKE ERIE IN 1873-1874
November, 1873
November, 1874
a Station 1.  Lake Erie, 400 feet offshore and one mile west of the
  Cuyahoga River.
  Station 2.  Lake Erie, 6,200 feet lakeward of Station 1.
              Table 4.  WATER QUALITY OF LAKE ERIE IN 1887
Distance offshore
0.5 miles
1.0 miles
1.5 miles
2.0 miles
10.0 miles
15.0 miles
a  A type of chemical oxygen demand test.

of fish populations that were affected.  The fish fauna of the Lake
Erie shoreline in the Cleveland area underwent several marked changes
due to pollution impact.  The first major impact occurred over fifty
years before 1900 when local populations of Muskellunge, Northern Pike,
and other desirable  fish were almost extirpated.  The second major
impact occurred between 1860 and 1890 when the Walleye, Smallmouth
Blackbass and shoreline fish such as darters and shiner suffered
pronounced decline approaching extirpation.  This second major
development in fish fauna can be directly correlated with the rapid
growth of Cleveland's gross pollution of the Cuyahoga River.  The third
major development was the rapid reduction of Sturgeon  in 1913 followed
by the drastic decline of Cisco by 1929.  The pollution remained
relatively constant for the next twenty years with commercial fishing
exerting a marked stress on the various fish populations (Regier and
Hartman, 1973).   The most recent impact on Cleveland area fish fauna
occurred in the 1950's.  The principal species affected were the Blue
Pike, the Yellow Walleye, and the Burbot together with other valued food
species that suffered pronounced decline and near extinction in the
Cleveland area waters.

A number of factors affected the decline of certain types of fish fauna
in the nearshore waters of Cleveland.  The pollution loadings from
municipal and industrial sources were a major cause of the decline.
Other factors amplified the effects.  These factors were damming of
streams physically, sediment loadings from exposed urban areas,
accelerated erosion and subsequent choking of spawning areas with silt
and clay from cleared woodlands, destruction of spawning areas such as
nursery marshes, and the added stress of the commercial fishing
industry.  As a result of the total impact of all these factors the
fish fauna of the area changed from clean water forms and highly
valuable food fishes, such  as Muskellunge, Walleye, Lake Trout, Silver
Chub and Burbot, to rough pollution tolerant and low value food fishes
such as the Goldfish, Carp, Gizzardshad and Perch.(White, 1973).  A
more detailed historical treatment is contained in Volume II > and in
Regier's and Hartman's article listed in the bibliography.

In terms of gross water quality deterioration in the Cleveland area, as
well as most of Lake Erie, the main impact from 1900 to the present
came from municipal and industrial discharges which were and are
directly proportional to the growth of the industry, commerce, and
population in the Cleveland area and in the Lake Erie watershed.  The
excessive nutrient loadings from these sources produced a plankton
succession in the lake.  This succession occurred over a period of a
hundred and fifty years, and it is a definite qualitative indicator of

The qualitative succession progressed from oligotrophic forms of
Asterionella and Synedra occurring in the phytoplankton pulses in
spring and fall to the eutrophic forms Melosira and Fragilaria.  For
the last three years the dominant forms in plankton pulses have become
the blue-green algae - Anabaena, Microcystis, and Aphanizomenon.
(Davis, 1964)


Lake Erie

Lake Erie waters described as bicarbonate (total alkalinity of 95 ppm
as CaC03) and similar to the average fresh waters of the world.  Average
pH is 8.3 and specific conductance at 18°C is 242 umhos. (N.B. This
would mean a dissolved solids concentration of 157 ppm rather than
205 reported.)
Detroit River, South of
  Grosse Island

Maumee River, mouth

Portage River, Woodville

Sandusky River, above
                    July 12,  1904

                    August 27,  1904

                    September 11, 1904

                    September 11, 1904




Quantitatively average summer densities have increased by a factor of
three, but the total biomass production has increased by a factor of
twenty since 1919.  Figure 2  shows the quantitative relationships of
biomass production increase.  The plankton succession and increase
produced profound effects on the hypolimnetic waters in terms of oxygen
depletion.  The dissolved oxygen dropped in the summer from 9 mg/1 to
1 mg/1 due to the plankton dying and sinking to the bottom, and
subsequently decomposing.  Consequently benthic organism succession
occurred from clean water forms to low oxygen tolerant forms such as
oligochaetes and chironomids.

The water quality deterioration in the Cleveland area between 1850
and 1900 was delineated to place the early conditions of Lake Erie in
proper perspective.  This is necessary information in the establishment
of water quality objectives.  The former Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration in its 1968 "Lake Erie Report" traced the increase of
several Lake Erie chemical constituents from the year 1900, see Table 5.
The curves generated for chlorides and total dissolved solids were
deceptive in that they indicated increases did not begin until after
1900.  In fact, chlorides had nearly tripled during the 1850 to 1900
period, and total dissolved solids increased during the same period by
50% to 100%.

The increase in solids during the 1800's is attributable to urban
industrial wastes for local areas, but overall increases in the lake
were caused by brine discharges from the developing oil fields in
northwestern Ohio.  Some of the streams tributary to the lake at that
time had staggering chloride loads.  The following data in Table 6
(Whipple, 1905) illustrate the problem.

These early levels need to be considered if Lake Erie water quality
improvement is considered to be a problem of restoration in addition
to a problem of waste input reduction.  Restoration objectives might
differ considerably from present guidelines.  For instance, the 1972
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with Canada sets the Lake Erie
dissolved solids objective at 200 milligrams per liter when in 1850,
the dissolved solids were at about half that level.  Also in 1972 the
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Lake Erie Standards
which included a recommendation that chlorides should not exceed
30 milligrams per liter.  In the mid-nineteenth century, chloride levels
were very likely less than one tenth the recommended level.  Also, as
pointed out earlier, many changes in the Lake occurred from disturbances
other than waste input.  A true restoration program would have to
consider aspects such as removal of dams and wetland restoration if the
original high quality fish populations are to be obtained.

Further consideration of overall Lake Erie standards and objectives are
beyond the scope of this study, but as part of the study many early data
have been made more accessible for use by necessary agencies.  These
data and sources have been catalogued at the Sears Library of Case
Western Reserve University.






            I I I
                                              M I  I I I I I 1  I I  I I  I I « t I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I  I t I
                                Figure 2.  Monthly  averages of phytoplankton abundances

                                          for selected  years showing the trend

Present Problems

Lake - The principal problems of near shore waters of the Cleveland area
are those of bacterial contamination, floating debris, exitrophication
and suspended solids.  These are discharged from four general sources.
Surface streams and drainage courses discharge continuously, carrying
bacteria and sewage from combined sewer overflows, debris from natural
and man generated sources, and suspended solids from erosion, industrial
discharges and sewer overflows.  Combined sewer overflows discharge
these pollutants on an intermittent basis, reaching high concentrations
during storms.  Effluents from sewage treatment plants discharge high
concentrations of B.O.D., suspended solids, plant nutrients and
bacteria.  Water from the harbor depresses the near shore water quality
of Lake Erie because the predominant westerly winds move residual
polluting materials parallel to the shore from the Cuyahoga River and
local combined sewer outfalls.  All of these discharges occur close
to shore, and affect water quality most severely within a mile of the
shore, rendering beaches unsafe for human contact.

Fish life is abundant in the near shore area, and is not controlled by
water quality in terms of occurrence.  The depressed water quality
areas do not prevent fish from migrating through.  Most of the fish
life however, are primarily low desirability food value fishes such as
goldfish or carp.  Eutrophication is evident in locally stagnant areas
especially in the Cleveland Harbor.

Streams - Cleveland area in terms of water management is treated as one
watershed with natural boundaries.  Three major rivers, the Rocky River
west of Cleveland, the Cuyahoga River running through Cleveland, and
the Chagrin River east of Cleveland, comprise the Three Rivers
Watershed.  Of the three rivers only the Cuyahoga evidences a profound
effect on the near shore water quality of Cleveland.

The Cuyahoga River flowing through the heavily industrialized section
of Cleveland and through the center of Cleveland is grossly polluted by
industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources besides land runoff.
Above the Cleveland area, the main sources are agricultural and land
runoff and discharges from Akron's industry and sewage treatment plants.
Within the Cleveland area, there are twelve major sources which
contribute heavy industrial and sanitary wastes to the river.  Sources
and their approximate discharges are tabulated in Table 7.

The flow of the Cuyahoga River averages about 850 cfs (550 mgd).  The
major users of water from the river are the steel companies which
collectively use 400 mgd, primarily for contact cooling.  This water is
recycled to the river bearing high solids loading.  These figures
indicate that 73% of the flow of the river is used in this manner,
illustrating the magnitude of the problem.  During low flow periods,
severity of this impact is intensified, resulting in extremely
depressed water quality in and around the Cuyahoga River estuary and the
Cleveland Harbor area of Lake Erie.  Figure 3 shows the portion of the
Cuyahoga River flowing through Cleveland.


Southerly Waste
Treatment Plant
U. S. Steel
(Cuyahoga Works)
Big Creek
Harshaw Chemical Co.
Jones & Laughlin Steel
Republic Steel
(2 plants)
E. I. Dupont de
Kingsbury Run
U. S. Steel
(Central Furnace)
Walworth Run
Republic Steel
(Nut & Bolt Div.)






Suspended solids






Total solids






— —
Total P






Note:  1968 data still valid as spot checked in 1973.

Figure 3.  Segment of the Cuyahoga River flowing through downtown Cleveland.


 The  river  in the  Cleveland  area  is  devoid  of  fish  life,  except  in a  few
 isolated areas where  small  colonies of  goldfish  exist.   Within  the
 greater Cleveland area there  are eleven streams  of significant  size
 which  discharge to the lake or Cuyahoga River.   These eleven  streams
 contribute an annual  total  of over  125,000,000 pounds of solids
 containing nearly 30,000,000  pounds of  B.O.D. and  C.O.D.  to Cleveland
 waters.  Table 8  summarizes the yearly loadings of  the various creeks.
 Most of the streams are heavily  degraded physically and  biologically.
 Only pollution tolerant biologic forms  are able  to survive in selected
 streams.   The physical degradation  is caused  by  culverting, channeli-
 zation, diversion, damming, and  waste dumping.   Most of  these streams,
 however, can be restored.

 General -  As a separate entity,  one of  the biggest sources of pollution
 to the Cleveland  area is combined sewer overflows.   Estimation  of the
 loadings are about 5% of the  annual flow to the  treatment plants,  or
 about  5.5  billion gallons annually.  Loadings for  this discharge  are
 given  in Table 9.

 Another definite  problem is the  disposal of dredgings from the  Cuyahoga
 River  inside dikes constructed in the Cleveland  Harbor.  These
 dredgings  contain pollutants  that are under anoxic  conditions released
 into the water.   With the thermal discharges  released by the municipal
 power  plant localized eutrophic  conditions are created.  Other  problems,
 other  than direct discharges, are produced by polluted leachate
 emissions  of the  waste fills  along  the  eastern shore in  the Harbor.
 Around those areas the water  quality is  heavily  degraded.

 Pollution  Abatement Measures

 In Progress  - A general approach  to  solving pollution problems  of  the
 Greater Cleveland area has been  formulated into  an  extensive regional
 plan,  and  many steps  are presently  underway.  Industrial sources  of
 pollution  are being abated  through various approaches, by either
 in-plant treatment or  by channelling the wastes  to  the municipal  sewer
 systems for  treatment.  Sewers and interceptors will be enlarged  to
 handle these  flows and prevent combined  sewer overflows and local
 flooding.    Before being discharged  to Cleveland waters, these flows will
 be treated at new or upgraded treatment plants.

 A program  of industrial pollution abatement has been in progress since
 1969 through efforts of the Cleveland Water Quality Program,  which is
 an organizational unit  in the Division of Utilities Engineering of the
 City of Cleveland.  A  total pollution survey was made, and all  sources
 traced.  Negotiations  by the Program with industries started the
 abatement  project.  Industrial concerns surveyed their operations and
 submitted plans to reduce or eliminate discharges.   In-plant
modifications, process  changes,  recycling,  construction of private
 treatment   facilities,  and discharging wastes to the Cleveland sewer
 system were discussed.


                                Table 8.  LOADS TO RECEIVING WATER  FROM STREAMS

                                               (pounds per year)
Dugway Brook
Doan Brook
Big Creek
Nine Mile Creek
Shaw Brook
Kingsbury Run
Morgan Run
Green Creek
Burke Brook
Mill Creek
Euclid Creek
Total PO^
as P
as N
     Note:   1968 data still valid as  spot  checked in 1973.

Pollutant	Total annual discharge

C.O.D.                                    23,900,000

B.O.D.5                                    7,510,000

Suspended solids                          14,320,000

Total solids                              41,680,000

Phosphorus (as P)                          1,098,000

Total nitrogen (as N)                      1,606,000

Note:  1968 data still valid as spot checked in 1973.

     Figure  4.   Sampling industrial  outfalls  on the Cuyahoga River.
                sediment contributor.)
(Note that the river bank is a

 At present,  about 40% of  the  112  industries  discharging  to  surface
 waters  have  ceased their  discharges.   Most of  these  industries,  however,
 are smaller  operations, while larger  companies are in the planning  or
 construction stage,  or are  awaiting court decisions  before  undertaking

 In August  of 1973 the program was  revised and  revitalized to provide a
 more dynamic and  comprehensive base for  effective  goal achievement.
 The program  (Figure  5.) called Industrial Discharge  to Streams
 Abatement  Program incorporates adjustments to  federal and state
 programs pursuing similar goals.   Presently, this  program is being
 closely coordinated  with  the  Ohio  Environmental Protection  Agency's
 activities on the requirements of  section 303E of  the 1972  Federal
 Water Pollution Control Act;  PL 92-500.  Closely associated with these
 activities urban  stream restoration feasibility studies  are being

 In July of 1972 the  Cleveland Regional Sewer District was formed
 consisting of Cleveland and 33 suburbs.  Raymond Kudukis, President of
 the Board  of Trustees of  the  Cleveland Regional Sewer District,
 described  this development in the  September, 1973  issue  of  Water and
 Wastes  Engineering publication:

     The District  cuts across  political boundaries  and jurisdictions
     and therefore is  in a unique position to be able  to  plan anti-
     water  pollution  projects  without fear of being stymied  by local
     political considerations.  It  is run by a  seven member  board of
     trustees  through  a director appointed by the board.  Four
     representatives  from  the  Cleveland subdistrict and three from
     the suburban  subdistrict  make  up the board.

     The Sewer District has taken over operation of the city's three
     major  sewage  treatment plants, which together  treat  about 300
     mgd, and  is continuing programs started by the City  of  Cleveland.
     In  order  to meet  standards set by the Federal Water Pollution
     Control Act Amendment of  1972, this means upgrading  the treatment
     plants and improving  the  collection system with an extensive
     network of sewers, trunks, mains,  and interceptors.  Much of
     the work  aimed at achieving advanced wastewater treatment is
     already underway  and  limited only by the availability of federal

    At  the core of Cleveland's efforts to achieve water quality are
     the Easterly,  Westerly,  and Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plants
    and their collection systems.

The Cleveland Regional Sewer District  will simplify the implementation
of expansion and upgrading of waste treatment facilities  and collection
systems.  Plans for five  large interceptors  to  carry the  wasteload
to treatment plants are either completed or  being implemented,  with just


a few minor details yet to be negotiated.  A small sewer project is
developed which sets repair or replacement priorities on all area
sewers.  Permanent rain gauges relaying precipitation data instantly
to a computer are installed around the greater Cleveland area for
monitoring flow in the sewer system.  (See Figure 6.)

On October 26, 1972, the Cleveland Regional Sewer District adopted
Resolution No. 15-72 establishing an industrial waste sewer charge.  The
charge to industrial users of facilities in the Cleveland Regional
Sewer District becomes effective January 1, 1974.  The District has
contracted the Water Quality Program of the Division of Utilities
Engineering of the City of Cleveland to design and implement this

The industrial waste charge has been instituted to a large degree in
response to the "Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972."
Title II of the Act (Grants for Construction of Treatment Works).
Section 204 (b) (1) (B) which reads in part that no construction grants
for treatment works shall be approved unless provision has been made to
receive payment from industrial users of treatment works for "that
portion of the cost of construction of such treatment works which is
allocable to the treatment of such industrial wastes."  Maintenance of
eligibility to receive Federal construction grants for improvements of
of wastewater treatment facilities remains an important part of the
Cleveland Regional Sewer District's water pollution control program.

Proposed - By the end of 1973, it is estimated that 75% of industries
discharging to Cleveland's waters will have ceased their discharges.
The major polluters of the waterways are expected to construct
treatment facilities as soon as court decisions and consent decrees are

The proposed plan to eliminate sanitary and storm sewage overflow
contains two approach methods.  First, since much of the sanitary load
to the treatment plants originates in the suburbs, five new interceptors
will be built to carry this waste express to the plants.  This will
relieve the overburdened Cleveland combined system of suburban wastes,
providing larger capacity for Cleveland discharges and eliminating 100%
of dry weather overflows.  The Northwest Interceptor, costing $23 million
is underway, with Southeast, Southwest, Cuyahoga Valley and Heights
Interceptor projects to follow.  The other basic approach involves more
efficient use of the present system.  A system of inflatable dams
strategically placed within existing interceptor, and operated by
computer, will throttle heavy flows during storm conditions.  These
"Fabri-Dams" respond to the data generated by the rain gauge stations.
Combined with proposed storm flow storage basins, they will be able to
handle 95% of a ten year storm by automatically inflating and deflating
to regulate or divert flows.  (See Figure 7.)

With improved collection and transport facilities, the treatment plants
must be upgraded to treat  the increased volume of waste, and consonant



               ABATEMENT  PROGRAM
                                                                     • Industrial Wastecharqe
                Co-ordinate  Efforts
               With Other Agencies
                                                Compile  1969
                                                Baseline  Data
                                                                 Assess Past
Project Summary
 & Approval
                                                                                                      Select Prime
                            For Abatement
AObtain Progress
J Reports
\ Examine
Future Plans
Lend Technical
^[\ Assess Present
\J Status
OSet Abatement
Support *f^\
fcf*N Evaluate Past r/"*^ Summary ^/*~NQuality Control _
"\^>'lmpact Of Project V
O Estimate /
Future Impact
Individual Abatement
J Report ~Vk^ Program
                                                                                                                          WOP  8-73
                         Figure  5.   Industrial  discharge  to  streams  abatement program  flow chart.

                                                            '..-.     *   \
                                                             '     N   \ \
                                                            /  *-x   V \ >
                      Figure 6.  Nine month total precipitation (February to October 1973)

                                 Points shown are rain gauge stations.

with water quality standards, improve treatement efficiency.  The three
Cleveland Regional Sewer District wastewater treatment plants, Easterly,
Southerly, and Westerly, are being upgraded for these objectives.

Easterly plant - The existing 140 mgd Easterly Plant which has provided
both primary and secondary treatment since it was built as a WPA
project in the 1930's is undergoing an expansion program which will
increase its design capacity to a dry weather flow of 170 mgd with the
capability of treating 380 mgd wet weather flow.  Flows in excess of
380 mgd will be diverted by new headworks under construction to storage
basins for subsequent treatment.

Advanced wastewater treatment techniques including chemical treatment
are being included in the Easterly design expansion by the design
engineers, Havens and Emerson, Limited.  Primary plant expansion has
been completed and expansion of the secondary plant, begun by the City
of Cleveland, will continue in phases with completion scheduled for

On January 3, 1973, the Cleveland Regional Sewer District was awarded
a grant from the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for the
construction of the new headworks and pretreatment facilities.

On May 3, 1973, the Board of Trustees of the Cleveland Regional Sewer
District awarded an $11.9 million dollar contract for this construction
to the J. M. Foster Company.  The next two phases of the Easterly
expansion will consist of a new effluent pumping station and new
effluent conduit which will place the plant effluent into Lake Erie some
4,000 feet off shore and will provide 35 minutes of chlorine contact
time to the effluent before it reaches the Lake.

Future projects include storm water storage facilities and applications
of advanced wastewater treatment techniques to provide tertiary

Plans for advanced treatment facilities include phosphorus removal,
and microstraining or filtering of secondary effluent.

The Easterly Plant expansion ranks fourth on the current priorities list
of Ohio projects for Federal grant financing and $7.5 million dollars
in Federal funding has been earmarked for the Easterly expansion in
fiscal 1974.  (See Figures 8 and 9)

Southerly plant - The 115 mgd Southerly Plant is the largest existing
treatment plant in the Cleveland area and presently provides both
primary and secondary treatment.  A total redesign of the Southerly
Plant to provide increased treatment capacity, advanced waste treatment,
is currently being performed by Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., Consulting
Engineers.  Capacity of the Southerly Plant will be expanded to 200 mgd
dry weather flow with capacity of providing treatment for up to 960 mgd
wet weather flow.


                             UNDERGROUND EQUIPMENT  VAULT
                        PjOWER  OPERATED GATE
                                                          LAKE   ERIE
                                  .  DRY  WEATHER  OUTLET
                                    TO  INTERCEPTOR
Figure 7.  A typical automated regulator-overflow control.  The
           inflatable dam, shown in the storm water outlet, is
           made of a rubber coated fabric which is resistant to
           puncture, weathering and wastewater degradation.  The
           dam is attached to a poured concrete base and to the
           walls of the existing sewer using clamping bars held
           in position with anchor bolts.  An inflation pipe and
           pressure sensing line run from the dam to an underground
           vault.  Inflatable dams are used in order to minimize
           modifications of the existing sewer and to assure that
           upon opening (deflating) the full section of the storm
           water overflow is available for conveying extreme storm
           flows.  (Watermation, Inc.)


