EPA-905/9-74-012
                        REGION V MORCEMENT DIVISION
              GREAT LAKES INmAUVE CONTRACT PROGRAM
                                         DECEMBER 1975

-------
 COPIES  OF THIS DOCUMENT ARE AVAILABLE  THROUGH  THE
 NATIONAL TECHNICAL  INFORMATION SERVICE (NTIS)
 5825 PORT ROYAL ROAD,  SPRINGFIELD,  VA   22161


 OTHER REPORTS IN THIS  SERIES:


 1.   EPA-905/9-74-001  "Saginaw Bay:   An Evaluation  of Existing  and  Historical
     Conditions", University of Michigan;  PB 232440,  Paper $4.75, Microfiche $1.45.

 2.   EPA-905/9-74-006  "Lower Green Bay: An  Evaluation of Existing  and  Historical
     Conditions", Wisconsin DNR; PB 236414,  Paper $6.75,  Microfiche $2.25.

 3.   EPA-905/9-74-008  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Ashtabula Area",
     Calspan Corporation; PB 242861, Paper $6.25, Microfiche $2.25.

 4.   EPA-905/9-74-009  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Black River  of New York",
     Hydroscience, Inc., PB 242019,  Paper  $4.75,  Microfiche $2.25.

 5.   EPA-905/9-74-010  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Buffalo  River",  Versar,  Inc.;
     PB  242590, Paper  $7.25, Microfiche $2.25.

 6.   EPA-905/9-74-011-A "Water Pollution Investigation:  Calumet Area of
     Lake Michigan"  Volume 1; IIT Research Institute; PB  239376, Paper  $9.25,
     Microfiche $2.25.

 7.   EPA-905/9-74-011-B "Water Pollution Investigation:  Calumet Area of
     Lake Michigan", Volume 2 (Appendices);  IIT Research  Institute,  PB  239377,
     Paper $7.50, Microfiche $2.25.

 8.   EPA-905/9-74-013  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Detroit  and  St.  Clair Rivers",
     Environmental Control Technology,  Inc.; PB 242604, Paper $10.00, Microfiche  $2.25.

 9.   EPA-905/9-74-014  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Duluth-Superior Area",
     Midwest Research  Institute; PB 239409,  Paper $5.25,  Microfiche $2.25.

10.   EPA-905/9-74-015  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Erie, Pennsylvania Area",
     Betz Environmental Engineers, Inc.; PB  246628, Paper $7.50, Microfiche $2.25.

11.   EPA-905/9-74-016  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Genesse  River and Rochester
     Area", O'Brien  &  Gere Engineers, Inc.;  PB  243489, Paper $7.50,  Microfiche  $2.25o

12.   EPA-905/9-74-017  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Lower Green  Bay and Lower  Fox
     River", Wisconsin  Department of Natural Resources, PB 245615,  Paper $10.25,
     Microfiche $2.25.

13.   EPA-905/9-74-018  "Water Pollution  Investigation:  Maumee River and Toledo
     River", Enviro-Control, Inc.; PB 242287, Paper $7.00, Microfiche $2.25.

-------
                                  WATER POLLUTION INVESTIGATION:

                                CUYAH06A RIVER AND CLEVELAND AREA
V                                              by
                                          E. M. Bentley
                                          V. L. Jackson
                                          J. A. Khadye
                                           A. E. Ramm
                                          ECO-LABS,  INC.
                                         Cleveland,  Ohio
                                       In fulfillment of

                                  EPA Contract No. 68-01-1568

                                            for the

                                     ENFORCEMENT DIVISION
                             U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                            Region V
                                    Chicago,  Illinois 60604
                           Great Lakes Initiative Contract  Program
                               Report Number: EPA-905/9-74-012
                               EPA Project Officer:  Howard  Zar

                                          nrrruRFR ,q7c       U.S. Environmentai Protection Agency
                                          DECEMBER \ 975           ^   Ubrary (pL12J)
                                                              77 West Jackson Boulevard, 12th floor
                                                              Chicago, II  60604-3590

-------
This report has been developed under auspices of the Great
Lakes Initiative Contract Program.  The purpose of the
Program is to obtain additional data regarding the present
nature and trends in water quality, aquatic life, and waste
loadings in areas of the Great Lakes with the worst water
pollution problems.  The data thus obtained is being used
to assist in the development of waste discharge permits
under provision of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972 and in meeting commitments under
the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S.
and Canada for accelerated effort to abate and control
water pollution in the Great Lakes.

This report has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and approved for publication.  Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect
the views of the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does
mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.
RECYCLE NOTICE:   If the report is not needed,  please return
                 to EPA, Enforcement Division,  230 S.  Dearborn,
                 Chicago, Illinois  60604 for  further  distribution.

-------
                          ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
     The authors wish to acknowledge contributions made by many people
in completing this study.

     The guidance and assistance of Howard Zar, the Project Director,
was greatly appreciated.  Other U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency
personnel of assistance were Curtis Ross, Director of the Indiana
District Office (formerly Chief of Surveillance, Ohio District Office);
William Richardson, Grosse He Field Laboratory; and Gary Amendola of
the Ohio - Michigan District Office, Fairview Park, Ohio.

     Ohio Environmental Protection Agency personnel lending assistance
were George Garrett, Benjamin Clymer, and John Duffy of the Columbus,
Ohio Office; and Robert Wysenski and Thomas McKitrick, Northeast District
Office, Twinsburg, Ohio.
                                   Eco-Labs, Inc.
                                   Cleveland, Ohio

-------
                               ABSTRACT
     A computer model  is developed to rapidly simulate dissolved oxygen
content in the Cuyahoga River under varying conditions of flow and
biochemical oxygen demand.   It is composed of three separate models:
Model I is based upon Streeter-Phelps equations (Streeter and Phelps,
1925); Model II is a revised and expanded version of the Delaware Estuary
finite difference model (Thomann, 1972); and Model  III is a time-variant
model.  These models, which have been used to simulate present and
projected dissolved oxygen levels for the entire length of the Cuyahoga
River, show that the municipal and industrial treatment programs to be
implemented by 1978 will result in improved dissolved oxygen conditions
in the Cuyahoga River.  However, run-off and benthic oxygen demand will
still result in a severe oxygen sag in the navigation channel during
summer low flows.

     Programming is in FORTRAN IV (level G) language and is compatible
with the IBM 360/70 system.  The program requires 20 K storage.  A flow
chart and explanations for the model's routines are detailed in Appendix
C.

     This report was submitted in fulfillment of Contract Number 68-01-
1568 by Eco-Labs, Inc. under the sponsorship of the Environmental Protection
Agency.
                                  vi i

-------
                  TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                    PAGE
1 .

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11 .

12.

13.

14.

15.
Section I
Conclusion 	
Section II
Recommendations 	
Section III
Introduction 	
Section IV
Literature Review 	
Section V
Description of Study Area 	
Section VI
Study of Lake Intrusion 	
Section VII
Model Background 	
Section VIII
Model Description and Development 	 	
Section IX
Data Requirements 	
Section X
Results 	
Section XI
Summary 	
Section XII
Reference Cited 	
Appendix A
Ohio Water Quality Standards 	
Appendix B
Analytical Results: Cuyahoga River Sampling ....
Appendix C

	 1

. . . . 3

	 5

. . . . 7

	 13

	 17

	 29

	 33

	 53

	 77

	 99

	 101

... 105

107

User's Manual 	   Ill




                         ix

-------
                                     LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                            PAGE
  1      Cuyahoga River                                                             8
  2      Sampling stations in navigation channel  and Old River Channel               18
  3      Level  of conductivity and temperature found at sampling stations           19
             on 9-12-73
  4      Graphic presentation of chloride and dissolved oxygen data collected       20
             on 9-12-73
  5      BOD  values measured at stations on 9-12-73                                22
  6      Organic and ammonia nitrogen values measured at stations on 9-12-73        23
  7      Weekly variations in temperature at station 4                              24
  8      Weekly variations in conductance at station 4                              26
  9      Weekly variations in dissolved oxygen at station 4                         27
 10      Weekly variations in chloride at station 4                                 28
 11      Conceptual  division of a river into "N"  sections                           31
 12      Sectionalized stream                                                       35
 13      Navigation  channel  divided into twenty 0.3 mile sections                   39
 14      The flux of CBOD across the interface of section i-1  and i  (F,-)           41
 15      Stratification of Cuyahoga River and harbor water. From Havens and         46
             Emerson (1968)
 16      River divided into  reaches                                                 47
 17      Chloride distribution in navigation channel (9-5-73)                        54
 18      Chloride distribution in navigation channel (9-12-73)                      55
 19      Chloride distribution in navigation channel (9-19-73)                      56
 20      Chloride distribution in navigation channel (9-28-73)                      57
                                            xi

-------
FIGURE                                                                           PAGE
 21     Chloride distribution in navigation channel  (10-11-73)                    58
 22     Chloride distribution in navigation channel  (10-18-73)                    59
 23     Chloride distribution in navigation channel  (10-25-73)                    60
 24     Simulation of chloride in the lower one mile of the Cuyahoga River        53
 25     Sensitivity analysis of dispersion coefficients                           66
 26     Sensitivity analysis of bottom uptake (Sb)                                67
 27     Senitivity analysis of deoxygenation coefficient  (K-j)                     68
 28     Effect of increasing upstream dissolved oxygen by 1.0 mg/1                59
 29     Comparison of simulated  DO with field measurements obtained on 8-28-74   72
 30     Tributary Sampling Program                                                73
 31     Simulation Run #1                                                         80

 32     Simulation Run #2                                                         83
 33     Simulation Run #3                                                         86
 34     Simulation Run #4                                                         87
 35     Comparison of  Simulation Run#5 with  Simulation Runs #2  and #4             88

 36     Simulation Run #6                                                         90
 37     Simulation Run #7                                                         91
 38     Use of Transfer  Matrix in  hypothetical  waste load reallocation           93
                                          xii

-------
                                  LIST OF TABLES
 TABLE                                                                      PAGE

 1    AVERAGE WIDTHS AND  DEPTHS AT VARIOUS MILE POINTS                       34
              IN  THE CUYAHOGA  RIVER

 2    CRITICAL FLOWS IN THE CUYAHOGA RIVER, CFS                              38

 3    SYSTEM PARAMETERS FOR THE LOWER  CUYAHOGA RIVER                         62
              ( 9-12-73 and 9-19-73)

 4    FIELD MEASUREMENTS  OBTAINED 8-28-74                                    71
              (Channel flow -  700 cfs)

 5    DATA COLLECTED FROM 1970 WASTE LOAD PERMIT APPLICATION FORMS           75

 6    1973 SUMMER-FALL DATA COLLECTED   FROM THE OHIO  EPA                     75

 7    1978 PROJECTED SUMMER-FALL LOADINGS                                    76

 8    SYSTEM PARAMETERS FOR THE NAVIGATION CHANNEL                           79
              ( Loading data obtained  from available  1970 Permit applications)

 9    SUMMARY OF  PARAMETERS MANIPULATED IN SIMULATION RUNS                   81

10    SYSTEM PARAMETERS FOR THE NAVIGATION CHANNEL                           82
              ( 1973 Summer -  Fall data )

11    SYSTEM PARAMETERS FOR THE NAVIGATION CHANNEL                           85
              ( 1973 Summer -  Fall data )

12    TRANSFER MATRIX                                                        92

13    UTILIZING TRANSFER  MATRIX                                              94

14    COMPARISON  OF STEADY-STATE MODEL  AND TIME-VARIANT MODEL  FOR THE        97
              THE LOWER ONE MILE OF THE NAVIGATION  CHANNEL
                                      xtti

-------
                              SECTION II

                              CONCLUSION
1)   The steady state transition matrix provides direct information
which is extremely useful in waste load allocation and to water quality
management decision making.  This matrix permits evaluation of questions
such as:

     a)   What is the effect of specific upstream loadings on dissolved
          oxygen (DO) in the river;

     b)   What effect on DO may be expected from relocation of
          outfalls;

     c)   Which industrial  outfalls contribute greatest to DO deficit at
          the location in the river where maximum sag occurs;

     d)   What increased treatment for a given industry would be nec-
          essary to raise DO to an acceptable level  at a given location
          in the channel.

Such questions are not readily obtained from traditional Streeter-Phelps
application and are not as  easily interpreted as is  the tabular format
provided in the matrix.

2)   Simulation of the dissolved oxygen content in the River shows that
anticipated reduction in waste loads from municipal  and industrial
sources to be implemented by 1978 will result in improved oxygen levels
in the Cuyahoga River.  However, secondary sources such as non-point
source run-off and benthic  demand are indicated as significant enough to
result in a severe oxygen sag in the navigation channel during summer low
f1ows.

3)   The results of the modeling effort indicate that the DO regime
within the navigation channel is relatively insensitive to dispersion
coefficients.  Therefore, at critical low flow, application of Streeter-
Phelps equations for the channel above mile point 2.0 will give a close
approximation of the results of the finite difference model.

-------
4)   Simulation runs in which DO drops to zero may contain an  unknown
error factor.  Transition in biochemical  mechanisms responsible for CBOD
oxidation occurs when DO drops near zero.  Anaerobic oxidative mechanisms
are largely unquantified and complex.   Thus,  interpretation of simulation
of very low (1.0 ppm) DO should be made cautiously.

5)   Existing dissolved oxygen water quality  standards for the river
(See Appendix A) will be met by anticipated treatment programs, however,
such standards are not adequate to protect other than pollutant tolerant
life forms.

6)   Significant stratification occurs in the lower one mile of the
navigation channel.  Therefore, sampling  at several depths is  necessary
to define water quality in this section of the river.

-------
                              SECTION II

                            RECOMMENDATIONS
1.   The system was shown to be especially sensitive to the deoxygenation
coefficient value (K,).  Since no extensive study of deoxygenation
coefficients within the navigation channel exists, it is recommended
that such a study be conducted.

2.   Tuning the model  was complicated by lack of current and substantial
data on the water quality in the Cuyahoga River   It is recommended,
therefore, that a detailed study of the physical, chemical, and biological
systems of the River from the Akron STP to its mouth be undertaken.

3.   To determine their various effects upon the model's output it is
recommended that deoxygenation, reaeration, and nitrification rates
within the various reaches of the Cuyahoga River be elucidated.

4.   Model I and Model II should be expanded to include other conservative,
as well as, non-conservative constituents.

5.   Even with the municipal and industrial treatment programs scheduled
for implementation by 1978, the lower Cuyahoga will have difficulty
supporting anything but the most pollution-tolerant aquatic life forms.
Accordingly, it is recommended that continued consideration be given to
non-point source controls., additional point source controls and other
means in order to minimize waste loads.

-------

-------
                              SECTION III

                             INTRODUCTION
     When, in 1965, the Federal  Government began to seriously enforce
pollution control  legislation the lower Cuyahoga River was in such a
depleted state that its damage seemed irreparable.   In the 1968 U.S.
Dept. of Interior-Lake Erie Report the lower Cuyahoga was declared "a
virtual waste lagoon".  In the succeeding year the  lower Cuyahoga caught
fire and burned so violently that two bridges were  nearly destroyed .
Today, the lower Cuyahoga has lost all  signs of visible plant and animal
life.

     This study was conducted to provide the USEPA  with additional  data
regarding the present nature and trends in water quality, aquatic life,
and waste loadings in the lower  Cuyahoga River.   The data developed in
this report will:

     *Assist the State of Ohio in monitoring for the implementation
     of the National  Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES);

     *Assist the Federal  Government in determining  its needs  in order
     to meet its commitment with Canada in an accelerated program to
     abate and control water pollution in the Great Lakes;

     *Assist the  Federal  Government  in determining  its  point of  view
     on water quality in the Cuyahoga River;

     *Assist in determining if present water quality standards  are
     being violated and,  if so,  will  these standards continue to  be
     violated;

     *Assist in estimating the nature and quantities  of  effluent  to
     be discharged when permit requirements  are imposed in the  Cuyahoga
     River;

     *Assist in determining what effect permit requirements will  have
     on the water  quality in the Cuyahoga River.

     This study consisted of acquiring and analyzing water quality
data and developing a mathematical  simulation computer model.

     A "Users Manual" and all information required  to utilize the model
are included.

-------

-------
                              SECTION IV

                           LITERATURE REVIEW

POLLUTION EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY

     Pollution of the Cuyahoga River is not a new concept.   As far back
as 1868 the Cleveland Plain Dealer newspaper referred to the red and
iridescent scum from iron mills and petroleum refineries "dirtying" the
water at the mouth of the river.  This "dirtying" also occured 60 miles
upstream at Akron which was then becoming famous as the world's capital
for flour, cereal, and rubber.

     Despite the concern for pollution in the river no comprehensive
analytical survey describing water quality before 1947 was  located.
A 1947 study entitled, "Cuyahoga River Stream Survey", was  found in
the Ohio EPA files.  It was the first complete study found  which described
various parameters in the river.  It contained data, collected August 25 -
28, 1947 and October 14 - 16, 1947, which described temperature, pH,
dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BODs), and oxygen
balance at 121 locations in the river and in its tributaries.  These
locations extended from the river's source in Geauga County to its
mouth at Lake Erie (See Figure 1).

     In a study by Winslow, White, and Webber (1953), based on daily
samples collected between March 1950 and February 1951, it  was determined
that there was a progressive downstream increase in pollution in the
Cuyahoga River.

     The Ohio Department of Health (1960), in a discussion  of data per-
taining to the origin and magnitude of pollution loads to the Cuyahoga
River and their effects upon receiving streams, pointed out the degree
of pollution reduction required to meet stream water quality objectives.

     Northington (1964) studies the physical, chemical, and biological changes
in the Cuyahoga River resulting from untreated and improperly treated
discharges from combined sewer overflows, broken sewers, malfunctioning
septic tanks, the Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant and  selected
industries.  He found that during the summer dissolved oxygen was zero (0)
below Kent, Ravenna, Stow, Munroe Falls, and between Akron  and the navigation
channel and that in the warm season it seldom was greater than 2 mg/1

-------
                                          m.p.  72.0




                                   m.p.  60.0
Figure 1.   Cuyahoga  River
                     8

-------
     Variations in specific conductance, temperature,  and dissolved
oxygen in the navigation channel  (mouth to 5.1  miles upstream) were
reported by Schroeder and Collier (1966).  Data collected from monitors
located .86, 1.2, 4.2, and 5.1  miles upstream indicated significant
fluctuations in specific conductance at .86 and 1.2 miles.  This  resulted
from the intrusion of the cooler, more dense Lake Erie water under the
less dense Cuyahoga River water.   Higher temperatures  within and  above the
navigation channel were attributed to discharges from industrial"and
municipal sources.

     The Stanley Engineering Co.  (1966) detailed changes in the Cuyahoga
River (January to November 1964)  as it flowed from Lake Rockwell  (m.p. 60.0) to
Lake Erie.  Waters above Lake Rockwell were generally good but the waters
below Lake Rockwell experienced a variety of adverse changes as a result
of municipal and industrial discharges.

     Havens and Emerson  (1968) reported industrial and municipal  loads
to the Cuyahoga River (from Lake Rockwell to the mouth) and its tributaries
and identified the principal waste load inputs and their effect upon
the quality of the river.  The principal waste load inputs were residual
wastes in the treated effluent from the Cleveland Southerly Wastewater
Treatment Plant, industrial wastes originating in the Metropolitan
Cleveland area (mainly from the steel and chemical industries), and or-
ganic and inorganic waste from tributary streams, combined sewer overflows,
storm drains, and smaller municipal and industrial sources.

     Individual municipal and industrial waste treatment needs for the
Greater Cleveland - Akron Area discharging  into the Cuyahoga River were
identified in the U.S. Dept. of Interior -  Lake Erie Report (1968). Akron
(STP) and Cleveland Southerly (STP) were cited as the major municipal
polluters; and Goodyear, B.F. Goodrich,  Firestone, U.S. Steel, Republic
Steel, and Jones and Laughlin Steel were cited as the major industrial
polluters. Of these polluters Republic  Steel, Jones & Laughlin Steel, and
U. S. Steel ranked as the 2nd, 5th, and  15th (consecutively) largest  pro-
ducers of industrial waste being discharged into a tributary of Lake  Erie.
Cleveland ranked second  and Akron ranked fifth among the ten  largest  sources
of municipal waste discharged into  Lake  Erie.

     A report designed to give a complete picture of the needs for and
some possible solutions  to the problems  of  wastewater management in  the
Cuyahgoa  River Basin was published  by  the U.S. Army Corps of  Engineers  (1971).
It noted  that the restoration of the river  could not be  satisfactorily
achieved  without  a significant reduction  in the waste burden  then  being
placed in the river.  Data from the Havens  & Emerson  (1968) study was
used as  their data base  for projecting  municipal and industrial waste loads
to the Cuyahoga  from  1970 to 2020.  This report  identified  the major  polluters
and  recommended  methods  for improving  water quality in  the Cuyahoga  River.

     The  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'  Wastewater Management  Study  (1973)

-------
characterized the volume of waste load being discharged into the Cuyahoga
River from domestic sources, industrial processing and cooling operations,
urban runoff, and rural runoff.   These waste load values were reported
for 1970 and were estimated for 1990 and 2020.

     The enriching effects of industrial and municipal discharges were
reported by the Great Lakes Water Quality Board (1973).  The report
studied areas in the Cuyahoga River which were not meeting Federal
water quality requirements and pointed out that many Cleveland municipal
and industrial pollution abatement projects were considerably behind schedule.

     Dischargers located along Tinkers Creek, a tributary of the Cuyahoga,
were described by Havens and Emerson (1974).  Low flow, physical char-
acteristics, benthic oxygen demand, and various chemical characteristics
were included with reference to the municipal waste dischargers.  In-
cluded among the municipal dischargers into Tinkers Creek were Bedford,
Walton Hills, Bedford Hts., Solon, Twinsburg - Macedonia, and Hudson #5.

     As part of a pollution source monitoring program the Ohio EPA
(1974) compiled a list of principal municipal and industrial dischargers,
their locations, and the status of their compliance in meeting pollution
abatement schedules.

     Garlauskas (1974) reported results of a study designed to be the
first phase of a three phase project to comprehensively assess the en-
vironmental impact of pollution abatement programs in the Cleveland area.
This first phase was an attempt to make a baseline study of the water
quality and pollution load in the Greater Cleveland-Lake Erie shoreline
area.
POLLUTION EFFECTS ON STREAM BIOLOGY

     The literature search for information pertaining to the biological
fauna in the Cuyahoga River revealed that, with the exception of coliform
concentrations, very little biological data was available.  The major
thrust of the biological effort in the Cleveland area had instead been
directed toward the near shore Lake Erie communities.

     A 1967-68 study of the river (Havens and Emerson, 1968) touched
lightly upon planktonic and algae of lava.  While genera varied within
the river, the upper reaches of the Cuyahoga were found to contain, in
general, many more species than the navigation channel.  The genus
Ossilatoris was found to be ubiquitously distributed and was the only
genus reported within the navigation channel. No study of any significance
had been conducted on zooplankton.

     The 1967-68 study by Havens and Emerson represented the only recent
study of the benthic fauna in the Cuyahoga River.  They reported that no
                                10

-------
benthic organisms were found within the navigation channel.  Sludgeworms
(Tubificids) were the first benthos encountered, making their first
appearance above the navigation channel where Big Creek entered the
Cuyahgoa (m.p. 7.4).  These 'pollution tolerant' organisms were found
to be ubiguitous components of the River's benthic community.

     Proceeding further upstream midge larvae and pupae (Tendipedidae)
and snails (genus Physa) joined the community.  As with the phytoplankton
and attached algae, the benthic community became richer and more varied
as one proceeded upstream with mayflies appearing at and above Sagamore
Creek (mile point 18.5).

