EPA-905/9-74-015
                 OS. BMRONMBfTAL PR0IKTON JMBKY
              GREAT 1AKES IMfTlATWE COHIRACT PROGRAM
                                          MARCH 1975

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Copies of this document are available
   to the public through the
National  Technical  Information  Service
     Springfield, Virginia 22151

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      WATER POLLUTION INVESTIGATION:
         ERIE, PENNSYLVANIA AREA
                    by
        F. X. Browne, Ph.D., P.E.
    BETZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS,  INC.
        In partial fulfillment of
       EPA Contract No. 68-01-1578
                 for the
  U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
            Regions III & V
Great Lakes Initiative Contract Program
    Report Number: EPA-905/9-74-015
    EPA Project Officer: Howard Zar
            March 1975
            . ..., -  .  .--.>, i*,.reaction
               - V,  Library
                   r-nrbom Street
                V Illinois  6060H

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This report has been developed under auspices of the Great
Lakes Initiative Contract Program.  The purpose of the
Program is to obtain additional data regarding the present
nature and trends in water quality, aquatic life, and waste
loadings in areas of the Great Lakes with the worst water
pollution problems.  The data thus obtained is being used
to assist in the development of waste discharge permits
under provision of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972 and in meeting commitments under
the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S.
and Canada for accelerated effort to abate and control
water pollution in the Great Lakes.

This report has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and approved for publication.  Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect
the views of the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does
mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.
                          iii

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                             ABSTRACT

A study of Presque Isle Bay and its tributaries was performed
to evaluate present water quality and to determine cause and
effect relationships between wastewater discharges and water
quality.  Field sampling of Presque Isle Bay, its tributaries
and Erie Harbor was performed during the fall and winter of
1973 and the spring of 1974.  Special wastewater studies were
performed for Penn Central and for eight select industries.
Garrison Run, a tributary of Presque Isle Bay, was investigated
to determine sources of wastewater entering the stream.

In general, water quality in Presque Isle Bay and Erie Harbor
was good except for the presence of high levels of total and
fecal coliform.  Localized areas of degraded water quality
were found in a few areas.  Poor water quality was observed
in the bay area around the confluence of Mill Creek and in
the lake area adjacent to Hammermill Paper Company.  Water
quality in the three tributary streams was degraded and in-
dicated the presence of sanitary and industrial  wastewaters.
Mill Creek appears to contribute the highest pollutional load
to Presque Isle Bay.

Various continuous and intermittent wastewater discharges to
Garrison Run were identified and characterized.   Past oper-
ations of the Penn Central yards have produced areas where
the ground fs impregnated with oil.  This oil is apparently
discharged to Garrison Run via stormwater drains during periods
of rain.

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                          CONTENTS



Section                                                     Page

  I       Conclusions                                         1

  II      Recommendations                                     3

  III     Introduction                                        5

  IV      Eastern Lake Erie                                   7

  V       City of Erie                                       11

  VI      Presque Isle Bay                                   21

  VII     Water Quality Study of Presque Isle Bay            33

  VIII    Garrison Run Survey                                85

  IX      Penn Central Survey                               115

  X       Acknowledgements                                  12 9

  XI      References                                        131

  XII     Appendix                                          135

          A.   Chemical and Physical Data
          B.   Bacteriological Data
          C.   Plankton Data
                             VII

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                           FIGURES





No.                                                         page



 1   Recreational Uses of Presque Isle Bay                   22



 2   Industrial Uses of Presque Isle Bay                     24



 3   Habitat Zones for Presque Isle Bay                      25



 4   Presque Isle Bay Sediment Stations                      29



 5   Location of Primary Sampling Stations                   34



 6   Location of Primary and Secondary Sampling Stations     37



 7   Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Profiles               55



 8   Cascade Creek Sampling Station                          58



 9   Bacteriological Analyses for Lake Stations              65



10   Bacteriological Analyses for Stream Stations            68



11   Lake Erie Plankton                                      73



12   Possible Bay Circulation Pattern                        77



13   Garrison Run Survey Location Overview Map               86



14   Garrison Run Location Map                               95



15   Penn Central Property Map                              117



16   Penn Central Drainage Map                              120



17   Penn Central Proposed Drainage Ditch                   125



18   Penn Central Oil Contamination-Separation Basin        127
                              ix

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                           TABLES






No.                                                         Page



 1   Industries in Erie, Pennsylvania                        12



 2   Performance of Erie Wastewater Treatment Plant          17



 3   Combined Sewer Overflow Characteristics                 19



 4   Composition of Fishes in Presque Isle Bay               27



 5   Presque Isle Bay Sediment Survey                        30



 6   Summary Data for Lake Stations                          40



 7   Summary Data for Stream Stations                        60



 8   Waste Characteristics of Garrison Run Outfall           88



 9   Field Investigation of Garrison Run                     90



10   Summary of Garrison Run Combined Sewer Overflows        92



11   Field Investigation of Garrison Run                    103



12   Garrison Run Water Sample Analyses                     104



13   Penn Central Wastewater Characteristics Data           122
                              XI

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                           SECTION  I
                          CONCLUSIONS
 1.   Water quality in Presque  Isle  Bay  and in Lake  Erie in the
 vicinity  of Presque Isle  Bay is  relatively good.  Both total
 and fecal coliform bacteria, however, were high at  various
 stations  and exceeded state water quality  criteria.   Localized
 water  quality problems exist in  a few areas.   Water quality
 is  poor in the bay area around the  confluence of Mill Creek
 and the Bay.   Extremely low dissolved oxygen  levels were con-
 sistently observed in this area.

 Water  quality is  degraded in the lake area adjacent to Hammer-
 mill Paper Company.  The  apparent cause of this water quality
 degradation is the wastewater  discharges from Hammermill
 Paper  Company.  Prevailing currents appear to transport highly
 colored water down the coastline at least  as  far as Fourmile
 Creek.

 Water  quality also appears to  be slightly  degraded  in the
 enclosed  marina area where the water intake of the  Pennsylvania
 Electric  Company  (Pennelec) is located.  Heated condenser
 discharges from Pennelec, although  discharged to the open bay,
 recirculate back  to the water  intake.   An  annual die-off of
 Gizzard Shad in this area is evidently  indirectly caused by
 Pennelec*s heated discharge.   This  fish-kill  tends  to adversely
 affect the water  quality  in this area.

 2.   Water quality in both Cascade  Creek and  Mill Creek is
 degraded.   Cascade Creek  contains high  levels of suspended
 solids, nitrogen,  BOD, iron and  aluminum.   It also  contains
 large  numbers of  total and fecal coliform  bacteria.   The poor
 water  quality observed in Cascade Creek appears to  be caused
 by  wastewater discharges, stormwater runoff and a combined
 sewer  overflow.

 Mill Creek contains high  levels  of  suspended  solids,  nitrogen,
 phosphorus, BOD,  color, iron and aluminum.  It also contains
 large  numbers of  total and fecal coliform  bacteria.   In Mill
 Creek,  the poor water quality  is apparently caused  by storm-
 water  runoff, illegal sewer discharges,  industrial  discharges
 and combined sewer overflows.  Thirty-seven combined sewers
 discharge to the  Mill Creek Tube (Dalton,  Dalton and Little,
 1972).

 3.   Water quality in Garrison Run  is poor and contains high
 levels of color,  suspended solids,  BOD,  iron  and aluminum.
^It  also contains  large numbers of total and fecal coliform

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bacteria.  The degraded water quality apparently results from
illegal industrial wastewater discharges, illegal sanitary
discharges, stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflows.
Seven combined sewers discharge to the Garrison Run Tube
(Dalton, Dalton and Little, 1972).  Oil contamination was also
present and appeared to be caused by stormwater runoff from
Penn Central.

4.   Of the three tributary streams, Mill Creek appears to
contribute the highest pollutional load to Presque Isle Bay.
Cascade Creek appears to contribute the second highest pol-
lutional load, and Garrison Run contributes the lowest.  This
conclusion is based on stream water quality and flow estimates.
Stream flows were not measured.

5.   Investigation of Penn Central indicated that minimal
yard operations are presently being performed, but that past
operations" have produced areas where the ground is impregnated
with oil.  Stormwater apparently picks up portions of this
oil and transports it, via stormwater drains, to Garrison Run.

6.   Water quality at Beach 11  (Station 8) is good and may be
adversely affected by the proposed filling of the area adjacent
to Koppers Company with lake dredge materials.

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                         SECTION II
                       RECOMMENDATIONS
1.   Monitoring of the bay, lake and tributaries should be
continued in order to further define the magnitude, causes
and effects of the water quality problems observed.  Water
quality monitoring will also provide a measure of the effects
of wastewater abatement measures required by state and
federal agencies and recent legislation (e.g., P.L. 92-500).
The monitoring program should include physical, chemical and
biological measurements along with flow measurements of the
three tributaries: Mill Creek, Garrison Run and Cascade Creek.

On Mill Creek, flow measurements should be made upstream
just before Mill Creek enters the tube, and downstream at
Station 3, located adjacent to the Erie sewage treatment plant
(see Section VII).

On Garrison Run, flow measurements should be made at upstream
Station 31 and at downstream Station 3A (Section VIII).

On Cascade Creek, flow measurements should be made at up-
stream Stations 1C and ID, and at downstream Station 1
(See Section VII).

The monitoring program should, as a minimum, measure the fol-
lowing parameters: BOD, suspended solids, total coliform,
fecal coliform, ammonia, nitrate, organic nitrogen, total
phosphorus, ortho-phosphate, pH, temperature, color, iron
and aluminum.  In the bay and lake, dissolved oxygen should
be measured.

Initially, the monitoring should be performed on a monthly
basis to determine temporal trends.  Sampling frequency
should be decreased once temporal trends are established.

Spatial variations in water quality should be initially in-
vestigated by sampling many bay and lake stations once or
twice for a few select parameters (e.g. dissolved oxygen, BOD,
suspended solids, color, total coliform count).  Regular
sampling stations should be established once spatial trends
are established.

2.   The City of Erie, using the results of this study, should
investigate Cascade Creek, Mill Creek and Garrison Run to
determine the location and source of illegal sanitary or in-
dustrial connections to these streams.  A program to eliminate
all illegal connections should be initiated and rigidly
enforced.

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3.   Hammermill Paper Company should take immediate steps
to reduce their wastewater discharges to Lake Erie.

4.   Penn Central should immediately initiate a program of
oil spill prevention and clean-up as detailed in this report,

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                       SECTION III
                      INTRODUCTION
Lake Erie has received much attention in the past years since
it is one of the nation's largest and best known lakes and
because of dramatic changes that have occurred in the lake's
environment and biota (Beeton, 1965).  Lake Erie is divided
into three sections:  the western basin, the central basin
and the eastern basin.  Industrial and municipal discharges
have adversely affected the western basin the most.  Of the
three basins, the eastern basin has the best water quality
and the least number of problems.

This investigation of the Erie, Pennsylvania Special Study
Area was performed for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.
The complete study included the following:

        Water Quality Study of Presque Isle Bay and its
        tributaries.

        Investigation of the Water Quality in Garrison Run
        and wastewaters discharging into Garrison Run.

        Investigation of the Penn Central railroad yards
        in Erie, Pennsylvania to determine its effect on
        water quality in Garrison Run and Presque Isle Bay.

        Investigation and evaluation of wastewater treat-
        ment facilities of eight select industries in the
        Erie, Pennsylvania vicinity.

The general purpose of the study was (1) to evaluate the pre-
sent lake and tributary water quality in light of existing
municipal and industrial discharges.  (2)  to obtain baseline
water quality data for the evaluation of future changes in
municipal and industrial discharges, (3) to provide a basis
for evaluating the effects of proposed Corps of Engineers
dredging on the water quality of the Presque Isle beaches,
(4) to identify and evaluate wastewater discharges to the under-
ground section of Garrison Run, (5)  to determine sources of
water pollution from the Penn Central railroad yard and rec-
ommend abatement measures, and (6)  to review and evaluate
existing wastewater treatment facilities at eight select in-
dustries and to propose wastewater abatement measures to meet
Federal and State effluent and water quality criteria.

This report contains the results of the water quality study of
Presque Isle Bay, its tributaries and Lake Erie.  It also
contains the results of the Garrison Run and Penn Central
surveys.  The investigation of the eight industries are con-

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tained in separate industrial reports.

This report was organized to provide  (1)  a review of the water
quality of Eastern Lake Erie, (2)  a description of the study
area including the City of Erie, Presque Isle Penninsula and
Presque Isle Bay, and (3)  a detailed description of the water
quality study and its results,  including the investigation of
Garrison Run and Penn Central.

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                         SECTION IV
                      EASTERN LAKE ERIE
Lake Erie

Lake Erie is unique among the Great Lakes in several of its
natural characteristics, each of which has a direct bearing
on its condition with respect to pollution.  Lake Erie is by
far the shallowest of the Great Lakes and the only one with
its entire water mass above sea level.  It has the smallest
volume, 113 cubic miles, and the shortest flow-through time,
920 days.  It is the most biologically productive and the most
turbid.  It has the flattest bottom and is subject to the
widest short-term fluctuations in water level (13 feet maximum).
Its seasonal average surface levels are the most unpredictable.
It is the only one of the Great Lakes with its long axis
paralleling the prevailing wind direction and is subject to
violent storms.  Lake Erie is also the southernmost, warmest,
(averaging 51°F) and the oldest (12,200 years) of the Great
Lakes.

The climate of the Lake Erie basin is temperate, humid-con-
tinental with the chief characteristic of rapidly changing
weather.  The highest annual average monthly temperatures
occur in July, ranging from 70°F to 74°F at land stations.
These also generally decrease northeastwardly across the basin.
The lowest average monthly temperatures occur in January
at the west end of the basin and February at the east end of
the basin, and range from 24°F to 28°F.  The extremes of tem-
perature in the Lake Erie basin are about -20°F and 100°F.

Average annual precipitation at land stations in the basin
is well distributed throughout the year, and ranges from
about 30.5 inches to more than 40 inches with an overall basin
average of about 34 inches.  Yearly precipitation has varied
between the extremes of 24 and 43 inches.  Highest pre-
cipitation occurs in the southeastern part of the basin.

Insolation (incoming solar radiation) is greatest in mid-
summer and least in winter.  December and January ordinarily
have less than 40 percent of possible sunshine, while June
and July average more than 70 percent at most stations.  The
percentage over the lake proper in the summer is even greater.

Lake Erie and the surrounding land is important as a recre-
ational resource.  There are few wide sandy beaches on the
lake, but available beaches are used at Catawba Island, Cedar
Point at Sandusky, and Erie, Pennsylvania.  Fishing and boating

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are the most popular recreational activities of Lake Erie.
Swimming is also popular at many sites on the lake, although
in recent years the degradation of water quality has forced
periodic closings of several beaches.

A water balance of Lake Erie indicates the following signifi-
cant factors: (1) annual evaporation nearly equals runoff to
the lake, (2) evaporation exceeds precipitation, (3) change
in storage over a long period is not significant, and (4)
evaporation is greatest in late winter and in autumn.

Lake Erie is the warmest of the Great Lakes.  Mid-lake sur-   __
face water reaches an average maximum of about 75°F  (24°C),
usually in temperature the first half of August.  Occasionally,
the summer temperature in mid-lake surface water rises above
80°F.  Near shore water normally reaches a maximum along the
south shore of 80°F or more.

Eastern Lake Erie

Erie, Pennsylvania is located in the eastern basin of Lake
Erie.  The eastern basin is that part of Lake Erie lying east
of the bar between Erie, Pennsylvania and Long Point, Ontario.
It has an average depth of about 80 feet and a maximum depth
of 216 feet, making it the deepest part of Lake Erie.  The
eastern basin has a surface area of about 2,400 square miles.

The bottom of the eastern basin consists primarily of mud
which is more compact than that in the other two basins.
Beaches on Lake Erie are generally narrow or absent  except
for Presque Isle, Pennsylvania and Long Point, Ontario which
both have large natural accumulations of sand.  Both of  these
areas have large shallow bays.

Temperature structure of the eastern basin is similar to that
of the other deep Great Lakes.  Thermal stratification usual-
ly occurs in the summer and sometimes in the winter.  Because
of seasonal overturns, mixing of the epilimnion occurs more
often in the eastern basin than in the other two basins.

N. M. Burns and C. Ross  (1972) studied the Lake Erie Central
Basin hypolimnion.  The rate of oxygen depletion of  the  Lake
Erie hypolimnion during the summer months has been  increasing
since studies were initiated in 1929, although oxygen con-
centration at the beginning of the stratified period has not
changed in 40 years.  With this increase in the rate of  oxygen
depletion has come an early onset of deoxygenated conditions
in the bottom water.

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It is known that Lake Erie remains stratified for a period of
about 110 days during the summer season.  Therefore, a D.O.
depletion rate of 3.0 milligrams/litre/month will result in
an anoxic hypolimnion before the fall overturn can replenish
the bottom waters.  This critical depletion rate was evidenced
for the first time in 1960, and even greater depletion rates
have been observed in the intervening years.  As a result,
the Central Basin hypolimnion becomes anoxic practically every
summer.  Hutchinson (1957) has classified lake types ac-
cording to the rate of hypolimnion oxygen depletion.  A D.O.
depletion of 0.025 milligrams/cc/day delimits the transition
from an oligotrophic lake to a mesotrophic lake.  Likewise,
a D.O. depletion of 0.055 mg/cc/day indicates that a lake
is eutrophic rather than mesotrophic.  If we apply these
limits to Lake Erie, we find that the lake becomes mesotro-
phic sometime around 1940, and is presently undergoing a
transition from the mesotrophic to the eutrophic state.

Burns and Ross (1972)  have indicated that biological processes
are more important determinants of D.O. depletion rates than
inorganic chemical processes.  Furthermore, deoxygenation
of the bottom water by organic wastes of direct human origin
does not have a great significance.  The main source of oxygen
depleting organic material is detrital phytoplankton material
that settles to the bottom where it is decomposed by bacteria.
It appears, therefore, that the recent accelerating trend in the
hypolimnion D.O.  depletion rate in Lake Erie is due primarily
to nutrient enrichment originating from the large cities on
the lake.

The average sediment oxygen demand for the central basin
hypolimnion was found to be 1.6 gn^/n^/day in June, 1970,
(Burns and Ross,  1972).  Eutrophic lakes generally have sedi-
ment oxygen demands considerably below this level so the
summer situation in Lake Erie must be viewed as a problem.

Glooschenko et.al (1974)  studied primary productivity in
lakes Ontario and Erie.  Primary production varied in Lake
Erie's three basins.  The Eastern Basin had the highest pro-
ductivity values in the spring with a midsummer decline and
small peaks in the fall.   Assimilation numbers were highest
in the Western Basin (up to 3.5 mg C/mg chlorophyll per hour).

In the spring the highest primary productivity values were
recorded along the southern shore of the lake.  In the summer
and autumn the areas of highest productivity were the Western
and Eastern Basin regions, specifically near Erie, Pennsylvania
in the Eastern Basin.   The water off Erie, Pennsylvania was
a region of high production in contrast to the rest of the
eastern half of the lake.

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                          SECTION V
                        CITY OF ERIE
The City of Erie is located in the northwest corner of Penn-
sylvania on the southern shore of Lake Erie.  The average
annual temperature is 50.5°F.  Average February temperatures
range from 28°F to 24°F with annual minima ranging from 0°
to - 15°F.  No temperature lower than -16°F or higher than
98 F has ever been recorded in Erie County.  Precipitation
falling as rain or snow averages 36 inches per year.

In general, it has been estimated that the Erie City area
receives 60 to 70 percent of possible summer sunshine and 40
to 50 percent of possible winter sunshine.  Lake Erie also
exerts a moderating effect on fall temperatures.  During
winter the ground is frozen to a depth of 25 to 30 inches.
Ice can usually be found upon Lake Erie as early as mid-
December and remains until mid-April, prolonging the cooler
winter season and deferring the budding of trees and shoots
until a relatively later date.

The total population of Erie City was 129,231 when the last
census was taken in 1970.  Erie County had a population of
263,654.  The population of Erie City and the surrounding
area has grown since the last census, although at a rate lower
than in previous years.  This decline in population growth
rate has been attributed to a lower birth rate combined with
an emigration from Erie County.  Within Erie City itself,
a migration from inner city regions to the suburbs has been
evidenced.  Population density in Erie City has been recorded
as more than eleven persons per acre.  Many of the outlying
rural areas in Erie and Crawford counties average less than
one person per ten acres.

There are 486 industrial plants in Erie County, the majority
of these are within or very close to the Erie City area.   A
list of major industries in Erie is presented in Table 1.
The Erie City Chamber of Commerce reports that industrial
plants employ 43,589 workers.   They have estimated that the
value of production and related activities attributed to
industry is $1,403,894,000.   It is evident that industry plays
a very important role in the economy of Erie County and its
development has, therefore,  been encouraged.

Agricultural development of land in Erie County is also
important economically.   While agriculture is virtually non-

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                                              TABLE I

                                 INDUSTRIES IN ERIE, PENNSYLVANIA
to
      Industry

American Meter Company, Incorporated
American Sterilizer Company
Bliley Electric Company
Bucyrus-Erie Company
Continental Rubber Works
Cooper Pennjax
Copes-Vulcan, Incorporated
Corry-Jamestown Corporation
Electric Materials Company
Elgin Electronics, Incorporated
Erie County Plastics Corporation
Erie Foundry Company
Erie Malleable Iron Company
Erie Marine Division, Litton Industries
Erie Strayer Company
Erie Technological Products, Incorporated
Eriez Magnetics
Fenestra Division
Firch Baking Company
GAF Corporation
General Electric Company
Hammermill Paper Company
Hoover Ball and Bearing Company,
     Quinn-Berry Division
Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation
R. M. Kerner Company
Lord Manufacturing Company
Marx Toys
Mclnness Steel Company
Molded Fiber Glass Boat Company
National Forge Company
Parker White Metal Company
      Product

Gas Meters
Hospital Equipment
Quartz Crystals
Excavating Equipment
Mechanical Rubber Goods
Oil Field Machinery
Boiler Controls and Soot Blowers
Metal Office Equipment
Rolled Copper Products
Electronic Components
Injectipn Molded Plastics
Forging Hammers and Hydraulic Press.es
Malleable Castings
Bulk Ore Carriers
Clamshell and Concrete Buckets
Electronic Components
Magnetic Equipment
Steel Doors, Metal Building Partitions
Baked Goods
Roofing, Siding, Insulation
Locomotives, D.C. Motors and Generators
Fine Writing and Printing Papers
Employment

     575
   1,185
     200
     765
     450
     500
     463
     708
     362
     550
     350
     250
     500
     300
     255
     700
     300
     223
     250
     225
  11,387
   2,026
                                                      Injection Molded Plastics                   200
                                                      Aluminum Forgings                           550
                                                      Custom Machine Shop                         250
                                                      Bonded Rubber Products                    1,500
                                                      Toys                                      1,000
                                                      Forgings                                    255
                                                      Fiberglass Boats                            300
                                                      Heavy Steel Castings, Forgings and Ingots   900
                                                      Injection Molded White Metal Products       490

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                                TABLE 1 (cont'd)

                        INDUSTRIES IN ERIE,  PENNSYLVANIA
       Industry

Penn Brass and Copper Company
Perry Plastics, Incorporated
Raymond division, Associated Spring
     Corporation
Riley Stoker Corporation
Skinner Engine Company
A. O. Smith Corporation
Sterling Seal Company
Teledyne Penn-Union Electric
Uniflow Manufacturing Company
Urick Foundry Company
Weil-McLain Company
White Consolidated Industries, Inc.
     Speciality Valve & Control Div.
Zurn Industries, Incorporated
      Product

Copper and Aluminum Tubing
Injection Molded Plastics

Mechanical Springs
Boilers
Steam Engines
Service Station Equipment
Caps and Closures
Connectors for Electrical Industry
Water Pumps, Coolers
Iron Casting
Radiators and Boilers

Valves and Controls
Mechanical Power Transmission Products,
     Castings
Employment

     250
     225

     590
     600
     142
     702
     550
     500
     250
     225
     148

     215

   2,000+
Source:  City of Erie Chamber of Commerce

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existent within the City of Erie, farms occupy a large per-
centage of total county land.   Recent surveys have disclosed
that the number of persons employed in the agricultural
sector of the Erie County economy have declined since 1950.
It is estimated that in 1950,  4.3 percent of the work force
was employed in farm-related activities.  Currently, less
than 2 percent of the work force is employed by agriculture.
While these figures show a marked deflation of the agricul-
tural economy, they have been partially offset by an increase
in the average acreage per farm.  The most important agri-
cultural activity in the county is dairy farming.  One-third
of the agricultural economy involves dairy products.  Fol-
lowing dairy farming, income from fruits, field crops, and
vegetables rank in importance.

Land use for recreational activities totals only 1 percent
of Erie County land, yet a diversity of recreational op-
portunities exist.  Presque Isle State Park, located in the
City of Erie, is a very important recreational resource.
Within Erie City, Glenwood Park and its public zoo serve the
population.  There is a yacht club in Erie and a large
marina on Presque Isle offering ramps, boat liveries, and
lifts.  Lake Erie and inland lakes provide sport fishing for
lake-run rainbow trout, smelt, muskellunge, small mouth bass,
largemouth bass, walleyes, coho salmon, northern pike,
crappies, perch, panfish and rock bass.  City outdoor rec-
reational facilities include 27 playgrounds, 4 neighborhood
play lots, 2 community recreation parks, 1 swimming pool
operated by the City, 14 wading pools, 12 softball fields,
28 tennis courts, 4 ice skating rinks, and 2 stadiums.  There
are 15 private and public golf courses near or within the
Erie City limits.  Other activities available to Erie
residents are skiing, snowmobiling, swimming, theatres and
thoroughbred racing.

Erie County is an area of diversified industry.  Many of
these industries have water requirements and discharge in-
dustrial wastes.  Most of the industries with water require-
ments are manufacturing industries.  In Erie City the primary
users of the public water supply include Continental Rubber
Works, The Erie Brewing Company, the GAF Corporation, Kaiser
Aluminum, Lord Manufacturing, National Forge, and the
Urich Foundry.  Other small industries use less water, but
these are the major users of municipal water.  Self-supplied
water is used by 10 industries in Erie County.  Hammermill
Paper Company and Interlake Iron are two private concerns
removing over four billion gallons of water per year
from outer Erie Harbor.  Libby Products and Ohio Rubber use
                               14

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56 million and 91 million gallons of water per year, respec-
tively, and the remaining 6 self-supplied industries use ten
million gallons per year.  All of these industries except
Gunnison Brothers Tannery, lie within the service areas of
water companies.  The Pennsylvania Electric station is the
only publicly-owned power plant using lake water for cooling
purposes.  The plant requires 51 million gallons of water
per year.

May of the industries listed previously discharge industrial
wastes into Presque Isle Bay and into tributaries feeding the
bay.  However, the major amount of industrial waste discharge
originates from the Hammermill Paper Company.  A wastewater
flow of 20 mgd discharges directly into Lake Erie from
Hammermill.  This wastewater contains about 62,000 pounds/
day of BOD; 530,000 pounds/day of total solids; 8,400 pounds/
day of suspended solids and 51,000 pounds/day of sulfate.
The Hammermill Paper Company's wastewaters account for seven
percent of the total industrial waste discharge to Lake Erie.
Twenty-four industries discharge into surface waterways in
the vicinity of Erie City.  The other industrial waste
discharges in the study area are served by municipal sewage
treatment plants.  These industries must pretreat their toxic
wastes before they are permitted to enter the municipal sewage
system.

Heated water is discharged by many industries.  Presently
there is little data on heated discharges by these industries.
The following industries discharge heated waters (U.S. Army
Corps  of Engineers, 1973).

     1.   Koppers Corporation - Withdraws 85
          percent of its process waters and returns
          over 4 million gallons of treated waste-
          water to the Erie outer harbor daily.  The
          average temperature difference between the
          effluent and lake water is 35°F in winter
          and 25°F in summer.

     2.   Pennsylvania Electric Company - Obtains
          over 99 percent of its process water from
          Presque Isle Bay.   The temperature differential
          between the effluent and lake water is 35°F
          in winter and 25°F in summer.

     3.   National - Erie Forge - utilizing the metro-
          politan water works for its water supply has
          an average influent - effluent temperature
          difference of IIQF during the summer.
                               15

-------
     4.   The Gunnison Brothers Tannery - has an influent -
          effluent temperature difference of 10°F in winter
          and 0°F in summer.

     5.   General Electric Company - has an influent -
          effluent temperature differential of 10°F during
          both the winter and the summer.

     6.   Hammermill Paper Company - has an influent -
          effluent temperature differential of 45°F
          during the winter and 10°F during the summer.

Many industries in the Erie City area use water from municipal
and private supplies  for their industrial processes.
Industrial waste is discharged to both Lake Erie and to the
municipal sewers.  In terms of flow, the largest discharges
to surface waterways are:

     1.   Hammermill Paper Company - Discharges 20 mgd
          of effluent into Lake Erie.

     2.   Koppers Corporation - Discharges 4 mgd of
          effluent into Lake Erie.

     3.   Pennsylvania Electric Company - Discharges 149
          mgd of cooling water into Presque Isle Bay.

     4.   General Electric Company - Discharges over 4
          mgd of effluent into an unnamed tributary
          paralleling 4-Mile Creek.

Sewage Treatment Facilities

The City of Erie presently has a wastewater treatment plant
providing secondary treatment to the wastewaters from Erie
and from four townships and one borough.  Existing activated
sludge treatment facilities were expanded in 1974 from a
capacity of 45 mgd to a design capacity of 65 mgd.  Total
estimated population served is 173,730  (Engineering - Science,
1974).  Effluent characteristics of the treatment plant
prior to its expansion are presented in Table 2.  Removal
rates for BOD and suspended solids for the unexpanded plant
were 65 and 67 percent respectively.

Effluent characteristics of the expanded treatment facilities
have improved significantly.  BOD and suspended solids removal
rates average about 87 and 79 precent respectively for the
expanded facilities.  The expanded treatment plant uses vacuum
filtration, incineration and  landfill for the treatment and
disposal of sludge.
                               16

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                           TABLE 2
                     PERFORMANCE OF ERIE
                 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTJ
Analyses

Temperature °C
PH
Dissolved Oxygen
Color (Units)
Turbidity (Units)
Alkalinity  (mg/1)
Total Iron  (ug/1)
Sulfate  (mg/1)
Manganese (Mn)  (ug/1)
COD  (mg/1)
Total Phosphorus
Total Soluble PO4
5 Day BOD (mg/1)
Nitrate  (mg/1)
Ammonia  (mg/1)
Chloride  (Cl)  (mg/1)
Oils (mg/1)
Phenols  (ug/1)
Copper  (ug/1)
Zinc (ug/1)
Chrome  (ug/1)
Aluminum  (ug/1)
Lead (ug/1)
Mercury  (ug/1)
Total Solids  (mg/1)
Suspended Solids  (mg/1)
MAY 3, 1973

Influent     Effluent
Percent Removal
17
7.5
-
25
80
170
2720
31
260
224
3.06
1.60
98
2.31
8.5
86
5.8
12
150
470
140
1830
56
2
688
240
^
7.
5.
35
10
190
1060
30
240
94
2.
1.
34
2.
11
58
3.
4
110
250
90
500
20
2
516
80

7
0







46
81

48


2









                                 -40
                                  88
                                 -12
                                  61
                                   3
                                   8
                                  58
                                  20
                                 -13
                                  65
                                  -7
                                 -29
                                  33
                                  45
                                  67
                                  27
                                  47
                                  36
                                  73
                                  64
                                   0
                                  25
                                  67
Notes:   (1) Source: Engineering-Science,  1974
         (2) Analysis made on  24-hour,  flow-weighted,
            composite  samples
         (3) Plant was  expanded  in  1974.
                               17

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The sewer system of Erie City consists of sanitary sewers,
storm sewers, and combined sewers.   Recently built sewers
are not of the combined variety, but the older lines dating
back to just after the Civil War are combined.  Overflow
arrangements to the combined system have been added in order
to obtain manageable flow rates in the sewer system,
preventing local flooding, and flooding at the sewage plant.
There are 59 known combined sewer overflows, most of which
have been added since the original sewer installation.
There are five outlying pumping stations in the sanitary-
combined sewer system.  Distribution of the total annual
combined sewer overflow is presented in Table 3.