Figure 8.  Aerial view of the present Cleveland Easterly Water Pollution
           Control Plant

• -* A
      Figure 9.   Aerial view of the present Cleveland Southerly Water
                 Pollution Control Plant.


All flow into the plant up to 400 mgd will have complete treatment and
flow in excess will have the equivalent of primary treatment with
provisions allowing the addition of organic and for inorganic

A biological treatment process combining standard primary and secondary
treatment with advanced wastewater treatment processes to provide
tertiary treatment is planned for the new Southerly Plant.  When
completed, the plant will have the necessary capacity to provide
treatment for most of the communities in the southern half of Cuyahoga
County and some parts of northern Summit County.

The Southerly Plant expansion ranks first on the priority list of Ohio
projects for Federal funding for the current fiscal year.  Since the
Southerly project is now in the first stages of design and a phased
construction program is planned, $10 million dollars has been  allocated
for Federal funding for fiscal 1974.  The additional monies will be
allocated in succeeding fiscal years with completion of the new plant
scheduled for 1978.

Westerly plant - The existing 35 mgd Westerly Plant is the oldest of
the three treatment plants and provides only primary treatment.  The use
of chemical treatment aids has, however, enabled the plant to provide
treatment despite the large concentration of industrial wastes which
the plant receives.  The Westerly Plant will be completely replaced by
a new 50 mgd physical-chemical plant which will be the largest operation
of its kind in the world and will be the first to apply physical-
chemical treatment to a large industrial flow.

The operating principle consists of primary sedimentation followed by
addition of lime.  The lime will achieve phosphate removal by
converting phosphorus into insoluble calcium phosphate.  Organic
polyelectrolytes will be added as the wastewater enters a flocculation-
clarification stage.  This will provide a high solids removal efficiency.
The pH wil then be adjusted by recarbonation.

Additional solids removal will be achieved by filtration followed by
organic removal with carbon adsorption columns.  Ozonation may be used
for disinfection and additional B.O.D. removal.

Design engineers of the new Westerly Plant are Zurn Environmental

The estimated cost of the new Westerly Plant is approximately $40
million dollars and it has been approved for Federal funding by the
United States Environmental Protection Agency.  The Board of Trustees
awarded the first contract for the new plant, a $3.5 million dollar
sludge incineration equipment contract, to Envirotech Systems, Inc. of
California on January 11, 1973.  The second construction contract for
the new incinerator building and chemical building will be bid in the


 fall of 1973.  The final construction contract  (Contract III and IV)
 consisting of headworks, clarifiers and filters, will be bid in early
 1974 and the new plant is scheduled to be in operation by late 1976.

 Effectiveness-Effluent Quality - With proposed  industrial effluent
 upgrading or elimination, it is predicted that  the Cuyahoga River
 could support aquatic life  (A) if bottom sediments do not produce toxic
 effects on the biota.  At present, 1.22 million yards of material are
 dredged annually from the Cuyahoga and Cleveland Harbor.  With removal
 of the steel industries' discharged wastes, this should reduce the
 volume by nearly 50%, solving not only a water quality problem, but
 also diminishing a disposal problem connected with the dredgings.

 The three upgraded wastewater treatment plants will considerably reduce
 pollution loadings.  With the new Easterly facilities, removal of B.O.D.
 and suspended solids will be 95% each, and the removal of phosphorus
 will be 85%.  Southerly will achieve the same removal efficiency.
 Westerly will have a B.O.D. removal capacity of at least 90% and a
 suspended solids removal of at least 95%.  Removal of phosphorus will
 be no less than 85%.


 The limits of the study area were established to determine if possible
 the overall impact of the Cleveland metropolitan area on the near-shore
waters of the lake.  These limits are shown in Figure 10.  The area
 extended from Lakewood Park on the west to East 222nd Street (Moss
 Point) on the east.  The offshore limit of the study area was generally
 considered to be the ten meter depth line, although some samples were
 collected from areas of greater depth.

 In addition to the area given for the lake itself, important tributary
 sources of wastes to the lake were also studied.  These sample locations
 are also shown in Figure 10.  All routine sampling stations for the study
 are described in Tables 10 and 11.

The overall results of the baseline study were not unexpected in that
 there was a measureable impact of the Cleveland area on Lake Erie near-
 shore waters.  The general impact pattern was much the same as in 1886 -
water quality deteriorated from west to east across the Cleveland area
and improved with distance offshore.  What was unexpected,  however,
was localized degradation in water quality along the Cleveland lakefront
 itself,  correlated largely with point sources of waste discharge.  The
 lakefront along Cleveland has been considered to be a homogeneous area
of severely depressed water quality.  In effect, there are several zones
of severe water quality deterioration in Cleveland and several zones of
marginal quality, with good water quality both to the immediate east and
west of Cleveland.   These depressed areas are identifiable most readily
by the sediment chemistry and benthic organisms present.   It is of
 interest to note that even after 100 years of continuous waste input,
 the areas presently showing depressed water quality are correlated with
present point sources.



                                                     •12    Shoreline Stations

                                                     •12 L   Lake Stations

                                                    — - — -   Municipal Boundary
Figure  10.   Area covered by the  study showing  sampling  stations


Lake Stations
32 1

                        Table 11.  SAMPLING STATIONS
Shoreline Stations
#1.    Easterly Effluent
       Lat. 41° 34' 14"  Long. 81° 35' 16"

#2     Southerly Effluent
       River Mile 11.0

#3     Westerly Effluent
       Lat. 41° 29' 38"  Long. 81° 43' 39"

#4     Cuyahoga River, Railroad Spur
       River Mile 11.2

#5     Cuyahoga River, River Smelting
       River Mile 8.3

#6     Cuyahoga River, Lower Harvard
       River Mile 7.2

#7     Cuyahoga River, Center Street
       River Mile 1.0

#8     Euclid Park, East 222nd Street
       Lat. 41° 36' 52"  Long. 81° 31' 45"

#9     Euclid Creek, Lakeshore Boulevard
       River Mile 0.6

#10    Green Creek, Lakeshore Boulevard
       River Mile 0.1

#11    Nine Mile Creek, Lakeshore Boulevard
       River Mile 0.4

#12    Dugway Brook, Lakeshore Boulevard
       River Mile 0.4

#13    Doan Brook,  Gordon Park
       River Mile 0.0

The areas of current water quality depressions are in the Cleveland
Harbor near the entrance of the Cuyahoga River, and near the Westerly
and Easterly wastewater treatment plants.  There is considerable
improvement in water quality within the Cleveland Harbor moving
eastward.  At the eastern end of the harbor where there is a general
mixing of open lake water, the quality is surprisingly good.  An
additional area of water quality depression evidenced by both sediment
chemistry and benthic organisms is along the lakeward side of the
harbor breakwall, opposite Burke Lakefront Airport (Table 12).  This
area was used until recently for disposal of dredge material from the
Cuyahoga River and the Cleveland Harbor.

It is unfortunate that the two public bathing beaches in the Cleveland
area are located within the zones of severe water quality depression
associated with the Westerly and Easterly wastewater treatment plants.
These two bathing beaches, Edgewater Park and White City Beach, have
been in existence since the turn of the century, and while attention
has recently been called to the health hazard associated with them, the
following passage indicates that the situation is not new:

    "A very proper disposal of the sewage of the City will have
    a very marked effect upon the quality of the water at the
    bathing beaches within the city limits, all of which were
    closed during the past year by the Board of Health.
    Sterilization of the effluents at least during the bathing
    period will render the water safe for bathing purposes.

    The closing of all bathing beaches means a great hardship
    and it seems expedient during the present season to allow
    the use of Gordon Park Beach (White City Beach) and
    Edgewater Park Beach by shutting off the nearest storm
    overflows."  (Jackson, 1912)

The original problem at the beaches was occurring when the city had no
wastewater treatment plants.  When the plants were first constructed,
the beach areas improved.  It is anticipated that these two beach areas
will again improve under the present control program.  Data collection
during this study will contribute to assessing the effectiveness of the
presently planned program.  The new Northwest Interceptor and the
Westerly Wastewater Treatment Plant will provide an optimum opportunity
to see improvement in the associated area of Lake Erie.

The tasks undertaken on zooplankton and phytoplankton yielded similar
results in that all of these organisms were affected more by daily
open lake conditions than by waste inputs from the Cleveland area.  It
was expected that an overall impact of the Cleveland area would be
evidenced by distinct changes in the planktonic populations offshore of
Cleveland as compared to populations outside the immediate Cleveland
area.  It was determined, h-;wever, that the plankton populations were
extremely transitory and could change drastically within hours.  While
the populations were probably indicators of water quality conditions


at some point in the lake, a detailed analysis of currents in the lake
correlated exactly with water quality data concerning the impact of
particular waste inputs.

Analyses of the fish populations in the Cleveland area resulted in
several important findings.  Although more fish species than originally
anticipated were found, the more abundant of these were open lake
spawners, pollution tolerant, or head-water species found in the
underdeveloped areas of streams tributary to the study area.  In general
regard to the high number of species still found to exist in the area,
it is significant that greater than 90% of all fish captured (based on
numbers) were yellow perch, Perca flavescens.

Unlike benthic populations, fish species did not display any particular
avoidance of particular point sources of waste input, except for the
Cuyahoga River itself.  With the Cuyahoga excluded from consideration,
a given species of fish was equally likely to be caught anywhere along
the Cleveland shoreline.  At the same time, the highest concentrations
of fish could be found near the significant point sources of waste
input, including around the mouth of the Cuyahoga River within the

NO apparent environmental stress was found relating to the size of the
adult fish.  It appeared that if a fish was able to pass a critical
stage in growth, no effects from water quality would be evident.
Yellow perch, from the Cleveland area, for example, were favorably
comparable in length and weight with perch from a cleaner waters to the
east and west of Cleveland.  Reproduction of population recruitment was
limited in the study area with respect to the overall population level
of fish.  Spawning was limited to the harbor, breakwall and marina areas.

Discharges of wastes from the major point sources in the Cleveland area
to the lake were established.  The data of most interest from the
chemical monitoring program are the concentrations - total load
relationships for the Cuyahoga River.   Strictly on the basis of
concentrations, the river showed much improvement in water quality
between 1971 and 1972, for most parameters studied.  However, it
can be seen that for parameters studied, the total load increases
with flow, even for those chemical constituents that display
considerable reduction in concentration with increased river flow.
This is a function of dilution from precipitation, of course, and
future measurements taken to assess the water pollution control
program impact will have to compare effectiveness on the basis  of
total load reductions rather than concentration reduction.   The
"improvement" seen between 1971 and 1972 in the river on the basis of
concentration is in fact a reflection of the difference in rainfall
between the two years; 1972 being wetter (See Figure 11).   Similar
statements can be applied to the Lake Erie water quality data.   The
conditions are distorted because of the dilution factor from higher
lake levels resulting from more precipitation.


                                                   Accumulated  Total  Inches
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The evaluation of the results of all the investigations concerned with
water quality shows three basic aspects.  One is that there are
definitely distinguishable zones of variable water quality in the
study area as shown by a general "pollutopleth" map (Figure 12).
Second aspect shows that the water quality indicators, especially
chemical parameters, have a periodicity as related to concentration and
dilution due to increased quantities of receiving waters.  The third
aspect points out clearly that accurate delineation of detailed
baseline conditions requires a more intense sampling and unified
framework, which this project did not have.  Additional interpretation
of the results shows that at best the Cleveland near shore water
quality, as covered by the study, has stabilized to a depressed,  but
restorable level.

 Grossly  Polluted-Highly Eutrophic

 Highly Enriched - Eutrophic

I Moderately Enriched - Moderately  Eutrophic

(Mildly Enriched-Mildly Eutrophic
                                                         Figure 12.
Pollution intensity  zones  in
the near shore lake  area of.

                              SECTION IV




The study required traditional and innovative methods of acquiring data
on the past and present water quality conditions of the studied area.
Each investigator conducted his own literature search, in addition to
the library support project, which executed an in-depth literature
survey, collected 2,154 reports, and catalogued 1,093 of the total.  In
relation to the methods outside literature search, accepted scientific
methods were used in sample collection and analysis, according to each
discipline.  Most of these methods can be classed as "standard methods."
The administrative methods were primarily "ad hoc" and did not
constitute a systems approach.  In depth descriptions of the scientific
methods are contained in the appropriate indexes.

Literature Search, Compilation, and Availability

The bulk of the available literature research was accomplished through
the library support project by the Sears Library specialists of Case
Western Reserve University.

The aims of the library support project were: to give direct support to
those working on the project, making searches and acquiring needed
publications, to identify relevant literature sources, existing and
on-going projects and data bases, and to study and evaluate existing
thesauri to provide terms for retrieval of collected references for
later retrieval by computer.

A literature specialist was employed to serve as a research librarian to
the investigators and to study existing literature sources; in addition
to identifying on-going projects, the data-bases which they were
building, and the access to those data, including those which were
computer-based.  Clerical service to support the effort was also provided.

The aims of the project were carried out as follows:

First, the Lake Erie Study Collection was set up.  This is a collection
of reports in the environmental sciences, particularly local water
pollution material.  Its purpose was to serve researchers in the area
of water pollution and to be the library arm of an interdisciplinary,
inter-institutional project studying the pollution of Lake Erie.

The Lake Erie Study Collection started from nothing in February, 1972,
and now contains 2,154 reports (1,093 of which have been catalogued),
some formerly part of the Sears Library Collection, some formerly in


Government Documents, Freiberger Library, and the remainder acquired
through purchase or request.  173 requests for reports were written.
100 books on the specific subject of eutrophication were selected and

This collection represents the data base planned for development as
Phase I of the library project.  The catalog cards prepared for this
material constitute the manual record from which machine-readable
records will be prepared for the automated information retrieval system
planned as part of Phase II of this project.

Since February of 1972, 287 items were circulated by the Lake Erie Study
Collection.  These items had first to be located, procured from the
issuing source, and processed.

One hundred and twenty interlibrary loans were made by the collection.
These represent specific requests from project members as well as items
located through a regular scanning of current bibliographies, indexes,
abstracts and periodicals.

Project meetings were held at the library, at which the project members
discussed their specific projects and the literature needs related to
that project.  The librarian described the resources and services
available from the collection.

To provide a broader data base to the investigators, the water pollution
literature resources at the following locations in the Cleveland area
were examined:

    Sears Library, Case Western Reserve University
    Freiberger Library, Case Western Reserve University
    Health Sciences Library, Case Western Reserve University
    Municipal Reference Library, Cleveland Public Library
    John Carroll University
    Cleveland State University
    City of Cleveland, Water Quality Program

To speed retrieval of specific sources, periodical holdings lists were
collected from John Carroll University, Biology Department; Cleveland
State University; and the Cleveland Natural  Sciences Museum.  Report
holdings lists were collected from John Carroll University, Biology
Department; the Water Quality Program of the City of Cleveland; and the
Systems Engineering Division of the Case Western Reserve University,
School of Engineering.

Secondly, to maintain awareness of research and publications on water
resources at other locations, nationwide, bibliographies and directories
of agencies concerned with water resources were collected.  Requests were


 sent  out  to be put  on  the mailing  lists  to  receive publications of
 relevant  agencies.  A  file of agencies concerned with water resources
 was Begun.  This file  now includes  727 agencies.

 To facilitate literature searching, a record of abstracts, indexes,
 periodicals and bibliographies in  the water resources research area
 was started.  Systematic examination of  current issues of relevant
 abstracts and indexes  issues of pertinent abstracts and indexes was
 instituted.  Project members were notified .of reports in their area of
 investigation.  This constituted a  personalized SDI service for project
 members.  Potentially  useful reports listed in these current sources
 were  ordered and placed in the collection.

 Since currency of information is particularly important in this rapidly
 advancing field, a  file of pamphlets and ephemers was set up.  This now
 contains material under 150 different subject headings.

 Thirdly, a search was  conducted for a thesauri to provide terms for
 retrieval of collected references.  After study and evaluation of the two
 United States Government water resources thesauri, as well as the
 abstracts and indexes  in the areas  of water resources, pollution and more
 general fields, the librarian recommended waiting for publication of the
 more  comprehensive  thesaurus being prepared by the United States
 Environmental Protection Agency Library.  The two major reasons for the
 recommendation  are:

    1.  Water pollution is inter-related with other areas of the
        environment.  Materials covering broader areas must be included
        in the collection.  Therefore, a thesaurus which covers a broader
        area must be used, supplemented by  the more detailed breakdown of
        the water thesauri.

    2.  The Lake Erie  Study Collection contains the publications of the
        Environmental Protection Agency which are received on deposit
        at the Government Documents Collection at Freiberger Library.
        This is a large, rapidly-growing collection.  Concern for ease
        of retrieval dictates that this material should be subject
        analyzed in congruence with the nationwide system.

To summarize,  three specific aims were set up for the library support
project.  The first was to give direct support to those working on the
project.  This was accomplished by holding project meetings,  providing
acquisition and interlibrary loan service, doing literature searches, and
establishing the Lake Erie Study Collection, the data base for
computerized retrieval in Phase II of the project.

The second aim was to identify relevant literature,  projects  and data
bases.  This was accomplished by building a collection of directories
and bibliographies and establishing a comprehensive  file of agencies in
the water resources area.   The third aim was to evaluate thesauri to
provide terms for subject retrieval of literature in this area.


Chemical Methods

There were three principal chemical investigations accomplished in this
project.  One was the determination of buffering effects of suspended
sediments on the concentrations of dissolved sodium, potassium,
magnesium, and calcium in the Cuyahoga River expressed in cation
exchange reactions.  The second investigation dealt with the determination
of chemical water quality based on dissolved solids concentration and
other parameters in the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie in the study area
as shown in Figure 10.  The third investigation was concerned with the
determination of the chemical composition of near shore Lake Erie
benthic sediments .

Cation Exchange Investigation - This investigation involved field and
laboratory methods.  In the field, (see Figure 10), the Cuyahoga River
was sampled periodically at three sampling stations:

    1.  At Rockside Road bridge (approximately mile 14.8), before the
        river enters the major industrial area of Cleveland,

    2.  At the Harvard-Denis on bridge (approximately mile 7.1), and

    3.  At the Detroit-Superior bridge (mile 1.0).

Samples were either taken from the bridges by a bucket on a line (and are
therefore surface samples) or from the City's Water Quality Program boat
by pumping the samples out through a hose.  Most of the samples taken
from the boat are triple samples obtained from three depths: a foot
below the surface, a foot above the bottom and at mid depth.  This
method was used to test how well the dissolved ions and suspended
sediments were mixed in the river.  All samples from station 1 are
surface because  it is above the head of navigation; surface-only
samples were taken at stations 2 and 3 during the winter and early
spring when the City's boat was out of the water and after June 14, 1972,
by which time we had concluded that the river is always so well mixed
that only surface samples need be taken.  The period of sampling began
August 11, 1971, and terminated September 14, 1972.

In the laboratory the sediments were separated from the water either by
high speed centrifugation with a Sharpies centrifuge or by allowing them
to flocculate from five gallons of sample.  An aliquot of the water was
saved for chemical analysis.  The separated sediment was dried and washed
with acetone and split into two aliquots for a determination of:

    1.  Cation exchange capacity and amounts of exchangeable sodium,
        potassium, magnesium and calcium on the untreated  (inorganic
        plus organic particulate material) sample, and
     2.   amount of organic material oxidizable with 30% ^02, the cation
         exchange capacity of the resulting inorganic fraction and x-ray


        diffraction analysis of the inorganic fraction.  Each of these
        procedures is described in more detail in the Bibliography.

Water Quality Chemistry Investigation - The field methods involved
bucket sampling.  The samples were collected from the lake or river by
tossing a bucket into the stream and pouring the sample into a
polyethylene sample bottle.  Dissolved oxygen and temperature
measurements were taken prior to pouring the sample into the sample
bottle.  Dissolved oxygen measurements  were made with a precalibrated
Yellow Springs Instrument Company oxygen meter.  Samples from the sewage
plant effluents were twenty-four composite samples composited hourly.
These samples were brought back to the Water Quality Laboratory the same
morning and they were immediately cut into aliquots and taken to various
sections of the laboratory for analysis.  All the analyses performed on
these samples were done in accordance with Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th edition, or, Methods for the
Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, Environmental Protection Agency,
1971.  Quality control on these samples was maintained by the
simultaneous analysis of standards, duplicates, and standard addition

Benthic Sediment Methodology - The samples were obtained once a month,
weather permitting, at ten sites selected along about twenty miles of the
southern shoreline of Lake Erie stretching from Rocky River to Euclid
Creek.  (Figure 10)  The samples were Ponar dredge grab samples taken
at the same time as other samples were taken for biological studies.  The
vessel used for the cruises was an open Boston whaler purchased by this

The sediment samples were transferred into wide mouth polyethylene jars
which had been cleaned with dichromate acid cleaning solution and rinsed
thoroughly with tap, distilled and deionized water, in sequence.  No
preservatives were used.  The jar caps were screwed on as tightly as
possible to prevent access of air.  Usually at least one liter of water
was obtained with the sediment.  Several stations had rocky or densely
packed gravel bottoms so that often little sediment was obtained.

In the laboratory the samples were transferred to a cold room or
refrigerator at  4° c.   Usually they were allowed to stand overnight to
allow the supernatants to clarify somewhat before they were decanted
into 250 ml polypropylene centrifuge bottles, capped and centrifuged in
a Sorval or International centrifuge at  4° C.  One bottle of
centrifugate was filtered through 0.45 micron millipore filters.
Filtered and unfiltered water samples were analyzed as soon as possible
for nitrogen,  phosphorus and carbon species.   Portions of some decantates
were stored in plastic bottles at 4° C for possible future examination.

