United States          Office of Solid Waste and       OSWER 9200.3-20
         Environmental Protection      Emergency Response        PB95-963239
         Agency            Washington, DC 20460        EPA540/R-95/058
                                       May 1995

&ERA   Waste Programs

         Environmental Justice

         Accomplishments Report

         Executive Summary

         United States           Office of Solid Waste and       OSWER 9200.3-20
         Environmental Protection       Emergency Response         PB95-963239
         Agency              Washington, DC 20460        EPA540/R-95/058
                                         May 1995
AEPA   Waste Programs
         Environmental Justice
         Accomplishments Report
         Executive Summary
                           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                           Region 5, Library (PL-12J)
                           S^ *&# iahn~

                                                                    Executive Summary
               Table of Contents
                      Introduction	1

                      Title VI of the Civil Rights Act	2

                      Health, Cumulative Risk, Synergistic Effects,
                      and Multiple Pathways	2

                      Geographic Information System (GIS)	3

                      Outreach, Communications, and Partnerships	4

|                      Economic Redevelopment, Jobs, and Worker Training	7
*                      Contracts, Grants, and Labor	8

)                      Federal Interagency Cooperation	9
\                      Native American/Tribal Issues	10

                      Internal Training, Organization, and Program
                      Implementation	13

                      Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)	13

                      Comprehensive Environmental Response,
                      Compensation, and Liability Act
                      (CERCLA), or Superfund	14

                      Oil Pollution Act (OPA)	15

                      Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)	16

                      Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention	17

                      Federal Facilities	18
                                Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report  iii

                                                                     Executive Summary
         Over the last decade, several studies have indicated that minority and low-income
         communities often bear a disproportionate level of the environmental and health ef-
         fects of pollution. On February 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order
         12898 which focuses Federal agencies' attention on the environmental justice issue.
         Then, on April 25,1994, the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER)
         issued the "OSWER Environmental Justice Task Force Draft Final Report." This re-
         port launched a major effort to address environmental justice concerns in the Environ-
         mental Protection Agency's (EPA's) waste programs. It consists of a series of
         action-oriented recommendations encompassing all waste  program areas. Based on
         the recommendations, Headquarters and the Regions developed implementation plans
         in June 1994. While work on the final report (titled the "OSWER Environmental Jus-
         tice Action Agenda" and being released concurrently with this report) was progress-
         ing, implementation of many of the April 1994 recommendations was ongoing.
         This Executive Summary provides a synopsis of the major areas of progress and ac-
         complishments of EPA Headquarters and  Regions to address environmental justice in
         the waste programs. Over the last year, special emphasis has been given to several
         very important  areas. Increasing public participation and stakeholder involvement is
         one area that received special emphasis. Such initiatives as Superfund community
         advisory groups (CAGs), Federal facility  restoration advisory boards (RABs), the Re-
         source Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) proposed public participation  rule,
         increased assistance to and involvement of Native Americans, and OSWER's coopera-
         tive partnership with the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC)
         are giving local communities a greater voice in waste program activities.
         Interagency cooperation and partnerships are also being emphasized because environ-
         mental justice issues often cut across jurisdictional boundaries. Interagency efforts
         include medical assistance to communities in coordination with the Department of
         Health and Human Services (HHS); lead abatement in housing near Superfund  sites
         with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD); increased opportu-
         nities for jobs at waste cleanup sites with the Department of Labor (DOL), and a vari-
         ety of cooperative initiatives with State and local governments.
         Many projects are making use of state-of-the-art computer technology to better under-
         stand the total community  surrounding waste sites and facilities. The Geographic In-
         formation System (GIS), LandView, and Computer Aided Management of Emergency
         Operations (CAMEO) are  computer data systems  which overlay demographic, envi-
         ronmental, geographic, and contaminant release information to better understand  total
         impacts on communities. Every Region  is  increasing its use  of one or more of the
         Many of the communities where waste sites are located need revitalization. The  EPA
         brownfields initiative will help put abandoned land back into productive use. Many
         initiatives are underway to help small and disadvantaged businesses get their fair share
         of Federal contract dollars. The Regions  and Headquarters are also working to  train
         and increase the hiring rate of laborers from the communities where the cleanups are
         This Executive Summary provides highlights of these and other important initiatives
         which support environmental justice. Many additional efforts are covered in the "Waste
                       Waste  Programs  Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report   1

Executive Summary
                  Programs Environmental Accomplishments Report," which is being released concur-
                  rently with this report. It provides a detailed recounting of all major activities to date,
                  including milestones and contacts.

         Title  VI of the Civil Rights Act	

                  Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act generally requires that Federally-financed pro-
                  grams or activities be implemented in a non-discriminatory manner. OSWER pro-
                  grams administer a variety of grants and cooperative agreements that provide  EPA
                  financial assistance for State and local programs. Under EPA's implementing regula-
                  tions, recipients and applicants are required to assure compliance with Title VI in or-
                  der to receive financial assistance. EPA program offices and Regions are working to
                  respond to discrimination complaints with the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), Office of
                  General Counsel (OGC), the Department of Justice (DOJ), and other EPA offices and
                  Federal agencies.

                  Guidance Document on Title VI Environmental Justice Issues
                  The Office of Solid Waste (OSW) is working with OCR and OGC to produce a guid-
                  ance document for the EPA Regions to use  in addressing Title VI environmental jus-
                  tice issues related to the RCRA program. The guidance document will describe  Title
                  VI requirements, outline available options within RCRA statutory authority to prevent
                  and respond to environmental justice concerns in permitting decisions, describe the
                  response that Regions should take  in response to a  Title VI complaint, and discuss
                  Headquarters and Regional responses to the loss of a Title VI complaint.

         Health, Cumulative  Risk, Synergistic Effects, and
         Muitiple Pathways	

                  Cumulative risks, synergistic effects, and multiple pathways that affect the health of
                  individuals may be the result of exposures to single or multiple contaminants from one
                  or more sources. OSWER and other Agency programs have generally considered site-
                  specific risks without considering current exposure to other (non-site specific) pollu-
                  tion sources.  In conjunction with environmental justice initiatives, EPA is supporting
                  Agency-wide efforts to coordinate and develop scientifically valid standards for  mea-
                  suring cumulative risk, synergistic effects, and multiple pathways. Specific activities
                  include conducting environmental risk studies in communities where there are envi-
                  ronmental justice concerns.

