EPA-9Q5/9-74-009
                 USWVllWNMBn'ALPROlKnON ACBKY
                ~ *-'   -   -'"Wi^wiWi^B^, V Klvr^^l%%i^HwMHv I vMiVli^^Kiraw
             GREAT LAKES INIT1ATWE CONTRAa PROGRAM
                                          DECEMBER 1974

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WATER POLLUTION INVESTIGATION: BLACK RIVER OF NEW YORK
                          by
                  HYDROSCIENCE, INC.
                 Westwood, New Jersey
                  In fulfillment of

             EPA Contract No. 68-01-1573



                       for the

        U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                  Regions II and V
      Great Lakes Initiative Contract Program

          Report Number:  EPA-905/9-74-009



          EPA Project Officer:   Howard  Zar

                r December  ,1274.   .,   .
                Environmental Protection Agency
                Region ''., Library
                                  Street
                                  6060^

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SNVIROKKE3TAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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This report has been developed under auspices of the Great
Lakes Initiative Contract Program.  The purpose of the
Program is to obtain additional data regarding the present
nature and trends in water quality, aquatic life, and waste
loadings in areas of the Great Lakes with the worst water
pollution problems.  The data thus obtained is being used
to assist in the development of waste discharge permits
under provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972 and in meeting commitments under
the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S.
and Canada for accelerated effort to abate and control
water pollution in the Great Lakes.

This report has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and approved for publication.  Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the
views of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nor
does mention of trade names or commercial products consti-
tute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                        iii

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                      ABSTRACT
A verified dissolved oxygen model was used to project the
effect of proposed wastewater discharges on the dissolved
oxygen level of the Black River in New York State.  The
proposed wastewater discharges represent best practical
control technology currently available for the industries
and conventional secondary treatment fox- municipalities.
The results indicate that for design low flow conditions
New York State D.O. standards will be met.

Historical water quality data were reviewed and a field
program conducted to identify existing water quality
problems in the Black River.  It was found that during
the summer low flow conditions, dissolved oxygen levels
between Lyons Falls and Carthage fall below the New York
State standard of 5.0 mg/1.

A dissolved oxygen model was developed to define the
relationship between wastewater discharges and river
dissolved oxygen levels and to identify other factors
that affect the dissolved oxygen concentration in the
Black River.  In addition to the oxygen demand associated
with industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, it
was found that background river dissolved oxygen concen-
trations upstream of direct wastewater discharges are
approximately 1.0 mg/1 below saturation due to naturally
occurring conditions.  Also, aeration at dams was identi-
fied as a significant source of dissolved oxygen,
especially near Carthage.

This report was submitted in fulfillment of Contract
Number: 68-01-1573, under the sponsorship of The Great
Lakes Initiative Contract Program, Environmental Protection
Agency.

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                     ,  CONTENTS




                                                    PAGE




ABSTRACT  	    V




LIST OF FIGURES	   ix




LIST OF TABLES	   XT




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS	xiii






SECTION




    I     CONCLUSIONS	    1




   II     RECOMMENDATIONS	    3




  III     INTRODUCTION 	    5




   IV     DESCRIPTION  OF  STUDY AREA	    7




    V     DISCUSSION OF WATER QUALITY DATA ....   15




   VI     METHODS  OF ANALYSIS	31




  VII     WASTEWATER DISCHARGES	35




 VIII     MODEL APPLICATION AND VERIFICATION  ...   43




   IX     DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROJECTIONS 	   63




    X     REFERENCES	73




   XI     APPENDICES	75
                            vii

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                        FIGURES

NO.                                                 PAGE

  1       LOCATION MAP  OF  STUDY AREA	   8

  2       DRAINAGE AREA AND RIVER BED ELEVATION
          FOR BLACK  RIVER  (FORESTPORT TO MOUTH).  .   9

  3       NEW YORK STATE DEPT. OF ENVIRONMENTAL
          CONSERVATION  RIVER DISSOLVED OXYGEN
          DATA	20

  4       LOCATION OF SAMPLING STATIONS	24

  5       RIVER DISSOLVED  OXYGEN DATA
           (August 14, 1973)	25

  6       RIVER DISSOLVED  OXYGEN DATA
           (Nov. 1, 1973 and Nov. 20, 1973) ....  28

  7       RESULT OF  BIOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE
          SURVEY	30

  8       LOCATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL
          WASTEWATER DISCHARGES	36

  9       LONG  TERM  BOD STUDIES	40

 10       FLOW  AT WATERTOWN (Aug.-Nov., 1973). .  .  44

 11       AVERAGE SPATIAL  FLOW DISTRIBUTION FOR
          AUGUST 14, 1973  AND NOVEMBER 20, 1973
          SURVEYS	46

 12       RESULTS OF U.S.G.S.  TIME OF TRAVEL
          STUDIES  (PROVISIONAL)	  47

 13       TYPICAL RIVER GEOMETRY AND VELOCITY
          VARIATIONS WITH  FLOW	48

 14       FLOW, DEPTH,  AND CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
          DISTRIBUTION  FOR THE AUGUST 14, 1973
          SURVEY	50
                            1.X

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                       FIGURES

NO.                                                 PAGE

 15       FLOW, DEPTH, AND CROSS  SECTIONAL AREA
          DISTRIBUTION FOR THE  NOVEMBER 20, 1973
          SURVEY	51

 16       MATHEMATICAL MODEL  SEGMENTATION	53

 17       DISSOLVED OXYGEN MODEL  VERIFICATION
          (August 14, 1973 and  November 1, 1973) .  57

 18       DISSOLVED OXYGEN MODEL  VERIFICATION
          (November 20,  1973)	58

 19       FLOW, DEPTH, AND CROSS  SECTIONAL AREA
          DISTRIBUTION FOR LOW  FLOW CONDITIONS  . .  64

 20       DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROJECTION FOR
          LOW FLOW CONDITIONS	69

 21       DISSOLVED OXYGEN DEFICIT PRODUCED
          BY INDIVIDUAL  WASTEWATER DISCHARGES.  . .  71
                            X

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                        TABLES

NO.                                                 PAGE

  1       NEW YORK STATE  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS .  12

  2       STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN TOXIC
          SUBSTANCES AFFECTING FISHLIFE	13

  3       N. Y. STATE  SURFACE WATER
          CLASSIFICATIONS FOR THE STUDY AREA ...  14

  4       SUMMARY OF STORET  WATER QUALITY DATA
          STATION LOCATION:   FORESTPORT	16

  5       SUMMARY OF STORET  WATER QUALITY DATA
          STATION LOCATION:   ABOVE CARTHAGE. ...  17

  6       SUMMARY OF STORET  WATER QUALITY DATA
          STATION LOCATION:   AT BLACK RIVER. ...  18

  7       SUMMARY OF STORET  WATER QUALITY DATA
          STATION LOCATION:   AT WATERTOWN	19

  8       SUMMARY OF STORET  WATER QUALITY DATA
          STATION LOCATION:   BELOW WATERTOWN ...  20

  9       SUMMARY OF PRESENT INDUSTRIAL
          WASTEWATER LOADS 	  37

 10       SUMMARY OF PRESENT MAJOR MUNICIPAL
          LOADS	38

 11       HEIGHT OF FALLS  FOR DAMS ON THE
          BLACK RIVER	55

 12       SUMMARY OF PROJECTED MUNICIPAL
          WASTEWATER LOADS 	  66

 13       SUMMARY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
          LOADS AFTER  BPCTCA	67

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                   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was performed under the direction and super-
vision of Mr. John P. St. John, Project Director.  Mr.
Thomas W. Gallagher, Project Manager, and Mr. William
Leo, coordinated and participated in the various project
tasks including the review of historical data, the per-
formance of field studies, the development and application
of a mathematical model, and the final report preparation.
Dr. Donald J. O'Connor provided technical guidance during
the course of the project.

Historical river water quality data and data on waste-
water characteristics were provided by personnel from
the Albany and Watertown offices of the New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation including Messrs.
R. C. Mt. Pleasant, and M. Szeto of the Albany office and
Messrs. B. Mead, Bud Phelps, and R. Koelling of the
Watertown office.  Mr. Kenneth H. Mayhew, area engineer
for the Hudson River-Black River Regulating District
provided invaluable assistance in obtaining flow records
and physical characteristics of the Black River.
                         xm

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                      SECTION
                     CONCLUSI
1.   New York State dissolved
Black River are contravened d
ditions.  Based on historical
the 1973 field program, disso
Lyons Falls and Carthage fall
rag/1.

2.   Dissolved oxygen measure:
reaches of the Black, Moose,
1973 field program indicate t
background dissolved oxygen d
mg/1 that is not associated w
charges.

3.   Industrial wastewaters a
oxygen demanding material dir
Black River Basin.  Approxima
ultimate BOD directly dischar
its tributaries is from indus
is discharged by municipaliti

4.   In addition to atmospher
tion to the Black River as it
falls is an important source
Substantial aeration from thi
Carthage area and the lower B

5.   A dissolved oxygen model
constructed and applied for t
wastewater discharges on Blac
levels.  The results indicate
conditions, New York State di
will be met for industrial di
practicable control technolog
(BPCTCA) and municipalities p
secondary treatment.

6.   The dissolved oxygen mod
three sets of river dissolved
ent flow and temperature cond
set of parameters.  The avera
from 1400 cfs to 5500 cfs, an.
varied from 1.5 C to 26.5 C
NS
oxygen standards for the
ring summer low flow con-
data and the results of
ved oxygen levels between
below the standard of 5.0
ents taken in the upstream
nd Beaver Rivers during the
at there is an average
ficit of approximately 1.0
th direct wastewater dis-
e the principal source of
ctly discharged to the
ely 85 percent of the
ed to the Black River and
rial sources and 15 percent
s.

c reaeration, oxygen addi-
flows over dams and natural
f dissolved oxygen.
 course is observed in the
ack River.

of the Black River has been
e analysis of the effect of
 River dissolved oxygen
that for design low flow
solved oxygen standards
charges providing best
 currently available
oviding conventional
1 was verified against
oxygen data, under differ-
tions, with a consistent
e flow at Watertown ranged
 the river temperature

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7.   For a flow of 800 cfs at Watertown, a river tempera-
ture of 25 C, and wastewater treatment levels of best
practicable control technology currently available for
industrial discharges and conventional secondary treat-
ment for municipalities, a minimum river dissolved oxygen
concentration of 5.5 mg/1 is projected at river milepoint
42.5, immediately upstream of the confluence with the
Beaver River.  The New York State D.O. standard at this
river segment is 5.0 mg/1.

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                     SECTION II
                   RECOMMENDAlIONS
During the development of a di
Black River, it was found that
ground dissolved oxygen deficit
and natural falls were signifi
dissolved oxygen level in the
within the scope of this proje
studies required to define the
deficit and the degree of
the dams.  Because of increasingly
standards in the future, and
associated with industrial
refinement of the model for
should be considered.  However
these refinements in the model
answer immediate problems.
  ssolved oxygen model of the
   the existence of a back-
    and reaeration at dams
  cant factors affecting the
  Black River.  It was not
  ct to conduct the necessary
   nature of this background
       achieved at each of
       stringent water quality
 ijncreased wastewater loads
         and population growth,
       allocation analyses
    it should be noted that
   are not necessary to
aeration
 expansion
  future
It is recommended that additional
ments be taken to further defijne
distribution of the observed
analyses performed to possibly
the deficit to such factors as
seasonal variations.
Additional studies should also
degree of aeration achieved at
The data from these studies
applicability of previously
ships or if necessary, used to
between degree of aeration and
river flow, and temperature.
Because of a discrepancy betwe
river BOD5 concentrations, it
mechanism of BOD oxidation in
investigated.  At this time th
that oxidation might be carried
residing on the river bed.  Th
ment of river BOD might requir
in site measurement in which
present during the oxidation s
      dissolved oxygen measure-
     the magnitude and spatial
 background deficit and also
   relate the occurrence of
   agricultural runoff or
   be performed to define the
   the dams and natural falls.
could be used to confirm the
developed empirical relation-
   develop a new correlation
   such factors as dam height,
  en measured and computed
  is recommended that the
  the Black River be further
  e measured BOD data suggest
    out principally by bacteria
  erefore, an accurate measure-
  e the addition of seed or an
     bottom organisms are
  tudies.
   the

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                      SECTION  :i

                     INTRODUCT::
The U. S. Environmental  Protec
rently developing wastewater  ;;
and industrial discharges  for
charge permits in accordance
Federal Water Pollution  Contrcl
The Black River Basin has  been
by the EPA as one of the spec:.
Great Lakes Region.  As  a  com;
sored this study to develop title
assign wastewater allocations
goals set forth in The Federal
Amendments of 1972.
The general scope of the stud}
identify existing water qualify
and second, to evaluate the
allocations on river quality,
to those constituents that
New York State water quality  ^
the first objective, existing
quality data were reviewed
violations of water quality
deficiencies.  Based on the
comprehensive field surveys
additional data concerning the
rently violate standards and
Both historical and current
depressed river dissolved oxyc
water quality problem.
The results of the first part
defined the second objective A
effect on river dissolved oxyc
water discharges.  For this pi-
collected during the field prc
and verify a mathematical mode
ship between river water quali
The model was then used to con
solved oxygen distributions as
wastewater allocations.
preisently
  II

  ON
  tion Agency  (EPA) is cur-
  llocations for municipal
  the purpose of issuing dis-
  ith the provisions of the
    Act Amendments of 1972.
   selected for investigation
  al attention areas in The
  equence, the EPA has spon-
    necessary criteria to
  that will comply with the
   Water Pollution Control Act
   was twofold; first, to
    problems in The Black River
eHfect of proposed wastewater
  specifically with respect
         contravene existing
 Standards.  To accomplish
  chemical and biological water
   the purpose of identifying
          and significant data
  suits of this data review,
     conducted to provide
  se constituents that cur-
    fill existing data gaps.
  ta indicate that periodically
  en levels are the primary
 standards
 res
 were
  of the study more specifically
  s the evaluation of the
  en levels of proposed waste-
  ase of the study, data
  gram were used to construct
  1 which defines the relation-
  ty and wastewater discharges.
  pute projected river dis-
  sociated with the proposed

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                     SECTION I

              DESCRIPTION OF S
The Black River discharges to
area of 1916 square miles  (496
New York State.  The section o
this study extends from the Fa
River Bay, a distance of 92.5
tion, the lower 5 miles  (8 km)
Rivers were analyzed.  A locat
shown in Figure 1.
 ake Ontario and drains an
  sq km) in north-central
  the river investigated in
 estport Reservoir to Black
niles (149 km).  In addi-
 of The Beaver and Moose
 on map of the study area is
Topography

The Black River above Lyons Fa
Mountains in which the elevati
2,000 - 3,000 feet (610 - 915
Forestport and Lyons Falls the
imately 18 feet/mile (3.42 m/kijn)
of Lyons Falls the Moose River
joins the Black River which th
(18.3 m) natural fall in the r
For the next 42 miles  (67.6 km
flows through the area known a
in which the river bed drops a
m).  Within this reach the Bea
largest tributary, joins the B
to Lake Ontario, a distance of
river drops approximately 500
mile (3.04 m/km).   Figure 2 pr
the drainage area and river be
Hydrology

The surface runoff in the Blac
daily by the U. S. Geological
on the Black River and major t
in the Basin is greatest in th
Tug Hill and Adirondack areas '
cipitation.  Annual runoff in
2.0 cfs/sq mi  (0.038 cu m/sec/
because of high precipitation
 UDY AREA
 Is drains the Adirondack
 n of the river ranges from
m) above sea level.  Between
 river slopes at approx-
     Immediately upstream
  the largest tributary,
 n flows over a 60 foot
 ver bed.
 ,  to Carthage, the river
  the Black River "Flats"
 proximately 10 feet  (3.05
rer River, the second
 ack River.  From Carthage
 31 miles  (49.9 km), the
 eet (152 m)  or 16 feet/
 sents a spatial plot of
  elevation.
  River Basin is measured
 urvey at gaging stations
 ibutaries.  Annual runoff
  higher elevations of the
 rhich experience heavy pre-
 he Basin, which averages
 q km), is generally high
 evels, low evaporation

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CO
                                              FIGURE  I
                                    LOCATION MAP OF  STUDY AREA

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    2400
  2 2000
O  1600
in
  LU  1200
  cc
  UJ
  '
cr
UJ
>
O

<


UJ
UJ
     800
     400
            IT
            O
            0.
            O
            u.
                    X.
                    Ul
                    LU
                    cn
                    O
                    O
                           I
        100  90   80'
                    70  60

                      MILES
   1200



   1000



    800



    600



    400



    200
        100   90
               80
                    70   60

                     MILE AB
                             50   40   30

                             BOVE MOUTH
              20
     10
50  40   30

VE MOUTH
20  10
                         FIGUF


      DRAINAGE AREA  AND RIVE
           BLACK RIVER(FORE
                             E 2


                             R BED ELEVATION FOR
                             TPORT  TO MOUTH)

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rates, and low evapo-transpiration losses associated with
snowfall which is a significant portion of the total pre-
cipitation.