The sediment from which the bulk of the supernatant had been decanted was
shaken and stirred with a large spatula to obtain apparent homogeneity.
A portion was  transferred to a Waring blender (1/2 to 2/3 full)  and


homogenized for one or more minutes in the cold room at 4° C.  The
blender was then taken to the balance room and samples were weighed out
using an analytical balance while the blender was at low speed,  for
the following determinations.

    1.  Percent solids due to loss of water in drying at 70° C, in
        porcelain crucibles.  Subsequently these samples were used to
        determine the percent loss on ignition and percent organic

    2.  Metal determinations by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

After the above samples were weighed on the analytical balance, a 50
gram sample was weighed on a top loading balance accurate to 0.01 gram
for the grease determination.

Another portion of about 100 grams was transferred to a beaker for
drying at 70° C for storage.

The remainder of the blended sediment was transferred to a plastic
bottle for freeze drying and storage.

If there was considerable sediment in the original gallon jar all or a
portion of it was transferred to plastic jars for freeze storage in case
additional investigation became desirable.

These analytical procedures were employed:

    1.  Percent Solids.  Triplicate two to six gram samples of sediments
were transferred from the Waring blender to porcelain crucibles with lids
which had been weighed to constant weight on a sartorius single pan
analytical balance.  The samples were dried overnight in a gravity oven
at 70° C,  weighed and redried to constant weight.  The percent solids
were calculated in the usual manner.

    2.  Percent Loss on Ignition.  (LOI)  After constant weight had been
attained in the percent solids determination the crucibles and lids were
transferred to a muffle furnace at 900° C for at least two hours.  They
were cooled and weighed and reignited until constant weight was attained.
The LOI was due to combustion of organic matter and loss of carbon
dioxide from limestone in the sediment.  The LOI was calculated on the
basis of the 70° C dry weights.

    3.  Percent Organic Content.  After constant weight had been attained
after loss on ignition the contents of the crucibles were wet with
deionized water.  The crucibles were then placed into a large desiccator
containing dry ice to provide a high concentration of carbon dioxide for
absorption by the alkaline oxides and reconstitution of the corresponding
carbonates.  The crucibles were stored thus overnight, dried at 110° C
for two to four hours and weighed.  The sequence was repeated for a week


or longer until constant weights were attained.   The percent carbon
dioxide absorbed would represent carbonate carbon.  The difference
between percent LOI and percent carbon dioxide absorbed is reported as
organic carbon.  All calculations were based on the sediment weight
after drying at 70° C.

    4.  Grease Determinations.  Fifty-gram samples of blended sediment
were weighed into 400 ml beakers and acidified to ph less than two with
one to two ml of six normal sulfuric acid.  Fifty grams of anhydrous
magnesium sulfate was stirred into the sediment and spread on the sides
of the beaker.  Mixing was continued intermittently until the mixture
dried.  The dried mixture was ground with a mortar and pestle  and
small Wiley mill if necessary until all the material passed thirty mesh.
Two 40 gram portions were weighed into a medium sized Soxhlet thimble
and set up for extraction with redistilled hexane.  The Soxhlet
extraction apparatus was set up and the heaters were controlled with a
Variac transformer to carry out the extraction at 20 cycles per hour for
four hours.  At the end of the extraction period the extraction flask
was attached to a Rotovap for removal of the hexane under reduced
pressure.  The concentrated extract was filtered with suction through a
small medium porosity fritted funnel into a preweighed 10 ml erlenmeyer
flask or vial.  The extraction flask was rinsed several times with
hexane using a Pasteur transfer pipet.  The hexane was evaporated from
the 10 ml receiver by drawing air through the funnel in situ.  The 10 ml
vessel with grease concentrate was dried in a vacuum oven at room
temperature overnight before being weighed on the analytical balance.
The percent grease was calculated on the basis of the percent solids in
the 20 gram portion of wet sediment per sample.

During the course of the project the Soxhlet hot plate burned out so that
sediment samples had to be stockpiled until a new hot plate was
available.  It was decided to use 20 gram portions  of sediment which
had been dried at 70° C or freeze dried.  No magnesium sulfate was
required during the extraction of such samples.

    5.  Heavy Metals Determination.  Triplicate samples of blended
sediment weighing two to eight grams were weighed into small preweighed
Soxhlet thimbles which absorbed the water.  The thimbles were placed into
200 or 250 ml erlenmeyer flasks with 29/40 ground glass necks so that
reflux condensers could be attached.  The samples were treated with
80 ml  aqua regia to decompose the paper thimbles and dissolve as much
of the sediment as possible.  The samples were digested under reflux
overnight.  The condensers were rinsed into the flasks with deionized
water and diluted solution was filtered through Whatman 42 filter paper
into 500 ml volumetric flasks.  The residues were washed thoroughly with
deionized water and the filtrate was made up to 500 mis.  The filtrate
was transferred to one pint plastic bottles for storage.  The filtrate
was less than two formal in total acid because of decomposition of aqua
regia during digestion.


The metals were determined on the filtrate, diluted if necessary, by
atomic absorption spectrophotometry with an Instrument Laboratory
153 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.  The metals analyzed were
cadmium, calcium (with lanthanum chloride diluent added), chromium,
cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury (flameless atomic absorption
spectrophotometry), nickel and zinc.  The results were reported as
milligrams per gram dry sediment based  upon standardization curves for
each element.

    6.  Total Nitrogen (Kjeldahl) in Sediments.  Two hundred milligram
samples of sediment which had been oven dried at 70° C or freeze dried
and pulverized to pass 100 mesh were weighed and transferred into 100 ml
micro-Kjeldahl flasks and digested in concentrated sulfuric acid,
potassium sulfate and mercuric sulfate in the usual manner until white
fumes of sulfur trioxide were obtained and the solution was colorless
or pale yellow.  The residue was cooled, diluted with deionized water
and transferred to the reaction flask of the micro-Kjeldahl distillation
apparatus.  The solution was made alkaline with sodium hydroxide-sodium
thiosulfate solution and heated to distill the ammonia into a calibrated
beaker containing 10 ml of two percent weight per volume boric acid
solution until the 50 ml mark was reached.  The absorbed ammonia was
titrated with 0.02 normal HC1 using a microburet.

    7.  Total Phosphate in Sediments.   The total phosphate was determined
on the dilute aqua regia solution prepared for heavy metal analysis.
Due to the high iron content of the solutions it was necessary to use
the benzene-isobutanol extraction procedure followed by stannous
chloride reduction. (223 Method E, Stannous Chloride Method, Standard
Methods, 13th Edition, pp 530-532)

    8.  Carbon Species in Aqueous Supernatants.  Organic carbon and
carbonate carbon were determined on filtered (0.45 micron) and unfiltered
supernatants.  The Labconco Micro-Kjeldahl apparatus was used for
ammonia- and Kjeldahl- nitrogen analyses, the liberated ammonia being
determined titritmetrically using a microburet.  Nitrate-nitrogen
procedure was the cadmium reduction sulfanilic acid - napthylamine method
using the Hach Nitraver IV combined reagents pillows.  The color
developed was read at 520 nanameters with a Beckman DU spectrophotometer.
The nitrate method was the sulfanilic acid-napththyl amine procedure
with Hach Nitriver pillows.  The color was read at 520 nanameters as in
the nitrate test.

    9.  pH Values of Aqueous Supernatants.  pH values were measured at
room temperature on filtered (0.45 microns) and unfiltered supernatants
using a Sargent pH meter, Model LS.

    10.  Conductance Values of Aqueous Supernatants.  Conductance values
were measured at room temperature on filtered (0.45 microns) and
unfiltered supernatants using a Yellow Springs Instrument Conductivity
Bridge Model 31.


Biological System Related

There were basically five major areas of investigation related to
biological systems.  One was the investigation of Cladophora sp. green
algae occurrence in the study area.  Second area was the phytoplankton
occurrence and distribution.  The third principal investigation
concerned itself with zooplankton occurrence and distribution.  The
fourth investigation was the benthos occurrence.  The fifth dealt with
fish populations in the study area.

Cladophora - This investigation collected two sets of algae using two
basic methods in field sampling and laboratory investigations.  The first
were made during August and September of 1971.  Collections were from
selected sites spanning most of the extent of shoreline included in this

Samples were taken by placing a metal cylinder, open at both ends, over
the plants to be sampled.  The cylinder was held firmly in place while
all plant material immediately surrounding the cylinder was cut and
scraped away.  The cylinder was then removed and the circle of isolated
plant material was quickly and carefully scraped from the substrate and
placed in a sealed plastic container.  Sharpened putty knives were used.
Common food cans, with both ends removed, were found to be convenient and
easily replaced "metal cylinders".

The plastic containers holding the samples were placed in an ice-chest
for transportation to the laboratory where they were stored at 4° C.  In
most cases, the samples were stored no more than 24 hours.

The samples were filtered in a Buchner funnel and collected on Whatman
number 1 filter paper which had been dried at 60° C and pre-weighed.  The
samples were dried at 60° C to constant weight.  The data are reported as
dry weight per square centimeter of substrate.

Samples were taken from rocks at the nominal surface of the water.  Dis-
lodging and removing a sample between waves required quick action and
good timing.  Collection in this manner is impossible in wave conditions
exceeding one foot height.

The second set and methods were designed and used because the 1971 work
showed that sampling natural substrates would yield limited information,
showing no valid relationships between water quality and Cladophora
growth.  The new sampling program for 1972 was based on samples from
uniform artificial substrates.

The Cladophora traps used consisted of one-inch thick pine boards twelve
inches square, coated with epoxy resin with a sheet of fiberglass on one
surface.  The fiberglass was applied to provide a rough  surface on one
side to compare with the glass-smooth epoxy surface on the other side.
The traps were anchored to 45 pound concrete blocks with quarter-inch


diameter braided nylon rope.  The depth of water varied from three to
five meters at the different sites.  The anchor ropes were cut so that
the traps floated in a vertical position with their tops a few
centimeters below the surface.  Small styrofoam floats were attached to
the traps with about two meters of light nylon line to aid in locating
the traps.  This method of anchoring and buoying the traps worked well.
Most of them were recovered.  However, many of the buoys were lost and
at least half of the traps were broken by power boat propellers.  All
data reported for 1972 are from these traps.  Prior to developing this
method of anchoring and buoying the traps, many were lost.  Hurricane
Agnes destroyed or removed all the traps which had been set out in June
of 1972.

Phytoplankton - A study of comparative phytoplankton populations at
several stations along the Cleveland area waterfront was performed
during 1972 (See Figure 10.).  Samples were collected from each thirteen
stations once a month.  A fourteenth station was sampled sporadically.
Samples were collected quantitatively in three replicates, fixed with
acetic IKI and the phytoplankton enumerated using Untermohl chambers.

The gross numbers of phytoplankton were converted to biomass and
reported as cubic microns per liter.  Comparisons were made between
monthly averages of biomass of all stations and comparisons of single
stations on a monthly basis.

Zooplankton and Benthos - Ten sites along the Cleveland lake front and
three sites located further out in Lake Erie were sampled regularly
for zooplankton and benthos from September, 1971, to November, 1972.
Zooplankton were collected with a vertical tow net while benthos was
collected with a Ponar grab sampler.  Samples were preserved in five
percent buffered formalin and processed in the laboratory.  Along with
zooplankton and benthos, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific
conductivity, and pH were measured at each site.

In the laboratory, the zooplankton was split several times and
subsampled.  The zooplankton was then counted and identified using
various zooplankton keys.  Benthos samples were segregated by sieving
through a U. S. number 30 soil sieve and then hand-picked from the
residue.  Oligochaetes were subsampled, when large numbers occurred
using a tray with a grid pattern and randomly sampling the grids.
Dry-weight biomass was obtained for the oligochaetes by drying to
constant weight at 60° C and then incinerating at 600° C.  Cherinomid
larva identification was made using head slides.  All benthos was
identified using various invertebrate keys.  Data was analyzed using
Fortran IV computer programs for species diversity indices, diversity
equitability components, and community similarity coefficients.  For
sampling locations refer to Figure 10.


 Fish Populations  - The methods  used in fish  studies  are  detailed in
 Volume II.    The  same study area applies  to  this  investigation as
 shown in Figure 10.   The  field  collections were conducted  in the
 nearshore areas of Lake Erie, and in the  drainages of  the  Rocky,
 Chagrin and Cuyahoga systems.   During the period  of  June 1,  1971,
 through December  31,  1972,  more than 200  collections were  made at
 various sites, some of which were sampled repeatedly.

 Samples were taken in deeper waters employing  an  18^ foot  outboard
 motorboat or a rowboat.   During periods of heavy  seas  a  chartered
 commercial fishing vessel was used.   In order  to  insure  that the
 greatest variety  of  fishes  were collected, several sampling  methods
 were utilized, depending  upon the conditions of the  sample sites.   These
 methods are common methods  used for fishing.   Experimental gill nets
 were used to sample  in the  open lake,  the deeper  portions  near shore,
 and  the lower sections of the river drainages.  These  nets were 125
 feet in length, six  feet  in depth,  and consisted  of  five panels of
 varied stretch mesh  sizes (one  inch,  one  and one  half  inch,  two inch,
 three inch,  four  inch).

 Stations were sampled with  experimental gill nets for  periods  of
 twenty four to forty eight  hours.   In some cases  additional  gill  nets
 were utilized, these  having stretch mesh  sizes of two, two and three
 fourths,  three, eight,  ten,  or  twelve  inch stretch.  The gill  nets
 were set between  zero and seven feet  from the bottom,  and  at least
 ten  feet below the surface.  Trawling  samples were taken in  an attempt
 to capture  species  that were either too small  to  collect with  gill
 nets  or that were not readily taken by the gill net.   The  trawl
 utilized in the collection  of this  data was a sixteen  foot semi-balloon
 otter trawl  equipped  with mud rollers.

 Rivers  and  shallow beaches  along  the  shoreline were  collected  by
 seining.  Depending upon  the characteristics of the  sample site,  a
 variety of  seines were utilized.  These included:

     1.  A 50  ft,  % inch mesh seine with a 4 x 4 ft bag.

     2.  A 26  ft,  ^ inch mesh seine with a 4 x 4 ft bag.

     3.  A 16  ft,  % inch mesh seine with a 4 x 4 ft bag.

    4.  A 8  ft Common Sense  Seine,  4 ft in depth.

    5.  A 8 x 4 ft fry net with 1/16 inch mesh for sampling  fish fry
        in streams and/or beaches.

 Seining was accomplished by  utilizing three-man crews and  sampling all
 available habitats within a  one half mile area of the station.  Of the
 fishes  collected,  approximately 95% were identified to species and
 returned  to the stream, with the exception of representative specimens
which were preserved  in six percent formalin and returned  to the
 laboratory for confirmation.


Fyke nets were utilized on a limited basis due to the heavy use of the
study area by recreational boaters and sport fishermen.  No attempt
was made to actively survey the catch of either sport or commercial
fishing.  However, certain species of fishes were observed and reported
only by persons engaged in these activities.  These reports have been
considered valid only when they were substantiated by either the
specimen or a dated, clear photograph.  Such information has been
included in the distribution reports and in the current status
discussion.  In addition, the records of both the commercial catch and
the Ohio Division of Wildlife gill net survey have been accepted as
valid and utilized as a source of data.

Observations of fishes without supporting collections were in most
cases considered invalid.  Only the observation of a species having
unique identifying characteristics were accepted and then only if
reported by a reliable observer.  Such species as gar were accepted,
while species such as the emerald shiner, blue gill or white sucker
were not accpeted unless substantiated by a specimen.

Utilizing all of the above methods, approximately 77,000 specimens of
fishes were captured and examined.  All except about 7,000 of these
were subsequently released.  These latter specimens are currently
preserved in the museums of John Carroll University and the Ohio
State University and will be maintained for future documentation and/or


Most of the methods employed in the investigations were acceptable
standard procedures.  The reproducibility and accuracy of the results
depend primarily on the individual analyst.  One of the most glaring
deficiencies in the field study aspects of the program was the low
sampling frequency.  A sampling frequency of sixteen days per year is
too low to establish short term fluctuations in water chemistry, changes
in biota, and other related changes such as diffusion, currents, etc.
Methods used in each principal area of investigation are critiqued.

The cation exchange reaction investigation neglected the volume and flow
rate of the river at the time for the sampling, ignoring the dilution
effects of variable volumes and flows.

The benthic sediment investigation exhibits several areas of deficiency.
In the sampling procedure information such as temperature, dissolved
oxygen, current direction and velocity should have been obtained to
obtain a detailed framework of the water chemistry.  Thickness of the
sludge deposits should have been calculated, and the entire sampling
program should have been coordinated with sampling and analysis of the
surface water to reduce variability in time and space.  There  is a
question whether the in situ chemistry of the sediments was maintained
during the transport and preparation of samples.  In the laboratory
chemical calculations should have been based on dry solids rather than
wet sediment, due to lack of control of the moisture content in the
sediments.  The results can not be used for determining heavy metal
pollution effects, because no heavy metal background concentration
analysis was attempted to establish natural baseline.

The methods employed in collecting and measuring phytoplankton are
reliable and reproducible.  The identification of organisms however,
appeared to be limited to the easily recognized and major forms.  If
comparisons of changes in populations in the future are to be made it
will be necessary to know more exactly which species or at least genera
are present or predominant during different periods of the year.  Since
only a few of the forms were identified to even the genera level, it
was impossible to apply any indices of population or community
structure to the phytoplankton.  Such indices could describe changes
in dominance, or equitably from which a predictive pattern could evolve.

While this study was intended to provide baseline data on current water
quality conditions, there were insufficient samples taken to fully
delineate changes in phytoplankton density with respect to either time
or pollution inputs to the Cleveland area waterfront.  In order to
fully gather the required baseline data, it would be necessary to
sample more frequently and perhaps on a more limited area basis.  In
order to determine effects of inputs upon the biota in general, we
should first know the flow and dispersal patterns of the inputs upon


then establish sampling locations on a definite grid basis.

The zooplankton and benthos study like the other investigations had a
low sampling frequency.  The methods used in this study were appropriate
and acceptable for the problem at hand.  Some of the methods tend to
have inherent sources of error which must be considered.  One method,
calculation of the species diversity, requires that harsh environments
have few species with abundant population while favorable environments
have many species none of which are greatly abundant.  This assumption
is somewhat weak, because low species diversity does not mean that the
environment is necessarily unfavorable.  The low diversity could
indicate that organisms have not colonized a favorable environment
because they simply are not in a close enough proximity to invade this
area.  One of the methods used in this study, ordination analysis, as
applied to water pollution biology, is a valid technique.  Using this
procedure a number of environmental gradients can be compared with
respect to various communities.

The administrative methods of managing the project were "ad hoc."  The
magnitude of the project mandated a systems approach, which was not
utilized.  Project management techniques such as PERT - CRITICAL PATH
or other applicable methods would have aided in establishing a
framework for target dates, personnel, communication flow, fiscal
control, and priorities.  The design of a water quality baseline
assessment model would have given a useful tool for an organized and
systematic execution of this phase of the program.   This model could
be a submodel of a large comprehensive model of the entire three phase
program.  Such a model has predictive capabilities  incorporated into
its design, and can be used to evaluate economic and technical
feasibility and predict ecosystem response to remedial measures.

                                 SECTION V

                       STUDY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



The  individual investigations produced results that have to be
integrated into a total framework.  The investigations had a biological
and chemical orientation, and did not assess the physical system.  To
establish a. meaningful synthesis of the results, the total environmental
system must be considered.  The total environmental system is made up of
physical systems  that largely determine the existence and nature of the
biological life.  Only when the study area is assessed through an
ecosystem perspective, can the proper ecological baselines be
established for departure in assessment of water pollution control and
water quality management programs.

Physical System

The physical system requires knowledge in a number of specialized areas.
In relation to water quality assessment and management the critical
areas are geology, topography, geomorphology, hydrology, hydrogeology,
currents, drainage patterns, erosion potentials, land use, climatology,
meteorology, and other areas.  The delineation of the physical
environment establishes natural sources of pollution and their
magnitudes, and shows the path and impact of the man-generated
pollutants in the environment.  This study did not incorporate a
comprehensive assessment of the physical environment, apart from the
hydrodynamic modeling, and very specialized chemical investigations.
The following discussion of the physical environment is presented to
correct the deficiency.  It is based on literature research, and on field
observations and studies.

The study area is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, which is
part of the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence River drainage basin.
Climatological data for the City of Cleveland (National Weather Service,
1972) shows that the climate is continental in character and strongly
influenced by the lake as a temperature and moisture moderator.  Annual
normal average temperature is 50° F, with about 70 freezes and thaws
per year.  Precipitation averages 36 total inches per year.  The
evaporation rates for the lake average also 36 total inches per year
showing the dependence of the lake levels on the flow from upper Great
Lakes, fluctuating runoff, and groundwater influx.  The number of
freezes and thaws indicates that frost heaving is a significant erosional
agent in the area, especially in destabilizing the Lake Erie shoreline.

The prevailing winds are from the southwest, but they show seasonal
variations.  The predominant winds occur along a southwest-northeast


axis.  The yearly mean wind velocity is eleven miles per hour.
Generally, local topographic variations exert very little influence on
the overall climate, apart from Lake Erie, which is the principal
climatic modifier.