                  Medical Assistance Pilots
                  EPA, in coordination with  the Public Health Service (PHS), has developed Medical
                  Assistance Plans (MAPs) to respond to the health concerns of communities. Such health
                  concerns include improving delivery of existing medical services to communities with
                  potential exposures to hazardous substances and building environmental health exper-
                  tise in communities through physician training and placement. MAPs are currently
                  being implemented at the  Del Amo/Montrose Superfund site, the Tucson Airport
                  Superfund site, and the Old Reichold Superfund site by various PHS agencies in coop-
                  eration with EPA, State and local health departments, local health care providers, and
                  members of communities living near hazardous waste  sites.
 2  Waste Programs Environmental Justice  Accomplishments Report

                                                                  Executive Summary
        Environmental Risk Studies of Chester, Pennsylvania, and
        South/Southwest Philadelphia
        Region 3 initiated a major study of environmental risk potentially affecting the health
        of residents of Chester, Pennsylvania. Participants in the study include the Pennsylva-
        nia Department of Environmental Protection, Delaware County, Chester County, and
        the community. The final study is presently undergoing an internal peer review. In
        order to explore cumulative risk issues, Region 3 is also funding a study of South/
        Southwest Philadelphia through a grant to Johns Hopkins University. The grant in-
        cludes significant involvement from local community groups.

        Assessment of Cumulative Risk to Native Americans on the
        Columbia River
        Region 10 risk assessors are participating in an assessment of cumulative risk to Na-
        tive Americans on the Columbia River. The data from this assessment will be used to
        define exposure limits for all Regional actions.

        Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and the St. Regis
        Mohawk Tribe
        The Agency forToxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), in coordination with
        Region 2, began a study of the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe to evaluate potential health
        effects resulting from exposure to PCBs. The report will be titled "PCBs from Toxic
        Waste in a Population of Native Americans."

Geographic Information System (GIS)	

        The Agency  is increasingly  using GIS to identify communities with environmental
        justice concerns. Using GIS, EPA can access spatially referenced databases of demo-
        graphic and economic information, and sources of pollution. EPA analysts can then
        identify geographic areas where sources of pollution appear to have a disproportionate
        effect on minority, low-income, and educationally disadvantaged populations.

        Site Discovery
        Sites in areas with minority or low-income populations that warrant Federal attention
        may not be identified because potential Superfund sites are discovered and referred to
        EPA by local governments, State agencies, and citizens. EPA is using GIS to conduct
        an active site discovery program to achieve early identification of sites in areas of
        environmental justice concerns. Regions 4 and 8 are making extensive use of GIS
        maps, tax maps,  aerial maps, and other sources to define areas needing assessment.
        Region 3 site assessment and GIS personnel generated GIS maps depicting minority
        and poverty distributions for all Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model (SACM) sites.
        Region 3 subsequently amended its policies and procedures for site investigations to
        include the generation of GIS demographic maps.

        Identification of Potential Environmental Justice Areas in
        New Jersey and New York
        Region 2 completed pilot studies using GIS to demographically map New Jersey and
        New  York  for population density, ethnicity, and income. Region 2 incorporated the
                      Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report  3

Executive Summary
                 study data into the Region's GIS and generated Regional demographic maps of the two
                 States. The Region can combine the demographic information from the studies with
                 other program health-risk data.

                 Identification of Counties with Potential Environmental
                 Justice Concerns
                 Region 7 conducted a screening, using GIS in conjunction with the Comprehensive
                 Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Information
                 System (CERCLIS), the RCRA Information System (RCRIS), and other demographic
                 information to identify counties with a high co-occurrence of minority and/or low-
                 income population, and RCRIS/CERCLIS listings. As a result, the Region selected St.
                 Louis and St. Louis County as an environmental justice pilot area for more intensive

         Outreach, Communications, and Partnerships

                 OSWER  and the Regions are using several strategies to enhance and promote out-
                 reach, communications, and partnerships for communities likely to have environmen-
                 tal justice concerns.

                 OSWER Policies Require Environmental Justice Consideration
                 OSWER  developed a directive entitled "Integration of Environmental Justice Into
                 OSWER Policy,  Guidance, and Regulatory Development." The directive requires the
                 consideration of environmental justice in the development of all OSWER policies,
                 guidances, and regulations, including meaningful input from stakeholders at critical

                 Training For Low-Income and Minority Workers
                 OSWER  is working  with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
                 (NIEHS) to develop health and safety training for communities with environmental
                 justice concerns. EPA and NIEHS held a technical workshop in Cleveland, Ohio, in
                 January 1995 to examine model programs for training residents.  Also, Region 5 is
                 developing a pilot project to provide a two-week summer training course for teachers
                 in the southeast Chicago area to address environmental justice concerns.

                 OSWER Speeches
                 In a continuing effort to build, promote, and maintain an open dialogue with the public
                 on environmental justice issues, OSWER senior management accepts numerous speak-
                 ing engagements and establishes lines of communications with a diverse group  of
                 stakeholders (e.g., the National Association of Attorney Generals, the National Reli-
                 gious Partnership for the Environment, and the National Tribal  Conference on Envi-
                 ronmental Justice).

                 OSWER Coordination With NEJAC  Subcommittee
                 OSWER  has worked closely  with the NEJAC Subcommittee on Waste and Facility
                 Siting to  implement the OSWER Environmental Justice Task Force's recommenda-
                 tions. Also, the Subcommittee provided extensive review and comment on the
4  Waste Programs Environmental  Justice Accomplishments Report

                                                            Executive Summary
"OSWER Environmental Justice Task Force Draft Strategy." Many of these comments
were incorporated into the revised OSWER strategy, now called the "Environmental
Justice Action Agenda." OSWER continues to work with the Subcommittee to address
public health issues, facility siting issues, and economic redevelopment and
brownfields issues in impacted communities.

OSWER and NAACP Cooperation
OSWER and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
are examining the perceived health effects of inactive and uncontrolled waste sites on
certain racially and economically disadvantaged communities. OSWER has been con-
ducting  interviews with affected community residents to obtain their perceptions of
the health effects and risks of these sites. Information collected will enable the 2,200
branches of the NAACP to empower local communities for meaningful participation
in environmental decision-making.