     No accurate record of the fish fauna of the Cuyahoga River was found.
From general accounts of the history of this region it is probable that
a varied fish assemblage was once present in the Cuyahoga drainage basin.
However, by 1868, the Cleveland Daily Plain Dealer reported that the
river had become filthy with refuse from oil refineries.  Therefore, it is
expected that the effects of this industrialization upon the fish community
was disastrous.

     Havens and Emerson (1970) and Cooke (1968) assembled lists of fish
reported within the Cuyahoga River.  They found that while fish diversity
indices in the lower Cuyahoga River were near zero the diversity increased
as the lower Cuyahoga opened into the harbor.

     Both studies pointed out that the most distressed area within the
general Cleveland region of Lake Erie was the lower 7 miles of the Cuyahoga
River.

     Sphaerotilus was reported to occur in some portions of the Cuyahoga
River.  Other than  this genus and considerable  information on coliforms,
no studies of microorganisms were found.  In the 1967 summer data total and
fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were discussed by Havens and Emerson
(1968).
                                    11

-------

-------
                               SECTION V

                 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA  (Figure 1).

     The east and west branch of the Cuyahoga arise in farmland and
woods  in northern Ohio and flow relatively  unpolluted to Lake Rockwell
(m.p. 60.0).  Here a varied biological population of fish, aquatic
plants, and algae is found.  Downstream of  Lake Rockwell the river
receives a significant waste load of silt from the Akron Water Plant
(m.p.  59.6).  Approximately three miles downstream of Lake Rockwell is
the confluence with Breakneck Creek.  The City of Ravenna Sewage Treatment
Plant  discharges waste containing significant BOD into Breakneck Creek.
This discharge contributes to the low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient
state  of the water discharged from Breakneck Creek into the Cuyahoga
River  and is in part responsible for the scarcity of game fish in this
section of the river.

     From Breakneck Creek (m.p. 56.8) to Kent (m.p. 54.1) the water
quality improves because the natural gradient of the river (descends 15
feet in 2.8 miles) provides good aeration in this area.  At Kent the
river  receives waste from the Kent Sewage Treatment Plant.

     From the Kent STP to the Munroe Falls Dam pool (m.p. 51.5) river
flow is very slow.   Water in the pool created by the dam is almost
entirely depleted of dissolved oxygen as a result of the large surface
area of the pool and the high concentrations of nutrients from the Kent
STP.  These nutrients encourage algae blooms which subsequently die and
utilize dissolved oxygen.  Rough fish such as goldfish, carp, and
bullheads  are found  here.

     Approximately 10 miles downstream of Kent the Cuyahoga River receives
thermal loading from the Ohio Edison generating plant.   This loading
causes a temperature rise of about 6-8 degrees centigrade  in the summer
months. However, 5-6 degrees of this heat is dissipated in the pool
created by the 80 foot Ohio Edison Company Darn and the fall  of the water
over this  dam.   Low dissolved oxygen resulting from the heat input and
thermal stratification is found here during periods of low flow.

     Between the Ohio Edison plant (m.p.  44.0) and the Akron Metropolitan
                                 13

-------
 Area  (m.p.  43.5)  the  Cuyahoga  recovers  to  a  relatively  unpolluted  stream
(coliform  bacteria is  low,  several  species  of desirable  game  fish are  pre-
 valent, and dissolved oxygen is  high).  The Little  Cuyahoga River and  the
 Cuyahoga  River  flowing through Akron  receive gross  pollution  from  industrial
 and municipal dischargers.  The  significant  dischargers  are:   Goodyear
 Tire  and  Rubber (m.p.  42.4), Firestone  Tire  and  Rubber  (m.p.  42.4), B.F.
 Goodrich  (m.p.  41.0),  and  the  Akron Sewage Treatment  Plant (m.p. 37.2).
 These complexes,  along with various small  landfill  operations and  industries,
 pollute the Cuyahoga  with  solids,  chloride,  ammonia,  phosphate, temperature,
 COD,  oil,  organics, BOD, and silt  to  such  an extent that the  river does
 not recover from  this  point to its mouth.

      From Akron (m.p.  43.5) to Furnace  Run (m.p. 33.1)  the river is
 generally septic, dark grey, and odorous  in  the  marginal  bank zones.
 Sludge beds appear frequently  but  are washed out by intermittent high
 flows, and dark and light  waste  rubber  particles are  in  abundance.
 Except for the  navigation  channel, this reach  supports  the lowest
 population of aquatic life.

      Downstream of Furnace Run to  the head of  the  pool  behind the
 Ohio  Canal  Diversion  Dam  (m.p. 21.1 )  the  river recovers  significantly with
 BOD,  COD,  and coliform bacteria  decreasing as  DO is increasing.  Below
 the dam flow is reduced as water is diverted to  the Ohio Canal  to  be
 used  by industry.  Here the DO decreases  to  almost zero  as a  result of  the
 high  oxygen demand of the  wastes.

      The  next major degrading  impact  on the  Cuyahoga  River is the  dis-
 charge from Tinkers   Creek (m.p. 17.2).  This  tributary receives the
 effluent  from several  small treatment plants including  Bedford and
 Bedford Heights.

      From the confluence of Tinkers   Creek the water  quality in the
 river improves  slightly until  it receives  the  discharge  from Cleveland's
 Southerly Wastewater  Treatment Plant  (m.p. 11.0).   Downstream of South-
 erly  the  river  again  becomes grossly  polluted.  Dissolved oxygen is re-
 duced and BOD,  COD, solids, ammonia,  nitrate,  phosphate, and bacterial
 counts are increased.

      Below Southerly  the water quality  is  further  reduced, as it flows
 through the navigation channel,  by discharges  from Lamson and Session
 (m.p. 7.3),  Harshaw  Chemical  (m.p. 7.0),  and  the  Ford  Motor Company
 Plant (m.p. 7.3).  Also the pollution in  this  area is complicated  by
 decreased water velocity which results  from  the  dredging of  this channel.

      The  dredging operations are conducted by  the  Corps of Engineers.
 The  present controlling depths for dredging  in the Cuyahoga  are:
                                   14

-------
     27 feet in the Cuyahoga River channel  between piers to the Central
          Transportation Bridge (Lake Erie  to m.p. 1.0)

     23 feet in the Cuyahoga River (m.p.  1.0 to approximately m.p.  6.0)

     23 feet in the Old River (enters main  channel at m.p.  0.3) to  the Sand
          Corporation dock (m.p.  0.4 - Old  River)

     21 feet in the remainder of the Old River

     18 feet in the turning basin in the Cuyahoga River  (m.p.  5.2)

     This dredging of the lower reach has made it the deepest section of
the river.  It has also made it the most sluggish section with the
lowest currents.  These low currents make it impossible for adequate
movement of waste discharged into the channel.  For this reason, this
portion of the river is polluted to such a  degree that it has been  classified
as the third dirtiest river in the United States by the U.S. Dept. of Interior
(Lake Erie Report, 1968).
                                  15

-------

-------
                              SECTION VI

                      STUDY OF LAKE INTRUSION

     Five sampling stations were established in the lower navigation
channel of the Cuyahoga River from mile point 0.0 to mile point 1.0. Here
intrusion effects were considered most significant.   Stations  were located
at intervals of approximately 0.2 miles as shown in Figure 2.   Station 3
was located in the Old River Channel.  The sampling program was designed
to collect data to be utilized in the development of the finite-difference
time-variant estuary model for the lower one mile of the river and to
establish water quality parameters for this section.  Samples  for each
station were collected at the surface and at 8 meters.  All data collected
during the eight week programare listed in Appendix B.

     Data collected on September 12, 1973were typical and will be used
to show the various water quality parameters determined within the sample
area and how they varied as a result of Lake Erie intrusion.  Figure
3 shows levels of conductance and temperature found at the various sampling
stations on September 12, 1973 at both the surface and 8 meters depths.
Surface conductance values ranged from a high of 950 micromhos at Station
6 to a low of 210 micromhos at Station 1.  Data at 8 meters showed the con-
ductance to be lower when compared to values found in the surface waters.
This indicated stratification within the water column.  At Station 1, however,
the conductance values were very similar at both the  surface and 8 meters
indicating that at mile point 0.0 water of a uniform nature was being measured.
Temperature showed the same general pattern as conductance in that  it de-
creased from mile point 1.0 to mile point 0.0 and was lower at 8 meters than
at the surface.  The exception again was at Station 1 where the temperature was
identical.  This is an indication of complete mixing  throughout the water
column at mile point 0.0.

     Figure 4 graphically presents data collected at the surface and 8
meters depths on September 12, 1973 for chloride and dissolved oxygen.  In
comparing the concentrations at Station 6 (m.p. 1.0) and Station 1  (m.p. 0.0)
respectively, the following observations are made:  chloride at the surface
decreased from 122/mg/ to 89 mg/1 while at 8 meters it decreased from 118
mg/1 to 76 mg/1, dissolved oxygen flucuated at the 8 meters depth from 1.0
mg/1 to 6.5 mg/1.  The surface dissolved oxygen values followed the same
general trend although the measured values were lower.
                                  17

-------

                               CITY  OF CLEVELAND
        ^STATION 1
        ^   (m?p. 0.0)
                                            STATION 5
                                            (m.pl. 0.8)
    OLD  RIVER  CHANNEL
                                   STATION 6
                                   (m.p.  1.0)
Figure 2.  Sampling stations in navigation channel and Old
          River Channel.
                    18

-------
                                  CONDUCTANCE  (nricromhos)
                           ro
CO     -P>
^5     CD
o     o
                                               S
                                               o
                                            O>     vj
                                                 i
                          00
                          o
                          o
                   to
                   o
                   o
      o
      o
      o
  (Q
  c

  tt>

  CO
  CD
3 O
ua -b
v> o
f+ 0.
-" C
o o
3 r+
  O
  n>
            rsj
co
            CO
UD 0)
^ 3
  cx
ro
^ r*-
^i n>
co 3
  PI
  r+
  c

  n>
  o
  c
  3
  Q.
            en
   cr>
                          I     I      I      I     I      I      I     I
                                                                       I  I
                   OLD
                               J	1
                                                           I	I	L_J
                     ro
                     o
                         ro
                         ro
ro
co
ro
en
                                                           ro
                                                                  ro
ro
co
                                             ro
                                             vo
                                      TEMPERATURE  (C)

-------
                                                                                   CHLORIDE (mg/1)
                               ^1
                               o
CO
o
10
o
ro
o
                                                                                                                 co
                                                                                                                 o
ro
o
                                         fD

                                         .
                                       O CT>
                                       x -s
                                       << P
                                       CQ T3
                                       fD 3"

                                         o'
C+ "S
PJ  n>
   to
o  ro
O  3
                                       fD ft-
                                       n ->
                                       r+ O
                                       fD 3

                                       ^o
                                       O -h

                                         O
                                       VO 3-

                                       ' O
                                       ro "S
                                       co n>

                                         P

                                         Q.

                                         O.
                                         _i.
                                         10
                                         
                                         o
                                         fD
                                         O.
              ro
          CO
             cr>
                                                               1       1
                                              I       I      I      I       I
                                                                      OLD
       RIVER
             0 CHANNEL
                                                              o      '      ro     co     -^     01      o

                                                                               DISSOLVED  OXYGEN (mg/1)
O
+

O
Dissolved Oxygen-surface
Dissolved Oxygen-8 meters
Chloride-surface
Chloride-8 meters
                        I       I      I       I       I      I      I       I     "f      I
                                                                                                                        00
                                                                                                                               10

-------
      BODg  values  measured  on  September 12,  1973  are  presented  in  Figure
 5.  Concentrations of 6005  in  the  surface  waters  ranged  from 9.0 rng/1
 to  14.0 mg/1,  being highest at Station 4  and  lowest  at  Station 1.   At
 8 meters BODg  values varied from  a  low of 7.0 mg/1 at Station  2 to  a
 high  of 13.0 mg/1  at station  1  and  4.  In general, the values at 3 meters were
 lower than the values observed in surface waters at  the same stations.
 The most notable  exception being  Station  1  where,  at 8  meters, the  BODs
 values were higher than  those of  the surface  waters.

      Organic nitrogen and  ammonia nitrogen  observed  on  September  12,
 1973  at the various  stations  at the surface and  at 8 meters are shown
 graphically on Figure 6.   In  the  surface  waters  ammonia nitrogen
 ranged from a  high of 4.7  mg/1  at Station 6 to a low of 2.35 mg/1 at Station
 4.  Organic nitrogen values were  less  than  the ammonia  values.  The
 highest surface concentration of  organic  nitrogen  (1.68 mg/1) was found
 at  Station 2.  At  8  meters organic  nitrogen ranged from 5.82 mg/1 to
 0.0 mg/1  and ammonia nitrogen ranged from near 0.11  mg/1 at Station
 5 to  a high of 8.06  mg/1 at Station 2.  The organic  nitrogen values
 of  the latter  were lower.

      The  data  shows  that for  the  conservative element chloride and
 the water  quality  parameters  of conductivity  and temperature there  is a
 pattern of increasing  values  from mile  point  0.0 (Station 1) to mile
 point 1.0  (Station 6).  This  indicates, as  one would expect, that as one
 travels  upstream in  the Cuyahoga  River  the  effect  of Lake Erie on water
 quality parameters decreases.   Comparison of  this  data  at the surface
 and at the 8 meters  depth  indicates almost  complete mixing  of the Cuyahoga
 River water with Lake  Erie water  at Station 1 (mile  point 0.0), whereas,
 intrusion  under the  river  water (stratification) at all  stations upstream
 of  this point  is  observed.   Other water quality parameters  such  as or-
 ganic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and BODg  did not show  trends as definite;
 however, it  can be said that, generally,  for any given  parameter values
 were  lower at  8 meters than in  the  surface waters.   Factors  contributing
 to  the  variations observed were probably  such things as  the  occurrence
 of  biological  transformations and the discharge of wastes into the river
 near  and/or  between  the sample  locations.

      Figure  7  shows weekly variations in  temperature at Station 4 (surface
 and 8 meters).   Both curves have  the same general shape with the  values at
 the surface  being higher in each  case.   At the surface  temperatures ranged
 from a high  of 29C during the  fourth week to a  low of 190C during the sixth
week.   Values at the 8 meters depth varied from 25C during  the fourth week
to  16.5C  during the seventh  week.
                                     21

-------
   15




   14




   13




   12





   11




   10
 in
a
o
CO
   t
    1
    \
-  \
-    \
                  w
                     LLl

                     >
                     II

                     QL
                           O


                           O
                                       Surface


                                        8-Meter
                           3        4


                             STATION
     Figure 5.  BODg values measured at stations on 9/12/73.
                          22

-------
9



8



7



6



5
34

   3



   2



   1



   0
      O

      f
                                        Ammonia-N, Surf ace

                                        Ammonia-N, 8-Meters

                                      Organic-N, Surf ace

                                      Organic-N, 8-Meters
                          uu
Q
_i
O


O
                           I
          I
                          3        4


                            STATION
   Figure 6.  Organic and ammonia nitrogen values measured
              at stations on 9/12/73.
                         23

-------An error occurred while trying to OCR this image.

-------
     Conductance values observed at the surface and 8 meters  at Station
4 during the study period are presented in Figure 8.  Again the curves
follow the same general pattern with the values at 8 meters being lower
in each case when compared with surface values.  950 micromhos,
the highest surface value, was observed during the fourth  week  while a value
of 800 micromhos was found for the second, fifth and sixth weeks.  The
highest value found at 8 meters was 840 micromhos during the  third week.

     Dissolved oxygen in the surface waters at Station 4 varied from
a high of 3.4 mg/1 during week six to a low of 1.0 mg/1  during  weeks two
and seven (Figure 9).  Waters at the 8 meters depth contained higher
concentrations of dissolved oxygen than did surface waters on all sampling
dates.  Values at this level ranged from a low of 1.3 mg/1 during the
second week to a high of 6.4 mg/1 during the sixth week.

     Figure 10 presents weekly variations in the chloride found at the
surface and 8 meters at Station 4.  In the surface waters values ranged
from a high of 117 mg/1 during the second week to a low of 63 mg/1 during
the sixth week.  At 8 meters the changes were not as pronounced but
generally increased and decreased as surface waters concentrations in-
creased or decreased.  The highest concentration found was 103 mg/1
during the seventh week and the lowest was 55 mg/1 found during the
sixth week.

     An analysis of data collected at Station 4 on a weekly basis
showed significant variations, with time, in water quality in both
surface waters and at the 8 meters depth.

     Generally, concentrations of materials found at 8 meters were
lower than those found in the surface waters.  This again indicated
that, at this depth, Lake Erie water had intruded below the river
water.  A surface sample, therefore, would not represent water quality
throughout the water column at this location.  The dissolved oxygen
values observed at Station 6 support this assumption of Lake water in-
trusion as concentrations of this parameter were higher (with the
exception of  one)  at the 8 meter depth than in surface water on all
dates measurements were made.

     It can therefore be concluded that significant stratification occurs
in the lower one mile of the navigation channel.  Sampling at several depths
is thus necessary to define water quality in this section of the river.
                                    25

-------
                                                      O
                                                      O
                       en
                       o
                                -s


                                00
                                                      \        r
                                                                       CONDUCTANCE  (micromhos)
 
8
cn
O
00
o
o
00
en
o
vo
en
o
o
g
                                                                             r      i
                                (D
ro
                                <<

                                O)
                                o
                                3
                                O
                                o
                                =1
                                o.
                                c
                                o
                                r+
                                O)
                                3
                                O
                                (D
                                CO
                                c+
                                Cu
m
                                           CT>

-------
                                 era
                                  c

                                  n>

                                  10
I        I
                                                                          DISSOLVED OXYGEN  (mg/1)

                                                                          ro       co       4*       en
                                                                                                                                oo
I        I
no
                                  0>
                                  TO
                                  7T


                                 <<


                                  <
                                  O
                                  3
                                  (ft
                                            ro
                                            CO
                                         m
                                         m
                                  0)
                                  o.

                                  o
                                  X
                                  <<
                                  ua
                                  n>
                                  3
                                  CO

-------
  120
  110
  100
   90
   80
a:
o
   70
   60
   50
   40
Surface
8-Meters
                                          4
                                       WEEK
     Figure 10.  Weekly variations in chloride at Station  4.
                                28

-------
                             SECTION VII

                          MODEL BACKGROUND

JUSTIFICATION OF NEED FOR A MODEL

     The Cuyahoga River because of its recreational potential and because
of the vast industrial complexes which span its shoreline and depend
upon it as a route for transporting raw and finished goods, is an
important river.  It's importance, however, is being overshadowed by
its pollution.

     The current pollution problem in the Cuyahoga River is twofold:

     1)   The natural contour of the mouth and its delta have been
     altered by man in an effort to make this section navigable to
     large ocean going vessels.  These alterations have decreased the
     velocity of water, which have alternately decreased the river's
     capacity   for natural aeration of water in this section; and

     2)   Industries and municipalities have become dependent upon
     the river as a receptacle for their discharged waste.  This waste,
     which had generally been improperly treated or untreated, has
     created a condition of anoxia and physical degradation in certain
     sections of the river.

Both the above conditions have resulted in decreased dissolved oxygen
in sections of the river.

     Because dissolved oxygen is vital to maintaining a homeostatic
environment in stream ecosystems, one is justifiably concerned about
the low dissolved oxygen content in sections of the Cuyahoga River.
This concern is not only for the effect that low dissolved oxygen may
have upon the plant and animal life in the river, but also for the
effect that it may have upon the near shore water quality in Lake Erie.

     In order to determine the effect of discharged waste upon dissolved
oxygen in the river and the effect of river dissolved oxygen upon
dissolved oxygen at the confluence of Lake Erie a mathematical  simulation
computer model  was developed.   A model is advantageous for resolution
                                   29

-------
of problems of this nature because parameters  can be manipulated and
hypothetical situations can be tested.

     The ECO-LABS Mathematical Simulation Computer Model  of the
Cuyahoga River (EMSCM - CR) addresses itself to the problem of dis-
solved oxygen.  It is designed specifically for use in the Cuyahoga
River, however, minor variations make it adaptable to any stream
possessing similar hydraulic - physical  conditions.

JUSTIFICATION FOR TYPE OF MODEL

     A review of literature pertaining to water quality simulation
models of similar aquatic systems indicated a need for three different
models:

     I.   Steady State (Non-dispersive)

    II.   Finite difference (Steady State - dispersive)

   III.   Time - variant (Finite Difference - dispersive)

     A non-dispersive steady state model (Model I) based upon Streeter -
Phelps equations (Streeter and Phelps, 1925) was utilized where no
mixing due to diffusion or dispersion of materials occurred.  Studies
(Stanley Engineering Co.,  1966; Havens and Emerson, 1968; Dalton, Dal ton
& Little, 1971; and Garrett,  1974) indicated that these equations produce
reliable results for approximately 94% of the Cuyahoga River system.


     Of the remaining 6% of the river system (navigation channel - m.p. 6.0-
m.p. 0.0) dispersion was considered extremely important because of the
tidal effects resulting from  intrusion of Lake Erie water at the mouth of
the river.  Bella and Dobbins  (1968) considered even a small amount of
dispersion to be important in tidal rivers such as the Cuyahoga.  Therefore,
a finite difference - steady  state model (Model II) was utilized for the
6% of the river affected by dispersion.

     The finite difference approach  (O'Connor, 1965; Hetling and O'Connell,
1966; Grenney and Bella, 1972; and Thomann, 1972)  proceeded by dividing
the stream into sections,  i.e., lengths of river where hydrologic and
water quality conditions remained constant (Figure 11  ).  Each section
was considered completely  mixed.  Each constituent was, therefore, re-
presented by  one equation  and a solution was obtained  by matrix inversion.

     The lower one mile of the Cuyahoga  River system was shown to be most
profoundly effected by Lake Erie intrusion.  To simulate this section,
Model III, a one-dimensional, time-variant model (Fisher, 1969)
                                    30

-------
                     Q
                         i-i
N
Figure 11.   Conceptual division of a river into "N" sections.
                     31

-------
was utilized because of its Lagrangian approach and provision for dis-
persion between segments.  Numerical dispersion which occurred in the
convective step is minimized in this type of model because spatial
grids are not established.

     The EMSCM - CR, therefore, consists of a non-dispersive steady state
(Model I), a dispersive steady state - finite difference (Model II), and
a time - variant (Model III)  model,  Each model is structured for a par-
ticular application as a one-dimensional network approximation of a system
of interconnecting segments.
                                     32

-------
                                  SECTION VIII

                        MODEL DESCRIPTION AND DEVELOPMENT

MODEL I (STEADY STATE,  NON-DISPERSIVE RIVER MODEL)

     The reach of river above the navigation channel  (m.p.  6.0)  is relatively
shallow  and has a relatively small  cross-sectional  area as compared with the
navigation channel (See Table 1).  Flows within this reach  thus  produce suf-
ficiently large velocities.   Plug flow is, therefore, an acceptable assumption
here.


     Figure (12) illustrates a river situation which has point sources of
carbonaceous BOD (CBOD) and an initial upstream dissolved oxygen (DO) deficit
(D).  While flows and stream cross-section usually vary with distance, it
is sufficient to assume that they are constant within the reach  lying between
waste load input points (nodes).  These  'nodes' then serve as points at which
new instream concentrations are evaluated.  This process is repeated for each
successive downstream reach.