The flow in the upper Black River, the Moose River, and
the Beaver River is regulated to varying degrees by
numerous natural lakes and reservoirs.  The reservoirs
were originally constructed to regulate flows primarily
for power generation, water supply, flood control and
navigation.  Flow regulation at the Stillwater Reservoir
on the Beaver River has a significant influence on low
flow conditions in the Black River.  During the summer
months when the flow in the other tributaries has de-
creased to approximately 0.8 cfs/sq mi  (0.0154 cu m/sec/
sq km), the Beaver River flow is maintained near 1.6
cfs/sq mi  (0.0307 cu m/sec/sq km) by releasing water
stored in the Stillwater Reservoir during the spring.

Because of the many natural falls, the Black River and
its tributaries are used extensively for hydroelectric
power generation.  At present there are 30 hydroelectric
power developments in the Black River Basin that generate
an average of 570 million kilowatt-hours per year.  Below
Carthage there are 15 run-of-the-river plants at which
upstream regulation and plant pondage is limited.  During
low flow the entire river flow passes through the plant,
but during high flow periods excess river flow bypasses
the plant.  Six other run-of-the-river plants are lo-
cated in the basin; three on the lower Moose River and
three on upper Black River.  On the Beaver River there
are nine hydroelectric facilities that operate as peaking
plants.  During high flow periods these plants operate as
run-of-the-river plants.   At normal flows the plants
generally operate for a 12 hour peaking period.  Conse-
quently, the Beaver River is highly regulated by the
upstream Stillwater Reservoir.
Wastewater Discharges

The major wastewater discharges to the Black River and
its tributaries are from pulp and paper companies and
municipalities.  There are nine paper companies that dis-
charge to receiving waters in the Black River Basin.  The
largest industrial discharges in terms of BOD5 are the
Georgia Pacific, St. Regis, and Crown Zellerbach Companies,
located at Lyons Falls, Deferiet, and Carthage respectively,
Some plants are presently discharging untreated waste-
waters although treatment plants are in the planning or
construction phase for these industries.
                          10

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Most of the larger municipalities in the Black River
Basin have a central wastewater treatment plant or indi-
vidual sewage disposal systems;.  Approximately 60 percent
of the basin population of 73,000 people are sewered.
Watertown, the largest city in the basin, has a popula-
tion of about 34,000 and provides primary treatment of
its wastewaters before discharging to the Black River.
Water Quality Standards

Recently the New York State Department of Environmental
Conservation revised their water quality standards.  The
revised standards include qualitative specifications
applicable to all fresh water classified as AA, A, B, C,
or D in addition to quantitative specifications based on
best usage of waters.  Additional standards are also
included for certain toxic substances affecting fish life.

Qualitative specifications are given for turbidity, color,
suspended, colloidal or settleable solids, oil and float-
ing substances, and taste and odor-producing substances,
toxic wastes and deleterious substances.  Quantitative
standards are generally given for pH, dissolved oxygen,
dissolved solids, and coliform bacteria.  For class AA
and A waters additional standards are given for radio-
active materials and phenolic compounds.  A summary of
the quantitative standards, except radioactive materials,
for the classifications pertinent to this study is con-
tained in Table 1.  In addition, New York State policy for
the Lake Ontario Basin requires wastewater discharges of
1.0 MGD or larger to reduce effluent phosphorus to 1.0
mg/1 or less by December 31, 1975.

The standards for dissolved oxygen and coliform bacteria
presented in Table 1 are for average conditions.  For
dissolved oxygen the minimum daily average value is
reported.  For the A, B, and C classifications the speci-
fications further stipulate that at no time shall the
dissolved oxygen concentration be less than 4.0 mg/1 for
non-trout waters and 5.0 mg/1 for trout waters.  In
addition to specifying average conditions, the total and
fecal coliform standards also include the minimum number
of analyses required plus the maximum total coliform
count permitted in 20 percent of the samples.

The New York State D.E.C. has also set standards for
certain toxic substances which affect fishlife.  Safe
stream concentrations are given for waters with an
                          11

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                                              TABLE 1

                              NEW YORK STATE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
      CONSTITUENT
  CLASS A
                                                     CLASS B
                     CLASS C
                                                         CLASS D
PH

Dissolved Oxygen - mg/1
  (Minimum Daily Avg)

Dissolved Solids - mg/1
  (Maximurn)

Total Coliform - No./lOO ml
Fecal Coliform - No./lOO ml
 6.5 - 8.5

    5.0


    500
Monthly Median
   5,000

Monthly Geom.
Mean - 200
 6.5 - 8.5

    5.0


    500
Monthly Median
   2,400

Monthly Geom.
Mean - 200
 6.5 - 8.5

    5.0
6.0 (Trout)

    500
Monthly Geom.
Mean - 10,000

Monthly Geom.
Mean - 2,000
6.0 - 9.5

Never less
than 3.0
Phenolic Compounds - mg/1
   0.005

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alkalinity of 80 mg/1 or more.  Waters of lower alka-
linity  must be specifically considered since the toxic
effect  of  most pollutants will be  greatly increased.
Table 2 is a tabulation of thse constituents and their
maximum permissable concentrations.

The  surface water classifications  and the associated
best usage for the study area'are  presented in Table 3.
The  Black  River from Forestpott to Carthage is classi-
fied as C  for which the best i^sage is fishing.  Because
the  river  is classified as C-trout between Forestport
and  Lyons  Falls, the dissolved oxygen standard is 1.0
mg/1 higher than the non-trout C water.   Below Carthage
the  river  is classified as D except for a 2.5 mile reach
classified A from which Watertown  draws its water supply.
For  the Moose and Beaver Rivers, the downstream segments
below the  industrial discharges are also classified as D.
                        TABLE 2


           STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN TOXIC SUBSTANCES
                   AFFECTING FISHLIFE
       CONSTITUENT
                                          STANDARD
Ammonia or Ammonium Compounds

Cyanide

Ferro or Ferricyanide

Copper

Zinc

Cadmium
<2.0 mg/1 as NH3  at pH > 8.0

<0.1 mg/1 as CN

<0.4 mg/1 as Fe (CN)6

<0.2 mg/1 as Cu

<0.3 mg/1 as Zn

<0.3 mg/1 as Cd
                           13

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                            TABLE 3

           N. Y. STATE SURFACE WATER CLASSIFICATIONS
                      FOR THE STUDY AREA
                       Classification
                  Best Usage
BLACK RIVER

  (Miles Above Mouth)
0 -
10.0 -
12.5 -
30.0 -
75.0 -
10.0
12.5
30.0
75.0
92.4
D
A
D
C
C-Trout
BLACK RIVER BAY

BEAVER RIVER

   (Miles Above Mouth)

        0 -  5.0
      5.0 - 10.0

MOOSE RIVER

   (Miles Above Mouth)

        0 -  3.0
      3.0 - 10.0
D
B
D
C
          Secondary Contact Recreation
          Water Supply For Drinking,
            Culinary or Food Processing
          Secondary Contact Recreation
          Fishing
          Fishingincluding Trout

          Fishing
Secondary Contact Recreation
Primary Contact Recreation
Secondary Contact Recreation
Fishing
                              14

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                      SECTION V

          DISCUSSION OF WATER QUALITY DATA
Water quality on the Black River and its major tributaries
is periodically measured at selected stations by various
governmental agencies including the U. S. Geological
Survey and The New York State Department of Environmental
Conservation.  At some stations the range in water quality
parameters measured is extensive including physical data,
the concentration of chemical constituents such as heavy
metals, radioactive materials, and pesticides, and coli-
form bacteria counts.  In addition to these data, the New
York State Department of Environmental Conservation
(formerly part of the New York State Health Department)
has conducted spatial dissolved oxygen surveys of the
Black River in 1965 and 1969.  To supplement existing
data Hydroscience, Inc. conducted a field program in the
summer and fall of 19-73.
Historical Water Quality Data

As a first step in assessing the current water quality of
the Black River, existing water quality data were reviewed
with specific reference to New York State surface water
quality standards.  Most of the data were obtained
through the use of the STORET data retrieval system
operated by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.
With this system, data collected by other agencies are
combined and stored by computer in a central location.
Consequently, a statistical summary of available water
quality data at specific stations can be retrieved.  In
addition to STORET data, spatial dissolved oxygen pro-
files measured by the New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation were reviewed.

A summary of STORET water quality data for 5 stations on
the Black River is contained in Tables 4 through 8.
Generally, pertinent water quality parameters for which
there are quantitative standards are presented.  The
water quality parameters include data on the physical,
chemical, and microbiological characteristics of the
water.  In addition, there is a group of chemical con-
stituents that can be toxic to fishlife at certain con-
centrations.
                          15

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TABLE 4
SUMMARY OF STORET WATER QUALITY DATA
STATION LOCATION: FORESTPORT
MILEPOINT: 93.0
STORET NUMBER: 045250997
CONSTITUENT
Dissolved oxygen - mg/1
pH
Dissolved solids - mg/1
Phosphorus - mg/1
Total coliform - No./lOO ml
Fecal Coliform - No./lOO ml
TOXIC SUBSTANCES AFFECTING
FISHLIFE
Ammonia - yg/1
Cyanide - yg/1
Copper - yg/1
Zinc - yg/1
Cadmium - yg/1
NUMBER OF
MEASUREMENTS
8
8
6
8
3
3

5
1
-
4
2
PERIOD OF
MEASUREMENTS MEAN MAXIMUM MINIMUM
8/71
8/71
8/71
8/71
9/72
9/72

8/71
9/72
-
8/71
8/71
- 2/73 10.6 12.9 7.1
- 2/73 6.8 7.3 5.8
- 9/72 4.6 12.0 1.0
- 2/73 0.015 0.04 0.005
- 2/73 788. 2,000. 5.
- 2/73 5. 10. 1.

- 6/72 0.12 0.20 0.07
0. -
_
- 2/73 22.5 60. 0.
- 9/72 1.5 3.0 0.

-------
TABLE 5
SUMMARY OF STORET WATER QUALITY DATA
STATION LOCATION: ABOVE CARTHAGE
MILEPOINT: 36.5
STORET NUMBER: 04258710
NUMBER OF PERIOD OF
CONSTITUENT MEASUREMENTS MEASUREMENTS MEAN
Dissolved oxygen - mg/1
PH
H Dissolved solids - mg/1
Turbidity - JTU
Phosphorus - mg/1
Total coliform - No./lOO ml
Fecal Coliform - No./lOO ml
TOXIC SUBSTANCES AFFECTING
FISHLIFE:
Ammonia - yg/1
Cyanide - yg/1
Copper - yg/1
Zinc - yg/1
Cadmium - yg/1
8
6
2
8
8
3
3

5
-
-
4
1
8/71 -
8/71 -
8/71 -
8/71 -
8/71 -
9/72 -
9/72 -

8/71 -
-
-
8/71 -
8/71
2/73 9.5
2/73 7.5
9/72 58.
2/73 6.4
2/73 .037
2/73 9,133.
2/73 660.

6/72 180.
-
-
2/73 29.3
5.0
MAXIMUM MINIMUM
13.2 6.8
7.9 7.2
61. 55.
20. 2.
.136 .010
19,000. 1,900.
1,900. 0.0

430. 50.
-
-
88. 0.0
_ _

-------
TABLE 6
SUMMARY OF STORET WATER QUALITY DATA
STATION LOCATION: AT BLACK RIVER
MILEPOINT: 15.6
STORET NUMBER: O4259500
CONSTITUENT
Dissolved oxygen - mg/1
PH
Dissolved solids - mg/1
Turbidity - Color units
Phosphorus - mg/1
Total coliform - No./lOO ml
Fecal Coliform - No./lOO ml
TOXIC SUBSTANCES AFFECTING
FISHLIFE:
Ammonia - yg/1
Cyanide - Mg/1
Copper - yg/1
Zinc - yg/1
Cadmium - yg/1
NUMBER OF
MEASUREMENTS
14
15
-
1
15
6
1

15
-
3
3
2
PERIOD OF
MEASUREMENTS MEAN
9/69 -
8/69 -
-
5/71
8/69 -
8/69 -
5/71

8/69 -
-
9/69 -
9/69 -
5/70 -
5/71 10.2
5/71 7.8
-
41.
5/71 .037
5/71 13,400.
270.

5/71 182.
-
8/70 3.0
8/70 35.
8/70 13.
MAXIMUM MINIMUM
12.8 5.9
8.7 6.8
-
-
.09 .02
50,000. 900.
_

400. 60.
_
6.0 0.0
65. 0.0
16. 10.

-------


TABLE 7


SUMMARY OF STORET WATER QUALITY DATA
STATION LOCATION: AT WATERTOWN
MILEPOINT: 8.5
STORET NUMBER: 04260500
CONSTITUENT
Dissolved oxygen - mg/1
PH
Dissolved solids - mg/1
^ Turbidity - Color units
Phosphorus - mg/1
Total coliform - No./lOO ml
Fecal Coliform - No./lOO ml
TOXIC SUBSTANCES AFFECTING
FISHLIFE:
Ammonia - yg/1
Cyanide - yg/1
Copper - yg/1
Zinc - yg/1
Cadmium - yg/1
NUMBER OF
MEASUREMENTS
24
87
20
38
21
7
7

5
-
3
2
2
PERIOD OF ,
MEASUREMENTS MEAN
8/70 - 5/73 11.5
3/60 - 5/73 7.0
2/68 - 5/73 16.3
3/60 - 5/71 32.4
10/70 - 5/73 .037
10/72 - 5/73 3,286.
10/72 - 5/73 557.

7/71 - 1/72 136. '
-
5/70 -11/72 2.0
5/70 -10/70 22.5
5/70 -10/70 5.5
MAXIMUM
16.0
7.6
59.
100.
.089
6,400.
1,000.

180.
-
6.0
45.
11.0
MINIMUM
5.9
6.4
0.0
10.
.020
1,200.
210.

104.
-
0.0
0.0
0.0

-------
KJ
O
TABLE 8
SUMMARY OF STORET WATER QUALITY DATA
STATION LOCATION: BELOW WATERTOWN
MILEPOINT: 7.5
STORET NUMBER: 04260505
CONSTITUENT
Dissolved oxygen - mg/1
PH
Dissolved solids - mg/1
Turbidity - JTU
Phosphorus - mg/1
Total coliform - No./lOO ml
. Fecal Coliform - No./lOO ml
TOXIC SUBSTANCES AFFECTING
FISHLIFE:
Ammonia - JJg/1
Cyanide - yg/1
Copper - yg/1
Zinc - yg/1
Cadmium - Mg/1
NUMBER OF
MEASUREMENTS
9
7
2
9
6
2
2

6
1
2
4
2
PERIOD OF
MEASUREMENTS
8/71
8/71
8/71
8/71
2/72
11/72
11/72

8/71
9/72
8/71
8/71
8/71
- 2/73
- 2/73
- 9/72
- 2/73
-11/72
- 2/73
- 2/73

- 6/72

- 9/72
- 2/73

MEAN
10.2
7.7
72.
7.4
.184
8,300.
2,289

173.
10.
1.5
35.
3.0
MAXIMUM MINIMUM
12.6 7.6
8.5 7.0
76. 68.
15.0 3.0
.34 .08
14,000. 2,600.
4,200 370.