Community Advisory Groups (CAGs)
EPA is encouraging the formation of CAGs to address community concerns, expecta-
tions, and environmental justice issues for the cleanup and future use of sites. CAGs
are a crucial part of the Superfund program's environmental justice implementation
plan because they promote early, direct, and meaningful  public involvement in the
Superfund cleanup process. OSWER and the Regions identified pilot CAGs for poten-
tial environmental justice sites. In addition, OERR developed draft CAG guidance that
is currently undergoing Regional review.  Examples of CAG activities include:
  Region 1 established and interacts extensively with CAGs at two Superfund sites
   with environmental justice concerns: New Bedford, Massachusetts, and Pine Street
   Canal, Vermont. EPA meets with community  members at both sites bi-weekly.
  In Region 2, a CAG was formed at the Diamond Alkali Superfund site, which has
   potential environmental justice concerns. At  the CAG's request,  the Region ob-
   tained guest speakers on EPA's dioxin reassessment work, a copy of New Jersey's
   completed epidemiological work in the area,  the Newark Bay seafood consump-
   tion advisories, and information on Region 2's Harbor Estuary program. The Re-
   gion generated and distributed two trilingual fact sheets on the Diamond Alkali
   Superfund site to the community. In addition, the Region held a special  site visit
   and roundtable discussion for members of the Ironbound Committee Against Toxic
   Wastes, a local advocacy group.
  Region 4 selected two pilot CAGs with environmental justice concerns at the Chat-
   tanooga Creek, Tennessee, and the Escambia Treatment Plant, Pensacola, Florida,
   sites. The Region is also working closely with the Hazardous Substances Research
   Center/South & Southwest to develop the Technical Outreach Services for Com-
   munities program and to provide training workshops to communities on technical
   aspects of environmental pollution.

  Region 6 conducted workshops and open houses to assist the community at the
   Agriculture Street Landfill site in New Orleans, Louisiana, to form a CAG. The
   Region is coordinating this effort with economic redevelopment initiatives in the
               Waste Programs  Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report  5

Executive Summary
                     Region 7 identified the Oronogo-Dunweg Superfund site as its pilot CAG site
                     after screening several Superfund sites with environmental justice concerns. The
                     community around this site consists of a predominantly low-income population.
                     The Region is currently selecting CAG members.

                  Environmental Education Grants
                  Region 5 established environmental education grants to educate communities on local
                  environmental issues. Regional environmental justice contacts and community rela-
                  tions coordinators promote this grants program so that institutions conducting envi-
                  ronmental justice related activities can compete for these funds. For example, Region
                  5 conducted an environmental grants writing workshop for 200 Chicago Public School
                  faculty members.

                  Underground Storage Tank (UST) Guidance for Environmen-
                  tal Justice
                  Headquarters issued a fact sheet on environmental justice to State UST and leaking
                  underground storage tank (LUST) managers. This fact sheet defines environmental
                  justice, explains what EPA is doing to address the issue, and discusses how UST pro-
                  grams  can address environmental justice concerns.

                  Expanded Public Participation at a RCRA Site
                  Region 2 identified the Squibb site located in Humacao, Puerto Rico, as the first RCRA
                  site with environmental justice concerns that will undergo improved and expanded
                  public  participation procedures. Bilingual communication will continue to be used.

                  Urban Environmental Initiative in Baltimore, Maryland
                  Region 3 is conducting the Urban Environmental Initiative in cooperation with the
                  City of Baltimore and the Maryland Department of the Environment to identify areas
                  of disproportionate risk in Baltimore City and to initiate community activities. The
                  initiative supports pollution prevention, risk reduction, public awareness, and other
                  environmental activities in environmental justice areas within Baltimore City. The
                  team identified seven short-term action areas: lead contamination, hazardous materi-
                  als incidents, consumption  of contaminated fish from Baltimore Harbor, air toxics,
                  ground-level ozone, hazardous levels of radon, and indoor air pollution. Approximately
                  150 lead-dust cleaning kits have been distributed to citizens who received training on
                  how to use them. The team has committed 1,400 of a total of 2,500 kits for distribution
                  to trained community members. Additionally, the team submitted grant proposals for
                  fish-consumption studies, the creation of an ozone map, hazardous materials incidents
                  studies, and indoor air studies. The long-term track is designed to gather comprehen-
                  sive data to identify environmental justice areas.

                  Lead Abatement Program
                  The Superfund program is working with HUD, EPA Regional On-Scene Coordinators
                  (OSCs), and Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) to identify sites located near low-
                  income or minority housing.  These sites may be eligible for HUD lead abatement
                  grants. HUD is providing information to OSCs and RPMs on how to apply for these
6  Waste Programs  Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report

                                                                   Executive Summary
         grants. Because there are few regulatory options and mechanisms for funding lead
         paint cleanup, this initiative may help address this problem in housing near some
         Superfund sites. EPA is developing final guidance on indoor lead paint cleanups at
         Superfund sites funded with HUD lead abatement grants.

Economic Redevelopment, Jobs, and Worker

         Economic redevelopment opportunities are being examined to ensure that they comple-
         ment environmental justice initiatives in communities with environmental justice con-
         cerns. Economic redevelopment efforts are increasingly blocked by uncertainty about
         future tort, third-party, and Superfund, RCRA, and UST liabilities, as well as uncer-
         tainty about costs, cleanup standards, and time involved in cleanup. This phenomenon
         is termed the "brownfields" dilemma and EPA is examining ways to address the needs
         of communities suffering from the adverse economic effects of contaminated sites.

         Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative
         OSWER expanded its emphasis on community involvement in environmental justice
         communities through the Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative. Specific
         items in the Brownfields Initiative Action Agenda include awarding fifty Brownfields
         Economic Redevelopment Pilots during 1995 and  1996, working with Empowerment
         Zones and Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC), and building partnerships with key stake-
         holders to gain their input and advice. OSWER and NEJAC will co-sponsor public
         forums in five cities across the country. The purpose of the forums is to solicit input
         from the environmental justice community on the Brownfields Initiative and to de-
         velop strategies for integrating community involvement into the Brownfields Initiative.