     If the upstream loading of CBOD is Lu  then the new initial value of CBOD
(L0) at the outfall is given by a mass balance at the outfall as:
                              L  =
                                        L"
                                       33

-------
                                     TABLE 1

AVERAGE WIDTHS AND DEPTHS AT VARIOUS MILE POINTS IN THE CUYAHOGA RIVER*
(M.P. 57.8 - M.P. 6.8 From EPA - Columbus, Ohio; M.P. 6.0 - M.P. 0.0 Estimated
From Corps of Engineers Dredging Maps - Cleveland, Ohio)
LOCATION

Lake Rockwell Dam
Breakneck Creek
Kent Dam
Kent STP
Plum Creek
Fish Creek
Munroe Falls Dam
Cuyahoga Falls Dam (1st)
Cuyahoga Falls Dam (2nd)
Ohio Edison Dam Pool
Ohio Edison Outfall
Ohio Edison Dam
Ohio Edison Gorge (bottom)
Little Cuyahoga River
Old Portage
Mud Creek & Sand Run
Akron STP
Yellow Creek
Furnace Run
Peninsula
Brandywine Creek
Chippewa Creek
Ohio Canal  Diversion Dam
Brecksville STP
Sagamore Creek
Tinkers Creek
Swan Creek
Independence
Mill Creek
Cleveland Southerly
Associated Japanning
U.S. Steel
Big Creek
Harshaw Chemical
Republic Steel
Navigation Channel
Navigation Channel
Navigation Channel
Navigation Channel
Navigation Channel
Navigation Channel
Navigation Channel
MILE  POINT

  57.8
  56.8
  55.0
  54.
  .0
53.8
52
50
46
46
46.0
44.8
44
43
42.0
39.9
39
37
    .3
    .1
    .6
    .4
    .3
    .3
    .5
    .2
  37.0
  33.
  29.
  24.
  21.
  21.
  19.1
  18.5
  17.2
  15.9
  13.8
  11.8
  11.0
   8.0
   7.5
   7.4
   7.3
   6.8
   6.0
   5.0
   4.0
   3.0
   2.0
   1.0
   0.0
WIDTH

  38'
  55'
  55'
  50'
 125'
 240'
 140'
 125'
 100'
 110'
 300'
  20'
  90'
  80'
  60'
  80'
  65'
  62'
  76'
  92'
  89'
  90'
  90'
  87'
  92'
  95'
  95'
  95'
 100'
 110'
 120'
 130'
 140'
 150'
 200'
 150
 176
 204
 296
 248
 180
 300
                                  DEPTH
                                      0'
                                      0'
                                    3.5'
  ,0'
  ,0'
 8.0'
 6.0'
 7.01
 0.2'
13.0'
20.0'
 0.6'
 0.41
 1
                                      1
  0'
  6'
l.T
2.21
2.3'
l.T
2.31
1.9'
4.01
                                      4'
                                      8'
                                      r
                                      8'
                                    2.0'
                                    2.5'
                                    2.0'
                                     .9'
                                     .9'
                                     ,9'
                                   10.0'
                                   10.0'
                                   10.0'
                                   20.0
                                   25.0
                                   25.0
                                   25.0
                                   25.0
                                   25.0
                                   27.3
*Measurements taken during period of Critical  Flow.  (See Table 2).
                                     34

-------
              CBOD LOADING
      D,L
Figure 12.  Sectionalized Stream.
                        35

-------
where   W = mass rate of discharge of CBOD from the waste source (or
            tributary)
        Qr= river flow
        Q = waste flow
        LU= upstream concentration of CBOD
DO deficit (D) at some point downstream is represented as:
    /*
D =
                                         D0exp [-(Kr/U)X]
Kr_Ki
where   K-| = deoxygenation coefficient for CBOD (base e)
        Kr = reaeration coefficient
        X = distance downstream from outfall
        U = velocity within reach
 CBOD (L) at the same downstream location is similarly represented as:
                          L = LO exp [-(K!/U)X]                       (3)
where terms are defined as above.
      In practice, the above set of equations are evaluated repeatedly
at node points downstream wherever a waste input or tributary enters, or
where stream geometry changes significantly.  Where a tributary enters
and introduces water having a DO deficit different from that of the re-
ceiving stream an equation analogous to L0 is utilized to evaluate the
new D0 :
                                pt + DU Qr
                                 36

-------
Where   Dt = DO deficit loading in the tributary

        Qt = Flow from the tributary

        Du = Upstream DO deficit concentration

     The above set of algebraic equations are coded in  Fortran IV  level  G
language to provide for digital simulation of DO deficit and CBOD  within the
region of the Cuyahoga River above mile point 6.   This  model  is appended to  the
dispersive, finite-difference model  and permits tributary and waste  loads  to be
added to the river at any point above the navigation channel.  It  applies
equations (1) through (4).at each mode point and evaluates D and L entering
the navigation channel.   A  complete description of program operation  and  data
input requirements is contained in Appendix C.

MODEL II (DISPERSIVE RIVER MODEL - FINITE-DIFFERENCE APPROACH)

     The navigation channel  is the dredged portion of the lower Cuyahoga River
which extends from its mouth to mile point 6.  Dredging maintains  the  navigaiton
channel  at a depth of approximately 25 feet.  While lake water intrusion is
largely restricted to the lower one mile of the navigation channel the hydraulic
effect of lake level fluctuations is suspected to exist throughout much  of the
channel.  This hydraulic effect tends to increase longitudinal mixing  within
the channel much as tidal flux increases longitudinal mixing  in estuaries.   In
the case of estuaries the dispersive effects of tidal  fluxing are  generally
experienced well above that point where there is a measurable salinity change.
Within the navigation channel, then, one might expect dispersion to  influence
water quality to varying degrees.  The most significant influence  is observed
during periods of critical  flow* (See Table 2).  Because the degree  of effect
of mixing and its significance to water quality was not previously determined,
our model of the navigation channel  is designed to incorporate dispersion.

     Many forms of models have been developed for estuaries in which dispersion
is important and must be incorporated.  Of the many forms available, the
finite difference approach is selected because of its logical parallelism  to the
Cuyahoga River and because of its amenability to computerization.  This  modeling
approach is described in detail by Thomann, 1972.  The  following briefly reviews
this approach.

          Conceptually,  the navigation channel is divided into twenty  sections,
each having a length of 0.3 miles (Figure 13).  The choice of the  number of  sec-
tions is dictated by the hydrology and geometry of the  channel and by  the  amount  of
computer time required to obtain a solution.  Since the solution methodology requires
inversion of a matrix of order N (where N equals the number of sections  in the  river),
 *The Ohio Department of Health has defined "Critical"  flow as  the  lowest
flow whiph, according to the past records,  may be anticipated to  occur for seven
consecutive days, once every 10 years.
                                      37

-------
                                     TABLE 2

                      CRITICAL FLOWS IN CUYAHOGA RIVER, CFS
ased on Present Discharges from Akron and
eve! and Southerly Sewage Treatment Plants)
7-day -
10 yr.
5.0
10.6
14.0
35.0
(19.0)
131
137
60*
(65)
81
(76)
210
(205)
7-day -
5 yr,
8.0
13.0
17.0
40.0
(27.0)
137
146
60
(65)
91
(86)
220
(215)
Flow
exceeded
95% of
the time
9
15
25
55
(28.0)
154
183
60
(65)
123
(118)
252
(247)
Flow
exceeded
90% of
the time
10
18
30
68
(35.0)
168
207
60
(65)
147
(142)
276
(271)
Flow
exceeded
80% of
the time
12
22
35
95
(45.0)
196
256
60
(65)
196
(191)
325
(320)
Mean
Daily


404




743
(738)

Lake Rockwell
Ravenna Road

Kent Middlebury
Road

Akron Cuyahoga
St. Bridge

North Portage
Gauge (404 sq.
mi 1es)

Little Cuyahoga
River

Bath Road

River Above
Diversion

Flow in the
Canal

Independence Gauge
(707 sq. mi.)

Lower Harvard
Turning Basins         270       280       312          336       385

Center Street
Bridge                 295       305       337          361       410

*60 & (65 cfs) figures for canal diversion
(allows 5 cfs to leak back to river since 65 cfs is usually diverted.)
Akron STP considered as 96 cfs
Southerly STP considered as 109 cfs
18 cfs from industries in navigation channel
 7 cfs from minor stream
20 cfs from Big Creek

                                              From Havens & Emerson, 1968
                                     38

-------
                                CLEVELAND
                                              Republic
                                               Steel
                        Jones & Laughlin
                          ( J & L Steel)
Figure 13.   Navigation channel  divided into twenty 0.3
            mile sections.
                       39

-------
     as  N  increases the time to obtain a solution increases significantly.
     Each  section  is considered completely mixed, and hence it is assume that
     no  vertical or horizontal variations within a section of the river exist.

           Model  II (as are all the models developed under this contract) is a
     one-dimensional model.  Mass balances are constructed around each section
     with  respect  to DO deficit and CBOD.  The balances incorporate flow'from
     section to  section and dispersion between adjacent sections.  Any input
     to  or output  from a given section is written into the mass balance equations
     for that  section.  Sources and sink terms for processes occuring within
     a section are also written into the mass balance equations.

           The  significant aspects of the mathematical development of the finite-
     difference  model are presented below.

           The  time rate of change of CBOD mass in section i is represented
     as:


                                                                           (5)
                                     dt
     where  L^  is the concentration of CBOD  in section  i having volume  V-j.
     V^  is  the product of  the average area  (A)  and  the average length  (Li).
     The flux  of CBOD transported  into section  i  (F^)  is written ^s:
                        FI  =  Qi-l,i    -i-l.i                               (6)

      and  the  flux  of  L  transported out of section i (F-j) is equal to:


                       Fo= -                           (7)
      Here double subscripts  represent the interface  between  adjacent sections
(See Figure 14).

           Flow is measured at  the  interfaces.  Concentrations  at  the interfaces
      are  determined  by  conveniently writing:

                         Li-l,  1=ai-l, i  Li-l +  3  i-1,1  Li                   (8)

      and

                         Li,i+l  = ai,i+!Li  + Bl,l+l Li+l                    (9)

      where a  and 3 = 1  - a are  weights  which can be  calculated from  advective
      and  dispersive  characteristics.   Where the  sections  are all  of  the  same
      lengths, as with the model developed here,  a =  6  = 0.5.
                                      40

-------
                  F.
Figure 14.  The flux of CBOD across the interface of
            section i-1 and i (Fj).
                    41

-------
     Substitution of the weighting relationship into (6) and (7) gives
the flux of BOD due to net river flow as:
                                               Li
Dispersive exchange is written as:



                         Jf~.	  (Li-TLi)                     (11)
and
                                        .     .
                                        -I+I-LI                      (12)


for exchange between sections i-1 and i and secitons i and i + 1 respectively,
where E^ j = the dispersion coefficient evaluated at the interface
of sect! 6ns i and j.

     r    = the average length of sections i and j
      i,j
     For decay of CBOD according to first order processes, the effect is
written as:
                                                                     (13)
where K]-j equals the deoxygenation coefficient (base e) for CBOD in

section i :

            V-
                             ,
             1  dt

                                                                      (14)
                       + E'I-I.I (Li-T.i-Li) + E'i>i+1

                                             - viK11LT + wi

where E1 = EA^ and is a bulk dispersion coefficient.
           r

     Twenty such equations are developed, one for each of the 0.3
mile sections between the head of the navigation channel and the mouth

-------
of the river.   Under steady state  assumptions
                                              V-dU
                                               "V  1  ~
                                                           and
the system reduces to a set of twenty simultaneous algebraic  equations.
     Grouping all terms in L^, LI and Li+1  on the left and allowing:
            = 0-5 Qi.i-H -0-5 Qi-l,i
the complete set of equations is written  as:
     A11L1 + A12L2 +0+0+     0
     A21L1 + A22L2 + A23L3 +   0   +     0
       0   + A32L3 + A33L3 + A34L4  +0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                          = w
                                                          = W
                                                          = w
or in matrix form:
      I!  An
          12   -
     A
      21
                  0
      0  A32 A33 A34
0 + 0 + A20 jgLlg + A20)2()L20
.00 0

0 0

4 0 0 0
  
'  A20,19 A20,20
L,
1
L
2
L3

L20




=

S \
1
W
2
W3
W20






                                                              20
Solution is obtained  by  inversion  to yield:
                              (L)  = [A]'1  (W)
                                                                       (15)
                                                                       (17)
                                                                        (18)
                                                                      (19)
                                                                      (20)
                                   43

-------
     Corrections for upstream and downstream  boundary  conditions  (i.e.
CBOD and DO deficit) are applied to  Sections  1  and  20  (corrected  terms
written as W  above).

     In order to insure that all elements  of  the  solution  vector  (L)
are positive it is necessary that

                    0 > 0.5 Qi+1 -E'  ii+1                          (21)
be true for all sections.   This  requirement  places  certain  restrictions
upon the relationship between flow and  dispersion which affect the minimum
section length necessary to obtain a  positive  solution.  As a result the
sizes of the matrices and vectors  required are also restricted.

     For DO deficit (D ) an equation  similar to (14) is developed:

    dDn-
y   	L = Q. i    (0.5 D- -, + 0.5  D-) - Q-  -+-| (0.5 D-+ 0.5 D-+1)


        + E' ^(DI-M-M+E- i)i+1  (D1+l -Di)                 (22)


                                       -  V/2T D1  + V1K11D1 + Sbi

where   D. = oxygen deficit in section  i

        l<2i= reaeration coefficient for section i

        Sb.j= benthic demand of bottom deposits of  section  i

     Reaeration is estimated from  the empirical relationship formulated
by O'Connor (1965) as:

                                12.9U0'5
                         K2  =  i^L5(23>

where   U = average stream velocity (ft/sec)

        H = average depth  (ft)

        Logic analagous to that used  in the  development of the CBOD  solution
leads to:

              (D) = [B]"1   (VK,)   (L)   +  [B]"1  (Sb)                 (24)
                                  44

-------
where  B, with  the  exception of the  diagonal  terms  which  contain
instead  of  V^K^-,  is  a matrix  identical  to A.


     Since  (L)  =  [A]"1   (W), equation  (24) is  rewritten  as:

                         (D)  =  [C]   (W)   + [B]-1   (Sb)                   (25)

where                    [C]  =  [B]'1 (V  Kj) [A]'1                          (26)

          The  matrix[C]is a compound steady  state transfer matrix which re-
lates  the DO deficit  response  for any  section  of  the  river to  the waste
discharged  into any section. Matrix  [C] produces a  table  (See Transfer Matrix-
Table  12) which is very  useful  for management  decision making  with regard  to
waste  load  allocations.   This  transfer matrix  and  its applications are  dis-
cussed in more  detail in  a following section.

MODEL  III (TIME VARIANT  MODEL)

     The section of the  navigation  channel from mile  point 1 to  the
mouth  of the river is the most  dynamic  and complex section of  the
river.   It  is within  this region that  Lake Erie water intrudes as a
wedge, much as  the salt water wedge  from an  ocean  intrudes into  an estuary
(Figure  15).  This intrusion produces  vertical gradients for most water
quality  parameters, including  temperature and  conductivity.  Midway
through  this reach the old river channel  enters the main channel.  Be-
cause  of the complexity  and dynamic  nature of  this region,  a time
variant model of a conservative substance was  developed.

     The time variant model  is  constructed by  first dividing the study
area into five  reaches (See  Figure  16):.   It  is assumed that river flow,
dispersion  coefficients,  and area remain constant  within each  reach.
The values  of  each reach correspond  to measurements made at the  up-
stream face of  that reach.  Each reach is then subdivided  into twenty
sections.

     Because of the considerable vertical stratification of the  river
within the study area, this model provides only rough approximations
of the actual in situ values.   It is anticipated that a modification
of this approach will  eventually be required.  One such modification
is to utilize a multi-dimensional model which  accommodates vertical, as
well  as,longitudinal  variations.  The development  of  such  a model
depends largely upon  the degree of detail required for its application.

     An equation for  CBOD mass balance within  any  section  i was  developed
for model II.  Therefore, by dividing   equation (14)  developed for Mo'del
II by V^  we  obtain a  new equation which determines the change  in  CBOD
with  respect to time:
                                    45

-------
Figure 15.   Stratification of Cuyahoga  River and  harbor
            water.   From Havens and Emerson (1968).
                       46

-------
Figure 16.   River divided into reaches.
                          47

-------

                            (oiHlLi + 6i,Hl LH-1>                      (27)
                     i
                      1"1>1'   0-1-1 .H-i
                                                       w.

                                                        i
     A similar equation for DO deficit (D)  concentration is developed by
dividing equation (22)  by V.:

               dDi    Qi.-,^.  (0.5D,-.-,  + 0.50^)
               dt      V.

                       j I  '   /
                       	  (0.5 D..  +0.5 D...



                                           E1.;  ^i                           (28)
                                         - K2iDi
                                                           Vi
     Computational procedures begin with a set of initial values in
all sections for L- and D..  Time is  assumed to be zero.  A time in-
terval d. and dD-  is calculated.  Next a numerical approximation model
is used to approximate new values for L^ and D. at time  T+ AT  These
values become the  initial values for the next time interval calculation.
The solution advances the procedure to the next time interval.

     A short discussion of the basic numerical approximation model used
                                     48

-------
in the above procedure follows:

     The basic numerical  approximation  model  uses  average depth for
each section.   The form of the model  for  a  conservative material such
as chloride is:

     mass in segment n=  mass  in  segment n+ net mass exchange
     at timeT+ AT       at timeT          during AT

     Neglecting runnoff or addition  along the reach, the net mass exchange
for a conservative material  will  result from  advection and dispersion.

     If one considers  a mass balance of pollutants within segment n as mass
at end of A T = mass at start of AT   -  mass advected out during AT  +  mass
advected in during AT  then by  letting C (n  ,T+AT  )  equal the concentration
of material within segment n at time  T+AT  we may  write:

          C(n,T+AT) =  C(n,T) + UAJ  [C(n-l.T)  - C(n,T)]                   (29)
                              AX

Where U and A vary within a reach;  equation (29)  becomes:

     C(n,T+AT) = C(n.T) A(n.T)
                 A(n,T+AT)AX

               + UA(n-l/2.T) C(n-1.T)AT                                 (30)
                  A(n,T+AT)AX

               - UA(n+l/2,T) C(n.T)AT
                  A(n,T+AT)AX

Under conditions of low river flow  and  a  rough lake with strong on-
shore winds, it is possible for upstream  flow to  occur,  In this case
equation (30)  may be replaced by:
     C(n,T+AT)  =  CU.T)  A(n.T)
                 A ("n, T+AT) AX
                             C(n-1.T)AT
                  A(n,T+AT)AX

               - UAU-1/2.T) C(n.T)AT
                  A(n,T+AT)AX
                                   49

-------
As noted by the terms UA(n-l/2,r) and UA(n+l/2,T)  velocity is evaluated
at the interface of each segment.  Both equations  (30)  and (31)  are
programmed subject to the restriction UAT
-------
     Model III, however, is expensive to utilize because,  in  order to
achieve numerical stability in the integration  steps,  it  is  necessary
to repeat calculations many times.  Therefore, the larger the  magnitude
of the dispersion coefficient and the smaller the study area, the larger
the number of repetitions.
                                     51

-------

-------
                                SECTION IX


                           DATA REQUIREMENTS


     The data required as inputs to the EMCSM-CR are classified under
three headings:  (1) coefficient determination data, (2) field data
and (3)  simulation  run data.   Coefficient determination data and field
data are necessary  to adapt the model's parameters  to  those of the Cuyahoga
River system.  Simulation run data is necessary to  exercise the model
utilizing various sets of system conditions.

COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION DATA AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES

     The coefficients considered in the EMSCM-CR are  longitudinal
dispersion, benthal uptake, deoxygenation, and nitrification.

     Longintudinal  Dispersion  (Di) within the channel was estimated from
chloride distributions.  Within trie lower one mile, where lake intrusion
is dominant, regression techniques produced estimates of longitudinal
mixing coefficients on the order of 1.0-2.5 mi'2/day.   It was observed that
mixing effects were most intense within this region but became less
intense as one proceeded upstream.  Since longitudinal dispersion had
never been measured upstream, the rate of decrease in magnitude of dispersion
was not known.  However, reasonable estimates were obtained from historical
data on upstream chloride distributions.  As will be noted in the following
discussion, such errors as those involved in 'educated guessing' were
found to be relatively unimportant to the general system's behavior.

     The chloride data for the study area was utilized to estimate dis-
persion coefficients (Figure 17-23) for the last mile  of the channel.   While the
data were scattered, samples collected on 9-12-73,  9-19-73 and 10-18-73 ex-
hibited a pattern.   In utilizing the data the station  within the old  river
channel  was not included.  The following approach was  utilized.

     If at the time of sampling it was assumed that the chlorides approx-
imated a steady state in the study area with the major input through
the upstream boundary, and if it was further assumed that no spatial
variations in coefficients existed within a reach,  then:
                                   53

-------
  1501




  140




  130




  120
  no



lioo
o

:n
o
90




80




70




60




50
                                 Surface (Y=0.00162-0.0408X)


                                8-Meters (Y=0.0480+0.232X)
               III!
                                   I
I	I
I	I
                                8    10    12



                                  SECTION
                                             14    16
                18    20
     Figure 17.   Chloride distribution in navigation channel on 9/5/73.
                                  54

-------
                                                                                                     CHLORIDE  (mg/1)
                                                                          en
                                                                          O
                         CM
                         O
en
o
o
o
      ro
o      o
co
o
en
o
                                                                          T	1	1	1	1
                                                 -s
                                                 o>
                                                 oo
                                                 o
                                                 -s

                                                 CL
                                                 n>

                                                 a.
                                                 _j.
                                                 CO
                                                 r+
                                                 -S

                                                 CT
                                                 C
                                                               ro
      co
CJl
en
OO
m
                                                 o>
                                                 <
                                                 O
                                                 3"
                                                 0)
                                                 3
                                                 3
                                                 n>
                                                 o
                                                 3
                                                 CO
                                                               ro
                                                               Co
                                                               ro
                                                               o
                                                                                   TI
                                                                                         00  00
                                                                                          I   Z
                                                                                         3  -S
                                                                                         n>   -h
                                                                                         r+  n>
                                                                                         n>   o
                                                                                         -s   ro
                                                                                         in


                                                                                         ^<   II
                                                                                          II   O
                                                                                         O  
                                                                                             O

                                                                                         2  
                                                                                         -tn  --J
                                                                                         co  --J
                                                                                          +   +
                                                                                         o  o
                                                                                         *   
                                                                                         ro  
                                                                                         o  co
                                                                                         ro  -^i
                                                                                         X  X

-------
                                                    CHLORIDE  (mg/1)
                          en
                          o
CTl
o
                                         I
                                         o
oo
o
o
o
ro
o
 O
O
-s
to
rt-
-S
               CO
         CO
         m
         o
01
<
IQ
Ol
n


PI



(D
i


O









                                                            to
                                                            -s
                                                                                             g
                                                            ro
                                                            a
                                                            co
                                                            X
                                                                                                  oo
                                                                                                  o
                                                                                                  n>
                                                                                              -<    II
                                                                                              II   O
                                                                                              o   
                                                                                                  o
                                                                                              o   o
                                                                                              CO   OO
                                                                                                  en
                                                                                                  X

-------
                                  Surface (Y=0.148-0.0774X)
                                  8-Meters (Y=0.00315+0.213X)
60
50



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
                            8    10    12
                              SECTION
14
16    18
20
Figure 20.   Chloride distribution  in  navigation channel on 9/28/73,
                             57

-------
                                                                                            CHLORIDE  (mg/1)
                                                                                                                          ro
                                                                                                                          o
                                                                                        co
                                                                                        o
tn
O
CO
                                         03

                                          C
                                          n>

                                          ro
                                          o
                                          o
                                          -s
                                          a.
                                             b
                                                                                             rh  P
                                                                                             (T)   O
                                                                                             -5   ro
                                                                                             -<  II
                                                                                              II   I
                                                                                             o  o

                                                                                             o  o
                                                                                             o  ro
                                                                                             oo  en
                                                                                                                                           i>
                                                                                                                                           vo
                                                                                                                                           X

-------
                                                                 01
                                                                 o
                                               00
                                               o
CHLORIDE  (mg/1)
             __i      _j
     VO      O      ~^
     o      o      o
ro
o
CO
o
tn
                                          c:
                                          -s
                                          IN3
                                          o
                                          3-

                                          o
                                          CL
                                          ro
                                          cr
                                          c:
3


3
                                          O


                                          o
                                          3


                                          (D
                                          O
                                          3
o

_J

CO


oo
                                                       oo
                                                 oo
                                                 rn
                                                 o
             CTi
                                                       00
                                                       ro
                                                       o
                                                                                            II
                                                                                                                                      00 00
                                                                                                                                      I  C
                                                                                                                                      s -s
                                                                                                                                      (D  -h
                                                                                                                                      rf 0>
                                                                                                                                      n>  o
                                                                                                                                      -S  O>
             ^<  if
              II  O
             o  
                 o
             o  o
              '  on
                 ro
                 o
              +  +
             o  o
                                                                                             to
                                                                                            x x
en
o
                                                                                         T	1	1	1	1	1	1       I

-------
  150




  140




  130




  120




  no




If 100
3  90
o
o
   80





   70





   60





   50
     Surface (Y=0.0174+0.0242X)


     8-Meters (Y=0.006+0.0415X)
                I     I
I
I
I
I      I     I     I
                                 8    10    12



                                   SECTION
                14    16
                       18
                      20
     Figure 23.  Chloride distribution in  navigation channel on 10/25/73.
                                    60

-------
                                                      (35)
                0 =  -U  dC + Pi  d2C
                       dX      dz

Where   C = chloride concentration

        U = average water velocity

        D[_= average longitudinal dispersion coefficient

If      X = 0 at the upstream boundary, then for X <  0
                                                      (36)
                C =  C0  exp (UX)

and
                i  r    v
                In t_ = U_ X
                   Co  DL
Where   C = chloride concentration at X = 0

     The above linear form was utilized and X regressed against
(C/CO) to determine the slope L[ for each sampling period.  Plots of chloride
                              DL
concentration vs. distance (X) are shown in Figure 17 through 23 with the
associated results of the regression analysis.   The chloride distributions on
9-12-73, 9-19-73, and 10-18-73 appeared to fit the assumptions mentioned
previously since the regression was significant at the 5% level on all
three of these dates and at both the surface and 8 meters in each case.
Because of the highly significant fit on these dates, data collected on
9-12-73 and 9-19-73 were utilized.