400. 50.
_
3.0 0.0
110. 0.0
6.0 0.0

-------
A review of the data in Tables
water quality standards at the
vened except for the pH at For
no wastewater discharges above
pH values less than the minimujm
associated with natural backgr
The limited available water qu
stances affecting fishlife shdw
tions are at least an order of
minimum concentrations permiss
alkalinity greater than 80 mg/
linity must be specifically co
effect of most pollutants will
Although the alkalinity of the
80 mg/1, it is probable that t
toxic substances are far below
to fishlife.  Measurements of
not available, but it is unlik
significant concentrations bee
industrial discharges that con
For the Class A water above Wa
standards for phenolic compoun
Influent river water quality d
water discharge permit of an
Watertown indicate that the ri
is below the standard.  Theref
assume that the phenol concent
also below the standard.  Meas
tion of redioactive materials
not taken because there is no
substances in the Basin.
The dissolved oxygen data sumra
8 do not indicate a contravent
oxygen standards.  However, th
the concentration of the vario
stituents is sparse.  This is
tive substances which do not c
but insufficient for river dis
constantly changing due to bac
atmospheric reaeration.  A mor
spatial dissolved oxygen distr
collected by the New York Department
Conservation presented in Figure 3.
The data in Figure 3 are river
butions measured in August, 19
included in Figure 3 are the N
oxygen standards for the Black
                           21
  4 through 8 indicates that
 se stations are not contra-
 estport.   Because there are
  Forestport, occasional river
   6.5 standard are probably
 ound conditions.
 ality data on toxic sub-
   that the river concentra-
  magnitude less than the
 able in waters with an
 1.   Waters of lower alka-
 nsidered since the toxic
  be greatly increased.
  Black River is less than
 he concentrations of these
  levels which are harmful
 some toxic substances are
 ely they are present in
 ause there are no known
 tain these constituents.
 tertown there are additional
 ds and radioactive materials,
 ata reported on the waste-
industry downstream of
 ver phenol concentration
 ore, it is reasonable to
 ration above Watertown is
 urements of the concentra-
 in the Black River were
 known source of radioactive
 arized in Tables 4 through
 ion of existing dissolved
 e spatial definition of
 us water quality con-
 satisfactory for conserva-
 ecay as they flow downstream
 solved oxygen which is
 terial oxidation and
 e detailed definition of the
 ibution is shown in data
        of Environmental
  dissolved oxygen distri-
 65 and June, 1969.  Also
 ew York State dissolved
  River.  As indicated the

-------
 z
 UJ
 o

 X
 o

 Q
 UJ
 O
 CO
 CO

 Q
     14
     12
     10
           1
                     AUGUST 24-27, 1965

                  FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 1410 CFS

                       o    o
                                             \
                                             i
         WATER QUALITY STANDARD


J	I	|	I	I	I	I	i
100  90   80   70   60   50   40   30

               MILES  ABOVE MOUTH
                                          20
                                10
It
12
E 10
UJ
o
> 8
X
o
LJ 6
O
CO 4,
CO
Q
2
n
JUNE, 1969
FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 4432 CFS
-


_

o
 0  0
a o 
o


WATER QUALITY STANDARD  ^
1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I
      100  90   80
70   60   50  40   30

  MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                           20
                                         10
                       FIGURE 3


NEW YORK STATE DEPT. OF  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSERVATION

             RIVER DISSOLVED  OXYGEN  DATA
                          22

-------
river dissolved oxygen concentration falls below the
standards between Lyons Falls
and Carthage.  During the
August, 1969 survey the minimum dissolved oxygen level
is 3.5 mg/1 or 1.5 mg/1 below the standard of 5.0 mg/1.
In June, 1969 the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration
is approximately 4.0 mg/1.  One of the principal reasons
for the difference in the profiles is the river flow.
During the August survey the average flow at Watertown
was 1,410 cfs {40 cu m/sec) whereas during the June
survey the monthly flow was substantially higher,
averaging 4,432 cfs (126 cu m/sec).

Based on a review of the STORET data and these dissolved
oxygen profiles, it was concluded that dissolved oxygen
is the major water quality problem in the Black River.
In order to further define the concentration of dissolved
oxygen and other related water quality parameters, a field
program was conducted August through November, 1973.
1973 Water Quality Data

In the 1973 field program physical, chemical, microbio-
logical and biological water quality measurements of the
Black River and its major tributaries were made.  An
extensive water quality survey was conducted in August
and two additional dissolved oxygen surveys in November.
In September a biological survey was conducted for the
purpose of making a qualitative assessment of the river
biology.

During the August survey water quality was measured at
41 sampling stations including 24 on the Black River,
6 in Black River Bay, and the remainder on tributaries.
Figure 4 shows the location of the stations.  In the
morning, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured
at each station.  In addition a volume of sample was
returned to the laboratory for analysis of other water
quality constituents including BOD5, total solids,
suspended solids, turbidity, and pH.  Coliform bacteria,
chlorophyll 'a', nitrogen and phosphorus were also
measured at selected stations.  In the afternoon dissolved
oxygen and temperature were measured at all stations except
those in Black River Bay.  A summary of these data is
presented in Appendix A.

Spatial plots of the dissolved oxygen survey data for the
Black River and Black River Bay plus the two major
tributaries, the Moose and Beaver Rivers, are shown in
Figure 5.  The dissolved oxygen saturation value and the
                           23

-------
NJ
                                                        4   'i   I   I    /          t
                                                        	'^v        J CRCGhAN
                                                        SIOBL4ND \V, [ J~( 
                                                     WATER QUALITY
                                                     SAMPLING STATION
                                                        FIGURE 4
                                           LOCATION OF  SAMPLING  STATIONS

-------
                   AUGUST 14, 1973
It

12
~
o>
 10
i
Z
t 1 1
LU a
0 8
>
X
O
Q
LU
>
-J ,
0 4
en
CO
Q




Q

FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 1700 cfs
TEMPERATURE = I8.5C - 26.5C


~* 	 	 , DO SATURATION
- , a T ,o
Or Q Q n Qi
n ^ 
, WATER QUALITY
" STANDARD 	 T
a  o /
o "" T i
^ n O i v
~ a Q
>- a:
T  O
^ 


4
ok
5 u z " 5
SI  * 2
^ ^ * U ^-t_. gg
z S > *- u o
O o < Z 1- <
* .1 Ui 4 < _J
I I  , u * 
II III I




















100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10
MILES ABOVE MOUTH
MOOSE RIVER BEAVER RIVER

1 W
\
O>
 8
1
2
LU
O 

^
0
Q 4
LU
>
_1
O 2
CO
en
Q
n
0.0. SATURATION
U>
-3o  8
< i
2
LU
- WATER QUALITY o g
STANDARD 	 7 >-
/ ^
1
/ a 4
/ u

Ul I
J "*

<" CO
 en
5 Q
t 1 1 i 1 [ ^
p 0.0. SATURATION

2s 5
5
WATER QUALITY
STANDARD 	 7
/
/
/
j /

2
 X
UJ
5
m
1 1 I 1 II!!

















S 4 2 0 W10 86420
MILES ABOVE MOUTH MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                   FIGURE 5
RIVER DISSOLVED OXYGEN  DATA  (AUGUST 14,1973)
                     25

-------
New York State water quality standards are indicated on
each plot.  As noted, the average weekly flow at Watertown
prior to the survey was 1,700 cfs (48.2 cu m/sec).  The
water temperature ranged from 18.5C to 26.5C.

The dissolved oxygen profile is similar in shape to those
measured by New York State in 1965 and 1969.  A sag in the
dissolved oxygen profile begins immediately downstream of
the confluence of the Moose and Black Rivers.  At this
point, the Georgia Pacific Pulp and Paper Company, the
largest industrial discharge in the Basin with respect
to effluent BOD, discharges its wastewater effluent.  The
river dissolved oxygen level continues to decline and
falls below water quality standards for approximately 25
miles (40.2 km) upstream of Carthage.  At Carthage, the
river is substantially reaerated as it flows over a
series of dams.  This is demonstrated by the dissolved
oxygen increase from 4.3 mg/1 to 6.8 mg/1 at Carthage.
Below Carthage most of the river is routed through hydro-
electric turbines during low flow periods.  The remaining
river flow receives additional reaeration as it flows
over a series of dams and rapids between Carthage and
Black River Bay.

The dissolved oxygen data and water quality standards
for the downstream sections of the Moose and Beaver
Rivers are also presented in Figure 5.  Industrial
wastewaters are discharged to the Moose and Beaver Rivers
at Lyonsdale and Beaver Falls respectively.  As shown,
the dissolved oxygen level in both rivers is above the
standards.  However, the data show a dissolved oxygen
deficit of 1.0 mg/1 to 1.5 mg/1 upstream of the waste-
water discharges.  Similar deficits were also observed
in the Black river upstream of the confluence with the
Moose River where there are no major wastewater dis-
charges.  These data indicate that in addition to direct
wastewater discharges, there are other factors which pro-
duce a dissolved oxygen deficit in the river.  The
oxidation of organic matter contained in agricultural
runoff is possibly a major factor in contributing to this
background deficit in the Black River "Glots" area.

Other water quality measurements of the Black River made
on the August survey did not show a contravention of water
quality standards.  The total phosphorus concentration in
the Black River ranged from 20 yg/1 to 35 yg/1.  The
present phosphorus levels are below previously reported
values which probably reflects the effect of the recent
New York State law banning the use of detergents containing
phosphates.  The phosphorus level in Black River Bay was
higher,  ranging from 35 yg/1 to 148 yg/1.
                           26

-------
The average nutrient level in the Black River was  low.
As previously indicated the total phosphorus concentra-
tion was 20 ug/1 to 35 ug/1.  The soluble phosphorus
concentration in the river was generally 5 ug/1 or  less.
The ammonia and nitrate nitrogen concentrations which are
the primary forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton were
0.05 mg/1 and 0.15 mg/1 respectively.  The organic  nitro-
gen concentration averaged 0.5 mg/1.  There were low
phytoplankton levels in the Black River as indicated by
the low chlorophyll 'a1 concentrations of 2 ug/1 to' 4 yg/1,
However, in Black River Bay chlorophyll 'a1 levels  of 22
yg/1 and 50 ug/1 were measured.

In order to obtain additional river dissolved oxygen data
under different flow and temperature conditions, two
spatial dissolved oxygen surveys were conducted in
November.  The results are presented in Figure 6.   On
the November 1, 1973 survey, the river flow was still
approximately at the August level.  The average flow at
Watertown was 1,400 cfs (39.6 cu m/sec).  However,  the
average river temperature decreased to 9C which increases
the dissolved oxygen saturation to 11.6 mg/1 versus the
average saturation value of 8.4 mg/1 observed during the
August survey.  Although the dissolved oxygen deficit is
nearly the same as in August, the river dissolved oxygen
level is well above the water quality standards.

The November 20, 1973 profile shows,the effect of high
river flow and low temperatures on the dissolved oxygen
level of the Black River.   For the November 20, 1973
survey, the flow at Watertown averaged 5,500 cfs (156
cu m/sec) and the river temperature ranged from 2C to
4C.  As a consequence of the greater dilution and  ele-
vated saturation value, the river dissolved oxygen  level
is substantially greater than the water quality standards.

From a review of the historical and 1973 river dissolved
oxygen profiles, it appears that dissolved oxygen
standards are contravened only during the summer months.
During this time there is minimum flow available for
dilution of wastewaters and dissolved oxygen saturation
is at its lowest because of the elevated water tempera-
ture.  It should also be noted that although the dissolved
oxygen level measured in Black River Bay in August was
above the standards, dissolved oxygen problems associated
with the effects of the elevated algal population could
exist.  In the August survey dissolved oxygen measurements
were taken at the surface.   Dissolved oxygen stratifica-
tion produced by algal photosynthesis and respiration in
Black River Bay could result in dissolved oxygen values
                           27

-------
14
12
D OXYGEN -mg/l
n oo O
UJ
>
8 4
CO
Q
2
l(
16
14
S 12

S 10
0
i a
Q
UJ
^ 6
o
en
1 ^
2
S
NOV. 1,1973
D.O. SATURATION
o 00
-  o  o ooo
  0
0 o
0 0 0 0

/
'  WATER QUALITY
STANDARD 	 	
_ FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 1400 cfs
TEMP. = 7.7C-II.OC
1 1 1 I 1 1 ! I 1
30 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 C
NOV. 20,1973
D.O. SATURATION ^ _(>a_
~ 0  ~

  oo
o

^  WATER QUALITY
- FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 5500 cfs
TEMR= i.5C-2.3C
1 I I 1 1 1 1 1
00 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
MILES ABOVE MOUTH





3





0
          FIGURE 6

RIVER DISSOLVED OXYGEN DATA
(NOV. 1,1973 AND NOV. 20,1973)
           28

-------
near the bottom that are less than the standard.  More
detailed studies are required to define this problem.
Biological Reconnaisance Survey

During the week of September 24, 1973, Hydroscience
conducted a qualitative biological survey of the Black
River study area.  Stations visited were chosen based on
physical and chemical changes in the river and were
generally coincident with water quality sampling stations
visited during the August 14, 1973 survey.

At each station a biologist surveyed the river bed for
one hour identifying and counting organisms.  The one
hour counting period was taken to be a fair qualitative
sampling, for the purpose of this study.  The results of
this survey are presented in Figure 7 and tabulated in
Appendix B.  The top graph in Figure 7 is a spatial plot
of the number of different orders found at each station.
The bottom graph in Figure 7 is a spatial plot of total
number of organisms counted at each station.

General biological trends can be observed if Figure 7 and
the biological data tabulated in Appendix B are inter-
preted along with the dissolved oxygen level, depth and
velocity at each sampling station.  For example, at mile-
point 75 the river velocity decreases and those species
which prefer higher velocities decline in numbers.  The
biology changes again at milepoint 70 where the Georgia
Pacific waste discharge suppresses both the kind and
number of organisms present.  Again, further downstream
at Watertown where dissolved oxygen concentrations
approach saturation and the velocity is again slow, both
the number and kind of organisms increase above general
river levels.  In particular organisms such as malluscs
and insect larvae are abundant at this station.

With only a few exceptions, the Black River appears
biologically constant with respect to the variation in
organisms.  However,  the river does undergo large varia-
tions in total number of organisms due to both physical
and chemical factors.
                          29

-------




en
cr
UJ
Q
or
0
0
E
UJ
CD
2>
ZD
2






It

12


10



8

6


4



2

S\

SEPTEMBER 24-27,1973

A
/ \
"~ * \
/ \
* \
/ \
s\ / \
X ^ ^ * \
-  	 o-o / V I
\ / \
\ / k
-  3 o\ /
o < it \/ uj ui *
a. u. iu o < <
u. _t o _j Q 5
i t 1 1 1 ) 1 ! I
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 C
                  MILES ABOVE MOUTH

en
2
en
ir
o
u.
o
cc
LU
GO
^
O
2
_!
^
o
(-



I'+U

120
100
80
60


40


20


n


-
Q 0
\ 0^. 	 /
\ ' t /
\ / o7
\ /3/ i
\ / \ /
\ / I /
\ / \ /
- 1 ^ - x i
a. j <- -> S P
(  _ U. _i < t
<" <"rf 0 ^ I ^
 UJ 22-< > *~ ^
o > uj q < <
u. _ i o -J o 5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
    100  90   80
                  MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                    FIGURE 7
RESULT OF BIOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
                        30

-------
                       SECTION VI

                  METHODS OF ANALYSIS
When an organic waste  is discharged  to  a  receiving water,
dissolved oxygen present in the  river is  utilized by  the
aquatic bacteria during stabilization of  the waste ma-
terial.  As dissolved  oxygen is  reduced by  this process
'to values less than the saturation value, an imbalance is
created.  In order to  restore river  dissolved oxygen  to
its natural state, atmospheric oxygen passes into solution
through the air/liquid interface of  the river.  The rate
at which the oxygen is removed is assumed proportional to
the concentration of biologically degradable organic
material as well as chemically oxidizable substances.  The
rate coefficient is a  function of temperature.  The rate
at which dissolved oxygen is replaced is  proportional to
deficit with its coefficient also proportional to tempera-
ture and more importantly the turbulent renewal of the
air/water interface.   The simultaneous  effect of the  reac-
tions, biological oxidation and  atmospheric reaeration, in
conjunction with translation produced by  the fresh water
flow produces a characteristic longitudinal distribution
of dissolved oxygen which decreases  to  some minimum value
and then recovers to saturation.  The dissolved oxygen
concentration may be further affected spatially by benthal
demands, and temporarily by the  respiration and photo-
synthetic activity of  aquatic plants.