The macro-phytosociology of the study area shows that the original
plant communities consisted of four main types of plant associations
(Gordon, 1969).  In decreasing aerial extent, these were beech forests,
mixed oak forests, mixed mesophytic forests, and elm-ash swamp forests.
The relative distribution of each association was primarily influenced
by local climate, drainage, and geologic conditions as related to
surficial deposits.  As pointed out in the introduction of this report,
the agricultural practices, urban land use, and denudation of land
were the initial steps that resulted in the degradation of the aquatic
environment in the study area.  The original vegetative patterns
prevented excessive erosion and siltation of the rivers and the lake.
The physical modifications of the surface cover and draining and
filling of marshes, destroyed fish breeding areas and the associated
complex biological ecosystems.

The geology of the study area illustrates a non-catastrophic evolution
of the present landscape.  The consolidated rocks underlying the region
are composed entirely of sedimentary materials, shales and sandstones
being predominant in the study area.  The strata dips basically
southeast with local variations.  A close agreement exists between the
surface relief and aerial location of the sedimentary bedrock surface.
The consolidated strata are blanketed by glacial deposits left by the
ice sheets, which once covered the area.  The action of the ice masses
were very influential in shaping the present physiography, although the
net effect of this action has been greatly masked by the sediments
deposited as the glaciers retreated (Gushing, Leveret, Van Horn, 1931).

The materials left by the glaciers consist mainly of tills (southern
portions of the study area), and glacial cave sediments (northern
portions).  Two low noraine ridges also occur in the area, one in the
central western section trending roughly west to east across the
Cuyahoga River, and, the other in the northeastern section, trending
west to northwest across the Chagrin River.  Low elongate sand ridges
occur predominately in the northern section, roughly parallel to the
present Lake Erie shoreline.  These deposits represent former glacial
lake beaches (Gushing, Leverett, Van Horn, 1931).

Physiographically the area may be divided into three definable regions.
The lines dividing these sections trend roughly northeast across the
study area, and are strongly distorted by local drainage patterns.  The
south section belongs to the Appalachian plateau region.  The
topographic character of this area can be described as hilly to rolling.
Trending northeast across the region is a two to four mile wide slope,
known as the Portage Escarpment.  It is irregular and discontinuous
because of the stream  valleys cutting across.  The major portion of


the escarpment is  composed of shale.  The slope is fairly uniform with
a 40 to 80 feet per mile gradient present.  The escarpment defines the
line separating the remaining section, Erie Plain, from the Appalachian
Plateau.  The Erie Plain occupies the north and large part of the
eastern sections of the study area.  A considerable part of it is
submerged under the waters of Lake Erie.  The topography of this area
is relatively smooth and has a lakeward slope of about 50 to 60 feet
per mile (Gushing, Leverett, Van Horn, 1931).

The drainage system of the region  is strongly  modified as it flows
across these three sections.  The smaller streams which have their
headwaters in the plateau flow north towards Lake Erie.  As they pass
over the escarpment, many have incised deep valleys into the underlying
soft shale.  Once they reach the Erie Plain, the streams flow in shallow
valleys with decreased velocities.  Concurrently, the streambeds change
in character, being composed of glacial-lake silts and clays.  The
three major drainage systems, the Cuyahoga, Chagrin, and Rocky rivers,
all originate outside of the south of the study area.  Due to their
greater volumes, they have cut deeper and narrower valleys through the
underlying glacial sediments and bedrock, than the smaller rivers.
Average flows and total drainage areas for these three major rivers
are: Rocky River, 294 square miles, 278 cubic feet per second (CFS);
Cuyahoga River, 813 square miles, 862 CFS; Chagrin River, 267 square
miles, 336 CFS  (Ohio Division of Geological Survey, 1966).

The soils of the area are strongly related to the parent material, the
previously described glacial deposits.  They generally can be classed
as imperfectly to well drained, fine grained soils, predominantly
calcareous and slightly acidic (Division of Lands and Soils, 1960).

Due to the relatively high sediment loads, the major drainage systems
require dredging in the navigable portions.  Table 12  shows the various
materials and quantities dredged annually from the Cuyahoga River and
the Cleveland Harbor.  Much of the sedimentation is a result of erosion
from improperly managed urban and rural lands, and disturbed river
banks.  Siltation combined with industrial chemical discharges are
major problems in toxic sediment conditions in major drainage systems,
especially in the navigable portion of the Cuyahoga River.  Apart from
some organic contributions, the background natural water pollution is
insignificant in the study area except in swampy and marshy areas.

The three major river systems drain into the portion of Lake Erie
covered in the study.  The shoreline of the study area exhibits steep
cliffs and small beaches composed generally of gravels.  Local
variations exist such as Edgewater Park, Gordon Park and White City
Beach.  The nearshore bottom is generally composed of sands, gravels
and clay with the exception of the area west of Edgewater Park which
is bedrock shale.

Local variations of bottom topography are common but significant
features such as former valleys are difficult to distinguish, because


                     JULY 1, 1966 TO JULY 1, 1967
                            (quantity in tons)
Chlorine Demand
(15 minutes)
Volatile Solids
Oil and Grease
Total Dry Solids

they have been filled by sediments.  The formation of deltas is impeded
both by natural and man-made factors.  The longshore current, which
trends southwest to northeast, removes most of the river-borne
sediments.  Dredging for shipping lanes is the other major factor that
prevents the formation of deltas.

There are two main divisions of the longshore current.   The first is the
surface current whose direction varies with the direction and strength
of the wind.  The second is the subsurface current which trends
southwest to northeast irregardless of wind or other factors.  Locally,
each of the three rivers has a strong effect on the quality of the
lake waters.  Overall, the effect is present but diminished by the
dilution effect of the lake.  Seiches do not affect water quality to
a great degree due to the fact that in the Cleveland area a seiche is
present about 95% of the time.

Most of the rivers, especially the Cuyahoga River, act like estuaries due
to the varying lake conditions.  Cuyhaoga River can be observed flowing
backward in the navigable portion.  Based on the predominantly easterly
littoral drift and longshore currents, the polluted discharges from
point sources on land and stream discharges due to greater density tend
to be in part confined and carried along the shore.  Although dilution of
the polluted discharges occurs, the dilution itself is insufficient to
"homogenize" the waters in terms of water quality.  The "pollution
zones" shown in Figure 12, are primarily a function of the physical
characteristics of the near shore currents and of the shoreline.

The hydrodynamics investigation was conducted by Drs. Wilbert Lick and
Joseph Prahl of Case Western Reserve University, who attempted to predict
and describe the hydrodynamic behavior of the Cuyahoga River entering the
Lake and thermal discharges from future nuclear power plants to be
located on Lake Erie.  Numerical and experimental models with limited
field verification were developed.  The most important part of the
investigation dealt with the hydrodynamic modeling of the Cuyahoga River
discharge.  A brief summary of their study is presented.

The modeling attempted to develop capability to predict the diffusion of
the polluted discharge of the Cuyahoga River into the Cleveland Harbor
and the open Lake.  The model dealt with the mass, momentum and energy

The numerical model was developed for a time-dependent, three dimensional,
variable density, variable temperature flow of a rectangular jet
horizontally entering a basin of semi-infinite extent.   The results were
based on steady state conditions, comparing the heated, constant
temperature, and cooled jets for conditions similar to those which would
be typical for the Cuyahoga River entering Lake Erie in the late summer

The experimental model was developed using a 20 ft. by 6 ft. by 6 in.
water table with end and side jets.  Experimentation was performed with


non-buoyant jets with and without cross-flows.  The measurements were
made for a range of jet Reynolds numbers, jet width-to-depth ratios,
Fronde numbers, water depth, table width-to-jet width rations, and cross-
flows.  A comparison of the numerical and experimental models showed
qualitative agreement.  Limited field verification and comaprison to
previous work done on the Cleveland Harbor and Cuyahoga River flows by
Havens and Emerson, Ltd. (1968) showed similar qualitative agreement.

The Cuyahoga River discharge model with bottom friction and no cross-
flow is shown in Figure 13.  This model assumes that no mixing occurs
due to wind driven Lake currents or buoyance effects.  The model is
based on actual dimensions of the Cuyahoga River of 61 meter width and
9 meter depth.  The model shows that at about ten river widths, roughly
640 meters from the shore, the centerline velocity of the River is
about 70% of the entrance value, while the half width is about three times
the entrance value, roughly 180 meters.  Under these conditions with the
dimensions given, it is evident that the River discharge maintains its
physical identity for an appreciable distance from the entrance.  This
dimensional development is more likely to apply during spring conditions
when the flow rate is high.  During low flow conditions in the summer
when the flow may be a magnitude smaller, the development of the plume
is more rapid due to buoyance and bottom friction.  This has been, in
part, verified by aerial photographs.

The model of the Cuyahoga River discharge with cross-flow and bottom
friction was developed to predict the behavior of the discharge with
lake current outside the breakwall and a current inside the breakwall.

The first case (Figure 14) predicts, neglecting buoyance and with the
absence of a current inside the breakwall, that the River is only
moderately deflected by the lake current.  These conditions are based on
an average River discharge of 1700 liters/second, an average velocity of
4.5 cm/second, characterized by symbol qo, a lake current of magnitude
uc = 0.135 q0, and with a river discharge velocity of 75% of its initial

The second case assumes a current behind the breakwall equal to the
lake current.   This current is assumed to be caused by the lake current
flow through the opening in the breakwall at the west end of the Harbor,
the Edgewater Yacht Basin.   Experimental modeling and aerial photographs
show that even small currents inside the breakwall deflect the River
discharge before it reaches the breakwall opening into the lake (Figure

Although these models neglect buoyance effects, the qualitative results
describe the real conditions.  When the buoyance factor is considered,
the River mass is expected to float to the surface thereby decreasing
bottom friction effects.  This would result in a decrease in the River

Previous studies (Havens and Emerson Ltd., 1968) showed that about 80%


Figure 13.   Application of Results to Cuyahoga River Entering Lake Erie  (Lick,  1973)

           1	1     I     I	1
      0        400       800      1200

Yacht Basin
                           Cuyahoga River
Figure 14.  Predicted response of the Cuyahoga River to a lake current.
            (Lick, 1973)

            Dye plume edge
    	 —  Dye plume centerline
                                                                    100 meters
Cuyahoga River

           Figure 15.  Predicted response of the Cuyahoga River to a current behind the breakwall.
                       (Lick, 1973)

of the Cuyahoga River flows through the Harbor east based on the
occurrence of wind driven currents inside the breakwall (Figure 16).
The numerical and experimental models give a qualitative prediction of
the hydrodynamic behavior of the River entering the Lake.  A number of
refinements and quantification of data from field studies are necessary.
One of the basic factors that heavily influences the River flow at the
mouth is the constantly present lake water intrusion into the River
for at least a mile inland (Figure 17).  This factor combined with
bottom topography in the highly variable lake currents create a mixing
zone and make accurate mathematical modeling almost impossible.

The importance of assessing the Cuyahoga River discharge behavior
entering the Lake is of great importance in predicting the water quality
in the near shore areas.  The Harbor currents and the breakwall act in
combination to trap the polluted stream of the River inside the
breakwall.  The Harbor acts as a settling basin, and as a result the
diffusive ability of the open lake waters is not utilized creating
nearshore pollution.  No realistic water quality standards are
applicable, because of the changing physical and chemical character of
the water in this area.  These conditions are also evident in the lowest
one mile portion of the River, where the well aeriated lake water creates
a mixing zone where different water quality conditions prevail.

The physical environment of the Cleveland region as covered by the study,
is a low energy environment.  The many past and existing combinations of
climate, rocks, soils, vegetation, agricultural development, and many
human activities impair the recognition and prediction of the effects
on Cleveland water quality from changes in the land use and modification.
These interrelationships must be established before proper assessment
and sound predictive capabilities can be developed.  Much of the data
on the Cleveland region physical environment is available, but it is
scattered in literature and agencies concerned with geology, meteorology,
hydrology, soil and plant sciences, agriculture, and forestry.  Only a
comprehensive integration of this data can bring about a full
description of the environment and provide a base for water quality

                                        wind percentages are  typical
                                        for summer
                                                 LAKE   ERIE
                                                                           River Dredging
                                                                          .Enclosed Disposal
                                             Cleveland  Harbor

    Figure 16.  Typical flow pattern of the Cuyahoga River with the dominant southwest, west, and
                northwest wind directions (after Havens and Emerson, 1968).

•• •• ••  ;••


Chemical Investigations

There were three chemical investigations undertaken in this project.
One examined the composition of bottom sediments in the near shore areas
of the lake.  Another analyzed the water chemistry in the same area.
The third investigation dealt with examining possible buffering
reactions of suspended sediments on four common cation in about fourteen
miles of the downstream portion of the Cuyahoga River.

The benthic sediment investigation was performed by Dr. P. Olynyk of
Cleveland State University concurrent with the biological studies of
the zooplankton and benthos.  This study of the composition of sediments
in the near shore waters of Cleveland, shows little difference between
present volatile solids (loss on ignition) and 1967 Federal Water
Pollution Control Administration data.  The Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration (FWPCA) data for volatile solids averaged 21.40%
for the central basin of Lake Erie and 6.30% for mid-lake central basin.
The values reported in this study average 6.72% volatile solids, in
close agreement with the mid-lake central basin.

In general, the organic content of the near shore sediments begins to
increase in May until about October or November.  This undoubtedly
reflects the greater productivity during the late spring and summer.  At
four of the five sites for which data was obtained, there was a
significant increase in organic content after July, possibly due to
accumulation of algae after the fall overturn.

Total nitrogen shows 30 to 42% lower average values compared to 1967
data for central and western basin sediments respectively.  The FWPCA
(1968) values of .18% and .16% nitrogen for the central and mid-central
basins compare with .11% found in this study.

In comparing sediment and supernatant nitrogen, a direct relationship
can be observed, as shown in Figure 18.  The parallelism between the
curves indicates a direct relationship: as sediment total nitrogen (NT)
increases, there is a corresponding increase in the supernatant NT.
Organic matter is being added to the sediment faster than its nitrogen
content can be solubilized by organisms.

Total phosphorus (PT)  shows 67% and 28% higher average values compared
to 1967 data for central and western basins respectively.  This
corresponds to values  of .065% and .072% found by FWPCA in 1967, and a
present value of .12%.   These higher values may indicate a rapid
accumulation of inorganic phosphates due to the fairly high iron content
(30-142 mg/1).   The comparison of monthly values indicates no trend, but
high variation.  It may be that the explanation is purely physical,
resulting from shifting sediments due to weather, and from random


                              Percentage Deviation  from Background Concentration
     7? H-
     -  CO
     h-1 0
     "J O
     OJ Ml
              o • •



Examination of Figure  19 reveals a good inverse relationship between
sediment FT and supernatant PT, especially if emphasis is placed upon
total phsophorus centrifuged supernatant (PT-C) which will be done
here.  The inverse relationship is shown by increasing changes in total
phosphorus in sediment (PT-Sed) and corresponding decreasing changes in
PT-C.  This correspondence appears each month except for May when severe
storms occurred.  The inverse relationship means that sedimentary PT
goes into solution, especially during the summer months, at a greater
rate than additions are made by living benthos, dead algae and other
detritus.  The sediment is serving as a phosphorus source.

Variations monthly in sediment data for phosphorus may indicate changes
due to biological-chemical interactions when compared to nitrogen.
Analysis of the NT and PT changes presented in Figure 20 leads to
considerably more optimism in hypothesizing why the changes in compo-
sition occur.  In November, 1971, both NT and PT are below the overall
averages for the annual sampling period.  In December, both parameters
increased sharply, probably due to continued sedimentation of dead algae
and inorganic phosphates after tha fall overturn.  Samples could not be
taken in January and February and during this approximately three month
interval between samplings, the NT decreased sahrply while the PT
increased.  An acceptable explanation for this divergence is that
biological and chemical actions have solubilized the organic nitrogen
from the dead algae while continued sedimentation of inorganic phosphates
has caused the PT to increase.  From March to April the behavior of NT
and PT again is opposite, NT increasing while PT decreased.  This period
indicates the vigorous new life of spring.   Benthic productivity more
than doubled from March to April, as shown by the benthos investigation.
Benthic organisms, utilizing nutrients from the surrounding waters,
increase the organic content of the sediment.  Hence an increase in PT
would be expected whereas a sharp decrease has occurred.  This decrease
in PT would be ascribed to the liberation of soluble phosphates in the
lower anaerobic portion of the sediment due to agitation by storms after
the loss of ice cover.  From April to May there was a slight increase in
both NT and PT probably due to benthic organism growth.

From May to June the PT increased sharply,  while the NT decreased even
more sharply.  The drop in NT is readily explained by the drop in benthic
productivity which occurred in this time span (R.G. Rolan), however the
PT increase is anomalous since the PT contribution of the benthos has
been lost and it would be expected that some PT loss should occur at
this time due to the onset of summer anerobic conditions in the sediment.
A possible explanation could be that storms in May swept inorganic
phosphate rich sediment into the near shore area under study.  Such
sediment would also contribute to the observed reduced NT.

From June to July the situation became reversed:  PT decreased while NT
increased, even though benthic productivity remained essentially
unchanged.  Perhaps dead algae were beginning to accumulate on the
sediment causing the NT to increase and produce the anerobic condition in


                               Percentage Deviation  from Background  Concentration
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Percentage Deviation from Background Concentration
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the sediment mentioned above, which would result in loss of-inorganic
phosphate.  From July to early September when the "August" samples
were taken NT continued to increase while FT increased only slightly.
During this period benthic studies showed a two-thirds reduction in
benthic productivity so that the NT increase must be attributed to
algae accumulation on the sediment.  The algae would contribute to the
PT increase but hardly enough to counteract the losses due to sediment
anoxia.  The cause of the PT increase may be that the thermocline in
the central basin had overturned and phosphate rich precipitate and
aerated water were carried inshore.

From the "August" sampling times in early September to the October
sampling times (October 13 to November 3) NT decreased about twice as
much as did PT.  These results are difficult to explain because it
would be expected that the fall algae bloom would be settling to the
bottom to increase both NT and PT and also the benthos showed an
increase in average benthic productivity from 0.84 to 1.81 gm/m^.  Also
it would be expected that inorganic phosphates would still be
precipitating out of the aerated waters.  The only valid explanation is
that silt and sand from shore erosion were being transported by storms
and currents into the test area.

Finally from October to November sampling times the PT increased once
more as would be expected but the NT continued to decrease in spite of
the increase in benthic productivity.  This behavior of NT is quite
unexpected and difficult to explain except by postulating that nitrogen
rich detritus had been swept out of the test areas.

This rather detailed analysis of the NT and PT changes has been done to
show that reasonable conclusions or hypotheses can be drawn from
comparison of two or more related parameters when examination of the
isolated sets of data produce frustratingly tenuous conclusions.  The
above discussion seems to be a reasonable explanation of the peak and
valley appearance of the graphs.

The above explanation, and comparison of the 1967 FWPCA and present data
hint that phsophorus is accumulating rapidly in near shore sediments.
In contrast to this the total nitrogen content has dropped considerably.
The sediments act as a storehouse for phosphorus precipitates but not
for organic nitrogen which forms soluble or volatile decomposition
products which accumulate in the water instead.  This may mean that
efforts to improve water quality by secondary and tertiary waste
treatment will succeed sooner for nitrogen whose soluble compounds will
ultimately be diluted and transported into Lake Ontario, while the
sediment phosphorus continues to recycle.  Also, the supernatants show
that total nitrogen will be reduced in the supernatant as the total
nitrogen in the sediment decreases.

The supernatant studies show large increases in nitrate, ammonia, total
nitrogen and alkalinity (inorganic carbon) compared to 1967 data.


Phosphorus, strangely, is of the same order as 1967 values while organic
carbon has dropped by approximately 20%.  Apparently soluble nitrogen
species are accumulating in the water while total nitrogen is decreasing
in the sediments.  The reverse is the case with phosphorus.  On this
evidence it is impossible to conclude that Lake Erie water quality is
improving at present.

On the basis of limited graphical comparisons some encouraging
correlations between changes in sediment and supernatant parameters
have been observed but it will be necessary to extend the value of
the correlations by applying computerized programs to existing data.

The highest zone of pollution is found in the Cleveland Harbor.  The
eutrophic conditions are reflected by the sediment analysis.  Site four
had the highest values of LOI, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total
phosphorus and grease.  A comparison of site four to the average values
is given in Table 13.  In addition the supernatant analyses showed that
the harbor had the highest total nitrogen, highest conductivity, highest
inorganic carbon, among the highest total phosphorus, but it also had
the lowest pH, nitrate, nitrite and organic carbon values.  The results
are tabulated in Table 14.

These data show that the harbor area is highly enriched.  This is
because the majority of flow of the Cuyahoga River passes through the
harbor during north and northwesterly winds, which predominate in the
Cleveland area.  The harbor acts as a buffer zone between the Cuyahoga
River and Lake Erie, reducing the impact of the river pollution on the
lake by removing suspended solids, reducing oxygen demand and diluting
dissolved solids.  Thus the harbor is in very poor condition and
warrants immediate restoration.

The examination of eleven metals showed some very interesting results.
Mercury levels at times exceeded the levels in Minimata Bay, Japan.
Mercury increases dramatically in April and May then falls off nearly as
fast in June and July.  The striking surge of mercury is undoubtedly due
to spring run off carrying fallout from power plants, incinerators and
metallurgical plants.  Important questions to be answered are:  why does
the mercury decrease so rapidly? and where does it go?

One possible explanation is that, due to the high specific gravity of
mercury, it sifts through the loose sediments until it meets a more
compact interface.  Thus, it would be decreased in the upper layers of
sediment during the calm weather of the summer months and increased in
the spring due to storms and high run off.  Analysis of core samples
could verify this.