     System parameters utilized to simulate chloride distribution in
the study area are presented in Table 3.  In the model, the river is
divided into 5 reaches and constant system parameters applied throughout
each reach.

     Preliminary use of the model indicates that the one-dimensional
approach approximated the average values of chloride fairly closely over
the study area.  Simulation runs were conducted to calibrate the model
output for chloride distributions and results of one such run are shown
in Figure 24 .

     Benthal Uptake  (Sb) had never been measured within the navigation
channel and consequently no data was available regarding the magnitude of
this sink  in the river.  A decision not to design a study to measured
benthal uptake was based upon current investigations being conducted at
Cleveland State University.  These  investigations are attempting to
evaluate the design of benthal respirometers of the bell jar variety.
                                   61

-------
                                   TABLE   3

                  SYSTEM PARAMETERS FOR  LOWER  CUYAHOGA RIVER
                            (9-12-73  and 9-19-73)

                                                AVG         ESTIMATED
                    LENGTH    CROSS SECTIONAL    VELOCITY    DISEERSION  COEF.*
REACH
I


II

III



IV




V





SECTION (FT.) AREA (FT.^ft
1 790 4500 + 800
2
3
4 530 9000 + 350
5
6 1060 7200 + 450
7
8
9
10
11
12 1320 7600 + 700
13
14
15
16
17 1580 8700 + 150
18
19
20
(mi /day) (mivday)
1.1 2.9 +_ 0.5


0.75 1.9 + 0.4

0.8 2.1 + 0.6





0.97 2. 7 0.6




0.70 1.9^0.5



t Avg. area of sections with  one standard deviation included.

* Avg. area of two depths at each station with  one standard deviation.
                                       62

-------
LU
o

1C
o
150




140




130




120




110




100




 90




 80




 70




 60




 50
       ^^fc
                    a
               I     I     I
                                     Surface

                                   +  8-Meters

                                   -^Simulated Concentration
                               I     I
I
1111
                                 8    10    12


                                   SECTION
                                               14    16
                18
                 20
     Figure 24.  Simulation of chloride  in the lower one mile of the
                 Cuyahoga River.
                               63

-------
Preliminary results of the above mentioned investigations indicate numerous
problems resulting from the use of this type respirometer and tend to cast
doubt upon measurements obtained from its use.   Additionally, Model  II does
not appear to be very sensitive to changes in benthal  uptake (See section on
Sensitivity Analysis) because it was found that increasing the benthal uptake
by a factor of two and four produced very little error in the calculated dis-
solved oxygen content in the water; therefore,  since it was felt that the cost
and time required to conduct such a study was not justifiable, a study of benthal
uptake was not undertaken.  Literature estimates of benthal uptake in rivers
such as the Cuyahoga indicate a range of values from 2-10 gm/rrr/day.   An es-
timated uptake from the channel of 5 gm/m^/day  was therefore used.

     Deoxygenation coefficients (K-|) in the lower Cuyahoga River were estimated
from previous Cuyahoga River studies.  Values utilized by Dalton, Dalton
and Little (1971) ranged from 0.2 to 0.07 liters per day (base e).  These
estimates were derived from an emprical equation developed by O'Connor
(1965) which utilized a combination of parameters, including river depth,
to estimate K].   Small variations in the value  of KI  were found to have
fairly large effects upon dissolved oxygen steady-state concentrations
in the navigation channel.

     Since accurate assessment of deoxygenation kinetics is a prerequisite
to estimation of water quality, regardless of the numerical method utilized,
it is recommended that an experimental study to determine K] be conducted
in the navigation channel.  Such a study was conducted by the Ohio Department
of Health in 1965 at mile points 7.2, 13.8, 38.6, and 41.6 but it did not
include any points within the navigation channel.

     Nitrogenous Demand  (Nitrification) was assumed to be negligible.
Some investigators assume the process to be important, while others
(Dalton, Dalton & Little, 1971) consider it unlikely that nitrification
occurs.  O'Connor (1973) suggests that nitrification is typically observed
when dissolved oxygen exceeds 1-2 mg/1.  This is generally true for rivers
which do not receive a high concentration of various industrial wastes which
inhibit bacterial growth; however, the navigation channel, because of its
high industrial  waste load, does not necessarily meet the conditions for
this assumption.  The basic arguments against nitrification are based upon
the assumption that river and water quality conditions existing at critical
low flow periods are not suitable for growth of nitrifying bacteria.   No
reliable experimental study of the nitrification process within the lower
Cuyahoga exists despite the fact that loadings  of ammonia are significant
enough to result, through potential nitrification, in depletion of DO within
the navigation channel.

     Reaeration  (l<2) was estimated as previously discussed (see Equation 23).

SENSITIVITY ANALYSES

     One of the more useful applications of water quality models is to
test the response of the water quality parameters under observation to
                                     64

-------
changes in system parameters.   By holding all  but one parameter constant, it
is possible to determine the relative effects  of each parameter on DO.  Par-
ameters used in the sensitivity analyses were  taken  from Table  11-

     The effect of variations  in dispersion coefficients is illustrated
in Figure (25).  Doubling the  dispersion coefficients while holding
flow and temperature constant  had very little  effect upon the results.
This suggests that a 2- or 4-  fold error in dispersion estimates would  not
appreciably affect the simulation output.

     Figure (26) indicates that the maximum difference in DO which
results from a 4- fold change  in benthal uptake is only about 1 mg/1  (Parameters
are shown in Table 8).  Although benthal uptake has'not been measured
in the river,  it is doubtful that it is  greater than  10 gm/m2/day.  Hence
an error in estimating benthal  uptake by 2- to  4-  fold was  also not very
critical  to the simulation of  the DO sag in the channel.

     Figure (27) illustrates the results of varying the deoxygenation
coefficient (K}) in the channel.  It is immediately apparent that the
magnitude of the sag is quite  sensitive to relatively small changes  in  K-].
For example, decreasing  K-| from 0.15 to 0.07  resulted in an increase of nearly
1.5 mg/1 in the minimum DO.  Literature values of K-]   in the Cuyahoga River
ranged from 0.25 to 0.07, therefore, for critical tuning of the model a  study
of deoxygenation coefficients  in the channel during  critical  low flow conditions
is recommended.

     Figure (28) illustrates the effect upon DO concentration of improving
the quality of the water entering the channel.  Notice that the effect of
improving water quality by 1 mg/1 at the head of the channel increases  the
minimum DO near mile point 2.0 by approximately 0.5 mg/1.  To obtain water
having 1  mg/1 of DO at mile point 2.0 would require inputing upstream
water of quality better than 5 mg/1 DO.

     A transfer Matrix, discussed later, is utilized directly to determine
the effect of a 10 ,000 Ib/day waste loading to the river upon  river  water
quality.

FIELD DATA

     A sampling program was designed to  supplement gaps and under-emphasis
in current available data on the Cuyahoga  River.  The data collected
during this program was discussed in the section entitled  "Study of
Lake  Intrusion".   This data dealt  primarily with the first mile
of the navigation  channel  (m.p. 0.0-m.p. 1.0)  because the original
intention was  to model only this section of the river.  The decision to
develop a finite-difference model of the total navigation channel re-
sulted  in the  need for additional data.
                                     65

-------
                                                                                           DISSOLVED  OXYGEN  (mg/1 )
                                                                                                  ro
                                                                                                                                        en
CT>
cn
                                             ua
                                              c
                                              -s
                                              fD

                                              ro
                                              cn
                                           7C 13
                                           i  in
                                            II  -
                                           O ct
                                           II  3
                                           cn O)
                                           00
                                           S  -h
                                           II
                                           LD Q.
                                           O -
                                           O w
                                             T3
                                           O  fD
                                           -h -S
                                           (/>  in
                                             O
                                             O
                                             ro
ro
3
c+
(/)
                                                            cn
              co
                                                            ro
                                                                 rv>


                                                                 CO
                                                                 oo
                                                                 CO
                                                                 ro
                                                                 o
                                                                                                  o co
                                                                                                  o tt
                                                                                                  ro B)
                                                                                                  -h 3
                                                                                                  -h Q.
                                                                                                  -i. O)
                                                                                                  o -s
                                                                                                  -i. Q.
                                                                                                  ro
                                                                                                  3 m
                                                                                                                                               cr r+
                                                                                                                                                 n>
                                                                                                                                               n> 10
                                                                                                                                               o.

-------
o
x
o
Q
                                         2.5 gm/m^/day
                                         5.0 gm/m^/day
                               O	10.0 gm/m2/day
1 1  i 2i
3i
                           i ii 8 i gnnlni i ?i 1 Silt il 5i 1 61 1 h 1 81 1 QI ?nl
Section
                             4        3
                                 MILE POINT
     Figure  26.  Sensitivity analysis of benthal  uptake.
                (K!=0.15; Sb=5.0; Flow=900 cfs.)
                                67

-------
 O)
 
CI3
X
O
O
CO
GO
    0 
                  3ihsi6t
                                                                       .Section
           6         543         21          0
                                  MILE POINT



     Figure  27.  Sensitivity analysis  of  deoxygenation coefficient (K-|).
                                   68

-------An error occurred while trying to OCR this image.

-------
     A problem encountered in utilizing data collected by other  agencies
was that the parameters and sample locations available were not  necessarily
those which could be utilized by us.   For example,  the City of Cleveland
samples regularly on Wednesdays at three stations  in  the lower river.
These stations, which are located at  the Harvard-Denison Bridge  (m.p.  7.2),
3rd Street Bridge (m.p. 3.2), and Center Street Bridge (m.p.  1.0),  were
also the stations utilized by Havens  and Emerson in a previous study
(H & E, 1968).  Of these stations only two are located within the navigation
channel.

     Because there was no data available for simultaneous DO at are stations
within the channel, a sampling run was conducted in the channel  on  August  28,
1974 to supply us with this information.  Results  of  this sampling  run are
presented in Table (4).  By slightly  adjusting dispersion coefficients for
the upper reach of the channel it was possible to  obtain a simulation  for  the
river conditions on August 28, 1974.   This adjustment of dispersion coefficients
can be justified since the sensitivity analysis indicated that variables  in
dispersion were of minor importance.

     The major trend in dissolved oxygen fluctuations was duplicated by the
model.  From upstream to downstream the shape of the  observed data  was suc-
cessfully modeled, however, it is assumed that biological  and random influences
which were not incorporated in the model, resulted  in the slight variations
at each sample point.

     Figure (29) indicates that the model is valid  and, if properly utilized,
can give significant insight and understanding into water quality trends  in
the lower Cuyahoga River.

     An eight week study of water quality in three  streams tributary to the
Cuyahoga River (Figure 30) was requested by and conducted in co-operation
with the Three River's Watershed Authority and the  Ohio EPA.   The analytical
data from the tributary study can be  recalled under the following Storet
numbers:

              LOCATION                         STORET

     Tinker's Creek @ Glenwillow               59209

     Tinker's Creek @ Canal Road               50210

     Mill Creek                                50211

     Big Creek                                 50212
                                     70

-------
                     TABLE  4

      Field Measurements Obtained 8-28-78
          ( Channel  Flow -  700  CFS )
LOCATION (MP)

   6.0


   5.1


   4.5


   3.5


   3.2


   3.0


   2.8


   2.3


   1.8


   1.5


   1.0


   0.5


   0.0
)EPTH (M)
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
0
4.5
SIMULATED
DO (PPM)
4.00
2.90
2.00
0,30
0.10
0.05
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.05
0.30
1.50
FIELD
DO (PPM)
4.57
4.22
3.92
3.64
2.75
2.03
0.71
0.78
0.63
0.71
0.56
0.46
0.52
0.38
0.41
0.22
0.63
0.69
0.37
0.67
0.70
1.00
0.74
0.97
1.10
3.30
FIELD
BOD (PPM)
-
-
_
8.5
9.8
6.0
6.5
5.0
10.5
6.0
7.2
5.5
9.7
5.6
4.8
5.7
6.1
1.0
11.4
4.9
11.0
17.6
10.9
                          71

-------
 CD
 E
CD
X
O
o
CO
CO
                                     0  Surface

                                     
-------
      INDEPENDENCE
               STATION
            (Canal Roa       WALTON HILLS
                                          STATION 1
                                     (Glenwillcn
Figure 30.  Tributary Sampling Program.
                       73

-------
SIMULATION RUN DATA

      A variety of  simulation  runs were made.  These runs took into account
variations  in waste  load allocations where input values were altered to
reflect changes  in waste load conditions  (BOD and flow).  The simulation
runs  were used to  assess the  influence of alternate waste quality control
measures on  the  overall dissolved oxygen quality in the system.

      The program is  written so that the values for cross-sectional area,
flow,  and BOD  must  be input with each simulation run.   Photosynthesis,  if
significant  can  also be input.  Cross-sectional  areas  at the interface  of
adjacent sections, where dispersion is considered,  were obtained from U.S.
Army  Corps of Engineers' dredging maps.   Where necessary,  water levels  were
adjusted to  late-summer, early-fall depths.

      Flow within the navigation channel is relatively  constant with respect
to distance.  Small  increases in flow occur near the upper end of the
channel  due  to the Ohio Canal return and, to a much lesser degree,
Morgan Run and Burke Brook.  Flow data utiliz-ed  in  the  simulations conducted
within  the navigation channel  are averages obtained from Havens  and Emerson
(1968)  and from  the  United States Geological  Survey Water  Resources Data for
Ohio  (1973 and 1974).  A low flow of 345 cfs  and an average  flow of 850 cfs
are used.

      Photosynthesis,   a major biological source of DO,  is  considered  to
be insignificant within the navigation channel.   Here water  is  turbid and it
is doubtful   that any significant photosynthesis  occurs  except at the
surface.  Chlorophyll analyses of both surface and bottom water within the
lower channel indicated no measurable chlorphyll.

      BOD loadings were determined from 1970 waste load permit applications
and Ohio EPA records.  All records indicated that most of the industries
within  the navigation channel which discharge significant amounts of waste
were  located above section 10 (m.p. 3.15).  Simulation runs  utilized
data  from both sources.  The results of these runs are presented and
compared in  the  following section.

      The industrial  loading data for  the channel  which are  utilized in the
runs  are outlined in Tables (5), (6),  and (7).
                                       74

-------
                                TABLE 5
Data collected from the 1970 Waste Load Permit Application Forms.
(U.S. EPA - Fairview Park, Ohio)
SECTION

   1
   2
   4
   5
MILE POINT

  5.7
  5.5
  5.1
  4.8
WASTE LOADING
  (Ibs/day)

     530
     560
     160
    8540
     SOURCE

J & L Steel
J & L Steel
Morgan & Burke Brooks
Republic Steel
                                TABLE 6
1973 Summer-Fall loading data obtained from Ohio EPA (B.Clymer - Ohio
EPA - Columbus, Ohio)
SECTION

   2
   4
   5
   8
MILE POINT

  5.5
  5.1
  4.7
  3.7
WASTE LOADING
  (Ibs/day)

   1437
    510
   9990
   1602
     SOURCE

J & L Steel
Morgan & Burke Brooks
Republic Steel
U.S. Steel
                                  75

-------
                                     TABLE 7
1978 PROJECTED SUMMER-FALL LOADINGS (B.  CLYMER -  OHIO EPA -  COLUMBUS,  OHIO)
MILE POINT*                    SOURCE                     LOADING  (BOD-LB/DAY)
   57.8                     Lake Rockwell                            124
   56.8                     Breakneck Creek                         245
   54.0                     Kent STP                                319
   53.8                     Plum Creek                               49
   52.3                     Fish Creek                               87
   42.0                     Little Cuyahoga                         909
   39.5                     Mud Creek and  Sand Run                  438
   37.2                     Akron STP                              6780
   37.0                     Yellow Creek                            288
   33.1                     Furnace Run                              89
   24.2                     Brandywine Creek                        386
   21.2                     Chippewa Creek                           55
   19.1                     Brecksville STP                         425
   18.5                     Sagamore Creek                           87
   16.8                     Tinkers Creek                            482
   15.5                     Swan Creek                               99
   11.4                     Mill Creek                              139
   10.8                     Cleveland Southerly STP                5747
    8.1                     U.S. Steel                              840
    7.1                     Big Creek                               761
    6.4                     Republic Steel                         2928
    5.6                     J & L Steel                            1437
    5.1                     Morgan-Burke Brooks                     300
    4.7                     Republic Steel                         5878
    3.9                     U. S. Steel                            1602

*Exact mile point location of outfalls and confluences may vary slightly
from source to source.               -,c
                                     /b

-------
                                    SECTION X

                                     RESULTS

     Public Law 92-500 (Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments
of 1972) calls for the achievement of the best practical treatment of
waste by 1978, the achievement of the best available treatment by 1983,
and the possible elimination of all waste containing pollutants by
1985.  Reduction of these waste containing pollutants should result in
improved water quality within waterways.

     Although the exact extent of improvement can only be determined
subsequent to the discontinuation of discharging pollutants, a model,
such as the EMCSM-CR, is a systematic and reliable alternative to
speculating what changes and improvements might occur.

     The following disucssion outlines procedures for planning a manage-
ment  program  tailored to the physical, hydrological, and economic cir-
cumstances of the Cuyahoga River.  It also provides guidelines to promote
river water quality management techniques.

     In utilizing the EMCSM-CR in a management program three questions
must be addressed:

     1.   How can the EMCSM-CR determine the upstream water quality
     required to achieve the water quality standards set for the Cuyahoga River's
     navigation channel?

     2.   How can the EMCSM-CR be utilized to determine the best physical
     system for achieving that quality?

     3.   How can the EMCSM-CR assist in determining the most optimal
     system for administering and managing water quality?

     To answer the above questions seven (7) basic simulation runs were
made.   Additional  simulation runs can, of course, be made as needed.
                                      77

-------
SIMULATION 1

     The first simulation illustrates  the effect  of  present municipal  and  in-
dustrial discharges on water quality during  low flow conditions.   It was
assumed that if all other water quality parameters remained constant or  im-
proved, this simulation would represent the  poorest  expected  water quality
profile for the navigation channel.

     Section 402 of Public Law 92-500  established a  National  Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) which requires  all  municipalities and
industries to obtain a permit to discharge waste  into waterways.   A review
of the 1970 NPDES application forms  established the  Ibs/day waste  load inputs
listed in column W on Table (8).  Depth, area,  flow, dispersion  (DISP),  waste
loads (W), benthal uptake (Sb), deoxygenation coefficient  (K), and temperature
(C) are listed for each section in  Table 8.  An  upstream  (above m.p.  6.0)
BOD of 8.0 mg/1 and DO of 3.0 mg/1 were taken from data  supplied by the  Ohio
EPA.  A Lake BOD and DO of 6.0 mg/1  were used.

     The results (figure 31) of this simulation show that  discharges into
Section 2, 4, and 5 degrade water quality until the  DO reaches zero in
Section 5 (m.p. 4.65).  More waste is  discharged  into Section 8  (m.p.  3.75)
but its effect is not observed since DO has  already  reached zero.   Based
upon this simulation run one expects the river  to be anoxic from Section 5
to Section 19 (m.p. .45).  At Section  19 water  quality improves  slightly
because of lake water intrusion.

     The following simulation runs manipulate flow,  BOD, and  DO  to illus-
strate how the model can be used as  a management  tool.  A  summary  of simula-
tion runs and the variables manipulated is given  in  Table  9.


SIMULATION 2

     Because water quality data varied from  source  to source  a simulation
run utilizing data from another source was conducted.  For this  simulation
1973 Summer-Fall waste load monitoring data  utilized by the Ohio EPA  (Columbus)
for the navigation channel was input into our model.  Table 10,  column W,
shows slightly higher waste loads entering at Section 2,4, and 5.   A  low
flow of 345 cfs, upstream BOD of 8.0 mg/1,  DO  of 3.0 mg/1, lake BOD of  6.0
mg/1, and lake DO of 6.0 mg/1 were again utilized.