         Training and Education of Brownfield Communities
         OSWER is working with the DOL to develop the local workforce at Brownfields pilot
         sites. In other efforts, OSWER is working with NIEHS to implement a series of na-
         tional pilots designed to test a range of strategies  for the recruitment and training of
         inner-city youth.
         In addition, OSWER funded and organized the EPA-Morgan State University Summer
         Environmental Teacher's Institute to recruit and inform teachers from schools located
         near Superfund sites about environmental issues and concerns. At the second Teacher's
         Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, OSWER's special recruitment efforts resulted in over
         half of the participating teachers being people of color. Furthermore, OSWER estab-
         lished partnerships with community colleges in Cleveland, Ohio; Bridgeport, Con-
         necticut; and Richmond, Virginia.

         Minority Worker Training Grants
        OSWER worked  with NIEHS to  solicit grant applications  for partnerships in estab-
         lishing a new minority worker training program. The program will focus on support-
                      Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report   7

Executive Summary
                  ing the inclusion of young people of color in environmental restoration activities. Ap-
                  plications are currently being reviewed.

                  Laborers Hired at Bunker Hill Site
                  Under the removal program, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers subcontractor hired 19
                  local workers out of a total of 26 that lived in  the community near the Bunker Hill
                  Superfund site.

         Contracts, Grants, and  Labor

                  Communities throughout the nation indicate that EPA should facilitate employment
                  opportunities for local labor to reduce the economic and social stigma of waste facili-
                  ties. It is the policy of the Federal government  that a fair proportion of government
                  contracts and subcontracts be placed with small and disadvantaged businesses. OSWER
                  and the Regions are working  to provide incentives to use local labor in communities
                  where there  are environmental justice concerns.

                  Mentor-Protege Program
                  Region 6 is working with the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Businesses Utiliza-
                  tion (OSDBU) to fully implement the Mentor-Protege program that is being piloted in
                  the Superfund Response Action Contracts (RACs). The program is designed to stimu-
                  late the participation of small and disadvantaged businesses in EPA contracts by fos-
                  tering long-term relationships between large contractors and small and disadvantaged

                  Set-Aside Contracts
                  More than 12 million dollars has been awarded to minority business enterprises in
                  Region 4. Acquisition plans were established that emphasize the use of small and dis-
                  advantaged businesses, both as prime contractors and subcontractors. The use of such
                  businesses addresses environmental justice concerns by allowing socially and eco-
                  nomically disadvantaged small business concerns to obtain contracts. Also, Region 4
                  implemented set-aside contracts under Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act which
                  authorizes subcontracting to "socially and economically disadvantaged small business
                  concerns." Section 8(a) businesses were awarded an Enforcement Support Services
                  (ESS) contract and a Regional Oversight Contract (ROC).

                  Increase the Use of Local and Small Disadvantaged
                  Regions 6 and 10 undertook several efforts to increase the use of local and small and
                  disadvantaged businesses.
                     The Alternative Remedial Contracting Strategies (ARCS) Performance Evalua-
                     tion Board  (PEB) considered the success of the contractors in meeting the goals
                     for subcontracting to small and disadvantaged businesses (as well as minority-
                     and women-owned businesses) in the award fee recommendations.
                     The Superfund removal program worked with the State of Idaho and the  local
                     employment office in Silver Valley, Idaho, to provide health and  safety training to
                     local citizens interested in hazardous waste  work.
8  Waste Programs Environmental  Justice Accomplishments Report

                                                                   Executive Summary
            EPA and Idaho are currently working on the development of a local contractor's
            list. The contractor's list will be given to prime contractors to be used in notifying
            local contractors of bid opportunities for cleanup work.
            Region 6 piloted a seminar in New Orleans which brought together several Fed-
            eral agencies, EPA prime contractors, and training vendors/providers in one room
            and made them directly available to potential disadvantaged and minority contrac-
            tors for networking and information sharing on government subcontracting oppor-
            tunities. Several subcontracts were awarded as a result of the seminar. The next
            seminar is tentatively planned for Albuquerque, New Mexico.

         Grants Training and Workshop Forum
         Region 10 held a Grants Training and Workshop Forum on December 1,1994, to present
         Federal, State, county, and city funding opportunities for urban and rural community
         groups, including non-profit organizations, Tribal governments, churches, and educa-
         tional institutions. EPA also discussed the requirements for filling out grant applica-
         tion forms and demonstrated how to prepare a proposal.

         Encourage  Groups in Low-Income Areas to Promote
         Region 2 began activities to target grant funds to encourage groups in low-income
         areas to promote recycling and source reduction/pollution prevention. The efforts in-
         clude informing low-income community organizations of the availability of limited
         Federal grant money to promote recycling and source reduction/pollution prevention.

Federal Interagency Cooperation

         EPA works with many Federal agencies to protect human health and the environment.
         Some of these agencies include ATSDR, HHS, the Center for Disease Control (CDC),
         DOJ, NIEHS, HUD, the Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Department of Inte-
         rior (DOI), and agencies that own or operate facilities regulated by OSWER. After the
         issuance of the President's Environmental Justice Executive Order, the  Federal gov-
         ernment is increasing its emphasis on interagency cooperation with various projects
         and studies to address environmental justice concerns.

         Outreach Training with AmeriCorps Volunteers
         Region  10 is participating in an interagency education and outreach effort with
         AmeriCorps volunteers. The EPA-AlaskaAmericorps project targets volunteers to iden-
         tify and resolve  solid/hazardous waste and water issues at the local level. Thirteen of
         the 15 trainees were Native  Alaskans representing their own villages. Region 10 pro-
         vides technical assistance on an as-needed basis. Key personnel of Native Alaskan
         organizations, the Alaska education system, the Alaska Department of Environmental
         Conservation, and EPA conduct the training.