Presque Isle Peninsula

The Presque Isle Peninsula is located in Erie, Pennsylvania,
on the south shore of Lake Erie.  The peninsula's long axis
is oriented in an east-west direction.  It arises from the
south shore of the lake near the City of Erie where it is
connected to the mainland by a narrow neck of sandy terrain
several hundred feet in width.  There are four major and
several minor sand ridges extending along the peninsula.
Stretching from the eastern end to the western end of Presque
Isle; these ridges form an intricate network of ponds and
dune s.

Geologically, Presque Isle is less than 1,300 years old.  It
was formed as beach and sand dune deposits were carried into
the vicinity by predominant lake currents.  Since the initial
formation of Presque Isle, the land mass has changed shape
considerably, migrating in an easterly direction.  A migra-
tion of 1/2 mile east has taken place in the past 100 years.
The peninsula has moved 5 miles to the east since its origin.
The predominant littoral current continuously carries beach
material to the eastern tip of the peninsula, where conflicting
current patterns push the sedimentary material landward to
give the spit a hook-like shape.  Northeasterly storm winds
are responsible for the creation of sand dune ridge patterns.
Finally, the conflicting effects of wind and vegetal cover
are instrumental in building dune and soil topography.  Soils
of the peninsula are sandy and have a low resistance to erosion.
Fine sand is carried shoreward by winds and along shore by
waves and currents.  Only coarse sand stops near the water's
edge.  The bedrock of the peninsula is shale and sandstone of
the Devonian period.

Practically the entire peninsula is owned by the State of
Pennsylvania and has been preserved as a park.  The population
of Presque Isle is therefore dependent upon the number of
                               18

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                           TABLE 3

            DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL ANNUAL COMBINED
               SEWER OVERFLOW CHARACTERISTICS
Location
Mill Creek
Garrison Run
West Side
East Side
Total
Flow
MG
Per Year
220
26
45
9
300
BOD5
Pounds
Per Year
71,000
37,000
15,700
4,300
128,000
Suspended
Pounds
Per Year
645,700
37,000
98,800
25,500
807,000
Solids
Pounds
Per Year
4,020
2,160
730
90
7,000
Source:  Dalton-Dalton-Little (1971)
                              19

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tourists visiting the park.   There is no significant "perman-
ent" population.   In 1971,  more than 3.5 million persons
visited the park.  Over half of these came to Presque Isle
in the summer months (U.S.  Army Corps of Engineers,  1973).

Recreational uses of Presque Isle cover a broad range of
activities.  Recreational use is perhaps the most important
function of Presque Isle.  The park has facilities for bath-
ing, boating, hiking, fishing, and picnicking.  Other activ-
ities offered to the park's visitors include sight-seeing,
driving, bicycling, bird watching, and photography.   Plans
have been formulated for a restaurant and museum in the
vicinity of Misery Bay.  Fishing is good in the State Park.
Sport fish taken on the peninsula include largemouth bass,
bluegills, sunfish, crappies, bullheads and catfish.  Bow-
fisherman take carp, spotted and longnosed gar, and bowfins.
Perhaps the most attractive aspect of the park is the beach
area.  There are eleven sandy beaches of excellent quality
on Presque Isle.   Facilities at these beaches include parking
lots, developed bathhouses, and refreshment facilities.
In 1965 the Corps of Engineers constructed a large marina on
Presque Isle.  This marina is capable of handling 2,000
boats up to 45 feet in length.  The entrance to the marina
has been built to allow easy access to Presque Isle Bay and
Lake Erie.

There are no industries  located on Presque Isle.  Therefore,
there is no need for industrial waste disposal systems.  Be-
cause of the large number of people frequenting the park
during the year, sanitary facilities are very important. _
Water and electric lines have been extended out to the tip of
Presque Isle.  These lines effectively  serve the entire
peninsula.  There are, however, no sewers on Presque Isle.
Neither can septic tanks be constructed there because  of  the
high water table.  The park has remedied this problem  by
placing aerated, chlorinated, chemical  pit toilets at  ap-
propriate  localities around the peninsula.  The City of Erie
obtains water from the outer  shore of Presque Isle through
two water pipes  crossing the  peninsula  at different  localities,
                               20

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                         SECTION VI
                      PRESQUE ISLE BAY
General

Presque Isle Bay is in the eastern basin of Lake Erie.  It
is enclosed by the mainland and the City of Erie to the south,
and by the Presque Isle Peninsula to the north.  There are
two watersheds that supply water to the bay.  These are the
Cascade Creek and Mill Creek watersheds.  The Erie Metro-
politan water commission has determined that Cascade Creek
has a drainage area of 13.06 square miles.  The only metro-
politan area on the perimeter of Presque Isle Bay is the City
of Erie.  However, there are many recreational and commercial
facilities located on the bay.

The length of Presque Isle Bay has been measured to be 4.75
miles.  This length represents the maximum fetch of the bay
itself.  The width of the bay, measured along a transect
perpendicular to the maximum length, is 1.75 miles.  The
maximum length of the bay lies on an axis running from the
southwest to the northwest.  Total surface area of Presque
Isle Bay has been determined to be 3,178 acres.  This surface
area includes a 35-acre marina constructed by the U-.S. Army
Corps of Engineers on Presque Isle.  The maximum depth of
Presque Isle Bay is 28 feet in the navigation channel, an
area which has been and continues to be dredged regularly by
the Corps of Engineers.  Maximum depth occurs just north of
the port of Erie.  Bathymetric surveys have been conducted on
Presque Isle Bay, but depths in this relatively small body
of water are subject to fluctuations due to rainfall and
seiches.  The total volume of Presque Isle Bay is estimated to
be 13,800 million gallons (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,  1973)

Recreationally, Presque Isle Bay is a very important resource.
The  Bay is an excellent harbor for small craft, and the
marina on Presque Isle affords a protected and convenient
anchorage for boatsmen on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Water-
way system.  Although the quality of water within Presque
Isle Bay itself has become degraded in recent years, the
County Department of Health has indicated that it does not
consider the bay to be grossly polluted.  Fishing is quite
good in some areas of the bay, particularly in the vicinity
of Misery Bay.  Recreational uses of Presque Isle Bay are
illustrated in Figure 1.
                          21

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                                                            Commercial Fishing
                                                          LAKE ERIE
                                                                     Waterfowl Hunting
                Public
                Bathing
Beaches
Public Water Supply
                                                                           Industrial
                                                                           Water Supply
                                                                 FIGURE 1
                                                            RECREATIONAL USE OF
                                                              PRESQUE ISLE BAY

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Industrially, the bay is used quite extensively.  Erie County
is primarily a metals and metal products manufacturing area.
The Erie area produces materials in over 100 different class-
ifications.  The port of Erie exports oil, heavy machinery,
pig iron and lumber.  Received cargo consists of limestone,
sand, petroleum, and newsprint.  The harbor in Presque Isle
Bay is considered to be one of the best in the Great Lakes.
It is both a lake and a world port.  However, maintenance
dredging is necessary to keep the port in operation.  In-
dustrial uses of the bay are illustrated in Figure 2.

There are a variety of habitats within Presque Isle Bay with
distinct differences between the Presque Isle Peninsula and
the mainland shore.

In a recent study conducted by Aquatic Ecology Associates
(1973) for the Pennsylvania Electric Company, the inner and
outer shorelines of the bay were separated into several dis-
tinct zones, each with a unique habitat and species compo-
sition. (See Figure 3).  Zone One, the shoreline along the
waterfront of Erie, is an area of heavy industrial concen-
tration.  The natural habitat there has been changed sig-
nificantly by industrial activity.  Physical and chemical
alterations have included dredging activities, construction
of harbor facilities, and the discharge of municipal and
industrial wastes.  Zone One has been characterized as "one
of fluctuating water quality with a bottom composed of thick
organic muds generally lacking in an abundance of submerged
aquatic vegetation".

Zone Two covers a large portion of the mainland shore near the
City of Erie.  Consistently, there is a shoreline of rock
and rubble in this area.  Much erosion has taken place on
this shoreline in previous years, but the largest detriment
to water quality in Zone Two appears to be Cascade Creek
(Aquatic Ecology Associates, 1973).  A considerable amount of
municipal and industrial waste enters the bay through Cascade
Creek.  The water quality in this area appears to fluctuate
and there is, again, an organic mud bottom.   In Zone Two,
however, a dense growth of aquatic vegetation was found on the
bay bottom.

Zone Three covers the bulk of the Presque Isle shoreline.
Because the state park occupies the entire mainland area behind
this shoreline,  there is no industrial or.municipal waste dis-
charge into the bay from Zone Three.  Immediately offshore from
Zone Three, Presque Isle Bay is very shallow.   The bathy-
metric map of the bay shows depths of 1, 2,  3 and 5 feet in
this area.  Only at the extreme southern end of the zone
is there a drop to 13 feet.  The underwater topography of
the bay forms a very gently sloping gradient in most of Zone
Three.  The substrate found on the bottom of the bay in this
                             23

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(T)  Sand & Gravel
 2)   Public Docks

     Grain
LAKE ERIE
     Shipbuilding

 5    Coal  Handling

     Iron  &  Steel
                                                             FIGURE 2
                                              INDUSTRIAL USES OF PRESQUE ISLE BAY

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            LAKE ERIE
                FIGURE 3




    HABITAT ZONES FOR PRESQUE ISLE BAY
Source:  Aquatic Ecology Associates (1973)

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study area could be described as sandy and free of organic
mud and debris.  There is very sparse growth of aquatic
vegetation in Zone Three.  Zone Four covers the remainder
of the Presque Isle shoreline in the Misery Bay area.  The
habitat there has been characterized as a unique, well sheltered
area occupying the enlarged terminus of an extensive lagoon
system.  A combination of mud and sand covers the bottom of
the bay in this area.  Very thick growths of rooted aquatics
have been noted.  It is, perhaps, the organic material con-
tributed by these plants that is responsible for much of the
mud on the bay bottom of Zone Four.  There is no evidence of
any municipal or industrial waste entering the bay in Zone Four.

Each of these zones is capable of supporting a different
habitat-specific community.  Studies on the fish living in
each zone were performed in 1973 for the Pennsylvania Electric
Company.  Forty-three total species were identified and ten
were common to all four zones.  Zone One, with the least
habitat diversity, supported sixteen species, Zone Two sup-
ported eighteen, Zone Three supported twenty-four and Zone
Four supported thirty-one, (see Table 4).

The water quality of Presque Isle Bay has been studied on
several different occasions.   Results of studies performed by
the Great Lakes Research Institute (1972, 1973) for the Erie
County Department of Health indicate a general trend of im-
provement in water quality of Lake Erie in the vicinity of the
Presque Isle beaches.  Water temperature exhibited the same
annual pattern in several studies.  The water temperature in-
creased steadily to a maximum peak value in July, after which
it decreased in a seasonal pattern.  The pH of the water was
slightly basic at all times.   Inside Presque Isle Bay the pH
was slightly lower than it was on the lake side of Presque
Isle.  A 1972 study of the bay recorded a mean phytoplankton
population of 1.3 x 105/liter.  Chlorophyta comprised nearly
50 percent of the algae.  Cyanophyta comprised 6 percent to
25 percent of the total number.

Coliform studies on the bay indicated that water quality
there was not good.  Water contact sports could not be per-
mitted at any time in the bay.  All other recreational and
aquatic uses could be permitted with few exceptions.  Micro-
biological studies were conducted at Presque Isle in 1963 to
1964 (U.S. Dept. of Interior, 1968).  Low coliform counts
were measured on the west side of the peninsula near the
shore.  Results from sampling stations located north and
northeast of the Isle indicate a substantial increase in
coliform counts.  A corresponding increase in coliforms was
measured in Erie Harbor.  Median total coliform values of
                            26

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                           TABLE 4

                  COMPOSITION OF FISHES IN
                      PRESQUE ISLE BAY
                           Precent Composition by Zones
Economic
Classification
Sports
Commercial
Fine Food
Coarse Food
Forage
Other
1W*
24
16
27
8
19
6
IS*
27
17
27
7
15
7
2
15
27
27
11
9
11
3
26
8
24
8
26
8
4
26
14
23
14
12
11
Total
23
15
21
12
21
8
*W = Winter *S = Summer
                              27

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2,100 to 17,000 organisms per 100 ml were measured in Erie
Harbor stations located near Mill Creek and in the ship chan-
nel.  A maximum total coliform count of 520,000/100 ml was
recorded in this area.  Median fecal coliform densities in
waters north and east of Presque Isle ranged from 3 to 13
percent of the total coliform counts, and fecal streptococci
counts averaged from 1 to 10 organisms per 100 ml.  Mill
Creek is probably the source of this pollution.  Salmonella
organisms were isolated from 80 percent of the samples col-
lected in both Mill Creek and the harbor.  Salmonella was
found in the City of Erie's sewage.  In general, water_
quality west of Presque Isle was found to be satisfactory for
swimming purposes.  Water quality north and east of Presque
Isle varies considerably with maximum total coliform counts
of 2,800 to 15,000 organisms per 100 ml.  This indicated
that pollution entered the lake intermittently, causing a
health hazard in the area along the eastern shore.  Recent
studies have verified these high total and fecal coliform
counts (GLRI, 1972, 1973).

Heavy metal analyses were performed during the 1972 study
mentioned previously.  Copper concentrations occasionally
were found to be in excess of the acceptable limit concen-
tration.  Aluminum concentrations were consistently high in
the bay, and usually exceeded the acceptable level of con-
centration.  Nickel and zinc were rarely above their detection
limits of 10 and 20 ug/1.  No chlorinated pesticides were
detected in the 1972 study, and only rarely were traces of
other chlorinated organics detected.  To generalize, the water
quality in Presque Isle Bay is not good, neither is the water
grossly polluted.  In 1972, coliform, copper and aluminum
pollution were the most serious problems.  The natural habitats
of the bay have been physically and chemically altered by
industrial and municipal  interference.  It is therefore
inevitable that the community ecology of the area has been
changed to a certain extent.

Sediment in Erie Harbor

In 1973, a sampling program of the sediment inside Presque
Isle Bay was conducted for the Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Resources Bureau of Water Quality Management.
Industrial and wastewater constituents enter the  sediments
and accumulate in Presque Isle Bay.  The sediment  study was
conducted to clarify  long-term aspects of bay  ecosystem quality.
Localities of the sampling station are  shown in Figure 4.
Analyses were performed  for: dry solids, BOD,  sulfides,
chemical oxygen demand,  oil and grease, total  Kjeldahl nitro-
gen  (TKN), and total  phosphate.  The results of this  study
are presented  in Table 5.
                               28

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        •   SURVEY STATION LOCATION
             AND NUMBER
        ( )  BEACH NUMBER
UD
   22
                                                                        LAKE ERIE
                                21
                                                 (8)
                           (10)
                                                                                         City Sewer  Outfall
                                                                                            20    HPC Intake
                                           CITY OF
             FIGURE 4

PRESQUE ISLE BAY  SEDIMENT STATIONS
                                                        Source:   Engineering - Science, Inc.  (1974)

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                                                TABLE 5


                 PRESQUE ISLE BAY SEDIMENT SURVEY:  PHYSICAL AND  CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS
co
o
PHYS ICAL


Station
5
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Depth
(ft)
4.5
13.5
25.0
11.0
21.0
17.5
11.0
13.5
15.5
13.0
12.0
19.0

Volume
(1)
0.4
0.25
. 3.0
1.5
2.0
1.5
2.0
0.6
0.8
1.5
2.0
1.8


Color
Brown
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Brown/Black
Grey/Black
Grey/Black
Grey/Black
Black
Black
Dry
Solids
(%)
23.7
75.5
37.4
38.5
41.0
27.8
70.4
62.7
69.1
21.2
19.8
23.2

BOD 5
(mg/g)
0.46
0.48
9.58
12.80
11.40
12.72
1.37
2.26
1.36
13.49
12.71
22.01

Sulfides
(mg/g)
0
0
0.022
0.186
0.097
0.038
0.004
0.026
0.038
0.058
0.066
0.080
CHEMICAL

COD
(mg/g)
1.49
3.35
100.70
129.57
147.75
138.89
12.42
16.13
8.77
187.18
221.72
165.49
Oil &
Grease
(mg/g)
0.20
0.14
1.61
3.75
3.57
1.33
0.42
0.08
0.18
2.19
2.32
2.09

TKN
(mg/g)
0.056
0.161
1.888
2.616
2.687
3.708
0.448
0.829
0.294
5.712
6.260
4.592
Total
P04-P
(mg/g)
0.056
0.053
0.045
0.075
0.027
0.0
0.078
0.068 "
0.062
0.050
0.117
0.181
           Source:   Engineering-Science, 1974.

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The 1973 sediment study showed that sediments along the north
shore of Presque Isle Bay were high in sand content (63 to 70
percent dry solids), and low in BOD (1.4 to 2.3 mg/g), COD
(9.0 to 12.5 mg/g), and TKN (0.29 to 0.83 mg/g).  The lowest
concentration of dry solids was located in Misery Bay (20
percent).  Those individuals conducting the sediment study
felt that the low concentration of dry solids indicated high
organic content.  High BOD (13.0 mg/g), COD (204 mg/g), PO.-P
(0.09 mg/g), and TKN (6.0 mg/g) values supported this hypothesis.
It is believed that there are three important factors con-
tributing to the build-up of organic material in Presque Isle
Bay:  (1) the annual die-off of natural vegetation along the
shoreline, (2) the transport of materials from the outer
Harbor to the Inner Harbor, (3) poor flushing in Presque Isle
Bay.  The oil and grease concentrations were high in Misery
Bay (2.25 mg/g) even though there are no urban and industrial
activities involving oil in this vicinity.  This seems to
indicate that the above conclusions are valid.

Along the south side of Presque Isle Bay, there are a large
number of industrial and commercial activities.  The sedi-
ments are, therefore, high in organic content.  BOD, COD, and
TKN concentrations were 10-13 mg/g, 100-148 mg/g, and 1.9-3.7
mg/g respectively.  It was found, as well, that oil and
grease content along this shore was high (1.3-3.8 mg/g).

It was found that many sediments roll into the "crater-like"
pocket in mid Presque Isle Bay (a depth of 30 feet).  Be-
cause of this, there are sediments in the mid bay region that
are high in organic content.   They have the highest BOD (22
mg/g)  and COD (165 mg/g).  The pattern of waste accumulation
in the harbor was determined in the 1973 study.  Outer Presque
Isle Bay is receiving waste from Erie City and Hammermill
Paper Company.  This waste is pulled into Presque Isle Bay
by a poorly defined gyre that is caused by predominant wind
currents.  Once inside the harbor, water is mixed with sewage
overflows from the City of Erie and industrial wastewater
discharge.  This creates a highly organic and chemical constituent
concentration inside the harbor.

In an additional sediment analysis conducted during the same
1973 study, benthic animal diversity values and sediment core
samples were observed.

Cores were removed from a maximum depth of 18 inches and oil
and grease determinations were made.   Most of the cores col-
lected from Presque Isle Bay had high oil and grease values.
The range of oil and grease concentration encountered  was 0
at a depth of 15-18 inches to 4.0 mg/g at 6 to 9 inches below
                              31

-------
the bottom of the Bay.  This result seemed to indicate that
oil and grease is not distributed uniformly throughout the
length of the core.

A high negative correlation was found between the benthic an-
nual diversity index and the amount of oil and grease present
at a -location.  This is perhaps indicative of the constraint
placed upon the development of desirable benthic invertebrate
communities by high concentrations of oil and grease.  The
diversity index for invertebrates was calculated at all sedi-
ment sample stations.  At all stations the benthic animal
diversity number was less than one.  This value would indicate
a poor water quality.  No benthic animals were present in
the middle of the harbor.  At this point, the oil and grease
content was 2.09 mg/g.  Along the south shore of Presque Isle
Bay, low animal diversities were associated with oil and grease
concentrations of 1.61, 3.75, and 3.57 mg/g.  There were also
low animal diversity indexes recorded along the north shore
of Presque Isle Bay where oil and grease concentrations were
low.  Researchers attributed this low diversity to problems
with the collecting dredge which failed to bite into the
sandy sediments at a sufficient depth.  The diversity index
for the entire benthic community in Presque Isle Bay was cal-
culated both in the summer and in the fall.  In the eastern
part of the bay, the ship channel and public boat basin,
the animal diversity index ranged from 1.4 to 3.1 during the
summer and from 0.7 to 3.0 during the fall.  It was assumed
that the higher benthic animal diversity index values found
in this part of the harbor may be attributed to:

     1.   seasonal variation in community size
     2.   active flushing of this area by Pennelec discharge
     3.   annual dredging of the shipping channel
                               32

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                         SECTION VII
           WATER QUALITY STUDY OF PRESQUE ISLE BAY
Introduction

A water quality study of Erie Harbor was performed to deter-
mine existing water quality and major sources of pollution
in Erie Harbor.  Lasting from September, 1973 to June, 1974,
the study included the monitoring of physical, chemical and
biological characteristics of Presque Isle Bay, its tribu-
taries and Lake Erie in the vicinity of Erie, Pennsylvania.
In general, water samples were collected at ten stations for
each of six water quality surveys.  Four of the surveys were
conducted in the fall and winter of 1973 while two were con-
ducted in the spring of 1974.  Summer conditions could not be
studied because of project time constraints.  Additional
samples were collected from specific lake and stream locations
during the study to provide in-depth information on sources
of water quality degradation.

Water quality surveys of Erie Harbor were performed in September,
October and December of 1973 and in May and June of 1974.
Ten sampling stations were sampled during each survey with
the exception of the December 27, 1973 survey when a few
stations could not be sampled due to unsafe ice conditions.
The location of the ten basic sampling stations are shown in
Figure 5 and are described below:
     Station 1  -

     Station 2



     Station 3


     Station 4


     Station 5
     Station 6

     Station 7

     Station 8  -
Cascade Creek just above confluence
with Presque Isle Bay.
Presque Isle Bay about 200 feet from
the south shore directly opposite the
confluence of Cascade Creek and Presque
Isle Bay.
Mill Creek just downstream of the Erie
sewage treatment plant and upstream of
its confluence with Presque Isle Bay.
Presque Isle Bay about 200 feet out
from the confluence of Mill Creek and
the bay.
Mid-point of Misery Bay.
Lake Erie about 500 feet north of
Hammermill Paper Company.
Lake Erie directly east of channel lead-
ing from Presque Isle Bay to Lake Erie.
Lake Erie about 300 feet east of Beach 11
on Presque Isle Peninsula.
                               33

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LAKE ERIE
                     FIGURE 5




      LOCATION  OF P&IMAR₯.:SAMPLING STATIONS
                       34

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     Station 9  -   Lake Erie in vicinity of City of Erie
                    and Hammermill Paper Company discharges.
     Station 10 -   Lake Erie about 200 feet north of the
                    confluence of Fourmile Creek and Lake Erie.

Stations 1 and 3, located on Cascade Creek and Mill Creek
respectively, were selected to provide water quality data on
the tributary input to Presque Isle Bay.  Past water quality
studies (Great Lakes Research Institute, 1972, 1973)  did not
measure the water quality of these tributary streams.  However,
in their 1973 report, the Great Lakes Research Institute
recommended that the tributary streams be included in the
monitoring program sponsored by the Erie County Health Depart-
ment.

Additional stream samples were collected on Cascade Creek
(Station 1) at various upstream locations to further locate
possible sources of stream pollution.  These additional stations
were sampled selectively three times during the study.  Garrison
Run, another tributary stream that combined with Mill Creek
below the Erie Wastewater treatment Plant, was also sampled
three times during the study to further define the water quality
entering Presque Isle Bay.

Stations 2 and 4, located in Presque Isle Bay offshore of
Cascade and Mill Creeks respectively, were selected to deter-
mine whether the water quality in the vicinity of the tribu-
taries was significantly different than that in the rest of
the bay.

Station 5, located in Misery Bay was selected to provide a
measure of the water quality in the bay at a point relatively
unaffected by localized industrial and municipal discharges.
In their 1972 report, Aquatic Ecology Associates indicated that
Misery Bay contained the most diverse biological habitat.

Station 6, located offshore of Hammermill Paper Company was
selected to determine the localized effects of wastewater dis-
charges from Hammermill Paper Company.  Station 7, located
east of the channel, was selected to measure the water quality
just outside of the bay.  It was also measured to provide
the baseline water quality of this area prior to proposed
Corps of Engineers dredge and fill operations in adjacent areas.

Station 8, located about 300 feet offshore of Beach 11, was
selected to provide a measure of the existing water quality
off Beach 11, an important recreational beach.  Personnel
of the Erie Counth Health Department have communicated concern
over the effects of proposed Corps of Engineers dredging on
                              35

-------
the water quality at Beach 11.   The Corps of Engineers plan
to dredge and fill a portion of the outer bay.   Specifically,
plans exist for the filling in of the area west of Station 7
with dredge material to increase the land area north of the
wastewater treatment plant.

Station 9, located in the vicinity of the City of Erie and
Hammermill Paper Company wastewater dischargers, was selected
to measure the effects these discharges have on the lake
water quality.

Station 10, located about 200 feet offshore of the confluence
of Fourmile Creek and Lake Erie, was selected to measure the
downstream extent of industrial and municipal discharges.
Prevailing lake currents tend to push the lake water in a
southeasterly direction, keeping much of the wastewater dis-
charges near the south shore of Lake Erie.

Additional stations were sampled selectively during the study
to measure localized water quality conditions that were observed
in the field.  Such stations usually concentrated on areas
adjacent to the confluence of Mill Creek and areas adjacent
to Hammermill Paper Company  (see Figure 6).

Other water quality studies have been performed in the Presque
Isle Bay area.  Gottschall and Jennings performed limnological
studies at Erie, Pennsylvania in 1933 with major emphasis
on the phytoplankton.  In 1970, Zagorski and O'Tool studied
the phytoplankton and zooplankton at four locations within
the bay.  The Pennsylvania Fish Commission has occasionally
collected fishery data within the bay  (Aquatic Ecology As-
sociates, 1973).  In 1972 and 1973, the Great Lakes Research
Institute performed studies of the bay and lake areas.  Three
stations were samples in 1972 and seven stations were sampled
in 1973.  These studies, performed for the Erie County Health
Department are expected to be continued.  In 1972, Aquatic
Ecology Associates investigated the ecological condition of
Presque Isle Bay for the Pennsylvania Electric Company.  Other
studies of the area have been performed by local universities.
For a complete account of all past studies, refer to the
Comprehensive Waste and Water Quality Management Study
(Engineering Science, 1974) .

For ease of understanding, a summary of the organization of  this
section is presented below:

             Presque Isle Bay and Lake Stations
             Stream stations
             Sediment Analyses
             Bacteria
             Plankton
             Discussion
                               36

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                               LAKE ERIE
PRESQUE ISLE BAY
                             FIGURE 6

                 LOCATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY
                         SAMPLING STATIONS

-------
In this report, "bay" stations refer to those stations located
in Presque Isle Bay and "lake" stations refer to those located
in Erie Harbor and Lake Erie.

During each survey, water samples were collected from one foot
below the surface and placed into special containers for chemical
and biological analyses.  Water samples for nutrient analyses
were preserved with mercuric chloride and samples for metal
analyses were preserved with nitric acid.  All samples were pre-
served in accordance with methods approved by the U. S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency.  For phytoplankton analyses, five
liters of water were filtered through a Wisconsin style plankton
net, and the concentrated plankton samples were preserved with
formalin.  The plankton net was made of No. 20 silk bolting cloth
and as such measured only net plankton.  Nannoplankton was not
measured in this study.  Samples for biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD) were collected in sterilized glass bottles and preserved
in ice.

Samples to be analyzed for general chemical analyses such as
nutrients and metals were sent to the EPA field laboratory in
Charlottesville, Virginia to be analyzed by EPA personnel.  All
analyses were performed in accordance with the 1971 edition of
"Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes" (U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, 1971).  Nutrient analyses were
performed on the autoanalyzer; metals were measured on the atomic
absorption spectrophotometer.  Bacteriological and BOD samples
were taken to the Church Laboratory and Betz Laboratories, Inc.,
to check on the quality control of Church Laboratory.   Good agree-
ment was obtained for fecal coliform, total coliform and BOD.
Samples for plankton analyses were transported to Betz Laboratories,
Inc., for analysis.  Samples collected during the June survey
were sent to Betz Laboratories for the chemical analyses rather
than to the EPA Charlottesville Laboratory because of project
time constraints.  All samples were analyzed according to pro-
cedures promulgated or approved by the U.S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency.

Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements were taken in situ
using a YSI dissolved oxygen probe.  During the June survey,
samples were collected at three depths:  surface, mid-depth and
bottom.  These samples were collected to ascertain the degree
of vertical mixing occurring during the spring to summer transi-
tion period.  Although maximum summer stratification would be
expected in July or August, project time constraints did not allow
the sampling program to proceed beyond June.

Sediment samples were collected at six stations on June 4 and
5, 1974 to determine the chemical composition at various bay
and lake locations.
                            38

-------
Physical and Chemical Characteristics

Presque Isle Bay and Lake Stations

Results of the physical and chemical analyses of Presque Isle
Bay and Erie Harbor stations are presented in Appendix A.  A
summary of mean and range values for chemical parameters is pre-
sented in Table 6.  Where appropriate, chemical parameters are
related to Pennsylvania Water Quality Standards (U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency, 1974; State of Pennsylvania, 1973).

Nitrogen

Ammonia levels in Presque Isle Bay were generally higher than
at the lake stations (Table 6), with the exception of Station
9 which was located in the vicinity of the wastewater discharges
frorn^ the City of Erie and Hammermill Paper Company.  Only one
sample, located at Station 9, exceeded the allowable limit of
0.5 mg/1 set for surface water for public water supplies.  A
general water quality criteria for ammonia has not been set
for Presque Isle Bay and Erie Harbor.  The high average am-
monia concentration at Station 9 (0.16 mg/1) along with the
highest ammonia concentration measured during the study  (0.51
mg/1) indicates that either Hammermill Paper Company or the
City of Erie is discharging significant amounts of ammonia.
Analyses of the Hammermill Paper Company's pulp bleaching wash
waters, which discharge in the vicinity of Station 9, indicate
that a free ammonia concentration of about 3 mg/1 is discharged.
Waste inspection records of the Erie County Health Department
indicate that the Hammermill paper mill screening effluent,
which discharges to Motch Run and thence to Lake Erie, contains
an ammonia concentration of 7.8 mg/1.  In addition, a significant
contribution to the ambient ammonia concentrations observed is
being provided by the treated wastewater from the City of Erie
sewage treatment plant.  The effluent from the City of Erie sewage
treatment plant contains an ammonia concentration of 11 mg/1
(Engineering - Science, 1974).