Iron levels are greatly (50% to 75%) elevated over 1967 values for the
central and western basins.  Dumping of the Cuyahoga River and Cleveland
Harbor dredgings by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for
the high near shore iron levels.  How much this affects phosphorus
mobilization or stabilization has not been determined.



Site LOI carbon NT PT , Grease
Harbor #4
Harbor #4
(Olynyk,  1973)

In general, the metals content decreased from early spring to late summer,
then increased rapidly in the fall.  This could be due to bottom
turbulence during times of high winds in the spring and fall.  The wave
action would tend to wash the finer metallic silt into shore where it
covers the coarser, more stable sand.  During calm summer months, the
silty material, rich in metals, would work its way into deeper waters.
A determination of silicon dioxide content in the samples could have
verified this, but no silicon dioxide analysis was made.  Cadmium and
cobalt showed the only continued decreases from October and November.
This behavior has not been explained in light of such increase in the
concentration of calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead manganese, nickel
and zinc.   Other data for metals in Lake Erie sediments have not been
located so that no conclusion can be made concerning whether metals are
accumulating in the sediments.

The water chemistry investigation was conducted by the Water Quality
Program.  A major portion of the chemical data on the Cuyahoga River and
Lake Erie was obtained in activities other than those connected
specifically with this project.  The Water Quality Program is an
organizational unit of the City of Cleveland consisting of forty-seven
scientists and technicians.  The unit conducts ongoing programs in water
quality research and monitoring, and implements water quality restoration
projects.  All the data gathered in those activities was made available
for this project and will be placed in STORET.

To interpret the hundreds of analyses and parameters, the data was plotted
graphically with a table top Hewlett-Packard computer.

In examining the water chemistry of the Cuyahoga River for 1972, a
pronounced effect of the Cleveland area can be seen.  Although the river
is polluted by the time it passes the Southerly Waste Treatment Plant,
the effect of the plant effluent can be noticed (Table 15).   Maximum
averages of major constituents are affected as follows: chlorides are
increased by 15 mg/1, phosphorus by 1 mg/1, total dissolved solids by
125 mg/1, BOD by 3 mg/1, COD by 60 mg/1, and ammonia nitrogen by 3 mg/1.
It appears that for the most part the plant's effluent does not contain
great amounts of toxic metals (Table 16).   On the average in 1972, the
plant effluent increased the Cuyahoga River flow by about 105 mgd (Figure
21).  The river flow upstream from the plant on monthly mean ranged from
250 mgd in August to about 2100 mgd in March during 1972.

The urban area and industrial discharges depress the water quality of the
Cuyahoga River as it flows through Cleveland.   Several relationships are
evident.  Although there are a number of relationships that  affect
dissolved oxygen in the river, the most obvious is an inverse
relationship with temperature, with dissolved oxygen increasing  with
lower temperatures (Figure 22;.   The pronounced impact of chlorides from
winter street salting and subsequent urban runoff is shown in Figure 23.

Suspended solids are greatly increased during storm flow.   Examination of
an isolated storm in June of 1972 shows that suspended solids suddenly


          Maximum and minimum mean concentrations

Above (Sta. 4)
















Below (Sta. 5)
















Lower (Sta. 6)
















Center (Sta. 7)


















                  HEAVY METALS DURING PERIOD FROM FEBRUARY 15, 1972 TO JULY 6, 1972

       2500  -•
       2000  -•
    3, 1500  ' '


       1000  •-
        500  ••
                                                  	  Discharge below Southerly Waste Treatment Plant

                                                  	  Discharge above Southerly Waste Treatment Plant

                                                  	  Discharge of Southerly Waste Treatment Plant
                                              \ ' /
                                                       \ \


Figure 21-   Cuyahoga River (mgd)  discharge above and below Southerly Waste Treatment Plant in 1972


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increase from 400 mg/1 to over 4000 mg/1.  The increase is related
directly to the intensity and duration of the rainfall.  The  suspended
solids concentration decreases rapidly as the flow enters the
navigation channel, where suspended particles settle out and accumulate
as sediments.  The suspended matter is about ninety percent clay and
soil particles.

The dilution effect of Lake Erie is evident in the navigation channel.
At the mouth, the river behaves like an estuary.  The lake levels
influence the river reversing its flow and diluting the contaminants.
The velocity of the river flow into the lake is greatly reduced by the
harbor enclosure which deflects part of the flow east into the harbor
behind the breakwall.

Another relationship that is evident in the Cuyahoga River and applies
to other bodies of water is the relationship between concentration,
pollution loadings, and flow (Figure 24).  This relationship shows that
concentrations of pollutants may decrease even though the loadings may
increase.  The concentrations are greatly dependent on the quantity of
the flow.  This factor is significant in assessing the effectiveness of
pollution abatement, illustrating the importance of hydrologic
measurements.  In rapidly decreasing flow situations, the reverse may
be true — the concentrations may increase, although pollution loadings
are decreased.

The overall lake chemistry in the study area showed localized zones of
water quality depression in the near shore waters.  The pollutant
concentration zones are directly correlated with point source emissions.

The streams, especially, the Cuyahoga River, and the two wastewater
treatment plants on the Lake (The Easterly and The Westerly) act as
point sources of pollution as shown in Figure 12.  The wastewater
treatment plant effluent loading in 1972 for total phosphorus,
suspended solids, and biochemical oxygen demand are shown in Table 17A.
The values are based on average flow and average effluent concentrations
and do not take into consideration bypass and storm flow loadings.

Analysis of 1972 pollutant concentrations by the wastewater treatment
plants and mouths of urban creeks showed higher values than those
found in the open Lake.  Total dissolved solids ranged from about 400 to
3200 mg/1 in the near shore areas to about 200 mg/1 in the open Lake
waters about 3 kilometers from the shore.  The BOD values in the creeks
ranged from 10 - 50 mg/1 with average values of 10 mg/1 observed
throughout most of the period.  Open Lake waters had about 1.5 mg/1
BOD approximately 3 kilometers from the shore.  Total phosphorus values
ranged from about 2 to 5 mg/1 to about 0.1 to 0.2 mg/1 in the open
Lake waters about 3 kilometers from the shore.

Other pollutant concentrations exhibited similar gradation from the
near shore to open Lake.  For example the average monthly values of


              4  --
              3  ..
              2  ••
              1  ••
Figure 24 .
                          Concentration and Total Load vs Flow
                          River mile 11.15  total phosphorus
                         •   mg/1
                         O   Ibs/day
                                            •/•    f •
                            H	1  I  I I  I M
            H	1—I  I I  I I i
-»	1—t-
100                    1000
 Million Gallons per Day
                                                                                            4  "»
                       Concentration and total phosphorus load vs flow in the Cuyahoga River at
                       11.15 miles upstream from the mouth of the River.

Parameter	Easterly	Westerly	Southerly

Biochemical Oxygen
  Concentration (mg/1)
  Raw                            132          216               196
  Effluent                        25          147                25

  Loading (tons/yr)        4,734,797    8,514,101        24,125,940

Suspended Solids
  Concentration (mg/1)
  Raw                            157          198               294
  Effluent                        38          116                40

  Loading (tons/yr)        7,168,749    6,740,571        38,426,397

Total Phosphorus
  Concentration (mg/1)
  Raw                              4.6          5.7               7.4
  Effluent                         3.0          4.5               2.3

  Loading (tons/yr)          589,472      261,972         2,237,486

sulfate in the near shore ranged from about 90 mg/1 to about 220 mg/1.
In the open Lake about 3 kilometers out, the sulfate values ranged
from about 14 mg/1 to about 40 mg/1.  The chloride values for monthly
means ranged in the near shore from about 60 mg/1 to about 210 mg/1.
In the open Lake the chloride mean monthly values ranged from about
20 mg/1 to about 40 mg/1.  Chloride concentrations were much higher
in the winter months in the near shore as well as the open Lake.

The concentrations of these pollutants and their dispersion is
greatly affected by Lake currents and wind patterns.  Vertical as well
as horizontal distribution of the pollutants is highly variable in
the open Lake and near shore waters.  This effect is most noticeable
by dissolved oxygen concentrations which range from about 6 mg/1 to
about 14 mg/1 with no remarkably great variance from open near shore
waters to open Lake waters.  The most pronounced difference from this
condition is observed in the area behind the breakwall of the
Cleveland Harbor where lower average values of dissolved oxygen are
measured throughout the year.  The Harbor area has two basic factors
operating that depress the dissolved oxygen in the area.  One factor
is the oxygen demanding wastes from the Cuyahoga River, the other is
the confining effect of the breakwall which prevents open Lake
circulation.  Average monthly values of dissolved oxygen range from
about 2 mg/1 to 13 mg/1.  All these values, however, deal primarily
with the top 20 feet of the water.

One of the most pronounced effects on the near shore water quality
was observed from bacterial contamination.  Table 18 shows the
percentage of non-chlorination of the wastewater treatment plant
discharges.  Figure 25 shows the fecal coliforms discharged in the
plant effluent.  The water quality standard for the two plants
discharging to Lake Erie is stated in the regulations of the former
Water Pollution Control Board of the Ohio Department of Health:

    The fecal coliform content (either MPN or MF count) not to
    exceed 200 per 100 ml as a monthly geometric mean based on
    not less than five samples per month; nor exceed 400 per
    100 ml in more than ten percent of all samples taken during
    the month.

The Easterly Wastewater Treatment Plant met this standard only four
months in 1972, and the Westerly plant met the standard in only three
months.  Inasmuch that both of these plants discharge their effluent
by two of the largest public beaches in the City, the recreational
impact was severe, with the beaches being closed to bathers.  Most of
the bacterial contamination was confined in the near shore areas.
Open Lake water (3 kilometers and out) showed very little impact.
The coliform count in the near shore ranged from 10-^ to 10°/100 ml
whereas, in the open Lake the mean value fell below 400/100 ml.
Occasional values in excess of 50,000/100 ml have been observed
indicating that sewage discharge effect is observable even in the open
Lake near the intakes of water filtration plants.



Number of Days
When Effluent

Number of Days
When Effluent was
Percentage of
Days Chlorinated
1971 1972
0 70.5
28 92
0 64

           106  4-

The cation exchange reaction study was designed and conducted by Dr.
J. Hower of Case Western Reserve.  The purpose of the project was to
determine the buffering effects of suspended sediments on potassium,
sodium, calcium and magnesium in the Cuyahoga River.  Cation exchange
capacities and selectivity numbers were determined to prove or disprove
the existence of such buffering action.  The basic principles of this
study were that the clay minerals composing some of the suspended
sediment in rivers have an active negative surface which is neutralized
by adsorbed cations.  This ion-exchange characteristic of sediment is
a controlling factor on the concentrations of dissolved ions.  In
establishing such a buffering action in the Cuyahoga River, it was
hoped that this data would establish a chemical baseline to monitor
chemical changes in the river.

The study did demonstrate such a buffering action, but it showed a
pronounced possibility that bottom sediments exert a strong influence.
This study, also, showed indirectly that variables such as flow and
industrial discharges distort the results.  Much additional work must
be done, especially on bottom sediments and other elements, to establish
the usefulness and viability of such reactions in relation to water
quality monitoring.

In evaluating this study in conjunction with the benthic and water
chemistry investigations a number of areas of necessary research
became apparent.  The author gratefully acknowledges the help of Dr. R.
W. Manus of Kent State University who developed a framework for future

Future work should center on determining the sources and dynamics of
phosphorus and of toxic materials that are present or being contributed
to the lower twelve miles of the Cuyahoga River and the Cleveland
Harbor area.  This work should include water chemistry and suspended
sediments, and with emphasis on the nature and chemistry of bottom
sediments and interstitial waters.  To accomplish a thorough evaluation,
the preservation of in situ conditions should be assured through proper
methods of coring and glove box procedures.  The work should cover the
basic aspects as outlined:

    1.  Delineation of nature of input sources of both phosphorus and
    deleterious metals (eg. chromium, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury,

        A.  In solution
        B.  Adsorbed on suspended sediment
        C.  Relationship to storm runoff suspended load (clays)
        D.  Consideration of river bottom sediment as a sink and source
            (exchange and buffering mechanism)
        E.  Temporal variations in input to river and to lake (relate
            to measured parameters, eg. dissolved oxygen)
        F.  Preventive mechanisms


    2.   Characterization of bottom sediment and interstitial water:

        A.  Fe+2/Fe+3, alkalinity, phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, Eh, pH,
           calcium, etc.
        B.  Role of clays as sinks for more exotic, potentially harmful
           metals  (eg. chromium, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury,  zinc)
        C.  Buffering capacity of bottom  sediments (including  temporal
           variation, eg.).  If phosphorus is removed from a  river  (by
           sewage  diversion) will sediment act as a buffer and release
           phosphorus to lake input water?
        D.  Identification of precipitated form of phosphorus
           presumably present under aerobic river and lake bottom
        E.  Relationship of interstitial  water chemistry to overlying
           water chemistry.
        F.  Effect  of Eh  (or dissolved oxygen) on buffering capacity
           of  clays.  Aeration could lower exchange capacity  of clays
           thus releasing adsorbed metals.
        G.  Temporal variation of all parameters  (eg. dissolved oxygen,
           interstitial phosphorus)
        H.  Development of a chemical mass balance between sediment and
           interstitial water especially as it relates to aerobic
           versus  anoxic conditions.
        I.  Development of equilibrium models based on analytical  data.
           These should lead to computed predictive models regarding
           release, uptake, or equilibrium conditions for phosphorus
           or  the  deleterious elements.  It is anticipated that
           phosphorus release can be related to a critical dissolved
           oxygen  level.

    3.   Determination of effect of river  modification schemes  and
    development of  improved systems:

        A.  Need for maintenance of  critical dissolved oxygen  level
           along course of river can probably be established. This
           will relate  to need to maintain adequate flow  in river
           and, possibly, need to aerate waste water effluents.
        B.  Investigate  conditions under  which the precipitation or
           adsorption of phsophorus can  be made  to be irreversible
           under the  chemical regime which presently  (or will) exist,
           eg. utilization of aluminum complexes or aluminum  rich

As part of Phase II of  the  Program these  proposed investigations would
be geared to  establish ameliorative  measures  as  well  as  define
additional baselines.


Biological System

The study examined basically five biological systems.   These were
accomplished through five separate investigations:


The Cladophora study was conducted to assess the abundance and growth
patterns, its response to nitrogen and phosphorus input in the water,
and the feasibility of using this growth and response measurement as
indicators of water quality in the study area.   The investigation
showed that Cladophora growth in the Cleveland  area during the study
period was nominal.  The floating substrate method was found to be
unsuitable for study of Cladophora growth in conditions having exposed
areas or large bodies of water as in the study  area.  The investigation
established that Cladophora growth can be measured with floating
substrates, but in terms of flexibility, ease and economics it was
found to be unsuitable.  However, the observed  differences in
Cladophora growth are not necessarily related to differences in water

The phytoplankton investigation was conducted to determine the various
phytoplankton populations in growth patterns, abundance, and seasonal
variation.  The gross numbers of phytoplankton  were converted to biomass.
The highest average biomass occurred during September.  The highest
individual biomass occurred at station one, the western most station
which is affected least by inputs along the Cleveland Harbor area.
During the summer months the green algae accounted for the greatest
proportion of biomass, with the single dinoflaggelate genera, Ceratium
being second.  At no time did the blue-green algae constitute a major
portion of the biomass.  The blue-greens were at the highest peak in
September, but only constituted 10% of total biomass.   During the winter
months, the diatoms comprised the major portion of the biomass.  In
effect, this study showed that the experimental design employed will not
describe the effects of point sources of pollution upon phytoplankton
populations for two basic reasons; (1) insufficient data gathering missed
short term fluctuations in phytoplankton population and density, and (2)
insufficient knowledge of water flow patterns to predict which sources
are affecting a particular area.  Pertinent graphs of the phytoplankton
study are given by Figures 26 through 28.

Zooplankton communities of Lake Erie in the Cleveland nearshore areas
were investigated by Dr. R. G. Rolan of Cleveland State University, and
his full study was published in the 1973 Proceedings of the International
Association for Great Lakes Research.  His study is summarized in the
following paragraphs.




                                                     TOTAL BIOMASS
                                                  AVERAGE ALL STATIONS
    Figure 26.   Total biomass  of  phytoplankton for each month of the study.   These data are the mean total
                 phytoplankton  biomasses of the area calculated by combining  all data from all stations for
                 each month in  1972.  (Alldridge,  1973)

                                        BIOMASS - AVERAGE  ALL STATIONS
Figure  27.  Mean  total biomass of four  different  groups of algae for all stations for all months in  1972,
             (Alldridge, 1973)

                                              SEPTEMBER  1972
                                      1   BLUE -GREEN
                                      2   GREEN
                                      3   DIATOMS
                                      4   CERATIUM

  Figure  28.   Distribution of the major groups  of algae.  Data from
               geographically related stations are grouped  (Alldridge,

 It is well known that changing water quality conditions  are
 responsible for  changes in the number,  type  and diversity  of  the biota
 present  in an aquatic system.

 Of the various groups of organisms,  the zooplankton are  often
 overlooked as indicators of changing chemical quality  of the  aquatic
 system.   The zooplankton have  several attributes which make them
 desirable as water  quality indicators,  particularly in the Cleveland
 near  shore areas of Lake Erie.   Such attributes include: 1) the
 zooplankton lend themselves reliably to fairly simple  methods of
 quantitative sampling;  2)  they are a major source of food  for all
 types of fish; 3) being grazing animals,  they are responsive  to
 quality  changes  in  the phytoplankton which in turn are responsive to
 quality  changes  in  the water;  4)  two previous quantitative studies of
 the zooplankton  have been performed  in  the Cleveland near  shore  area
 within the past  twenty-five years; 5) comparative studies  of
 zooplankton in the  western basin of  Lake  Erie have been  made  regularly
 for the  past forty  years;  6) although the extent is still  uncertain
 for the  entire group,  a wealth of data  exists for several  members
 pertaining to their physiological requirements and tolerances to
 various  levels of "pollution".

 For this study,  ten locations  along  a ten kilometer profile were sampled
 at approximate monthly  intervals  from September 1971 through  January
 1973.  With the  exception of June 1972, when  samples were  collected
 using water pumps,  all  samples  were  collected with plankton nets
 (333  u apurture) drawn  vertically up  from the bottom.  The samples  were
 field preserved  in  buffered formalin and  returned to the laboratory for
 processing.   Because of method  of collection,  only the adult
 cladocerans and  capepods were  collected quantitatively and thus  are
 the only components of  the  zooplankton  community considered in analysis
 and comparisons  of  changes  in  community structure with time.

 Analysis of community structure was  performed  using the  Shannon-Weaver
 index of diversity,  the equitability  component,  theoretical maximum of
 species  diversity and relative  abundance  of the  two  major  groups  were
 also  computed.  Data obtained  from the  two earlier zooplankton studies
 were  also  anlayzed.

 Comparison  of the results of the  present  study with  those  of previous
 studies  in  the Cleveland area and in  the western basin shows:  1)
 greater  fluctuations in maximum and minimum densities when compared
 to  either  the 1950-51 or 1956-57  study;  2) very  close agreement  in
 the circum-annual density patterns; 3) a slight decrease in mean
 density  of both cladocerans and copepods  in the 1971-72 study as
 compared to the 1956-57  study;   4) mean density increase of  three  to
 ten times for copepods and cladoceran respectively during the 1956-57
 study as compared to the 1950-51  study;  5) although  the copepod mean
 density has remained slightly greater than the cladoceran mean density,
maximum abundance has shifted in favor of the cladocerans;  6)  the


shift in maximum abundance is very similar to the shift which occurred
in the western basin during the middle 1950's; 7) Limnocalanus macrurus,
an organism which resides in the hypolimnion, was not present in the
1956-57 or the 1971-72 studies, perhaps due to progressive decrease in
oxygen in the hypolimnion; 8) significant numbers of both Diaptomus
reighardi and Eurytemore affinis were found in the present study, and
Diaptomus sciciloedis, a pond species, appears to be increasing in

The changes in total and relative abundances of the two groups
indicates that eutrophication is in an advancing state, being roughly
similar to that of the western basin, but ten to fifteen years later.
This is supported by the shift of species from low temperature, high
oxygen requiring species to those which can tolerate warmer temperature
and greater nutrients.  The greater fluctuations in density would seem
to indicate a greater environmental stress being placed upon the

This study, although broad in scope, did not show how the effects of
point sources of pollution affects the density of the zooplankton.
In order to delineate such effects, a narrower area should be chosen
and sampled more extensively in both time and space.

The benthos study was designed by Dr. R. G. Rolan to delineate the
benthic macroinvertebrate communities of the Cleveland shore of Lake
Erie. A delineation diagram is given by Figure 29.This study examined
fourteen sampling locations from September 1971 to December 1972.  The
benthos abundance was estimated, and a preliminary water quality
evaluation of this area was formed using the data.  Benthic
macroinvertebrates are valuable indicators of water quality because
they are so easily sampled and are essentially permanent inhabitants
of the bottom.  Changes in the benthic invertebrate community occur
in response to changes in temperature regimes, to variations in
erosion and siltation patterns, and  to changes in the  concentration of
organic or industrial wastes.  Species composition and abundances of
species change with environmental flux.  The magnitude of this change
depends primarily on  the nature and  severity  of  the environmental

Seventy-one benthic invertebrate  species were found with the largest
number  of  species belonging  to aquatic Annilida, followed closely by
Sphaerid  clams.  The most universal  of these  species were the  tubified
oligochaetes, the most common being  Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, _L.
cervix  and Pelescolex multisetosus.  Most  of  the clams were various
species of Pisidium.  Other  invertebrates  found:  a) in at least  fifty
percent of the locations  included leeches, pulmonate snails, and
aquatic fly larvae; and b) in less  than  fifty percent  of the locations
included  coelentrates, flatworms, nematocles, fresh-water polychaetes,
gill-breathing snails, water fleas,  scuds, aquatic sow bugs, mayflies,
aquatic beetles, and  water mites.