         Federal Field Workgroup to Address Sanitation Issues in
         Rural Alaska
        Region 10 has initiated a large interagency effort to address minority concerns in rural
         Alaska.  The Region 10 Hazardous Waste Division serves as lead agency for the
                       Waste Programs Environmental  Justice Accomplishments Report   9

Executive Summary
                  Federal Field Workgroup (FFW) to identify and solve severe sanitation issues in rural
                  Alaska. The interagency group is composed of representatives from Federal and State
                  agencies including the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; the Departments of Commerce,
                  Education, Transportation, Labor, and HUD; the Indian Health Service (IHS); the Bu-
                  reau of Indian Affairs (BIA); the Alaska Departments of Community and Regional
                  Affairs, and Environmental Conservation; the Alaska Area Native Health Association;
                  the University of Alaska; and other concerned agencies. In addition, FFW completed a
                  draft report on Alaskan rural sanitation in March 1995. The report has been submitted
                  to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for final clearance before submission
                  to the U.S. Congress.

                  Community Assistance Panels (CAPs)
                  Region 6 participates in ATSDR's Minority Health program by collaborating with
                  ATSDR on CAPs which provide health information to minority and disadvantaged
                  communities located near Superfund sites. EPA and ATSDR established CAPs at sev-
                  eral sites, including the RSR Smelter (a.k.a. West Dallas Lead) site which is located
                  near public housing units. Region 6 will continue to participate in CAPs to identify
                  and explore ways to deliver health services and information to minority and disadvan-
                  taged communities potentially exposed to hazardous waste contamination.

         Native American/Tribal Issues	

                  The unique legal status of Indian Tribe governments requires EPA-wide and OSWER-
                  wide coordination. There is an extensive EPA-wide initiative underway to strengthen
                  Tribal environmental programs and address environmental justice concerns. EPA is
                  currently examining ways to develop and provide additional resources and technical
                  assistance for Tribal environmental protection.

                  Technical Assistance for RCRA Activities.
                  OSW appropriated a fiscal year 1994 budget of $505,000 to provide technical assis-
                  tance for RCRA activities on Indian lands. Funds are used to support Headquarters and
                  Regional Indian activities such as training and outreach, meeting support, regulatory
                  development, direct grants to the Tribes, and the circuit rider program.
                    Regions 5, 6, 9, and 10 held Regional Tribal meetings supported by Headquarters
                     funding. Regional staff work with Tribes to develop agendas and  secure speakers
                     at these meetings.
                    The "Native American Network" and other Tribal-specific publications are de-
                     signed and disseminated by Headquarters  and Regional staff to provide "user-
                     friendly"  information on grant availability, rules  and regulations, and  other
                     RCRA-related activities.
                    Regions 4 and 6 are providing technical assistance to Indian Tribes for the RCRA
                     Subtitle D (solid waste) program. Region 4 funded  several ongoing  solid waste
                     management projects for Tribes. Region 6 and Headquarters hosted a
                     "regionalization" conference in Albuquerque, New  Mexico, to demonstrate the
                      advantages gained by entering into cooperative agreements (CAs) between Tribes
 10  Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments  Report

                                                             Executive Summary
    and municipalities. CAs can increase populations served and thereby reduce per
    capita costs.
    Region  10 designated an Indian Coordinator to increase technical assistance to
    Indian Tribes for the RCRA program. The RCRA program sent speakers to give
    presentations on solid waste, toxics reduction, and composting, at a technical con-
    ference  in Oregon for Tribes. Two other well-attended Tribal conferences with
    EPA and Tribal leaders were held, one in Alaska and another in Washington.

 Technical Assistance for Superfund Activities
 The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) oversees implementation
 of the Superfund program and initiated several projects with Indian Tribes to address
 environmental justice concerns in the program.

    OERR established Tribal Site Discovery Cooperative Agreements to identify pre-
    viously  undiscovered hazardous waste sites. OERR selected the Seneca Nation
    (Region 2) and the Navajo Nation (Region 9) as pilots for this effort.
    Region 8 sent letters to each Indian Tribe in the Region to inform them about the
    status of sites in the CERCLIS and how to request information on any potential
    sites on  their lands.
    OERR conducted a variety of training activities designed to build response capac-
    ity of Indian Tribes including a Response Agreements Seminar held in Region 10,
    an Emergency Response Workshop with Native  American components held in
    August 1994, and the development of a local government reimbursement module
    for Native Americans in the "First Responders" training.
    OERR is completing a survey of sites tracked through the CERCLIS on or near
    Indian lands.

    Region 6 developed and funded Indian-lead Superfund programs that allow Indian
    Tribes to interact directly in the Superfund decision-making process. The Semi-
    nole Nation of Oklahoma is receiving technical expertise and skills to investigate
    and resolve potential hazardous  waste sites on Seminole Nation lands through a
    Superfund multi-site Cooperative Agreement. A separate Cherokee Nation multi-
    media grant helped support a multi-Tribal site discovery program that has identi-
    fied three potential sites on Seminole lands.

Technical Assistance for USTs
Several Regions are providing technical assistance for the management of USTs to

   The Region 2 Administrator met with leaders of the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. The
    Region is providing technical assistance to the St. Regis Mohawk Office of Envi-
    ronmental Affairs to establish local programs for USTs and solid waste landfills.
   Region 6 is providing assistance to the Santa Clara Indian Pueblo in determining
    the extent of contamination from a LUST on Pueblo  lands within the City of
    Espanola, New Mexico.

   Region 8 assisted State and Tribal enforcement programs in complying with UST
    leak detection requirements by taking direct Federal action both on and off Indian
              Waste Programs  Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report   11

Executive Summary
                     lands. Region 8 conducted over 100 leak detection inspections, jointly with Tribal
                     and State authorities, and issued 48 field citations at facilities on these lands.

                 Technical Assistance for Chemical Emergencies
                 Several Regions are providing technical assistance in chemical emergency prevention
                 and preparedness to Indian Tribes.
                    Region 8 began extensive efforts to disseminate information on emergency re-
                     sponse activities to areas with environmental justice concerns. Specific activities
                     -  Sending letters to 28 Federally recognized Indian Tribes to offer assistance in
                       training, outreach, and exercises in emergency response training;
                     -  Conducting several hazardous materials training courses at the "awareness" and
                       "operations" levels for Indian Tribes in South Dakota and Montana;
                     -  Holding a short-term peer exchange work session on emergency planning and
                       response in Kanab, Utah, for Indian Tribes in Utah and Arizona; and
                     -  Holding a Tribal environmental summit in Rapid City; which included a pre-
                       sentation on preparedness and prevention for all Indian Tribes in Region 8.
                    Region 10 is working with the Colville Indian Tribe and nearby counties on emer-
                     gency preparedness. A $10,000 EPA grant funded a cross-border workshop and
                     vulnerability analysis study.