The mean ammonia concentration was highest at Station 2  (0.17
mg/1) with Station 9 (0.16 mg/1) a very close second.  At
Station 2, located in Presque Isle Bay directly out from the
confluence of Cascade Creek with the bay, ammonia concen-
trations ranged from 0.04 to 0.32 mg/1, indicating that
Cascade Creek is a major source of ammonia contamination.
Station 1, located on Cascade Creek just upstream of its con-
fluence with the bay, had a mean ammonia concentration of 1.51
mg/1 and a range of 0.10 to 5.88 mg/1.  These high ammonia
concentrations clearly indicate that Cascade Creek is (1)
receiving discharges high in ammonia, (2) significantly con-
                          39

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                           TABLE 6

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

PH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd  ug/1

Chromium  as Cr ug/1

Aluminum  as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg  ug/1
      Station 2
Mean           Range
7.8
95
6
206
5
5.4
0.17
0.05
0.31
0.45
0.63
0.01
0.03
0.08
9
390
6
9
20
3.6
26
282
3
7.4-8.0
92-108
3-10
172-230
2-8
2.0-10.0
0.04-0.32
0.01-0.18
0.04-0.90
0.01-1.68
0.06-2.00
' 0.00-0.02
0.00-0.07
0.02-0,17
0-11
100-734
1-15
6-13
0-53
0.01-10
0.69
120-407
0.1-8.3
                               40

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                      TABLE 6 (cont'd)

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

pH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids rag/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium as Cr ug/1

Aluminum as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
      Station 4
Mean      '     Range
7.7
96
8
215
6
7.3
0.13
0.05
0.51
0.15
0.27
0.01
0.04
0.07
10
315
4
7
18
3.7
31
256
3
7.2-8.1
93-104
1-15
198-240
4-8
1.0-12.0
0.03-0.31
0.01-0.13
0.02-1.60
0.06-0.25
0.11-0.56
0.00-0.02
0.01-0.07
0.02-0.13
0-13
100-464
0-134
2-12
0.65
0.01-10
0-74
180-318
0.1-8.3
                               41

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                      TABLE 6 (cont'd)

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

pH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
-  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium as Cr ug/1

Aluminum as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
     Station 5
Mean           Range
7.8
95
8
208
6
6.6
0.13
0.05
0.34
0.62
0.71
0.01
0.05
0.07
9
248
2
9
7
4.6
16
191
3
7.3-8.1
91-106
5-15
196-230
5-8
4.0-11.0
0.01-0.22
0.01-0.18
0.01-0.90
0.06-2.25
0.06-2.40
0.00-0.03
0.01-0.18
0.02-0.19
0-11
198-398
0-7
2-22
0-20
0.01-13
0-41
114-291
0.1-6.7
                               42

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                      TABLE 6 (cont'd)

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

PH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Pe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium as Cr ug/1

Aluminum as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
      Station 6
Mean           Range
7.6
114
9
224
8
12.8
0.08
0.05
0.54
0.19
0.28
0.01
0.03
0.07
15
409
3
7
5
3.1
12
389
4
7.2-7.9
90-122
5-15
193-266
4-12
2.0-36.0
0.02-0.22
0.01-0.19
0.02-1.60
0.04-0.35
0.06-0.53
0.00-0.01
0.00-0.08
0.02-0.17
0-20
200-820
0-6
2-14
0-10
0.01-10
0-40
235-640
0.1-10.4
                               43

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                      TABLE 6 (cont'd)

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

PH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd  ug/1

Chromium  as Cr ug/1

Aluminum  as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg  ug/1
      Station 7
Mean           Range
7.7
107
7
200
7
6,0
0.08
0.08
0.31
0.21
0.29
0.01
0.02
0.08
9
317
4
8
13
3.0
9
305
2
7.1-8.0
87-188
3-15
189-210
5-10
0-17.0
0.01-0.27
0.01-0.33
0.01-1.30
0.05-0.40
0.05-0.57
0.00-0.02
0.00-0.04
0.02-0.23
0-11
100-564
018
2-16
0-52
0.02-10
0-24
150-490
0.1-7.4
                                44

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                      TABLE 6 (cont'd)

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

PH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium as Cr ug/1

Aluminum as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
     . Station 8
Mean           Range
7.8
106
5
200
7
8.0
0.09
0.05
0.54
0.19
0.28
0.01
0.03
0.08
9
309
3
7
13
3.0
12
343
1
7.2-8.0
87-188
2-10
187-217
4-10
2.0-21.0
0.01-0.30
0.01-0.20
0.01-1.71
0.04-0.42
0.04-0.72
0.00-0.02
0.00-0.11
0.02-0.20
0-11
100-518
0-9
2-12
0-40
0.01-10
0-56
50-645
0.1-3.4
                                45

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                      TABLE 6 (.cont'd)

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

PH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium  as Cr ug/1

Aluminum  as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
     Station 9
Mean           Range
7.6
109
6
198
6
6.6
0.16
0.05
0.48
0.16
0.34
0.01
0.02
0.09
10
283
2
8
4
2.7
20
236
2
7.1-8.0
87-188
4-10
187-207
4-10
2.0-15.
0.03-0.
0.01-0.
0.02-1.
0.03-0.
0.11-0.
0.00-0.
0.00-0.
0.02-0.
0-12
100-614
0-8
2-21
0-12
0.02-10
0-54
50-477
0.1-3.8





0
51
15
10
33
84
02
03
20

-







                                Af.

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                      TABLE 6  tcont'd)

               SUMMARY DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

PH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
  as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
  as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
  as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium as Cr ug/1

Aluminum as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
     Station 10
Mean           Range
7.6
114
35
237
11
10.4
0.08
0.08
0.49
0.48
0.57
0.01
0.02
0.07
17
334
3
8
14
2.9
10
469
4
7.1-7.9
91-186
30-40
213-298
3-17
5.0-14.0
0.01-0.28
0.01-0.24
0.01-1.30
0.05-1.19
0.05-1.47
0.00-0.02
0.00-0.03
0.02-0.20
0-21
120-580
0-9
2-18
0-39
0.02-10
0-32
160-930
0.1-8.9
                               47

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tributing to the ammonia content of the bay,  and (3)  exceed-
ing the water quality criteria of 1.5 mg/1 (from 6/1 to 10/31)
and 4.5 mg/1 (from 11/1 to 5/31)  set for this stream.

A similar situation was observed at Station 4, located op-
posite the confluence of Mill Creek and Presque Isle Bay.
Relatively high ammonia concentrations were found,  ranging
from 0.03 to 0.31 mg/1 with an average of 0.13 mg/1.   Station
3, located on Mill Creek just upstream from Station 4, had
ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 8.40 mg/1 and
an average of 2.74 mg/1.  These results indicate that the
high ammonia concentrations observed at Station 4 are caused
by the large influx of ammonia from Mill Creek.

Nitrate concentrations showed a greater variation over time
than between stations.  Levels were lowest in the fall and
increased in the winter at all stations.  In the bay, nitrate
concentrations were highest in December, while at the lake
stations, peak concentrations occurred in May.  This seasonal
pattern in nitrate levels is generally associated with plank-
ton levels.  As plankton numbers decline, nitrates are released,
increasing the nitrate concentration in the water.   Nitrate
levels then decrease in the summer when plankton populations
increase.

Both organic and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were high-
est at Stations 2, 5 and 10.  High concentrations of Kjeldahl
nitrogen were found in Cascade Creek  (Station 1) and account
for the high Kjeldahl nitrogen levels found in the bay at
Station 2.  However, Mill Creek  (Station 3) had even higher
Kjeldahl nitrogen levels than Cascade Creek yet Station 4,
located in the bay at the Mill Creek confluence, had relatively
low Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations.  High nitrogen con-
centrations at Station 5, located in Misery Bay, could be a
result of either the discharge of organic materials and nutrients
from the marsh areas in Presque  Isle State Park or the ac-
cumulation of organic and nutrient material transported to
Misery Bay by bay and lake currents.  The high nitrogen
levels found at Station 10, located offshore  from Fourmile
Creek may be a result of wastewater from Hammermill Paper
Company.

Besides having high organic and  Kjeldahl nitrogen levels,
Stations 2, 5 and 10 had relatively low nitrate levels, in-
dicating the presence of unoxidized organic matter in these
areas.  In contrast, Stations 4, 6, 8 and 9 had the  lowest
mean organic and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations and compar-
atively high nitrate levels.  Total nitrogen  levels were
generally highest in May, probably resulting  from the un-
stratified, completely-mixed nature of the lake in spring.
                               48

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Phosphorus

Mean Total phosphorus concentrations were relatively similar
for all bay and lake stations and ranged from 0.07 mg/1 to
0.09 mg/1.  At most stations maximum total phosphorus concen-
trations occurred in June.  Orthophosphate concentrations
were generally below 0.01 mg/1 as phosphorus with exceptions
occurring primarily in the winter and early spring.  Ortho-
phosphate, like nitrate, is closely associated with plankton
growth.  Orthophosphate is tied up in plankton biomass in the
summer and is released as the organisms die off in late fall.
The relatively low phosphorus levels in the bay and lake area
indicate that phosphorus is being utilized in phytoplankton
growth.  Consideration of the relatively high phosphorus con-
centrations entering the bay from Cascade Creek (average
phosphorus concentration of 0.14 mg/1)  and Mill Creek (average
phosphorus level of 1.12 mg/1)  further strenghtens the concept
that phosphorus is being rapidly utilized by the phytoplankton.
Water quality criteria for Erie Harbor and Presque Isle Bay
do not specify a numerical phosphorus limitation.   The
criteria for Lake Erie indicate that phosphorus concentrations
should be limited to prevent nuisance growths of algae,  weeds
and slimes.

Total Organic Carbon

Total organic carbon is a measure of the carbon tied up in
living and dead organic materials.  Total organic  carbon mean
values were 9-10 mg/1 at all stations except Stations 6  and 10
where mean values were 15 mg/1 and 17 mg/1 respectively.
Organic carbon concentrations ranged from 0 to 21  mg/1 for
individual sampling dates, but exhibited no observable seasonal
pattern.  There is no water quality criterion for  total  organic
carbon.  The high organic carbon levels measured at Stations
6 and 10, located adjacent to and downstream of Hammermill
Paper Company, are probably caused by the discharge of paper
mill wastes by Hammermill.  During all sampling dates, highly
colored water was observed in the vicinity of Station 10.   This
color could be traced back to the Hammermill discharge.   To
further investigate the source of color and high organic carbon,
an additional sampling station, Station 6A, was established at
a distance of about 100 feet offshore from the Hammermill Paper
Company.  The total organic carbon concentration measured at
this station was 24 rag/1, a value higher than that found at
either Station 6 or Station 10.  This high organic carbon
content indicates that the source of organic carbon found at
stations 6 and 10 is the Hammermill Paper Company  wastewater
discharge.  Thus, the high organic carbon levels appear  to be
caused by organic plant materials discharged by the Hammermill
Paper Company.
                              49

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Biochemical Oxygen Demand

The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the amount of oxygen
utilized by microorganisms to oxidize complex organic matter
to relatively stable organic compounds.  It is a measure of
the amount of biodegradable organic material present in a
water.  The biochemical oxygen demand measured in the bay and
lake water was high for lake water.  However, no water quality
criterion for BOD has been promulgated for these waters.
Considering all of the bay and lake stations, peak BOD values
ranging from 10 to 21 mg/1 occurred in October.  Maximum
individual BOD values, however,  occurred at Stations 4A, 6
and 6A.  Station 4A, located about 200 feet out from the Mill
Creek confluence, was added to the study to determine the
effects of Mill Creek on the local environment of the bay and
to measure the mixing characteristics of Mill Creek water with
bay water.  The maximum BOD measured in the bay and lake areas,
a BOD of 70 mg/1, occurred at Station 4A.  This extremely high
BOD was caused by low quality water entering the bay from
Mill Creek.  On the same day that this high BOD was measured,
a maximum stream BOD of 120 mg/1 was measured in Mill Creek,
a short distance upstream of Station 4A.  Thus, the high bio-
chemical oxygen demand observed at Station 4A was directly
caused by the influx of poor quality water from Mill Creek.

The high BOD values measured at Stations 6 and 6A, like the
organic carbon levels, appear to be caused by the Hammermill
Paper Company's wastewater discharges.

Total and Suspended Solids

Total solids concentrations in the bay and lake areas ranged
from 172 to 379 mg/1 with the maximum concentration occurring
at Station 6A, located about 100 feet offshore from the Hammer-
mill Paper Company.  Total dissolved solids were well under the
established criterion of 500 mg/1.  Suspended solids concen-
trations ranged from 2 to 108 mg/1 with an average value of
about 7 mg/1.  The maximum suspended solids concentration of
108 mg/1 occurred at Station 4A.  Suspended solids at Station
4A were always greater then, the average suspended solids in
the bay and lake areas, ranging from 24 to 108 mg/1.  Station
10, located downstream of the Hammermill Paper Company, also
had relatively high suspended solids concentrations ranging
from 3 to 17 mg/1 and averaging 11 mg/1.  Station 4A, located
about 200 feet offshore from the Mill Creek confluence, had
a suspended solids concentration of 18 mg/1, indicating the
effect of Mill Creek on local water quality.

pH and Alkalinity

The pH values ranged from 6.9 to 8.1 and appeared to show a
                               50

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seasonal pattern.  Values were highest in the fall, decreased
in the winter, and began increasing again in the spring.  This
pattern corresponds to the cyclic nature of algae populations.
As phytoplankton levels increase, carbon dixoide is removed
from the water for photosynthesis and this process causes an
increase in the pH.  Conversely, bacterial decomposition
removes oxygen and adds carbon dioxide to the water, causing
a decrease in pH.  This effect is illustrated at Station 4A,
located offshore from the Mill Creek confluence and downstream
of the City of Erie sewage treatment plant.  A pH of 6.9,
the lowest pH measured in the bay and lake areas, was measured
at this station.

Pennsylvania water quality criteria specify a pH between 6.0 and
9.0 for Erie Harbor and Presque Isle Bay and a pH between 6.7
and 8.5 for Lake Erie.  All stations were within the specified
limits indicating the water is adequately buffered and free of
excessive acidic and alkaline materials.

Alkalinity, a measure of the buffer capacity of a natural water,
is caused primarily by carbonate and bicarbonate salts in
solution.  The alkalinity of a natural water acts as a carbon
reservoir for algae production.  Algae utilize carbon dioxide
as a carbon source in the process of photosynthesis to produce
organic matter (more algae) and oxygen.  In a natural water,
an equilibrium exists between carbon dioxide, carbonate and
bicarbonate, and, as the carbon dioxide is used up by photo-
synthetic activity, more carbon dioxide is produced from the
carbonate and bicaronate forms of alkalinity by a shift in the
equilibrium as shown below:

               2HC03-  = CO^ + H2O + C02

               CC>3= + H20 = 20H~ + C02

The increase in pH associated with algal production is caused
by the addition of hydroxide ions to the water.   Thus, alkalinity
is directly related to the productivity of a natural water.

Alkalinities in the bay and lake areas ranged from 92 to 222
mg/1 with an average of about 100 mg/1.  Peak alkalinities
occurred in June.  The maximum alkalinity occurred at Station
6, offshore from the Mill Creek confluence.  In the pH range
found in these waters (6.9 to 8.1), most of the alkalinity
would be bicarbonate.

Color

In general, color in the bay and lake areas was low with the
                              51

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exception of Stations 6A and 10.  As noted above, these stations
are adjacent to and downstream of Hairanerraill Paper Company
respectively.  Color at Station 6A ranged from 12 to 65 units
(1 unit = 1 mg/1 platinum as chloroplatinate ion) while at
Station 10 color ranged from 30 to 40 units.  During each
survey, a brown color was observed at Station 10; this color
could be traced back to the Hammermill Paper Company's discharge
which was also brown in color.  The high color levels observed
at Stations 6A and 10 correlate with the high organic carbon
and BOD values observed.  An additional station,  Station 12, was
sampled during the June survey to determine the extent of the
color in the lake.  Station 12 was located upstream of Hammer-
mill, opposite the Koppers Company plant (formerly Interlake
Steel).  At Station 12, both the color and suspended solids
were high with values of 25 units and 20 mg/1 respectively.
The Koppers discharge, however, consisting of process cooling
water, was hot, but did not contain high color or suspended
solids.  Thus, the high color observed at Station 12 appears
to be caused by the Hammermill Paper Company.  Easterly winds
evidently produce upstream currents that transport pollutants
towards the bay area.

Heavy Metals

Within station variations over time were greater than between
station differences for all heavy metals measured.  Heavy metal
levels were generally well within detectable limits.  Higher
than average concentrations of various heavy metals were found
at different stations as summarized below.

     Station                  High Heavy Metal Concentrations

        2                     Chromium
        4                     Copper, Zinc
        4A                    Iron, Copper,'Zinc, Lead & Cadmium
        5                     Lead
        6                     Iron and Copper
        6A                    Iron, Zinc, Copper and Aluminum

Stations 2, 4 and 4A indicate the effect of Cascade and Mill
Creeks on the receiving water.  Stations 6 and 6A, located
opposite Hammermill Paper Company, indicate possible heavy
metal contamination.  Station 5, located in Misery Bay, indicates
some lead contamination from the Presque Isle swamps or from
bay currents transporting materials to Misery Bay.  Pennsyl-
vania water quality standards indicate that dissolved iron
should not exceed 0.3 mg/1.  Since only total iron was measured,
it is not possible to determine whether the standard was exceed-
ed.  However, in the lake water, total iron concentration
ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 mg/1, indicating a strong possibility
that the standard might have been exceeded.
                              52

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Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen

Temperatures in the bay area were slightly higher than those
in the lake.  Most temperatures, however, were similar at
most stations indicating that the bay and lake were relatively
well-mixed and homogeneous.  Higher than average temperatures
were found at Staions 4A and 4B, located near the Mill Creek
confluence.  These higher temperatures reflect the effect of
Mill Creek and its sewage contaminated water on the lake area
adjacent to the creek's discharge point.  High temperatures
were also observed in the cooling water discharge from the
Koppers Company, at Station 10, at the General Electric outfall
and near the water intake from Pennelec (Pennsylvania Electric
Company).

Dissolved oxygen levels in the bay and lake areas were relatively
high throughout the study period, ranging from about 8 mg/1 in
the fall to about 10 mg/1 in the spring.  In September, oxygen
values ranged from 82 to 90 percent saturation.  In October,
oxygen values ranged from 60 to 107 percent saturation.  How-
ever, Stations 6A, 6B and 6C, located offshore from Hammermill
Paper Company, ranged from 51 to 64 percent saturation.
Stations 4A and 4B, located directly out from the Mill Creek
confluence, ranged from 7 to 28 percent saturation, indicating
the effect of organic pollution in Mill Creek.  In May of 1974,
oxygen values ranged from 84 to 108 percent saturation; and
in June,  values ranged from 63 to 124 percent saturation for
surface waters and from 47 to 110 percent saturation for
bottom waters.  Very little changes were observed in oxygen
levels from October through June.  In October a diurnal
dissolved oxygen survey was performed to determine day and
night variations in oxygen levels.  Small diurnal changes were
observed in both the bay and lake.  For example, at Station 2
the dissolved oxygen ranged from 9.6 to 10.8 mg/1 (91 to 104
percent saturation) over a 24-hour period.  At Station 5, the
DO range over 24 hours was 9.6 to 10.5 mg/1 (55 to 103 per-
cent saturation).

In general, Stations 6 and 10 had the lowest dissolved oxygen
concentrations of all the regular stations, indicating the
possible influence of Hammermill's wastewater discharge.  Stations
6A, 6B and 6C, located adjacent to the Hammermill Paper Company,
had dissolved oxygen concentrations of 6.5, 5.9 and 4.8 mg/1
respectively, indicating depressed oxygen conditions in the
vicinity of the Hammermill discharge.

Low oxygen levels were also found at Stations 4A, 4B and 4D,
located near the Mill Creek confluence.  At Station 4A, dissolved
oxygen levels ranged from 0.7 to 8.1 mg/1 with most concen-
trations below 3 mg/1.
                              53

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The Pennsylvania water quality criteria for dissolved oxygen
is that the minimum daily average be 5.0 mg/1 or greater and
that no value should be less than 4.0 mg/1.  Localized areas
around the confluence of Mill Creek (Stations 4A, 4B and 4D)
and offshore from Hammermill Paper Company (Station 6C)  do
not meet these criteria.  All other areas studied were well
above these criteria.  High dissolved oxygen levels were
consistent at Station 5, located in Misery Bay, reflecting
the highly productive nature of the water in this area.
Temperature and dissolved oxygen versus depth curves are
presented in Figure 7.

Transparency

Secchi disc reading, a measure of transparency, was relatively
constant throughout the study period, averaging about 1.3
meters.  Low Secchi disc readings were found at Stations 4A, 4B,
6, 6A, 6B and 6C.  These low readings reflect the general poor
water quality observed at these stations.  At Stations 4A and
4B, downstream of the sewage treatment plant, the low trans-
parency was due to suspended solids.  At Stations 6, 6A, 6B
and 6C, located adjacent to the Hammermill Paper Company, the
low transparency was due to color and suspended solids.   A
low reading was also found at the bay area adjacent to Pennelec
and the northwest Marina.

Stream Stations

Cascade Creek

Cascade Creek drains the western section of the City of Erie.
It originates in a degraded area of the city in a swampy
area used as a junk disposal area by individuals and commercial
establishments.  Cascade Creek flows roughly from 28th Street
to the bay, passing through areas dominated by small industries
and commercial establishments.  Storm drains and other dis-
charges appear to flow into Cascade Creek.  Cascade Creek is
made up of a west and an east branch.  The east branch is the
main stem and flows from about 28th Street to the bay.  The
west branch combines with the east branch just below 8th
Street.  From West Third Street to the bay, Cascade Creek
passes through a heavily industrialized area containing the
following industries:

                    Allied Oil Company, Inc.
                    United Oil Manufacturing Company
                    Perry Shipbuilding Company

Summary data of means and ranges for Cascade Creek are pre-
                               54

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-------
                                 LAKE ERIE
PRESQUE ISLE BAY
                                 FIGURE 8
                      CASCADE CREEK SAMPLING  STATIONS

-------
sented in Table 7.  In general, nutrient levels in Cascade
Creek were higher than those in the bay and lake areas.  Am-
monia concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 5.88 mg/1 and averaged
1.51 mg/1.  Many of these values exceeded the water quality
criterion of 0.5 mg/1 for public water supplies.  Kjeldahl
nitrogen concentrations were also high, ranging from 0.11 to
5.80 mg/1 and averaging 2.21 mg/1.  Organic nitrogen, however,
was lower than the bay and lake stations.  Phosphorus levels
were greater in Cascade Creek than, in the bay with average
total phosphorus and dissolved orthophosphate levels of 0.14
mg/1 and 0.025 mg/1 respectively.

Total solids and suspended solids were higher in Cascade Creek
with average concentrations of 345 mg/1 and 34 mg/1 respectively,
The higher total solids concentrations, besides reflecting
higher suspended solids levels, indicates that total dissolved
substances were greater in Cascade Creek than in the bay and
lake areas.  In Cascade Creek suspended solids ranged from 1
to 170 mg/1 with the maximum concentration occurring in April.

The average BOD in Cascade Creek was slightly higher than
average bay values.  Color averaged 8.8 units and ranged from
4 to 16 units.  The color in Cascade Creek was about the same
as the average ambient bay and lake water.

Heavy metal concentrations were, in general, higher in Cascade
Creek than in the bay and lake.  In particular, concentrations
of iron, lead, zinc and aluminum were high.

In Cascade Creek, iron ranged from 0.58 to 12.47 mg/1 and
averaged 2.86 mg/1.  In the lake and bay areas, however, iron
ranged from 0.10 to 0.82 mg/1.  It is highly probable that
the dissolved iron, although not measured, exceeded the
Pennsylvania standard of 0.3 mg/1.

In Cascade Creek, lead ranged from 0.018 to 0.286 mg/1 and
averaged 0.077 mg/1 while in the bay and lake areas it ranged
from 0.002 to 0.022 mg/1.  Water quality criteria for live-
stock public water supplies set a limit of 0.05 mg/1 for lead.
Thus, at times, water in Cascade Creek exceeds this limit.

Zinc ranged from 0.006 to 0.192 mg/1 and averaged 0.055 mg/1
in Cascade Creek while it ranged from 0 to 0.065 mg/1 in the
bay and lake areas.  The zinc criterion for public water
supplies is 5 mg/1, indicating that these waters do not exceed
this limit.

Aluminum ranged from 0.2 to 3.8 mg/1 in Cascade Creek and
from 0.05 to 0.93 mg/1 in the bay and lake areas.  No limits
                              59

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                           TABLE 7

              SUMMARY DATA FOR STREAM STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

PH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium as Cr ug/1

Aluminum as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
      Station 1
Mean           Range
7.6
114
8.8
345
34
9.8
1.51
0.13
1.51
0.05
2.21
0.025
0.08
0.14
2862
22.7
77.3
55.0
2.55
26.45
1017
1.91
7.2-7.9
93-132
4.0-16.0
262-400
1-170
6.0-19.0
0.10-5.88
0.01-0.36
0.10-5.88
0.01-0.18
0.11-5.80
0.010-0.058
0.03-0.17
0.03-0.30
580-12,470
6.6-66.0
18.0-286.0
6.0-192.0
0.0-4.40
4.00-66.00
200-3820
0.00-4.35
                               60

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                     TABLE 7 (cont'd)

              SUMMARY DATA FOR STREAM STATIONS
CONSTITUENTS

pH

Alkalinity mg/1

Color Units

Total Solids mg/1

Suspended Solids mg/1

Biological Oxygen Demand mg/1

Ammonia as N mg/1

Nitrite as N mg/1

Nitrate as N mg/1

Organic Nitrogen as N mg/1

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
as N mg/1

Dissolved Orthophosphate
as P mg/1

Total Dissolved Phosphorus
as P mg/1

Total Phosphorus as P mg/1

Total Organic Carbon mg/1

Iron as Fe ug/1

Copper as Cu ug/1

Lead as Pb ug/1

Zinc as Zn ug/1

Cadmium as Cd ug/1

Chromium as Cr ug/1

Aluminum as Al ug/1

Mercury as Hg ug/1
      Station 3
Mean           Range
7.0
118
14.2
361
34
68.2
2.74
0.30
2.74
0.79
4.02
0.507
0.32
1.12
2670
77.5
40.3
157.6
3.91
39.23
612
1.64
6.7-7.3
63-161
4.0-35.0
223-447
4-68
9.0-120.0
0.14-8.40
0.03-1.14
0.14-8.40
0.29-1.50
0.43-9.90
' 0.008-1.150
0.01-0.74
0.11-2.30
566-8400
10.0-159.0
17.0-82.0
51.0-348.0
0.12-10.0
0.00-88.0
180-1800
0.10-4.10
                               61

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have been established for aluminum in these waters.  However,
the aluminum level is higher in Cascade Creek than in the
lake.

In addition to the sampling of Cascade Creek just upstream of
its confluence with the bay (Station 1),  Cascade Creek'was
sampled at six other locations in an attempt to determine the
sources of stream pollution.  The following stations were
sampled:

     Station                       Location

       1A                     W. 25th Street & Bauer Ave.
       IB                     W. 18th Street & Industrial Dr.
       1C                     W. 8th Street & Greengarden St.
       ID                     W. 8th Street & Greengarden St.
       IE                     W. 12th Street & Weschler Rd.
       IF                     W. 12th Street (South of Villa
                                  Marie College)

Stations 1A, IB, IE and 1C were located on the east branch
of Cascade Creek, while Station IF and ID were located on the
west branch (see Figure 8).

Stations 1A through IF were sampled at least twice, in May and
June.  Stations 1A through ID were initially sampled in
December before Stations IE and IF were added.  In December,
the suspended solids, nutrients, BOD, color and heavy metals
measured in Cascade Creek were relatively low.  In June
these constituents were slightly higher,  but were not signifi-
cant.  However, in May, these constituents were very high.
For example, in December and June the suspended solids con-
centration was 6 mg/1 at Station 1A while in May the suspended
solids concentration was 162 mg/1.  Examination of rainfall
data indicated that significant amounts of rain fell during the
month of May.  These May samples were collected on May 9th
under the conditions below:

               Date                     Rain (inches)

               5/2/74                        0.20
               5/3/74                        0.26
               5/5/74                        0.33
               5/8/74                        0.31
               5/9/74                        0.19

Thus, even a light rainfall for an extended period as noted
above can produce significant changes in the stream water
quality.  This rain-related change in water quality indicates
that much of the pollution  load in Cascade Creek is caused
by storm drains.
                               62

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Evaluation of the data for Stations 1A through IF indicates
that solids, nutrients and organic material enter the east
branch of Cascade Creek all along its length and not at any
one location.

The west branch, however, appears to pick up most of these
constituents between Station IF and ID.  Most heavy metals
also appear to follow this pattern with the exception of iron
which appears to increase significantly between the confluence
of the east and west branch and Station 1.

Mill Creek

Mill Creek travels throughout the area from the very southern
part of the city, where it is an open, rather clean stream,
to the bay.  From the central section of the City of Erie to
the bay, Mill Creek is enclosed in a tube and receives many
stormwater discharges, sewer system overflows and illegal
sewer discharges.  Just below the sewage treatment plant,
Garrison Run, a stream to the east of Mill Creek, joins Mill
Creek.  Garrison Run is also enclosed throughout the city and
receives stormwater discharges, sewer overflows and drainage
from Penn Central.  A detailed evaluation of Garrison Run
and Penn Central is provided in Sections VIII and IX respectively.

Mill Creek at Station 3, located just downstream of the sewage
treatment plant, but upstream of its confluence with Garrison
Run, is heavily polluted with both organic material and heavy
metals, as shown in Table 7.  Suspended solids ranged from 4
to 68 mg/1 and averaged 34 mg/1.  Nutrient concentrations were
high with average concentrations of ammonia, Kjeldahl nitrogen,
organic nitrogen and total phosphorus of 2.74, 4.02, 0.79
and 1.12 mg/1 respectively.  Ammonia levels exceeded the
criteria of 0.5 mg/1 for public water supplies.  Dissolved
orthophosphate levels ranged from 0.008 to 1.150 mg/1 and
averaged 0.507 mg/1.

Biochemical oxygen demand  (BOD) was also very high, ranging
from 9 to 120 mg/1 with an average of 68.2 mg/1.  Color ranged
from 4 to 35 units and averaged 14.2 units.  Heavy metal
concentrations were also high, especially for iron and zinc.