A materials balance may be taken among  all  factors which
affect the longitudinal distribution of any substance.
The following expression is obtained:
               l _ _ Q. 3c + E
               3t ~   A Sx" ~ LS                     (1)

in which c is the concentration of any substance, t repre-
sents time, Q is the fresh water discharge, A denotes the
river cross-sectional area, x is the longitudinal distance,
and S represents all the various sources and sinks of the
material in the system.  Equation  (1) states that the time
rate of change of concentration of any substance at a
particular river location is proportional to the longi-
tudinal gradient, plus the sources and sinks of material.
At any river location, the first term on the right side of
Equation (1) represents the net balance of the material at
                           31

-------
the location due to the fresh water discharge, and the
second term represents the net accumulation or reduction
at the location because of the sources and sinks of
material.

Re-expressing Equation (1) for carbonaceous BOD under
steady-state conditions where there is no change in con-
centration with time, there results:
0 = -
                           - K L
                        dx    r
                           (2)
in which U is the fresh water flow velocity, L represents
the organic BOD concentration, and K  is the stream BOD
removal coefficient.  The first termron the right side of
Equation (2)  represents the advective transport of BOD by
the fresh water flow velocity and the second term indicates
first-order biological oxidation, a sink of BOD.  Moreover,
the coefficient, K  , reflects all factors contributing to
the removal of BOD^ such as river settling, in addition to
oxidation.   For the boundary conditions that an initial BOD
concentration, L , exists at location, x = 0; and that the
BOD concentration approaches zero at large distances from
the origin, Equation (2) may be integrated to:
                         - K x
                 L =
                            (3)
The distribution of nitrogenous BOD in the river is
similar to the carbonaceous:
                 N = NQe
                         - K X
                            n
                            U
                           (4)
in which N is the nitrogenous BOD concentration at any
distance, N  is the nitrogenous BOD concentration at x
and K  is tne nitrogenous oxidation coefficient.
     n
                              = 0,
The dissolved oxygen distribution may be formulated in a
similar manner.  Expressing dissolved oxygen in terms of
the deficit, there results:
             n -   ndD
             u =  \j 
                    dx
K D +
 3.
              K,L + K N
               a     n
(5)
                           32

-------
in which D represents dissolved oxygen deficit, Ka is the
atmospheric reaeration coefficient, and K^ is the river
deoxygenation coefficient; and Kn is the nitrogenous
oxidation coefficient.  If carbonaceous BOD is removed in
no way other than by direct oxidation, the deoxygenation
coefficient, K^, reflecting actual oxygen reduction in the
system is equal to the BOD removal coefficient, Kr.  The
terms on the right side of Equation (5) represent, respec-
tively: the downstream transport of oxygen deficit with
the fresh water flow; atmospheric reaeration, a source of
dissolved oxygen and sink of deficit;  and biological oxi-
dation, a source of deficit.  The carbonaceous BOD concen-
tration, L, and nitrogenous BOD, N, in Equation (5) may
be replaced by the functional forms of Equations  (3) and
(4) and the resulting expression may be integrated with
the previously indicated boundary conditions expressed
in terms of oxygen deficit:

                      - K x    - K x
              K L        r        a
          D . Vo_  [e   U  _ e   U ]  +
              Ka Kr                               (6)
                  -Kx    -Kx       -Kx
            N        n       _J_         __
           n   [e   U  - e   U ]  + D e   U
          K -K                  J     o
           a  n
in which Do represents an initial dissolved oxygen deficit
existing at the origin, if any.  It is to be noted that if
other factors are known to affect the dissolved oxygen
balance such as benthai demands, and photosynthesis and
respiration, they may be included as appropriate source
and sink terms in Equation (5) and integrated to final
solution.  The initial BOD concentration, Lo, and No in
Equation (6) must be expressed in terms of the ultimate
oxygen demand.

The dissolved oxygen concentration may be determined from
the calculated deficit values in accordance with the
following:

                     DO = Cs - D                   (7)


in which DO is the dissolved oxygen concentration at any
location, and C  is the dissolved oxygen saturation value,
a function of water temperature in fresh water streams.
                           33

-------
Flow and concentration discontinuities present in  the
system due to waste loadings or tributary effects  must
be included in the water quality balances.  At each  loca-
tion of a waste discharge or tributary, a materials
balance must be calculated which incorporates the  effect
of BOD, dissolved oxygen or flow added to the system.
In this manner, the parameters Lo, No and DQ in Equations
(3), (4) and  (6) are reinitialized at every discontinuity
and a new origin, x = 0, is established to comply  with
the boundary conditions.

The atmospheric reaeration coefficient as defined  by
O'Connor and Dobbins [1], Ka/ is a function of the
stream hydraulic characteristics:
                  Ka '
in. which DL is the molecular dif fusivity of oxygen in
water  (0.81 x 10~  sq ft/hr at 20C) , U is the average
river velocity, and H represents the mean river depth.
Equation (8) may be used to determine the reaeration
coefficient at any specific river location or in reaches
where the velocity and depth may be conveniently averaged
  

Temperature Effects

All reaction coefficients previously indicated are temper
ature dependent and may be related to temperature as
follows :
                                                    ,9)
in which KT is the value of the coefficient at temperature,
T, K2Q is the 20C value, and r is a constant characteris-
tic of the relationship.  A value for 0 of 1.02 may be
used for Ka and 1.04 may be used for Kr, K<~[ and Kn.
                            34

-------
                     SECTION VII

                WASTEWATER DISCHARGES
Direct wastewater discharges enter the Black River and its
tributaries from industrial and municipal wastewater dis-
charges.  The eight major industrial discharges are from
paper companies whose locations are shown in Figure 8.
The municipal discharges are from the towns and cities
also indicated in Figure 8.  The flows and mass emissions
rates of the eight major industrial plants and the nine
municipalities are presented in Tables 9 and 10.  Of a
total combined point BOD discharge of 150,049 Ib/day
(68,200 kg/day), approximately 85 percent  (128,315 Ib/day)
(58,200 kg/day) is due to industrial and the remainder to
municipalities.  The major industrial source is the
Georgia Pacific Company located at milepoint 74.2.
Industrial Discharges

The nine paper mills, currently discharging their waste-
waters to the Black River, have some form of wastewater
treatment or are completing the construction of treatment
facilities.  During the August survey, the Georgia Pacific,
Burrows, Climax, Crown Zellerbach, and St. Regis Paper
Companies were discharging untreated wastewaters to the
Black River and its tributaries.  In October, the St.
Regis Paper Company completed the construction of its
wastewater treatment facilities.  The other raw dis-
charges will provide treatment in the near future.

The organic loading of industrial wastewater discharges
was determined from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
discharge permit applications, New York State Department
of Environmental Conservation records, and laboratory
studies performed by Hydroscience, Inc.  The U. S. Army
Corps of Engineers permit applications provided data on
the wastewater flow, BOD5, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen.
Since the permits were filed, treatment of some of the
wastewaters from the paper companies was initiated.
Updated information on some of these treated wastewaters
was obtained from New York State D.E.C. records.  In order
to supplement these data sources, especially with regard
to ultimate oxygen demand measurements, Hydroscience,
Inc.  collected and returned to the laboratory for analysis
wastewater samples from the eight principal industries.
                           35

-------
                                    PERCH RIVER
U)

a\
                                                                 CROWN ZELLERBACH|





                                                                              BEl^ER


                                                                      JP LEWIS! /  ^
                                                                         'HE  X CROGHAN       V

                                                                          -V              ^~^ ^^~

                                                                         [LATlfxTllER]        ^^
                                                                                     0tNCE RIVER
                                                                                    "C0
                                                                                   ^BURROWS PA Pi

                                                                                \_EIHT LEYOEN'
                                                                                 "^      ~
                                            INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES]


                                            MUNICIPAL DISCHARGES
fCRESTPORT
                                                              FIGURE 8
                          LOCATION  OF  INDUSTRIAL AND  MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  DISCHARGES

-------




1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
TABLE 9
SUMMARY OF PRESENT INDUSTRIAL
INDUSTRY MILEPOINT

Georgia Pacific
Pulp 74 . 2
Paper
Burrows Paper Moose River
J. P. Lewis Beaver River
(Beaver Falls)
Latex Fiber Beaver River
Climax 32.2
Crown Zellerbach 30.8
St. Regis * 25.0
Before Treatment
After Treatment
J . P . Lewis 5 . 1
(Brownville)

WASTEWATER
FLOW
MGD
2.2
3.9
1.1
2.6
1.5
1.0
2.6
13.8
13.8
0.7

LOADS
BOD 5
LB/DAY
35,500
2,540
500
199
321
1,230
6,400
13,500
7,050
563


ULTIMATE
BOD
LB/DAY
89,500
6,350
730
355
1,050
1,620
12,400
28,4001
15,000
1,310
Treatment started in October,  1973.
                             37

-------
                            TABLE 10

           SUMMARY OF PRESENT MAJOR MUNICIPAL LOADS
MUNICIPALITY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Boonville
Port Leyden
Lowville
Castorland
Carthage 3
Deferiet
Watertown
Brownville
Dexter
MILEPOINT

82.2
78.1
54.0
42.1
30.8
27.3
8.4
5.1
2.7
FLOW
MGD
0.95
0.12
0.69
0.045
-
0.08
4.5
0.28
0.25
BOD 5
LB/DAY
1602
117
142
10
1,220
140
8,330
47
140
NBOD1
LB/DAY
710
90
520
34
1,070
60
3,375
210
190
ULTIMATE
BOD
LB/DAY
950
266
733
49
2,900
270
15,885
281
400
 Based on effluent oxidizable nitrogen concentration of 20 mg/1

2Based on effluent BOD5 concentration of 20 mg/1

3CBOD5 =0.17 Ib/capita/day   NBOD =0.15 Ib/capita/day
 Population = 7,180

-------
The Knowlton Brothers Paper Company was not included
because they instituted a water reuse and wastewater
treatment program that produced an effluent with a minor
organic loading.

The purpose of the industrial wastewater measurements
made by Hydroscience, Inc. was to fill in gaps in the
industrial effluent BOD 5 data and to measure the ultimate
oxygen demand of all the industrial discharges.  In addi-
tion, the possibility of nutrient availability limiting
oxidation in the river was also investigated.  Long term
oxidation studies on the industrial wastewater effluents
were conducted in which the oxygen demand of the.waste-
waters was periodically measured with time for a 30-day
period at which time oxidation is generally complete.
For the three largest industrial discharges, the Georgia
Pacific, St. Regis, and Crown Zellerbach Paper Companies,
long -term oxidation measurements were made on wastewater
samples diluted with river water alone and samples with
river water plus nutrients.

The results of the oxidation studies performed on the
Georgia Pacific, St. Regis, and Crown Zellerbach Paper
Companies' effluents are presented in Figure 9.  Each
figure is a plot of oxygen consumed by the oxidation of
the wastewater versus time of incubation.  The possi-
bility of low nutrient levels in the river water limiting
oxidation of the wastewaters was investigated by conducting
duplicate long term BOD tests on each sample.  The circular
data points indicate the results in which river water alone
was used as dilution water in the BOD test.  The BOD results
in which additional nutrients were added to the river water
are represented by the triangular data points.  As shown
there is no significant difference in the oxygen demand
measurements made with and without additional nutrients.

The long term BOD data also show that the ultimate oxygen
demand can be considerably greater than the 5 day BOD.
For the Georgia Pacific wastewater the ultimate oxygen
demand was 2.5 times the 5 day BOD.  The measured ultimate
oxygen demand of the St. Regis and Crown Zellerbach waste-
waters was approximately twice the 5 day BOD.  Long term
BOD measurements of the other industrial wastewaters
showed that the ratio of the ultimate oxygen demand to the
5 day BOD ranged from 1.3 to 3.3, averaging about 2.0.  The
higher ultimate BOD to 5 day BOD ratio measured for the
Latex Fiber Company wastewater discharge could have included
the oxidation of nitrogenous material which was significant
for this discharge.  For the other industries nitrogenous
BOD associated with the effluent Kjeldahl nitrogen is minor
in comparison to the carbonaceous BOD.
                           39

-------
6000

6000
0>
71 4000
Q
0
m
2000
C

GEORGIA PACIFIC PAPER CO.
PULP WASTE WATER


_

^^
	 . -*"
" ^"^
X*
' I I
) 5 10
TIME OF
300
~
o> .
f 200
Q
O
OQ
100
r\
ST. REGIS PAPER CO.

_

^--T """
^-^
*''" 1 1
0 5 10
TIME OF
irnn
I Ow \J
1200
o>
? 800
Q
O
CO
400

 .
CROWN ZELLERBACH
-

A
^rf**
A^
A- **^ '
X .
X 1 1
0 5 10

^
A 	 .A 	 J
 - "^~~ O
^ ^- O


1 1 1










15 20 25 30
INCUBATION - DAYS
A - NUTRIENTS ADDED
8 - NO NUTRIENTS ADDED


A. 	 * 	 * 	  	 8
o o

i i i







15 20 25 30
INCUBATION - DAYS

PAPER CO.


A _ 	  
   0 o o o




1 1 1









15 20 25 30
TIME OF INCUBATION -DAYS
       FIGURE 9
LONG TERM BOD STUDIES
         40

-------
The Georgia Pacific Paper Company discharges 95,850 Ib/day
(43,500 kg/day) of ultimate BOD or approximately 75 percent
of the industrial wastewater BOD.  In addition to a bio-
chemical oxygen demand associated with the organic waste-
water load from the Georgia Pacific Paper Company, a chemical
oxygen demand due to the oxidation of sulfite discharged
with the pulp manufacturing wastewater also consumes river
dissolved oxygen.  The measured effluent sulfite concentra-
tion of the pulp manufacturing wastewater was approximately
1,000 mg/1.  The stoichiometric chemical oxygen demand of
the conversion of sulfite to sulfate is 0.2 mg/1 of oxygen
per 1 mg/1 of sulfite.  Laboratory studies in which waste-
water was mixed with river water and the resulting
dissolved oxygen change measured by a probe indicated that
the sulfite oxygen demand of the watewater was not immediate.
It was also found that the unoxidized sulfite interfered
with the Winkler dissolved oxygen determination by producing
false dissolved oxygen decreases.

Based upon previous information  [2], it was concluded that
the sulfite in the wastewater is organically bound and,
therefore, not free to become immediately oxidized.  Previous
data indicated that the organically bound sulfite oxidized
at a first order reaction rate of about 1.0 day (base e).

On the basis of these findings, the oxidation of the sulfite
in the wastewater was analyzed as a reactive chemical oxygen
demand.  Furthermore, minor corrections were applied to some
river dissolved oxygen measurements downstream of the
Georgia Pacific discharge to correct the dissolved oxygen
measurement made by the Winkler method for the interference
of the unoxidized sulfite.  The river Winkler dissolved
oxygen corrections ranged from a maximum of 1.1 mg/1
immediately below the Georgia Pacific discharge to approx-
imately zero at the confluence with the Beaver River.
Municipal Discharges

In this study wastewater discharges from the nine largest
municipalities were included in the analysis.  The other
municipalities either have individual private means of
wastewater disposal such as septic tanks or their waste-
water volume is small.  The ultimate oxygen demand of
wastewaters discharged to the study area by municipalities
is approximately 17 percent of the oxygen demand of the
industrial discharges.  A summary of the principal muni-
cipal wastewater loads is presented in Table 10.

The wastewater flow and BOD5 data were obtained from
New York State D.E.C. records, except as noted.  The
                           41

-------
nitrogenous BOD was assigned on the basis of an effluent
oxidizable nitrogen concentration of 20 mg/1.  The
stoichiometric conversion of oxidizable nitrogen to
nitrate is 4.5 mg of oxygen per mg of nitrogen oxidized.
The ultimate oxygen demand is the sum of the ultimate
carbonaceous BOD, which was taken as 1.5 times the BOD5,
and the nitrogenous BOD.

