United States
            Environmental Protection
              Office of Emergency and
              Remedial Response
              Washington DC 20460
(OSWER Directive 9355 0-14)
December 1 987
A Compendium of
Superfund  Field
Operations Methods

                                 (OSWER Directive 9355.0-14)
                                          December 1987
   A Compendium of Superfund
     Field Operations Methods
Office of Emergency and Remedial Response
   Office of Waste Programs Enforcement
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
         Washington, DC 20460
              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency mcy
              Region 5, Library (PL-12J)        ,
              77 West Jackson Boulevard, 12th Floor
              Chicago, IL 60604-3590

This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for
publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

                         Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS              	xxi

USE OFTHE COMPENDIUM          	:	1-1
1.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	1-1
1.3    APPLICABILITY              	1-7
1.4    RESPONSIBILITY             	1-7
1.5    UPDATES                   ...:	1-7
APPENDIX 1A                      	1A-1

2.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	2-1
2.2    DEFINITIONS                	2-1
2.3    APPLICABILITY              	2-2
2.4    RESPONSIBILITIES           	2-2
2.5    RECORDS                  	2-2
2.6    PROCEDURES              	2-2
      2.6.1   Site Description and History 	2-3
      2.6.2   Schedule of Activities    	2-4
      2.6.3   Intended Data Usage	2-4
      2.6.4   Identification of Sample Matrices and Parameters	2-5
      2.6.5   Sampling Design Description and Rationale 	2-5

      3.1.1   Scope and Purpose     	3-1
      3.1.2   Definitions            	3-1
      3.1.3   Applicability          	3-1
      3.1.4   Responsibilities        	3-1
      3.1.5   Records              	3-2
      3.1.6   Procedures           	3-2

       3.2.1   Scope and Purpose		3-2
       3.2.2   Definitions             	3-2
       3.2.3   Applicability            	3-2
       3.2.4   Responsibilities         	3-3
       3.2.5   Records               	3-3
       3.2.6   Procedures            	3-3
       3.2.7   Region-Specific Variances	3-11
       3.2.8   Information Sources     	3-11
       3.3.1   Scope and Purpose     	3-11
       3.3.2   Definitions             	3-11
       3.3.3   Applicability            	3-11
       3.3.4   Responsibilities         	3-11
       3.3.5   Records               	3-16
       3.3.6   Procedures            	3-16
       3.3.7   Region-Specific Variances	3-18
       3.3.8   Information Sources     	3-18
3.4    DECONTAMINATION          	3-19
       3.4.1   Scope and Purpose      	3-19
       3.4.2   Definitions             	3-19
       3.4.3   Applicability            	3-19
       3.4.4   Responsibilities         	3-19
       3.4.5   Records               	3-20
       3.4.6   Procedures            	3-20
       3.4.7   Information Sources     	3-20
       3.5.1   Scope and Purpose     	3-22
       3.5.2   Definitions             	3-22
       3.5.3   Applicability            	3-22
       3.5.4   Responsibilities         	3-22
       3.5.5   Records               	3-22
       3.5.6   Procedures            	3-23
       3.5.7   Information Sources     	3-29

4.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE         	4-1
4.2    DEFINITIONS                 	4-1
4.3    APPLICABILITY                	4-1

4.4     RESPONSIBILITIES            	4-1
4.5     RECORDS                    	4-1
4.6     PROCEDURES                	4-2
       4.6.1   Sample Identification Tags   	4-3
       4.6.2   Sample Traffic Report (TR)  	4-8
       4.6.3   Chain-of-Custody Forms and Records	4-8
       4.6.4   Receipt-for-Samples Form	4-10
       4.6.5   Custody Seals	4-10
       4.6.6   Field Notebooks        	4-11
       4.6.7   Corrections to Documentation 	4-11
       4.7.1   Region I               	4-11
       4.7.2   Region II               	4-12
       4.7.3   Region III              	4-12
       4.7.4   Region IV              	4-12
       4.7.5   Region V              	4-12
       4.7.6   Region VI              	4-12
       4.7.7   Region VII             	4-12
       4.7.8   Region VIII             	4-12
       4.7.9   Region IX              	4-12
       4.7.10  Region X              	4-13
4.8     INFORMATION SOURCES      	4-13