                                  |_  Tubificidae

                                  m  Other Oligochaeta

                                  f  I  ChironofTiidae

                                  (223  Gast ropoda

                                  |^"1  Sphaeriidae

                                  [~^"1  Htrudinea

                                  ;	[  Other Benthos
    Figure 29.  Relative abundance of the major benthic groups  at the fourteen regular sampling stations,
                 represented by  areas within the circles.  The number above each  circle is  the mean
                 density of tubificids per square meter  (Rolan,  1973) .

The largest variety of organisms (54 and 52 taxa) were taken from the
stations four and two while the smallest variety (16 taxa) was from
station twelve.  Species diversity values indicate that the greatest
diversity occurred at station thirteen (3.217 + 0.039) and lowest
diversity at station one (0.946 +_ 0.608).  Ordination analysis
indicated that stations one, five, six and ten had sparse populations
with less pollution tolerant organisms being more important.  Stations
three, seven and eight showed unstable community structures shifting
with time.  Stations two, four, and nine indicated that pollution
tolerant organisms at these locations were important components of the

The tubificid worms Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, L^. cervix, and Pelexcolix
multisetosus were listed as species restricted to grossly polluted
areas.  Another common tubificid present was Limnodrilus udekemianus
which occurs in shallow water regardless of pollution.  The presence of
the midge larvae Procladius sp, Chirononus sp, and Crytpochirononis sp,
genera associated with pollution tolerance, would seem to substantiate
the general picture that the Cleveland area is at least mildly
polluted.  Dividing the ten regularly sampled stations into four
pollution categories, I being the least polluted to IV being the most
polluted, it was found that the stations could roughly be divided by
ordination into:

                 Category                 Stations
                    I                       1
                    II                      3, 6, 10
                    III                     5, 7, 8, 9
                    IV                      2, 4

The biological data does not fit exactly to this classification although
it agrees closely with this interpretation.  Station one was located
furthest west of the stations and contained a sparse population
tolerant species, perhaps because the substrate was current swept which
did not allow material to settle out.  Stations five, six and ten had
sparse populations with pollution tolerant species not playing a
dominant role.  These stations were open water stations at the mouths
of several creeks which may have had a sweeping effect on the substrate
causing its shift.  Stations three, seven, eight and nine contained
species which contained a major number of pollution tolerant species.
The substrate present at these sites was of a soft type which may
build up even at sites where heavy wave action may occur.  The result
would be a build up in benthic populations.  Stations two and four
contained the most stable population of pollution tolerant species.
These two stations are definitely influenced by heavy siltation by
various types of sediment materials.

This study has been the first major effort to examine the benthic
populations in the Cleveland area.  As such, no information from
previous work was available and data gathered in this project would


 seem insufficient.   This report  indicates how great  is  the  lack  of
 knowledge of benthic population  in  this area and demonstrates  the need
 for  a more  comprehensive survey  of  the area.  Preliminary data indicates
 that sections of  the area are grossly polluted while several places
 are  only moderately  or slightly  polluted.  This, however, is only a
 result of isolated stations.  Work  should be done on clusters  of
 stations rather than isolated stations and the time  between samples
 decreased.  Species  diversity and ordination techniques are powerful
 tools, if sufficient amounts of  specific data are available which
 should be used in any community  analysis of the Cleveland lakeshore
 area.  More information must be  gathered about the interaction of
 various chemical-physical factors with the biota, particularly the
 influence or toxicity of the sediments to the biota which form the
 basis for the food web in this area of the lake.

 The  fish population  study was accomplished by Dr. A. M. White  of John
 Carroll University,  and it is fully presented in Volume II.    The fish
 populations were  studied to establish a firm baseline, and  to  define
 the  changes that  affected the various species, their abundance, and
 distribution in the  past and at  present.  Changes related to water
 quality and alterations of land  use were documented  from historical

 This study was the first exhaustive delineation of fish populations in
 the  Cleveland region.  Using a number of techniques, the investigators
 collected and examined 77,000 specimens of fish.  The fishes were
 identified and catalogued in relation to abundance designating each
 group in these categories:  Extremely abundant, abundant, common,
 uncommon and rare or commercially extirpated.  All this data is
 presented in Volume  II.

 The  study shows that the present fish fauna is very different  from
 about a hundred and  fifty years  ago.  The fish populations  have
 changed from clean water forms (Muskellunge, Walleye, Lake  Trout,
 Silver Chub, Burbot) to "rough"  forms (Goldfish, Carp, Gizzardshad,
 Perch).  The study concludes that stream spawning fish populations were
 drastically reduced  by physical  dams and latter by "chemical dams"
 from pollution preventing upstream migration.  The changes  in  the fish
 populations were  directly related to pollution loadings and alterations
 of the physical environment from human activities.

 The  study shows that fish populations in the study area are under
 stress, and shows the variability of the distribution of the stress.
 The  critical areas are the lower seven miles of the Cuyahoga River,
 Edgewater area,  and Cleveland Harbor.   The study recommends immediate
 action.  This study meagerly summarized here, because it is presented
 fully in Volume  II,  is  possibly the most complete and significant
accomplishment of the entire project.

White found that the three principal fish nursery zones in the study
area were the lower mile of Rocky River and the adjacent shoreline,


the Cleveland Breakwall System and the marinas, and the lower mile of
Chagrin River and the adjacent Lake Erie shoreline.  About 30 different
species are reproducing in the Chagrin Zone, about 24 species in the
Rocky River Zone, and about 12 species in the Cleveland Breakwall
System.  Subsequent more detailed investigations of smaller creeks
have shown that fishes are reproducing at the mouths of these creeks
and adjacent shorelines.  This indicates that with the decrease of
stress from water pollution control, a number of nearly extirpated
fish species could repopulate the area.

Table 18A shows that a number of clean water species still can be
found in the area such as Rainbow Trout, Northern Pike, Yellow Walleye,
Largemouth Blackbass, etc.  Although rare in numbers, these fishes
could represent the necessary stock source for the restoration of
fish population at the immediate Cleveland shoreline (White, 1973).
Removal of pollutants by point source pollution control and selected
dredging with supporting measures like artificial reefs are required
for such restoration.

White concludes in a personal communication in 1974 that "in an area
such as the Cleveland Harbor or Cuyahoga, where current attitude is
that no fishes are present I feel that the restoration of fish
populations would be a striking example of the clean up program in
the City and would be of significance to the area, the State and the
Nation".  These comments are in concert with this entire report, and
philosophically, also, in agreement with the basic restoration
provision of the major federal water quality legislation, notably
with those of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of
1972 (P.L. 92-500).

                              IN 1971-1974
             (collections by White with specimens preserved in the
                     John Carroll University Museum)
*   Longnose Gar


    Eastern Gizzardshad

*   Rainbow Trout

    Coho Salmon

    Chinook Salmon

    Rainbow Smelt

*   Northern Pike

*   Eastern Quillback Carpsucker

*   Golden Redhorse

    White Sucker




    Common Emerald Shiner

    Spottail Shiner
    Bluntnose Minnow

*   Channel Catfish

*   Brown Bullhead

*   Black Bullhead

*   Stonecat Madtom


    White Bass

    White Crappie

*   Black Crappie

*   Warmouth Sunfish

*   Largemouth Blackbass

    Bluegill Sunfish

    Pumpkinseed Sunfish

*   Yellow Walleye

    Freshwater Drum (Sheepshead)
*  Indicates those species that are only rarely collected.


The synthesis of the data obtained from the individual investigations
combined with available information from other studies presents a
rough but viable description of the water quality in the near shore
Lake Erie waters between Rocky River in the west and Chagrin River in
the east.  None of the investigations, except for the fish population
study, established a firm and scientifically complete water quality
baseline.  The acquired data, however, is an important and vital
departure line for intensive water quality monitoring and surveillance,
water quality restoration programs, and water pollution abatement
program effectiveness.  There are four principal areas that must be
considered as the core of the synthesis.  These are:

    1.  Major factors in the history of .the degradation of the water
        quality in the study area.

    2.  Present status and patterns of water quality in the study area.

    3.  Public health considerations as related to present water quality

    4.  Sociological aspects as related to environmental water quality

The project research on the history of water quality decline clearly
indicates that there were definite successive impacts.  These impacts
were direct consequences of human activities.  The initial impact
resulted from the modification of the physical environment which was
accompanied by the partial destruction of the flora of the region.
This modification was characterized by denudation of land for agricul-
tural uses, damming of streams for power, draining and filling of
marshes.  This produced siltation, destruction of spawning areas, and
partial extirpation of stream spawning lake fishes.

The second major impact occurred in the second half of the 19th
century.  The growth of the population with industrialization
produced excessive waste, which was discharged untreated into the
waters.  This produced excessive waste, which produced a profound
stress on the aquatic system resulting in extirpation of fish life
described in Volume II of this study.

The third major impact resulted since about the beginning of the 20th
century and is still being exerted.  This is a progressive, continuous
pollution loading into the Cleveland area watershed.  This continuous
loading has produced toxicity from industrial wastes, enriched the
waters from oligotrophic to early eutrophic, and has created
bacterial contamination.  Compounded by excessive siltation of streams
from poor land use and floodplain management,  tnis third impact has
caused diminished availability of clean water for public water supply


and recreational purposes.  It has altered the fish fauna from clean
water valuable food fishes to pollution tolerant low food desirability

The review of the history clearly indicates that the initial phase of
water quality degradation in the study area consisted of physical
impacts resulting from physical alteration of the environment.  It, also,
shows that the removal of pollution sources alone will not restore the
water quality.  This demonstrates the critical tie between land use
(physical environment) and water quality.

The second principal area of consideration in the synthesis is the
derivation of the various water quality zones as shown in Figure 12.
Although these zones are based on estimated "pollutopleths," they are
substantiated by benthic sediment chemical and biological data,
chemical water measurements, phytoplankton and zooplankton studies,
and bacterial analysis.  Obviously the water patterns change due to
storms and currents, but for most of the year these pollution "zones"
are definable.  This shows that the harbor area is a definite area of
aquatic stress.  Any additional stress will produce highly undesirable
results such as complete fouling of the harbor.  This means additional
degradation on top of existing  low water quality conditions.  The dike
construction and dredged material disposal by U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers into the Cleveland Harbor should be diverted to other areas
of the lake or preferably disposed in non-aquatic environments.  Table
19 shows the chemical composition of the dredged material.  Certain
chemicals contained in these sediments are released to the aquatic
environment depending on the anoxic or oxic conditions of the benthic
environs (Table 19).  All the public access recreational areas are in
zones of either pollution or bacterial contamination, precluding these
areas from use.

The pollution impact of the urban area is self-evident.  Most of the
highly degraded areas are related to proximity of point sources.
Based on stream investigation data, all the streams are point sources.
The overall degradation of the streams can be classed into these major

    chemical pollution (COD, toxicity)
    sewage pollution (BOD, bacterial and viral)
    debri and junk (domestic refuse, junked cars, etc.)
    stream bank and floodplain (poor land use, bank erosion, sedimenta-
    tion and siltation)

Streams in the study area are highly culverted, channelized, and
destabilized.  They are highly disrupted ecological corridors.
However, with proper comprehensive environmental efforts, they can be
restored,  and become ecologically stabilizing factors in the urban


Chlorine Demand
Volatile Solids
Oil and Grease

Public health considerations are many, but the two central areas are
viral and toxic contamination of water supply.  Most of the effluents
containing treated or partially treated sewage are disposed into Lake
Erie.  The effects on public water supply from viruses in the sewage
can produce public health hazards, since Cleveland draws its water
from the lake.  The viruses that have been found in sewage are listed
in Table 20.  Although water pretreatment may be effective in
destroying the viruses, at this time, that is unknown.

The other area of public health is toxic materials, especially as
released by certain strains of blue-green algae.  The known toxigenic
algae are widely distributed geographically and belong to several
taxonomic groups.  In the Cleveland area, however, our major concern
centers on several species of blue-green algae and one diatom species.
The foregoing statement is based on presently available information.
Those species which are known or heavily suspected of being toxigenic
and which are known to occur within the Great Lakes area are:

        Anabaena flos-aquae
        Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
        Coelosphaerium kutzingianum
        Gloeotrichia echinulata
        Gloeotrichia pisum
        Microcystis aeruginosa
        Microcystis flos-aquae
        Nodularia spumigena
        Oscillatoria lacustris

        Asterionella formosa

A complicating factor is that when intensive studies have been under-
taken, it has been found that only certain strains of the species are
toxigenic.   At this time it is not possible to determine in advance
which strains will be toxigenic and which will be harmless.   The
blue green algae toxins, when proper strains do occur are not released
to the water until the cells die.   In order to test the toxicity the
cells must be lyophilized by either mechanical or chemical means.
Thus in the water treatment process, if the cellular structure is
destroyed before the cells are removed from the water any toxins
present would be released in the water treatment process.

To date there has been no extensive work done on the possible presence
of toxic algae in Lake Erie.   The Cleveland Water Quality Laboratory
(1972) did perform a few tests on gross samples collected during
bloom of August, 1972.   The test animals laboratory mice,  exhibited
convulsions,  pallor and prostration when injected freeze-dried cells
intra peritoneal.   All but one of the mice recovered within 24 hours.
The single mouse that died had been injected with a 340 mg/kg body


     Diseases or Clinical Syndromes
  Group A

  Group B



Infectious hepatitis virus
Paralysis, aseptic meningitis,
undifferentiated febrile illness

Herpangina, aseptic mengingitis,
paralysis, exanthem, "common cold",
undifferentiated febrile illness

Pleurodynia, aseptic mengingitis,
paralysis, meningoencephalitis,
myocorditis, pericorditis, upper
respiratory illness, pneumonia,
undifferentiated febrile illness

Aseptic meningitis, paralysis,
exanthem, respiratory disease,

Acute febrile pharyngitis,
phanyngoconjunctival fever, acute
respiratory disease, pneumonia

Respiratory illness, diarrhea


           3200 LITER SAMPLE TAKEN AUGUST 8,  1973

Sled shrimp
Number per
Midgefly larva

Number per

P denotes present but less than one per liter

weight dose and died within 24 hours.  All the other mice received
injections of 80 mg/kg body weight.  Although the dose is considerably
greater than the standard 40 to 60 milligram dose, it should be noted
that the injected material contained not only Anabaena and Microcystis
but also all types of algae present in the lake.  Alldridge in 1973
estimated that no more than 10% of the phytoplankton biomass is blue-
green algae, which means that the actual dose of blue-green algae
should be no greater than 40 mg/kg body weight.  Table 21 presents
the results of a recent analysis of city tap water.   The water was
collected from a tap at the Water Quality Program, 3090 Broadway.
The suspended material in the water was collected by passing 3200 liters
of water through a Wisconsin style plankton bucket.   The collected
material was then washed from the bucket and concentrated into a
Sedgewick-Rafter plankton counting cell, and the collected plankton
enumerated.  Since the method usually collects no more than 50% of the
suspended particles for this type of water, the results are heavily
weighed towards the low side.  However, the results do present the fact
that although the water is bacteriologically safe, it is not free from
objectional and possibly injurious material.  Anabaena sp, one of the
major types implicated in algae poisoning, is one of the major
constituents of the residential plankton in the municipal tap water.

The reference to the viral and toxic material possibilities in the
public water supply should not be considered as scare tactics.  No
environmental quality and public health assessment and management
framework can be considered sound if it does not consider all the

The sociological aspects that must be considered in the synthesis are
related to quality of life values.  One of the major sources of
aesthetic and cultural values in an urban area can be the natural
environment within the area.  If, however, the natural environment is
degraded, this fact can act as a depressing mechanism on the society.
In Cleveland area the degradation of the environment can be related to
past public apathy.  This past apathy toward the environment is
difficult to envision in a sensitive community like Cleveland.  In
terms of public responsibility toward the aged, the destitute, the
unfortunate, the ill, etc., the community is one of the more
responsive cities in the nation.  Its response in terms of positive
programs, and financial support from private and public sectors, makes
the Cleveland area a leader.  But only in the last few years has
environmental quality become of major concern.  Cleveland has been
flagellated and ridiculed on the news media for a "dead lake" in its
backyard for over a decade.  Part of the apathy could be related to
Lake Erie shoreline accessibility to the public.  Of about twenty two
miles of the shoreline in the study area, only about four and a half
miles are accessible to the public as park or private recreational
areas.  Since the accessible areas have contaminated water offshore,
in an urban area this spells apathy — no access, no involvement.


 The general synthesis is the sum total of available inputs from this
 project and many other studies done previously and concurrently.   The
 water quality conditions in the study area shown in Figure 12 were
 derived from all available data.   The extent of each zone depicted on
 the map can change with currents,  wind,  season, and many other factors.
 However,  the general conditions prevail as supported by biological and
 chemical evidence.   Although,  the  "pollution zones" are in part a
 subjective interpretation,  they are geographic-aerial designations of
 water quality conditions generally prevailing in the study area.   From
 this map,  priorities in restoration and water pollution control
 programs  can be established.   As part of the total synthesis  several
 major points are evident.

 The first  major point is that  popular designations of the death of
 Lake Erie  off Cleveland shore  are  false.   The pollution,  however,  is
 real,  and  the water is heavily degraded.   Based on the available  data,
 Cleveland  Harbor is a zone  of  pronounced aquatic stress.   The fish
 population study (White,  1973)  shows that the Cleveland Harbor
 breakwall  and around the Edgewater complex are primary fish feeding  and
 spawning areas.   This establishes  a priority for these areas,
 demonstrating that  future modification and present pollution  of the
 Harbor must  be severely reduced.

 The second major point is that  the Cleveland communities,  city proper
 and suburban,  are involved  in positive programs of pollution  abatement.
 The next few years  will be  critical in terms of completing  the planned
 programs.  Close to 300 million dollars  of  federal construction funds
 for water  pollution abatement have been  allocated  to  the  Cleveland
 Regional Sewer  District for these  programs.  Upon  completion  of the
 initial construction programs, a marked  improvement in water  quality
 may occur.

 The third  major  point  is that the  Cleveland  area aquatic  environment
 can be and is being  rehabilitated,  and this  rehabilitation will bring
 multiple economic and  social benefits.  One  of  the benefits may be
 the restoration  of  the  fisheries in  the Cleveland area.  Dr. White,
 the principal investigator of the  fish population study, estimates
 that the annual  loss  to the Cleveland area due  to destruction of
 fisheries  is over $8,000,000.  He points out that with proper
management approaches  these fisheries can be restored.

The  fourth major condition is that the use and abuse of the geologic
 environment  (land use) is critically related to water quality, as
 shown by the history of the degradation.  This means that steps other
 than removing point source pollution will also be required to restore
the water quality of the area.

The fifth major condition is that restoration programs aiming at full
rehabilitation of the Cleveland water quality, must set goals in water
quality related to conditions existing prior to 1850.   The total


dissolved solids began to increase over a hundred years ago,  as well
as other pollution.   Full rehabilitation may require much different

As a final point this project achieved some success.  Although, a
complete baseline was not fully established, valid scientific
description of the water quality conditions in the study area was
obtained.  This project also demonstrated that cooperative efforts on
a broad basis can be achieved between federal, local, and educational

                                  SECTION VI


Based on the evaluation of this project and data from other reports,
particularly from MASTER PLAN FOR POLLUTION ABATEMENT by Havens and
Emerson of 1968, and LAKE ERIE REPORT by FWPCA in 1968, general and
specific needs have been delineated for water pollution control and
water quality management for the Cleveland area.  The intensity of
these needs dictate the priorities.  The response to specific needs
is presented in the recommendations of this report.  There are three
areas of need which require immediate response.  These areas are in
applied research, in demonstration projects, and in pollution control.

Applied research must continue at accelerated paces to define the
ecological system of the region on an integrated basis.  This should
be accomplished through a comprehensive, interdisciplinary base,
rather than task oriented individual investigations.  The lack of
tying together of physical environment factors, biological systems,
and human activities may result in the assignment of artificial
priorities and not produce desired water quality improvement.

Demonstration projects are fundamental in developing successful
environmental rehabilitation techniques.  A successful restoration or
rehabilitation of a real environment system has a number of inherent
benefits.  For example, the restoration of a degraded watershed can
bring benefits, one of them being that is can serve as a working
environmental model for rehabilitation of other watersheds.  Another
benefit is the analytic cost-benefit capability that can be derived
from the project.  One of the most important benefits is in winning
the confidence of the public and other parties by demonstrated and
visible success.   In this area the Cleveland community needs renewed
faith in water quality programs to sustain its energies and committment
to environmental improvement.

The importance in actually minimizing pollution cannot be overemphasized.
This requires committment of technology, law and social values to the
idea that environmental quality is part of the quality of life.   The
preservation and improvement of environmental quality can be achieved
through the recognition that nature does not have an infinite capacity
to absorb waste products from human activities.   The dominant
philosophy in relation to all activities must provide for recycling of
energy and materials with minimum discharge to the environment.   This
can be accomplished through better engineering of new processes,
improvement of old processes,  more strict legal control,  and overall
reeducation of the community in relation to common environmental goals.
The results that  must be obtained in the Cleveland region in water
pollution control are drastic reductions in pollution loadings.


This area is critical in view of the degraded water quality of the
region.  Pollution control must start at the local level consistent
with national objectives, but in all aspects it must be a local effort
and a distinct responsibility of the elected officials.  Only through
local committment can environmental quality efforts succeed in the
long run.  Local efforts must be encouraged, supported, and given
freedom of action within a broad range of national and state objectives.