All the municipalities provide some form of wastewater
treatment except Carthage which currently discharges
untreated wastewater to the Black River.  The ultimate
BOD discharged at Carthage is estimated at 2,900 Ib/day
(1,320 kg/day).  A treatment plant which will treat the
wastewater from Carthage, West Carthage, Crown Zellerbach
Paper Company and Climax Paper Company is currently under
construction.  Watertown which has primary treatment
facilities is the largest municipal wastewater discharge.
The ultimate BOD discharged at Watertown is 15,900 Ib/day
(7,200 kg/day).  Each of the remaining municipalities
discharge less than 1,000 Ib/day (454 kg/day) of ultimate
BOD.  The municipal wastewater BOD loads are for dry weather
conditions and do not include the BOD loads associated with
combined sewer overflows.
                            42

-------
                    SECTION VIII

         MODEL APPLICATION AND VERIFICATION
Equation  (6) which defines the steady-state, spatial dis-
solved oxygen distribution in a stream has been applied in
the analysis of the Black River dissolved oxygen data.
The parameters of Equation (6) have been evaluated for
various segments of the Black River.  A mathematical
definition of the spatial dissolved oxygen distribution
for the Black River within the study area was obtained by
linking together through the conservation of mass prin-
cipal the solutions of Equation (6) for each river segment
thus forming a dissolved oxygen mathematical model of the
Black River.  The validity of the model was tested by
analyzing three sets of river dissolved oxygen survey
data, under different flow and temperature conditions,
with a consistent set of parameters.  A review of the
model application and verification of river dissolved
oxygen distributions for August 14, 1973, November 1,
1973, and November 20, 1973 follow.
Flow

The water quality surveys of the Black River were conducted
during low flow conditions on the August 14, 1973 and
November 1, 1973 surveys and relatively high flow conditions
on the November 20, 1973 survey.  A hydrograph of the river
flow at Watertown, which is approximately 10 miles  (16.1
km) upstream of the mouth, is presented in Figure 10.
During the five day period preceding the August 14, 1973
and November 1, 1973 surveys, the river flow at Watertown
averaged 1,700 cfs  (48.2 cu m/sec) and 1,400 cfs  (39.6 cu
m/sec) respectively.  Before the November 20, 1973 survey,
the average river flow at Watertown was 5,500 cfs  (156 cu
m/sec).  As shown on Figure 10, reasonably good steady-state
flow conditions existed before each survey for a time
period comparable to the time of travel within the study
area.

The spatial flow distribution in the Black River was
determined from the flow records of the Hudson River-
Black River Regulating District.  Flow measurements at
Watertown and Boonville on the Black River, at Croghan
on the Beaver River, and at Old Forge on the Moose River
                           43

-------
     8000
     7000
     6000
     5000
.,0
 i


 o
 _!
 u_
    3000
     2000
     1000
            FLOW AT WATERTOWN

            * AVERAGE-5 DAY FLOW PRECEDING SURVEYS
            AUGUST     SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER      NOVEMBER
                               1973
                      FIGURE 10
        FLOW AT WATERTOWN (AUG.-NOV., 1973)
                           44

-------
were used to evaluate the flow distribution.  The ungaged
flow, which is defined as the flow at Watertown minus the
flow measured at the Boonville, Croghan, and Old Forge
gaging stations, was distributed uniformly throughout the
drainage basin.

A graphical presentation of the flow distribution in the
Black River for the August 14, 1973 and November 20, 1973
surveys is shown in Figure 11.  The flow distribution for
the November 1, 1973 survey, which is not shown, was similar
to the August flow distribution.
River Geometry

The cross sectional area and depth distribution of the Black
River was determined primarily from time of travel studies
conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey.  Some measurements
of river geometry were made between Forestport and Lyons
Falls.  The geometry of the lower Beaver and Moose Rivers
was obtained from measurements and estimates based on
visual observations.

During the period from August, 1968 to July 1969, the U. S.
Geological Survey conducted three time of travel studies on
the Black River.  The river between Lyons Falls and Dexter
was divided into sixteen segments.  At the upstream end of
each section, dye was mixed with the river water and as the
leading edge of the dye patch reached the downstream end
of the river segment, measurements of the dye concentration
were taken with time until the dye patch passed.  From an
analysis of these dye data, the mean travel time for a
particular river flow within each segment was computed.
The cumulative travel time along the river is the sum of
the travel time in each river segment and is presented in
Figure 12 for the three studies.

In addition to measuring the time of travel within each
river segment, the U. S. Geological Survey also measured
river flow and width.  From these measurements, the effec-
tive cross sectional area and depth of a particular flow
for each segment was computed.  A relationship between river
velocity, cross sectional area, and depth with river flow
was developed for each model segment.   Figure 13 presents
the correlation of velocity, area, and depth with flow for
two of the river segments.
                           45

-------
  co
  u.
  o


  5
  o
      6000
      5000
      4000
3000
      2000
       1000
AUGUST 14,1973
~~ re
t- UJ
cc >
 
" - S
S 1
LL. S

1 1 1
1 INDEPENDENCE R
i
BEAVER HIVER
1 DEER RIVER

FLOW AT WATERTOWN =1700
1 1 > 1
- 0 WATERTOWN
cn
          100  90   80   70   60   50   40   30


                         MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                                       20
iO
  o
5000




4000




3000




2000




1000
              NOVEMBER 20,1973
                               FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 5500 CFS
          100  90  80   70   60   50   40  30


                         MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                                       20
                          FIGURE II


AVERAGE SPATIAL FLOW  DISTRIBUTION  FOR AUGUST 14,1973

            AND NOVEMBER  20, 1973 SURVEYS
                           46

-------
           U.S.G.S. TIME OF TRAVEL STUDIES ON THE BLACK RIVER

                           (1968 - 1969)
en

-------
o
UJ
>
K

O
O

LU
\-
u.

d
CO
LU
liJ
LU
LV.
  10.0



  50








   10


  0.5







   0 I




10000



 5000







 1000-



  500







  100




  100.



  50







   10.
         MILEPOINT54.4 -64.7
      100
      100
Q.

g   50
    1.0
      100
                  0.4
               500  1000

                 FLOW-CFS
                J0.6
               500  1000
                 FLOW-CFS
                 J0.4
              500  1000
                FLOW-CFS
                                      o
                                      LU
                                      co
                                      o
                                      o
                                      LU
                                      >
                            5000 10000
                              i
                            5000 10000
  10.0



  5.0








   10


  0.5







   01




10000



5000







 1000



  500







  100




  100



  50.
                                       I-
                                       LU
                                       LU
                                               MILEPOINT II 4-15.8
                                             100
                                      O
                                      CO
                                      LU
                                            100
                                          10.
                                          5.0
                            5000 10000
                                          1.0
                                            100
                                                          J07
                                                     500  1000

                                                       FLOW-CFS
                                                          '0.3
                                                     500 1000
                                                       FLOW-CFS
                                                     500  1000
                                                       FLOW-CFS
5000 10000
5000 10000
5000 10000
                               FIGURE  13

TYPICAL  RIVER  GEOMETRY AND VELOCITY VARIATIONS  WITH FLOW
                                    48

-------
The relationships of river velocity, area, and depth  to
flow have been characterized as logarithemic and  are
defined as follows:

               Area         = C  Qa
                               3.


               Depth        = Cd Qb


               Velocity     = C  QC


where C , C,, C  are constants and a, b, c are exponents
of flow, Q.  The constants and exponents for each river
section depend on the river bed roughness, channel slope,
and geometric shape.  In addition, impoundments caused by
dams can have a significant effect on the exponents.  A
tabulation of the constants and exponents for all river
sections is contained in Appendix C.

Employing these relationships of river geometry with
flow, the spatial cross-sectional area and depth distribu-
tion of the Black River was determined for the flow regime
existing during each of the water quality surveys.  For
sections of the river not included in the U.S. Geological
time of travel study and the lower Moose and Beaver Rivers,
the river geometry variation with flow was assigned by
assuming that the geometric shape of the river cross-
section is the same over the range of river flows analyzed.
For example, rectangular river cross sections were assumed
to remain rectangular for different river flows.  Conse-
quently, the change in river geometry was computed using
the following rearranged form of the Manning open channel
equation.


               AR2/3 = 	Q	
                       (1.49  1/2)                  (10)
                        ~n   S
where A is the cross-sectional area, R is the hydraulic
radius, Q is the river flow, and n and S are the channel
roughness coefficient and hydraulic slope respectively
which were held constant.

Figures 14 and 15 show the flow, depth, and cross-sectional
area distribution of the Black River for the August 14,
1973 and November 20, 1973 surveys.  The river geometry
for the November 1, 1973 survey, which is not shown, was
                           49

-------
6000
5000



co 4000
H_

O
i
% 3000
o
2000
1000

r\


*
cr
, cr uj
K w i-
> ^
o 2 cr S
Q. cr
o
(- , , CC i-
 co uj uj cr
uj  ;
cr ^ <,
> LU
r r:
o g uj 5
u. 2 m $
_

-
-


r__ 	 -

J 	 "" FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 1700 CFS
1 1 1 I I
100 90 80 70 60 50
i i i i
















40 30 20 10 0
MILES ABOVE MOUTH
ID
1-
UJ
UJ i n
lj~
X
a 5
UJ
a
Q



J~LJ1 i 	 1
i i 	 i 
I
1 1 ! 1 1
iOO 90 80 70 60 50
MILES ABOVE
IZOOO
1-
": 10000
o
CO
i
u 8000
cc
< 6000
o
i
LU
CO
CO
co 2000
O
cr
o
Q




-

-



"" 1
| ' "1 J
1 I f '
-J""U ' 	 I
l[ 1 1 1
100 90 80 70 60 50
MILES ABOVE


1  i
U 1 1 LJ
u


1 i i







40 30 20 10 0
MOUTH







~~ "1

-i n-

	
Lr^ L,
u-j ^_

i i i i















40 30 20 10 0
MOUTH
                      FIGURE 14

FLOW, DEPTH, AND CROSS SECTIONAL AREA DISTRIBUTION FOR
            THE AUGUST  14,1973 SURVEY
                          50

-------
 co
 u.
 3
 O
Ld
O.
LLi
Q
o
en
<
z
O
UJ
en
co
O
 6000



 5000



 4000



 3000




 2000



 1000
   15



   10



    5
12000



10000



8000



6000



4000



2000 -



   0'
01
UJ
X
O
u.
                          FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 5500 CFS
 _L
     iOO  90   80
                                   _L
                                    JL
                     70   60   50   40   30

                       MILES  ABOVE MOUTH
                                        20
                                     10
                               I
        ICO  90   80
                                       _L
                 70   60   50   40   30

                   MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                                            20
                                     10
        100  90   80   70   60   50  40   30

                      MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                                        20
                                    10
                         FIGURE 15


FLOW, DEPTH,AND CROSS SECTIONAL AREA DISTRIBUTION FOR

              THE NOVEMBER 20, 1973  SURVEY
                            51

-------
approximately the same as the August 14, 1973 survey
because the river flows were similar.  As shown in Figures
14 and 15, the Black River for approximately 10 miles  (16
km) below Forestport is shallow with an average depth of
2 to 3 feet (0.61 to 0.92 m).  From this point to the
confluence with the Moose River, there is a rapid increase
in the river cross-sectional area accompanied by a
moderate increase in depth to 5 to 7 feet (1.52 to 2.13 m).
Immediately downstream of Lyons Falls there is a sudden
decrease in the river cross-sectional area which again
increases as the river flows to Carthage (around milepoint
30.0).  Between Carthage and the mouth, the river geometry
is variable, possibly reflecting the effects of the
numerous impoundments.
Model Segmentation

The study area, which includes the Black River from Forest-
port to Black River Bay and the lower 5 miles  (8 km) of the
Moose and Beaver Rivers, was divided into a series of
segments for the purpose of constructing a mathematical
water quality model.  A model segment is created when
there is a change in any of the variables contained in
Equation (6) includingthe deoxygenation rate, atmospheric
reaeration rate, and river velocity.  Generally, the
principal reasons for a new model segment are changes in
river geometry and flow, and the discharge of wastewater
loads.  A schematic of the model segmentation of the
study area is presented in Figure 16.

The total number of model segments is 59 with the Black
River containing 44, the Moose River 6, the Beaver River
7, and Black River Bay 2.  The municipal and industrial
wastewater discharges are indicated by arrows in addition
to the Independence and Deer Rivers.  The remaining model
segments not receiving a wastewater discharge were
established to accommodate a change in river geometry or
flow.
Dam Reaeration

The flow of river water over dams and natural falls can be
a significant source of dissolved oxygen.  Oxygen is
entrained as the water flows over the dam and produces a
turbulent pool below the dam.  The degree of reaeration at
a dam is related to the height of fall, the type of dam
(free fall versus steps), temperature, and dissolved
oxygen.  There are insufficient data on dam aeration in
                           52

-------








SZORSIA PACIFIC 	 
















'






1
Z
	
7
3
 " '^ ""
13
20
21
22
23
24
23
2S
34
33
36
37
38
39
40
	
48
49
	

54
55
56
57
58
59















 OEEH RIVER



LATEX, ae.AvR FALLS 	












                                      MOOSE RIVER
             FIGURE 16
MATHEMATICAL MODEL SEGMENTATION
                53

-------
the Black River to develop a correlation between degree
of reaeration and these variables.  Consequently, the
relationship developed by the New York State Department
of Health in a study of the Mohawk River [3] was selected
from existing dam reaeration formulas, as being developed
from field conditions that most closely approximate those
in the Black River.  The equation which relates the change
in dissolved oxygen to the height of fall is as follows:
                DB = (1 - 0.037 H) DA               (11)


where DB is the dissolved oxygen deficit below the dam,
DA is the dissolved oxygen deficit above the dam, and H is
the height of the dam in feet.  The equation was developed
for free fall dams up to 15 feet  (4.6 m).  The effects of
water temperature or degree of pollution are not included.

Most of the dams on the Black River are run-of-the-river
hydroelectric dams for which upstream flow regulation and
plant pondage is limited.  At these dam sites the river
water that flows through the turbines does not receive
significant reaeration.  The quantity of water that flows
through the turbine depends on the size of the power plant,
Table 11 lists the location and estimated height of fall
for the dams and natural falls in the Black River.  In
addition, the maximum flow through the power plant is
indicated for the hydroelectric dams, designated by (H).
When the river flow exceeds the plant capacity the excess
flow receives dam reaeration.

The data contained in Table 11 were obtained from a Black
River profile and report [4] prepared by the Black River
Basin Regional Water Resources Planning Board.  The height
of fall at Lyons Falls, milepoint 74.2, is indicated as
18 feet  (5.5 m) rather than the 60 feet (18.3 m) fall that
is generally reported.   At Lyons Falls there is a dam of
about 18 feet  (5.5 m) followed by a natural falls of
approximately 15 feet  (4.6 m).  The remaining 30 feet
(9.2 m) fall in the river bed occurs as a steep slope
rather than a precipitous drop.  At Carthage, there are
a few dams that extend from the shores to islands in the
river.  The net effect of these dams was represented by
dams of 12 feet (3.7 m) and 14 feet  (4.3 m) as indicated
in Table 11.  The reaeration achieved at these dams
serves as a significant source of dissolved oxygen as
demonstrated by the observed increases in survey river
dissolved oxygen profiles around milepoint 31.
                           54

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                           TABLE 11

          HEIGHT OF FALLS FOR DAMS ON THE BLACK RIVER
                                               MAXIMUM FLOW THROUGH
RIVER MILEPOINT   ESTIMATED HEIGHT OF FALL     HYDROELECTRIC PLANT

1.8
4.8
8.8
9.8
10.0
10.4
10.8
12.0
15.8
16.8
19.4
20.1
21.6
26.7
28.3
31.8
32.2
74.2
77.1
77.3
78.0
80.2
86.8
92.8
FEE
15
20
15
13
12
10
10
14
35
25
23
10
20
23
15
12
14
18
25
25
15
18
18
15
;T
(H)
(H)
(H)
(H)
(H)
(H)
(H)
(H)
(H)
(H)



(H)
(H)
(H)

(H)
(H)


(H)


CFS
2,440
4,040
344
4,060
400
1,850
2,100
3,150
2,950
3,870



3,780
4,490
592

960
374


430


H = Hydroelectric dams
                                55

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Background Water Quality

The observed dissolved oxygen data shown in Figures 5 and
6 indicate an average background dissolved oxygen deficit
of approximately 1.0 mg/1.  In this case, background
dissolved oxygen deficit is defined as a deficit not
associated with direct wastewater discharges.  Therefore,
Black River dissolved oxygen data upstream of Lyons Falls,
and dissolved oxygen data upstream of Lyonsdale and
Beaver Falls on the Moose and Beaver Rivers respectively
is indicative of background conditions.  The August back-
ground dissolved oxygen data show a deficit of 1.0 to 2.0
mg/1.  The less extensive dissolved oxygen data of November
1, 1973 and November 20, 1973 also show an average back-
ground deficit of approximately 1.0 mg/1.