       5.1.1   Scope and Purpose     	5-1
       5.1.2   Definitions and Abbreviations 	5-1
       5.1.3   Applicability            	5-1
       5.1.4   Responsibilities         	5-1
       5.1.5   Records               	5-2
       5.1.6   Procedures            	5-2
       5.1.7   Region-Specific Variances	5-16
       5.1.8   Information Sources     	5-18
       5.2.1   Scope and Purpose     	5-18
       5.2.2   Definitions             	5-18
       5.2.3   Applicability            	5-18
       5.2.4   Responsibilities         	5-18
       5.2.5   Records               	5-19

       5.2.6   Procedures            	5-19
       5.2.7   Region-Specific Variances	5-24
       5.2.8   Information Sources     	5-24

       6.1.1   Scope and Purpose     	6-1
       6.1.2   Definitions             	6-1
       6.1.3   Applicability           	6-1
       6.1.4   Responsibilities         	6-2
       6.1.5   Records              	6-2
       6.1.6   Procedures            	6-2
       6.1.7   Region-Specific Variances	6-8
       6.1.8   Information Sources     	6-8
       6.2.1   Scope and Purpose     	6-8
       6.2.2   Definitions             	6-8
       6.2.3   Applicability           	6-9
       6.2.4   Responsibilities         	6-9
       6.2.5   Records              	6-9
       6.2.6   Procedures            	6-10
       6.2.7   Regional Variances      	6-14
       6.2.8   Information Sources     	6-16

7.1     SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	7-1
7.2     DEFINITIONS                 	7-1
7.3     APPLICABILITY               	7-1
7.4     RESPONSIBILITIES            	7-2
7.5     RECORDS                    	7-4
7.6     PROCEDURES                	7-4
       7.6.1   Inorganic Compounds   	7-4
       7.6.2   Organic Compounds     	7-5
       7.6.3   Class A Poisons        	7-9
7.8     INFORMATION SOURCES      	7-12


EARTH SCIENCES                     	8.1-1
8.1     GEOLOGIC DRILLING           	8.1-2
       8.1.1   Scope and Purpose      	8.1-2
       8.1.2   Definitions             	8.1-2
       8.1.3   Applicability            	8.1-2
       8.1.4   Responsibilities         	8.1-3
       8.1.5   Records and Inspection  	8.1-3
       8.1.6   Procedures             	8.1-4
       8.1.7   Region-Specific Variances	8.1-23
       8.1.8   Information Sources     	8.1-23

       8.2.1   Scope and Purpose      	8.2-1
       8.2.2   Definitions             	8.2-1
       8.2.3   Applicability            	8.2-1
       8.2.4   Responsibilities         	8.2-2
       8.2.5   Records               	8.2-2
       8.2.6   Guidelines             	8.2-3
       8.2.7   Region-Specific Variances	8.2-5
       8.2.8   Information Sources     	8.2-5

       8.3.1   Scope and Purpose	8.3-1
       8.3.2   Definitions             	8.3-1
       8.3.3   Applicability            	8.3-2
       8.3.4   Responsibilities         	8.3-2
       8.3.5   Procedures             	8.3-3
       8.3.6   Region-Specific Variances	8.3-16
       8.3.7   Information Sources     	8.3-16

8.4    GEOPHYSICS                 	8.4-1
       8.4.1   General Considerations  	8.4-1
       8.4.2   Geophysical Methods    	8.4-7
       8.4.3   Borehole Geophysics    	8.4-35

RESISTIVITY                        	8.4B-1

SEISMICS                           	8.4C-1

MAGNETICS                        	8.4D-1


BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS             	8.4F-1

       8.5.1   Scope and Purpose     	8.5-1
       8.5.2   Definitions             	8.5-1
       8.5.3   Applicability           	8.5-1
       8.5.4   Responsibilities         	8.5-1
       8.5.5   Records              	8.5-1
       8.5.6   Procedures            	8.5-1
       8.5.7   Information Sources     	8.5-43

9.1     SCOPE AND PURPOSE         	9-1
9.2     DEFINITIONS                 	9-1
9.3     APPLICABILITY                	9-1
9.4     RESPONSIBILITIES            	9-6
9.5     RECORD                     	9-6
9.6     PROCEDURES                	9-6
       9.6.1   Introduction           	9-6
       9.6.2   Laboratory Selection     	9-7
       9.6.3   Physical Properties      	9-8
       9.6.4   Chemical Properties of Soil and Rock	9-29
       9.6.5   Compatibility Testing    	9-38
       9.6.6   Laboratory and Analyses Records 	9-41