                 Technical Assistance for Multi-Media Environmental
                 Region  2 is providing technical assistance and  identifying appropriate mechanisms
                 for multi-media environmental management program support to Indian Tribes. Region
                 2 provided grants to the Seneca, Mohawk, and Oneida Nations. In addition, Region 2
                 established an Indian Workgroup consisting of representatives from the Air, Water,
                 Superfund, Wetlands, and Radon programs to jointly explore mechanisms for assis-
                 tance to Tribal governments.

                 Indian Tribal Involvement at Federal Facilities
                 Region  10 involved the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, the Confed-
                 erated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Indian Nation, and the Nez Perce Tribe in the
                 cleanup decision and oversight at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site.

                 Second National Tribal Conference on  Environmental
                 OSW sponsored the Second National Tribal Conference on Environmental Manage-
                 ment in fiscal year 1994. OSW Indian program staff and the Indian Coordinator from
                 OERR provided extensive support to the Cherokee staff throughout the pre-confer-
                 ence and conference periods. Nearly 450 participants attended the conference.
12   Waste  Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report

                                                                 Executive Summary
        Technical Assistance through Interagency Agreements and
        Circuit Riders
        Regions 7, 9, and 10 are providing solid waste, hazardous waste, and UST technical
        assistance to Indian Tribes through the use of interagency agreements (lAGs) and cir-
        cuit rider positions. These activities are being coordinated with the BIA and IHS.

Internal Training, Organization, and Program

        OSWER and Regional Environmental Justice Training
        OSWER and the Regions are initiating efforts to develop training, awareness, and
        education for waste program personnel. Efforts include developing a new training
        module  on environmental justice for OERR's community relations training, a new
        module  for the CERCLA Education Center (by the Technology Innovation Office
        (TIO)), development of Regional environmental justice training plans, and developing
        training  modules to provide RCRA staff with a common understanding of environ-
        mental justice issues.

        OSWER Environmental Justice Steering Committee
        OSWER formed the Steering Committee to oversee progress towards implementing
        environmental justice in waste programs and to resolve major issues that occur during
        implementation of the recommendations contained in the "OSWER Environmental
        Justice Task Force Draft Strategy." The Steering Committee is chaired by the Deputy
        Assistant Administrator of OSWER and is composed of senior managers and experi-
        enced staff from each OSWER program office. The Steering Committee has  been
        meeting  every month since June 1994.

        OSWER Environmental Justice Action Agenda
        The "OSWER Environmental Justice Action Agenda" provides a concise summary of
        OSWER's strategy and describes an implementation process for ensuring that major
        environmental justice issues continue to be recognized and addressed. The Agenda
        represents OSWER's commitment to implement the objectives of Executive Order
        12898. Implementation plans written by the OSWER program offices and the ten Re-
        gional offices are an integral part of the "OSWER Environmental Justice Action

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

        OSW oversees the RCRA program and is supporting a variety of environmental jus-
        tice initiatives. Many of these activities, such as technical assistance to Indian Tribes,
        are also being managed at the Regional level and are discussed in other sections of this
        report. Specific initiatives being conducted at OSW Headquarters include the follow-
        ing activities.
                     Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report  13

Executive Summary
                  GIS Applications for Environmental Justice
                  OSW has developed the Decision Support System (DSS) jointly with the Environmen-
                  tal Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV).  This fully functional
                  GIS can estimate population density for geographic areas where sources of pollution
                  appear to have a disproportionately high and adverse health or environmental effect on
                  minority or low-income populations.

                  RCRA Permitting Process
                  OSW proposed a public participation rule on June 2,1994, entitled "RCRA Expanded
                  Public Participation and Revisions  to Combustion Permitting Procedures," that will
                  expand public involvement opportunities and address environmental justice concerns
                  during the RCRA permitting process. One goal of the rule is to encourage earlier, more
                  meaningful public involvement and to allow the public to be informed of potential
                  facility operations prior to permit submittal.

                  RCRA Implementation Plan (RIP)
                  The RCRA program incorporated an environmental justice section in the fiscal year
                  1995 RIP that addresses Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, siting of RCRA facilities,
                  public participation in siting and permitting decisions, and corrective action. The fis-
                  cal year 1996 RIP will incorporate environmental justice concepts into the individual
                  programmatic sections of the plan.

                  RCRA Siting Workgroup
                  In order to review policy options related to siting of RCRA hazardous  waste facilities,
                  OSW recently created a RCRA Siting Workgroup. The Workgroup evaluated technical
                  issues related to the potential risk posed in various geographic locations as well as
                  environmental justice issues raised by RCRA facility siting. The workgroup met with
                  State officials and with members of NEJAC to discuss environmental concerns and
                  potential solutions.

         Comprehensive Environmental  Response,
         Compensation, and Liability Act
         (CERCLA), or Super-fund	

                  OERR oversees implementation of the Superfund program and initiated site assess-
                  ment, site screening, interagency workgroups and National Priorities List (NPL) char-
                  acterization studies, and other projects to address environmental justice concerns in
                  the program.

                  Site Assessment
                  A common concern among environmental justice communities is that many potential
                  hazardous waste sites within their communities are undiscovered and unaddressed.
                     OERR solicited proposals from the Regional offices and research community to
                      conduct a variety of site assessment pilots, including assistance to two Tribes, and
                      is evaluating the proposals.
14  Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report

                                                                     Executive Summary
            Region 6 employed a number of strategies to address community concerns during
            site assessment at several Superfund sites. These include establishing a satellite
            office or information repository near the site; distributing fact sheets; conducting
            door-to-door surveys and results presentation; partnering with other Federal, State,
            and local agencies; and holding open houses. Region 6 identified open houses and
            door-to-door surveys as the two most successful strategies.