     The results (Figure 32) of this simulation run  are essentially the  same
as those of Simulation (1).  The DO  again decreases  rapidly to zero in Section
5 and remains there until the effect of lake water  intrustion is felt  in Section
19.  There is thus little difference in water quality due  to  the slightly
different loadings.
                                     78

-------
SECTION
   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  DEPTH
0.200E+02
0.200E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
 .250E+02
 .250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.0
0.
0.
                                      TABLE 8

                     SYSTEM  PARAMETERS  FOR THE  NAVIGATION  CHANNEL

              (Loading data obtained from available 1970 permit application)

                AREA     FLOW          DISP                W        Sb
0.300E+04
0.350E+04
0.420E+04
0.440E+04
0.430E+04
0.900E+04
0.470E+04
0.510E+04
0.490E+04
0.550E+04
0.740E+04
0.420E+04
0.900E+04
0.620E+04
0.620E+04
0.650E+04
0.650E+04
0.450E+04
0.700E+04
0.750E+04
0.820E+04
315
315
315
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
0.250E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+06
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.400E+00
0.600E+00
0.800E+00
0.100E+01
0.100E+01
0.120E+01
530
560
0
160
8540
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
                                                                                                           TEMP.
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.0
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.0
0.286E+02
0.295E+02
0.305E+02
0.307E+02
0.309E+02
0.311E+02
0.314E+02
0.313E+02
0.312E+02
0.311E+02
0.309E+02
0.306E+02
0.304E+02
0.302E+02
0.302E+02
0.295E+02
0.289E+02
0.286E+02
0.283E+02
0.280E+02
0.0
                                             SIMULATION RUN  NO. 1

-------
                                                                        DISSOLVED  OXYGEN  (mg/1)
                                                                                                                       en
00
o
                                    to
                                     n>
                                     oo
                                    CO

                                    3'
                                    c
                                    o
                                    3
                                    c
                                    3
     00

on
m
o
_i   _j
i   O
o
                                                co
                                                ro
                                                o
                                                                                                              I          I

-------
                                     TABLE 9
              SUMMARY OF PARAMETERS MANIPULATED IN SIMULATION RUNS
SIMULATION          FLOW            LOADING             BOUNDARY    CONDITIONS*
                                                        Upstream    Downstream
                                                         BOD  DO     BOD   DO
    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7


*Runs 1,2,3 and 6 were conducted for the navigation channel only.  Boundary
conditions were obtained from Ohio EPA.  Runs 4 and 5 were conducted for the
river from mile pt.  58 to the mouth using Ohio EPA projected loadings and flow.
345
345
850
345
345
345
850
1970-permits
1973-OEPA
1973-OEPA
1978-OEPA
50% 1973
1973-OPEA
1978-OEPA
8
8
8
-
8
8
8
3
3
3
3.5
4
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
                                   81

-------
00
ro
SECTION

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
                     DEPTH
                                                      TABLE 10

                                           SYSTEM  PARAMETERS FOR THE NAVIGATION CHANNEL

                                         (1973  Summer - Fall Data Obtained From Ohio EPA).
AREA
FLOW
0.200E+02
0.200E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.0
0.300E+04
0.350E+04
0.420E+04
0.440E+04
0.430E+04
0.900E+04
0.470E+04
0.510E+04
0.490E+04
0.550E+04
0.740E+04
0.420E+04
0.900E+04
0.620E+04
0.620E+04
0.650E+04
0.650E+04
0.450E+04
0.700E+04
0.750E+04
0.820E+04
315
315
315
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
DISP
0.250E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+03
0.220E+00
0.200E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.400E+00
0.600E+00
0.800E+00
0.100E+00
0.100E+00
0.120E+01
0
1437
0
510
9990
0
0
1602
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Sb
TEMP
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+00
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.0
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.510E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.0
0.286E+02
01295E+02
0.305E+02
0.307E+02
0.309E+02
0.311E+02
0.314E+02
0.313E+02
0.312E+02
0.311E+02
0.309E+02
0.306E+02
0.304E+02
0.302E+02
0.302E+02
0.295E+02
0.289E+02
0.286E+02
0.283E+02
0.280E+02
0.0
                                                SIMULATION RUN NO.  2

-------
en
X
o

o
LU
a
on
                                 8    10    12



                                   SECTION
                                                         o  o
         I     I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
14    16    18    20
     Figure 32.   Simulation  Run  #2.
                                   83

-------
SIMULATION 3

     The effect of flow upon DO was  tested in  Simulation  (3).   The  data  used
(Table 11) were the same as those used in Simulation  2  with  the exception  of
flow.  An average flow of 850 cfs was used as  the flow  in the  navigation
channel.  Figure (33) shows that DO  begins to  drop slowly until  zero  DO  is
reached in Section 10 (m.p. 3.15).

     When comparing Simulations (2)  and (3),  it is apparent  that for  identical
conditions, river water quality during low flow is greatly reduced.   This  is
primarily due to the low velocity and high holding time in each section  during
low flow.  In general, it could then be assumed that  water quality  in the
Cuyahoga River could be improved if  the concentration of waste being  dis-
charged during low flow periods is reduced.  This could be accomplished  by
temporarily storing the waste and releasing it when river flow is high or
by storing water in large reservoirs and releasing it as dilution water  when
river flow is low.

SIMULATION 4

     If the best practical treatment guidelines are met by 1978 it is ex-
pected that the DO in the navigation channel  will improve.  Projected 1978
waste load reductions were obtained from the Ohio EPA in Columbus for the
River from mile point 58 to the mouth.  These values  were input to illustrate
the degree of improvement which could be anticipated.

     The same conditions were used as for Simulation 2 (flow=345 cfs) with the
exception of using OEPA projected 1978 Summer-Fall waste load data
(See Table 7).

     Results are  shown  in  Figure  (34).  Since all other conditions are  identical
to Run  #2 the trend  in  DO  is expected to be similar.   As expected, zero DO
occurs  in Section  5.  While water quality  improves slightly as Ib/day of waste
load decreases the improvement does not appear to be very significant.

SIMULATION  5

     Simulation  (5)  was conducted to  observe how  dissolved oxygen is  affected
when all  waste loads  are  decreased to 50%  of 1973 values.  The conditions used
for  Simulation  (5) were thus the  same as  those used  for  Simulation (4)  with
the  exception of  waste  loads.  The results of  this simulation  are compared
in Figure 35 with those of Simulation 2  and 4.

SIMULATION  6

      Improving water quality  in  the  navigation channel  by further  improving
upstream water  quality  was examined  in  Simulation 6.   Entering  BOD was  8.0
mg/1  as before;  however,  DO concentration entering the channel was assumed to
                                    84

-------
00
en
SECTION

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  DEPTH

0.200E+02
0.200E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.250E+02
0.0
                                                       TABLE 11

                                           SYSTEM  PARAMETERS FOR THE NAVIGATION CHANNEL

                                          (1973 Summer -  Fall  Data Obtained  From Ohio  EPA).
                                    AREA
           FLOW
0.300E+04   820
0.350E+04   820
0.420E+04   820
0.440E+04   820
0.430E+04   850
0.900E+04   850
0.470E+04   850
0.510E+04   850
0.490E+04   850
0.550E+04   850
0.740E+04   850
0.420E+04   850
0.900E+04   850
0.620E+04   850
0.620E+04   850
0.650E+04   850
0.650E+04   850
0.450E+04   850
0.700E+04   850
0.750E+04   850
0.820E+04   850
  DISP

0.250E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+03
0.220E+00
0.200E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.400E+00
0.600E+00
0.800E+00
0.100E+00
0.100E+00
0.120E+01
W

0
1437
0
510
9990
0
0
1602
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Sb
TEMP
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+00
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.500E+01
0.0
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.510E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.150E+00
0.0
0.286E+02
01295E+02
0.305E+02
0.307E+02
0.309E+02
0.311E+02
0.314E+02
0.313E+02
0.312E+02
0.311E+02
0.309E+02
0.306E+02
0.304E+02
0.302E+02
0.302E+02
0.295E+02
0.289E+02
0.286E+02
0.283E+02
0.280E+02
0.0
                                                 SIMULATION RUN NO.  3

-------
                                                                              DISSOLVED  OXYGEN (mg/1)
00
                                      id
                                      c:

                                      (D

                                      GO
                                      CO
                                       oo

                                       3'
                                       c

                                       CU
                                       <-h
                                       j.
                                       O
                                       3

                                       73

                                       3


                                       OO
                                                    ro
     oo

oo
m
o

HH   O
O
                                                    ro
                                                    oo
                                                    ro
                                                    O
                                                                                    ro
                                                                                                                               CTi

-------
CO
                                   to
                                   n>
                                   oo

                                   i"
                                   3


                                   =tfc
                                               ro
                                               CO
00
m
o
                                                                       DISSOLVED  OXYGEN  (mg/1)
                                                                             ro
                                                        I          I          I
                                               ro
                                              CTl
                                              oo
                                              ro
                                              o

-------
                                                                                        DISSOLVED OXYGEN  (mg/1)
                                                                                               ro
                                                                                                           CO
                                                                                                                                     cn
                                                                                                                                                 CT)
00
00
                                           Id
                                            ro
                                            CO
                                            cn
                                            o
                                            o

                                           TD
                                            QJ
                                            -I
CO
_j,
3


o>
                                            70
                                            c
                                            3
                                            =t*=
                                            cn
                                            rt-
                                            3"

                                            co
                                            J.
                                            3
                                            o
                                            3
                                           3
                                           in
                                           o>
                                           3
                                           Q.
                                                          ro
      00

CO
m
o

HH    O
O
                                                          ro
                                                         00
                                                         ro
                                                         o
                                                                                            ~-J CO
                                                                                         O  I   I
                                                                                         -h O O
                                                                                            m m
                                                                                          < -o -o
                                                                                         i> 3> 3>
                                                                                         -j
                                                                                         CO "O I 
                                                                                          I  -5 O
                                                                                         O O Q)
                                                                                         m c_i. Q.
                                                                                         ~O 05 -".
                                                                                         3= O 3
                                                                                                                                     O  O
                                                                                                                                     DJ  3
                                                                                                                                     Q. CO
                                                                                                                                           CO
                                                                                                                                        3

                                                                                                                                        =:
                                                                                                                                           =4fc
                                                                                                                                     =*fc
                                                                                                                                     cn

-------
be 5 mg/1.   With a low flow of 345 cfs in the channel,  DO  drops  to  zero in
Section 7 (mile point 4.05) and remains there until  intruding  lake  water
causes it to rise in sections 19 and 20 (see Figure  36).   From the  results  of
this simulation it is estimated that upstream water  with greater then 9 mg/1
DO would be required to prevent a sag to zero within the navigation channel
at^ low flow.


SIMULATION 7

     Simulation 7 was run to test the combined effects  of  improved  upstream
water quality (entering DO = 5 mg/1, BOD = 8 mg/1),  reduced loadings (1978
projections), and augmented flow (850 cfs).  Under these combined conditions   DO
drops slowly  reaching a low of 0.35 mg/1 at mile point 1.35 (Section 16)
(See Figure 37).  Thus a combination of improved upstream  water  quality, re-
duced waste loading, and increased flow produce a significant  improvement in
DO concentrations within the channel.

UTILIZING THE TRANSFER MARTIX

     As Model II calculates the DO deficit response for each section, the DO
drop for each section is computed and listed in a tabular  format (See Table 12).
The changes in DO from one section to another resulting from variations in
waste load allocations can thus be directly and quickly determined from the
matrix shown in Table 12 (The complete Tranfer Matrix is  illustrated in the
User's Guide - Appendix C).

     As an example in the use of this matrix consider the  DO profile for the
channel shown on Figure 38 as "1973 channel loadings".   This profile results
from a flow of 900 cfs in the channel, a DO of 4.4 mg/1 and a  BOD of 8.0 mg/1
for water entering the channel, and the waste loadings shown in Table 8.

     Suppose that Republic Steel and U. S. Steel were to reduce their waste
loadings to zero.  This would result in a removal of approximately 10,000 Ibs/
days of waste from Section 5  (Republic Steel) and a removal of approximately
1,600  Ibs/day from Section 8  (U.S. Steel).

     Table  12 indicates the decease in DO  (Sections 1-20)  resulting from waste
inputs to Sections 1-10.   It  also can be interpreted to read the increase in
DO  in Sections 1-20 resulting from waste reductions in Sections 1-10.  Thus
a 10,000 Ib/day waste removal from Section 5 would  result in the increases
in  DO shown in Column 2 of Table  13  (taken directly from Table 12).  A
removal of  1600 Ibs./day of waste from Section 8 would produce the response
shown in Column 3 of Table 13  (obtained  by taking the values from Table  12
and multiplying each by 1600/10000 =  .16).

     The total response is shown  as the  sum of the  two responses in Column 4
                                    89

-------
10
CD
                                     =fl=
                                            CO
                                            m
                                            o
                                                 00
                                                 00
                                                t\>
                                                o
                                                                          DISSOLVED OXYGEN  (mg/1)
                                     CO
                                     =


                                     CD


                                     oo
                                     00


                                     3'
                                     {=
                                     .^

                                     DJ
                                     r+
                                     _i.

                                     O
                                     3


                                     70

-------
X
o

o
LU

3  2
o

c/o
II
a
         I     I      I      I      I     I     I     I     I     I      I
                                 8    10    12


                                   SECTION
14
16
18
20
     Figure  37,   Simulation Run #7.
                                   91

-------
                                    TABLE 12
                                  (Transfer Matrix)

DROP IN DO (mg/1)  FOR SECTIONS  1-20  WHEN A WASTE LOAD OF 10,000 LBS/DAY OF BOD
IS DISCHARGED INTO ANY ONE SECTION BETWEEN  1 AND 10
Section
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
LAKE
1
-
-
-
0.12
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.24
0.27
0.28
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.36
0.34
0.26
0.18
-
6.0
2
-
-
-
0.11
0.15
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.31
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.41
0.39
0.29
0.20
0.10
6.0
3
-
-
-
-
0.13
0.15
0.19
0.22
0.26
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.37
0.40
0.42
0.43
0.41
0.31
0.22
0.11
6.0
4
-
-
-
0.04
0.09
0.12
0.16
0.19
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.38
0.40
0.41
0.40
0.30
0.21
0.10
6.0
5
-
-
-
-
0.08
0.12
0.18
0.24
0.29
0.35
0.39
0.45
0.49
0.53
0.57
0.59
0.57
0.44
0.30
0.15
6.0
6
-
-
-
-
0.03
0.08
0.14
0.20
0.26
0.32
0.37
0.43
0.46
0.51
0.56
0.58
0.56
0.43
0.30
0.15
6.0
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.05
0.09
0.14
0.18
0.22
0.26
0.29
0.32
0.36
0.58
0.37
0.28
0.20
0.10
6.0
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.05
0.09
0.14
0.18
0.23
0.26
0.30
0.34
0.36
0.35
0.27
0.19
0.09
6.0
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.05
0.10
0.14
0.19
0.23
0.27
0.31
0.33
0.33
0.26
0.18
0.09
6.0
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.07
0.12
0.19
9.23
0.28
0.34
0.37
0.37
0.29
0.20
0.10
6.0
                                         92

-------
                                                                                         DISSOLVED OXYGEN  (mg/1)
                                                                                                                                      en
CO
                                           IQ
                                            CO
                                            oo
                                         0) (/>
                                         CU 
                                         _u
                                           o
                                         O -h
                                         o
                                         CU i
                                         rt -S
                                         -j. CU
                                         O 3
                                         3 tn
                                         CD
                                         O
                                         O
                                            -s
                                         C -"
                                         T3 X
                                         -S
                                         n>
                                         EU
                                         .0 O
                                         C rt
                                         P) 3-
                                          ' fD
                                         << o
                                         o  n>
                                         S  
                                          II  r+
                                         co n>
                                         en
                                         o 
                                            o
                                         o  cu
                                         -h CL
                                         t/l
en
                                                       "O CO
                                                       O
                                                                rv>
                                                               
                                                               O
                                                               rt
                                                                              I     o
                                                                                   O  O
                                                                                      -+>
                                                                                   co
                                                                                   rt '
                                                                                   fD  O
                                                                                   n>  o
                                                                                                                                             3 CU
                                                                                                                                             Q. (
                                                                                                                                               ff
                                                                                   co 
                                                                                      o
                                                                                      CU
                                                                                   CO Q.
                                                                                   rt
                                                                                   fD -S
                                                                                   CD fD
                                                                                    Q.
                                                                                      c
                                                                                      o
                                                                                      rt-

-------
TABLE 13
Section
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Increase in DO due to
removing 10,000 Ibs/day
waste from Section 5
-
-
-
-
0.08
0.12
0.18
0.29
0.35
0.39
0.45
0.49
0.53
0.57
0.59
0.57
0.44
0.30
0.15
Increase in DO due to
removing 1,600 165 Ibs/day
from Section 8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.022
0.029
0.034
0.042
0.046
0.052
0.058
0.061
0.059
0.045
0.031
_
Total
increase
-
-
-
-
0.08
0.12
0.18
0.24
0.38
0.43
0.49
0.53
0.58
0.63
0.65
0.63
0.48
0.33
0.15
     94

-------
of Table 13 and as the line Tabled improved conditions  in Figure  38.

       These operations allow a decision maker to immediately assess  the  results
of a hypothetical  waste load allocation without running the model.   In addition
the matrix immediately indicates that Section 16 is the most sensitive region
of the channel and will receive its maximum effect (a drop in DO  of 0.59  mg/1)
when 10,000 Ibs/day of waste is discharged into Section 5.

UTILIZING SIMULATIONS 1-7 AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL

     By Utilizing Simulations 1-7 it is possible to answer the three questions
presented on page 77.

Question 1:    How can the EMCSM-CR determine the upstream water  quality
               required to achieve the water quality standards set  for
               the Cuyahoga River's navigation channel?

Answer 1:      In order to maintain the standards set for the river, water
               quality in sections 14-16 must be controlled.  Therefore,  up-
               stream flow, BOD, DO, and waste inputs must be manipulated
               until an acceptable DO is obtained in Sections 14-16.   Simulations
               1-7 demonstrate the expected changes which would occur when
               manipulating each of these parameters.  Additional manipulations
               require only changing the input data.

Question 2:    How can the EMCSM-CR be utilized to determine the  best
               physical system for achieving that water quality?

Answer 2:      Once the desired DO level is obtained in Sections  14-16, one must
               simple determine the most economic or most efficient means for
               effectuating the required changes.  For example, if flow is
               doubled and BOD is decreased by half then one must decide how
               to double the flow and decrease the BOD.  Such alternatives
               as storing dilution water to augment flow, eliminating all dis-
               charges, and etc. must be approached from an economical point of
               view, however, the response to using combinations  of the different
               alternatives can be observed from the model.

Question 3:    How can the EMSCM-CR assist in determining the most optimal
               system for administering and managing water quality?

Answer 3:      The Transfer Matrix  (Table  12) provides an excellent tool  for
               determining the most optimal locations  for outfalls and the
               most optimal waste load  inputs because  this matrix points out
               the sections which can least tolerate and most tolerate a
               waste load.  With  the assistance of the Transfer Matrix many
               management decision can  be  made.
                                        95

-------
COMPARING MODEL II (STEADY-STATE) OUTPUT WITH A TIME-VARIANT MODEL OF THE
NAVIGATION CHANNEL.

     A comparison of the results from the steady-state model  simulation with
the five day results from a time-variant model  simulation (Ramm 1975) is
illustrated in Table (14).  System parameters used for these simulations were
the same as those used to simulate Figure (29), with the exception of flow
which was 700 cfs.

     The simulated results of the time-variant model answered two important
questions which could not have been answered by the simulated results of the
steady-state model.  These questions were:

     1.   How long does it take the Cuyahoga River to achieve an approximate
          steady-state under constant waste loading?

     2.   What effect does the inability of the model to simulate the absence
          of BOD at zero DO have upon the system output?

     To answer the above questions simulations ulitizing the system parameters
from Table 10 were made.  Results of a five day simulation are shown in the
column labeled "Standard Run" in Table (14).  From this Table it can be seen
that the system essentially reaches steady-state in five days.   This time
period is short enough to justify the use of steady-state values in the in-
terpretation of water quality in the lower Cuyahoga River.

     An additional time-variant simulation run was conducted in which the de-
oxygentation coefficient (K-j = 0.15/day; base)  was set to zero whenever DO reached
zero and was reset to 0.15/day when DO returned to a positive value.  The
results of this run are shown in the column labeled "Feedback Included" (See
Table 14).  In general, it was found that the effect of including feedback did
not significantly change the five-day profile.   Including feedback did result
in a positive DO value near m.p. 1.0 rather than m.p. 0.5.  The "Feedback
Included" values are therefore in slightly closer agreement with the measurements
made in the lower one mile of the navigation channel than are values resulting
from the steady-state simulation.  However, the run time for the five day
simulation is approximately eight minutes on an IBM 370 computer (approximately
$40.00).  This compares with a run time of approximately 30 seconds ($2.50) for
the steady-state model.  In the Cuyahoga River application it is clear that
the marginal gain in information is far outweighed by the considerable increase
in cost.
                                     96

-------
                         TABLE  14
COMPARISON OF RESULTS FROM THE STEADY-STATE MODEL SIMULATION
WITH FIVE DAY RESULTS FROM THE TIME-VARIANT MODEL SIMULATION
         (NUMBERS REPRESENT MG/L DISSOLVED OXYGEN)

                                      TIME-VARIANT
MILE POINT
5.85
5.55
5.25
4.95
4.65
4.35
4.05
3.75
3.45
3.15
2.85
2.55
2.25
1.95
1.65
1.35
1.05
0.75
0.45
0.15
STEADY-STATE
4.14
3.74
3.04
2.73
2.06
1.71
1.32
1.00
0.64
0.17
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
1.03
STANDARD RUN
4.10
3.67
2.99
2.71
2.15
1.85
1.44
1.11
0.76
0.38
0.10
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.66
1.44
FEEDBACK I!
4.14
3.74
3.04
2.73
2.06
1.71
1.32
1.01
0.65
0.22
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.42
0.82
1.30
                         97

-------
                             SECTION XI

                               SUMMARY

     Through an understanding of the many complex physical, chemical,
and biological events occurring simultaneously within the system, the
EMCSM-CR has demonstrated its ability to simulate the dissolved oxygen
profile in the river by using mathematical procedures.  The oxygen
profiles resulting from use of the EMCSM-CR, when compared with field
measurements, provided a reasonable fit and gave reliable estimates of
the dynamic behavior of the discharged wastes and the stream (See Figure 29),

     The EMCSM-CR, therefore, allows a water planner to assess the im-
pact of alternate water quality control measures on the river system
by varying the treatment levels at each discharge point and the water
quality conditions in Lake Erie at its mouth.  By increasing flow while
holding discharge constant the model can also estimate the volume of
dilution water required to meet dissolved oxygen standards in the
river.
                                   99

-------
                                SECTION  XII

                              REFERENCES CITED

 Bella,  D.A.  and W.  Dobbins. Difference  Modeling of Stream  Pollution.
 J.  San.  Eng.  Dtv. ASCE, 94:955.   1968.

 Cleveland  Daily Plain  Dealer.  Vol.  XXIV,  #110. Wednesday,  May 5, 1868.
 p.  3.

 Cooke,  G.D.   The Cuyahoga  River Watershed.   (Proceeding of a Symposium
 held at Kent State  University,  Kent,  Ohio.   November  1, 1968.) p. 83-
 85.

 Cuyahoga River Stream  Pollution Survey.   (Field notebook found in G.
 Garrett's  file cabinet at  OEPA,  Columbus, Ohio.  1947.)

Da,Hon, Dal ton & Little.   Industrial Waste Survey Program for the Lower
Cuyahoga Rtver.   Cleveland, Ohio.  January 1971,

Fischer, H.B.  A Lagrangian Method for Predicting Pollutant Disposal in
Boljnas Lagoon,  California.  Biological  Survey -  Water Resources
Division, Menlo Park, California.  1969.

Garlauskas, A.B.  Water Quality Baseline Assessment for Cleveland  Area-
Lake Erie.   Volume I-Synthesis.  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency,
Chicago, Illinois.   Publication Number EPA - 905/9 r. 74 - 005.   May 30,
1974.  158 p.

Garrett, G. Cuyahoga River Model.  Ohio Environmental  Protection  Agency,
Columbus, Ohio.   1974  (unpublished edition).

Great Lakes Water Quality Board.  Great Lakes Water Quality <- Annual
Report to the International Joint Commission,  April  1973.   315 p.

Grenney, W.J, and D.A.  Bella.  Field Study and Mathematical Model of the
Slack-Water Buildup of a  Pollutant in a Tidal River.   Limnology and
Oceanography.  17(2):229.   1972.

Havens & Emerson,   Master Plan for Pollution Abatement.  City of
Cleveland,  Ohio.   July 1968.
                                   101

-------
Havens & Emerson.   A Plan for Water Quality Management in the Central
Cuyahoga Basin.  Three Rivers Watershed District,  Clevelan,  Ohio.   1970.

Havens & Emerson.   Water Quality Assessment and Basin Modeling - Rocky
River and Tinker's Creek.  Three Rivers Watershed  District,  Cleveland,
Ohio.  February 1974.

Hetling, L. J. and R. L. O'Connell.  A Study of Tidal Dispersion in the
Potomac River.  Water Resources Research 2 (4):825.   1966.

Northington, C. W.  Lake Erie - Sick, Dying, or Well.  Lake  Erie Field
Station Report.  March 28, 1965.  16 p.

O'Connor, D. J.  Estuarine Distribution of Non - Conservative Substances.
Jour. San. Eng. Div. ASCE. Vol 91.  No. SA 1.  February 1965.  p.23.