The dissolved oxygen deficit produced from the oxidation
of organic wastewater discharges increments the back-
ground river dissolved oxygen deficit.  It is not clear
from an inspection of the measured deficit profile down-
stream of the Georgia Pacific wastewater discharge at
Lyons Falls if the background deficit continues to persist
throughout the "Flats" area.  Analysis of the August and
November survey data, however, indicates that a background
deficit of approximately 1.0 mg/1 exists in the Black River
from Forestport to Carthage.  Below Carthage it appears
that the background deficit eventually decreases to zero
as indicated by the November 20, 1973 dissolved oxygen
data.  One possible source of this background deficit is
agricultural runoff.
Dissolved Oxygen Model Verification

The segmented mathematical model schematically represented
in Figure 16 was applied to the analysis of the Black
River dissolved oxygen data collected on August 14, 1973,
November 1, 1973, and November 20, 1973.  The dissolved
oxygen model includes the effects of fresh water advection,
the oxidation of organic wastewater discharges, atmospheric
reaeration, background water quality and reaeration at
dams and natural falls.  The dissolved oxygen data analyzed
represent river conditions under a range of flow and
temperature conditions.  The flow at Watertown ranged from
1,400 cfs  (39.6 cu m/sec) for the November 1, 1973 survey
to 5,500 cfs (156 cu m/sec) for the November 20, 1973
survey.  The average river temperature varied from 22C
for the August survey, to 2C for the November 20, 1973
survey.  The observed dissolved oxygen data and computed
model responses are shown in Figures 17 and 18.
                           56

-------
                          AUGUST 14, 1973
e
i
o

X
o

Q
UJ
>

O

GO
Q
o
e
  LJ
  O

  X
  O

  Q
  id
        FLOW AT WAFERTOWN = 1700 cfs

        TEMPERATURE = I8.5C -26.5C

        	 COMPUTED PROFILE
                                        DO "ATURATIQN
     2 -
      100  90   80   70   60   50   40   30


                        MILE3 ABOVE MOUTH


                        NOVEMBER I, 1973
      14
     12
     10
      -  0.0. SATURATION
      0
          FLOW AT WATERTOWN = 1400 CFS
          TEMPERATURE = 7.7eC-II.OC

          	COMPUTED PROFILE
     TOO  90   80   "0    60   50   40   30


                     MILES  ABOVE MOUTH
                                             20
                        FIGURE 17

        DISSOLVED OXYGEN MODEL VERIFICATION
        (AUGUST 14, 1973 AND NOVEMBER 1,1973)
                           57

-------
                       NOVEMBER 20, 1973
IO
14
12
en

r 10
OJ
O
i , 
LU
Ij G
O
C'J
en
Q *
2
n
DO SATURATION
0 __nT" ^ "^
o o 1  
a-o  :>__/v 1 	 , 	 1 
00 00
0
- H  | 2
is z s |
w CC ** ^~
 ti UJ X ?
UJ (O > 1- UJ
- CC  5 CC K
o o ui 
-------
The August 14, 1973 and November 1, 1973 dissolved oxygen
data presented in Figure 17 were collected at low flow
conditions when the average flow at Watertown was 1,700
cfs (48.2 cu m/sec) and 1,400 cfs  (39.6 cu m/sec) respec-
tively.  The average river temperature during the November
1, 1973 survey was 9C versus the warmer 22C temperature
observed during the August survey.  An effect of the
lower river temperature is to increase the dissolved
oxygen saturation value as indicated by the increase in
saturation from approximately 8.4 mg/1 in August to 11.6
mg/1 for the November 1, 1973 survey.

The dissolved oxygen data collected during the November
20, 1973 survey is indicative of high flow and low river
temperature conditions.  The average flow at Watertown
for this survey was about 5,500 cfs  (156 cu m/sec).  The
river temperature ranged from 1.5C to 2.3C.  As indi-
cated on Figure 18 the decrease in the river temperature
to 2C results in an increase in the dissolved oxygen
saturation to 13.8 mg/1 which significantly increases
the available dissolved oxygen resources of the river.

The two principal sinks of dissolved oxygen in the
study area are the background conditions which are
estimated to produce a constant dissolved oxygen deficit
of 1.0 mg/1 between Forestport and Carthage and the oxi-
dation of the municipal and industrial wastewater
discharges.  The industrial wastewater loads, which are
from paper companies, discharge approximately 128,000
Ib/day (56,800 kg/day) of ultimate BOD versus 22,000
Ib/day (10,000 kg/day) discharged from municipal sources.
The industrial BOD is principally carbonaceous whereas
the municipal BOD is approximately 30 percent nitrogenous.
The stream oxidation rates for the carbonaceous and
nitrogenous BOD were both assigned at 0.20/day at 20C.

The pronounced dissolved oxygen sag downstream of Lyons
Falls observed during the August 14, 1973 and November 1,
1973 survey and to a lesser extent during the November 20,
1973 survey is due primarily to the oxidation of the
Georgia Pacific wastewater discharge at Lyons Falls.  At
the time of the November 1, 1973 survey, the measured
ultimate BOD of the Georgia Pacific Pulp and Paper Company
wastewater discharge was approximately 96,000 Ib/day
(43,500 kg/day).  In addition to an organic loading, the
Georgia Pacific wastewater discharge also contains sulfite.
As previously indicated, it is believed that the sulfite
is organically bound and, therefore, chemically oxidizes
slowly.  Based on a measured effluent sulfite concentration
of 1,000 mg/1 and a first order reaction rate of 1.0/day,
                            59

-------
the maximum deficit produced in the river by sulfite oxi-
dation to sulfate is approximately 0.4 mg/1, during the
August 14, 1973 and November 1, 1973 surveys and 0.1 mg/1
during the November 20, 1973 survey.

Dissolved oxygen is added to the Black River by atmospheric
reaeration, tributary flow, and reaeration at dams and
natural falls.  Dissolved oxygen added by atmospheric
reaeration is dependent on the river dissolved oxygen
deficit and the reaeration coefficient.  In this study
the reaeration coefficient was defined by the O'Connor-
Dobbins equation previously presented as Equation  (8).
The amount of dissolved oxygen addition through tributary
flow is related to the magnitude of the tributary flow and
its dissolved oxygen concentration.  The dissolved oxygen
concentration associated with tributary flow was incor-
porated in the assignment of an average background deficit
of 1.0 mg/1 between Forestport and Carthage.  As previously
discussed, a correlation developed in the Mohawk River
study was used to estimate the reaeration at dams and
natural falls based on the height of fall and upstream
dissolved oxygen deficit.  The effect of dam reaeration
on the Black River dissolved oxygen profile is clearly
demonstrated by the sudden increase in river dissolved
oxygen that occurs around milepoint 32, the location of
the dams at Carthage.

The computed model responses shown in Figures 17 and 18
agree reasonably well with the observed river dissolved
oxygen profiles.  The model response represents the net
effect on the river dissolved oxygen distribution of the
various sources and sinks of dissolved oxygen previously
discussed.  The model has been tested over a range of
flow and river temperature conditions which significantly
affect the river dissolved oxygen distribution.  The
November 20, 1973 dissolved oxygen data and model response
indicate the reduced river dissolved oxygen deficit which
occurs as a result of the high river flow and low river
temperatures.  The high river flow provides greater dilu-
tion of the wastewater discharges and also more quickly
flushes the diluted wastewater out of the Black River.
The lower river temperature decreases the river deficit
by decreasing the deoxygenation and atmospheric reaeration
rates and increases the river dissolved oxygen by increas-
ing the saturation level.  To a lesser extent the effect
of river temperature is seen by comparing the August 14,
1973 and November 1, 1973 survey data which were collected
under similar flow conditions.  For the colder November 1,
1973 survey, the river dissolved oxygen deficit is less
and the overall level of river dissolved oxygen greater.
                           60

-------
Although the dissolved oxygen model adquately defines the
dissolved oxygen distribution in the Black River, there
are some differences between the model response and ob-
served data.  In the August 14, 1973 survey the river
dissolved oxygen concentration immediately downstream of
the Georgia Pacific Paper Company discharge was measured
as 4.7 mg/1.  It is believed that complete lateral mixing
of the river and the Georgia Pacific wastewater discharge
had not occurred yet and consequently the field sample had
a higher proportion of wastewater than would occur with
complete lateral mixing.  Differences between the model and
observed data also occur in the analysis of the November
20, 1973 survey between the Beaver River and Carthage.
This difference could be due to a change in background
water quality or river geometry conditions different than
those extrapolated from the U.S. Geological survey time
of travel studies.

An unresolved problem encountered in the dissolved oxygen
model verification was the discrepancy between the com-
puted and measured river BOD distributions.  The measured
river BOD5 and BOD2o concentrations were significantly less
than the computed BOD distributions which were based on BOD
measurements of the wastewater discharges.  It is believed
that in the river BOD determinations, environmental
conditions in the bottle did not permit the same degree
of oxidation that apparently occurs in the natural river
environment.  It is possible in the Black River that the
bacteria which carry on oxidation of the wastewaters
reside on the river bed and, therefore, are not present
in significant quantities in the water column from which
the sample was taken.  Additional studies should be con-
ducted to define the bacterial oxidation mechanism in the
Black River.  Despite the difficulty experienced with the
river BOD measurements, the correlation between the
measured wastewater BOD concentrations and the observed
river dissolved oxygen concentrations confirm the validity
of the dissolved oxygen model as a tool for computing
river dissolved oxygen distributions for projected waste-
water discharges.

In addition to the Black River, a mathematical model was
developed for the lower Beaver and Moose Rivers as indi-
cated on the schematic in Figure 16.  The dissolved
oxygen data collected on the Moose and Beaver Rivers
during the August survey are presented in Figure 5.
These data indicate that dissolved oxygen levels are
principally governed by background conditions because
the dissolved oxygen concentration upstream of the waste-
water discharges is nearly the same as downstream
                           61

-------
concentrations.  The detention time of the wastewater
discharges in these rivers is short so that minor oxida-
tion occurs before the rivers flow into the Black River.
Therefore, verification analyses of these rivers were
not performed.
                           62

-------
                     SECTION IX

            DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROJECTIONS
The dissolved oxygen model of the Black River was used
to evaluate the effect of projected wastewater discharges
on the river dissolved oxygen distribution for the pur-
pose of determining if river dissolved oxygen standards
would be met.  Projections were made for summertime low
flow conditions which are critical with respect to dis-
solved oxygen.  Dilution of wastewater discharges is at
a minimum and the river dissolved oxygen saturation level
at its lowest.  Projected wastewater discharges are based
on treatment levels of best practicable control technology
currently available (BPCTCA) for industries and secondary
treatment for municipal wastewaters.  Projected spatial
dissolved oxygen distributions are presented for all the
wastewater discharges together and the three largest
wastewater discharges individually.
River Conditions Investigated

River dissolved oxygen projections were computed for the
minimum average seven consecutive day flow that has a
recurrence interval of once in ten years.  Based on flow
profiles presented in a New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation Report [5] and information
obtained from the Hudson River-Black River Regulating
District, the flow distribution in the Black River for
this condition was developed and is presented in Figure
19.  The flow at Watertown is 800 cfs (15.4 cu m/sec)
which is approximately two-thirds the average summer low
flow of 1,200 cfs (34 cu m/sec).  For this flow condition,
the Beaver River flow per unit of drainage area is dispro-
portionately high in comparison to the rest of the basin.
This is a consequence of the Hudson River-Black River
Regulating District policy of maintaining a minimum flow
at Watertown of approximately 1,000 cfs (28.3 cu m/sec),
thereby insuring adequate river flow for hydroelectric
power generation.

The cross-sectional area and dep"th distribution of the
Black River at this flow regime is also presented in
Figure 19.  Correlations developed from the U.S.G.S. time
of travel studies as shown in Figure 13 were used to
determine the river geometry.   An effect of the reduced
                           63

-------
1500
1000
CO
u.
o
i
3
"" 500
1
15
5 I0
LL.
1
K 5
a
UJ
a
1
12000
^ 10000
o
2 8000
cc
< 6000
g
2 4000
CO
CO
o 2000
cc
o

ce ac
,_ UJ UJ
o 5 S 5
a. o
i- uj ce i-
co cfl UJ CC
UJ o > Ul
o 2 2 15
 u. * CO S

-
/-f
FLOW AT WATERTOWN =800 CFS
I I I 1 I I 1 I



DO 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
MIUES ABOVE MOUTH
-
lJ 	
~ 	 i i i i i i j.

00 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
MILES ABOVE MOUTH
-
-
-

-
	 T

r r- ' If h_
i -*%1 '  r" i i i i i i






00 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                FIGURE 19

FLOW, DEPTH, AND CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
DISTRIBUTION FOR LOW FLOW CONDITIONS
                   64

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 flow and cross-sectional area is a lower average river
 velocity and,  therefore, a longer residence time for the
 wastewaters discharged to the Black River.

 Because low flow conditions occur during the warmer sum-
 mer months, a  river temperature of 25C was used for pro-
 jections.   At  this time of the year the dissolved oxygen
 resources of the river are at a minimum because of the
 reduced dissolved oxygen saturation level which at 25C
 is 8.2 mg/1.   The higher river temperature  also increases
 the biochemical reaction rates and also the atmospheric
 reaeration rate.   Because the biochemical oxidation rate
 increase with  temperature is more than the  reaeration rate
 increase,  an additional effect of a higher  river tempera-
 ture is to generally produce a greater dissolved oxygen
 deficit than would occur under the same flow and loading
 conditions at  a lower temperature.
 Wastewater Loads

 The wastewater loads  used in the projections  are based on
 secondary treatment of the municipal  loads and best prac-
 ticable control technology currently  available for the
 industrial discharges.   Present wastewater volumes were
 used for projections  because additional growth and indus-
 trial expansion is  not anticipated.   Population estimates
 (by the New York State Office of Planning Services)  indi-
 cate that the Black River Basin population in the year
 2020 will be 74,340 versus the 1970 population of 73,090.

 A summary of the projected municipal  wastewater discharges
 is presented in Table 12.   The BOD5 loading was based on
 an effluent BOD5 concentration of 30  mg/1.  The ultimate
 carbonaceous BOD was  taken as 1.5 times the BOD5.   The
 nitrogen BOD was assigned as 4.5 times  an effluent oxidiz-
 able nitrogen concentration of 20 mg/1.   The  Carthage
 wastewater treatment  plant will treat the wastewater from
 the Climax and Crown  Zellerbach Companies.  Because these
.industrial wastes are deficient in nitrogen,  the nitro-
 genous BOD for the  Carthage treatment plant was computed
 from the estimated  domestic portion of  the wastewater flow.