         Site Screening
         Region 5 is using environmental justice concerns as a qualifier in the site screening/
         criteria model to assist in establishing priorities within the Region's  Superfund pro-
         gram. In addition, Site Assessment Teams (SATs) and  the Regional  Decision Team
         (RDT) routinely factor environmental justice concerns into their assessments and de-

         Interagency Working Groups
         Many environmental justice concerns raised at Superfund sites are beyond the scope
         of the program's responsibilities. Therefore, in January  1995, OERR  sent a memo to
         the Regions requesting pilots for interagency working groups.

         NPL Characterization
         Using an internal statistical and demographic analysis of NPL sites, OERR is evaluat-
         ing whether sites in minority and/or low-income communities are cleaned up as quickly,
         or have remedies as protective as non-minority or high-income sites. GIS technology,
         the LandView software package, and 1990 census data are being used to categorize
         demographic and median income  characteristics of populations living around these

         Oil Pollution Act Outreach
         OERR completed the pilot phase of a survey of oil storage facilities to identify the
         types and characteristics of oil storage facilities most likely to be located in poor or
         minority communities.

         Worker Training
         OERR is exploring ways to employ residents around certain sites in actual cleanup
         activities and has met with HUD and HHS to coordinate efforts with the STEP-UP
         apprenticeship program to determine if a similar apprenticeship program can be mod-
         eled for site cleanup.

Oii Pollution Act (OPA)	

         The Oil Pollution program regulates prevention and response activities at facilities
         that discharge oil. The universe of regulated facilities is large and diverse, with facili-
         ties located throughout the country in large cities, suburbs, Indian lands, and remote
         areas. A disproportionate share of oil storage facilities, and thus contamination,  may
         be in or near communities with potential environmental justice concerns. The Oil Pol-
         lution program is working to ensure that environmental justice concerns are addressed
         through statistical surveys and inspections.
                      Waste  Programs  Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report  15

Executive Summary
                  Statistical Survey
                  The Oil Pollution program is conducting a statistical survey of approximately 30,000
                  oil storage facilities across the nation. The program plans to combine the survey re-
                  sults with county census data to identify the types and characteristics of oil storage
                  facilities most likely to be located in poor or minority areas. EPA began distribution of
                  the survey to facilities in the fall of 1994 and will continue survey activities through

                  Census Data Analysis
                  Region 7 analyzed census data and identified the high priority counties that may have
                  environmental justice concerns. The list of oil pollution facilities needing inspections
                  has been prioritized against the census data.

                  Inspections and Enforcement Activities in Communities with
                  Environmental Justice Concerns
                  Several  Regions are targeting inspections and enforcement activities in communities
                  with environmental justice concerns.
                     Region 1's Environmental Justice Enforcement Plan intends to triple the number
                     of inspections in  areas with environmental justice concerns. The Region has com-
                     pleted six inspections in the States of Connecticut and Rhode Island.
                     Region 2 conducted 19 inspections under the Spill Prevention Control and Coun-
                     termeasures (SPCC) program in areas with environmental justice concerns. The
                     Region conducted four of these inspections as part of the consolidated multi-me-
                     dia efforts. The SPCC program is planning to conduct 200 inspections by the end
                     of this fiscal year, and is targeting facilities located in communities with environ-
                     mental justice concerns. These areas include Newark  and Camden, New Jersey,
                     and New York City, New York.

         Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)	

                  The Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) works to prevent leaks and spills of
                  USTs, monitor tanks for leaks and spills, correct problems created by newly discov-
                  ered leaks and spills, and ensure that owners and operators of USTs can pay for prob-
                  lems created by leaking tanks. The UST program is largely decentralized to the States.

                  Considering Environmental Justice in Priority-Ranking
                  OUST issued a revised "State UST Program Grant Guidance" to encourage States to
                  consider environmental justice as a qualitative factor in priority-ranking systems for
                  State-lead cleanup and enforcement activities. As a result of this guidance, Region 3
                  has included language in all of their grants and cooperative agreements with States for
                  fiscal year 1995.

                  Grants  to the National Association of Minority Contractors
                  OUST awarded a grant of $100,000 to the National Association of Minority Contrac-
                  tors to train and certify minority contractors in the removal, installation,  monitoring,
16   Waste  Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report

                                                                  Executive Summary
        and leak detection of USTs. This grant will allow for approximately 90 contractors to
        be trained during three sessions in fiscal year 1995. Approximately 450 contractors
        have been trained over the last five years.

        Investigation of USTs at Environmental Justice Sites
        EPA Headquarters and Region 5 were informed that there were several USTs located
        at the Winton Terrace Public Housing Complex, a HUD building managed by the Cin-
        cinnati Metropolitan Housing Authority. In response, EPA conducted an investigation
        and discovered that 30 USTs present at the site were not covered by EPA or Ohio's
        regulations. As of March 1995,  13 USTs have been removed.

        Enforcement of UST Regulations in Communities with
        Environmental Justice Concerns
        As part of an ongoing effort to encourage  States to  enforce UST regulations in envi-
        ronmental justice communities, Region 3 targeted 11 facilities with USTs in the cities
        of Chester and Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, for inspection during the summer of 1994.
        Violators were issued on-the-spot field citations with penalty amounts ranging from
        $300 to $700.
Chemical Emergency  Preparedness
and Prevention

        The Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO) works to re-
        duce the risks from accidental releases of hazardous materials, develops and maintains
        strategies to respond to emergencies involving hazardous materials, and improves the
        capabilities of State, Tribal, and local governments for preparedness, prevention, and
        emergency response. States, communities, and Indian  Tribes use information from
        facilities to develop comprehensive emergency plans through State Emergency Re-
        sponse Commissions (SERCs), Local Emergency Response Committees (LERCs), and
        Tribal Emergency Response Committees (TERCs).