O'Connor, D. J. et al. Dynamic Water Quality Forecasting and Management.
Environmental Protection Agency.  Publication Number 600/3 - 73 - 009.
August 1973.

Ohio Dept. of Health.  Report of Water Pollution - Study of  Cuyahoga
River Basin 1954 - 1956.  Sewage and Waste Unit, Columbus, Ohio.  August
1960.

Ohio Dept. of Health.  Deoxygentation Study - Cuyahoga River.  Columbus,
Ohio.  1965.

Ohio Enironmental  Protection Agency.  Ohio Surface Water Monitoring
Program.  Division of Surveillance, Twinsburg, Ohio.  1974.
Ramm
,  A.  E.   A Time-Variant  Model  of the  Cuyahoga  River.   1975  (Unpublished)
Schroeder, M.E. and C. R. Collier.  Water Quality Variations in the
Cuyahoga River at Cleveland, Ohio.   U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper
Number 550 - C.  1966. p. C251 - C255.

Stanley Engineering Company.  Report on Water Quality and Use.  Three
Rivers Watershed District, Cleveland, Ohio  1966.

Streeter, H.D. and E. B. Phelps.  U.S. Public Health Service, Washington,
D. C. Public Health Bulletin 146.  1925.

Thomann, R. V.  System Analysis and Water Quality Management.  New York.
Environmental Science Services Division, 1972.  286 p.

U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.  A Pilot Wastewater Management Program
for  Chicago, Cleveland,  Detorit, San Francisco, and Merrimack Basin.
Office, Chief of Engineers.  March 1971.
                                     102

-------
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.  Wastewater Management Study:  1970.  Corps
of Engineers, Buffalo, New York.  August 1973.   207 p.

U. S. Department of Interior, Lake Erie Report - A Plan for Water
Pollution Control.  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,
Great Lakes Region.  Publication Number GPO - 808 - 895 - 6. August
1968.  107 p.

U. S. Department of Interior, Water Resources Data for Ohio.  1973.

U. S. Department of Interior, Water Resources Data for Ohio.  Part 1.
Surface Water Records.  1974.

Winslow, J. D., G. D.  White, and E. E. Webber.   The Water Resources of
Cuyahoga County Ohio.   U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Divison,
Columbus, Ohio.  Bulletin Number 26.   August 1953.
                                     103

-------
                                   APPENDIX A


Ohio EPA - Regulation EP-1- Water Quality Standards

     (Dissolved Oxygen Standards which apply to the Cuyahoga River)

EP-1-02  General Standard

     Except as other regulations in this Chapter, EP-1, establish different
standards,  the water quality standards of the state shall  be as  follows.

     (C)  Dissolved oxygen shall not be less than a daily average of
          5.0 mg/1 nor less than 4.0 mg/1 at any time.

FOR AQUATIC LIFE (WARM WATER FISHERY)

     The following criteria are for evaluation of conditions for the maintenance
of a well-balanced, warm-water fish population.  They are applicable at any point
in the stream except for the minimum area necessary for the admixture of waste
effluents with stream water:

     1.  Dissolved Oxygen: Not less than an average of 5.0 mg/1  per
         calendar day and not less than 4.0 mg/1 at any time.

EP-1-09  Lower Cuyahoga River-

     (A)  The water quality standards  in the Lower Cuyahoga River shall
          be the the water quality standards in regulation EP-1-02,
          except that, to the extent that subsequent provisions of this
          regulation, EP-1-09, established different standards, the
          latter standards shall apply:

                (1)  In that portion of the Cuyahoga River extending
                    from the confluence of the Cuyahoga River and Big
                    Creek to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River,

                (a)  The dissolved oxygen standards in EP-1-02 (C)
                    need not be met during the months of July,
                    August, September, and October.
                                         105

-------

-------
                                  APPENDIX B

                  ANALYTICAL RESULTS:  CUYAHOGA RIVER SAMPLING
                                CUYAHCXA RIVER

                               CHEMICAL ANALYSES
  DATE
 Station 1   Station 2
Surface 8m. Surface 8m.
    Station 3
   Surface

Depth  (feet)
 Station 4   Station 5   Station 6
Surface 8m. Surface 8m. Surface 8m.
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73

35
35
33
35

34

35
35
33
35

34

35
27
33
32

25

35
27
33
32

25

32
27
25
25
30
32
 9/05/73   		
 9/12/73  6-10  6-10  6rlO  6-10
 9/19/73 10-12 10-12 15-19 15-19
 9/28/73   4-6   4-6   1-3   1-3
10/11/73  8-10  8-10   0-2   0-2
10/18/73	   	   	
10/25/73	
                                  Wind  (mph)
                             4-8
                             6-8
                             4-6
                             2-4
25
28
28
26
30
25
2-6
2-8
2-4
4-6
25
28
28
26
30
25
2-6
2-8
2-4
4-6
20
25
36
26
25
25
6-10
6-10
2-4
2-4
20
25
36
26
25
25
6-10
6-10
2-4
2-4
27
30
30
30
23
29
0-2
3-4
2-4
2-4
27
30
30
30
23
29
0-2
3-4
2-4
2-4
                        Chemical Oxygen Demand  (mg/1)
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
17
52
15
7
6
23
20
38
13
7
14
27
16
49
22
10
17
24
30
27
38
42
10
12
30
13
38
42
20
21
32
30
Water Tanperature
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
28.0
22.5
23.0
23.0
23.0

19.0
23.0
22.5
21.5
20.5
19.5

16.0
28.0
25.0
25.0
27.0
23.0
18.0
19.0
23.0
23.0
22.0
24.0
20.0
18.0
16.0
24.0
23.0
21.0
26.0
22.0
18.0
18.0
77
56
48
13
19
20
16
27.0
25.5
25.0
29.0
23.5
19.0
66
49
55
13
22
7
27
23.0
23.5
22.0
25.0
21.0
17.5
28
38
110
20
24
26
16

27.5
25.5
29.0
24.0
21.0
77
59
48
0
28
19
30

26.0
23.0
26.0
23.0
20.0
63
45
48
0
36
22
16

28.0
26.0
30.0
24.0
22.0
70
45
75
129
29
19
23
29.0
25.0
23.0
26.0
23.0
21.0
                                                   21.0  16.5  22.0  17.5  22.5  18.0
                                       107

-------
DATE
                       CUYAHOGA RIVER

                      CHEMICAL ANALYSES

 Station 1   Station 2     Station 3
Surface 8m. Surface 8m.   Surface
 Station 4   Station 5   Station 6
Surface 8m. Surface 8m. Surface 8m.
                         Suspended Solids  (mg/1)
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
17
17
17
14
26

6
22
27
6
22
21

12
14
23
14
19
18
12
36
16
27
14
64
25

104
11
18
11
71
50
19
7
22
14
10
23
32
11
5
21
22
13
121
45
32
26
18
15
61
31
24
12
5
33
91
23
29
95
41
12

20
16
33
57
9
12
34
19
27
23
57
21
17
Total Solids (mg/1)
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
499
454
433
467
531
	
537
299
380
398
545
552
	
543
520
498
523
612
550
473
512
282
454
475
429
381
	
532
343
493
445
811
592
1035
743
403
507
550
588
555
505
600
471
434
519
601
533
463
627
541
583
562
636
534
503
600
377
618
554
540
555
497
585
708
589
607
608
590
535
612
428
558
608
708
564
512
608
Nitrate (mg/1)
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
7.5
6.5
2.8
3.3
23.5
	
5.4
3.0
7.0
21.0
3.5
7.3
	
4.6
5.5
5.8
2.3
5.3
23.0
4.8
5.9
2.0
23.0
2.8
3.8
10.8
	
5.3
Dissolved
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
2.4
	
3.6
3.2
1.4
	
3.6
5.8
6.5
5.2
11.4
4.8
	
7.2
3.7
.6
1.5
1.4
1.0
4.8
4.2
4.8
2.0
5.0
4.8
5.2
4.2
5.4
4.5
7.0
2.8
5.3
23.8
3.8
7.2
Oxygen - Field
3.5
4.2
5.6
1.8
1.0
2.6
1.6
4.5
7.5
3.5
5.3
23.0
4.6
9.2
(mg/1)
_^_
1.0
1.4
1.2
1.2
3.4
1.0
5.0
7.5
3.8
3.0
21.5
5.4
8.6

___
1.3
4.4
3.6
3.0
6.4
4.2
26.5
9.0
4.0
29.5
5.5
5.3
8.7

	 r
.6
.9
1.4
1.0
2.2
1.0
5.0
9.5
3.4
2.9
21.8
5.8
7.1

___
1.0
2.2
3.8
0.9
2.8
4.0
8.5
11.0
3.8
5.4
5.3
7.0
0.6

	
3.2
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.6
0.8
7.0
30.5
2.9
3.5
30.5
5.9
8.7

__
3.0
3.2
2.6
1.0
2.2
3.6
                                    108

-------
          RIVER
CHEMICAL ANALYSES
DA1E
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73

9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
Station 1
Surface 8m.
	
210
660
680
520
	
	

7.1
6.9
7.8
7.4
6.7
	
7.0
	
170
545
660
810
	
	

7.6
7.2
7.6
7.5
6.7
	
7.3
Station 2 Station 3 Station 4
Surface 8m. Surface Surface 8m.
Conductivity - Field (Micromhos)
	
750
850
890
780
600
	

7.4
6.8
7.5
7.3
6.8
7.6
7.5
	
565
710
250
440
700
	
ph-
7.6
6.9
7.6
7.6
7.1
	
6.9
	
12
740
950
850
170
	
Laboratory
7.4
6.9
7.6
7.3
6.6
7.6
6.9
___
800
860
950
800
800
	

6.9
6.7
7.5
7.2
6.9
7.5
6.8
	
690
840
750
760
750
	

7.0
7.0
7.5
7.4
6.9
6.8
7.0
Station 5
Surface 8m.
	
900
930
950
790
710
	

7.2
6.6
7.5
7.2
6.7
7.5
6.9
___
775
900
590
800
600
	

7.0
6.7
7.5
7.4
6.8
6.4
6.8
Station 6
Surface 8m,
	
950
960
520
680
800
	

7.5
6.7
7.5
7.2
6.8
7.5
6.9
___
850
950
380
800
710
	

7.2
7.5
7.5
7.3
6.5
6.7
7.0
Chloride (mg/1)
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73

9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
110
89
68
89
77

99

491
435
431
424
530
506
52
76
58
76
81

98

279
394
400
439
570
511
111
98
86
104
81
61
86

490
499
504
569
564
430
461
51
89
74
63
51

94
Dissolved
264
456
459
369
375
484
81
109
74
165
84
283
177
Solids (mg/D
365
517
464
717
564
965
704
76
117
84
99
81
63
108

401
506
545
600
544
444
581
101
98
86
87
81
55
103

463
448
534
473
549
390
587
116
114
92
97
77
68
103

502
511
572
634
553
477
592
79
117
92
106
77
64
106

326
490
537
525
553
420
586
96
122
96
93
73
73
97


552
586
574
557
593
605
81
118
92
110
72
64
104

410
528
603
567
576
458
605
     109

-------
                              CDYAHOGA RIVER

                             CHEMICAL ANALYSES
DATE
 Station 1   Station 2     Station 3
Surface 8m. Surface 8m.    Surface
 Station 4   Station 5   Station 6
Surface     Surface 8m.  Surface 8m.
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73

9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73

9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73
7
9
10
50
10
-
34

13
12
59
62
49
-
105

0
1.34
1.34
0.70
1.96
-
0
5
13
38
54
6
-
120

15
13
59
51
83
-
85

.32
0.67
3.17
0
1.68
-
0
5
10
58
56
21
0
24

9
13
60
57
77
9
125

0.72
1.68
1.19
0
2.66
1.79
.69
5
7
44
56
5
-
140

7
15
62
59
87
-
186

0.48
5.82
1.23
0
1.68
-
.96
5
14
41
55
13
4
28
BOD-, (mg/1)
8
15
61
59
94
14
184
ORGANIC NITROGEN
0.56
0
0.90
0.07
2.80
2.46
.72
6
14
57
55
8
3
70

14
14
64
59
79
16
135
5
13
48
58
6
4
6

13
15
62
60
65
15
183
10
12
53
57
16
2
6

13
10
60
54
78
15
160
5
11
42
38
6
2
5

13
14
61
59
75
19
123
90
11
44
66
15
2
7

.2
13
55
68
80
15
112
4
10
53
44
15
3
113

14
15
61
59
77
17
171
(mg/1)
0.64
0
0.90
0
1.26
.11
1.44
1.34
0
2.46
0.05
1.05
2.13
2.24
0.77
0
3.02
0
.44
2.46
0
0.90
0
0
0.14
4.69
1.79
0
1.18
1.52
0
5.10
.22
0
0
1.01
0.70
0
3.29
2.66
0
0
AMCNIA NITROGEN (mg/1)
9/05/73
9/12/73
9/19/73
9/28/73
10/11/73
10/18/73
10/25/73

3.92
3.58
2.02
.77
.70
-
1.32

.16
.90
.84
.35
.90
-
1.84

1.6
3.47
3.09
1.75
3.22
0
3.20

.24
8.06
1.23
1.40
4.70
-
3.20

.56
.56
1.34
.42
2.59
2.13
4.24
110
3.84
2.35
2.46
.14
3.01
.67
5.76

5.66
1.01
1.46
.49
3.85
.45
4.16

3.85
3.02
2.80
.21
2.69
6.16
4.80

2.24
.11
2.91
1.40
3.64
.90
4.48

2.91
4.70
6.38
1.40
2.69
6.07
4.27

2.91
2.45
6.80
1.05
4.55
1.19
1.89


-------
                                 APPENDIX C

                    USER'S MANUAL - STEADY STATE MODELS




                                PURPOSE
     The function of the steady state model package is to provide a means
for assessing the effect of waste loadings of CBOD to the Cuyahoga River
upon the coupled CBOD - DO system in the river.   The package has been designed to
utilize a Streeter-Phelps non-dispersive approach above the navigation channel
and a dispersive approach within the navigation  channel.   The model's output
provides a transfer matrix table for the navigation channel which is useful
in making decisions regarding waste load allocations.

     This manual is designed to aid the user in  inputing  data to and inter-
preting output from the model.  The mode is written to be compatible with all
computers utilizing fortian IV (level G) language.
                                     Ill

-------
                         TABLE  OF  CONTENTS

Program Abstract 	 113
Proaram Description  	 114
Program Flowchart  	 115
Input Format	117
Program Listing with Documentation  	 122
Output Interpretation  	 129
Program Output 	 132
Restrictions 	 141
                                     112

-------
                   PROGRAM   ABSTRACT
Title:    CUYAHOGA RIVER STEADY STATE WATER QUALITY MODEL
Author Organization:
Direct Inquiries to:
Summary Information:
ECO-LABS, INC.
1836 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio  44115
Dr. Eugene M. Bentley, III
ECO-LABS, INC.
1836 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio  44115
Input - Card

Output - Printed Report

Run Frequency - Upon Request

Storage Requirement - 20K

Language:   Fortran IV-G Level

Original System:  IBM 360/70
                                     113

-------
                PROGRAM   DESCRIPTION


     The Cuyahoga River Steady State Water Quality Model  was developed
specifically for the United States Environmental  Protection Agency.   It
provides management information concerning dissolved oxygen levels in
the river under varying conditions of flow and CBOD.  The model's program
is divided into two sections.

     Section One, which is optional, permits input of waste loadings and
associated river parameters at any point or series of points downstream
from the river's source (m.p. 100.1) to the head  of the river's
navigation channel Cm.p. 6.0).  Utilizing a Streeter-Phelps equation set,
the program evaluates the CBOD and DO deficit concentrations downstream
from the waste outfall.

     Section Two utilizes a finite - difference approach to simulate
the CBOD - DO deficit concentrations within the navigation channel.
Longitudinal dispersion is included in this section.

     Output is in the form of tables and charts.
                                   114

-------
PROGRAM   FLOWCHART
                115

-------
                         PROGRAM  FLOWCHART
Calculate BOD & DO
Deficit Distribu-
tion Using Streeter
-Phelps Equations.
    Are
  here Any
Inputs Above
 M.P.  6.0?
   Input
 Upstream
Parameters
Start
                          Calculate
                        Values Entering
                         Mile Point 6.0
                                                     NO
                                              /Input Stream 1
                                             Parameters forl
                                              M.P.  6.0  to   I
                                           	Mouth      I
                                          Calculate The Tri-
                                          Diagonal Transfer
                                          Matrices for BOD  (A
                                          And DO Deficit  (B).
                                               /Print Out   \
                                              U) And  (B)   I
                                          Calculate Inverse
                                          Matrices  (A)-1 And
                                           (B)~1 And Compound
                                          Steady-State Trans-
                                          fer Matrix.
                                            / Print Out\
                                            /(A)"1  And tBJ'H
                                           /And Steady-State!
                                           / Matrix.	\
                                           Calculate  Steady-
                                           State  Profiles  For
                                           BOD And  DO Deficit
Print
Out
Profiles
                                   116

-------

-------
                             INPUT  FORMAT
Input
I RUN:
START:

ALO:
DO:
ALL:
DOL:
TEMPI!:
TEMPL:
I NUMB:

ASTART:
ASTOP:
AR:

GR:

W:
QW:
AKW:

AKA:
RTEMP:
WDO:
Number of runs desired
Option Selector.   If zero, program begins at mile point 6.
If non-zero, program begins above mile point 6.
The upstream CBOD concentration (mg/1)
The upstream dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/1)
The lake CBOD concentration (mg/1)
The lake dissolved oxygen concentration (mg/1)
The upstream water temperature (C)
The lake water temperature (C)
The number of waste outfalls (and/or tributaries) above
mile point 6.
Mile point of outfall (miles)
Mile point of next outfall (miles)
Average ccoss sectional area of River between ASTART and
ASTOP (ft/)
Average flow of river between ASTART and ASTOP (million
gallons per day - MGD)
Waste loading form outfall (Ib/day)
Flow from waste outfall (MGD)
Deoxygenation coefficient  (K]-base e) of waste per day

Reaeration coefficient between ASTART and ASTOP per day
Temperature of the river  through  reach
Oxygen concentrate from tributary  (mg/1)
                                    118

-------
WTEMP:         Temperature of the tributary/outfall
H:             Average depth of a section within the navigation channel (ft)
AREA:          Cross sectional area of upper face of section (ft^)
FLOW:          Flow at upper section face (cfs)
D:             Longitudinal dispersion coefficient at upper section face
               (miles2/day)
WI:            Waste Loading into a section (Ibs/day)
W2:            Benthic oxygen demand within a section (gm/irr/day)
AK1:           Deoxygenation coefficient (K^-base e) of waste within
               a section (per day)
TEMP:          Average water temperature within a Section (C)
ALLOW:         CBOD concentration of waste outfall (mg/1)
DEFW:          Oxygen deficit from waste outfall (mg/1)
AH:            Average depth of river above mile point 6 (ft)
                                 119

-------
PUNCHED CARD AND DATA SEQUENCE
CARD #
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4








5

6

COLUMNS
TO
5
10
20
30
40
50
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
10
20
30
10
20
COLUMNS
FROM
1
1
11
21
31
41
1
1
11
21
31
41
51
61
71
1
11
21
1
11
FIELD
NAME
I RUN
START
ALO
DEF
ALL
DEFL
I NUMB
ASTART
ASTOP
AR
QR
ALO
QW
AKW
AH
RTEMP
WDO
WTEMP
H
AREA
COMMENTS
Right oriented
Column 5
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
OPTIONAL*
Right oriented
Column 5
OPTIONAL*
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL
OPTIONAL

OPTIONAL

REQUIRED
REQUIRED
TYPE
INTEGER
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
INTEGER
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +

REAL +

REAL +
REAL +
      120

-------
COLUMNS
CARD # TO
30
40
50
60
70
80
COLUMNS
FROM
21
31
41
51
61
71
FIELD
NAME
FLOW
D
HI
W2
AK1
TEMP
COMMENTS
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
REQUIRED
TYPE
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
REAL +
* Omit if Astart = 0
+ All real numbers must contain a decimal point
  Repeat card six for each section
                                     121

-------
l/J
to
o
o
o
                                                                                                                                                     CM
                                                                                                                                                     CM

-------An error occurred while trying to OCR this image.

-------


400
c
c
c
c
c
c


50

777



100
C
C
C
C


C
C
C

C
C
c
3

17
C
C
C


4




C
C
e





i






Q(T.J)0.
Ed. J)0.
Cd. J)0.
or.nx(ij)o.