One of the most critical factors that determines the success of an
environmental quality program is the base on which the program is
designed.  The base must be comprehensive and interdisciplinary.
The stress is on an interdisciplinary base to prevent the domination of
traditional disciplines evolving narrow approaches resulting in partial
solutions.  Most environmental management approaches, even presently,
are only in the multi-disciplinary stage of evolution which is
inadequate.  Multi-disciplinary is often confused with interdisciplinary.
To distinguish between the two, the United States Environmental
Protection Agency's definition in the 1973 publication, "The Quality
of Life Concept," is appropriate:

    "Multi-disciplinary" refers merely to gathering the
    information of the disciplines.  "Interdisciplinary"
    means proceeding from the basis of an integration of
    the knowledge at hand, avoiding temptation to subjugate
    other disciplines to support one's own specialty.
    (p. 1-21)

The interface of water, land, biological systems, and human activities
is characterized by subtle and complex relationships.  To manage water
quality in this interface requires an interdisciplinary systems approach
framework.  This framework is represented by the integrated Environmental
Management of Water Quality "matrix" in Figure 30.  The basic components
of this "matrix" are Environment, Disruptions, Effects, (Human)
Ecosystem, Engineering and Technology, and Enforcement.  The integration
and proper balance of these components results in effective water
quality management and adequate supply.  Each component and subcomponent
are interdependent with all the components and subcomponents in the
"matrix".  Each component must be as interdisciplinary as the total


Definition and knowledge of the environment is basic.  The biologic
systems,  quantitative and qualitative assessment of surface and
subsurface hydrology, climate, and meteorology must be understood and
integrated.  The water interface with geology, soils,  topography, and
geomorphology must be scientifically defined.  Availability and
extent of water resources must be described through accepted and
scientifically valid procedures for sampling, testing, documenting,


                          Biologic Systems
                          Hydrology - Surface &
                          Geology - Rocks, Soils,
                            and Other
                          Topography &
      Natural vs Artificial
      Survey - Assessments
      Modes of Disruptions
      Scale of Disruption
      Documentation & Mapping
 Agencies, Courts
 Law Doctrines
 Priorities &
      Human Health
      Water Supply
Environmental Planning
Hydro-Geologic Controls
Wastewater Treatment
Advanced Methods
Flow Augmentation
                            (HUMAN) ECOSYSTEM
                        Public Awareness &
                          Social Conditions
                        Politics & Land Use
                        Cultural Patterns
                        Environmental Values
                        interdisciplinary Exchangey
                        ^Artificial Priorities
Figure 30.  Water quality management interrelationships
            (A. B. Garlauskas, 1971)

mapping, and other methods.


Disruptions deal with the factors that alter the quality and
distribution of the natural waters of the region.  This involves
quantitative and qualitative surveys and assessments of the natural and
man-generated disruptions.  This includes pollution as well as other
modification of water resources.  All the sources must be classified
in terms of scale, mode, and possible secondary effects.  The
disruptions must be monitored to obtain a systematic, periodic
evaluation of water quality changes.


Possible effects from alteration of water quality must be evaluated.
The effects on human health, the biosphere, economics, water supply,
aesthetics, and resources must be qualitatively and quantitatively
assessed.  These assessments are fundamental in establishing priorities.

(Human) Ecosystem

This area encompasses the various factors that comprise the interactions
of human society.  Public awareness and socioeconomic conditions must
be recognized as basic aspects that determine society's environmental
committments.  Politics, environmental values, cultural patterns and
land use are variables that may control water quality conditions through
indirect reallocation of water resources to degrading uses - waste
disposal, power, mechanical cooling, and others.  Utilization and
integration of social and physical sciences and interdisciplinary
exchange can provide new insight into water quality problems, and
develop cooperative basis for action.

Engineering and Technology

The area of engineering and technology determines the physical controls
that can be imposed on processes and waste disposal practices to control
degradation of water quality.  This area evaluates and  integrates
environmental planning approaches, available technological controls,
land and water use methods, water and waste recycling,  and
environmental engineering.  This includes evaluation of dredging,
modification of stream flow, advanced methods of waste  treatment
and disposal, and areas of hydrogeologic controls.  In  this area,
applied sciences of geology, limnology, hydrogeology, and hydrology
work through a common interface with engineering, to arrive at
optimum water quality control and improvement approaches.


The area of legal controls must have a sound scientific, engineering,
and economic base for effective design and application.  Standards,


                       WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

         economic projections and
       engineering-economic analyses
      of alternatives leading to
     decisions on what
  / structural and non-
 / structural measures
 / to put into use
/when and where; grant
/coordination, water-/         RESEARCH
shed alteration,
land use                          AND

                            DATA COLLECTION

design and construct
facilities, including
monitoring networks; set
      standards, establish
       inspection procedures;
         devise procedures;

          for levying charges;\
           water quality
           surveillance; water
           quality law
           enforcement; inter-
           agency coordination

                            pushing buttons
                          closing/opening gates
                           making inspections
                  operating reservoirs & treatment plants
                             levying charges
                          watershed management
                        maintenance of stream and,.
                              lake quality
        Figure  31*   Water  quality management  functions
                    (Modified  after  Kneese, A.  V.,  and  B.T.  Bower,
                    1968,  Managing Water  Quality: Economics,  Technology,
                    Institutions: Baltimore,  The Johns  Hopkins  Press)

criteria, regulations and enforcement priorities must be set to
conform with the realities of the environmental conditions.   Engineering
feasibility as well as effects must be considered.   Many legal aspects
are formulated without consideration or indepth knowledge of the
environment and technological capabilities to achieve the standards.
Agencies, courts, and law doctrines must be consistent in assuring
that the legal framework is not self-contradicting or self-defeating.

This comprehensive base should serve as a framework in future
environmental planning and management of water quality in the
Cleveland region.  One of the key factors that is fundamental in
application of this framework is that the environmental management
of water quality functions (Figure 31) be administered through one
agency or authority.  Separation of these functions will lead to
partial achievement of objectives.

In the Cleveland region (the Three Rivers Watershed) all the research,
planning, monitoring, and implementation pertaining to water quality
of the region can be accomplished through an integrated approach in
a regional water authority.  This authority does not necessarily
have to preempt or eliminate all the existing agencies, but it must be
the managing authority, and develop goals, objectives, and
implementation approaches.  Segmentation of water quality management
functions leads to ineffective programs.


Integrated broad scope programs in water quality and resources
management tend to break down or become stymied, because specific
methodologies are not sufficiently developed or sophisticated to
implement the various objectives of these programs.  In such cases the
conceptual base of the management approach may be too advanced and
complex for traditional "seat of the pants" management practices.

A specific methodology which can facilitate water quality and resources
management at a regional level is the hierarchical multilevel systems
approach.  This approach employs various types of descriptive,
mathematical, and experimental models to optimize the planning,
operation, and control of natural and artificial factors of the
quantitative and qualitative aspects of water resources systems.

Several significant regional studies in the Cleveland area employing
the hierarchical multilevel systems approach on water quality and
water resources management are being performed at Case Western Reserve
University in the Systems Engineering Department.  One study called
Construction of Multilevel Systems Model for Regional Approach and
Phosphorus Pollution Control conducted by Dr. M. D. Mesarovic is
exploring the application of such approaches to deal with phosphorus
pollution control in the Lake Erie Basin.  The study is funded by the
Rockefeller Foundation, and its first phase was completed in 1973.


 The  other studies are being conducted by Dr. Y. Y. Haimes and these are
 listed with  the supporting agencies in Table 22.

 These studies center around developing water resource management
 methodologies which have quantification and prediction capabilities.  In
 dealing with large scale systems such as Lake Erie the numerous
 variables and their complex interrelationships can be defined and
 manipulated  through the hierarchical multilevel systems approach.  This
 approach is  designed to deal with complex systems by decomposing the
 complex whole into independent parts, and analyzing these parts through
 subsystems modeling.  Through this decomposition of the system to
 various levels of diminishing complexity, the subsystems can be
 analyzed (Figure 32).  Then each lower level subsystem transmits its
 information  to the next higher level as a reverse process of reassembling
 the  complex  system.

 Multilevel decision management process of water quality and resources
 systems has  several very important advantages.  It allows for
 simplification of complex systems, which have societal, technological,
 and  environmental variables operating, to a workable level.  It
 incorporates feedback mechanisms, and it provides for the use of
 various types of problem solving methodologies such as linear
 programming, dynamic programming, etc.  These methodologies can be
 employed to  simulate the real system, and provide the necessary
 information  to the various levels of decision in the hierarchical
 structure (Figure 33).

 For  the Cleveland area evaluation and management concepts like the
 hierarchical multilevel approach are of great importance in dealing
 with environmental problems in at least four areas.  These are:

    1.  Regional water resources, primarily public water supply

    2.  Regional water quality management and pollution control of
        publicly owned wastewater treatment works, industrial discharges,
        and distributed point and area sources.

    3.  Water resources and water quality data collection and analysis

    4.  Conjunctive use of water and land resources.

The first two areas in the Cleveland region are receiving over 1,000
million dollars in upgrading the water supply and water pollution
 control facilities in the next five years.   With this huge investment
of public and private funds,  a systematic analysis of the effectiveness
and cost-benefit of the improvements must be made.  Also, at this
 time it is most advantageous to predict the economic and environmental
impact of the compliance in the Cleveland region with the timetable
provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of
1972 (P.L.  92-500).




              a.   Supply and Treatment Model
              b.   Effluent Charges and Taxation Model
              c.   Cost-Benefit and Multi-Objectives
              d.   Other Decisions


Leontief Input-Output
  Demand Model

1.  Watershed Simulation Model
2.  Water Budget Model
3.  Limnological System Model
           Figure 32.  Hierarchical multilevel systems decomposition  (after Yacov Y. Haimes in 1973)

Supporting Agency
Regional Water Quality
  Control and Management

Multilevel Approach for
  Regional Water Resources
  Planning and Management

Integrated System
  Identification and
  Optimization for
  Conjunctive Use of
  Ground and Surface

Regional Approach to
  Phosphorus Pollution

Analytical Framework for
  Design of Data
  Collection Systems
  That are Responsive
  to the Needs of Planning
  and Management of Water
  Resources and Land
  Related Systems
U.S. Environmental Protection
National Science Foundation
U.S. Department of Interior,
  Office of Water Resources
Rockefeller Foundation
U.S. Department of Interior,
  Office of Water Resources

Control of
Acceptance of
Control of
Phosphorus and
BOD from
Control of
Phosphorus and
BOD from
Control of
Phosphorus and
BOD from
Grant Supported
Runoff Control
Control Program:
Taxation -
Reliance on
U.S. Standards
Control of
Phosphorus and
BOD by Limiting
or Proscribing
Taxation -
Figure 33.  An example of the hierarchical multilevel decision layer
            structure as applied to a regional phosphorus control
            program  (after Richardson, J.M.  Interactive Mode Decision
            Analysis.  Case Western Reserve University, unpublished,

 These factors  can be  evaluated most  efficiently  through simulation
 models closely resembling  the real environmental systems of  the
 Cleveland  region.   Such  simulation would provide for better  collection
 of  data, for more relevant data  collection, for  proper and more
 comprehensive  interpretation of  data,  and for better assessment of
 environmental  impact  resulting from  alternate environmental  policies.
 Most  important it would  justify  or deny the present huge investments
 in  water related  projects, and it would provide  a means for  reassessing
 priorities for action.

 As  part of meeting some  of the goals and objectives of the total
 program going  into Phase II, several smaller scale restoration projects
 are underway.   The initial planning and study phases of these projects
 have  been  covered  by  these reports:

    1.  Preliminary Report on Planning, Present  Status, and Proposed
        Action of  Big Creek - 1973.

    2.  Effluent Disinfection of the Cleveland Regional Sewer District's
        Sewage Treatment Plants;  Performance, Present Status, and
        Needs  - 1974

    3.  Cleveland's Industrial Water Pollution Abatement Programs - 1974

    4.  Preliminary Assessment For Restoration of Doan Brook and
        Shaker Lakes - 1974

 These projects are integral parts of Phase II of  the total Program
 following  the  general guidelines of section 108 of Public Law 92-500,
 the Federal Water  Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972.

The four projects  characterize the action oriented Phase II,  which has
as  its main general objective restoration of the Cleveland metropolitan
area  environmental  quality concentrating on the urban streams and the
near  shore Lake Erie waters.  The Phase II planning and initial action
is being undertaken by the City of Cleveland Water Quality Program,  an
organizational group in the Division of Utilities Engineering of the
Department of Public Utilities.

Several other large scope efforts are being  undertaken by  federal and
state agencies.  Those related to this program other  than  direct
construction are:

    U.S.  Army Corps of Engineers
        Wastewater Management  Study  - 1973
        Cuyahoga River Restoration Study - 1973
        Lake Erie Water Quality Study - 1974
        Cleveland Harbor  Study -  1974

    Lake Erie Regional Transportation Authority
        Cleveland Lake Erie Jetport  Study -  1973-1974


    National Commission on Water Quality
        Proposed Great Lakes Study (concentrating on Lake Erie,
        Cuyahoga River, etc.)  - 1974

    Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
        Implementation of Section 303 of P.L.  92-500 - 1973-1974
        (including modeling of the middle and lower Cuyahoga River)

These efforts are developing fundamental interdisciplinary planning of
water quality and water resources.  They are characterized by
comprehensive approaches encompassing conjunctive use of land, water,
air and energy resources.  These programs are responding to an overall
need for better planning in dealing with complex environmental

In evaluating all the past and present studies and programs, and
reviewing the history of the degradation of the environmental water
quality of the Cleveland metropolitan area, one basic need becomes
evident.  This need is in recognizing the proper priorities in the use
of the available water resources.  Lake Erie provides prime public
water supply for over seven million people living around the basin.
The Cleveland water system alone draws water supplies for 1.75 million
people.  This fact by itself establishes a top priority of use,  and
forces incompatible uses such as waste discharge to the lowest priority.
Other uses that are compatible with public water supply like
transportation, food supply - fishing, recreation, and power reinforce
the incalculable value of the Lake.

The basis of using the Lake for waste discharges rests on the
assumption that the waste assimilative capacity of natural waters is a
resource and should be exploited.  However, natural resource allocation
is based on priorities, and in the case of Lake Erie the priorities are
dictated by the higher use, that being public water supply.  These two
uses although not always completely incompatible, have become so in the
Cleveland area,  because the extent and nature of discharges have
surpassed the assimilative capacity of Nature  long time ago.  This
phenomena is clearly demonstrated by the history and present water
quality of the area.

The economic benefits of allocating the Cleveland waters for waste
discharge to decrease wastewater  treatment costs are questionable,
because the costs are passed on to increased cost of treating polluted
water  for public water supply, loss of recreation, fishing loss, and
loss from overall degradation of  the ecosystem.  The phrase "there is no
such thing as a free lunch" characterizes  the argument.  The federal
goals  of diminishing waste discharges to inconsequential levels as
delineated in P.L. 92-500 are basic responses to prevent irreversible
changes in the environment.  Only when these goals are used as basis
for all water quality  and water resources  planning and management  in such
urban  areas as Cleveland, can Lake Erie remain a resource for the


                                SECTION VII

Advanced Waste Water Treatment - Waste water treatment beyond the
secondary or biological stage that includes removal of nutrients such
as phosphorus and nitrogen and a high percentage of suspended solids.
Advanced waste treatment known as tertiary treatment is the "polishing
stage" of waste water treatment and produces a high quality effluent.

Algae Bloom - A logarithmic increase in abundance of a population of
algae due to an ease in environmental restraints.

Aquatic Chemistry - The chemical study of natural waters.

Aquatic Ecology - The interrelationship between organisms and their
environment in natural waters.

Benthos - Organisms attached or resting on the bottom of a stream, lake
or ocean or living in the bottom sediments.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) - A measure of the amount of oxygen
consumed in the biological processes that break down organic matter
in water.

Biomass - The standing crop or total mass of living substance.

Buffering - The stabilization of pH with the use of an intermediate
ionic species.

Cation - A positively charged ion.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D.) - A measure of the amount of oxygen
required to oxidize organic and oxidizable inorganic compounds in

Cladophora - A genus of filamentous green algae normally attached to

Combined Sewer - A sewerage system that carries both sanitary sewage
and storm water runoff.  During dry weather combined sewers carry all
waste water to the treatment plant.  During a storm only part of the
flow is intercepted because of plant overloading; the remainder goes
untreated to the receiving stream.

Dissolved Oxygen (P.O.) - The amount of dissolved oxygen, in parts per
million by weight present in water, now generally expressed in
milligrams per liter.


Eutrophication - The normally slow aging process by which a lake evolves
into a bog or marsh and ultimately assumes a completely terrestrial
state and disappears.  During eutrophication the lake becomes enriched
in nutritive compounds, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, so that
algae and other microscopic plant life become extremely abundant.
Eutrophication may be accelerated by human activities.

Fish Biology (Ichtiology) - The study of fishes.

Geochemistry - The study of the distribution and amounts of the
chemical elements in minerals, ores, rocks, soils, water, and the
atmosphere and the study of the circulation of the elements in nature
on the basis of the properties of their atoms and ions.

Groundwater - That part of the subsurface water that is the zone of
saturation, including underground streams.

Hydrodynamics - That aspect of hydromechanics which deals with forces
that produce motion.

Hydrology - The science that deals with continental water  (both liquid
and solid), its properties, circulation, and distribution, on and
under the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, from the moment of its
precipitation until it is returned to the atmosphere through
evapotranspiration or is discharged into the ocean.

In Situ - In its original place.

Interceptor Sewers - Sewers used to collect the flows from main and trunk
sewers and carry them to a central point for treatment and discharge.
In a combined sewer system, where street runoff from rains is allowed
to enter the system along with sewage, interceptor sewers allow some of
the sewage to flow untreated directly into the stream to prevent the
plant from being overloaded.

Ion Exchange - The reversible replacement of certain ions by others,
without loss of crystal structure.

Leachate - Liquid that has percolated through solid waste  or other
mediums and has extracted dissolved or suspended materials from  it.

Limnology - The scientific study of the physical,  chemical, meteorological
and especially the biological and ecological conditions and charac-
teristics in pools,  ponds, lakes, and by extension all inland waters.

M.G.D. - Millions of gallons per day, a term commonly used to express

Microstraining - The removal of the fine particles by use  of micro
screens and filters.


Oligotrophic - A lake which has a low supply of nutrients and thus
contains little organic matter.  Such lakes are generally characterized
by high dissolved oxygen and low productivity.

Pelagic - Open water.

pH - A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material, liquid or
solid.  pH is represented on a scale of 0 to 14 with 7 representing a
neutral state, 0 representing the most acid and 14 the most alkaline.

Phytoplankton - Minute floating plants.

Point Source - A discrete location or origin of a specific discharge.
It may emanate from a single origin or from a group of origins
discharging to the receiving water at a common location.

Pollutant - A substance which when introduced into a body of water at
a given concentration and/or amount impairs or renders unfit the water
quality as related to its allocated use such as drinking water supply,
recreation, etc.  A substance that degrades natural water.

Primary Waste Water Treatment - The first stage in waste water
treatment in which substantially all floating or settleable solids are
mechanically removed by screening and sedimentation.

Sanitary Sewers - Sewers that carry only domestic or commercial sewage.
Storm water runoff is carried in a separate system.

Secondary Waste Water Treatment - Waste water treatment beyond the
primary stage in which bacteria consume the organic parts of the
wastes.  This biochemical action is accomplished by use of trickling
filters or the activated sludge process.   Effective secondary
treatment removes virtually all floating and settleable solids and
approximately 90% of both BOD^ and suspended solids.  Customarily,
disinfection by chlorination is the final stage of the secondary
treatment process.

Storm Sewer - A conduit that collects and transports rain and snow
runoff back to the groundwater.  In a separate sewerage system storm
sewers are entirely separate from those carrying domestic and commercial

Suspended Solids - Small particles of solid pollutants in sewage that
contribute to turbidity and that resist separation by conventional
means.  The examination of suspended solids and the BOD test constitute
the two main determinants for water quality performed at waste water
treatment facilities.

Thermal Pollution - Degradation of water quality by the introduction of
a heated effluent.  Primarily a result of the discharge of cooling


waters from industrial processes, particularly from electrical power
generation.  Even small deviation from normal water temperature can
affect aquatic life.

Total Solids - The measurement of the suspended and dissolved solids.

Water Budget - An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from and
storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer,
soil zone, lake or reservoir.

Water Pollution - The addition of sewage, industrial wastes or other
harmful or objectionable material to water in concentrations or in
sufficient quantities to result in measurable degradation of water

Watershed - The region drained by, or contributing water to, a stream,
lake, or other body of water.

Zooplankton - Minute animal organisms which float free in the water,
independent of the shore and the bottom, moving passively with the

                                SECTION VIII


Anon.  Commercial Fish Landings Lake Erie.  Ohio Department of Natural
Resources.  Publication 200.  1970.

Anon.  Commercial Fishing Occurring in Lake Erie Fronting on Cuyahoga
County during 1969.  Ohio Department of Natural Resources.  May 1970.

Anon.  Our Fishing Industry: Almost as Dead as Lake Erie.  Plain Dealer
Sunday Magazine.  September 3, 1972.

Anon.  Substantial Number of Walleyes Planted in Lake Erie.  The
Fisherman.  23(1):4, 1971.

Abrams, J.P. and Taft, C.E.  A Bibliography of Research Conducted at the
Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory and its Predecessor of the Ohio State
University from 1895 to 1968.  The Ohio Journal of Science.  71(2):81-105,
March 1971.