        Environmental Justice Representatives  on LEPCs
        Region 6 sponsored a State-wide conference in Texas for Local Emergency Planning
        Committees (LEPCs), held near the industrialized corridor, that brought together Re-
        gional experts in the fields of toxicology, hazard analysis, and emergency response
        procedures. The purpose of the conference was to address the broad needs of LEPCs,
        including the integration of environmental justice representatives into their member-

        Use of Chemical Safety Audits to Promote Environmental
        Regions 1, 3, 6, 7, and 9 incorporated environmental justice checklist items into their
        chemical safety audit programs to ensure that the concerns of affected communities
        are addressed.
           Region 1 conducted a full-scale chemical safety audit at a minority-owned small
           business in Belmont, Massachusetts. Regional specialists provided recommenda-
           tions to prevent the inadvertent mixing of acids and  cyanide solutions that release
                     Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report   17

Executive Summary
                      toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. These recommendations, which included information
                      on safety criteria and environmental regulations, proved to be of economic benefit
                      to the company.
                     Region 3 fully incorporated its environmental justice checklist items into its chemi-
                      cal safety audit program. Region 3 staff conducted a small-scale safety audit as a
                      pilot for the environmental justice checklist in conjunction with the Chester Initia-
                      tive that addresses long-term environmental exposures and risks.
                     Region 6 can only conduct four chemical safety audits per year, although 2,000
                      facilities are eligible. Audit specialists now use Region 6 environmental justice
                      criteria, which is based on U.S. census data, as an additional factor for selection of
                      facilities for audits.
                     By analyzing U.S. Census socio-economic data, Region 7 determined the counties
                      with the highest density of minority and economically disadvantaged populations
                      in the Region. By overlaying the location of facilities that are candidates for chemi-
                      cal safety audits, Region 7 staff targeted audits at facilities that may have environ-
                      mental justice concerns.
                     Region 9 is studying modifications to its chemical safety audit program to include
                      audits in communities with environmental justice concerns.

                  Development of CAMEO/LandView Software
                  EPA is using CAMEO and LandView software capabilities to identify areas with envi-
                  ronmental justice concerns. CAMEO is designed for use in emergency planning and
                  response and LandView is a CD-ROM reference that combines maps with demographic
                  data, economic census data, and data from EPA facility databases. CEPPO is training
                  the Regions, and the Regions will train States and local groups in its application. CEPPO
                  is currently  examining the most appropriate ways to deliver the system to communi-
                  ties with environmental justice concerns.
                     Region  1 conducted CAMEO training to create a cadre of certified CAMEO-DOS
                      instructors in New England. The new instructors are scheduling CAMEO courses
                      over the next fiscal year.
                     Region  2 is developing a pilot environmental justice outreach  strategy and train-
                      ing module that demonstrates LandView to LEPCs and community groups and
                      explains community right-to-know information.
                     Region  5 staff are working on a pilot project to apply LandView at several sites.
                      Region  5 has been mapping locations in two counties on the Mississippi River to
                      learn whether facilities are concentrated in areas of environmental justice concern.

          Federal Facilities

                  Federal facilities must comply with CERCLA requirements to the same extent as pri-
                  vate  facilities. EPA is working to ensure that environmental justice concerns are ad-
                  dressed for communities  located near Federal facilities. Many  of these efforts
                  complement other environmental initiatives to increase community involvement and
                  use GIS applications to identify communities with  environmental justice concerns.
 18   Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments  Report

                                                           Executive Summary
Restoration Advisory Boards (RABs) and Enhanced
Community Development
EPA and the Department of Defense (DOD) are working jointly under the Base Re-
alignment and Closure (BRAC) program to establish Restoration Advisory Boards
(RABs) and enhance community development at all closing installations and at non-
closing installations. EPA has assisted in establishing RABs at 69 major closing instal-
lations and at many other DOD installations to ensure that environmental justice issues
are addressed. DOD and EPA offered RAB training sessions throughout the country.

Community Relations Coordinator
The Region  4 Federal Facilities Branch hired  a Community Relations Coordinator
(CRC) to handle environmental justice and other community relations support for DOD
and BRAC sites.  The Region 4 coordinator reviewed three RAB charters and eight
community relations plans to ensure that environmental justice issues are addressed.
All major BRAC  installations in the Region have established RABs or are in the pro-
cess of completing RAB selection.

Site Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs)
DOE is establishing Site Specific Advisory Boards (SSAB) at all major DOE facilities
that, like RABs, place an emphasis on stakeholder involvement in the cleanup deci-
sion-making process. DOE issued interim guidance in November 1994. Final guid-
ance is under review and joint signature by EPA and DOE is planned.

GIS Initiatives
Several Regional Federal facility offices are using GIS applications to address envi-
ronmental justice initiatives at communities located near Federal facilities.
  Regions  1,3,5, and 6 are collecting demographic data and preparing GIS maps for
   closing bases and other high priority Federal facilities in the Region.

Enhanced Community Involvement
Several Regions undertook extensive efforts to involve communities with environ-
mental justice concerns near Federal facilities.
  Region 8 is working with two minority communities adjacent to the Rocky Moun-
   tain Arsenal (RMA). Montbello has a sizable percentage of African-American resi-
   dents and Commerce City has a sizable percentage of Hispanic residents. Both
   communities have representation on the two citizen advisory boards that exist for
   RMA. EPA has encouraged local involvement in the remediation decision-making
   through the citizen advisory boards, through a special Regional Administrator-
   level set of meetings with stakeholders and through meetings with State and local
   governments and local health officials.
  Region 9 is overseeing activities to clean up Kaho'olawe Island in Hawaii and
   initiated  contact with Protect Kaho'olawe  Ghana, a Native Hawaiian advocacy
   group, in its efforts to enhance  local community involvement. The island was for-
   merly  used by DOD as a bombing range and was recently returned to State of
              Waste Programs Environmental Justice  Accomplishments Report  19

Executive Summary
                     Hawaii ownership. The island has tremendous cultural significance to the Native
                     Hawaiian population and their interests will be considered during cleanup activi-

                  Federal Facilities  Environmental Restoration Dialogue
                  Committee (FFERDC)
                  Federal Facilities Environmental Restoration Dialogue Committee (FFERDC) is a
                  Federal Advisory Committee and includes 50 representatives of Federal, State, Tribal,
                  and local agencies, and  environmental, community, and labor organizations, to help
                  develop policy recommendations for improving decision-making at Federal facilities.
                  In January 1995, the FFERDC added five environmental justice representatives from
                  diverse communities including African-Americans, Latinos, Pacific Islanders, and Na-
                  tive Alaskans. Key issues under consideration by the FFERDC include ensuring that
                  environmental justice concerns are taken into account when prioritizing Federal facil-
                  ity cleanups; including representatives from disadvantaged communities on commu-
                  nity advisory boards; and improving minority and small business contracting at Federal
                  facility cleanups.
20  Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report