READ IN (1) AVERAGE DEPTH IN FEETCH). (2) CROSS-SECTIONAL
AREA IN SQUARE FEET(AREA), (3) FLOW IN CFS. (4) DISPERSION
LBS PE"R OAY(1). AMI (6) BENTHAL DEMAND
( IN GRMS PER M*? BEH QAY(H2)

READC5.50) (Hd). ARtAC D.FLnWCI). U( I 1 .  1 ( I > W2{ I ) . A* 1 d )  TEMP
1(1). 1*1.21)
FQBMAT(6Eln.3)
PRINT 777
FORMAT("l",4X>"H'<,l?X"A>',12X."".l2X,"0<'12X.">'l't.HXi"K2".llX
1"K1".9X,"TFMP",///)
PRINT 100. CH( I ). AREACI ).FLOW( I }[)( D't CI ).2( I ).AK1( I ).TEMP
1(1). I  1 * ?1)
FORMAT(8(3X.E10.3)1


CALCULATE V1LUXE (V) FOS EACH SECTIONdN MILLIONS OF GALLONS),

Do 3 I1.2i


CALCULATE AVERAGE VFLOCITY(U) FnK EACH SECTION(IN FT PER SEC)

U(I)*tFLOW(n/AREA(I)*FLOi(Il)/ARFA(Ul))*0.5

CALCULATE REAE^ATION COEFF 1C IENT (AK2 ) FOR EACH SECTION

AK?d)12.9*U(I)**O.S/HiI)**1.5
00 17 Il.?0
"?(!) (N2{I}/(H(I)*0.308))V(I)*.3

00004000 R 0226 1
00004100 R 0229
00004200 R 0231
00004300 R 0234 <
00004400 R 023 ) 
00004500 R 0240 * "
00004600 R 0240
00004700 R 0240 . ! 
00004600 R 0240'
00004900 R 0240
00005000 R 0240
00005100 R 0241
00005200 R 0268
00005300 R 0280
00005400 R 0280
00005500 R 028
00005600 R 0284
00005700 R 0284
00005800 R 0310
_00_OQ5900 R 0322
00006000 R 0322
00006100 R 0322
00006200 R 0322
00006300 R 0322
00006400 R 0322
00006500 R 0327
00006600 R 0334
00006700 R 0334
OOQQ6800 R Q334 	
00006900 R 0336
00007000 R 0343
00007100 H 0343 	 	 ,
00007200 R 0343
00007300 R 0347
00007400 R 0359
00007500 R 0365
00007600 R 0371
CALCULATE FLOWdN MOD) AND BULK DISPERSION COEFF IClENTSdN M30)00007700 R 0371

00 4 Il. 19
8f T,I + 1 )  FLOdl )* 0.646
E(I.I + 1) DCI + 1) AREAd + l)*0.1317
801 FLUI(1)*0.64
82021" FLOW(21)*0.646
E01 D(1)*4REA (1 ) 0.1317
E2021* D(21 )*AREA(?1 >*0.1317

CALCULATE TRANSFER MATRICES FOR BOO(A) AND DO OEFIClTfB>

DO 1 I2.19
A(I.I-l)-o.5*Q(!l.I)*t(I-lI)
8(1.1-1 ) Ad.I-1)
A(I.I) 0.5*0(1. 1*1 )-0.b*Od-l.I)Ed-l. I )*E(I.I + 1) + V(I)*AK1(I)

S(I,I + l)At!.I + n
A( 1 . 1 )*05*8( 1 2}*0.5*QOI*F.01 + Cd . ?T+V( 1 )* AK 1(1)
B(1.1)Ot5*Q(l2)-0.5*801+E01+E(l2)*V(l)*K2(l)
A(l,2) O.S*0(t.2)-Ed.2)
8(1, 2) A(1.2)
A(70.19)-0.5IJ(19.20> -E(19.20)
B(20.1')A(20.19)
00007800 R 0371
00007900 R 0375
00005000 R 03gO
00006100 R 0386
00008200 R 0397
00006300 R 0400
00008400 R 0403
00008500 R 0407
00008600 R 0409
00008700 R 0409
00008800 R 0409
00008900 R 0411
00009000 R 0417
00009100 R 0428
00009200 R 0433
00009300 R 0454
00009400 R 0475
00009500 R 0486
00009600 R 0492
00009700 R 0502
00009800 R 0512
00009900 R 0517
00010000 R 0518
00010100 R 0523

-------
ro
en
   AC?0,20) 0.5*82021-0.5*8(19.20)E(l.20)+E2021+V(70)*AKl(20)
   B(?0,20)0.5*92021-0.5*aC19,20)tE(19,20)+E2021*V(20)AK2(20)

      CALCULATE DIAGDNAL TRANSFER MATRIX  FHR  DEOXYGENATI ON(DEOX)

   DO 2 1-1,20
2  OEnxd. I)'V( I )*AK1(!)
      PRINT OUT THE (A)  MAIRIX

   PRINT 150
   PRINT 200
   DnMl,20
 5 PRINT 201 !
   PRINT 202
   DO*I1.20
  PRINT 201.t. (AC I,j>.j=i1.201
   PRINT 151

      PRINT OUT THE (R)  MATRIX

   PRINT 200
   D07J1.20
 r PRINT 201, i(Bd j).j = i 10)
   PRINT 202
   00 8I120
 8 PRINT 2oii(BUj).j = ii2oj

      PRINT OUT THE (iKox)  MATRIX

   PRINT 152
   PRINT 200
   D09I1,20
 9 PRINT 201M (DEDXCI. J), J = l. 105
   PRINT 202
   omoii.2o
10 PRINT ?oiicoEox(i,j),j=n,?oi
   NORDER20

      INVERT THE (A) MATRIX

   CALL MIN(A.NQROER)


      INVERT THE (B5
             CALL
                PRINT  OUT  THE  INVERSE  U/AJ

             PRINT  153
             PRINT  ?oo

             DQ11I1>20
          11  PRINT  201.TtAC I.J).Jclf101
             PRINT  202
             B012I120
          1?  PRINT  2oi.i.cAci.j).Jii?n>

                PRINT  Dili  THE  INVERSE.  (1/8)

             PRINT  156
             PRINT  200
             D[)13I120
00010200 fi
00010300 R
00010400 R
OOOlObOO R
00010600 R
00010700 R
00010800 R
00010900 K
00011000 R
0001 t 100 H
00011200 R
00011300 H
00011400 R
OOOllbOO R
00011600 R
00011700 R
oooiteoo R
00011900 R
00012000 R
00012100 R
0001?200 R
00012300 H
00012400 R
00012500 R
00012600 R
00012700 R
00012800 R
00012900 R
00013000 R
00013100 H
00013200 R
00013300 R
00013400 H
00013500 R
00013600 R
00013700 R
00013800 R
00013900 R
00014000 R
00011100 R
0001(1200 R
00011300 R
00014400 R
OOOlObOO R
00014600 R
00014700 R
00014600 R
00014900 R
00015000 R
00015100 R
00015200 R
00015300 K
00015400 R
00015500 R
00015600 R
00015700 R
00015800 R
00015900 R
00016000 R
00016100 R
00016200 R
00016300 R
0524
0531
0542
0542
0542
0544
0550
0553
0553
0555
055*
056?
056
0588
0592
Ob9
06 IS
0618
0618
061
0622
0625
0631
0651
0655
06*1
0677
0677
0677
0681
0685
0688
069U
071 J
071*
0724
0744
0744
0744
0744
0745
0746
0746
0746
0746
0747
0748
0748
0748
0752
0752
0755
0762
0782
0786
0792
0808
0808
OSOfl
0812
0816
0819

-------
0013I120
                                                                       .JO R
                                                                              0819
13


14
C
C
C




C
C
C





C
C
C


600
C
C
C

15


16

C
C
C


410
C
C
C


PRINT zoi!>(B(ItJ)>Jl>10)
PRINT 202
0014I120
PRINT 201I>(B( ! J>> Jll20}

BOUND*RY CORRECTION ROUTINE

Hl(l)c Nl(l)(0.5*001+E01>*ALO*8.34b
N2<1 > Vl2{l)*<0.5*90I*ITUl>DEF*8.345
Wl(2Q)*W1(?0)+(-0.5*J20*l+E?021)*ALL*8,345
H2C20> H2(20) + (-D,b*a?021*.E 2021 )*OEFL*8. 345

CALCULATE THE COMPOUND STEADY STATE TRANSFER MATRIX (C)

NC1LM20
CALL MMULT(B.CNaRQER.NORnERNcnLM>
CALL MMULT(CDEOX,ClNO^OER,NORDER,NcnLM)
PRINT 155
PRINT 200

TRANSFORM UNITS TO 10.000 LHS PER [UY INPUT/MS oER LIT[R

00600I>1>20
QQAOOJK 1*20
C2(I J)C1 (Ii J)*l 199.

PRINT OUT (C)

D015I120
PRINT 20l i(C2( I. j> Ji in)
PRINT 202
001 6I120
PRINT 201. I (C2( I. J) Jill?U)
NcnLMt

CALCULATE STE4JY STAIE RUO PROFlLE(XL) IN UNITS OF MG/L

CALL MMULTCAlX^.MOHnlR.NORDERNcDLM>
D0410I.1.20
XLf I)XL( 11*0.119?

CALCULATE STEADY STATE 00 DEFICIT PROFILE (oOX)IN UNITS

CALL MMULT(Cl*l'3.NORDER.NORDERNC0LO
CALL MMULT(Hw2(4.(vURnER>^(IRriERivcOLM)
10016400
00016500
00016600
00016700
00016600
00016900
00017000
00017100
00017200
00017300
0001/400
00017bOO
00017600
00017700
00017800
00017900
00018000
00018100
00018200
00018300
OUTPUT00018400
00018500
00018600
00018700
00018800
00018900
00019000
00019100
00019200
00019300
00019400
00019500
00019600
00019700
00019800
00019900
00020000
00020100
00020200
00020300
00020400
OF MG/L00020500
00020600
00020700
00020800
SEGMENT
C
C
C





1


411
?on
1

-3 r H n i u r oc.u>*ic.l*i
00020900
PRINT OUT STEADY STAU PROFILES

PRINT 154
PRINT 203
D0411I.1.20
DQXB(N3CI)+N4(I3}*0.1199
CS1 4.652-0. 41 022* TEMP(1)+0. 007991 o*TEMP( I )**2. -0.000077774
|TEMPU)**3.
CACTiCS-OOX
AOIIT(6. 0-1*0. 3) + D. 15
PRINT 101,AOUT.XL(I)Dn,CACT
FORMATS 1H "SECTIJ(">8X"1,1 IX"2"11X"3"11X*"41 lX/"5"
"6"llX"7"llX"SMX9"fl1X"l'>"//)

00021000
00021100
00021200
00021300
00021400
00021500
* 00021600
00021700
00021800
00021900
00022000
11X, 00022100
00022200
SEGMENT
R
R
H
R
R
R
R
R
R
H
R
R
R
R
R
H
H
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
K
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
H
R
R
R
R
R
R
1
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
3
0825
04b
0849
OB55
0871
0871
0871
0875
0884
0892
0900
0904
0904
0904
0908
0908
0913
0917
0920
0920
0920
0920
0924
0929
0936
0940
0940
0940
0943
0950
0970
0974
0980
1000
1000
1000
1 000
1001
lOOb
101 1
101 J
1013
1013
1016
1020
IS 1023
0002
0002
0002
0002
0006
0009
0015
0020
0'034
0037
0038
0047
0064
0064
IS 26













































LONr,














LONG

-------
CM UJ
O X
o e
O UJ

0
o

X
o
o
CM
CM
O
O
C





































"""
"]
CM

U)
o


X

m


, x




X
ft
o
u-
V.
o
CM
m
O  B

X X
CM 

X *
" *
o 


X X
~z
t 
* X
X ,
 -*
X X


X 

X X
x c

X
X *
^< X



X t
ft IT
o 
U, X
CM
o
CM
0>
CM
1 *J * O 
(/I O O O O
1 o o o o
,
ft, QC CC X
o o o o
j O O O 0
Z CM CM CM! a
-
iXS O O
-O O

CC X
o o
o o
Z1 *n 1*1
UJ CM CM CMl CM UJ tV CM
xoooo xoo
C O C O O QTC'O
U O C O C Ui C O




! x
 X
t X
O X
x r


K 4
* ***
x e-
i H- O
M CD
o
' - a:
u. c
UJ U.
a


o
*
; x


X t
J
X
(9

1 M

C

X
X



*-


UJ

x
X

X


t

X
ft
o

cc
*~
X

o:
U'
u.
I/)


ft
*




IX-


tXJ

T

X

X
o


t
X

t
4
X
ft
c
U. *"> U. U.
tf
o * o
CX. O IT
 >



*"*


*"


u.
UI
Q

o
o

Or
c
u.

X X

ft. X
- 
I >-

cc o
u, x
- tS)
X -
4 (XI
X UJ
ft ^
o _t
U. 4


m
-
*o o o
t- O O

x a
o o
o o
Z Ocri
UJ CM CM
XOO
0 O C
UJ O C
vO U.
UJ
c

"
0 X
*-H X
1 
z >-
UI 4
13 C
>- X
X 15
C I
UJ
o u.
o
a
c \r.
u. *

X Z

ft
*~ z
X

1 UI

O UJ

4 a.

0 UJ


I QC
t- 4
IT l/-



- 4


X 

0 O

 c-
 "
X 1X1

*- z
4 UJ


o *-
U. U-
**
CM
m
o
c  x
X
*
t

X
^
tx;
4
Q

Lu
or





z




.-H
4

U.
o

UJ
X
U'

z



I
*"



(X"

X

X

o

X
c




a
0 ^s
U. X
**

IT
CM
O -O
XJ O 0
r-* 0 0

tr x
O 0
0 O
^ n T>
UJ CM CM
XOO
O 0 C
u,' O O
< X


X
-
X
X
t/5

0

Ui
a:





^




f^
a.


o

UJ
t/J
X
u.

~2



X
~
UO


(X)

x


X
o

X
X



z
cr

U- X
^*

in
^
c 
X1 0 O
 0 0

 cr x
0 O
0 O
Z /n *

0 C O C.
O O 0 C

X X X X
coco
O O O 0
s ^ s 
UJ CM CM CM CM CM EX
X 0 O O O O 0
C= C O O O O C
Ui C O C O C C


-z
* c:

X O
^ UJ
*-lXJ




x ec

X U.


T D

ui *-

4 U

*T U,
U.
0 
4 O

t- ~*
u^z^

* UJ
~ X)
cr z
a n:
T Q

O UJ
u.

 T


4  wn
X <3
X3 O X

3 ./) xx
t- C 
U. -  X
t- Z * Z

4 uj
X Z (X- _j


 r Q 5
Z Ui tX)
~OtX) UJ Z
0 U. X
a: c -
o Q. x

x u, ^
. i ,

X - x -

X Ut X ^
* 0 - O
x nr x 
D  _J t-
U. X X O
HX1 X IX)
ft "
c z c;
Uj  t
X ui Z
K 1 *- 
ix: 
U, 4 U >-
*4 *H  


?
t/> O C O
C O 0

 XXX
0 0
0 0
z * =
UI CM CM
X 0 0
C C 0
UJC C





X
X
*
c

o

4

D
0
CC1

u.
c



^

4
oc.

7
UJ
o
tC.
c



t-
4

J1



UJ


X

o


X
x" U)





O D 
U- O tXJ


in o
C\( * Jl
 *
CiX)* OOOOOOOOOiX>
O  * OOOCOOOGC*-
*
f\> * t\(
CE *trxa:3:a:a:xx3: 
o  ooooooooo
O ZOOOOOOOOO
^lyaa!jnio[r'"O*J^'~
OXUIOOOOOOOOO7
c U. (Xi



X
2
tX)





















c
fSJ



* fSI
f\ *


  rvj 
-1  f



*  c


^ f\l ^,

^ o +
y r\ 


ui  , . 7 ^
  a 'u "H M ^i r^





I "s^, r*jpfc~r-t>~*~ ^
-J (XJOOOp*IO>JCCUJ



                                                                                                                                       *  -TXXXX3TXXXXXXXXXX
                                                                                                                                       -OOOOO
                                                                                                                                       ZOOOOO
                                                                                                                                       uj-ON- (OO'O
                         ) O O O O O O O
                         > o o o o o o o
                         '  iA -C f- OC t> O -^
               .
UJOOOOO
iACOCOO
   OCOCC-
OOOO
CCCO
OOCO
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o c
o o c c- c c o
                                                                                             127

-------
ro
oo
            XMRS(X(J.K))
        20  CfWINUt
        30   CONTINUE
        32
        40
        42
50
        52
        60
        70
        75
        80
        90
            IKK. 3
            11(1,1 ) =
      IF( IR-IC>3?,42,3?
      00 10 IJ*1.N
      DUMX( IR, IJ)
      X( tR, IJ)X( 1C, I J)
      X(tC,U>DllM
      P=X(IC,IC)
      X( !C,IC)1
            U*1,N
           IJ)X( IC,IJ>/P
         70 IK1.N
         ( IK-IC>52>70.5?
      CsX(IK.lC)
      X{ TK,K>'0.
      D060I J=1,N
      X(TK,IJ)X(IK,tJ).X(IC.lJ)*C
      CONTINUE
      DO 90 I1N
      KsN+l-I
            DO
            X( 1
            DO
            IF
      DO 80 IJ1,N
      OUUXC IJ, IR)
      X(IJ,IR)XCIJK)
      X( IJ, IC)*DUM
      CONTINUE
      CONTINUE
      RETURN
      END
00026900
00027000
00027 1 00
00027200
000.27300
00027400
00027500
00027600
00027700
00027600
00027900
00028000
00028100
0002S200
00028300
00028100
00028500
00028600
00028700
00028800
00028900
00029000
00029100
00029200
00029300
00029400
00029500
00029600
00029700
00029800
00029900
00030000
00030050
00030100
00030200
SEGMENT
SEGMENT
SEGMENT
SEGMENT
START OF SEGMENT
__SGMEJi!
R 0041
R 0045
R 0046
R 0046
R 0049
R 0051
R 0053
R 0056
R 0061
R 0064
R 0071
R 0075
R 0078
R 0081
R 0087
R 0093
R 0098
R 0102
R 0105
R 0108
R 0114
R 0124
R 0125
R 0130
R 01 32
R 0137
R 0138
R 0140
R 0145
R 0148
R 015
H 0158
R 0159
R 0159
R 0162
13 IS 175
14 IS 78
15 IS 29
16 IS 138
17 IS 11



































LONG
LONG
LONG
LONG
1 7
LONG
      NUMBfR  OF SYNTAX ERRORS OtFEClEO = Oi

      PRT  SIZE  f 881   TOTAL SEGMENT SIZE *

      ESTlMATFn CORE  STORAGE REaUIRE ME NT = 851? HOROSJ
                                                   DISK  SIZE = 74 SEGS)  NO. PRGM. SEGS  *  41.

                                                   COMPILATION TIME  46 SFCSI  Nn.  CARDS    319.
f nRT"AN/LlSTTNG
                                                 AT  1H2H5    M0ND*Y  08/25/75
                                                                                        TIME
                                                                                                    19140
                                                                                                               TTME
                                                                                                                           19133

-------
IN3
73
-o
PO

-------
                OUTPUT  INTERPRETATION


1. Page  131  contains the table of system parameters and forcings
    (labeled) for the navigation channel.  This will be page one
    of the output.

2.   The matrix equations to be solved are:

                (L) = [A]"' (W)

                (D) = [C]  (W)  + [B]"1 (Sb)

                [C] = [B]"1 (VK,) [A]"1

     Where      (L) = steady state CBOD concentrations

                [A] = transfer matrix for CBOD

                Cw) = waste load vector for CBOD

                CD) = steady state DO deficit concentrations

                [Bj = transfer matrix for DO deficit

                (Sb) = benthic uptake vector

                (V K ) = deoxygenation diagonal matrix

                [C] = compound transfer matrix

     Each of the  pages of  output are identified by  a title.  The
compound steady state transfer matrix on  page 139  can be utilized as
a table for waste  load allocation purpose.  Note from the table
that a waste load  into Section 5  (mile point 4.65)  of 10,000 Ibs./
day will produce  a minimum DO value  of 1.52  mg/1  in section 15.
(Read down column  5 to row 15.)

Page  149    lists  the steady state concentrations  of CBOD and  DO.
                                   130

-------
SYSTEM PARAMETERS FDR THE NAVIGATION CHANNEL
SECTION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
DEPTH
(ft.)
200E+02
200E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
250E+02
0
AREA
(ft. 2)
0.300E+04
0.350E+04
0.420E+04
0.440E404
0.430E+04
0.900E+04
0.470E+04
0.510E+04
0.490E+04
0.550E+04
0.740E-H34
0.420E-K)4
0.900E+04
0.620E+04
0.620E+04
0.650E-K)4
0. 650E+04
0. 450E+04
0.700E+04
0. 450E+04
0.820E+04
FLOW
(CFS)
0.305E+03
0. 305E+03
0.345E403
0.345E403
0.345E403
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0. 345E+03
0. 345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0.345E+03
0. 345E+03
0. 345E+03
0.345E+03
DISP
(mi2/day)
0.250E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.220E-KX)
0.220E+00
0.220E+00
0.400E+00
0.600E+00
0.800E+00
0.100E+01
0.100E+01
0.120E+01
Wl

W2

Kl
TEMP
(Ibs/day) (gm/mVday) (day-1) (C)
0.0
1440
0.0
300
5880
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.
0.
0.
,0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
500E+01
500E+01
500E-HD1
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
500E+01
0
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E400
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
150E+00
0
0.286E+Q2
0.295E+02
0.305E+02
0.307E+02
0.309E+02
0. 311E+02
0.314E+02
0.314E+02
0.312E+02
0.311E+02
0.309E402
0.306E+02
0.304E+02
0.302E+02
0.302E+02
0.295E+02
0.289E+02
0.286E+02
0. 283E+02
0.280E+02
0.0

-------
PROGRAM  OUTPUT
       132

-------
n
CO
o-o
20+308Z*0
ZO+3C8Z*0
ZO+398Z*0
ZO+368Z*D
ZO+3S6Z*0
zo+3zo*o
ZO+3ZO*0
Z0+3*0*0
Z0+390*0
Z0+360*0
ZO+311C*0
ZO+3Z1*0
Z0+3l*0
Z0+3*t*0
Z0+311*0
ZO+360C*0
ZO+310C*0
ZO+3SO*0
ZO+3S/Z*0
ZO+39Z*0
dM31
0*0
00+3051*0
00*3051*0
00*3051*0
00*30SfO
00*30SfO
00*30ST'0
00*3051*0
00*30ST'0
00+3051 -0
00*30S1'0
00+3051 *0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
00+3051*0
IX
0*0
10+3005*0
10+300S*0
10+3005*0
TO+300S*0
10*3005*0
10+3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10*3005*0
10+3005*0
10+3005*0
ZM
O'O
0*0
0*0
0*0
0*0
O'O
O'O
O'O
0*0
0*0
0*0
0*0
0*0
V0+3091*0
O'O
0*0
V0+3666*0
0+3015*0
0*0
*/0 + 3*/Vl*0
0*0
IN
io+3ozz*o
10+3081 '0
10+30*1*0
10+3001*0
00*3008'0
00*3009*0
00+300**0
00+300VO
00+300VO
00*3065*0
00*300**0
00*301**0
00+309VO
00*305**0
00*308**0
00*300**0
00*30ZS*0
00*306V*0
00*30ZS*0
00+3009*0
00+3001*0
a
0+3i06'0
CO+3006'0
CO*3U06'0
eO*3006'0
0*3006' 0
0*3006'0
0+3006*0
0+3006*0
0+3006*0
0+3l>06*0
0+3006'0
0+3006*0
0+3006*0
0+3006*0
0+3006*0
0+3006*0
0+3006*0
0+3,18*0
0+3Si8*0
0+30S8'0
0+3058*0
0
VO+30Z8-0
VO+30SZ.-0
V0*300/*0
^0+305^-0
*0+30S9-0
VO+3059-0
*/0*30Z9-0
*0*30Z9*0
V0*3006*0
*0*30Z**0
*0*30*/*0
*0*30SS*0
VO+306^'0
VO+3015'0
V0+30i*/*0
VO+3006'0
VO+30C/-0
VO+30WO
VO+30ZVO
vo+aose-o
*0+3SZC*0

0*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO*30SZ*0
zo+3o;z*o
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO*30SZ*0
ZO*30SZ*0
ZO+3QSZ*0
ZO+30SZ*0
ZO+305Z*0
7o+aosz*o
ZO+300Z-0
ZO+300Z*0
H

-------
          THIS is THE TRANSFER MATRIX FOR BOCKAJ.
SECTION
                                                                                                                          10
1
?
3
4
5
f>
7
fl
9
10
n
i?
1 3
14
15
16
17
1ft
19
20
.585E 03
-.3BBE 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.165E 03
.5751 03
-.399E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.176C 03
.583E 03
-.395E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-. 1/3E 03
.590E 03
.406E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.lB3r 03
,767f 03
-.586E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.u
.0
.0
-.363E 03
.790E 03
-.409 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
 0
.0
 0
-.186E 03
.613E 03
-.414E 03
 0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.u
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.19lr 03
.613E 01
-.4oSf OS
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
tO
.0
.0
.0
.0
".185E 03
.608E 03
-,08E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
 0
.0
.0
.0
-.18E
.704E
-.501E
.0
.0
 u
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0








03
03
03









SECTION
               1 1
                                       13
                                                              15
                                                                                                    18
                                                                                                                 19
20
    1
    2
    3
    a
    5
    A
    7
    B
    9
   10
   11
   1?
   n
   14
   15
   16
   17
   IB
   19
   ?0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.27SE 03
.699E 03
,405t 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.1B21 03
.ffl5E 03
-.5861 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.363E 03
.821L 01
-.43BL 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.21<>

". 43B
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
E 03 .0
E 03 -.215E 03
E 03 .858E 03
-.625E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.402E 03
.122E OC
-.796E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.573E 03
.129E 04
-.704E 03
.0
.0





t





,




 

" 

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
481E OJ
190E 04
140E 04
0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
tO
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.118E 04
.309E 04
-.189E 04
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.167E
.418E


















04
04

-------
               THIS  is  THE  TsA>jsnr><  MATRIX  FOR  DO  OEMCIT  m.   VALUES ARE EXPRESSED IN UNITS OF M&/DAIT
    SECTION
                                                                                                                                10
         3
         4
         i
         4
         7
         *
         9
        10
        11
        1?
        13
        14
        IS
        1A
        lr
        1
        19
oi   SECTION
         4
         5
         f,
         7
         8
         9
        10
        11
        1?
        M
        i
        is
        i
        17
        is
        19
        ?o
.-579E Oi
.38E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
11
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
'.27E 03
.68AE 03
'.^OSE 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.16<5E 0-
.i67t 03
-.3901 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
1?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.182t. 03
,77r>E. oj
-.SflAfc 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-. 17E 03
.574E 03
-,39St 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
13
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.363E 03
.8oE 03
-,38E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.173E 03
,5U 03
-.AO'SE 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
 0
14
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
tO
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.215E 03
.654E 03
-.438E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-. 183F 03
.772L 03
-.5B6F 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
15
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.215E 03
.843E 03
-.625E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.363E 03
.774E. 03
-.409E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
16
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.402E 03
.120E 04
-.796E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.186F 03
.602E 03
-.414E 03
.0
.0
 0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
17
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.573F 03
.1?8E 0
".704F 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.191F Oi
,60?F 01
-.08f; 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
18
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-,8ir os
.189F 0*
-.110E 0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.185F. 03
,596E 03
-.408E 03
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
19
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.use 04
.307E 04
-.189E 04
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.186E
.690E
-.501E
.0
,0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
tO
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
-.167E
.416E








03
03
03









20


















04
04

-------
          THfS IS THE DIAGONAL MATRIX FOR DEOXYGENATION COEFFICIENTS (DEOX). VALUES ARE EXPRESSED IN UNITS OF MG/DAY
SECTION
    1
    2
    ^
    4
    5
    *
    r
    S
    9
   in
   it
   l?
   n
   14
   15
   1*
   17
   IS
   19
   ?0
SECTION
    4
    5
    *
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   1?
   n
   14
   15
   16
   17
   1*
   19
   ?0
10
.921E 01
.0
.0
.0
. o r
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
11
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.15*E 0?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.me o?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.180E 0?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.TT
.117E 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
13
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,2071 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.119E 07
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
14
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.169E 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
. 182E 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
15
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.173F 07
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.187E 02
,0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1A
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.177t 0?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.134E 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
 n
17
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.0
.0
.150E 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.137F 0?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
18
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.157F. 0?
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
,0
.0
.U2E 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
19
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.198E 02
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
tO
.0
.0
.1761
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
 0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.214E









02










20



















02

-------
         THIS IS THF INVERSE UF (A).  UNITS ARE UAYS/MQ,
SECTION
                                                                                                                            10
    9
   10
   11
   1?
   n
   it
   IT
   1*
   19
.233L-02
.22PE-02
.210E-07
. 197E-0?
.181E-02
. 163E-0?
.153E-02
.143E-0?
.137F-0?
.111E-0'
.10E-0?
.973F-03
,17*F.-03
                         .297L-07
                         .273E-0?
                         ,260fc-02
            .231E'07
            .2l*f07
            ,199-0
                          11*1-0'
            ,39'JE-03
            . 140E-02
            .37of02
            .346E-07
            .3t9e-02
            ,257fO?