Garrison Run

Garrison Run is a natural stream that flows through most of
Erie City in a tube.  Like Mill Creek, this tube receives
stormwater runoff, sewer overflows and other miscellaneous
industrial and sanitary discharges.  Garrison Run is located
east of Mill Creek, along East Avenue and Wayne Street.  It
combines with Mill Creek below the sewage treatment plant.
Samples were collected from Garrison Run upstream of its con-
fluence with Mill Creek  (Station 3A) three times during the study,
                               63

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One of the three samples contained high levels of suspended
solids (232 mg/1), iron (14.11 mg/1) and aluminum (7.04 mg/1).
In general, the- water quality in Garrison Run is degraded
and is indicative of industrial and sanitary pollution.  A
detailed analysis of Garrison Run is presented in Section VIII.

Sediment Analysis

Sediment samples were collected at Stations 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and
9 in June.  Both nutrients and heavy metal concentrations were
highest at Station 5, except for nitrate and lowest at Station
8, except for phosphate.  Lake Stations 7 and 9 had similar
heavy metal concentrations.  The nutrient concentrations at
the two stations were somewhat different.  The nitrate concen-
tration was 250 mg/1 at Station 9 and 50 mg/1 at Station 7.
Ammonia concentrations showed an opposite pattern with a value
of 120 mg/1 at Station 7 and 10 mg/1 at Station 9.  Both
total and orthophosphate levels were three times higher at
Station 7 than at Station 9.  Both nutrient and heavy metal
concentrations were higher at Station 2 than at Station 4.
Station 4 had lower concentrations of aluminum, chromate, zinc,
copper, and iron than Stations 7 and 9; but Station 2 had higher
concentrations of these constituents.

Bacteria

The maximum total bacteria concentration in the lake and bay
was 1,200,000 colonies per ml at Station 6 on June 4.  The
lowest concentration (less than 10 colonies per ml)  was at
Station 5 on December 4.  No seasonal pattern was evident.
Stations 2 and 4 had the highest overall concentrations and
Station 8 had the lowest concentration although there were
fluctuations in values at all stations.  Total and fecal
coliform bacteria concentrations did not follow the same pattern
as total bacteria concentrations.  High concentrations of fecal
and total coliform bacteria occurred at Station 2 in September,
but in general, the highest concentrations for the area,
particularly the lake area, occurred in December (Figure 9).

All bacteria concentrations in the tributaries (Stations 1 and
3) were higher than in the lake and bay, and Station 3 con-
centrations were higher than those at Station 1 except for the
May samples.  Fecal coliform concentrations were high at
Station 3, and total coliform concentrations were generally
higher than at Station 1 (Figure 10).  The highest fecal coli-
form concentrations occurred at Station 3 in October.  This
value exceeded 1,000,000 colonies per 100 ml.  Garrison Run
contained high levels of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria
on all three sampling surveys.  Total coliforms ranged from
23,400 to 61,000 per 100 ml and fecal eoliforms ranged from 160
to 7,200 per 100 ml.   The total coliform bacteria levels in
Garrison Run exceeded state water quality criteria.
                              64

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                                               FIGURE 9x

                                    TOTAL i BACTERIA FOR  LAKE STATIONS
_IOOjOOO-i
                                                                       D
                                                                            SEPT. 27
                                                                            DEC 4
MAY 21
   10,000 -
   1
   V)
   UJ
   3
   8
    1000-
     100
                                                                                         10
                                               65

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lOOjOOO -|
                                      FIGURE  9    (CONTINUED)
                              TOTAL COLIFORM  BACTERIA FOR  LAKE STATIONS
                                                                         SEPT. 27


                                                                         DEC. 4
                                                                     |~J  MAY 21
    10
                                                                                    10
                                            STATION
                                                  66

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                                        FIGURE 9    (CONTINUED)

                              FECAL COLIFQRM BACTERIA FOR LAKE  STATIONS
10,000 -,
                                                                     D
                                                                          SEPT. 27





                                                                          DEC. 4
MAY 2!
 1,000-
8
en
ui
o
o
   100^
                                            STATION

                                                  67

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                                           FIGURE 10

                                TOTAL BACTERIA FOR STATIONS! ANDJ_
                                                                         STATION I
                                                                        STATION 3
1000,000-1
  100,000-
   m
   ui
   8
   10,000-
     1000
                                                                                            a.
                                                                                            o
            SEPT 27
                                                                           MAY 21
JUNE 4

-------
                                          FIGURE 10   (CONTINUED]
                               TOTAL COLIFORM BACTERIA FOR STATIONS 1  AND 3
                                                                            STATION I
                                                                            STATION 3
1,000,000-1
 100,000 -
    V)
    UJ
   10,000-
     1,000
                                           Q.
                                           2
             SEPT 27
OCT 26
DEC 4
MAY 21
JUNE 4

-------
ipoo,ooo-i
         FIGURE 10    (CONTINUED]
FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA FOR STATIONS 1 AND 3
                                                                           STATION I
                                                                           STATION 3
 100,000-
  10,000-
  
-------
Bacteria concentrations are often correlated with rainfall
because of the high bacteria content of soil that results in
bacteria entering waterways with ground runoff.  The high
fecal and total coliform concentrations found in the study are
probably not a result of runoff conditions.  Concentrations
did not increase and decrease at the same time at different
stations and total bacteria concentrations did not exhibit the
same pattern as coliform bacteria as would be expected with
runoff.  Fecal coliform concentrations were particularly high
near the sewage treatment plant (Station 3).

The higher coliform concentrations at the lake stations in the
winter may be a result of greater bacteria longevity in cold
water.  Coliform bacteria are usually short-lived in water;
however, they may become dormat at low temperatures.  These
dormant cells could then grow when incubated in the laboratory.
These potentially viable cells could be carried by currents
to areas away from their source.  The fact that winter bacteria
concentrations increased in the lake but not in the tributaries
suggests Stations 1 and 3 were close to the source of contami-
nation, and therefore, cell viability was not affected by
temperature.  Fecal and total coliform bacteria concentrations
at Stations 2 and 4 were higher than at other stations at some
sampling times, but not at all times as might be expected because
of their proximity to the tributaries.  The high total coliform
concentrations at Stations 6, 7 and 9 in May could be indicative
of rainfall and runoff since total bacteria concentrations
were also high.

The bacterial findings of this study are in agreement with
previous studies performed in the area.  Zagorski and Galus
(1972) reported Mill Creek water contributed to the bacterial
pollution of Presque Isle Bay.  Salmonella species were
isolated in the tributary and near the shore, but not in the
middle of the bay.

Difference in bacteria concentrations between the lake and
bay occurred particularly for coliform bacteria.  However,
there were significant variations in these values.  In September,
and October, fecal and total coliform bacteria concentrations
were higher in the bay than in the lake.  Bacteria concentrations
were frequently higher at Stations 2 and 4 than at the other
stations, but there were many exceptions.

Plankton

Plankton measurements were collected with a No. 20 mesh plank-
ton net.  Colonial forms were counted as individual colonies.
The plankton analyses were meant to present a broad overview
for comparative purposes.  They are relative values and should
                              71

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not be considered as indicative of total plankton.  Lake Erie
plankton exhibited seasonal changes in numbers and taxonomy
as well as differences between stations.  In September, there
were higher numbers of blue-green algae in the bay than in
the lake and more diatoms in the lake than in the bay  (Figure 11)
The number of green algae was slightly higher in the bay
and zooplankton were found only in the bay.  Pediastrum was
the most abundant genus of green algae throughout the area
in September.  The most common diatom genera were Fragilaria
and Tabellaria.  Tabellaria was more abundant at stations in
the lake than in the bay.  Blue-green algae were present at
all stations but Station 10.  The most abundant genera were
Oscillatoria and Anabaena, and these genera occurred in the
greatest number at Station 5.  In September the maximum
number was 8,000 organisms per liter at Station 4.  The high
algal population at Station 5 is additional evidence of the
highly productive nature of Misery Bay.  Aquatic Ecology
Associates (1973) reported that Misery Bay was a highly pro-
ductive area and contained the largest and most diverse fish
population.  The low algal population at Station 4 is further
evidence of the poor water quality conditions caused by Mill
Creek.

In October plankton numbers declined at all stations, but the
genera of green algae and diatoms present did not change
significantly.  Aphanazomenon was present at all the lake
stations and was the most abundant blue-green algae at Stations
2 and 5.  The maximum number was 8,640 organisms per liter
at Station 2, and the minumum was 1,900 organisms per liter
at Station 6.  By December, plankton numbers had decreased to
less than 5,000 organisms per liter in the lake and bay.
Differences in genera between the lake and the bay remained
(Figure 11).  Blue-green algae decreased to below 200 organ-
isms per liter and a change in dominance occurred in the lake
and bay.  Diatoms were more numerous in the bay than in the
lake and green algae were more numerous in the lake.
The decrease in plankton numbers continued through December.

Plankton populations began increasing in May.  In the lake
and bay, the concentrations ranged from 2,607 organisms per
liter at Station 4, to 8,956 organisms per liter at Station 8.
In general, diatoms were the dominant algae type in the bay
and green algae were the dominant algae in the lake.  Zoo-
plankton numbers were low in both areas and no blue-green
algae were observed.  Numbers had not increased significantly
in June and there were no blue-green algae present.

The plankton at the stream stations (1 and 3) did not follow
the same pattern as the lake and bay plankton.  With the
exception of station 3 on October 25, diatoms and zooplanktons
were the dominant organisms.  The greatest number of plankton
(32,000 org/1) at Station 1 occurred in October, and
                               72

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XXXXXXXX1

-------
100,000 -i
     FIGURE  11     (CONTINUED}
LAKE ERIE PLANKTON   MAY 29, 1974
                                                                     D
                                                                           CHUOROPHYTA
                                                                           CHRYSOPHYTA
                                           CYANOPHYTA
                                                                           ZOOPLANKTON
 10,000 -
   1000-
    100
                                                                                              10
                                                 STATION
                                                   74

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100,000 -i
        FIGURE 11    (CONTINUED]

LAKE WE PLANKTON  DECEMBER 4, 1973
                                                                          CHUOROPHYTA





                                                                          CHRYSOPHYTA





                                                                    PI  CYANOPHYTA





                                                                          ZOOPLANKTON
 10,000-
  tr
  o
   1,000.
     100
                                                 STATION
                                                  75

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the greatest number (119,854 org/1)  at Station 3 occurred
in May.  Although plankton numbers decreased in December, they
were also low in September and did not follow a definite
seasonal pattern.  Because of the relatively small size of
both Cascade and Mill Creeks, the plankton measured should
be considered to be a pseudoplankton,  in that a real indigenous
plankton community would not exist in  streams such as these.
Therefore, the plankton results for both streams are an
indication of the algae attached to rocks and other materials
in the stream, including the stream bottom.  Water current
tears many of the attached algae loose to become pseudo-
plankton.  These plankton analyses,  however, are excellent
indicators of the algal population and diversity of the streams.

Discussion

General

No distinct differences between the water quality of the bay
and lake were apparent.  There were differences in some para-
meters, such as bacteria and plankton, but in general there was
greater fluctuation in values at one station for different
sampling times than between stations for any one sampling time.
This finding is surprising since water of rather poor quality
enters the bay from Cascade Creek (Station 1) and Mill Creek
(Station 3).  There was no consistent correlation between
values at Stations 1 and 2, or Stations 3 and 4 in spite of
their proximity.  There are several possible explanations for
this situation: 1) substances entering from tributaries
rapidly disperse as they enter the bay, 2) entering sub-
stances are picked up by currents and carried along a definite
pathway and 3) materials settle out before they reach the
main part of the bay.

Results of analyses of samples collected at Stations 4A, 4B
and 4D indicate that the Mill Creek water may flow along a
definite near-shore pathway northward towards Station 5 on the
central section of the bay.  This possible circulation pattern,
presented in Figure 12, would also explain the high productiv-
ity observed at Station 5.  Even if the Mill Creek water
initially was blown towards the central section of the bay
by easterly winds, it  is possible that westerly winds would
transport some of the  organics and nutrients into Misery Bay
(Station 5).  However, the high productivity in Misery Bay is
also attributable to the transport and sedimentation of organic
material from the backwaters of Presque Isle State Park.
Phytoplankton growth,  death and decay in the protected waters
of Misery Bay also contribute to the productivity of this
area.
                               76

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              LAKE ERIE
            FIGURE  12




POSSIBLE BAY CIRCULATION  PATTERN

-------
The sediment data provided the greatest insight into the
situation in the lake and bay.  If substances rapidly settle
out, the sediments from stations closest to the tributaries
would have the highest concentrations of heavy metals and
nutrients.  The data show that Station 5 (Misery Bay) had the
highest concentrations of heavy metals and nutrients in the
sediments although the water at this station was not higher in
these constituents than that of other stations.  A possible
explanation for this is that materials do not disperse or
settle out rapidly, but are carried by currents to other areas.
If these substances are carried in subsurface currents, it
would explain why high nutrient and metal concentrations
were not found in the surface samples collected at Station 5.
The sediment data from Station 2 and 4 support the hypothesis
that substances entering the lake do not disperse evenly, but
are carried by currents.  Substrate concentrations of nutrients
and heavy metals were lower at Station 4 than at Station 2,
although concentrations of substances in Mill Creek, which
entered the lake near Station 4, were higher than concentrations
in Cascade Creek, which entered near Station 2.  If substances
entering from tributary streams disperse evenly, then the nu-
trient and chemical concentrations would be higher at Station
4 than at Station 2.

Another explanation for the somewhat lower concentrations of
metals near the mouths of streams could be that these metals
are diluted by the settling of inert and other materials
which enter the bay from these streams in large quantities
(R.M. Boardman, Personal Communication).

Sediment concentrations for all parameters except phosphate
and nitrogen were similar for Stations 7 and 9.  These two
stations were located in the main body of the lake and were ap-
proximately the same distance from shore.  Station 9 sediments
were high in nitrate, and Station 7 sediments were high in
fixed ammonia, total phosphate and orthophosphate.  This
finding would indicate a possible oxygen depletion at Station
7 that retards oxidation of nitrogenous compounds, but the
data do not support this theory.  Temperature and dissolved
oxygen profiles indicate high dissolved oxygen concentrations
at the bottom for both stations.  However, according to Dr.
A.M. Beeton (Personel Communication), the absence of a low
dissolved oxygen level at Station 7 does not preclude possible
low DO at this station since it has been demonstrated that
internal seiches move large masses of low DO water around in
Lake Erie.  Another possibility, however, is that the
nitrogenous substances that settle out at Station 9  are al-
ready oxidized.
                               78

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There were seasonal differences between the bay and the lake
plankton.  In May, diatom numbers were higher in the bay than
in the lake, and green algae were more abundant in the lake
than in the bay.  In September the conditions were reversed;
green algae were more abundant in the bay and diatoms were more
abundant in the lake.  Another difference occurred in the fall.
Plankton numbers in the lake declined more rapidly than in
the bay as shown by the September and October data.  These
differences may occur because the bay is more protected and
less turbulent than the lake, and the temperature in the bay
may not decrease as rapidly as in the lake.  These conditions
could result in greater plankton longevity in the bay than
in the lake.

There was a definite difference between the water quality of
the tributary streams and the lake.  The water at Station
3 was of poor quality.  The extremely high bacteria counts,
particularly fecal coliforms, a mean biological oxygen demand
of 68.2 mg/1, and an ammonia concentration of 8.40 mg/1
indicate organic pollution.  Although the quality of the water
entering from Cascade Creek is of better quality than that
from Mill Creek, it is still less than optimal and is
indicative of organic and industrial pollution.  In addition
to high levels of organic matter, both streams have high
concentrations of nitrates and phosphates that may or may not
have an organic origin.  Although in the breakdown of organic
matter nitrates and phosphates are released, their presence
can also be indicative of materials such as detergents and
fertilizers.

The current flow patterns in Lake Erie and Presque Isle Bay
may be an important consideration in evaluating the condition
of the lake and the source of magnitude of substances entering
the lake.  The water entering from the two tributary streams
studied is of poor quality.  However, the findings of this
study indicate that the impact of this water on the lake may
not be confined to areas in the immediate vicinity of the
tributaries.  The fact that Stations 2 and 4 do not reflect
the poor water quality of Cascade Creek and Mill Creek, and
Station 5, that is not near a known source of pollution has
high nutrient and heavy metal sediment concentrations strongly
supports this theory.  The data from Station 4A further
demonstrates that the water entering from Mill Creek is
adversely affecting the water quality of Erie Harbor, but the
dispersal of materials is not uniform throughout the basin.

A study performed by Engineering-Science, Inc. in 1973
determined prevailing winds and general current flow in Lake
Erie.  Winds are usually from the west, but occasionally from
                               79

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the northeast and water current direction was generally the
same as the wind direction.   This information is helpful in
explaining the water quality of the different stations sampled
in this study.  Since the currents usually flow from west
to east, water from entering tributaries tends to flow along
the shore rather than toward the center of the lake.
Stations directly north of tributary inputs do not neces-
sarily reflect the quality of the water entering the lake.

The current inside the bay is influenced both by wind direction
and shore pattern.  When the wind is from the west, the water
moves offshore from Presque Isle Peninsula toward the opposite
shore and then easterly along the shore out of the bay.  When
winds are from the northeast, water moves from the lake into
the bay which results in a different distribution of substances
within the bay.  A more precise mapping of currents within the
bay is needed to determine the distribution of substances enter-
ing the bay and lake.

The dependence of current flow on wind direction may help
explain the fluctuations in chemical concentrations.  When the
wind is from the west, the lake stations are more likely to be
affected by the water entering the bay from Mill Creek.  (A
northeast wind causes lake water to enter the bay, and sub-
stances entering the bay from tributaries would be retained in
the bay at this time.  For this reason the chemical concentra-
tions measured at both lake and bay stations may be highly
dependent on wind velocity and direction.

There are important implications to this finding.  Uniform
mixing may not occur from point source discharges into lakes
because of current flow patterns.  It further implies that
the area nearest the emission source may not be the most severely
affected area.  The results of the present study suggest that
the most severely affected area may be Station 5 rather than the
areas nearest the industries.  One of the reasons for suggesting
this possibility is the high concentrations of nutrients and
heavy metals  in the sediments at Station 5.  Sediments have the
potential for affecting water quality for an indefinite period
of time by supplying the surface water with nutrients and heavy
metals.

Another factor may influence the high nutrient and  heavy
metal concentrations in Misery Bay  (Station 5).  The bay  is
very well sheltered from wind and wave action and has a thick
growth of aquatic vegetation.  Since the bay is sheltered, the
nutrients released from the decomposition of this vegetation
would be retained in the bay rather than distributed to other
parts of the  lake.  Many aquatic plants  also remove heavy metals
and are considered effective depolluting agents  (Leland et. al.,
                               80

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1974).  However, if the plants are not removed, the metals are
returned to the sediments as the vegetation decomposes.  It has
also been demonstrated that bacteria can accumulate certain
heavy metals (Leland, et. al., 1974) which would add to metal
retention in the sediments.  This process would result in
accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Misery Bay that
does not occur in areas that undergo more mixing and have less
vegetation.

The effects of heavy metals in the concentrations found in Lake
Erie and its tributaries are difficult to evaluate.  Extensive
information on heavy metals is not available and the conclu-
sions of studies that have been done are often contradictory.
Synergistic effects seem to be especially important in regard
to heavy metals and partially explain the differences in results
of studies.  There are also major differences in the toxicity
of different metal compounds and the type of organisms that
are affected by these compounds.  The sulfates of copper are
synergistic with zinc, cadmium, and mercury in toxic effects
on some fish.  It has also been demonstrated that hardness,
temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration may affect
the toxicity of some metal compounds.  Since calcium reduces
the toxicity of zinc, zinc is toxic in lower concentrations in
soft water than in hard water.  Lead is inhibitory to bacterial
decomposition of ogranic matter in concentrations of 0.1 to
0.5 mg/1.  This inhibition could alter the chemistry of the
bottom sediments.  Some heavy metals, such as mercury and lead,
are concentrated in biological systems and others such as copper
are not, further complicating the determination of minimum
toxic concentrations.  For these reasons, the effects of the
heavy metal concentrations in Lake Erie are difficult to
evaluate.  Another problem in assessing the environmental ef-
fects of heavy metals is that toxicity studies are usually
based on LC 50 values which do not take into account growth
rate changes or avoidance behavior in organisms.

The complexity of the problem of heavy metals restricts this
analysis to general trends rather than a detailed analysis of
the significance of the concentrations of each heavy metal
measured.  The concentration of the most abundant heavy metals
in the lake were not high enough to definitely indicate toxicity
without information, beyond the scope of this study, on chemical
parameters and the type of metal compounds present.  In Cascade
Creek and Mill Creek, the mean concentrations of copper, lead,
zinc, and aluminum were above the levels established by the EPA.

There is less information on the significance of heavy metals
in the sediments than on concentrations in water.  Aluminum
and iron are known to be tied up in the phosphorus cycle and
                               81

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affect the solubility of phosphate compounds, but the question
of toxicity has not been sufficiently studied.  Although it is
a concern in regard to the shellfish industry, the emphasis is
on human consumption of heavy metals rather than on changes in
benthic biota.

Past Studies

Information on the earlier water quality of Presque Isle Bay
is available from previous studies.  A comparison of the pre-
sent water quality with that reported in a 1972 study by Aquatic
Ecology Associates indicates there has been an improvement in
some aspects and a decline in others.  Ammonia and orthophos-
phate concentrations have decreased.  The highest ammonia con-
centration measured in the bay in the present study was 0.32
mg/1 in contrast to values in excess of 0.6 mg/1 in 1972.  The
maximum orthopticsphate concentration measured was 0.23 mg/1 in
1972, and 0.03 mg/1 in 1974.  The present biochemical oxygen
demands were higher than in the 1972 study.  Biochemical oxygen
demand increased from a high of 4.0 mg/1 in 1972 to mean values
above 5.4 mg/1 in 1974.  Total solids, specific conductivity,
and pH did not show any changes.

The present water quality, when compared to the 1972 and 1973
studies performed by the Great Lakes Research Institute  (GLRI),
showed that phosphate concentrations in the two studies were
similar.  Heavy metal determinations were higher in the present
study than in the 1973 study for mercury, lead, iron, aluminum,
and chromium.  Copper concentrations were lower and cadmium was
the same.  Bacteria concentrations are difficult to compare due
to fluctuations that are often dependent on weather conditions
and seasonal changes.  Overall total and fecal coliform bacteria
concentrations in the lake were higher in the present study
than in the 1973 study.  A greater difference between the lake
and bay was observed in the Great Lakes Research Institute
studies than in the present study.  Since the earlier study was
conducted during the summer and this study was performed over
the winter and spring months, seasonal patterns may be the
reason for the difference.  The differences between bay and
lake water quality that were observed in the present study
were greater in the fall and spring.  This indicates that
during warm weather months there is a difference in water quality
between the bay and lake, with the lake having better water
quality.

A comparison of the benthic data of this study and the GLRI
study was not possible because of different analytical techniques,
The benthic analysis by Aquatic Ecology Associates was com-
parable for several parameters.  The sediment concentrations in
the bay for copper, zinc and nitrogen were all similar.
Phosphate concentrations in 1974 were higher and lead concen-
trations were lower than those recorded in the 1972 study.
                               82

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Plankton numbers are extremely difficult to compare since
there are many different collection and concentration techniques
as well as variation between individual counters.  The consis-
tently lower plankton numbers in this study reflect these
differences in collecting and counting techniques, especially
with regard to counting colonial forms of algae.  In this
study, colonial algae were counted as colonies.

GLRI Studies

The 1973 GLRI report indicated little difference in the water
quality between points east and west of Erie, Pennsylvania.
According to the report, the pollutant input level in the Erie
area is not sufficient to adversely affect the water quality
of Lake Erie.  The report indicated that both the 1972 and
1973 physical parameters were indicative of good water quality.
Dissolved oxygen levels were observed in both 1972 and 1973
to remain near the saturation level throughout the study area.
A slight improvement was observed from 1972 to 1973.

Coliform bacteria were not detected at beach or open lake
stations, but coliform bacteria were measured in Presque Isle
Bay and the outer harbor.  Cyclic increases in coliforms were
observed, with peaks in June and September.

The 1972 and 1973 results indicated that water quality in the
localized area of Presque Isle Bay is not improving.  Results
indicated that in the Bay region the levels of algae, zoo-
plankton, coliform, aluminum and iron are significantly higher
than in the lake.  Benthic deposits of lead, iron, orthophosphate
and total phosphate were twice as high or higher than elsewhere
along the Pennsylvania shore of Lake Erie.

Aquatic Ecology Associates Study

Aquatic Ecology Associates (1973) performed a comprehensive
ecological study of Presque Isle Bay for the Pennsylvania
Electric Company.  Field studies were conducted from the winter
of 1971 to the summer of 1972.  The study included the analy-
sis of physical and chemical water quality parameters, plankton,
chlorophyll a_ and chemical and biological constituents of the
sediments.

The dissolved oxygen concentration and percent saturation fell
drastically in the inner boat basin area during the winter
months.  This fluctuation was directly related to the influx,
death and egress of the gizzard shad within the inner basin.
The shad begin to run into the basin area during September and
reach a peak in January.  In March their numbers begin to
                               83

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decrease and by April the shad population approximates that
of the summer months.  There is a gradual die-off of shad
beginning in December.  Decomposition of the fish results in
oxygen consumption and the production of substantial amounts
of ammonia and phosphates.  Nitrate levels were also elevated
during the winter months as a result of the shad decomposition.
Thousands of gulls are usually present during the winter
months to feed on the dead shad (which float to the surface
after initially sinking to the bottom).  Defecation from these
birds is substantial and adds to the ammonia and nitrate
levels.

Hammermill Paper Company Studies

In May, 1972, the Hammermill Paper Company initiated a limnolo-
gical study of Lake Erie waters surrounding the Erie division
plant.  Results of the study indicated that improvements in color,
BOD and dissolved oxygen have occurred since the implementation of
a new pulping process (Neutracel II process) in May of 1971.
From 1971 to 1972, average levels of color, BOD, phosphate
and temperature in the lake decreased.  Average color levels
went from 29.8 units in 1971 to 18.4 units in 1972; BOD de-
creased from 6.6 mg/1 in 1971 to 4.3 mg/1 in 1972; phosphate
decreased by 50 percent from 0.50 to 0.25 mg/1.  Dissolved
oxygen levels increased from 6.6 to 7.6 mg/1.

Color levels in the surrounding lake area were still affected
by the Hammermill discharges.  Color increases ranged both
upstream and downstream of the plant.

Dredge and Fill Operation

As mentioned above, the U.S. Corps of Engineers plan to use
dredged materials to fill the portion of the lake southwest
of Station 7 and northeast of the sewage treatment plant.  The
water quality at Stations 7 and 8 is good and may be affected
by the transport of dredged materials from the proposed
fill area.  Although the prevailing currents are in a south-
easterly direction, heading away from Beach 11  (Station 8),
water movement is extremely variable and is directed by wind
action. - If the proposed fill project is not properly operated,
it is probable that the water quality at Beach 11 will be
degraded, impairing its recreational use.
                               84

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                         SECTION VIII
                     GARRISON RUN SURVEY
Introduction

Garrison Run is a combined natural stream and storm sewer made
up partially of a structural tube and open drainage channel that
runs along East Avenue and Wayne Street in a south to north
direction for approximately two miles and empties into Presque
Isle Bay.  The location of Garrison Run is illustrated in
Figure 13.  Although Garrison Run is used as a storm sewer,
it also conveys a continuous flow from a small, natural drain-
age stream.  In addition, combined sewers along this section
of the city overflow into Garrison Run during periods of peak
flow (Dalton, Dalton and Little, 1971).  The tube collects
storm drainage from as far south as 38th Street to as far
north as 5th Street and Wayne.  At this point, the storm water
flows through an open channel in a northerly direction to 3rd
Street.  Just north of the Pennsylvania Soldiers and Sailors
Home between 2nd and 3rd Streets, Garrison Run is again en-
closed in a tube which discharges directly into Lake Erie,
downstream to the municipal sewage treatment plant.

The tube varies from 72 to 96 inches in diameter and is con-
structed of concrete or tile depending on the age of the
section.  The open channel portion of the run has a variable
width ranging from a minimum of about 8 feet to a maximum of
18 feet at the 5th Street outfall.

At one time, many industries along the Garrison Run watershed
discharged their process waters into the tube.  In 1953, Erie
City officials from the City Engineering Department made a
field inspection of the tube to determine the location of all
industrial discharges to the tube.  At that time, City of-
ficials made the local industrial dischargers disconnect from
the tube.  However, it is believed that some industrial
wastewaters, in particular intermittent discharges, are still
being discharged into Garrison Run.

The purpose of the Garrison Run survey was threefold: (1) to
determine the location of all discharges into the Garrison
Run tube;  (2) to determine the actual condition of the conduit;
and (3) to determine if any of the discharges contain industrial
or municipal wastewater.  A point source survey was performed
by visual inspection of the tube.  Sources of flow into
Garrison Run tube were determined and wastewater samples from
each of these sources were collected, preserved, and analyzed
for relevant wastewater parameters.  Intermittent discharges
into the tube were also monitored and sampled.  Flow rates
                                85

-------
        FIGURE
 GARRISON RUN SURVEY
LOCATION OVERVIEW MAP
          86

-------
were measured wherever possible by the "bucket and stopwatch"
method.  Special sampling devices were placed in specific
discharge outlets in order to collect samples of intermittent
or fugitive discharges.  These devices were periodically
checked to determine whether a discharge had occurred.

After completion of the visual field inspection, a complete
inventory of all discharges into Garrison Run was prepared.
This inventory included a precise location map of all point
discharges, the apparent source, flow rates, flow character-
istics, and type of tie-ins to Garrison Run.

After review of all collected data, it was verified that some
industries are discharging wastewater into the tube.  An ef-
fort was made to determine those industries suspected of dis-
charging into Garrison Run.  This task was designed to pro-
vide additional and useful information to appropriate local,
state and federal officials so that the pollution problems
within Garrison Run could be appraised and remedied.  Al-
though in many cases the exact industrial polluter could not
be identified, the location map prepared from this study de-
fined the general area of the industrial discharge.

Past Inspection of Garrison Run

As previously mentioned, Erie City Engineering Department
officials made a field inspection of Garrison Run on August 22,
1963.  The survey team began the inspection at the north end
of the run next to the Soldiers and Sailors Home and proceeded
south.

In general, the tube was found to be of either tile or con-
crete construction with a diameter of either 78 or 96 inches.
Structurally, the tile pipe was in fair condition, having many
broken tiles along the bottom invert.  The tile portion of
the run extends between 5th and 12th Streets.  Accessibility in
this portion of the sewer was impossible because of grease
and slime growth layers on the bottom invert.

The concrete portion of the tube extends from 12th Street to
31st Street and was in excellent condition.  No sediment and
very little erosion was observed in this portion of Garrison
Run.

Water from Garrison Run was analyzed in January and February
of 1963 by the City of Erie Engineering Department.  Results
of these analyses are presented in Table 8.  The slime
layers and foul odors observed in 1963 along with visual in-
spection of the stream indicated definite traces of sanitary
and industrial wastes.  However, most of the stream flow was
from non-polluting sources.
                               87

-------
                            TABLE 8


               ERIE CITY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


        WASTE CHARACTERISTICS OF GARRISON RUN OUTFALL*
                          Concentration as mg/1 unless
                                noted otherwise
                               Suspended      Alkalinity
Sample Date      BOD5

  1/21/63

  1/26/63

  1/28/63         7

  2/2/63

  2/4/63

  2/9/63


Average:          7                45            137


* Sample location at 5th Street
Solids
26
206
12
6
8
12
as CaC03
80
140
140
160
160
140
EH
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.0
7.0
                                88

-------
Results of the 1963 survey are summarized in Table 9.  All
storm, sanitary, and industrial discharge connections to
Garrison Run were identified with respect to location and
type of tie-in.  The purpose of this investigation by the
City of Erie was to seal-off or disconnect any industrial
or sanitary discharges that flowed into Garrison Run.  Im-
mediate steps were undertaken to insure that all connections
would discharge only storm water.