 The industrial wastewater discharges, which are presented
 in Table 13,  are based on best practicable control tech-
 nology currently available as defined by the  Environmental
 Protection Agency.  The BPCTCA wastewater load for each
 paper company is determined by the tons of product produced
 and a BOD5/ton allocation based on the  type of pulp and
 paper making process  employed.   The ultimate  carbonaceous BOD
                            65

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                             TABLE 12




          SUMMARY OF PROJECTED MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER LOADS
MUNICIPALITY

Boonville
Port Leyden
Lowville
Castorland
Carthage
Deferiet
Watertown
Brownville
Dexter
.FLOW
MGD
0.95
0.12
0.69
0.045
10. 81
0.08
4.5
0.28
0.25
BOD 5
LB/DAY
237
30
172
10
2,700
20
1,120
70
63
NBOD ULTIMATE BOD
LB/DAY
710
90
520
34
1,070
60
3,375
210
190
LB/DAY
1,066
135
779
51
5,123
90
5,064
315
284
1Based on 150/gal./capita/day
                              66

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                         TABLE  13


       SUMMARY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER LOADS AFTER BPCTCA1
     INDUSTRY                 FLOW     BOD 5     NBOD ULTIMATE BOD
                            MGD      LB/DAY   LB/DAY    LB/DAY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Georgia Pacific
Burrows Paper
J. P. Lewis (Beaver Falls)
Latex Fiber
St. Regis
J. P. Lewis (Brownville)
6.1
1.1
2.6
1.5
13.8
0.7
5,600
120
590
63
3,800
280
200
5
153
467
102
0
14,200
245
1,335
595
7,700
560
H.'astewater loads obtained from the U. S. Environmental Protection
 Agency and are subject to modification based upon final promulgation
 of BPCTCA guidelines by EPA.
was computed  from the BOD 5 allocations  by applying the
average ultimate BOD to BOD5 ratios measured during the
study.  The average for all the industries,  except the
Georgia Pacific Paper Company, was an ultimate carbonaceous
BOD equal  to  twice the BOD 5.  For the Georgia Pacific Paper
Company, the  measured ultimate carbonaceous  BOD was 2.5
times the  BOD5.   In addition to the carbonaceous BOD, the
nitrogenous BOD was computed from the total  Kjeldhal
nitrogen concentration using the stoichiometric conversion
of 4.5 mg  of  oxygen per mg of nitrogen  oxidized to nitrate.
The ultimate  BOD tabulated in Table 13  is the sum of the
carbonaceous  and nitrogenous BOD.

It should  be  noted that the sulfite oxygen demand asso-
ciated with the Georgia Pacific Paper Company wastewater
was not included in the projections.  It  is  believed that
this chemical oxygen demand will be satisfied in the
wastewater treatment process.
                            67

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Spatial Dissolved Oxygen Profiles

Figure 20 presents the projected dissolved oxygen distribu-
tion associated with the discharge of the municipal and
industrial wastewater loads contained in Tables 12 and
13 for critical river flow and temperature conditions.
The deoxygenation and nitrification reaction rates used
were both 0.20/day at 20C.  The appropriate temperature
corrections were applied in determining the rates at 25C.
All tributary flow was assumed to be saturated with dis-
solved oxygen, but the effect of background water quality
conditions was estimated by the assignment of a background
dissolved oxygen deficit of 1.0 mg/1 to the entire Black
River.  For a conservative estimate of river dissolved 
oxygen levels, reaeration at dams was not included in the
projections.

The dissolved oxygen distribution in Figure 20 indicates
that river dissolved oxygen standards will be met with
BPCTCA wastewater treatment levels during design low flow
conditions and a background dissolved oxygen deficit of
1.0 mg/1.  The minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of
5.5 mg/1 is projected to occur upstream of the confluence
of the Beaver River.  At this point the dissolved oxygen
level is 0.5 mg/1 above the river standard of 5.0 mg/1.
Downstream of the Beaver River, the Black River projected
dissolved oxygen level is well above the standards.

It should be noted that the dissolved oxygen projection
in Figure 20 is for a background river dissolved oxygen
deficit of 1.0 mg/1 which was based on dissolved oxygen
measurements made during the field program.  The exact
nature of this deficit is not known and, therefore, it
cannot be assured that the background deficit in the
future at low flow conditions will be 1.0 mg/1.  Conse-
quently, additional studies should be conducted to further
define background water quality conditions in the Black
River.

For this projection the municipal BODs wastewater loading
was computed based on an effluent BOD5 concentration of
30 mg/1, which is the monthly average required by Federal
regulations.  It is recognized that a weekly BOD  average
of 45 mg/1 is permitted by Federal law.  If the maximum
permissible weekly BOD  loading should occur during the
design low flow conditions, water quality standards will
still be met.

In order to evaluate the effect on the Black River of the
principal wastewater discharges, the dissolved oxygen
                            68

-------
LU
O
>-
X
o

a
Ld
O
en
02
a
"ICC  90   80   70    60    50   40   30   20


                 MILES  ABOVE MOUTH
                                                  10
       WASTEWATER LOADS


         INDUSTRIAL- BEST PRACTICABLE CONTROL
                   TECHNOLOGY CURRENTLY AVAILABLE


         MUNICIPAL-SECONDARY TREATMENT
                       FIGURE 20

             DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROJECTION
               FOR LOW FLOW CONDITIONS
                          69

-------
deficit distributions produced in the Black River by the
three largest wastewater discharges are presented in
Figure 21.  The top profile is the model response for the
Georgia Pacific Paper Company wastewater ultimate BOD
discharge of 14,200 Ib/day, (6,440 kg/day) which is 39
percent of the total projected wastewater loads.  The
Georgia Pacific discharge produces a maximum deficit of
1.6 mg/1 immediately upstream of the confluence with the
Beaver River.  The dilution effect of the Beaver River is
seen in the immediate decrease in the Black River deficit
which occurs at milepoint 42.

The dissolved oxygen deficit distribution produced by the
St. Regis Paper Company and Watertown wastewater discharges
are shown in the middle and bottom profiles respectively.
The St. Regis discharge, which is 7,700 Ib/day of
ultimate BOD, produces a maximum river deficit of approx-
imately 0.4 mg/1.  The effect of the Watertown wastewater
discharge on the Black River dissolved oxygen level is
minor because the wastewater is flushed into Black River
Bay before significant oxidation occurs.  Preliminary
model analysis of Black River Bay indicates that the
oxidation of wastewaters transported into the bay will
not decrease dissolved oxygen levels below present
standards.

Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that
for a flow of 800 cfs at Watertown, a river temperature
of 25C, and wastewater treatment levels of best prac-
ticable control technology currently available for
industrial discharges and conventional secondary treat-
ment for municipalities, New York State water quality
standards will be met.
                           70

-------
e
t

cz
UJ
Q

q
Q
     3.0
     2.0
         GEORGIA PACIFIC PAPER CO.

         UOD= 14,200 LB/DAY
                 1
       100  90   80  |  70   60   50   40    30



                      MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                                             20    10
t.u
g1 3.0
 2.0
UJ
Q
b o
Q
0
ST. REGIS PAPER CO.
U00 = 7,700 LB/DAY
-
	 	
       100  90   80
70   60   50   40   30


  MILES  ABOVE MOUTH
                                            20   10
     *.0
I    30


H


c    2-
UJ
Q
         WATERTOWNJ STP

         UOD = 5064 LB/DAY
       100  90   80
                    70   60   50   40   30



                      MILES ABOVE MOUTH
                                            20   10
                      FIGURE 21


      DISSOLVED  OXYGEN DEFICIT PRODUCED BY

        INDIVIDUAL  WASTEWATER  DISCHARGES
                           71

-------

-------
                      SECTION X

                      REFERENCES
[1]   O'Connor,  D.  J.  and Dobbins,  W.  E.,  "The Mechanism
     of Reaeration in Natural Streams,"  Transactions,
     ASCE Vol.  123,  pp.  641-666 (1956) .
[2]   Moore,  M.  G.,  Rieck,  R.  H.,  and Moore, W. A.,
     "Determination of Dissolved  Oxygen in the Presence
     of Sulfite Waste Liquor," Water Pollution Control
     Federation Journal,  Vol.  39, Part 2,  pp. 64-69 (1967).
[3]   O'Connor,  D.  J.,  "Water Quality Analysis of the
     Mohawk River  - Barge Canal," New York State Department
     of Health,  July,  1968.
[4]   Black River Basin Regional Water Resources Planning
     Board,  "Alternatives For Water Resources Management
     Black River Basin,"  Technical Report,  March,  1972.
[5]   New York  State Department of Environmental Conserva-
     tion,  "Black River Basin - Plan For Water Pollution
     Abatement,"  February,  1973.
                           73

-------

-------
                     SECTION XI

                     APPENDICES
A.  1973 WATER QUALITY DATA

Table 1:  Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and
          BOD Data For the Black River
          (August 14, 1973)

Table 2:  Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and
          BOD Data For Tributaries  (August  14,
          1973)

Table 3:  Additional Water Quality Data For
          the Black River  (August 14, 1973)

Table 4:  Additional Water Quality Data For
          Tributaries (August 14, 1973)

Table 5:  Nitrogen and Phosphorus Data For
          the Black River and Tributaries
          (August 14, 1973)

Table 6:  Coliform Data For the Black River
          and Tributaries  (August 14, 1973)

Table 7:  Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and
          BOD Data For the Black River and
          Tributaries (November 1, 1973)

Table 8:  Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and
          BOD Data For the Black River and
          Tributaries (November 20, 1973)

B.  BIOLOGICAL DATA

Table 1:  Summary of River Biological Data
          (September 24-27, 1973)

C.  RIVER GEOMETRY DATA AND REAERATION COEFFICIENTS

Table 1:  Variation of River Geometry With Flow
Page No,

   77
   78



   80


   81


   82



   83


   84



   85



   86

   87


   88

   91

   92
Table 2:  Summary of Black River Model Reaeration
          Coefficients                                 94
                           75

-------

-------
      APPENDIX A
1973 WATER QUALITY DATA
           77

-------
CO
TABLE 1
TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND BOD DATA FOR THE BLACK RIVER
(August 14, 1973)

STATION

Black River
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
11
12
13
14
14a
15
16
17
18
19
19a
20
21
22
23
24
A.M.

TEMPERATURE
C

25.8
25.0
24.5
24.5
24.0
23.7
22.7
22.7
21.7
22.0
22.5
21.0
20.8
21.2
21.7
21.8
21.6
21.4
21.4
21.2
20.0
18.5
20.0
20.5

DISSOLVED
OXYGEN
mg/1

6.7
7.7
7.3
6.7
7.01 7.42
7.2
5.6
6.9
6.8
4.5
4.7
4.1
3.7
4.1
4.4
5.4
5.4
6.5
6.6
7.4
7.1
7.7
7.6
7.6

BOD 5
mg/1

1.6
2.7 (3. I)3
2.7 (4.1)
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.6 (4.8)3
1.3
1.9
1.3
2.1
2.4
2.6
2.8 (7.2)3
3.0
3.4
4.8
5.7 (9. I)3
7.1
1.3
1.0
1.0
.9
.9
P.M.

TEMPERATURE
C

26.5
26.2
25.8
25.5
25.3
25.7
25.2
25.7
24.8
25.0
25.0
24.0
23.8
23.0
23.0
23.2
20.2
21.0
20.8
20.7
20.3
21.7
20.5
22.0

DISSOLVED
OXYGEN
mg/1

6.8
7.4
7.2
6.8
7. I1 7.32
7.3
6.5
6.9
7.0
4.2
5.0
4.7
4.2
4.0
4.5
4.9
5.4
6.0
6.3
7.7
7.71 7.92
8.0
7.4
7.01 7.62

-------
-J
                                                 TABLE  1  (Cont'd)

                           TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND  BOD DATA  FOR THE BLACK RIVER
                                                  (August 14,  1973)

                                       A.M.
P.M.

STATION

Black River
Bay
25
26
27
28
29
30
Above Dam
2Below Dam
3 on /3?>Tr nr\r\

TEMPERATURE
C


23.7
23.5
23.5
24.0
24.3
24.3



DISSOLVED
OXYGEN
mg/1


6.5
6.1
6.0
7.4
7.3
7.8




BOD 5
mg/1


1.5
1.7
1.5
2.6
2.5
2.0



DISSOLVED
TEMPERATURE OXYGEN
C mg/1


-
-
_
-
_
"




-------


TABLE
2


BLACK RIVER TRIBUTARY
TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND BOD DATA FOR TRIBUTARIES
(August 14, 1973)
STATION

Moose River
Ml
M2
M3
Beaver River
Bl
B2
B3
B4
Deer River
Dl
Independence River
11
Sugar River
MSI
Perch River
31
A.M.
TEMPERATURE
C
21.4
20.6
19.6
22.5
22.0.
21.5
22.2
18.5
19.5
18.5
22.5

DISSOLVED
OXYGEN
mg/1
7.3
8.0
8.2
7.2
7.8
7.2
6.6
8.0
7.9
8.3
4.9
BOD 5
mg/1
1.0
.7
.8
1.5
1.5
.8
.9
2.7
1.6
.9
1.2
P.M.
TEMPERATURE
C
19.9
20.0
20.0
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.3
24.0
20.5
21.9
27.2

DISSOLVED
OXYGEN
mg/1
7.7
7.9
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.31 7.62
7.2
7.5
7.3
8.5
5.5

-------
TABLE 3
ADDITIONAL WATER QUALITY DATA FOR THE BLACK RIVER
(August 14, 1973)

STATION

Black River
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
11
12
13
14
14a
15
16
17
18
19
19a
20
21
22
23
24
Black River
Bay
25
26
27
28
29
30
TOTAL
SOLIDS
mg/1

80
78
74
72
71
76
64
71
67
64
62
39
73
72
73
68
76
76
76
72
71
65
59
43


-
-
-
-
-
-
SUSPENDED
SOLIDS
mg/1

6
8
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
5
14
7
5
7
9
8
5
7
10
4
8
7
3
4


-
-
-
-
-
-

TURBIDITY
JTU

<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25
<25


-
-
-
-
-
-

pH Chi. 'a1
yg/i

7.0
6.8 2.
7.0
7.1 3.
6.9
7.1
6.8
7.1
7.0 3.
6.9
6.9
6.9
7.0
6.9
6.8
6.9
6.7
6.9 2.
6.7
7.2
7.3 2.
7.4
7.1
7.2 4.


7.2 3.
7.1
7.2
8.2 50.
7.6
8.0 22.
81

-------

ADDITIONAL

TOTAL
STATION SOLIDS
mg/1
Moose River
Ml
M2
M3
Beaver River
Bl
B2
B3
B4
Deer River
Dl
Independence R.
11
Sugar River
MSI
Perch River
31 120.
TABLE
WATER QUALITY
(August 14
SUSPENDED
SOLIDS
mg/1

5.
6.
6.

6.
6.
3.
3.

6.

8.

8.

13.
4
DATA FOR
, 1973)

TURBIDITY
JTU

<25
<25
<25

<25
<25
<25
<25

<25

<25

<25

<25

TRIBUTARIES


pH Chi. 'a1
yg/i

7.0
6.7 4.
7.2

6.8
6.1
6.2
7.1

7.6

7.3 4.

7.0 3.

8.3
82

-------


STATION C

Black River
1
3
4
6
11
13
15
16
19
20
22
24
Black River
Bay
25
28
30
FOR

5RG-N
mg/1

.38
.55
.49
.59
.58
.45
.58
.50
.58
.58
.49
.56


.75
.65
.42
NITROGEN AN
. THE BLACK

NH3-N
mg/1

<.06
<.05
<.05
<.05
<,05
<.05
<.05
<.05
<.05
<.05
<.05
<.05


<.05
<.05
<.05
TABLE 5
D PHOSPHOR
RIVER AND

NOa-N
mg/1

.013
.022
.013
.024
.012
.011
.045
.031
.028
.013
.029
.025


.018
.045
.012
US DATA
TRIBUTARIES

N03-N
mg/1

.14
.13
.13
.12
.13
.16
.14
.14
.15
.20
.20
.14


.13
.06
.02

TOTAL
POif-P
mg/1

.034
.025
.025
.032
.025
.022
.032
.024
.020
.022
.025
.021


.048
.055
.035

FILT.
PO^-P
mg/1

.005
0.0
.002
.005
0.0
.012
.005
.005
.005
.005
.010
.005


.015
.010
.008
Perch River
   31       .50
          <.05
           .017
           .06
          .148
           .098
Deer River
   Dl       .56
          <.05
           .015
           ,06
          .068
           .020
Beaver R.
   Bl
   B4
.30
.36
<.05
<.05
.016
.015
.19
.21
.024
.020
.006
.002
Moose River
   Ml       .36
   M3       .44
          <.05
          <.05
           .017
           .017
           ,15
           ,16
          .025
          .028
           .002
           .002
Independence R.
   II       .59
          <.05
           .032
           .12
          .028
           .006
Sugar River
   MSI      .42
          <.05
           .018
           .37
          .025
          0.0
                               33

-------
                              TABLE 6

         COLIFORM DATA FOR THE BLACK RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
                          (August 14, 1973)

  STATION                 TOTAL COLIFORM             FECAL COLIFORM
                          number/100 ml              number/100 ml

Black River
    1                         37,500.                     2,850.
    3                          9,400.                     1,775.
    4                          3,100.                        60.
    6                          3,300.                       275.
   11                          4,950.                       275.
   13                            650.                        40.
   15                          1,375.                        56.
   16                          3,825.                       155.
   19                            910.                         0.
   20                          2,250.                       385.
   22                          1,000.                         0.
   24                            950.                        31.