            .217F-0?
                          120E-0?
                        . 167E.-07
                        . 135E-07
                        . llflfO?
                        .877E-03
                        .51-SE-03
                        .310E-03
                        .140E-03
            .16JE-03
            .572E-03
            . 15JE-07
            .379E-0?
            .337.E-02
            .313E-02
            .294E-07
            275E-0?
                                    .237E-0?
                                    .214E-07
                                    . 199E-07
                                    . 147F.-0?
                                    .121F-OP
                        .563E-03
                        ,33SE-03
                        .153F-01
            .670E-04
            .237f03
            .627E-03
            .37U-0?
            .353F-02
            .333E-0?
            .3l4-0?
            .293E-02
            .270F-07
            .253E-0?
            .228E-0?
            .2]?E-0?
            .1P9E-0?
                        .128F-07
                        .102F-0?
                        .600E-03
                        .361E-03
                        .163F-03
                        .395E"04
                        .140E"03
                        .37QE-03
                        .219E-07
                        .371E-0?
                        .350E-07
                        .329E-07
                        .308fO?
                        .283E-07
                        .26AE-0?
                        .240E-07
                        223E-0?
                        .135E-0?
                        .107L-07
                        .630E-0?
                                                                                      .600E-04
                                                                        .397F-03
                                                                        .938F-03
                                                                                      .3lf-02
                                                                                      .3S8F"02
                                                .308E-02
                                                .2S9F-02
                                                            .243F.-02
                                                            .21(SF"02
                                                            .179F-02
                                                            ,147^-02
                                                            .171E-01
                                    .412E-03
                                    . 1
                        .879f-o5
                        .149E-04
                        .35/E-04
                        .194L-03
.20AE-0?
.351E-0?
.317E-02
.259E-07
                        .1A1E-02
                        .99,E-o3
                                                   14
                                    .694E-07
                                                 .163E-OS
                        ,65?E'05
                        .!5<,E-Oa
                        .362E-04
. 191E-03
.377E*03
.903E-03
.153E-07
.340E-0?
.28?E-07
.231E-07
                        ,2oE-03
.108E-07

'.293E-03
                                                              15
            .283E-07
            .100E-06
            .2A5E-06
            .663F-06
            .157E-05
            .266E-05
            .63AE-05
            .147F-04
            .345E-04
            ,8o7f-04
            .153F-03
            .368E-03
            .625F.-03
            .139F-02
            .304F-02
            .240E-0?
            .197E-07
                                                                            16
                                                . 149E-07
                                                .528E-07
                                                            .349E-OA
.335E-05
.777E-05
.182E-04
.425E-04
.809E-04
.194E-03
.329E-01
.730E-01
.160E-07
.2*2E"07
.207-07
.123E-0?
                                                   17


                                                .848E-08
                                                .301E'07
                                                .794E'07
                                                .199E-06
                                                                                         18
                                                .79E'06
                                                .19U-05
.103E-04
.?42E*04
.4AOF"04

.187F-03

.912E-03
                                                            .217E-02
                                                            12SF-02
                                                                                    .121F-07
                                                                                    .321F-07
                                                                                    .804F-OT
                                                .771F-0*
                                                ,179r-OS
                                                                                    ,757F'0
                                                                                     13*F-0'
                                                                                                      19
                                                            .173E-08
                                                            .614E-08
                                                            .162E-07
                                                            .406E-07
                                                            .959E-07
                                                            .163E-06
.902E-06
.211F.-05
.494F-05
.939E-05
.225E-04
.383F.-04
.848F-04
.186F-03
.305E-03
.443E-03
.686F-03
                                                .3lE-03
                                                .333E-01
                                                .349E-03
                                                                                                                  20
                                                .691E-09
                                                .245E-08
                                                .647E-08
                                                .162E-07
                                                                                                             649E-07
,360E*06
.83E"0
,197-05
.375f05
.898E-05
                                                                                                             . 338f04
                                                                                     .122E-03
                                                                                     .177E-03
                                                                                     .274E-03
                                                             .380E-03
                                                .391E-03

-------
             THIS  IS  THE  INi/ERSE OF CB).  UNITS ARE OAYS/MG.
 v  SECTION
        A
        7
        *
        9
       10
       It
       1?
       11
       Id
        17
        1"
        10
        20
to
00
     SECTION
         1
         5>
         1
         a
         S
         f,
         7
         *
         <9
        in
        11
        1?
        n
        17
        in
        19
        20
1
.240E-02
.23TE-62
.23SE-02
.23?E-0?
.22E-02
.22*E'0?
,22flF-0?
.221F-0?

.7HE-0?

.204E-0?

. 1 flsf'-O'
. 1MF-0?
,13f E-0?
. 100E-02
.A5SF-Q3
. 39 7 E- 03
.1ROF-03
11
. 11*1-05

. tOSE-04

.584E-04
.957E-04
.21SE-03
.471E-03
. IOSE'0?
.23-SF-02
.427.E-02
.4! 1F-0?
.401E-02
.37SE-02
.37AF-02
.27SE-0?
.221 E'02
.133E-02
.80AE-03

2
.IOIE'02
. 354E-02
. 35oE'0?
. 34*E~07
. 341 -0?
, 33 AE02
( 33 flt -0?
. 330E-0?
. 32'iE'O?
. 319F.-0?
. 314E-0?
. 304r"09
. 29SE-0?
. 27*E"0?
. 24f)E~0?
.207E-07
 1 A1-02
.97RE-03
.59JE-03
.2*01-0,
1' .
.5o,E-o
. 1 f 'St'O'i
. 4b7fc."0'i
. 111E-04

. 41*E'04
.934S.-04

i 4<5P-Q3
. 10?E'02
in^E*o?
.4loE-0?
,407fO?
. 380fO?
.331E-0?
.279E-07
.224E-02
.135E-0?
.817f01
.371E-03
3
.441E-03
.155E-02
.4Q1E"02
.39AE-0?
.390E-02
.386E-02
, 3s?E-02
.377E-02
.372E-02
.3A5E-0?
.359E-02
.347E-02
.33E-02
.31SE-0?
.274E-02
.23PE-OP
.18AL-02
.H?E-o2

'. 30E-0^
13
. 303E-OA
. 104E-05
.27-JE-05
.660E-05
. 1 53t"04
.250E-04
,56?E-04
. 124E-03
. 276E"03
*14E'03
.11?E-02

.'4ll-0?
.384E-0?
.334E-02
,28?E-0?
.227E-02
,13*E-02
.825E-01
.375E-01
4
.l'OE'03
.66AE-03
.1?3F"0?
.420E-0?
,4l4t-0?
.410E-02
.405E-02
.401E-0?
.39"SE-09
, 3flBE"0?
.381E-02
. 3A9E-Q?
.358E-02
.33SF-07
.291E-0?
.24AE-0?
.198E-02
 1 1'E" o?
.720E-03
. 127E-03
14
.139E-OA
. 487E-OA
.126E-05
.307E-05
.702E-05
. 11'5E-04
.258E-01
^ft^f.n*
. 127E-03
,28?E-03
.513E-03
.1UE-02
. 189E-0?
.390E-07
.33QE-09
. 28AE-0?
.230E-02
.13RE-0?
.837E-01
. 380E-01
5
.29TE-03
.767E-03
.187E-02
.4?AE-02
.423F-02
.418E-02
.413F-02
.407E-0?
.400E-07
.393E-02
.3BOF'02
.369E-02
.345F-0?
.300F-02
.253F-02
.204E-02
. 122E-02
.742F-03
.337P-01
15
.593F-07
.208E-06
,539E'Oft
.131E-05
.300E-05
.491E-05
.110F-04
.243F-04
.541F-04
. 1?OE'03
,2l9E-03
.494E-03
.8Q6E-03
.16AF-02
.343E-0?
.290E-02
.233E-02
.140E-02
.848E-03
,386f-03
6
.182E-03
.471E-01*
115E-0?
,2fi?E-02
.429E-0?
.424E-0?
.410E-0?
.413E-0?
.4Q5E-0?
.39?E"07
.38AE-09
.375F-0?
.350E-0?
.305E-0?
,257E-0?
.207E-0?
.124E-0?
.752E-01
.342E-0,
1A
.322E'07
,11 3i*Qf,
.293E'OA
.713E-OA
.163E-OS
.267E-0-5
.590E-05
. 132E-04
.294E-04
.A54E-04
. 1 19~03
,29E-03
.438E-01
.904E-03
. 187E-09
.292E-0?
.235E-02
.141E-02
,8S6E-03
.3B9E-01
7
.81 AE'O*
211E'03
.515E-03
.118E-02
.193E-02
.432E-02
.4P7F-02
.4?1E-02
.413E-02
.40AE-02
.393E-02
.32F-02
.357F.-02
.31 U-02
,?A2F-02
.211E'02
.127F-02
.767E-03
.349F-03
17
.187E-07
. AS4E"Of
.1A9E-0&
.412E'06
.943E-06
.1S4E-05
.34AE-05
.7A2E-05
.170E"04
.379F-04
.689E-04
.155E-03
.253E-03
.523E-03
.108F-02
.1A9E-02
.237E-02
.U2E-02
,8A3E'03
.392F-03
8
!3f2E-04
.9A4f-Q4
.235E-0?
,53(SF-0^
. 87flF'0^
.197F-0?
.433F-0'
.427F-0'
.420r-0?
.412F-0*
,399r-0'
. 38flp-0'
3A2F-0?
. 3HF*0'
, 2AAF-0'
.214F-0?
.129F-0'
.779F.-0''
. 354F-01
18
.7AAF-0*
. 269F.-0^
,69AF'0T
.169F-0*
. 387F-0*
,634F~0^
t 14?F0^
. 31 3F-0S
,69^ F" 0^
. 15AF04
.283F-0
. A3F*0
. 104F-0'
.215F-0''
. 4 4 3 F" 0*
 695F* 0^
. 973f -0^
.144F-0?
.87?F-0'i
. 39AF-0'
9
.475E-Q5
.166E~-04
.43U-04
.105E-03
.248E-03
.393E-03
.882F-03
.194F-02
.433F-02
.425E-02
.418F-02
, 404p~02
.393E-02
. 367F-02
.319F-02
.270E-0?
.217E-02
. 1 3oE*02
.789E-03
.358E-03
19
.390E-08
.137E-07
355E-07
.863E-07
.197E-OA
.323E-OA
.725F-OA
.160E-05
.35AE-05
'.793E"05
.144F-04
.325E-04
.530F-04
.110F-03
.22AF-03
.354F-03
.49AE-03
.733E-03
.87AE-03
.398E-03
10 ,
.212F-05
T43E-05 n
i l'2E'04
.468E-04
.D7E-03
.175E-03
..393E-03
.8AAF-03
.193E-02
.430E-02
.423E-02
,409E-02
.398E-02
i 371E-02
,323E-02
.273E-02
.219E-02
.132E-02
.798"03
363E-03
20
.157E-08
.549E-08
,142E-07
.346E-07
.791E-OT
.130E-06
.291E-06
.640E-OA
.143E-05
,318E-05
.578E-05
,130E-0
,213E-04
.439E-04
.90AE-04
.142E-03
.199E-03
,29E-03
.35lE-03
.400E-03

-------
THIS IS THE COMPOUNJ STEADY STATE MATtUX (C)-(I/A)*(1/B1*1OEOX) RELATING  THE  RESPONSE  IN  DO  D6FICITID)  FOR ANY SECTION OF THE RIVER
TO A UNIT WASTfc DISCHARGE INTO ANY StuTlCM.  M ASTt DISCHARGE  IS  tXPRtSSEO  IN UNITS  OP  10,000 IBS/DAY AND 00 DEFICIT IN MC/L
o RESPONSE
IM ^G/L IN
SfcCT ION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
~i
10
11
12
13
14
Ib
16
17
Ib
is
20
-1
J
stcriO"
i
2
1
4
t>
6
/
8
-1
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1
0.328S-01
0.634F-01
0.936F-01
0.119H-00
0. 150e+00
0. 169i-+00
o.i94itoo
0.218I-+03
0.242r00
0.266I- + UO
0.2&4I-+00
0. 307(-00
0.320r*00
0.339fcGO
0.355I-+00
0.35St+00
0.341h+00
0.2!>7b+00
0. 176I-+UO
O.H82I--01
11
0.201fc-lb
J. S24F-16
0.541C-14
0.208h-ll
0.284I--09
0. IU7F-08
0.8 131- -07
0.339t--05
G.246H-03
0. Ib6t--01
0.619F-01
0. 125I-+00
0. I65b00
O.?13t-+00
0.267r+00
0.2v9h+00
0. J03f tOO
0.2391- tOO
0. 168H+JO
0.847^-01
2
0.2t,rJc-Q3
0. Jd8c-0l
0. 756t-Cl
0. 10BcCO
0. 147E + CO
0.1 7Cc+00
0.201t00
0.231b+00
0.260t+uO
0.2^0cCO
0. i!2t00
0. 34lc00
0. 358tCG
0. itlL+UO
0.402*UO
0.407t00
0. 3b9t+UO
0.294t+C>0
0.202t*oO
0. 101t+&0
12
0. li.i'xi-iO
0.276c-18
O.?b9fc-lo
0. 113E-13
0.lD7t-ll
0.6J3E-11
O.Wit-G9
o.zofie-o/
0. lo 2b-22
0.407b-20
0.43U-18
0.171e-15
0.243b-13
O.^50b-13
0.777b-ll
0.354t-09
0.294t-07
0.232b-05
0. 134E-04
0.236E-02
0.749E-02
0.656t-01
0.133b00
0.178c+00
0.196E+00
0.165E+00
0.118b*00
0.603b-0l
5
O.l45t-09
0.339c-07.
0.2-)7t-05
0.881E-03
0.761t-01
0.122E+00
0.181E*00
0.237E00
0.292fc+00
0.350b00
0.393E+00
U.450b00
C.485t+00
0.529E+00
0.574E+00
0.5?lb00
0.571E*00
0.435t+00
0.300t00
0.150t+00
13
0.-55fc-24
0.256E-21
0.273E-19
0.109E-16
0.157t-l4
0.620E-14
0.516E-12
0.240t-lO
0.204E-08
0.167fc-06
O.lOOE-Ob
0.191E-03
0.666E-03
0.792fc-02
0.803E-01
0.1306+00
0.154E+00
0.135E+00
0.985t-01
0. 5066-01
6
0.406E-10
0.974E-08
0.894E-06
0.289E-03
0.301E-01
0.766E-01
0.141E00
0.201E00
0. 2596+00
0.320E+00
0.366E+00
0.426E+00
0.463E+00
0.510E+00
0.559E+00
0.579E+00
0.561E+00
0.428E+00
0.296E+00
0.148E+00
16
0.273E-24
0.736E-22
0.789E-20
0.318E-17
0.459E-15
0.182E-14
0.153E-12
0.7206-11
0.621E-09
O.S17E-07
0.3186-06
0.632E-04
0.229E-03
0.301E-02
0.370E-01
0.914E-01
0.119E+00
0.1116+00
0.826E-01
0.4286-01
7
0.3646-12
0.898E-10
0. 8586-08
0.296E-05
0. 3476-03
0.1106-02
0.475t-01
0.9176-01
0.1356+00
0.1816+00
0.215E+00
0.261t+00
0.289E+00
0.324E+00
0.3616+00
0.379E+00
0.3696+00
0.2846+00
0.1966+00
0.9866-01
17
0.8896-25
0.2406-22
0.258E-20
0.1046-17
0.1516-15
0.6036-15
0.5106-13
0.2416-11
0.2106-09
0.1776-07
O.llOt-06
0.2236-04
0.622E-04
0.113E-02
0.149E-01
0.408E-01
0.6806-01
0.7046-01
0.5406-01
0.2836-01
U
0.812E-14
0.204fc-ll
0.201E-09
0.7236-07
0.904E-05
0. 3106-04
0.182E-02
0.4836-01
0.938E-01
0.1426+00
0.1796+00
0.2276+00
0.2576+00
0.2956+00
0.3356+00
0.3556+00
0.3486+00
0.2696+00
0.1876+00
0.9386-01
18
0.2396-25
0.6486-23
0.6986-21
0.2836-18
0.4126-16
0.1646-15
0.1406-13
0.6666-12
0.5836-10
0.4956-08
0.3116-07
0. 6406-05
0.2396-04
0.3406-03
0.4686-02
0.1366-01
0.2526-01
0.4076-01
0.3446-01
0.1876-01
9
0.979E-16
0.2506-13
0.2516-11
0.9296-09
0.1216-06
0.4356-06
0.292E-04
0.1026-02
0.4996-01
0.1026+00
0.1416+00
0.1946+00
0.2276+00
0.2676+00
0.3116+00
0.3346+00
0.3316+00
0.258E+00
0.179E+00
0.9026-01
19
0.1316-25
0.3556-23
0.383E-21
0.1556-18
0.2276-16
0. 9076-16
0.774E-14
0.3696-12
0.3246-10
0.276E-08
0.1746-07
0.3606-05
O.V36E-04
0.1946-03
0.2726-02
0.8056-02
0.1546-01
0.2756-01
0.2736-01
0.1576-01
10
0.143E-1T
0.3716-15
0.3796-13
0.1446-10
0.1936-08
0.7166-08
0.522E-06
0.207E-04
0.1366-02
0.690E-01
0.1196+00
0.187E+00
0.229E+00
0.2816+00
0.339E+00
0.371E+00
0.371E+00
0.291E+00
0.203E+00
0.102E+00
20
0.5UE-26
0.1386-23
0. 1506-21
0.607E-19
0.8856-17
0.354E-16
0.303E-14
0.144E-12
0.127E-10
0.108E-08
U.684E-08
0.142E-05
0.536E-05
0.773E-04
0.109E-02
0.325E-02
0.630E-02
0.116E-01
0.122E-01
0.834E-02

-------
                               STEADY  STATE  CCNCENTKAT1ONS OF BOD AND D
MILE PT
BODIMG/L)
                              Uli  OtFICIT
                                DO
 5.85
 5.55
 5.25
 4.95
 4.65
 4.35
 4.05
 3.75
 3.45
 3.15
 2.85
 2.55
 2.25
 1.95
 1.65
 1.35
 1.05
 0.75
 0.45
 0.15
0.886E+01
0.875E+01
0.857E+01
0.828E+01
0.-J95E + 01
0.971E+01
0.949E+01
0.959E+01
0.936E+01
O.'JObfc + Ol
0.685E+01
O.B51E+01
0.828E+01
0.b04E+01
0.772E+01
0.743E+01
0.718E+01
0.671E+01
0.641E+01
0.617E+01
0.430E+01
0.4 38b+i* 1
0.41>8E + ul
0.463b + ill
0.4>J9b+i
-------
SNOIIDIHISHU

-------
                        RESTRICTIONS


     The major restriction placed upon this model  is that for every
section interface the relationship

                                 0.5 Q - E1 < 0

must hold true, where E1 = D *AREA* 0.1317.  Where this restriction is
not true, results will not be valid.

     Computer time for one simulation on an IBM-360/70 is approximately
30 seconds.  This includes compilation and run time.
                                      142

-------

-------
                                  TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                           (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
  REPORT NO.
 EPA-905/9-74-012
                                                          3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO.
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
 Water Pollution Investigation:
 and Cleveland  Area
Cuyahoga River
                        5. REPORT DATE
                          December 1975
                        6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
  AUTHOR(S)
 E, M. Bentley,  V.L.  Jackson, J. A. Khadye,  A.E.  Ramm
                                                          8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
  PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
                                                           10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
           ECO-Labs,  Inc.
           1836  Euclid Avenue
           Cleveland,  Ohio  44115
                        11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.

                          EPA 68-01-1568
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
                                                           13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
           U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
           Enforcement Division, Region V
           230 S.  Dearborn
           Chicago.  Illinois  60604	
                                                              Final Report
                        14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
            EPA  Project Officer:  Howard Zar
16.ABSTRACT A computef model  is dcveloped to rapidly simulate dissolved oxygen content
 in the Cuyahoga  River under varying conditions  of flow and biochemical  oxygen demand.
 It is composed of three separate models:  Model  I is based upon Streeter-Phelps
 equations (Streeter and Phelps, 1925); Model  II  is a revised and expanded  version
 of the Delaware  Estuary finite difference model  (Thomann, 1972); and Model  III is a
 time-variant model.  These models, which have been used to simulate present and
 projected dissolved oxygen levels for the entire length of the Cuyahoga River, show
 that the municipal  and industrial treatment  programs to be implemented  by  1978 will
 result in improved dissolved oxygen conditions  in the Cuyahoga River.   However,
 run-off and benthic oxygen demand will still  result in a severe oxygen  sag in the
 navigation channel  during summer low flows.

 Programming is in FORTRAN IV (level G) language and is compatible with  the IBM 360/70
 system.  The program requires 20 K storage.   A  flow chart and explanations for the
 model's routines and detailed in Appendix C.

 This report was  submitted in fulfillment of  Contract Number 68-01-1568  by  Eco-Labs,
 Inc. under the sponsorship of the Environmental  Protection Agency.
17.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                              b.lDENTIFieRS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
                                                                           COS AT I  Field/Group
        Water Quality

        Water Pollution
        Water Quality, Models
              Cuyahoga River
              Lake Erie
              Cleveland
              Great Lakes
              Chemical Parameters
13B

 6F
 8H
13. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
                                              19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report)
                                                                         >1. NO. OF PAGES
   Limited Number of Copies  from
   EPA,  Region V without charge.
   Otherwise from Nat. Tech.  Info.  Service
            20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)
                                      22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)
                                                           AUSGPO: 1976 650-478/1103 Region 5-1

-------