Combined Sewer Study

In December, 1971, the consulting firm of Dalton, Dalton and
Little was commissioned by the City of Erie to conduct an
engineering study and prepare a report on the location and
quantity of the combined sewer discharges and overflows with-
in the City of Erie.  The study was authorized by City Council
resolution of July 22, 1970.  It was determined that the older
section of the city extending from the lakefront south to 28th
Street was originally provided with a combined storm sewer
system.  This system was intended to handle all types of
wastes: sanitary, storm runoff, building footer drains, and
roof drains.  Overflows were installed in the system over the
following years to provide the necessary relief to protect the
area from flooding during periods of excessive flow.  From the
contractor's investigation, seven combined sewer overflows
were found to be connected to Garrison Run (Dalton, Dalton
and Little, 1971).  According to the contractor's report, it
appeared that all of the overflows were not provided with the
original sewers, but were later added to the system.

It was determined that the total pollution load discharged
annually from combined sewer overflows is in the order of:

          806,000 pounds of Suspended Solids
          128,000 pounds of BOD
            1,700 pounds of Phosphate as P

It was estimated that roughly 25 percent of this load discharged
to Garrison Run.  Therefore, a rough estimate of the annual
combined sewer overflow to Garrison Run is in the order of:

          201,000 pounds of Suspended Solids
           32,000 pounds of BOD
            1,700 pounds of Phosphate as P

These loadings were determined by assuming a defined average
storm (which occurs 75 times per year)  and applying pollutant
parameters for sanitary and industrial wastes (Dalton, Dalton
and Little, 1971).
                              89

-------
                                           TABLE 9
                              ERIE CITY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
             FIELD INVESTIGATION OF GARRISON RUN - SUSPICIOUS DISCHARGE SOURCES
Designation
  Number
   13
Location
Diameter of
 Connection
  Type of
Connection
    Discharge Date
Type	Investigated
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
£>
D
8
9
10
11
12
Vicinity of 6th Street
94 Feet north of 9th Street
Between 10th and llth Street
East of 10th Street
Between 9th and 10th on west
side of tube
Between 8th and 9th on west
side of tube
Between 8th and 9th on west
side of tube
Between 8th and 9th on east
side of tube
58 feet north of llth Street
160 feet north of llth Street
South of 12th Street on east
side of tube
At 28th Street
24"
8"
6"
12"
4"
6"
54"
12"
4"
15"
8"
18"
Sanitary
Hot Water
cast iron Sanitary
tile Sanitary
None
Sanitary
concrete Storm
Storm
Sanitary
Storm
Industrial
tile and, .Sanitary
tile Sanitary
8/28/63
8/28/63
10/1/63
10/1/63
10/1/63
10/1/63
10/1/63
10/1/63
8/28/63
8/28/63
8/28/63

5 feet north of 23rd Street
 on east side of tube         20"
                                                                      Overflow from
                                                                      Inverted      .1
                                                                      Syphon       8/28/63
                                                                      Sanitary
                                           8/28/63
* Other connections are definitely storm sewers and have not been listed.

-------
The location of the combined sewe
Run, as reported, are summarized
determined that elimination of al
locations discharging into Garris
lary components would cost an est
of the extent and high initial co
recommended by the contractor tha
system, originally installed in t
should be retained.

Point Source Survey of Garrison
The present field investigation o
than three months to complete.  D
were made to sample each discharg
station, two or three times whene

The survey team initially walked
from 5th Street to 31st Street to
tion of all connections and to de
dition of the tube.  After this i
13 stations were selected for in-
Garrison Run.  These stations wer
evidence of sources of wastewater

A second trip through the storm s
lect grab samples of all dry-weat
and to measure the station flow r
trip, composite samplers were pos
stations, that is, stations belie
termittent flows.  These samples
collected within 48 hours.  Sampl
varying locations downstream of t

At each sampling station, samples
one liter containers, stored and
ditions (e.g., preservatives, ice
relevant parameters at one of thr
Laboratories, a local analytical
Pennsylvania, analyzed one set of
characteristics while either the
Agency Field Laboratory at Charlo
Laboratories at Trevose,
samples for physical and chemical
the following analyses were made
character of each non-storm water
                         Pennsylvcinia
               BOD 5
               Total Plate Count
               Total Coliform Cour
               Fecal Coliform Cour
               Color
                               91
                                   overflows into Garrison
                                  n Table 10.  The contractor
                                   combined sewer overflow
                                  n Run including all ancil-
                                  mated $14,000,000.  Because
                                  t of the program, it was
                                   the existing combined sewer
                                  e old section of the city,
 Garrison Run took more
ring this period, efforts
  herein referred to as
er possible.

he entire length of the tube
determine the exact loca-
ermine the structural con-
it ial survey of the tube,
epth monitoring with
 selected based on visual
discharge to the tube.

wer was performed to col-
er continuous discharges
tes.  During the second
tioned at conspicious
ed to be discharging in-
ere then investigated and
s were also taken at
e tube opening at 5th Street.

were collected in plastic-
ransported under proper con-
 etc.), and analyzed for
e laboratories.  Church
aboratory from Fairview,
samples for biological
nvironmental Protection
tesville, Virginia or Betz
    analyzed the other
parameters.  For each sample
o effectively determine the
discharge into Garrison Run.

      Ammonia
      Nitrate
      Nitrite
      Total Iron
      Copper

-------
                        TABLE 10

     SUMMARY OF GARRISON RUN COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS
          Location


4th and Ash

East Ave. and
Commercial

23rd between East
and Penna.

25th and Brondes

28th-East S Penna.


32nd g East Avenue

24th and Penna.
     Type


Side Channel Weir

Siphon with over-
  flow pipe

Siphon with over-
  flow pipe

Overflow pipe

Siphon with over-
  flow pipe

Overflow pipe

Splitter
  Dry Weather
Flowrate (mgd)

     1.66

     2.3


      .16


      .06

      .003


      .36

      .14
  Overflow
Flowrate (mgd)

     22
     1.3


     1.17

     1.1


     1.3
                              92

-------
               PH
               Alkalinity
               Specific Conducta
               Total Phosphate
               Ortho Phosphate
               Total Solids
               Suspended Solids

Visual Inspection of Garrison Rui
The survey team entered the tube
At this point, accessibility int
ficult because of construction d
flow.  Most of the debris emanat
yard.  In addition, oil and grea
the water surface, being retaine

The tile portion of the conduit
appeared to be structurally soun
tiles were broken.  Sections of
100 feet in some areas.  The bot
was coated with slime growth lay
were observed.  Samples in this
collected at:
     Station

       3A
       3L
       3M
       3J
       3C
       3K
       3D
       3B
5th Street openin
Between 5th and 6
Between 5th and 6
Between 6th and 7
Between 6th and 7
Between 9th and 1
Between 10th and
At 12th Street on
The location of these stations i
page 86.  All stations sampled w
or appeared to have had intermit
sanitary flows or evidence of sa
of the tube.  All sanitary conne
City of Erie Engineering Departm
effectively sealed.  In addition
noticed between 5th and 6th Stre
could not be detected during thi
The concrete portion of the 98"
at 12th Street, reduces in size
and terminates at 38th Street.
lent condition with very little
invert is slightly eroded with
slime growths were evident.
                  ce
       Aluminum
       Zinc
       Chromium
       Lead
       Cadmium
       Mercury
                  at 5th and Wayne Streets.
                   the tube opening was dif-
                  bris retarding the stream
                  d from the adjacent lumber
                  e material was visible on
                   by the debris.

                  from 5th and 12th Streets)
                   although many bottom invert
                  roken tiles were as long as
                  om invert of the tile sewer
                  rs, but no bottom sediments
                  ortion of the conduit were
                  cation
 (Garrison Run confluent)
h Streets on the east side
h Streets on the west side
h Streets on the east side
h Streets on the west side
th Streets on the west side
1th Streets on the east side
the west side

 presented in Figure 13, on
re either flowing at the time
ent flows.  There were no
itary sewage in this portion
tions identified in the 1963
nt Survey were found to be
 the musty smell that was
ts during the 1963 inspection
 investigation.
                  iameter storm sewer begins
                  o 78" diameter at 24th Street
                  he concrete tube is in excel-
                  eterioration.  The bottom
                s me sediment deposits.  No
                              93

-------
Adjacent to the Wayne Street Railroad Yard between 15th and
18th Streets, an oily musty smell could be detected.  At about
18th Street, the old Garrison Run tube was found; its loca-
tion is shown on the Location Maps presented in Figure 14.

At approximately 26th Street, an odor of sanitary sewage could
be detected.  It appeared that the sewage may be emanating
from an inverted syphon overflow although it was not flowing
during our survey.  This connection, located at 28th Street,
was also identified during the 1963 inspection.

Samples in this portion of the conduit were collected at:

     Station                   Location

       3E      Wayne Street Railroad Station manhole
               between 15th and 18th
       3F      21st and 22nd Streets on the east side
       3G      23rd Street on the east side
       3H      23rd Street on the west side
       31      30th Street (Garrison Run confluent from
               natural drainage stream)

These stations are also shown in Figure 13.

In total, fourteen stations were sampled.  A complete inven-
tory of the sampling stations including flowrates, flow
characteristics, types of connections, and locations is pre-
sented in Table 11.  An overview map showing all connections
is presented in Figure 14.

Water Quality Analysis

A complete analysis for each sample station is provided in
Table 12.

From Table 12, it may be concluded that some of the connections
to the Garrison Run tube are discharging contaminated ef-
fluents which subsequently reach Presque Isle Bay.  Each of
the parameters analyzed were used to assess the strength and
character of the discharges.  Evaluation of the parameters
were performed to determine whether the discharge was char-
acteristic of a domestic  (sanitary) or industrial wastewater.

Color

The U.S. Public Health Service has established a color limit
of 15 units for waters intended for human use.  From Table 4,
it would appear that Stations 3C, 3H, 3K, and 3L were highly
colored and may be associated with sanitary or industrial
wastewaters.
                               94

-------
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-------
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                  5TH STREET
                             SAMPLE	

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                  6TH STREET
                                                              LARGE HOLE-

                                                                 50' LENGTH
                   SAMPLE STATION 3C
                  7TH STREET
8TH STREET
                  9TH STREET
              EH
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                                          BROKEN TILES
                                                                  SAMPLE

                                                                  STATION 3J
r«:
30" RCP
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              W
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                                                               SAMPLE STATION 3L
                                                                   TILE
EH
W
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                                                                           W
                                                                           PH
                                                FIGURE 14  (cont'd)


                                             GARRISON RUN LOCATION MAP

-------
         EH
         W
         W
         W
vo
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                                      SAMPLE

                                      STATION 3 K
                                        12" I TILE
  12" TILE
SAMPLE STATION 3D

           11TH STREET
               13THSTREET
               14THSTREET
                                                                              9TH STREET
                                                                             10THSTREET
                                                                             12THSTREET
                                       SAMPLE

                                       STATION 3B
           30" RCD
                         W
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                         ^

                         {!
                         
-------
vo
oo
                  14TH STREET
                  15TH STREET
                                      SAMPLE STATION 3E
                                    R.  R.  YARD
                   18TH STREET
                   19THSTREET
               H
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               PS
               EH
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PS
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CO
p
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                                              FIGURE 14  (cont'd)


                                          GARRISON RUN  LOCATION MAP

-------
10
      ZIST STREET
     22ND STREET
     23RD STREET
                                    12" TILE
                                                                                            20TH STREET
                                                                                             BUFFALO ROAD
                        24" TILE
                                                                                                      SAMPLE
                                                                                                   STATION 3F
            18" TILE
      24TH STREET
18" TILE
                                                                SAMPLE
                                                                STATION 3 H
                                                      oo
                                                    SAMPLE
                                                    STATION 3G
                                                                                15"  I
                                                                               TILE
                                                  HI? .14  (cont'd)

                                                  ,N ktIN LOCATION MAP

-------
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26TH STREET




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                                         GARRISON RUN LOCATION MAP

-------
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-------


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   FIGURE 14  (cont'd)




GARRISON RUN LOCATION  MAP

-------
                                           TABLE  11


             FIELD INVESTIGATION OF GARRISON  RUN -  DRY WEATHER DISCHARGE SOURCES
Designation
Number
3-A
3-B
3-C

3-D

3-E
h- 1
0
LJ 3-F

3-G
3-H
3-1

3-J
3-K

3-L

Location
Tube opening at 5th Street
12th Street - west side
Between 6th & 7th Street,
west side
Between 10th & llth Street,
east side
At Wayne Street Station
manhole (15th & 18th St.)

Between 21st and 22nd Street,
east side
23rd Street, east side
23rd Street, west side
At 30th Street (confluent
to tube)
Between 6th & 7th, east side
Between 9th & 10th Street,
west side
Between 5th & 6th Street,
east side
Discharge
Type
continuous
continuous

continuous

continuous

continuous


continuous
continuous
intermittent

continuous
continuous

intermittent

continuous
Station
Pipe Diameter
--
18"

48"

15"

24"


30"
36"
24"

__
18"

30"

48"
Flow Rate
(gpm)
--
4.6

15

8.0

150*


2.5
7.5
--

75*
1.5

—

25*
Type of
Connection
tile
--

concrete

--

concrete


concrete
concrete
cast iron

concrete
tile

concre ce

concrete
3-M
Between 5th & 6th Street,
 west side
                                        continuous
24"
                                                                   14
tile
* Estimate

-------
pH, units
Color, units
BODs
Total Plate Count Col/ml
Total Coliform Count Col/100 ml
Total Fecal Count Col/100 ml
Alkalinity, as CaCO3
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Ammonia-N
Nitrate-N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Nitrite-N
Total Phosphate, PO4
Dissolved Phosphate, PO4
Ortho Phosphate, PO4
Total Iron, Fe
Cadmium, Cd
Copper, Cu
Zinc, Zn
Total Chromium, Cr
Chromate, as CrO4
Aluminum, Al
Lead, Pb
Mercury, Hg
Specific Conductance,
  microhmos-18°C
Specific Conductance,
  microhmos-25°C
Oil and Grease
                                             TABLE 12

                                 GARRISON  RUN WATER SAMPLE ANALYSES

                                               Station  Designation Number

                                            3A                  3B
7.71
40
31
18,200
50,000
170
87
487
232
.165
.995
—
.039
.63
.04
—
14.11
.0028
.042
.252
.01
7.04
.334
.0052
361
—
—
7.03
5
12
19,000
23,400
160
116.1
391
8
.54
.995
.572
.485
.10
.02
—
.62
.021
.014
.037
.004
.15
.015
.0007
530
—
—

10
30
738,000
61,000
7,200
--
--
—
.50
3.6
--
--
1.2
__
80
.50
.01
.02
.10
0
.17
.01
.002
500
590
11.0
7.6
2
2
2,000
300
10
142.4
520
5
.31
1.733
.450
.095
.003
.018
—
.426
.0002
.006
.077
.004
.12
.027
.0007
735
__
—
7.16
10
5
35,000
500
800
140
454
5
.16
2.5
—
—
1.2
—
1.0
6.0
.01
.01
.10
0
.60
.02
.0074
600
710
—
                                                         3C
7.14
1
8.1
310,000
74,000
770
296
4
.31
.874
.44
.124
.60
.39
—
.26
0
.008
.035
.004
.10
.023
.0002
450
_ _

100
2
7,300
500
10
	
--
.50
.40
—
--
1.4
—
1.0
6.6
.01
.10
.10
0
3.5
.01
.001
375
440
                                                                   3D
6.88
1
8
350
100
10
86.5
249
2
.29
.646
.86
.11
.07
.04
—
1.040
.00004
.04
.177
.006
.30
.053
.0003
375
—
7.7
10
9.0
70,000
430
—
90
170
4
0.3
1.3
—
—
1.2
—
1.0
.30
.01
0
0
0
.30
.01
.0061
375
440
Date Sampled:
,  1974
5/9
5/22
6/5
5/21
6/5
5/21
6/5
5/22
6/21

-------
                                                              TABLE 12  (cont'd)
o
en
                              3E
                                               3F
                                                GARRISON RUN WATER SAMPLE ANALYSES

                                                                    Station Designation Number

                                                          3G              3H          31
     pH, units
     Color, units
     BOD5
     Total Plate Count
      Col/ml
     Total Coliform
      Count Col/100 ml
     Total Fecal Count
      Col/100 ml
     Alkalinity, as
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Ammonia-N
Nitrate-M
Total Kjeldahl
 Nitrogen
tJitrite-N
Total Phosphate,
 P04
Dissolved Phos-
 phate, P04
Ortho Phosphate,
 P04
Total Iron, Fe
Cadmium, Cd
Copper, Cu
Zinc, Zn
Total Chromium,
 Cr
Chroma te, as
 CrCM
Aluminum, Al
Lead, Pb
Mercury , Hg
Specific Conduct-
 ance, microhmos-
 18°C
Specific Conduct-
 ance, microhmos-
 25°C
Oil & Grease

Date Sampled:
_ , 1974
6.84
3
57
20,000
7,700
10
106
365
4
.50
1.28
1.386
.22
.084
.084
—
1.31
0
.016
.09
.006
.18
.018
.0003
484
—
7.3
15
0
1,390,000
7,300
430
116
318
6
.40
2.90
—
~ —
1.5
—
.8
1.30
.01
0
.20
0
.40
.01
.002
450
530
6,89
2.5
10
42,000
22,300
8,500
85.5
484
11
.33
.922
.832
.758
.21
.161
—
.40
0
.022
.062
.005
.18
.045
.0002
718
—
7.6
8.0
4.0
11,000
2,380
80
96
536
10
.30
4.3
—
— —
1.3
—
1.1
1.1
.01
0
.10
0
.40
.02
.0002
750
885
7.75
5
6
11,600
5,500
10
335.5
107.5
6
.50
.107
1.96
.795
.015
.018
__
2.054
0
.02
.052
.012
.42
.045
.0001
1430
—
8.0
20
1
6,800,000
6 100
470
308
926
10
.50 '
2.5
__
—
.30
—
.20
.40
.01
0
0
0
.26
.01
.0024
1100
1300
6.75
100
116
360,000
10 500
3,330
113.9
531
14
.65
.01
1.12
.671
.84
.36
....
.62
0
.028
.10
.005
.18
.088
.0001
618
__
7.69
1
5
18,000
2,910
2,200
177.2
553
10
.62
.978
.70
.352
.08
.09
M_
.71
0
.008
.035
.024
.27
.033
.00015
802
— —
7.9
20
2
151,000
98,000
310
192
448
10
.26
.20
^ m
—
1.0
—
.4
.80
.01
.02
0
0
.30
.01
.0016
350
415
«*w
7.4
30
6
33,000
1,100
140
120
298
14
.30
1.6
<»••
—
.30
—
.30
3.3
.01
.16
0
0
.22
.01
.0022
450
530
wt\
7.7
150
37
330,000
14,000
90
312
650
216
.70
.40

—
.60
—
.40
87.1
.01
.52
.80
0
11.8
1.5
.008
700
825
+JJLJ
7.6
110
61
2,800,000
980,000
46,300
210
342
26
5.0
.2

—
10.3
—
8.2
1.9
.01
.02
.10
0
0
1.2
.01
.031
600
710
7.9
8
0
8
10
10
102
164
2
.16
.60

—
3.1
—
3.1
.10
.01
.01
0
0
0
7.0
.01
.034
290
340
                       5/22
6/5
5/22    6/5
5/21    6/5
                                                                            5/21
                                                     5/21
                                                                                       6/5
                                                           6/5
6/5
                                                                                                                     7/18
                                                                                                7/18

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BOD

The BODg of domestic sewage is approximately 100 to 300 mg/1
whereas industrial wastewaters vary over a wide range.   Using
this parameter as the basis, it would appear that effluents
from Stations 3E, 3H/ and 3L are indicative of a domestic or
industrial wastewater that may be diluted.

Total Coliform Count

The Pennsylvania Environmental Water Quality Board has established
that no more than 5000 coliforms/100 milliliters as a monthly
average can be exceeded, nor more than this number in more
than 20 percent of the samples collected during any month, nor
more than 20,000/100 milliliters in more than five percent of
the samples.  All stations, except Stations 3B, 3D, 3J and 3M
exceeded the criteria of 5,000 coliforms/100 milliliters of sample,
Stations 3A, 3F, 31, and 3L also exceeded the criteria of
20,000 coliforms/100 milliliters.

Fecal Coliform

The Pennsylvania Environmental Water Quality criteria for fecal
coliform is a monthly arithmetic mean value of 200 colonies
per 100 ml for water contact sports.  All stations except
stations 3J, 3K and 3M exceeded these limits.

Alkalinity

The alkalinity of a water has very little pollutional signifi-
cance; however, the Pennsylvania Water Quality Board has
established a criteria limitation for alkalinity, such that
it may not be less than 20 mg/1.  All discharges into Garrison
Run met this criteria.

Suspended Solids

Suspended solids found in considerable quantities are character-
istic of domestic and industrial wastewaters.  Station 3K had
a suspended solids content of over 200 mg/1 which increased the
turbidity of the water course.  Nonetheless, the Pennsylvania
Water Quality Board has not established permissive criteria
for suspended solids.

Dissolved Solids

The Pennsylvania Environmental Water Quality Board has
established that dissolved solids cannot be more than 500 mg/1
as a monthly average and not more than 750 mg/1 at any time.
Station 3G exceeded this limit.
                               106

-------
Total Iron

The Pennsylvania Environmental Water Quality Board has estab-
lished a limit of 1.5 mg/1 for total iron and 0.3 mg/1 for
dissolved iron.  Stations 3, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3K and 3L exceeded
water quality criteria at least once.

Cadmium

Cadimum has high toxic potential with a concentration of 200
ug/1 being toxic to certain fish.  Cadmium may enter a water
source as a result of industrial discharges or the deterior-
ation of galvanized pipe.  No specific water quality criteria
exists for cadmium in the Presque Isle Bay area of Lake Erie;
however, the California Water Quality Criteria for cadmium
is a maximum concentration of 10 ug/1 (0.01 mg/1).  This limit
was not exceeded by any of the samples.

Copper

Copper may be toxic to bacteria and other microorganisms in
concentrations as low as 0.1 to 0.5 mg/1.  Although not ap-
plicable to the Presque Isle Bay area of the Lake Erie Basin,
the Pennsylvania Environmental Water Quality Board has
established limits for copper.  The least stringent criteria
is an allowable limit of 0.10 mg/1.  Stations 3J and 3K greatly
exceeded this limit.

Zinc

Zinc in concentrations above 5 mg/1 can cause a bitter astrin-
gent taste.  Zinc most commonly enters the sewer from the
deterioration of galvanized pipe or de-zincification of brass.
It may also be a result of industrial pollution.  The
Pennsylvania Environmental Water Quality Board established
criteria for zinc although not applicable to Lake Erie Basin -
Presque Isle Bay.  The limit of 0.05 mg/1 was greatly exceeded
in samples from Stations 3A, 3B, 3E, 3K and 3L.

Total Chromium

Chromium as chromate compounds are used extensively in indus-
trial processes and are added to cooling water for corrosion
control.  Hexavalent chromium has carcinogenic potential and
has been limited in potable water supplies.  California water
quality criteria for total chromium is 0.05 mg/1.  This con-
centration was not exceeded at any of the stations.

Aluminum

Aluminum occurs naturally in minerals, rocks and clays.  It
                              107

-------
may exist as a soluble salt, a colloid, or an insoluble compound.
Aluminum in public water supplies is not considered a health
problem, but high concentrations of aluminum may be lethal
to certain aquatic animals.  For this reason, the California
Water Quality Commission has established a limit of 50 ug/1
(0.05 mg/1) for aluminum.  The aluminum concentration at
Station 3K was 11.8 mg/1 and at Station 3M it was 7.0 mg/1.

Lead

Lead has a cumulative body poison effect.  The presence of
lead in a water supply may arise from industrial, mine and
smelter operations, or dissolution of old lead piping.  Al-
though there is no specific criteria for lead in Pennsylvania,
the California water quality criteria is a maximum of 50 ug/1.
This value was exceeded in samples collected from Stations
3H and 3K.

Mercury

Mercury and mecuric salts are highly toxic to man and aquatic
life.  It is not likely to occur as a water pollutant, but is
used in the manufacture of scientific and electrical instru-
ments, in dentistry, in power generation, in solders, and in
the manufacture of lamps.  The California Water Quality Commis-
sion has imposed a limit on mercury of 10 ug/1.  This was
not exceeded at any of the stations.

Station Analysis

Stations 3A and 31

Stations 3A and 31 consisted of Garrison Run water flowing
through the tube.  Station 3A was located at 5th Street
where the Garrison Run tube ended and an open channel began.
Except for a combined sewer overflow located downstream of
Station 3A at 4th and Ash Streets, Station 3A contained the
flow of  (1) the Garrison Run stream and  (2) all discharges to
the tube.  The sewer overflow located downstream of Station
3A was not flowing during the survey and thus did not alter
the representative nature of Station 3A.  Therefore, Station
3A can be  considered to be representative of the final water
quality of Garrison Run prior to its discharge to Presuqe
Isle Bay.

Station  31 on the other hand, was located at 30th Street,  up-
stream of  all significant discharges except the  overflow pipe
located  at 32nd Street and East Avenue.  However, the overflow
pipe was not  flowing during the survey.  Therefore, Station 31
can be considered to be representative of the water quality
of Garrison Run prior to receiving discharges  from combined
sewer overflows,  storm sewers and various industries.
                               108

-------
A comparison of the water quality at Station 3A and 31 is
provided below to illustrate the effects the various dis-
charges to Garrison Run have upon its water quality.

                 Garrison Run Water Quality

                              Station 31          Station 3A
                               Upstream           Downstream

Color, units                  1-20                5-40
BOD, mg/1                     2-5                 12-31
Fecal Coliform, #/100 ml      310-2200            160-7200
Suspended Solids, mg/1        10                  8-232
Iron, mg/1                    0.71-0.80           0.50-14.11
Copper, mg/1                  0.008-0.02          0.02-0.04
Aluminum, mg/1                0.27-0.30           0.15-7.04
Lead, mg/1                    0.01-0.033          0.01-0.33

This comparison indicates that the various discharges to
Garrison Run have a significant effect on the water quality
within the tube.  Color, BOD, suspended solids, iron and
aluminum are significantly affected by wastewater discharges
to the tube.  The relatively high fecal coliform counts
measured at Station 31 exceed the Pennsylvania Environmental
Quality Board criterion of 200 colonies per 100 ml for water
contact sports.  These high counts probably result from
intermittent discharge of sanitary wastes into the tube from
the sewer overflow located upstream of Station 31.

Station 3B

Station 3B, a continuous discharge located at 12th Street on
the west side of the tube had a flow of 4.6 gpm.  One of the
two samples collected contained fecal coliforms (800/100 ml),
orthophosphate (1.0 mg/1), nitrate (2.5 mg/1), iron (6.0 mg/1)
and aluminum (0.60 mg/1) in concentrations exceeding natural
background levels.  These abnormal levels indicate the exist-
ence of a small industrial discharge to the tube at this
location.  The presence of sanitary wastes are also indicated
by the measured fecal coliform counts.

Station 3C

Station 3C, a continuous discharge located between 6th and
7th Streets on the west side of the tube, had a flow of 15
gpm.  Like Station 3B, the samples collected at Station 3C
contained high amounts of color (100 color units), fecal
coliforms  (770/100 ml), total phosphate (1.4 mg/1), ortho-
phosphate  (1.0 mg/1), iron (6.6 mg/1) and aluminum (3.5 mg/1).
These levels indicate the possible existence of a small in-
dustrial discharge to the tube.  Sanitary wastes also appear
to be present because of the fecal coliform level measured.
                              109

-------
Station 3D

Station 3D is located between 10th and llth Streets and con-
sists of a continuous discharge of 8.0 gpm through a 15" pipe
entering the east side of the tube.  Concentrations of nitrate
(1.3 mg/1), total phosphate (1.2 mg/1), orthophosphate (1.0
mg/1) and iron (1.04 mg/1)  exceeded the background levels for
these parameters.  However, the measured water quality of this
discharge appears to be relatively good and indicates that
this discharge consists primarily of uncontaminated storm,
process or cooling water.

Station 3E

Station 3E, a continuous discharge located at the Penn Central
Wayne Street Station between 15th and 16th Streets, had an
estimated flow of 150 gpm entering the tube through a 24"
concrete pipe.  The discharge contained BOD (57 mg/1), fecal
coliform  (430/100 ml), nitrate  (2.9 mg/1), TKN (1.4 mg/1),
total phosphate  (1.5 mg/1)  and iron (1.3 mg/1) in amounts
exceeding natural background concentrations.  These concen-
trations indicate the possible existence of industrial and
sanitary wastewater in this discharge.

Station 3F

Station 3F is located between 21st and 22nd Street and con-
sists of a 2.5 gpm discharge into the tube from a 30" concrete
pipe located on the east side of the tube.  This discharge
contained high levels of fecal coliform  (8500/100 ml) and
nitrate (2.5 mg/1).  It also contained suspended solids  (11
mg/1), total phosphate (1.3 mg/1), orthophosphate (1.1 mg/1)
and iron  (1.1 mg/1).  The presence of these constituents
indicates the possible presence of sanitary and industrial
waste discharge to the tube.

Station 3G

Station 3G, located at 23rd Street, is a continuous discharge
of 7.5 gpm from a 36" concrete pipe on the east side of the
tube.  The discharge contained  fecal coliforms (470/100 ml),
suspended solids  (10 mg/1)  and nitrate  (2.5 mg/1).  Except
for these constituents the discharge appears to be relatively
uncontaminated.  The presence of the fecal bacteria, solids
and nitrates indicates that a small quantity of sanitary
wastes may be entering the tube at this  location.

Station 3H

Station 3H is a  intermittent discharge entering the tube  at
                                110

-------
23rd Street from a 24" cast iron pipe located on the east
side of the tube.  It is believed that this discharge is one
of the combined sewer overflows described by Dalton, Dalton
and Little (1971).  According to their sewer survey report,
the dry weather flow through this sewer is estimated at 0.16
mgd and the overflow discharge is 1.3 mgd.  However, according
to the contractors reports, the overflow is not expected to
contribute a flow to Garrison Run on a continuous basin, thus
the intermittent nature of the observed flow.  It should be
noted that the sample collected at this station was obtained
by installing a sampling container in the end of the pipe.
Visual evidence indicated that the pipe contributed inter-
mittent discharges to the tube.

Station 3H contained high levels of color (100 color units),
BOD (116 mg/1), fecal coliforms (3300/100 ml) and suspended
solids (14 mg/1).  The high BOD to suspended solids ratio
indicates a high degree of dissolved organic material.  The
quality of the discharge indicates that sanitary wastes are
overflowing to the tube.