Moose River
   Ml                          1,685.                        26.
   M3                          1,030.                        20.

Beaver River
   Bl                          1,775.                         0.
   B4                             30.                        13.

Deer River
   Dl                          2,200.                       280.

Sugar River
  MSI                          1,345.                       275.
                                84

-------
                              TABLE 7

            TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, AND BOD DATA
                FOR THE BLACK RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
                          (November 1, 1973)

STATION

Black River
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
11
12
13
14a
15
15a
16
16a
18
19
19a
20
23
Moose River
Ml

TEMPERATURE
C

9.5
9.8
9.7
9.5
9.3
9.3
9.3
8.7
9.0
8.5
8.5
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.3
8.5
8.3
8.0

8.3
DISSOLVED
OXYGEN
mg/1

10.9
10.8
10.4
10.3
10.2
10.9
9.7
10.0
7.7
7.8
7.7
7.9
8.3
8.3
8.7
8.8
9.1
8.3
11.0
10.7

10.9
BOD
5-DAY
mg/1

3.7
2.5
2.8
3.2
3.0
3.1
2.4
2.3
3.1
2.5
3.2
3.4
3.1
3.1
-
3.3
3.6
4.0
1.1
1.0

.8
20-DAY
mg/1

7.8
7.8-
6.2
6.7
6.4
7.0
5.3
5.2
7.2
5.5
6.5
7.0
-
7.1

7.2
7.4
7.6
1.9
2.0

1.9
Beaver River
   Bl
9.3
10.4
                                                 .9
                                              2.1

-------
                              TABLE 8

            TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, AND BOD DATA
                FOR THE BLACK RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
                        (November 20, 1973)
  STATION
TEMPERATURE

Black River
2
3
4
5
7
9
11
12
13
14a
15
15a
16
17
18
19
19 a
20
23
C

2.0
2.3
2.1
1.4
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
2.1
1.6
2.0
1.9
1.5
1.5
1.8
2.0
1.6
1.8
1.5
DISSOLVED
 OXYGEN
  mg/1
                                          14.2
                                          14.0
                                          13.7
                                          14.0
                                          13.5
                                          13.2
                                          12.8
                                          11.9
                                          11.8
                                          11.5
                                          12.0
                                          12.0
                                          12.3
                                          12.3
                                          12.6
                                          12.8
                                          13.1
                                          13.7
                                          13.1
                                             1.7
                                             2.7
                                             1.5
                                             1.7
                                             1.7
                                             1.5
                                               .8
                                               ,8
                        1.
                        1.
                                             1.8
                                             1.8
                                             1.7
                                             1.9
                                             2.2
                                             2.3
                                             2.0
                                             1.0
                                              .7
Beaver River
   Bl

Moose River
   Ml
    2.0
     .5
   12.7
   13.9
1.0
 .60
                              86

-------
   APPENDIX B
BIOLOGICAL DATA
        87

-------
oo
oo
      RIVER
      MILE
      POINT

       95.
       75.
       72.
       70.
       54.
                                                     TABLE 1

                                        SUMMARY OF RIVER BIOLOGICAL DATA
                                             (September 24-27, 1973)
                                                         MOLLUSCA
                                                            ANNELIDA
               ARTHROPODA
      INSECTA
   CRUSTACIA
PLATYHELMINTHES
GASTRO- PELEC- PORIF-
PODA    YPODA  ERA
        OLIGO-
        CHAETE
HIRU-
DINEA
(18)   Trichoptera   (2)   Cyclops
(37)   Ephemeroptera (27)  Amphipoda
(2)    Coleoptera    (15)  Isopoda
(1)    Diptera
(3)    Trichoptera
(1)   Amphipoda
(4)   Cladocera
(4)   Isopoda
 (3)   Planaria
(6)    Ephemeroptera (2)   Isopoda
(15)   Diptera
(1)    Coleoptera

(15)   Ephemeroptera (4)   Cladocera
(29)   Diptera

(24)   Trichoptera   (11)  Cladocera
(7)    Ephemeroptera
(3)    Diptera
(1)    Odonato
       52.    (4)   Trichoptera
              (1)   Ephemeroptera
              (12)  Coleoptera
                 (7)
       Planaria
 (3)
 (3)
(TNG)
                 (2)
       Planaria
                        (TNC) Dero
                                     (27)  Planaria
                                   (3)

-------
                                                 TABLE 1 (Cont'd)
CO
       RIVER
       MILE
       POINT

        33.
        30.
        11.
         7.5
                                         SUMMARY OF RIVER BIOLOGICAL DATA
                                              (September 24-27, 1973)
             ARTHROPODA
     INSECTA
(2)   Trichoptera
                 CRUSTACIA

              (49) Cyclops
              (11) Isopoda
              (3)  Cladacera
(5)   Trichoptera   (1)   Cladocera
(1)   Ephemeroptera (1)   Amphipoda

(TNC)Trichoptera   (40)  Isopda
(TNC)Ephemeroptera
(2)   Hemiptera
(1)   Plecoptera

(11)  Odinata
(69)  Trichoptera
(1)   Plecoptera
PLATYHELMINTHES
 (9)
Planaria
                                (TNC) Planaria
                                (27)  Planaria
                                                        MOLLUSCA
                                                                                                ANNELIDA
GASTRO- PELEC- PROIF-
PODA    YPODA  ERA

 (7)
OLIGO-
CHAETE

(1) Dero
HIRU-
DINEA

 (5)
                                                  (36)
                    (TNC)
                     (3)


                     (17)
                    (3)
       Bay
         0.0
(1)
(3)
Cladocera
Isopada
       Moose River
         8.     (30)  Trichoptera   (3)
                (TNC)Ephemeroptera
                (1)   Plecoptera
                (12)  Coleoptera
                (1)   Odonata
                        Decapoda
  (TNC) Planaria
                                (5)
       Planaria
             (16)
                                    (7)

-------
                                          TABLE  1 (Cont'd)

                                 SUMMARY  OF  RIVER BIOLOGICAL DATA
                                       (September 24-27,  1973)

RIVER                                                            MOLLUSCA               ANNELIDA
MILE         	ANTHROPODA	                      GASTRO- PELEC- PROLIF- OLIGO-     HIRU-
PQINT        INSECTA          CRUSTACIA    PLATYHELMINTHES   PODA    YPODA  ERA     CHAETE     DINEA

  0.0    (7)  Ephemeroptera(2)  Decapoda                       (1)

Beaver River
  8.                       (3)  Cladacera     t                                                     (1)

  0.2    (15) Coleoptera                      (5)   Planaria     (3)

-------
                   APPENDIX  C
RIVER GEOMETRY DATA AND  REAERATION COEFFICIENTS
                        91

-------
TABLE 1
VARIATION OF RIVER GEOMETRY
MODEL
SEGMENT
STARTING
MILEPOINT
ENDING
MILEPOINT
Black River
1*
2*
3*
4*
5*
6*
7*
8*
9*
10*
11*
12*
13*
20*
21
22
23
24
25
26
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
92.8
92.0
89.5
86.8
84.7
81.7
80.2
79.0
78.0
77.3
77.1
76.6
74.6
74.3
74.2
69.4
64.7
61.5
54.0
48.1
42.5
37.5
32.2
30.8
27.3
25.7
25.0
24.2
20.6
19.1
18.4
15.8
11.4
9.0
8.4
7.8
7.4
92.0
89.5
86.8
84.7
81.7
80.2
79.0
78.0
77.3
77.1
76.6
74.6
74.3
74.2
69.4
64.7
61.5
54.0
48.1
42.5
37.5
32.2
30.8
27.3
25.7
25.0
24.2
20.6
19.1
18.4
15.8
11.4
9.0
8.4
7.8
7.4
7.1
AREA1
C
a.
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
8.1
10.5
8.8
8.8
23.7
23.7
58.0
58.0
14.1
14.1
17.4
17.4
209.0
293.0
5.2
365.0
365.0
145.0
527.0
527.0
303.0
303.0
26.2
652.0
652.0
346.0
190.0
190.0
9.5
9.5
9.5
WITH FLOW

a

.74
.74
.74
.74
.74
.74
.72
.74
.74
.74
.74
.74
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.60
.25
.25
.82
.30
.30
.48
.20
.20
.28
.28
.52
.13
.13
.30
.26
.26
.63
.63
.63
DEPTH2
cd
a
.21
.21
.21
.21
.21
.21
.47
.67
.67
.67
.53
.53
.22
.22
.32
.32
.32
.32
5.30
5.00
.03
3.00
3.00
.82
1.46
1.46
.90
.90
.20
6.80
6.80
4.01
1.85
1.85
.26
.26
.26

b

.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.37
.60
.60
.40
.40
.42
.42
.03
.03
.72
.14
.14
.33
.20
.20
.26
.26
.39
.01
.01
.10
.16
.16
.43
.43
.43
92

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                         TABLE 1 (Cont'd)
               VARIATION OF RIVER GEOMETRY WITH FLOW
MODEL STARTING
SEGMENT MILEPOINT

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Moose River
15*
16*
17*
18*
19*
Beaver River
28*
29*
30*
31*
32*
33*

7.1
6.8
5.8
5.1
2.7
1.8
-1.2
-2.5
-4.0

3.4
3.2
1.5
1.2
.2

11.1
8.0
5.1
4.9
4.8
4.6
ENDING
MILEPOINT

6.8
5.8
5.1
2.7
1.8
-1.2
-2.5
-4.0 5
-6.0 200

3.2
1.5
1.2
.2
0.0

8.0
5.1
4.9
4.8
4.6
0.0
AREA1
C
a
9.5
9.5
9.4
9.4
25.5
25.5
25.5
,000 Ft2
,000 Ft2

50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
208.0

70.5
70.5
70.5
70.5
70.5
70.5

a

.63
.63
.68
.68
.68
.68
.68
.00
.00

.30
.30
.30
.30
.30

.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
DEPTH2
J
a
.26
.26
.26
.26
.32
.32
.32
1 Ft
40 Ft

.53
.53
.53
.53
1.07

.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45

b

.43
.43
.46
.46
.46
.46
.46
.00
.00

.30
.30
.30
.30
.30

.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
      = C
2Depth = C, QB
          a



*Geometric shape of river bed assumed to remain the same as was

 measured during August,  1973 survey
                                93

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            TABLE 2

 SUMMARY OF BLACK RIVER MODEL
REAERATION COEFFICIENTS AT 20C

       ATMOSPHERIC REAERATION RATE  (I/DAY)
MODEL
SEGMENT
Black River
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

PROJECTIONS

12.21
12.21
12.21
12.21
12.21
12.21
2.20
1.14
1.29
1.29
1.08
1.08
.90
1.34
4.08
1.47
1.73
1.73
.45
.45
1.58
.34
.34
.31
.65
.65
.73
.73
2.66
2.66
.48
.48
.34
.34
.91
.91
.91
AUGUST 14,
1973

6.15
6.39
6.39
6.58
6.58
6.77*
1.26
.63
.63
.63
.65
.65
.37
.45
2.75
1.65
1.11
1.18
.75
.60
.74
.34
.34
.38
.87
.87
.54
.54
1.75
1.24
.61
.61
.26
.26
1.20
1.20
1.20
NOVEMBER 2,
1973

6.98
6.98
6.98
6.98
7.26
7.26
1.08
.55
.65
.65
.85
.85
.33
.20
2.44
.95
1.02
1.04
.65
.66
.98
.37
.27
.28
.64
.64
.64
.64
2.26
.58
.58
.36
.95
.95
1.19
1.19
1.19
NOVEMBER 20,
1973

5.10
5.10
4.85
4.87
4.60
4.38
.82
.44
.79
.79
.38
.39
.33
.40
1.60
.60
.58
1.02
1.11
1.11
.64
.47
.20
.58
.68
.68
.68
.68
1.43
1.05
1.05
.45
1.15
1.15
.50
.50
.50
               94

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       TABLE 2  (Cont'd)

 SUMMARY OF BLACK RIVER MODEL 
REAERATION COEFFICIENTS AT 20C

       ATMOSPHERIC REAERATION RATE  (I/DAY)
MODEL
SEGMENT
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Moose River
15
16
17
18
19
Beaver River
28
29
30
31
32
33

PROJECTIONS
.91
.91
1.52
1.52
.42
.42
.42
5.34
.004

3.16
3.16
3.16
.42
.42

2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
2.69
AUGUST 14,
1973
1.20
1.37
2.07
.96
1.72
.43
.43
7.60
.005

2.82
2.82
2.82
.40
.40

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
1.11
NOVEMBER 2,
1973
1.19
1.19
.32
.32
1.56
.38
.39
6.82
.005

2.72
2.72
2.72 -
.38
.38

2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
2.66
NOVEMBER 20,
1973
.50
.50
.14
.14
.79
.79
.79
13.84
.009

2.16
2.16
2.16
.35
.35

2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
2.43
              95

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-------
 BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA
 SHEET
                    1. Report No.
                       EPA 905/9-74-009
                                                                     S.N^ecipiene's Accession No.
4. Title and Subtitle
  Water  Pollution  Investigation: Black River of New York
                                                                     5- Report Dace
                                                                         December 1974
7. Author(s)
                                                                     8. Performing Organizacion Repc.
                                                                       No.
9. Performing Organizacion Name and Address
        Hydroscience,  Inc.
        363 Old Hook Road
        Westwood, New  Jersey  07675
                                                                     10. Pcoject/Task/Work Unit No.
                                                                     11. Contract/Grant No.

                                                                      EPA  68-01-1573
1 2. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address
        U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency
        Enforcement Division, Region V
        230 S. Dearborn
	   Chicago, Illinois  60604	
                                                                     13. Type of Report a Period
                                                                        Covered
                                                                      Final  Report
                                                                     14.
15. Supplementary Noees AlSO  Sponsored by:
                                       U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
                                       Water Branch, Region  II
                                       2 Federal  Plaza, New  York, NY	
16. Abstracts  A verified  dissolved oxygen  model was used  to project  the effect of  proposed
 wastewater discharges  on the dissolved oxygen level  of the Black River in New York
 State.   The proposed wastewater discharges represent best practical  control technology
 currently available  for tne industries and conventional  secondary treatment for munic-
 ipalities.  The results indicate  that for design  low flow conditions New York State
 0.0.  standards will  be met.

           Historical  water quality data were reviewed and a field program conducted to
 identify existing water quality problems  in the Black River.  A dissolved oxygen model
was developed
solved oxygen
concentration
                 o define the relationship between  wastewater discharges and river dis-
                levels and  to  identify other1 factors
                in the Black River.
                                                        t&at affect  the dissolved  oxygen
17. Key Words and Document Analysis. 17o. Descriptors


         Water Quality,  Water Pollution
17b. Idencifiers/Open-Ended Terms
          Black River,  Lake Ontario, Great Lakes, Chemical  Parameters,  Biological
          Parameters
17e. COSATI Field/Group
                          6F
18. Availability Statement
 Limited  number of copies  without charge  from U.S.EPA,
 Hardcopies  and microfiche from NTIS.
                                                         19. Security Class (This
                                                            Report)
                                                         	UNCLASSIFIED
                                                         20. Security Class (This
                                                            Page
                                                              UNCLASSIFIED
                                                                              21. No. of Pages
                                                                              22. Price
    NTIS-33 (REV. 3-72)
                                  THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED
                                                                               'JSCOMM-OC !4332-f>7J

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