Alley, W.P. and Powers, C.F.  Dry Weight of the Macrobenthos as an
Indicator of Eutrophication of the Great Lakes.  Proc. 13th Conf. Gr.
Lakes Res. 1970:595-600.

Andrews, T.F.  Seasonal Variations in Relative Abundance of Cyclops
vernalis Fisher, Cyclops bicuspidatus Glaus, and Mesocylops leuckarti
(Claus) in Western Lake Erie from July 1946 to May 1948.  Ohio J. Sci.

Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of Water Works.  City of Cleveland.

Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of Water Works.  City of Cleveland.

Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of Water Works.  City of Cleveland.

Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of Water Works.  City of Cleveland.

Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of Water Works.  City of Cleveland.

Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of Water Works.  City of Cleveland.

Applegate, V.C.  The Sea Lamprey in the Great Lakes.  The Scientific
Monthly.  1951.  p. 285-282.


Applegate, V.C.  Natural History of the Sea Lamprey, Petromyzon marinus,
in Michigan.  1950.

Applegate, V.C.  A Brief History of Commercial Fishing in Lake Erie.
U.S. Department of Interior.  Fishery Leaflet 630.  April 1970.

Armbruster, D.C.  Personal Communication.  1971.

Ashworth, C.T., and Mason, M.F.  Observations on the Pathological Changes
Produced by the Toxic Substances in Blue-Green Algae (Microcystis
aeruginosa).  Am. J. Path. 22:369, 1946.

Bailey, M.M.  Age, Growth, Maturity and Sex Composition of the American
Smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), of Western Lake Superior.  Trans.
Amer. Fish. Soc. 93(4):282-295, 1964.

Bailey, R.M. et. al.  A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes
from the United States and Canada.  Amer. Fish. Soc., 1970.

Baker, C.T., Jr.  Survey of Offshore Fish Species in Ohio Portion of Lake
Erie .  Ohio Department of Natural Resources.  Dingell Johnson Project
F-35-R-10  (Study III) 1972.

Baldwin, N.S. and Saalfeld, R.W.  Commercial Fish Production in the
Great Lakes, 1867-1960.  Technical Report No. 3.  Great Lakes Fishery
Comm.  1962.

Ball. F.L.  and School, R.L.  Lake Erie Fisheries Investigations.  Ohio
Department  of Natural Resources.  Dingell Johnson Project F-35-R-9
(Job No. 4, draft).  1970.

Bancroft, P.M., Engelhard, W.E., and Evans, C.A.  Poliomyelitus in
Huskerville (Lincoln) Nebraska.  J. Am. Medical Assoc. 164:836-847, 1957.

Barshad, I.  Cation Exchange in Micaceous Minerals.  In:  Soil Science.

Bay, E.C. and Anderson, L.D.  A Trans-Illuminated Tray for Sorting and
Counting Aquatic Invertebrates.  Calif. Vector News.  6:90-92, 1969.

Bean, T.H.  Report on the Propagation and Distribution of Food-Fishes.
U.S. Comm.  Fish and Fish. Report,  part 20:20-80, Doc. No. 424.  June
30,  1894.

Beck, E. C. and Beck, Jr., W.M.  Chironomidae  (Diptera) of Florida III.
The  Harnischia Complex  (Chironomidae).  Bui. Florida State Mus. 13(5):277-
313, 1969.

Beckel,  L.  The Role of Aquatic Plants in Natural Waters.


Beeton, A.M.  Environmental Changes in Lake Erie.  Trans. Amer. Fish
Soc.  90:153-159, 1961.

Bein, S.J.  A Study of Certain Chromagenic Bacteria Isolated from "Red-
Tide" Water with a Description of a New Species.  Bull, Marine Sci.  Gulf
Carribean 4:110-119, 1954.

Benson, R.H. and MacDonald, H.C.  Preliminary Report on Ostracodes from
Lake Erie and their Stratigraphic Implications.  Proc. 5th Conf. Gr.
Lakes Res. Univ. Mich. Gr. Lakes Res. Div. Publ.  9:140-149.  1962.

Benson, R.H. and MacDonald, H.C.  Postglacial (Holocene) and Ostracodes
from Lake Erie.  Univ. Kans. Paleontol Contrib.  4:1-26, 1963.

Berg, G.  Virus Transmission by the Water Vehicle,  II  Virus Removal
by Sewage Treatment Procedures.  Health Lab. Sci. 3(2) 90-100, 1966.

Berg, G.  Virus Transmission by the Water Vehicle, III Removal of
Viruses by Water Treatment Procedures.  Health Lab. Sci. 3(3):170-181,

Bigelow, N.K. Representative Cladocera of Southwestern Ontario. Publ.
Ont. Fish Res. La. Univ. Toronto Studies No. 8:111-126.  1922.

Bill, S.D. and Kapral, K.  Evidence of Eutrophication in Lake Erie
Derived From a Core Study.  Unpublished Student Originated Studies Pro-
ject, National Science Foundation, 1973.  346 p.

Biscaye, P. Distinction between Kaolinite and Chlorite in Recent Sedi-
ments by X-Ray Diffraction.  Amer. Mineral.  49:1281-89, 1964.

Boesel, M.W. Foods of Some Lake Erie Fishes.  Ohio Division of Wildlife.
Publication W-326.  1965.

Bradshaw, A.S.   The Crustacean Zooplankton Picture: Lake Erie 1939-49-
59; Cayuga 1910-51-61.  Verh. Internat. Verin. Limnol. 15:700-708. 1964.

Braideck, T., Gehring, P. and Kleveno, C.  Biological Studies Related
to Oxygen Depletion and Nutrient Regeneration Processes in the Lake Erie
Central Basin.  In:  Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burns, N.M. and
Ros, C.  ed. Project Hypo, Paper No. 6 and United States Environmental
Protection Agency, Technical Report, TS-05-71-208-24, February 1972.

Bray, J.R. and Curtis, J.T.  An Ordination of the Upland Forest Communi-
ties of Southern Wisconsin.  Ecol. Monogr.  27:325-349, 1957.


Brinkhurst, R.O.   The Use of Sludge-Worms (Tubificidae) in the Detection
and Assessment of Pollution.  Biol.  and Chem.  Abstr.   209-210, 1965.

Brinkhurst, R.O.   The Distribution of Aquatic  Oligochaetes in Saginaw
Bay, Lake Huron.   Limnol. Oceanogr.   12:137-143, 1967.

Brinkhurst, R.O.   Changes in the Benthos of Lakes Erie and Ontario.  Froc.
of the Conf. on Changes in the Biota of Lakes  Erie and Ontario.
1968:45-65, 1969.

Brinkhurst, R.O.   Distribution and Abundance of Tubificid (Oligochaeta)
Species in Toronto Harbor, Lake Ontario.  J. Fish Res. Bd. Canada.
27:1961-1969, 1970.

Brinkhurst, R.O., Hamilton, A.L. and Herrington, H.B.  Components of the
Bottom Fauna of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes.   Great Lakes Institute.
March, 1968.

Brinkhurst, R.O., Chau, K.E. and Batoosingh, E.  Modifications in Sampling
Procedures as Applied to Studies on Bacteria and Tubificid Oligochaetes
Inhabiting Aquatic Sediments.  J. Fish Res. Bd. Canada, 26:2581-2593,

Brinkhurst, R.O.  and Jamieson, B.G.M.  Aquatic Oligochaeta of the World.
Oliver and Boyd,  1971.  864 p.

Britt, N.W.  Stratification in Western Lake Erie in Summer of 1953;
Effects on the Hexagenia (Ephemeroptera) Population.   Ecol. 36(2):239-
244, 1955a.

Britt, N.W.  (Ephemeroptera) Population Recovery in Western Lake Erie
Following the 1953 Catastrophe.  Ecol. 35(3):520-522, 1955 b.

Britt, N.W.  Biology of Two Species of Lake Erie Mayflies, Ephoron,
album (Say) and Ephermera Simulans (Walker).  Bull. Ohio Biol. Surv.
N.S. L(5):l-70, 1962.

Brooks, J.L. Cladocera.  In:  Edmondson, W.T.  (Ed).  Fresh-Water Biology,
New York, Wiley and Son, 1969.  587-656.

Brown ,  E.H., Jr.  Survey of the Bottom Fauna at the Mouths of Ten Lake
Erie, South Shore Rivers:  Its Abundance, Composition and Use as Index
of Stream Pollution.  Lake Erie Pollution Survey.  Final Report.  St. of
Ohio, Department of Nautral Resources.  Division of Water.  April, 1953
p. 156-170.


 Brown, E., Jr.  Population Characteristics and Physical Condition of
Alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, in a Massive Dieoff in Lake Michigan 1967.
Technical Report 13.  Great Lakes Fish.  Comm.  December 1968.

Brown, E., Jr. and Clark, C.  Length-Weight Relationships of Northern
Pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio.  Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc.
94(4):404-405, October 1965.

Brown, H.P.  Aquatic Dryopoid Beetles  (Coleoptera) of the United States.
Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems Identification Manual No. 6.  Wash. B.C.,
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.  1972.

Brundin, L.  The Bottom Faunistical Lake Type System and Its Application
to the Southern Hemisphere.  Moreover a Theory of Glacial Erosion as a
Factor of Productivity in Lakes and Oceans.  Verhandlugern.  International
Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, Vol. 13:288-298, 1958.

Burkholder, P.R.  Distribution of Some Chemical Values in Lake Erie.  In:
Limnological Surv.    Eastern and Central Lake Erie, 1928-1929.  U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Serv., Sci. Rept., 1960.  Fish.  334:71-109.

Burks, B.D.  The Mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois.  Bull 111. Nat.
Hist. Surv. 26:1-216, 1953.

Cahn, A.  Observations on the Breeding of the Lawyer, Lota maculosa.
Copeia.  3:163-165.

Cairns, J., Jr.  Effects of Heat on Fish.  Copeia.  3(5):180-183.

Carr, J.R. and Hiltunen, J.K.  Changes in the Bottom Fauna of Western
Lake Erie from 1930 to 1961.  Limnol.  and Oceanogr.  10:551-569, 1965.

Carroll, D.  Ion Exchange in Clays and Other Minerals.  Bull. Geol. Soc.
Am.  70:749-780, 1959.

Case, W., Warner, W.J., Kirtland, J.P., Whittlesey, C.  Report of the
Committee Appointed by the Common Council of the City of Cleveland, on
the Subject of a Supply of Pure Water.  Plain Dealer Steam Press,
Cleveland,  1853.

Chandler, D.C.  Limnological Studies of Western Lake Erie.  I.  Plankton
and Certain Physical-Chemical Data of the Bass Islands Region, From
September 1938 to November 1939.  Ohio J. Sci. 40:291-336, 1940.

Clark, C.  Observations on the Spawning Habits of the Northern Pike,
Esox lucius, in Northwestern Ohio.  Copeia.  1(4).  1950.


Clark, N.A., Berg, G.,  Kabler, P.W.  and Chang, S.L.   Human Enteric Virus-
es in Water, Source, Survival and Removability.  London, Pergemon Press.
Int. Conf.  in Water Pollution Research.  1962.

Clarke, N.A. and Chang, S.L.  Enteric Viruses in Water.  J. Am. Water
Works Assoc. 51:1299-1317, 1959.

Clarke, N.A., Stevenson, R.E., Change, S.L., and Kabler, P.W.   Removal
of Enteric Viruses from Sewage by Activated Sludge Treatment.   Am. J.
Public Health 51:1118-1130, 1961.

Cockburn, T.A. and Cassanos, J.G.  Epidemiology of Endemic cholera.  Pub.
Health Rep. 75:791, 1960.

Cohen, S.G. and Reif, C.B.  Cutaneous Sensitization to Blue-Green Algae
J. Allergy 24:452, 1953.

Cook, G.W.  and Powers,  R.E.  The Benthic Fauna of Lake Michigan as
Affected by the St. Joseph River.  Univ. of Mich.  Great Lakes Research
Div. 11:68-76, 1964.

Greaser, C.W.  The Structure and Growth of the Scales of Fishes in Re-
lation to the Interpretation of their Life-History with Special Reference
to the Sunfish, Eupomotis Gibbosus.   University of Michigan.  Museum of
Zoology.  Misc. Publication No. 17.   December 1926.

Crowell, R.M.  Taxonomy, Distribution and Developmental stages of Ohio
Water Mites.  Bull Ohio Biol. Surv., N.S. 1:77, 1960.

Crowe, W.R., Karvelis,  E., and Joeris, L.S.  The Movement, Heterogeneity,
and Rate of Exploitation of Walleyes in Northern Green Bay, Lake Michigan,
as Determine by Tagging.  Special Publication of the International Comm.
Northwest Atlantic Fish.  No. 4.  1963.  p. 38-41.

Crowe, W.R.  Numerical Abundance and Use of a Spawning Run of Walleyes in
the Muskegon River, Michigan.  Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 84:125-136.

Curry, L.L.  A Survey of Environmental Requirements for the Midge  (Dip-
tera:  Tendipediadae).   In:  Biological Problems in Water Pollution.
3rd Seminar, 1962.  C.M. Tarywell (ed). Publ. Hlth.  Serv., Cincinnati,
1962, p.  127-141.

Gushing, H.P., Leverett, F. Van Horn, F.R.  Geology and Mineral Resources
of the Cleveland District, Ohio.  U.S. Printing Office, 1931.

Daiber, F.C.  The Food and Feeding Relationships of the Freshwater Drum,
Aplodinotus grunniens  (Rafinesque) in Western Lake Erie.  Ohio Journal of
Science.  52(l):35-46, January 1952.


 Dambach, C.A.   Changes in the Biology of the Lower Great Lakes.   Bull.
 Buf. Soc. Nat.  Sci.  25:1-10,  1969.

 Davidson, F.F.   Effects of Extracts of Blue-Green Algae on Pigment Pro-
 duction by Serratia marcescens.   J. Gen. Microbiology 20:605,  1959.

 Dillenberg, H.O.   Toxic Waterbloom in Saskatchewan  (Presented before the
 14th Annual Meeting INCDNCM (Washington State College,  Pullman Washington
  Aug. 26-29, 1959).

 Davis,  C.C.  Cleveland Harbor Industrial Pollution Study.   Lake  Erie
 Poll. Surv. Final Report.   Ohio  Div.  Water.   1953.   p.  170-188.

 Davis,  C.C.  A  Preliminary Study of the Plankton of the Cleveland Harbor
 Area, Ohio.  III.   The Zooplankton  and General Ecological  Considerations
 of Phytoplankton  and Zooplankton Production.   Ohio  J.  Sci.  54:388-408,

 Davis,  C.C.  Plankton and  Industrial  Pollution in Cleveland Harbor.   Sew-
 age and Industrial Wastes,  27:835-850,  1955.

 Davis,  C.C.  Breeding of Calanoid Copepods in Lake  Erie.   Verh.  Interna-
 tional  Verein.  Limnology.  14:933-942,  1961.

 Davis,  C.C. The  Plankton  of  the Cleveland Harbor Area  of  Lake Erie  in
 1956-57.   Ecol. Monogr., 32:209-247,  1962.

 Davis,  C.C. The  July 1967  Zooplankton  of Lake Erie.  Proc. llth Conf.
 Great Lakes Res.  Internat.  Assoc. Great  Lakes  Res.,  1968.   p.  61-75.

 Davis,  C.C.  Biological  Research in the  Central  Basin of Lake  Erie.   Gr.
 Lakes Res.  Div. Publ.  No. 15.  Univ. Mich. 1966.  p. 18-26.

 Davis,  C.C.  Seasonal Distribution, Constitution, and Abundance  of Zoo-
 plankton  in Lake Erie.   Journal  Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
 26(9):  2459-2476, 1969.

 Deevey, E.S., Jr., and Deevey, G.B.  The American Species of Eubosmina
 Seligo  (Crustacea, Cladocera).  Limn. Oceanogr-, 16(2)201-218, 1971.

 DeRoth, G.C.  Age and Growth Studies of Channel Catfish in Western Lake
 Erie.  Journal of Wildlife Management.  29(2):  280-286, 1965.

 Dillenberg, H.O. and Dehnel, M.K.  Toxic Waterbloom in Saskatchewan 1959.
 Canada Med. Assoc. J. 83:1151, 1960.

 Doan, D.H.  Catch of Stizostedion yitreum in Relation to Changes  in Lake
Levels in Western Lake Erie During" the Winter of 1943.  Amer.Midl. Nat.
 33(2):455-459, March 1945.


Doan, D.H.  Some Meteorological and Limnological Conditions as Factors
in the Abundance of Certain Fishes in Lake Erie.  Abstracts of Doctotal
Dissertations.   No. 36.  The Ohio State University.  1942.

Duncan, R. and Stuckey, R.L.  Changes in the Vascular Flora of Seven
Small Islands in Western Lake Erie.  The Michigan Botanis.   9:175-200,

Dymond, J.R.  Records of the Alewife and Steelhead (Rainbow) Trout from
Lake Erie.  Copeia.  1:32-33, 1932.

Engel, R.A.  Eurytemora affinis, A Calanoid Copepod New to Lake Erie.
Ohio J. Sci., 62:252, 1962.

Ewers, L.A.   Summary Report of Crustacea Used as Food by the Fishes of
the Western End of Lake Erie.  Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 63:379-390, 1963.

Fish, M.P.  Contributions to the Early Life Histories of 62 Species of
Fishes from Lake Erie.  U.S. Bur. Fish. Bull. 47:293-398, 1932.

Fish, M.P.  Contributions to the Natural History of the Burbot.  Bull.
of the Buffalo Soc. of Nat'l Sci. XV(1):5-21, 1930.

Fitch, C.P. et al.  Waterbloom as a Cause of Poiaoning in Domestic
Animals.  Cornell Veterinarian.  24:30-39, 1934.

Fjerdingstad, E.  Some Remarks on a New Saprobic System.  In:  Biological
Problems in Water Pollution.   Third Seminar.  Tarzwell, C.M.  (ed).
Cincinnati, Ohio.  Public Health Service, Div. Water Supply and Pollution
Control, 1962. p 232-235.

Flannagan, J.F.  Efficiencies of Various Grabs and Corers in Sampling
Freshwater Benthos.  J. Fish Res. Bd. Canada 27:1691-1700,  1970.

Foster, N.  Freshwater Polychaetes (Annelida) of North America.  In:
Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems Identification Manual No. 4,  Washington,
D.C.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1972.

Gannon, J.E.  An Artificial Key to the Common Zooplankton Crustacea of
Lake Michigan, Exclusive of Green Bay.  (Unpublished Paper Prepared for
Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc. Northbrook 111.)

Gannon, J.E. and Beeton, A.M.  Studies on the Effects of Dredged Mater-
ials from Selected Great Lakes Harbors on Plankton and Benthos.  Milwau-
kee.  Center for Great Lakes Studies, Univ. Wis.  September 1969.
p. 1-85.


 Garlauskas, A.B.   1971.   Environmental Management:  Lecture Notes.
 Cleveland  State University,  unpublished.

 Garlick, T.  A Treatise  on the Artificial Propagation of Certain Kinds of
 Fish, with a Description and Habits of such Kinds as are the Most Suit-
 able for Pisciculture.   Theo. Brown Publ.  Ohio Farmer Office, Cleveland.
 1857.   p 1-142.

 Gauch,  H.G. and Whitaker, R.H.  Comparison of Ordination Techniques.
 Ecol. 53:868-875,  1972.

 Golterman, H.L.  Methods for Chemical Analysis of Freshwaters.  Blackwell
 Sci. Publ., Oxford and Edinburgh, 1969.

 Gordon, R.B.   The  Natural Vegetation of Ohio in Pioneer Days.  Columbus.
 Ohio State University.   Biological Survey, 1969.

 Gorham, P.R.   1964. Toxic Algae  In: Algae and Man,  Jackson, D.F.  (ed.).
 New  York,  Plenum Press,  1969.

 Gorham, P.R.   Laboratory Studies on the Toxins Produced by Waterblooms of
 Blue-Green Algae.  Am. J. Public Health 52:2100-2105, 1962.

 Gorham, P.R.   Toxic Waterblooms of Blue-Green Algae.  Can. J. Vet
 1:235-245, 1960.

 Grant,  G.A. and Hughes,  E.G.  Development of Toxicity in Blue-Green
 Algae.  Can J. Pub. Health 44:334-339, 1953.

 Harkness,  W.J.K.   The Rate of Growth of the Yellow Perch (Perca
 flavenscens) in Lake Erie.   Publications of the Ontario Fish. Res. Lab.
 University of  Toronto Studies.  No. 6.  1922.  p. 89-95.

 Harmon, W.N. and Berg, C.O.  The Freshwater Snails of Central New York.
 Search 1(4):1-68,  1971.

 Hartman, W.L.   Lake Erie:  Effects of Exploitation,  Environmental Changes
 and New Species on the Fishery Resources.   Journ. of Fish.  Res.  Bd.  of
 Canada.   29:899-912, 1972.

 Hatcher, H.  The Story of New Connecticut in Ohio.  In:   The Western
 Reserve.  1949.  p. 268-271.

 Havens and Emerson Company.   Cleveland,  Ohio, Master Plan for Pollution
Abatement.   Technical Report.  Part 2.   1968.

Hayward, M.L.   Epidimiological Study of  Outbreak of  Infectuaus Hepatitus.
Gastroenterology  6:504,  1946.


Heberger, R.F. and Reynolds, J.B.  Effects of Oxygen Depletion on the
Macroplankton of West-Central Lake Erie, 1968 and 1970.  (Presented at
15th Conf. on Great Lakes Res. Madison, April 5-7, 1972).

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