Station 3J

Station 3J consists of a continuous discharge of 1.5 gpm to
the tube between 6th and 7th Streets.  The discharge con-
tained color  (30 color units), some fecal coliforms (140/100
ml), suspended solids (14 mg/1), nitrates (1.6 mg/1) and iron
(3.3 mg/1).  These constituents indicate that a small indus-
trial waste may be discharging to the tube at this location.

Station 3K

Station 3K, located between 9th and 10th Streets, consists of
an intermittent discharge to the tube through a 30" concrete
pipe.  The discharge was high in color (150 color units),
BOD (37 mg/1), suspended solids (216 mg/1), iron (87.1 mg/1)
and lead  (1.5 mg/1).  It appears that this waste originates
from industrial processes or from blowdown from industrial
process water.  Although the industrial discharger could not
be determined, it is believed to be within the vicinity of
the Garrison Run connection.  A list of the nearby industries
located on 9th and 10th Streets include:
     Industry

     Kaiser Aluminum
     Erie Engine & Mfg. Co.
     Penn Tool and Die Co.
     Salmoa Plastics
     Union Iron and Metal
     Merro Chemical Co.
     Location

1015 East 12th Street
953 East 12th Street
938 East 12th Street
810 East llth Street
904 East llth Street
827 East 10th Street
                               111

-------
Investigation of the specific industries was beyond the scope
of work of this project.

Station 3L

Station 3L is located between 5th and 6th Streets and consists
of a continuous discharge of an estimated 25 gpm.  It contains
color (110 color units),  BOD (61 mg/1),  fecal coliform (46,3007
100 ml), suspended solids (26 mg/1),  ammonia (5 mg/1), total
phosphate (10.3 mg/1), orthophosphate (8.2 mg/1), iron (1.9
mg/1) and aluminum (1.2 mg/1).  These constituents indicate
a significant discharge of sanitary and industrial wastes at
this location.

Station 3M

Station 3M, located between 5th and 6th Streets, consists of
a continuous discharge of 14 gpm through a 24" tile pipe.  It
contained total phosphate (3.1 mg/1), iron  (3.1 mg/1) and
aluminum  (7.0 mg/1), indicating the possible presence of
industrial wastes.

Summary

In summary, 13 stations were investigated in Garrison  Run.
Two of these stations  (Stations 3A and 31) consisted of down-
stream and upstream portions of Garrison Run stream.  Eleven
of the stations consisted of continuous and intermittent
discharges to Garrison Run.  Of these 11 stations, two stations
(Stations 3H and 3K) were intermittent discharges; the remaining
nine stations consisted of continuous discharges.  The highest
continuous flows were observed at Stations  3E and  3L which
had estimated flows of 150 gpm and 25 gpm respectively.

Three of  the 11 stations  (Stations 3D, 3G and 3J)  discharged
uncontaminated water to Garrison Run.  Station  3J, however,
contained evidence of minor  industrial pollution.  Five
stations  (Stations 3B, 3C, 3E, 3F and 3M) contained  evidence
of definite industrial and municipal pollution.  Stations
3H,  3K  and 3L appeared to be the most polluted  discharges to
the  tube.  Station 3H  contained significant amounts  of fecal
coliform, BOD and suspended  solids.  This station  appears to
be a combined sewer overflow.  Station  3K contained  an extremely
high level of iron and appears to be of  industrial origin.
Staion  3L contains high  levels of fecal  coliform,  BOD, sus-
pended  solids and heavy metals, indicating  contamination by
industrial and  sanitary wastewater.

Overall,  the  structural  condition of the tube  is in  excellent
condition.   Sediments  and slime growth  cover  the bottom  in-
vert of the  tube, but do not markedly affect  the flow capacity
through the  pipe.
                                112

-------
The City of Erie is aware that some of the combined sewers
will overflow into Garrison Run during periods of peak flow.
However, our investigation has verified that combined sewer
overflows discharge to the tube in dry weather.  Since the
City of Erie will probably retain the combined sewer system
in this section of the city, the occurrence of the dry weather
combined sewer overflows should be investigated and corrected
if possible.

It is recommended that a short-range program be adopted and
implemented by the City of Erie to improve the quality of
dry-weather flow through Garrison Run.  First, the industry
which appears to be discharging to Garrison Run in the vicinity
of 9th and 10th Streets should be investigated and informed
of the occurrence.  Although the quantity of this industrial
discharge is unknown, the high concentration of metals found
in the waste is of sufficient quantity to affect water quality
in Garrison Run.  The industrial discharger is believed to
be one of the six mentioned in this report.  The industrial
waste should be properly rerouted to the municipal sewer sys-
tem for treatment.

The City of Erie should order Frontier Lumber Company, 762
East 5th Street, to clean out the construction debris, etc.
that the company negligently dumped into the 5th and Wayne
Streets outfall of Garrison Run.  Not only is transmission of
the tube flow hindered, but the open channel portion of Garrison
Run is unsightly.

The City of Erie should investigate the oily musty smell
detected in the sewer connection between 15th and 18th Streets
next to Penn Central's Wayne Street Station.

The City of Erie should investigate all of the discharges
sampled in this study to further define the characteristics
of each discharge.  Primary emphasis should be placed on
Stations 3H, 3R and 3L.  Secondary emphasis should be given
to Stations 3B, 3C, 3E, 3F and 3M.  Once the sources of
contaminated discharges are identified, efforts should be made
to eliminate these discharges or at least eliminate the
constituents that are detrimental to water quality.  A
monitoring program should be initiated to check the character-
istics of the various discharges and the water quality of
Garrison Run.  Upstream and downstream stations should be
established in Garrison Run.
                               113

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                         SECTION IX
                     PENN CENTRAL SURVEY
Introduction

The Penn Central Wayne Street Station, commonly referred to
as the O.D. Yard, is a 60 acre tract owned by Penn Central
Railroad.  The boundaries to the north and south are 15th and
18th Streets.  From each to west, the tract is encompassed by
East Avenue and Ash Street.

The yard has been in operation since June, 1918.  Over the years
numerous buildings have been constructed at the station for
yard operation purposes.  These buildings include the following:

               Machine Shop
               Blacksmith shop
               Car shop
               Car inspection shop
               Sand loading tower
               Fueling tanks
               Motor repair shop
               Track repair shop
               Water treatment plant

Although not used quite as heavily, the yard is still used to
service the fuel yard-type locomotives and for temporary
storage of railcars not in transit.

A survey of the Wayne Street Station was performed to determine
actual and potential sources of water pollution resulting from
surface runoff conditions existing on the railyard property.
One aspect of the survey was to determine if Penn Central is
responsible for oil contamination via storm water runoff into
Garrison Run tube and subsequently into Lake Erie.  The oil
that has accumulated at the open end of the tube at Fifth
Street and Wayne Street may have originated from this source.
Garrison Run is located adjacent to the east side of the
yard property whereas the old Garrison Run culvert is lo-
cated below the Wayne Street Station property.  The oily, musty
smell detected in Garrison Run during the investigation may
have eventuated from the station.

A comprehensive survey of the Penn Central yard was performed.
Topography, drainage conditions, railyard operations, pertinent
runoff characteristics, and right-of-way maps were studied.
In addition, storm water runoff samples were collected and
analyzed.  Oil pollution problems resulting from leakage, spill-
age and overflow were investigated in the study.
                               115

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Review of all collected data indicated that runoff from the
Penn Central Yard was effecting the water quality in the
Garrison Run tube by contributing high concentrations of oil
and grease.  A waste abatement program was developed to pre-
vent oil from reaching Garrison Run and Lake Erie.  Conceptual
design and cost estimates for the wastewater abatement system
were also developed.

Past Railyard Operations

Originally, the yard was owned and operated by the Pennsylvania
Railroad.  Since 1968, however, Penn Central Railroad has as-
sumed ownership and operation of the station.  For this reason,
railyard operations that existed at the O.D. yard 10 to 20
years ago are not definitely known.  Most of the pertinent
information concerning railyard operations was obtained from a
Right-of-Way and Track Valuation Map, connection with NYCRR,
Erie, Pennsylvania, drawn by Pennsylvania Railroad engineers.
A copy of this map is presented in Figure 15.

As previously stated, the O.D. yard has been in operation since
June, 1918.  Railyard operations are illustrated in Figure 15
and are listed below:
Facility

Machine Shop
Blacksmith Shop
Car Shop
Car Inspection Shop
Sand Towers
Fueling Tanks
Water Treatment Plant

Oil House
Operation

Engine maintenance
Track, engine and car repair
Car washing
Checking point to determine if
car needs washing or repair, or
the destination of out-going cars
Loading sand into locomotive hoppers
Three storage tanks for fueling
Softening water for steam loco-
motives .
Locomotive lubrication
Various other buildings and features exist at the O.D. yard
and are shown in Figure 15.  These include a tool shop,
supply shop, two motor houses, storehouse, bunkhouse, and vari-
ous office and service buildings.  A roundhouse was employed
for housing locomotives and for switching them to other tracks.
Approximately fifteen miles of track exist at the O.D. yard.

Present Railyard Operations

Penn Central has abandoned almost all railyard operations at
the O.D. yard.  The yard is still employed for fueling yard-
type locomotives, for light locomotive and car servicing, for
sand loading, and for temporary storage of railcars.  According
                              116

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-------
to Penn Central personnel,  the yard was used for car washing
and cleaning, track repair, and engine maintenance on a regular
basis ten years ago.  A local firm, Consolidated Grain, was
contracted three years ago by Penn Central for car cleaning
and washing.  However, this practice has been abandoned for
economic reasons.  Presently, all heavy locomotive and car
servicing and repair are conducted at the Collinswood, Ohio
Yard Station on a regular basis.

Three above-ground fuel oil storage tanks are located at the
yard.  The total capacity of these tanks is 150,000 gallons.
However, only 25,000 to 50,000 gallons of fuel oil are stored
at any given time.  A maximum of six (average three to four)
yard-type locomotives are fueled every day.  As a spill pre-
vention measure, Penn Central personnel only fill the railyard
locomotives to about 75 percent capacity.  This amounts to
about 500 to 700 gallons per fueling or 9,000 gallons of fuel
oil per week.  Two fuel deliveries are needed weekly to meet
this demand.

During the fueling operation, the locomotives are sand loaded
from an adjacent tower.  Approximately 400 pounds of sand are
loaded in the locomotive hopper.

There are two company personnel at the station at all times.
They are responsible for guarding the yard property against
vandalism and for the yard operations.

Only two buildings at the yard are now used.  The workmen use
the service building located just west of the fuel tanks for
an office.  The other building located east of the chemical
treatment plant is used for storage.  All other buildings and
features are now abandoned.

Survey of Penn Central P.P. Yard

A survey of the O.D. Yard was made to determine if oil spillage
or leakage from the Station was draining into Garrison Run tube
as a portion of storm water runoff.  The area of concern was
primarily relegated to fuel oil storage, engine maintenance,
and the lube oil house since these are the only yard operations
that use oil.

The Penn Central property was studied to determine topographic
and drainage characteristics.  Results of this survey are sum-
marized below:

     1.   No oil saturation of the ground was evident in
          the area of the car shop, machine shop, blacksmith
          shop, lube oil house and engine house.
                              118

-------
     2.    The ground was heavily saturated with oil in
          the area of the fuel oil storage tanks, sand
          tower and office buildings.

     3.    The roundhouse had approximately three inches
          of rainwater in the basin.  The standing water
          which was red in appearance did not show any
          presence of oil contamination.

     4.    Two covered and sealed catch basins were located
          on the yard property as shown in Figure 16.  Oily
          standing water was present in Catch Basin #1
          whereas a relatively clean water was flowing through
          Catch Basin #2.

     5.    The area around the sand house was highly eroded.
          A drainage ditch encompasses the abandoned motor
          house (see Figure 16)  with no existing point of
          discharge.

     6.    Although no land level surveying was performed,
          the terrain was found to slope in a northeast
          direction.  The terrain next to the office (pump-
          house) slopes toward the roundhouse.

It appears that if an oil spill did occur in the area of con-
cern, some of the oil would be retained by the porous gravel
and rock strata underlying the surrounding railtrack.  This
is evidenced by a thick oil coating found along the ground
surfape.  In addition, some of the oil would collect in the
catch basins located west of the fuel tanks and also in the
drainage ditch located around the motor house.

Infiltration of the oil through the soil surface could not be
estimated.  Since the investigation was performed in dry
weather, oil simulation runoff evaluations could not be made.
In summary, however, it appears that the soil on the yard
property is loose and permeable with a high infiltration
capacity.  Therefore, oil runoff would be limited to a very
small area.

It is believed that storm water runoff is saturating the ground
surface, picking up oil and soil particles and carrying them
through the yard storm water drainage system.  The point of col-
lection for discharge into the Garrison Run tube is primarily
the old Garrison Run culvert and a storm sewer that runs
approximately parallel to the culvert.  The storm water-oil
mixture drains to the Garrison Run tube at a point designated
in Section VIII as Sample Station 3E.  This is a 24" concrete
connection with a continuous dry weather flow of about 150
gallons per minute.  The continuous flow appears to originate
from the Garrison Run culvert.  Although storm, sanitary or
combined sewer maps of the O.D.  yard could not be located
                               119

-------

-------
 (according to Perm Central personnel, these maps do not exist),
the location of Garrison run tube and culvert on the property
has been determined by sanitary sewer maps of Garrison Run.
These maps were prepared by the City of Erie Engineering Depart-
ment, dated October 9, 1970.  Based on information obtained
from Penn Central personnel, the fuel loading area is encom-
passed by french drains which discharge storm water to the
Garrison Run culvert.  All sanitary wastes originating from
shop buildings supposedly drained into the Garrison Run culvert
when the yard was fully operational.  Whether or not this
connection to the culvert still exists could not be determined.
The location of the Garrison Run tube and culvert and the O.D.
yard drainage system is presented in Figure 16.  The yard
drainage system was estimated by the location of Catch Basins
#1, 2, and 3 which appear to be on a straight line and flowing
north.  These catch basins were full of water, oil and debris.
The drainage ditch was also found to contain an oil-water mix-
ture.  Wastewater samples were collected from the drainage
ditch and from Catch Basins #1 and #2.  Results of the analyses
performed on these samples are presented in Table 13.  The
standing water in Catch Basin #1 had extremely high concen-
trations of suspended solids, oil and grease, and iron.  The
concentrations of these waste constitutents are summarized below
for the three waste sources.

                 Suspended Solids    Oil & Grease    Total Iron
                 	(ppm)	       (ppm)           (ppm)

Drainage Ditch          780            7,532             8.7
C.B. #1                  32           28,380             520
C.B. #2               2,710               41             3.6

Although dye-tracer studies could have better defined the
direction of storm water runoff and flow, the location of
the catch basins in context with known Sample Station 3E is
a relatively accurate measure of drainage flow.  Water was
flowing from Catch basin #5 in a westerly direction to Catch
Basin #1 and #2.  From this location water appeared to be
flowing in a northerly direction through Catch Basin #3.  At
this point, the water flows in an easterly direction, combines
with flow from the Garrison Run culvert, and discharges directly
through a 24" connection into Garrison Run tube.

In summary, it appears that oil saturated ground in the area
of the fuel tanks is the source of at least part of the oil
contamination found in the Garrison Run tube.  Storm water run-
off in this area is carrying the oil to either the french
drain (exact location unknown)  or to Catch Basins #1 or #2.
The point of discharge is Sample Station 3E.
                              121

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                                              TABLE  13

                            PENN CENTRAL WASTEWATER  CHARACTERISTICS DATA
ro
NJ
          PARAMETER
Drainage Ditch
      (00)
Catch Basin
    (01)
Catch Basin
    (02)
pH, units
Color, units
TOC, mg/1
TIC, mg/1
Total Carbon, mg/1
Alkalinity as CaCO3, mg/1
Total Solids, mg/1
Suspended Solids, mg/1
Specific Conductance,
micromhos 18°C, mg/1
Specific Conductance,
micromhos 25°C, mg/1
Oil and Grease, mg/1
Total Iron, mg/1
Copper , mg/1
Zinc, mg/1
Chrome , mg/1
Aluminum, mg/1
Lead, mg/1
Mercury, mg/1
Cadmium, mg/1
7.8
300
239,920
80
240,000
192
1,200
780

350

415
7,532
8.7
0.05
0.10
0
1.2
0.014
0.001
0.01
7.2
500
-
_
-
272
14,936
2,710

500

590
28,380
520
0.02
0.10
0
13.9
1.5
0.0002
0.01
7.6
25
125
25
150
94
230
32

290

340
41
3.6
0.32
0.10
0
1.1
0.034
0.002
0.01
          Date Sampled:  5/6/74

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Oil Spill Prevention Program

In compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's Oil
Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan (SPCC), all
owners or operators of onshore and offshore facilities (non-
transportation related) that have discharged or could reason-
ably be expected to discharge oil in harmful quantities into
or upon the navigable waters of the United States must:

     1.   Prepare an SPCC plan within six months after
          January 24, 1974.
     2.   Fully implement the plan as soon as possible.

Penn Central apparently has not complied with this statute by
failing to implement the SPCC provisions as outlined in
Federal Register Volume 38, No. 237.  The O.D. yard facility
is applicable to the provisions outlined since it is "a
facility which has an aggregate storage of more than 1320
gallons of oil" (CFR, Volume 38).  Thus, Penn Central appears
to be liable for a civil penalty for each day that the violation
continues.

In general, the purpose of this survey was to ascertain whether
contaminated wastewaters were emanating from the Penn Central
yards and to develop a conceptual solution if such a problem
exists.  Specific objectives included investigation of potential
oil spill areas at the yard and spill prevention and contain-
ment methods needed at the yard.  The potential oil spill area
has been defined.  The spill prevention and containment
measures to be discussed strive to meet one criteria: elimi-
nation of any oil discharge to the Garrison Run tube.

About 25,000 to 50,000 gallons of fuel oil are stored in three
above-ground 50,000 gallon steel tanks for fueling locomotives.
Since 9,000 gallons are consumed weekly, it is necessary to
have at least two fuel deliveries weekly.  The fuel reserve
(16,000 to 41,000 gallons) is apparently required to insure
availability of oil during fuel shortages or adverse weather.
Other bulk storage of oil is minimal and is contained in the
pump house (or office).  This is used for minor servicing.

Based on the information obtained, including past pollution
incidents, the largest spill which potentially might occur
would be about 50,000 gallons.  This includes a fuel delivery
as part of the spill.

The three storage tanks are properly diked individually by a
four foot high earthen wall.  If the quantity of oil stored
is evenly distributed among the three tanks, any oil spill
occurring on the inside of the wall will be properly retained.
In addition, the tanks contain vent pipes and shutoff pressure
type valves as added safety measures.
                              123

-------
It appears that if an oil spill did occur at the O.D. yard, it
would be at the point of fuel transfer for both unloading and
loading operations.  Although all transfer pipes are equipped
with locked check valves, an oil leak caused by pipe abrasion or
break would not be contained in the immediate area.  Although
the above-ground strata is very porous, some oil would probably
escape to Catch Basins #1 and #2 or to the french drainage
system.  Undoubtedly, much of this oil would drain to Garrison
Run.  In addition, all transfer pipelines in this area are
above ground which increases the probability of a spill
occurrence in this area.  In the area of the pumphouse, the
ground is heavily saturated with oil.  Although no spill events
have been reported, this area is indicative of many minor
spills.

Recommended oil spill prevention and containment measures in
compliance with SPCC regulations and guidelines for the Penn
Central O.D. yard are summarized below:

     1.   Provide an asphalt lined drainage ditch around
          the pumphouse and fuel tanks as shown in Figure
          17.  Ground storm water seepage should be minimized
          by providing an impervious base on the ground
          surface.

     2.   Provide an oil containment separation basin to
          collect the gravity flow of fluid from the
          ditch.   (See Figure 16.)  An effluent pipe will
          be required to discharge clean water to the
          Garrison Run culvert or tube.

     3.   Use Fuel Tanks fl and #2 for fuel storage and
          Fuel Tank #3 as a standby for waste oil storage.
          Any oil that accumulates in the separation basin
          should be manually pumped to the Fuel Tank #3.

     4.   Implement a cleanup program to clean out Catch
          Basins #1 and #2 and level the existing drain-
          age ditch next to the motor house.

By implementing the above program, the existing drainage
system at the yard, including the storm sewer and the Garrison
Run culvert, can be maintained to carry orily storm water
flow.  The collection system described will segregate any oil
from storm water runoff.

The oil containment-separation basin should be a below-grade
basin properly baffled to deflect and retain any collected
oil.  Rainfall intensity calculations for the enclosed surface
area to be drained indicate that the basin should have a
capacity of  about  1,500 gallons.
                               124

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                                                                                                           \
              ROUNDHOUSE
YARD MAINTENANCE
     OFFICE
GARRISON RUN TUBE

un
                                                            OFFICE AND PUMP HOUSE
                                                                        CONTAINMENT ISEPARATION
                                                                                     BA
                                                                                        PROPOSED DRAINAGE DITCH
                                                                                            WASTED OIL TO
                                                                                               TANK  3
                     EXISTING  DRAINAGE
                                 DITCH
                                    MOTOR  HOUSES
                                                                                 OIL-FREE STORMWATER


                                                                                       GARRISON RUN CULVERT
                                                             FIGURE 17


                                              PENN CENTRAL - PROPOSED DRAINAGE DITCH

-------
A portable floating oil skimmer should be installed to col-
lect floating oil in the containment chamber and transfer the
waste oil to Tank #3.  An inverted siphon is recommended to
discharge storm water in the basin to Garrison Run.  A schematic
diagram of the basin is presented in Figure 18.  The design
is such that the depth of liquid in this basin must be near
capacity before storm water discharge will occur.  The suction
end of the siphon should be placed near the bottom of the basin
to insure that only oil-fuel water will be discharged.  A
check valve (with bleeder)  should be installed on the siphon
so that visual inspection of discharge can be made.  If oil
is evident in the discharge siphon, the valve would be closed
and the basin's contents would be pumped to the waste storage
facility.

If Penn Central implements the recommended spill containment
measures, the major oil contamination in the Garrison Run tube
should be eliminated.

No recommendations were made for the existing french drains
around the fuel tanks.  Since Penn Central does not know the
location of these drains, emphasis has been placed on encouraging
storm water runoff rather than infiltration.  Also, the
existing french drains can be left in place if the fuel oil
pads are covered with an asphalt base.

In order to implement a successful SPCC plan, the following pro-
gram should be initiated by Penn Central:

     1.   Establish an SPCC program coordinator to
          administer all aspects of the program.

     2.   Train yard personnel in spill prevention
          technology.

     3.   Initiate oil spill contingency procedures in
          the event of a spill.

     4.   Inspect on a routine basis all oil tanks,
          transfer pipe, valves, pumps, and the basin
          for evidence of damage, wear, or oil leakage.

Cost of Technology

Since two Penn Central personnel are located at the yard at
all times, no additional operating costs are foreseen in
implementing the SPCC plan.  The total investment cost of
the SPCC plan to be fully implemented is estimated to be
$70,000 in 1975 dollars.
                              126

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TO •
GARRISON
RUN
CULVERT
H
K)
-J
CHECK
VALVE

0 0 O 0 0 C
STORMWATER CHAMBER OIL
SKIMMER
(VACUUM
y H* 	 TYPF^
OIL ' 	 ^
RETENTION 	 — 	 " —
BAFFLES 	
»«*»

c
•«•
o o o o o c
CONCRETE WALLS OIL
CONTAINMENT
CHAMBER
4" HIGH FENCE



-D/yr ' IN 	 " 	 - "" 	 »*•**••
1 1 INVERTED SIPHON 1 • i
^-** FLOW THRU WATER "* j
=H
\j

)
I ^DEPRESSED MULTIPLE INLET
_ "^ olORMWATcR OR OIL RUNOFF FROM
. - PROPOSED DRAINAGE DITCH
OIL SKIMMINGS TO STORAGE TANK # 3
>
FLEXIBLE
HOSE
f^p1 • 	 *- TO WASTE
•"• ^Z±l STORAGE
'•^JsWS/y/VPy''// MANUAL FACILITY
1%%%" PUMP
-;W,-/x 's's/^/s///////'' 'y'"/"'s/'"/'//s/'//^/'<:%^ -
(ALTERNATIVE: ON-OFF FLOAT MECHANISM
            WITH PUMP.)
                                         FIGURE 18


                     PENN CENTRAL OIL  CONTAMINATION-SEPARATION BASIN

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                          SECTION X
                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The able assistance of Mark Schneider, Jacquelyn White, Thomas
Lloyd, Rick Kettinger and Joni Durante is gratefully acknow-
ledged.  Mr. Schneider directed and performed most of the Penn
Central and Garrison Run studies.  He also wrote most of the
report sections for these two studies.  Ms. White analyzed
the water quality data and wrote substantial portions of the
water quality section.  Mr. Lloyd and Mr. Kettinger contributed
their efforts to the accomplishment of portions of the field
studies.  The able assistance of James Keifer in performing
the field surveys is also acknowledged.

Acknowledgement for their assistance and cooperation is also
given to Mr. Ralph L. Rhodes, Director of the EPA Charlottesville
Field Office and Mr. Gerald C. Allender of the Erie County
Department of Health.  Mr. Rhodes was responsible for the
direction of the chemical analyses performed by the EPA.
Mr. Allender provided valuable insights into the performance of
the study.

Additionally, the technical review and advice of Professor A.M.
Beeton of the University of Wisconsin, Richard M. Boardman of
the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources and
Conrad Kleveno of the Environmental Protection Agency are ap-
preciated.  The direction and advice of Nicholas DeBenedictis
of the Region III Environmental Protection Agency is gratefully
acknowledged.  Mr. DeBenedictis acted as assistant project
officer in this study.

The support of the project by the Environmental Protection
Agency and the cooperation, assistance and patience of Howard
Zar, the project officer, are acknowledged with sincere thanks.
                              129

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                         SECTION  XI
                         REFERENCES
Aquatic Ecology Associates. 1973. A Study of the Effects of the
     Operation of a Steam Electric Generating Station on the
     Aquatic Ecology of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania
     for:  Pennsylvania Electric Company.

Beeton, A.M. 1965.  Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great
     Lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10:240-254.

Burns, Noel M. and Curtis Ross.  1972.  Project Hypo: An Inten-
     sive Study of the Lake Erie Central Basin Hypolimnion and
     Related Surface Water Phenomenon.  Canada Centre for In-
     land Waters.  Paper No. 6. U.S. Environmental Protection
     Agency.  Technical Report TS-05-71-208-24

Censoer, Townsend and Assoc. 1970.  City of Erie, Pennsylvania.
     The Erie Sewer Authority Water Pollution Control Facilities.
     Division A.  Wastewater Treatment Facilities.  Basic De-
     sign Data for Preparation of Contract Drawings.

Dalton, Dalton and Little. 1971.  Engineering Report on Combined
     Sewer Study for Erie, Pennsylvania.

Engineering-Science, Inc.  1974.  Comprehensive ^Waste and Water
     Quality Management Study of the Pennsylvania Portion of the
     Erie Basin and the Erie Standard Metropolitan Statistical
     Area.  Dept. of Environmental Resources Bureau of Water
     Quality Management, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Erie City Chamber of Commerce Reports.  1973.

Gottschall, R.Y. and O.E. Jennings.  1933.  Limnological Studies
     at Erie, Pa.  Trans. Amer. Micro. Soc. 52(3): 181-191.

Great Lakes Research Institute. 1972.  Selected Analysis and
     Monitoring of Lake Erie Water Quality Annual Report 1972.
     Erie County Health Department.

Great Lakes Research Institute. 1973.  Selected Analysis and
     Monitoring of Lake Erie Water Quality Annual Report 1973.
     Erie County Health Department.

Great Lakes Water Quality Board. 1973. Great Lakes Water Quality
     Annual Report to the International Joint Commission.
                              131

-------
Great Lakes Water Quality Board.  1974.   Great Lakes Water Quality
     Annual Report to the International Joint Commission.

Hammermill Paper Company. 1972.   Special Report,  Erie Division
     Effluent Status Neutracel II Operation and Lake Erie Survey.

International Joint Commission.   Canada and United States. 1970.
     Pollution of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and the International
     Section of the St. Lawrence  River.

McKee, Jack Edward and Harold W.  Wolf.   1963.  Water Quality
     Criteria.  The Resources Agency of California.  State Water
     Quality Control Board, Publication No. 3-A.

State of Pennsylvania.  1973.  Pennsylvania Water Quality Criteria,
     Pennsylvania Code, Titles,  Part I, Environmental Resources,
     Chapter 93, Water Quality Criteria.

Stewart, Kenton M. and Gerard A.  Rohlich.  1967.   Eutrophication  -
     A Review.  A Report to the State Water Quality Control
     Board  California.

Sweeney, R. A.  (ed.) 1968.  Proceedings of the Conference on
     Changes in the Biota of Lakes Erie and Ontario, April 16-17,
     1968.  Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Science
     Vo. 25. No. 1.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  Buffalo, New York.  May 15, 1973.
     Cooperative Beach Erosion Project at Presque Isle Peninsula
     Erie, Pa.

U.S. Dept. of Interior.  Federal Water Pollution Control Admin-
     istration, Great Lakes Region.  August 1968.  Lake Erie
     Report.  A Plan for Water Pollution Control.

U.S. Dept. of Interior.  Federal Water Pollution Control Admin-
     istration, Great Lakes Region.  May 1968.  Lake Erie
     Environmental Summary  1963-1964.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  1971.  Methods of Chemical
     Analysis of Water and Wastes.  Methods Development and
     Quality Assurance Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Chicago, 111.,  October
     1973.  An Investigation of Water Quality of the Ashtabula
     River Special Interest Area.  EPA Contract 68-1575.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Washington, D.C.  October
     1973.  Proposed Criteria for Water Quality, Vol. I.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  1974.  Water Quality
     Standards Summary for Interstate Waters in the Commonwealth
     of Pennsylvania.
                            132

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Vollenweider, Richard A.  1970,  Scientific Fundamentals of the
     Eutrophication of Lakes and Flowing Waters, with Particular
     Reference to Nitrogen and Phosphorus as Factors in Eutro-
     phication.  Organization for Economic Cooperation and
     Development.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Wash. D.C. August 1972.
     Water Quality Standards Criteria Digest:  A Compilation of
     Federal/State Criteria on Mercury and Heavy Metals.

Zargonski, S.J. and J.J. O'Toole.  1970.  An Ecological Survey
     of Lake Erie, Pa.  1969-1970.  Great Lakes Research Institute
     Erie, Pa.

Zagorski, Stanley, J. and Celia B. Balus.  1972.  A Bacteriological
     Analysis of Presque Isle Bay at Erie, Pa.  1971.  Proc.
     15th Conf. Great Lakes Res., International Assoc. Great
     Lakes Res. pp 214-220  1972.
                               133

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        SECTION XII




        APPENDIX A




CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA
             135

-------
                                                    APPENDIX A-l
                                    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA FOR LAKE STATIONS
          CONSTITUENT
       Total Solids mg/1
CO
       Suspended Solids mg/1
STATION
                                 2
                                 4
                                 4A
                                 5
                                 6
                                 6A
                                 7
                                 8
                                 9
                                 10
                                 11
                                 12
                                 2
                                 4
                                 4A
                                 5
                                 6
                                 6A
                                 7
                                 8
                                 9
                                 10
                                 11
                                 12
            9-27-73

               218
               219

               215
               207

               189
               195
               189
               232
                 7
                 6

                 7
                 4

                 5
                 7
                 4
                10
SAMPLING DATE
10-26-73
215
215
-
210
228
-
208
199
205
213
-
4
4

5
8
-
7
6
5
3
12-4-73
193
205
132
200
193
265
194
187
187
229
• -
4
4
18
5
9
28
10
10
10
14
12-27-73
205
-
-
200
211
-
193
197
-
-
207
2
_
_
6
12
-
8
8
-
-
                     5-21-74  6-4-74
233
240
230
236
379
204
217
207
298
172
198
196
266
218
210
192
202
214
                                                              214
2
-
6
12
-
8
8
-
—
3
6
6
8
108
6
4
5
17
8
8
8
6
26
6
4
6
12
                                                              20

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                                   APPENDIX A-l (cont.)
   CONSTITUENT
Nitrate as N mg/1
Ammonia as N mg/1
STATION
                         2
                         4
                         4A
                         5
                         6
                         6A
                         7
                         8
                         9
                         10
                         11
                         12
                         2
                         4
                         4A
                         5
                         6
                         6A
                         7
                         8
                         9
                         10
                         11
                SAMPLING DATE
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
         mg/1
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
             0.054
             0.041

             0.010
             0.039

             0.026
             0.042
             0.026
             0.029
             0.285
             0.080

             0.150
             0.035

             0.020
             0.050
             0.030
             0.048
0.29
0.14

0.14
0.10

0.10
0.15
0.11
0.11
10-26-73
0.040
0.023
—
0.010
0.016
—
0.010
0.011
0.023
0.010
-
0.035
0.030
—
0.010
0.023
—
0.010
0.010
0.130
0.010
"
0.06
0.11
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.16
0.05
12-4-73
0.213
0.191
0.470
0.158
0.194
0.223
0.190
0.190
0.183
0.158
-
0.145
0.148
2.600
0.161
0.060
0.113
0.050
0.063
0.060
0.010
"
_
—
—
—
—
-
-
-
12-27-73
0.213
-
-
0.204
0.193
—
0.179
0.154
-
—
0.199
0.165
-
—
0.150
0.070
-
0.065
0.060
—
—
0.150
0.52

2.40
0.42
0.28
0.23


                                                  5-21-74  6-4-74
                                       0.42
                                       0.67

                                       0.75
                                       1.18
                                       1.21
                                       0.16
                                       1.71
                                       1.06
                                       0.93
0.90
1.60

0.90
1.60
0.40
  30
 ,30
 ,10
  30
                                                             1.80
0.320
0.310
0.220
0.220
0.260
0.270
0.300
0.510
0.280
-
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.100
0.100
0.060
0.060
- 0.060
0.060
0.400
2.00
0.56
0.59
0.53
0.78
0.57
0.72
0.84
1.47
0.26
0.26
0.36
0.30
0.50
0.46
0.46
0.26
0.66
                                                                 0.48
                                                                                    0.80

-------
         CONSTITUENT
      Organic Nitrogen mg/1
      Total Phosphorus
00
      Total Dissolved Phos-
         phorus as P mg/1
STATION
                               2
                               4
                               4A
                               5
                               6
                               6A
                               7
                               8
                               9
                               10
                               11
                               12
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
APPENDIX A-l (cont.)

                 SAMPLING DATE
             0.01
             0.06

             0.13
             0.07

             0.08
             0.10
             0.08
             0.06
 0.05
 0.07

 0.05
 0.04

 0.03
 0.02
 0.02
 0.04
 0.040
 0.055

 0.027
 0.032

 0.025
 0.013
 0.013
 0.030
10-26-73
0.03
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.05
-
0.06
0.08
-
0.04
0.05
-
0.04
0.03
0.14
0.02
-

-
_
—
-
-
-
-
-
-
12-4-73
__
—
_
—
_
-
-
-
-
0.05
0.05
1.77
0.05
0.05
0.07
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.06
-
0.024
0.024
0.650
0.026
0.024
0.028
0.020
0.026
0.024
0.024
12-27-73
0.36
—
2.30
0.35
0.22
0.17
-
-
0.33
0.11
-
-
0.19
0.09
-
0.14
0.11
-
-
0.11
0.074
-
-
0.180
0.080
-
0.042
0.114
-
-
                                                  5-21-74  6-4-74
                                        1.68
                                        0.25

                                        0.37
                                        0.31
                                        0.52
                                        0.30
                                        0.42
                                        0.33
                                        1.19
0.20
0.20

0.30
0.20
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.20
0.60

0.40
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.17
0.13
0.07
0.17
0.13
0.23
0.17
0.20
0.20
                                                                                          0.13
                                                                       0.108
0.012
0.012
0.005
0.008
0.023
0.023
0.009
0.028
0.018
-
—
0
0.067
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-------
          CONSTITUENT
      Alkalinity
      ESL
to
10
      Biochemical Oxygen
        Demand mg/1
STATION
                                2
                                4
                                4A
                                5
                                6
                                6A
                                7
                                8
                                9
                                10
                                11
                                12
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
APPENDIX A-l  (cont.)

                 SAMPLING DATE
              92
              93

              92
              92

              91
              90
              90
              98
  7.8
  7.9

  7.9
  7.9

  7.9
  7.9
  7.9
  7.8
    5
    6

    7
    6

    6
    6
    6
   11
10-26-73
95
93
-
93
93
-
89
91
90
91
-
8.0
8.1
-
8.1
7.9
-
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.9
-
10
12
-
11
16
-
17
21
15
13
12-4-73
94
94
120
93
90
91
87
87
87
95
-
7.5
7.8
6.9
7.9
7.8
7.6
7.9
7.9
7.6
7.7
-
6
10
70
6
10
34
6
6
6
9
12-27-73
92
-
-
93
92
-
90
89
-
-
92
7.9
-
-
7.8
7.7
-
7.8
8.0
-
-
7.9
4
-
—
4
7
-
5
4
-
-
                                                 5-21-74  6-4-74
                                         92
                                         97

                                         91
                                         93
                                         94
                                         95
                                         92
                                         92
                                         98
7.4
7.2

7.3
7.2
6.9
7.1
7.2
7.1
7.1
        108
        104

        106
        222
        194
        188
        182
        188
        186

        174
8.0
7.4

8.0
7.3
7.3
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.6

7.4
2
1
5
36
-
2
9
4
14
-
—
—
2
24
0
5
2
5

-------
    CONSTITUENT

Total Organic Carbon
       mg/1
STATION
                          2
                          4
                          4A
                          5
                          6
                          6A
                          7
                          8
                          9
                          10
                          11
                          12
APPENDIX A-l (cont.)

                 SAMPLING  DATE
Dissolved Orthophosphate
       mg/1
Nitrite as N mg/1
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
                          2
                          4
                          4A
                          5
                          6
                          6A
                          7
                          8
                          9
                          10
                          11
                          12
 0.015
 0.02

 0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
10-26-73
11
9
-
11
20

9
10
9
15
12-4-73
9
13
33
6
12
24
9
11
12
15
12-27-73
7
-
-
8
14
-
11
6
-
-
<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01

 0.02
<0.01
 0.102
 0.014
 0.477
 0.014
 0.010
<0.010
 0.010
 0.014
 0.014
^0.010
0.016
0.014
0.005
0.016
—
0.014
0.013
0.013
0.006
0.019
0.022
0.010
0.024
—
0.018
0.019
0.032
0.028
0.017
0.019
0.042
0.026
0.032
0.020
0.020
0.017
0.032
                             0.014
                                                                0.028
                                                                0.010

                                                                0.018
                                                                0.014
                                                                0.018
                                        0.012
                                        0.011
                                        0.007

                                        0.006
                                        0.006
                                        0.011
                                                 5-21-74  6-4-74

                                                     9
                                                     9

                                                    10
                                                     7
                                                     7
                                                     9
                                                    21
0.006
0.002
<0.001
<0.001
0.001
0.012
0.015
0.028
0.018
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
                                       0.180
                                       0.135

                                       0.180
                                       0.190
                                       0.205
                                       0.327
                                       0.200
                                       0.148
                                       0.239
                                                                                   0.00

-------
    CONSTITUENT
Color Units
Specific Conductivity
  mohms/cm
Iron jig/1
STATION
                          2
                          4
                          4A
                          5
                          6
                          6A
                          7
                          8
                          9
                          10
                          11
                          12
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
                          2
                          a
                          4A
                          5
                          6
                          6A
                          7
                          8
                          9
                          10
                          11
                          12
APPENDIX A-l (cont.)

                 SAMPLING DATE

9-27-73  10-26-73   12-4-73  12-27-73   5-21-74   6-4-74
               4
               7
               6
              10

               3
               2
               4
              35
                                 5
                                 5
                               <5
3
<1
5
6
12
4
3
4
30
10
15
15
15
65
15
10
10
40
           320
           380

           370
           400

           360
           355
           360
           380
325
330
320
320
304
365
280
290
281
345
             480
             464

             200
             232

             172
             132
             244
             156
           734
           424

           198
           336

           376
           344
           188
           120
470
412
740
398
480
624
546
518
614
512
345
                                                                  335
                                                                  320

                                                                  300
                                                                  300
                                                                  340
400
260
820

460
420
                                         300
158
176

230
384
650
250
340
270
580
                                                            25
358
360
334
350
435
321
333
332
425
385
385
415
355
440
355
330
340
415
                                                                                    385
100
100

200
200
400
100
 50
100
300

700

-------
                                           APPENDIX A-l (cont.)
           CONSTITUENT
       Copper
STATION
                                 2
                                 4
                                 4A
                                 5
                                 6
                                 6A
                                 7
                                 8
                                 9
                                 10
                                 11
                                 12
                 SAMPLING DATE

9-27-73  10-26-73  12-4-73  12-27-73  5-21-74   6-4-74
1.0
13.4
_
2.0
3.4
_
«£l. 0
ig/l
                                  2
                                  4
                                  4A
                                  5
                                  6
                                  6A
                                  7
                                  8
                                  9
                                  10
                                  11
                                  12
53
6
_
20
6
_
5
40
3
8
28
15
—
8
10
_
10
23
2
6
26
65
88
* 2
<2
264
52
<2
<2
39
<2

-
4
4
—
2
2
-
-
13
4
-
5
7
20
8
10
12
17
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-------
            CONSTITUENT
        C admi um/ug/1
        Chromium jjg/1
*>
OJ
       Aluminum
STATION
                                  2
                                  4
                                  4A
                                  5
                                  6
                                  6A
                                  7
                                  8
                                  9
                                  10
                                  11
                                  12
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
                                  4A
                                  5
                                  6
                                  6A
                                  7
                                  8
                                  9
                                  10
                                  11
                                  12
APPENDIX A-l  (cont.)

                 SAMPLING DATE
             2.6
             2.7

             1.0
             1.7

             1.3
             1.6
             1.2
             1.2
   54
   27

   41
    6

    5
    5
    5
   12
             384
             318

             120
             235

             153
             269
             197
             171
10-26-73
2.2
3.0
—
13.1
2.2
—
2.7
2.6
1.5
1.3
-
162
74
—
17
40
—
24
56
33
32
223
251
-
114
314
-
309
303
196
163
12-4-73
3.4
2.9
12.8
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.4
1.0

-------
                                  APPENDIX A-l  (cont.)
    CONSTITUENT
Mercury
STATION
                          2
                          4
                          4A
                          5
                          6
                          6A
                          7
                          8
                          9
                          10
                          11
                          12
SAMPLING DATE
            0.82
            0.40

            1.24
            0.82
            1.24
            0.82
10-26-73
7.22
2.11
—
4.82
5.29
-
2.55
3.44
2.99
4.35
12-4-73
<0.10
<0.10
0.40
<0.10
<0.10
<0.10
<0.10
0.82
<0.1
<0.1
12-27-73
0.7
—
—
1.0
0.6
-
1.0
•^0.1
-
-
                       8.3
                       8.3

                       3.6
                      10.4

                       7.4
                      19.0
                       3.8
                       8.9
4.0
4.7

6.7
5.4
5.3
1.5
1.3
1.2
3.3

2.0

-------
I-1
Ul
       CONSTITUENT        STATION
      Total Solids
         mg/1
      Suspended Solids
         mg/1
      Nitrate as N rag/1
      Nitrite as N mg/1
      Ammonia as N mg/1
      Total Kjeldahl
      Nitrogen mg/1
      Organic Nitrogen mg/1
      Total Phosphorus mg/1
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
                      APPENDIX A-2

           .CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS FOR

             STREAM STATIONS 1 AND 3

                                    SAMPLING DATE

           9-27-73  10-26-73  12-4-73  12-28-73  5-8/9-74  5-21-74  6-4-74
             262
             304
            12.4
            15.2
           1.200
           0.253
           0.200
           0.062
           5.88
           0.14
           5.80
           0.43
           0.01
           0.29,
0.063
0.462
           385
           447
           2.0
           4.2
         0.204
         0.180
         0.026
         0.360
         0.10
         8.40
         0.11
         9.90
         0.01
         1.50
0.07
2.30
            317
            427
           11.4
           67.7
          0.460
          0.595
          0.150
          0.185
          0.13
          3.52
0.23
1.40
           357
           375
           9.6
          45.5
         0.608
         0.964
         0.012
         0.036
         0.23
         1.53
                   0.41
                   0.49
                   0.18
                   0.36
0.14
1.68
            400
            223
            170
             44
          0.894
          1.074
          0.041
          0.026
          0.23
          0.41
                                                                             0.11
  348
  389
    1
   28
0.792
0.010
0.36
1.14
2.50
3.20
                             2.51
                             6.30
                             0.01
                             3.10
0.03
1.13
                                                                                                  5.5
                                                                                                  2.00
                                                                                                  3.00
                                                                                                  1.00
                                                                      0.73

-------
                                  APPENDIX A-2  (cont.)
CONSTITUENT
STATION
SAMPLING DATE

Total Dissolved
Phosphorus

Dissolved Ortho_
phosphate mg/1

Alkality mg/1

Biochemical Oxygen
Demand mg/1

EH


Specific Conductance
mohm/cm

Color Units


Iron ,ug/l


Copper jag/1


Lead jug/1




1
3

1
3
1
3

1
3

1
3

1
3

1
3

1
3

1
3

1
3
9-27-73

0.053
0.195

0.025
0.145
93
113

19
33

7.2
7.3

-
—

10
4

1210
566

17
13

92
28
10-26-73

—
—

0.042
1.060
116
161

6
101

7.9
7.2

480
690

-
—

622
1890

9
142

22
32
12-4-73

0.167
1.180

0.058
0.110
128
136

7
120

7.8
6.9

415
512

-
—

1012
786

7
138

18
20
12-28-73

0.120
1. 300

0.010
1.150
116
102

6
87

7.9
6.7

525
500

5
5

1280
1880

10
159

24
72
5-8/9-74

0.032
0.008

0.016
0.008
99
63

14
9

7.2
7.1

380
301

16
20

12,470
4340

66
22

286
82
5-21-74

0.030
0.744

0.030
0.616
133
134

7
59

7.6
6.9

525
574

4
7

580
832

28
58

22
31
6-4-74

-
0.333

-
0.26
-
—

4
-

-
-

-
945

-
35

-
8400

' -
10

-
17

-------
                                 APPENDIX A-2  (cont.)




CONSTITUENT        STATION                                SAMPLING DATE



9-27-73
10-26-73
12-4-73
12-28-73
5-8/9-74
5-21-7'
Zinc jag/1


Cadmium




>ig/i
f

i
3

i
3
53
51

2.3
3.1
25
348

2.0
46.0
27
324

2.8
46.0
6
52

4.4
53.4
192
82

3.8
2.4
27
146

0.02
0.12
Chromium )ig/l




1
3
54
46
14
442
66
64
* 4
88
14
6
7
31
Aluminum jig/1


Mercury




pg/i


1
3

1
3
714
417

114.0
, 2.1
361
419

4.4
2.6
477
506

0.4
<0. 1
530
660

1.0
0.8
3820
1800

1.9
4.1
200
300

—
—
                                                                                           100
                                                                                             0
                                                                                           180
                                                                                          <0.2

-------
                                APPENDIX A-3

                      CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA FOR

                               CASCADE CREEK
   CONSTITUENT
Total Solids mg/1
Suspended Solids mg/1
Nitrate as N mg/1
Nitrite as N mg/1
STATION
                         1
                         1A
                         IB
                         1C
                         ID
                         IE
                         IF
                         2
                         2A
  1
  1A
  1B
  1C
  ID
  IE
  IF
  2
  2A

  1
  1A
  IB
  1C
  ID
  IE
  IF
  2
  2A
                         1
                         1A
                         IB
                         1C
                         ID
                         IE
                         IF
                         2
                         2A
SAMPLING DATE
12-28-73
357
425
369
335
395
-
-
-
«•
10
6
6
8
4
-
—
—
-
0.608
0.695
1.080
0.458
1.020
—
—
—

0.012
0.005
0.002
0.012
0.008
—
—
—
—
5-8/9-74


















0.
0.
1.
0.
1.
0.
1.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
400
320
339
304
372
297
399
270
195
170
162
132
142
117
152
72
36
12
894
856
010
768
092
796
247
948
357
041
063
020
042
027
040
016
031
006
                                  6-4-74
                                    358
                                    198
                                    282
                                    368
                                    302
                                    370
                                                              6
                                                              6
                                                             10
                                                              8
                                                             10
                                                             12
                                                            0.9
                                                            1.3
                                                            1.6
                                                            2.5
                                                            1.8
                                                            2.0
                                  148

-------
                       APPENDIX A-3  (cont.)

   CONSTITUENT         STATION            SAMPLING DATE

Ammonia as N mg/1                  12-28-73    5-8/9-74  6-4-74

                         1          0.230        0.23
                         1A         0.045        0.26      0.06
                         IB         0.045        0.23      0.10
                         1C         0.090        0.21      0.06
                         ID         0.560        0.42      0.10
                         IE           -          0.21      0.40
                         IF           -          0.11      0.20
                         2            -          0.94
                         2A           -          0.07

Total Kjeldahl
Nitrogen mg/1            1           0.41
                         1A          0.30         -        1.60
                         IB          0.30         -        0.40
                         1C          0.31         -        0.26
                         ID          0.53         -        0.20
                         IE           -           -        0.50
                         IF           -           -        0.30
                         2            -
                         2A                       -

Organic Nitrogen mg/1
                         1           0.18
                         1A          0.26         -        0.1
                        .IB          0.26         -        0.3
                         1C          0.22         -        0.2
                         ID           -           -        0.1
                         IE           -           -        0.1
                         IF           -           -        0.1
                         2            -
                         2A                       -

Total Phosphorus mg/1
                         1          0.136       0.295
                         1A         0.058       0.246      0.167
                         IB         0.058       0.212      0.167
                         1C         0.068       0.241      0.667
                         ID         0.068       0.112      0.167
                         IE           -         0.144      0.167
                         IF           -         0.048      0.133
                         2            -         0.660
                         2A           -         0.011
                                  149

-------
                        APPENDIX A-3 (cont.)

   CONSTITUENT          STATION           SAMPLING DATE

Phosphorus mg/1                    12-28-73    5-8/9-74  6-4-74

                          1         0.120       0.032
                          1A        0.022       1.300     0.167
                          IB        0.032       0.097     0.067
                          1C        0.042       0.042     0.467
                          ID        0.048       0.005     0.067
                          IE          -         0.070     0.067
                          IF          -         0.005     0.067
                          2           -         0.485
                          2A          ~         0.008

Dissolved Orthophosphate
          mg/1            1         0.01
                          1A       <0.01        0.057
                          IB        0.01        0.097
                          1C        0.01
                          ID        0.01
                          IE          -           -        -
                          IF                      -
                          2           -           -
                          2A          -           -

Alkalinity
	                 1         116            99
                          1A        107            61       172
                          IB        117            80         96
                          1C        107            69       126
                          ID        140            94       154
                          IE         ~             64       134
                          IF         -            106       140
                          2          -             95         -
                          2A         -             64         -

Biochemical Oxygen
Demand mg/1               16            14          4
	                    1A          4            22          0
                          IB          5              70
                          1C          5            13          4
                          ID                         84
                          IE          -            15          0
                          IF                         30
                          2           -           106          -
                          2A                       15          -
                                   150

-------
                       APPENDIX A-3  (cont.)
   CONSTITUENT
Specific Conductance
    mohrn/cm
Color Units
Iron jig/1
STATION
                          1
                          1A
                          IB
                          1C
                          ID
                          IE
                          IF
                          2
                          2A
   1
   1A
   IB
   1C
   ID
   IE
   IF
   2
   2A
                           1
                           1A
                           IB
                           1C
                           ID
                           IE
                           IF
                           2
                           2A
                           1
                           1A
                           IB
                           1C
                           ID
                           IE
                           IF
                           2
                           2A
    SAMPLING DATE
12-28-73
7.9
7.9
7.8
7.9
7.8
-
-
-
5-8/9-74
7.2
6.5
7.1
6.9
7.3
6.9
7.6
6.9
525
640
550
500
600
                 5
                 5
                 5
                 5
                 S
              1280
              1640
               760
              1580
              1420
                           7.9
            16
            30
             7
            20
            15
            17
             3
            14
            10
        12,470
          9400
          7600
          8990
          6700
          8650
          4160
          1230
          1010
                                                          6-4-74
                                    7.8
                                    7.9
                                    7.8
                                    8.2
                                    8.1
                                    8.0
380
250
350
255
422
245
510
427
311
-
650
355
500
650
500
590
-
-
  10
   3
  15
  15
  10
  20
 300
 500
 800
 700
 700
1200
                                  151

-------
                       APPENDIX A-3  (cont.)
   CONSTITUENT
Copper
Lead >ig/l
Zinc pg/1
Cadmium pg/1
STATION
                          1
                          1A
                          IB
                          1C
                          ID
                          IE
                          IF
                          2
                          2A
                           1
                           1A
                           IB
                           1C
                           ID
                           IE
                           IF
                           2
                           2A
                           1
                           1A
                           IB
                           1C
                           ID
                           IE
                           IF
                           2
                           2A
                           1
                           1A
                           IB
                           1C
                           ID
                           IE
                           IF
                           2
                           2A
SAMPLING DATE
12-28-73
10.2
7.4
8.0
11.6
11.0
-
-
-
—
24
20
18
12
14
-
-
—
—
6
4
4
8
6
-
-
-
•""
4.4
4.2
5.0
2.6
4.4
-
—
—
-
5-8/9-74
66
52
88
56
32
54
24
26
8
286
554
196
368
186
376
92
46
14
192
234
192
192
124
188
56
78
38
3.8
2.8
3.2
3.2
3.0
2.6
4.4
7.0
1.2
                                                          6-4-74
                                      10
                                       0
                                       0
                                       0
                                      20
                                       0
                                     
-------
   CONSTITUENT
Chromium
Aluminum ug/1
Mercury pg/1
APPENDIX A-3  (cent.)

STATION            SAMPLING  DATE
                           1
                           1A
                           IB
                           1C
                           ID
                           IE
                           IF
                           2
                           2A
                           1
                           1A
                           IB
                           1C
                           ID
                           IE
                           IF
                           2
                           2A
                          I
                          1A
                          IB
                          1C
                          ID
                          IE
                          IF
                          2
                          2A
12-28-73
<4
4
6
6
4
-
-
-
"™
530
570
490
530
700
-
-
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.5
2.1
-
-
5-8/9-7
14
8
6
3
6
10
2
6
<2
3820
4800
3640
4500
2340
4340
2540
. 1.9
11.7
6.1
2.9
2.3
2.7
2.9
                                   6-4-74
                                       0
                                       0
                                       0
                                       0
                                       0
                                       0
                                      70
                                     300
                                     400
                                     180
                                     300
                                     300
                                     7.0
                                   12.0
                                   17.0
                                   11.0
                                   12.0
                                     9.0
                                  153

-------
                    APPENDIX A-4
       CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA FOR GARRISON RUN
    CONSTITUENT
Total Solids mg/1
STATION
                       3
                       3A
                       3B
                       3C
                       3D
                       3E
                       3F
                       3G
                       3H
                       31
                       3J
                       3K
Suspended Solids mg/1
Nitrate mg/1
   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K

   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K
               May .9

                223
                482
      SAMPLING DATE

           May 21

            389
            391
            520
            296
            249
            365
            484
           1075
            531
            553
                                     44
                                    232
1,074
0.994
             28
             48
              5
              4
              2
              4
             11
              6
             14
             10
0.010
0.955
1.733
0.874
0.646
1.258
0.922
0.107
0.010
0.978
           June 4
                                    454

                                    170
                                    318
                                    536
                                    926

                                    448
                                    298
                                    650
  8

  4
  6
 10
 10

 10
 14
216

5.5
3.8
2.5
0.4
1.3
2.9
4.3
2.5

0.2
1.6
0.4
                              154

-------
                       APPENDIX A-4 (cont.)
    CONSTITUENT
Nitrite mg/1
Ammonia  mg/1
Total Kjeldahl
Nitrogen ing/I""
STATION
                       3
                       3A
                       3B
                       3C
                       3D
                       3E
                       3F
                       3G
                       3H
                       31
                       3J
                       3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K
Organic Nitrogen mg/1
                       3
                       3A
                       3B
                       3C
                       3D
                       3E
                       3F
                       3G
                       3H
                       31
                       3J
                       3K
     SAMPLING DATE

          May 21

0.026      1.140
0.039      0.485
           0.095
           0.124
           0.110
           0.220
           0.758
           0.795
           0.671
           0.352
               0.410
               0.165
                                   June  4
3.20
0.54
0.31
0.31
0.29
0.50
0.33
0.50
0.65
0.62
2.00
0.10
0.06
0.10
0.20
0.20
0.10
0.20
-
0.06
                           3.10
                           0.03
                           0.14
                           0.13
                           0.57
                           0.87
                           0.50
                           1.46
                           0.47
                           0.03
                                   0.10
                                   0.10
6.30
0.57
0.45
0.44
0.86
1.39
0.83
1.96
1.12
0.70
-
-
3.00
0.50
0.16
0.50
0.30
0.40
0.30
0.50
-
0.26
0.30
0.70
                    1.0
                    0.4
                    0.1
                    0.4
                    0.1
                    0.2
                    0.2
                    0.3

                    0.2
                    0.2
                    0.6
                              155

-------
                     APPENDIX A-4 (cont.)
    CONSTITUENT
STATION
SAMPLING DATE
Total Phosphorus mg/1
Total Dissolved
Phosphorus mg/1
Dissolved
Orthophosphate mg/1
Alkalinity mg/1
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K
   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
May 9
0.114
0.211
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
^
0.008
0.013
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
""*
0.008
0.014
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
63
81
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
May 21
1.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.


0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.


0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.












130
035
001
195
023
028
069
005
277
027
-
—
744
006
006
126
013
028
055
006
118
030
-
~™
616
008
003
070
010
002
022
002
060
022
134
116
142
97
87
105
86
336
114
177
-
-
June 4
0.733
0.200
0.200
0.267
0.200
0.300
0.233
0.100
-
0.333
0.100
0.200
0.333
0.200
0.200
0.200
0.200
0.200
0.200
<0.200
-
<0.200
<0.200
<0.200
0.8
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
<0 . 1
-

-------
                     APPENDIX A-4  (cent.)
    CONSTITUENT

B i ochemical Oxygen
STATION
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
     SAMPLING DATE
Specific Conductance
      mohm/cm
Color Units
   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3P
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
                 9
                31
               7.1
               7.7
301
361
                20
                40
                              157
May 21
59
12
2
2
8
57
10
6
116
5
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.1
6.9
6.8
6.9
7.8
6.8
7.7
-
••
574
530
735
450
375
484
718
1430
618
802
-
••
7
5
2
1
< 1
3
25
5
100
± 1
-
-
June 4
^^
-
-
-
-
—
-
-
-
-

-
7.6
-
7.7
7.3
7.6
8.0
-
7.9
7.4
7.7
945
590
710
440
440
530
885
1300
—
415
530
825
35
10
10
100
10
15
8
20
—
20
30
150

-------
                    APPENDIX A-4  (cont.)
    CONSTITUENT
Iron
Copper ug/1
Lead
Zinc
STATION
   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K

   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K

   3
   3A
   3B
   3C
   3D
   3E
   3F
   3G
   3H
   31
   3J
   3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
SAMPLING DATE
May 9
4340
14,110
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
—
22
42
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
—
82
334
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
™
32
252
-
-
—
-
-
-
-
-
—
May 21
832
620
426
260
1040
1308
400
2054
620
710
-
—
58
14
6
8
40
16
22
20
28
8
-
—
31
15
27
23
53
18
45
65
88
33
-
—
146
37
77
35
177
90
62
52
100
35
_
June 4
8400
500
6000
6600
300
1300
1100
400
-
800
3300
87,100
10
20
10
100
<10
<10
<10
<10
-
20
160
520
17
<10
<10
<10
<10
<10
20
<10
-
10
10
1500
100
100
100
100
< 5
200
100
< 5
-
< 5
< 5
                               158

-------
    CONSTITUENT
Cadmium ug/1
Chromium
ium ug/1
Aluminum jag/1
Mercury ug/1
               APPENDIX A-4  (cont.)

               STATION             SAMPLING DATE
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3P
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
                        3
                        3A
                        3B
                        3C
                        3D
                        3E
                        3F
                        3G
                        3H
                        31
                        3J
                        3K
                                  6
                                10
                              1800
                              7040
                               4.1
                               5.2
                                         May 21

                                         0.123
                                         0.021
                                         0.021
                                         0.031
                                         0.011
                                         0.013
                                         0.020
                                         0.033
                                         0.019
                                         0.021
 31
  4
  4
  4
  6
  6
  5
 12
  5
 24
300
150
120
100
300
180
180
420
180
270
        June 4
 180
 170
 600
3500
 300
 400
 400
 260

 300
 220
1180
-
0.7
0.7
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
2.1
0.2
-
<0.2
<0.2
7.4
1.0
6.1
<0.2
<0.2
2.4
1.6
2.2
8.0
                              159

-------
                           APPENDIX A-5


         DEPTH COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL  PARAMETERS
         FOR LAKE STATIONS  -  June 4,  1974
Constituent
Depth
Station
Total Solids
mg/1


Suspended
Solids mg/1


Nitrate as N
mg/1


n . 1.1 .. T i
2_
Surface 172
Middle 186
Bottom 204
Surface 8
Middle 8
Bottom 8
Surface 0.9
Middle 1.3
Bottom 1 . 1
1 L i
198 196 266
180 180 216
184 216 238
886
6 10 6
8 10 8
1.6 0.9 1.6
1.1 0. 9 1.6
1.1 1.3 1.6
]_
210
178
180
6
6
4
1.3
1.3
1.3
                                                      192
                                                      188
                                                      1.3
                                                      1.3
                                             202

                                             200

                                             214
                                                       4     6

                                                             6

                                                       6    10
                                             1.1

                                             1.3

                                             1.3
                        10

                       214

                       198

                       166
                        12

                        10

                        10




                       1.3

                       1.1

                       1.6
Ammonia as
   mg/1
 Total  Kjeld-
 ahl  Nitrogen
     mg/1
Surface   0.06  0.06  0.10  0.10  0.06  0.06  0.06  0.06

Middle    0.06  0.06  0.06  0.10  0.06   -    0.06  0.06

Bottom    0.06  0.06  0.06  0.10  0.10  0.06  0.10  0.06




Surface   0.26  0.26  0.36  0.30  0.46  0.46  0.26  0.66

Middle    0.66  0.46  0.46  0.50  0.36   -    0.46  0.26

Bottom    0.46  0.26  0.46  0.50  0.40  0.46  0.50  0.66
                                   160

-------
                         APPENDIX A-5  (cont.)


         DEPTH COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
         FOR LAKE STATIONS  -  June 4, 1974
Constituent

Organic
Nitrogen mg/1
Organic
Nitrogen mg/1
Total Phos-
phorus mg/1
Total Dis-
solved Phos-
phorus mg/1
Alkalinity
   mg/1
Depth                      Station
           lllililii

Surface   0.20  0.20  0.30  0.20  0.40  0.40  0.20  0.60

Middle    0.66  0.46  0.46  0.50  0.36   -    0.46  0.26

Bottom    0.46  0.26  0.46  0.50  0.40  0.46  0.50  0.66




Surface   0.20  0.20  0.30  0.20  0.40  0.40  0.20  0.60

Middle    0.60  0.40  0.40  0.40  0.30   -    0.40  0.20

Bottom    0.40  0.20  0.40  0.40  0.30  0.40  0.40  0.60




Surface   0.167 0.133 0.067 0.167 0.233 0.167 0.200 0.200

Middle    0.133 0.500 0.167 0.167 0.267  -    0.200 0.400

Bottom    0.200 0.133 0.167 0.200 0.267 0.233 0.133 0.467




Surface   ^0.03  0.067<0.03  <0.03  <0.03  <0.03  <0.03  <0.03

Middle    <0.03  <0.03  0.067<0.03  <0.03     -   <0.03  <0.03

Bottom    <0.03  <0.03  0.033<0.03  
-------
                          APPENDIX A-5 (cont.)
         DEPTH COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
         FOR LAKE STATIONS  -  June 4, 1974
Constituent
Depth
Station
Biochemical
Oxygen De-
mand mg/1


2

Surface
Middle
Bottom
4 5 6

2
- - 0
1
7

0
0
0
8

5
-
0
9_

2
1
1
10

5
4
4
Dissolved
Orthophos-
phate mg/1
Surface  <0.1   0.2  <0.1  <0.1   <0.1   <0.1   <0.1  <0.1

Middle   <0.1  <0.1  <0.1  <0.1   <0.1     -    <0.1  <0.1

Bottom   <0.1  <0.1  <0.1  <0.1   <0.1   <0.1   <0.1  <0.1
PH
Specific
Conductance
mohm/cm
Color Units
Surface
Middle
Bottom
Surface
Middle
Bottom
Surface
Middle
Bottom
8.0
7.5
7.8
385
385
415
10
10
10
7.4
7.6
7.8
385
385
385
15
15
15
8.0
7.3
7.2
415
385
355
15
15
15
7.3
7.3
2.3
355
355
355
15
15
15
7.5
7.5
7.5
355
355
330
15
15
15
7.6 7.6
7.5
7.7 7.5
330 340
355
330 354
10 10
15
15 15
7.6
7.5
7.5
415
385
385
40
30
25
                                   162

-------
                      APPENDIX A-5  (cont.)


         DEPTH COMPARISON OP PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
         FOR LAKE STATIONS  -  June 4, 1974
Constituent
Depth
Station
Iron ug/1



Copper ug/1



Lead pg/1



Zinc ug/1



Cadmium ug/1



2_
Surface 100
Middle 300
Bottom 200

Surface <10
Middle /.10
Bottom <10

Surface <10
Middle 10-
Bottom 10
- -
Surface 
-------
              APPENDIX A-5 (cont.)
DEPTH COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
FOR LAKE STATIONS  -  June  4,  1974
Constituent
Chromium
pg/i


Aluminum
ug/1


Mercury
jig i


Depth Station
2 1 i i Z i i
Surface <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 < 10 <10
Middle ^10 <10 ^10 <1Q <10 <10 <10
Bottom <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 -^'10 ^10

Surface 300 300 200 240 150 170 50
Middle 500 400 300 120 340 - 150
Bottom 120 140 400 300 120 100 300

Surface 4.0 4.7 6.7 5.4 1.5 1.3 1.2
Middle 3.5 4.3 5.8 1.3 1.2 - 1.6
Bottom 2.9 4.0 4.3 2.0 0.9 1.3 2.0

M
<10

-------
          APPENDIX A-6




TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN








           9/27/73
Station
2
4
5
6
7
3
9
10
Time
0700
0654
0708
0729
0726
0720
0735
0745
Depth ft.
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
*
Surface
Surface
Temp . °C
18.5
19.0
18.5
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
D . 0 . ppm
8.0
8.5
8.3
8.1
8.0
8.1
7.9
7.8
               165

-------
                 APPENDIX A-6  (cont.)

            TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN

                        10/25/73
Station
2
4
4A
4B
5
6
6A
6B
6C
7
8
9
10
Pennelec
Time
1230
1245
1250
1255
1300
1330
1332
1335
1337
1320
1315
1345
1350
1520
Depth ft.
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Temp. °C
13.5
13.5
17.0
18.0
14.0
15.0
15.0
15.5
18.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
19.0
D . 0 . ppm
11.2
10.0
2.2
2.7
10.4
6.8
6.5
5.9
4.8
9.4
9.6
8.8
7.5
8.3
Secchi (m)
1.0
1.4
0.3
0.2
1.2
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.1
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.1
0.8
Note:

4A - located 200 ft. out from Mill Creek confluence
4B - located 100 ft. out from Mill Creek confluence
6A - located 100 ft. off shore from Hammermill Paper Company's
     stacks
6B - located 50 ft. from Hammermill's wastewater boom
6C - located 500 ft.east of Hammermill's wastewater boom, about
     100 ft. off shore
                             166

-------
  APPENDIX A-6  (cont.)
TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN
      10/25/73 - 10/26/73
Station
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4A
4A
4D
5
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
Time
1545
1910
0735
1100
1620
1851
0744
1150
1855
0750
1850
1700
1845
0755
1800
0825
1750
0812
1720
0808
1806
0830
1815
0835
Depth ft.
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
, Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
- Temp . °C
14.5
13.0
13.0
13.0
14.0
13.5
14.0
15.5
17.0
14.5
13.5
15.0
14.0
14.0
15.0
14.5
15.0
14.0
15.0
14.0
14.5
14.0
15.0
14.0
DO ppm Secchi (m)
10.8 1.1
10.6
9.7
9.6
9.6 1.3
9.2
8.7
4.8
0.9 0.3
0.7
6.7
10.5 1.2
10 . 6
9.6
6.8 0.8
5.7
8.6 1.3
7.6
8.7 1.2
8.3
9.4 1.2
8.3
7.2 1.0
5.7
           167

-------
                  APPENDIX A-6  (cont.)

               TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN

                          12/4/73
Station
1
2
3
4

4A

5

6

6A

7
8

8
9
10
Time
1310
1015
1340
1225

1230

1030

1130

1140

1120
1110

1112
1150
1200
Depth ft.
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface

Surface

Surface

Surface

Surface

Surface
Surface

10
Surface
Surface
Temp . °C
14.5
7.0
15.0
7.0

11.5

7.5

7.8

9.0

7.6
7.8

7.5
7.8
8.1
D . 0 . ppm
—
9.3


S-l
0)
0

O
4J
3
O

-------
                 APPENDIX A-6 (cont.)
             TEMPEEATURE AND DISSOLVED  OXYGEN
                         5/22/74
Station
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4A
5
5
6
6A
6B
Time
0925
0925
0925
0930
0930
1140
1555
1147
1610
0935
1152
1630
1212
1215
1745
Depth ft.
Surface
3
6
9
12
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Surface
Temp.°C
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.5
17.0
16.5
16.5
16.5
17.0
' 16.9
17.4
14.0
15.5
14.5
D . O . ppm
9.4
10.4
10.4
10.9
10.9
-
10.6
-
10.0
8.1
-
10.1
-
9.6
—
Secchi (m)
-
-
-
-
-
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.4
-
1.2
1.4
0.8
0.2
0.4
Note:
4A - located 200 ft. out from Mill Creek confluence.
                              169

-------
            APPENDIX A-6  (cont.)
        TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Station

   2
   2
   2
   2
   2
   2
   2
   2
   4
   4
   4
   4
   4
   5
   5
   5
   5
   5
   6
   6
   6
   6
   6
   6A
   7
   7
   7
   7
   7
   7
   7
   8
   8
   8
   9
   9
   9
   9
   9
   9
   9
   9
   9
  10
  10
  10
  10
  12
  12A
  GE
     6/4/74 - 6/5/74

Time     Depth ft.
1615
1840
1820
1205
2000
1055
1030
1445
1900
2010
2030
1950
 1
 3
 6
 9
12
15
18
21
 1
 3
 6
 9
12
 1
 3
 6
 9
12
 1
 3
 6
 9
12
 3
 1
 3
 6
 9
12
15
18
 1
 3
 6
 1
 3
 6
 9
12
15
18
21
24
 1
 3
 6
 9
 4
            Temp.
P.O. ppm
21.4
21.0
20.8
20.0
18.6
17.5
17.0
16.5
22.0
21.0
20.8
20.5
20.0
22.0
21.8
19.5
19.2
19.0
18.5
18.2
18.0
17.5
16.5
18.5
18.6
18.5
18.2
17.5
17.0
15.8
15.6
18.0
17.8
17.6
19.2
19.0
18.5
18.1
17.5
17.0
16.0
15.3
15.0
20.0
19.0
18.5
18.0
20.0
35.0
22.5
10.2
10.3
10.3
10.7
9.9
7.5
7.0
6.2
9.9
10.8
11.2
11.2
10.1
10.0
10.2
10.7
10.2
9.4
7.4
7.6
7.9
7.7
5.8
5.7
8.7
9.0
9.5
9.5
9.8
9.5
9.6
11.6
11.1
10.9
9.0
9.2
9.4
9.4
9.0
8.8
7.6
7.6
7.8
5.8
6.8
6.5
4,5
7.3
-
-
                           170

-------
   APPENDIX A-7




SEDIMENT ANALYSIS
                STATION
                                    June  4-5,  1974
CONSTITUENT mg/1
Ammonia as N
Free
Fixed
Nitrate as NO.,
Total Phosphate as P04
Ortho Phosphate as P04
Iron as Fe
Copper as Cu
Zinc as Zn
Chromate as Cr04
Aluminum as Al
Lead as Pb pg/1
Cadmium as Cd ug/1
Mercury as Hg ug/1
2
500
400
<50
4200
3760
31,600
104
400
120
14,720
200
<10
496
4
10
50
100
1440
1120
10,480
22.4
84
36
3440
64
< 10
416
5
2000
1000
< 50
5600
4680
42,280
108
450
180
17.920
164
<10
736
7
50
120
50
2120
2040
29,800
37.6
132
60
11,200
32
<10
192
8
<6
10
50
2000
1760
6,320
3.2
32
16
2000
< 10
<10
28
9
40
10
250
720
720
24,840
32
140
56
9120
28
<10
200

-------
     APPENDIX B




BACTERIOLOGICAL DATA
           172

-------
                         APPENDIX B-l
STATION
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
           TOTAL COLIFORM BACTERIA FOR LAKE STATIONS
                                     colonies 100/ml

                      SAMPLING DATE

      '9-27-73  10-26-73  12-4-73  12-27-73  5-21-74  6-4-74
13,000
2900
-
3400
100
-
170
240
20
120
18,500
17,300
- 1
14,200
1500
-
2500
8800
4900
2700
19,000
38,000
,000,000
3600
4000
-
9500
5700
6600
2850
2600
-
-
1700
5000
—
1600
1700
-
-
500
1150
-
-
3700
-
5600
200
1100
100
_
-
-
-
1100
400
8100
200
1800
207,000
                                    4900
                                                      5200
STATION
  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11
  12
TABLE      FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA FOR LAKE STATIONS
                                     colonies 100/ml

                      SAMPLING DATE
        1800
        3800

         208
        < 10

        < 10
          16

         * 10
10-26-73
880
3240
-
560
30
30
50
10
10
12-4-73
200
3100
290,000
100
600
100
400
400
100
12-27-73
36
-
-
44
28
<10
<10
-
-
340
800

 50
 40

 70
 10
 95
 60
                                       32
  30
 270
 210
  10
  10
1990

 170
                                   173

-------
                             APPENDIX B-l  (cont.)


                TOTAL BACTERIA PLATE COUNTS FOR LAKE  STATIONS
                                              colonies/ml

STATION                      SAMPLING DATE

             9-27-73  10-26-73  12-4-73  12-27-73   5-21-74   6-4-74

  2
  4
  4A
  5
  6
  6A
  7
  8
  9
  10
  11            -                           575
  12            _____        920,000
75,000
49,000
-
4,000
5,000
-
7,500
18,000
11,500
14,000
18,000
270
-
500
12,000
-
11,000
6,000
16,000
8200
11,000
2000
250,000
10
9000
-
13,000
525
1400
350
320

—
800
3000
-
275
385
—
-
100
25,000
—
30,000
15,000
—
30,000
—
4200
6200
_
-
—
-
1,200,000
9,400,000
150,000
20,000
306,000
900,000
                                    174

-------
                                                      APPENDIX  B-2

                                      BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS IN CASCADE CREEK


                                                 SAMPLING DATE
     STATION
12-28-73
Ul
5-8/9-74
6-4-74
              TOTAL     TOTAL     FECAL     TOTAL     TOTAL     FECAL     T.OTAL     TOTAL     FECAL
             BACTERIA  COLIFORM  COLIFORM  BACTERIA  COLIFORM  COLIFORM  BACTERIA  C.OLIFORM  COLIFORM
              col/ml   BACTERIA  BACTERIA   col/ml   BACTERIA  BACTERIA  "col/ml   BACTERIA  BACTERIA
                       col/lOOml col/lOOml           col/lOOml col/lOOml           col/lOOml col/lOOml
1 4100
1A 900
IB 2000
1C 1000
ID
IE
IF
2 _
2A
12,000 1200 2300
800 < 10 1400
3300 24 10,000
3500 368 6000
160,000
100,000
5000
80,000
14,000
16,200
17,100
4300
15,500
9400
14,800
1000
45,000
4,000
230
310
20
690
20
850
4 10
-
—
370,000
15,000
45,000
170,000
83,000
1,800,000
34,000
-
—
120,000
1500
540
4900
64,000
7800
2800
-
_
140
130
260
40
170
1170
660
-
_

-------
                                                 APPENDIX B-3

                                   COMPARISON OF BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

                                      FOR STATIONS 1 AND 3

CONSTITUENT    STATION   9-27-73   10-26-73  12-4-73   12-28-73  5-8/9-74  5-21-74   6-4-74


TOTAL BACTERIA
  colonies/ml     1      39,000        8600   20,000       4100      2300  900,000   370,000

                  3      40,000      40,000  150,000    130,000      7700  300,000
TOTAL COLIFORM    1      37,000      12,300   99,500     12,000    16,200     6400   120,000
  BACTERIA
  colonies/100 ml 3      20,000  >1,000,000     -        72,000    19,000  136,000
FECAL COLIFORM    1        4600      11,200     1100       1200       230       20       140
  BACTERIA
  colonies/100 ml 3      12,000  >1,000,000  300,000     32,400       370  200,000

-------
                                                APPENDIX B-4
Total Bacteria
   colonies/ml
Total Coliform
   Bacteria
   colonies/100 ml
Fecal Coliform
   Bacteria
   colonies/10Oml
                                        DEPTH COMPARISON OF BACTERIA
                                                            Station
                                                                           June 4, 1974

Surface
Middle
Bottom
Surface
Middle
Bottom
Surface
Middle
Bottom
£
1,200,000
1,150,000
20,000,000
1100
1600
180,000
30
20
50
1_
150,000
300,000
1,500,000
8100
800
400
210
20
10
8
20,000
450,000
200
900
10
10
9^
306,000
24,000
9,000
1800
1200
500
10
20
10
10_
900,000
90,000
128,000
207,000
100
570
1990
20
30

-------
 APPENDIX C




PLANKTON DATA
      178

-------
I-1
-4
VO
        Organisms/Liter
ALGAE
Chlorophyta
   Chlorella
   Coelastrum
   Micractinium
   Oocystis
   Palmella
   Fediastrum
   Protococcus
   Sphaerocystis
   Staurastrum
   Spirogyra
   Olothrix
   Hyalotheca

Chrysophyta
   Fragillaria
   Navicula
   Tabellaria

Cyanophyta
   Anabaena
   Aphanazomena',
   Gomphospheria
   Oscillatoria

Zooplankton
   Calanoida
   Vorticella
                                       APPENDIX C-l

                                 DISTRIBUTION OF  LAKE ERIE  PLANKTON


                                            STATION
                              1500
                              1800
                               600
                1600


                 800
                                               800
                               300
                               900

                              5400
                1600
                 800
                                               800
                                                      2000
                                                      4000
                        6000

                        2000
1800    5500    1600    2000

 600     ~        ~     2000
                        6000
                       14000
                                                      2000
 280
1440

7800
 580
                                              September  27,  1973

                                                   8       9
 1200
                                                                        1200
 2400
 1200
21600
 2400

 1200
                  2000
6000
2000
                                                                                16000
2000
         400


2000    1600
LO



400

800

400
                           400
1600
1200
                                                            400
                                                            400
                                                                                         3600    2000
                                                                                        12400

-------
CO
o
          Organisms/Liter
ALGAE
Chlorophyta
   Ankistrodesmus -
   Chlorella
   Coelastrum     -
   Palmella
   Pediastrum
   Selenastrum
   Staurastrum
   Ulothrix

Chrysophyta
   Dinobryon
   Diatoms
    (individual) 180000  840
   Diatoms
    (colonies)

Cyanophyta
   Aphanazomenon
   Nodularia
   Oscillatoria
                                    APPENDIX C-l  (cont.)

                               DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON


                                          STATION
                                                                           October 25, 1973

                                                                        789
                                                                                            10
_
360
—.
120
3120
_
_
-
-
840
-
4200
_
_
~
2100
~
—
1480
•"
™

-
2540
-
420
•
"™
-
270
-
-
2580
-
410
••
-
270
410
950
-
140
840

-
-
1680
-
-
*"*
140
140
420
3920
140
-
-

200
-
500
100
100
~*
-
-
300
600
-
100
100

100
200
800
-
-
•M
-
400
100
800
200
—
—

—
—
1140
—
170
"
-
-
350
530
350
—
80

240
—
800
—
—
320
80
-
400
560
—
—
230
110
—
—
—
—
—

-
-
110
1790
~
™
     Zooplankton
        Protozoans
                 140000
     Euglenaceae
                                                                             90

-------
oo
         Organisms/Liter
      ALGAE
      Chlorophyta
         Ankistrodesmus -
         Chlorella
         Golenkinia
         Palmella
         Pediastrum
         Rhizoclonium   160
         Staurastrum    -
         Scenedesmus
         Ulothrix
      Chrysophyta
         Mallomenas
         Diatoms

      Cyanophyta
         Chroococcus
         Oscillatoria

      Zooplankton
         Water mites
640,.
                   APPENDIX  C-l  (cont.)

             DISTRIBUTION OF  LAKE ERIE PLANKTON


                        STATION
        610
        450

        150
        450
2890    2600    1400    1340
                        160
                                190
                                                                            December 4, 1973

                                                                                          9
4_
620
_
310
160
310
310
—
560
5_

1150
—
—
290
1250
mm
110
£
190
190
-
-
-
-
«.
—
T_
_
-
300
—
300
—
300
300
IB
1500
300
—
—
—
—
-
—
3070    3300
                                  190
                                                                          10
                                                                  150
                                                           150
         150
2100    1060
                                                                   150
                                                                   150
1060
        150

-------
Organisms/Liter
       ALGAE
       Chlorophyta
          Ankistrodesmus
          Chlorella
          Coelastrum
          Eudorina
          Palmella
          Pediastrum
          Rhizoclonium
oo         Selenastrum
*°         Scenedsmus
          Staurastrum
          Tetastrum

       Chrysophyta.
          Diatoma

       Cyanophyta
          Oscillatoria

      ,s Euglenophyta
          Phacus

       Zooplankton
          Water Mites
          Rotifera
                  40
1280


  80
       APPENDIX C-l (cont.)

DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON



         STATION
2_

—
80
—
40
240
280
-
—
40
,3

—
-
-
•"
-
-
-
-
-
5.

300
150
150
—
300
300
150
150
150
i

670
-
-
—
340
250
-
-
80
1_

180
90
90
—
180
-
-
90
360
8_

360
-
-
—
180
-
-
-
-
11

350
70
-
-
_
210
-
-
-
1A
0
-
-
-
—
_
-
-
-
-
                                                                    70
660  1200   2440   1800   2000   1120
                                       300
                                       150
                                      150
                 270      70
                       80
                       80
                       210
0


0


0
                                                                                       December 27, 197 3'
                                                                                            1C
                                        120
                                                         ID

                                                         0
                                                                                           140

-------
                                            APPENDIX C-l (cont.)
oo
        Organisms/Liter
ALGAE
Chlorophyta
   Ankistrodesmus -
   Microspora     -
   Mougeotia
   Pediastrum
   Scenedesmus
   Ulothrix
   Micractiuium
   Stigeoclonium  -
   Staurastrum

Chrysophyta
   Asterionella
   Fragillario  11430
   Naricula      1905
   Nitzschva     1270
   Tabellaria    8255
   Gynedra       4445
   Dinobryon

Zooplankton
   Water Mites    ~
   Rotifers
   Flagellated
     Protozoans  3810
                               DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
                                                STATION
                                                                            May 29,  1974
1 3_
66
66
-
264
582
-
925
1983 1164
1745
- —
66
132
"
_ _
- -
1 £
116
232
158 232
79 116
232
116
1106 3715
790 1393
-
-
116
-
116
316 580
158
6_
158
-
2213
—
-
948
158
-
-
316
-
^
316
—
360
-
3067
~™
-
1804
541
-
—
1083
—

180
—
158
— •
6006
™
-
1738
316
—
—
1580
—
158
—
—
122
-
1825
^
-
608
608
-
122
487
—

_
—
IP.
—
5559
222
-
890
—
222
—
667
—

222
—
                                      116363

-------
                                      APPENDIX C-l (cont.)

                               DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
  Organisms/Liter

                                          STATION
                  1.       1A      IB      1C      10       IE      IF
ALGAE
Chlorophyta
   Ankistrodesmus -----        -       -
   Coelastrura     -----        -       -
   Mougeotia      _____        -
   Oedogonium     _____        _       _
   Pediastrum     _____        -       _
   Protococcus    -----        _       -
   Ulothrix       ~       ~       ~       -       ~

Chrysophyta
   Asterionella   ~       ~       ~       ~       ~        -  .     -
   Cyclotella     _____        -
   Diatoms       120      ~       ~      4746     -        -       -
   Fragillaria  2520      ~     22,360   1^983     _        -       -
   Naricula      120      _       _       _       _        _      1782
   Nitzschia    3780      -       _       -       -
   Tabellaria   4536      _       _       -       -        -       -
   Synedia      8820      _       _       _       -        -       -

Euglenophyta

Zooplankton       _____

-------
                                           APPENDIX C-l  (cont.)
                                    DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON  (cont.)
oo
en
        Organisms/Liter
ALGAE
Chlorophyta
   Ankistrodesmus
   Closteridium
   Coelastrum     ~
   Mougeotia
   Oedogonium
   Pediastrum    2023
   Protococcus
   Ulothrix

Chrysophyta
   Asterionella
   Cyclotella
   Fragillaria
   Navicula
   Nitzschia
   Tabellaria    2023
   Synedra
   Diatoms

Euglenophyta
   Euglena

Zooplankton
   Rotifers
                                6M
                               2020
                                  6B
                                               STATION
        2376


        4752


        2376

4040     -       2864
                                                                           June 18, 1974
7 8
— -
-
M —
- —
2864
2864
3111
_ _
8B 9
1271
-
1271
— —
— —

1720
1720
9M 9B
-
-
-
1994 1784
— —

1784
1784
10S
-
1414
2828
"""
^


-
                                                                                         1784
                                                                                                 2828
                                       2376

-------
                                            APPENDIX C-l (cont.)
                                     DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE ERIE  PLANKTON  (cont.)
oo
         Organisms/Liter
ALGAE
Chlorophyta
   Coelastrum
   Mougeotia
   Protococcus

Chrysophyta
   Asterionella
   Fragillaria
   Tabellaria

Euglenophyta
   Euglena

Zooplankton
   Water Mites
                        10M
                          10B
                                1595
                                1595
 12
3256
                                       1085
                                       1085
                                       1085
STATION
12A
                                                                            June 18, 1974
         1388


         1388
                                1595

-------
                                                  APPENDIX C-2
oo
   Organisms/Liter

DIVISION
                  I

Chlorophyta       -

Chrysophyta

Cyanophyta        -

Euglenophyta

Zooplankton


      Total       0
                             12900
                                     MAJOR DIVISIONS OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
                                                 STATION
                                                                            September 27, 1973
2_
3900
2400
6600
3_
-
-
5500
•4
3200
1600
2400
!5
14000
4000
20000
6
280
9240
580
7_
2400
25200
3600
£
10000
18000
2000
9
3600
16400
2000
10.
1600
2000
-
5500
                                               800
8000
                                                       2000
40000
10100
31200
30000
22000
3600

-------
                                              APPENDIX C-2 (cont.)
00
00
      Organisms/Liter


DIVISION


Chlorophyta

Chrysophyta

Cyanophyta

Euglenophyta

Zooplankton


      Total
                                    MAJOR DIVISIONS OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
                                                STATION
                                                                             October  25,  1973
!_
-
180,000
-
-
140,000
320,000
2_
3600
840
4200
-
-
8640
3_
3580
2540
420
-
-
6540
4_
3260
680
1090
-
-
5030
5^
2520
700
4060
-
-
7280
£
900
300
700
-
-
1900
T_
1200
500
1000
-
-
2700
£
1310
350
880
90
-
2630
i
1440
480
560
-
-
2480
1£
340
110
1790
-
-
2240

-------
                                         APPENDIX C-2  (cont.)
00
vo
       Organisms/Liter


      DIVISION
Euglenophyta


Zooplankton



      Total
                                 MAJOR DIVISIONS  OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
                                        STATION
                                                                   December 4, 1973

Chlorophyta
Chrysophyta
Cyanophyta
1.
160
640'
-
2_
1660
2890
-
3_ 4_
3270
2600 1400
160
5_
2800
1340
190
6_
380
3070
190
1
1200
3300
-
9_
1800
2100
-
9_
300
1210
-
M
300
1060
-
                       800
                                150
4700
2600
4830
4330
3640
4500
3900   1510
1360

-------
                                            APPENDIX C-2  (cont.)
                                     MAJOR DIVISIONS OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
vo
o
  Organisms/Liter



DIVISION




Chlorphyta


Chrysophyta


Cyanophyta


Buglenophyta


Zooplankton




      Total
                                 40
                                 40
2040
                                                                              December  27,  1973
2_
680
1280
80
-
_
STATION
1 5
1650
660 1200
300
150
150
6_ 1_
1340 990
2440 1800
-
-
160
i
540
2000
270
-
_
13.
700
1120
70
-
210
660
3450
3940
2790
2810
2100

-------
  Organisms/Liter
DIVISION
Chlorophyta
Chrysophyta
Cyanophyta
Euglenophyta
Zooplankton
               17,305
                 3810
                                      APPENDIX C-2 (cont.)
                               MAJOR DIVISIONS OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
 i       1
 396    582
3106   2909
      116,363
                   STATION
474
580
                                              May 29, 1974
1
237
1896
I
1044
5340
i
2371
1422
7_
3427
3428
i
6164
2792
9_
1947
1825
12
5781
1779
316
180
 222
      Total    21,115    3502  119,854    2607
                        6964
                4109
                7035
                8956
                3772
7782

-------
                                             APPENDIX C-2 (cont.)
10
to
         Organisms/Liter
DIVISION




Chlorophyta


Chrysophyta


Cyanophyta


Euglenophyta


Zooplankton




      Total
                         !L


                         0


                      19,896
                      19,896
                                      MAJOR DIVISIONS OF LAKE ERIE PLANKTON
2023   5728


2023   2864
4046   8592
                                                                               June 18, 1974
                                                   STATION
 8_


3111
 9_


2542
4242


2828
 12.


3256


4340
3111
2542
7070
7596

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TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
(Please read lastntctions on the reverie before completing)
1. REPORT NO. 2.
EPA- 905/9-74-01 5
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
Water Pollution Investigation: Erie, Pennsylvania Area
7. AUTHOR(S)
F. X. Browne, Ph.D., P.E.
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
Betz Environmental Engineers, Inc.
One Plymouth Meeting Mall
Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania 19462
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Regions V & III
Enforcement Division Enforcement Division
230 S. Dearborn St. 6th & Walnut St. -Curtis Bldg.
Chicago, IL 60604 Philadelphia, PA 19106
3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION NO.
S. REPORT DATE
March 1975
6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
CODE
REPORT N<
10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
68-01 -1 578
13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PSRIOO COVERED
Final Report - Water Quality
14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
EPA Project Officers: Howard Zar and Nick DeBenedictis
16. ABSTRACT
  A study of Presque Isle Bay and its tributaries was  performed to evaluate present
  water quality and to determine cause and effect relationships between wastewater
  discharges and water quality.  Field sampling  of  Presque Isle Bay, its tributaries
  and Erie Harbor was performed during the fall  and winter of 1973 and the spring of
  1974.  Special wastewater studies were  performed  for Penn Central  and for eight
  select industries.  Garrison Run, a tributary  of  Presque Isle Bay, was investigated
  to determine sources of wastewater entering  the stream.

  In general, water quality in Presque Isle  Bay  and Erie Harbor was good except for
  the presence of high levels of total and fecal coliform.  Localized areas of de-
  graded water quality were found in a few areas.   Poor water quality was observed
  in the bay area around the confluence of Mill  Creek  and in the lake area adjacent
  to Hammermill Paper Company.  Water quality  in the three tributary streams was de-
  graded and indicated the presence of sanitary  and industrial  wastewaters.  Mill
  Creek appears to contribute the highest pollutional load to  Presque Isle Bay.

                                                         (continued on next page)
17.
                               KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                 DESCRIPTORS
                                             b.lOENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
                          c.  COSATI Field/Group
  Water Quality, Water Pollution,
  Aquatic Biology
 Presque Isle Bay
 Lake Erie
 Great Lakes
 Garrison  Run
 Penn Central
 Chemical  Parameters
 Physical  Parameters
138  6F  8H
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
  Limited supply without charge from  EPA,
  Regions III & V.  At cost of publication
  from National Technical Information Serv.
                                             19. SECURITY CLASS (ThisReport/
                          21. NO. OF PAGES
20. SECURITY CLASS {Thispage)
                          22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 <9-73)

-------
Various continuous and intermittent wastewater discharges to Garrison Run
were identified and characterized.   Past operations of the Penn Central
yards have produced areas where the ground is impregnated with oil.   This
oil is apparently discharged to Garrison Run via stormwater drains during
periods of rain.
                                 194

-------