9.8     INFORMATION SOURCES       	9-43

SURFACE HYDROLOGY               	10-1
10.1    FLOW MEASUREMENT         	10-1
       10.1.1  Scope and Purpose     	10-1
       10.1.2  Definitions             	10-1
       10.1.3  Applicability            	10-1
       10.1.4  Responsibilities         	10-2
       10.1.5  Procedures            	10-3
       10.1.6  Region-Specific Variances	10-28
       10.1.7  Information Sources     	10-28
10.2    SAMPLING TECHNIQUES       	10-29
       10.2.1  Scope and Purpose     	10-30
       10.2.2  Definitions             	10-30
       10.2.3  Applicability            	10-31
       10.2.4  Responsibilities         	10-31
       10.2.5  Records               	10-31
       10.2.6  Sampling Procedures    	10-32
       10.2.7  Region-Specific Variations	10-48
       10.2.8  Information Sources     	10-48

11.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE         	11-1
       11.1.1  Meteorological Parameters for Screening Model Analyses	11-1
       11.1.2  Meteorological Parameters for Refined Modeling Analyses  	11-4
       11.1.3  Information Sources     	11-14
       11.2.1  Scope and Purpose     	11-16
       11.2.2  Definitions             	11-16
       11.2.3  Applicability            	11-16
       11.2.4  Responsibilities         	11-17
       11.2.5  Records               	11-17
       11.2.6  Procedures            	;.	11-17
       11.2.7  Region-Specific Variances	11-20
       11.2.8  Information Sources     	11-21
11.3    AIR QUALITY                  	11-21
       11.3.1  Scope and Purpose     	11-21

       11.3.2  Definitions             	11-21
       11.3.3  Responsibilities        	11-22
       11.3.4  Procedures	11-22
       11.3.5  Information Sources    	11 -28

BIOLOGY/ ECOLOGY                	12-1
12.1   SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	12-1
12.2   DEFINITIONS                 	12-1
12.3   APPLICABILITY               	12-1
12.4   RESPONSIBILITIES            	12-2
12.5   RECORDS                   	12-2
12.6   PROCEDURES               	12-2
       12.6.1  Presence of Toxic Substances 	12-3
       12.6.2  Field Collection Techniques-General	12-4
       12.6.3  Field Methods-Specific	12-6
       12.6.4  Laboratory Tests and Analyses	12-16
12.8   INFORMATION SOURCES      	12-39


13.0   GENERAL                    	13-1
13.1    WIPE SAMPLING              	13-1
       13.1.1  Scope and Purpose     	13-1
       13.1.2  Definitions             	13-1
       13.1.3  Applicability            	13-1
       13.1.4  Responsibilities        	13-1
       13.1.5  Records               	13-2
       13.1.6  Procedures            	13-2
       13.1.7  Region-Specific Variances	13-3
       13.1.8  Information Sources    	13-3
       13.2.1  Scope and Purpose     	13-3
       13.2.2  Definitions             	13-3
       13.2.3  Applicability           	13-3
       13.2.4  Responsibilities        	13-4

       13.2.5  Records               	13-4
       13.2.6  Procedures            	13-5
       13.2.7  Region-Specific Variances	13-6
       13.2.8  Information Sources	13-6
13.3    TCDD SAMPLING             	13-6
       13.3.1  Scope and Purpose     	13-6
       13.3.2  Definitions            	13-6
       13.3.3  Applicability	13-6
       13.3.4  Responsibilities        	13-6
       13.3.5  Records	13-7
       13.3.6  Procedures            	13-7
       13.3.7  Region-Specific Variances	13-8
       13.3.8  Information Sources     	13-8
13.4    CONTAINER SAMPLING        	13-9
       13.4.1  Purpose and Scope     	13-9
       13.4.2  Definitions            	13-9
       13.4.3  Applicability           	13-9
       13.4.4  Responsibilities        	13-9
       13.4.5  Records               	13-9
       13.4.6  Procedures            	13-10

14.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	14-1
14.2    DEFINITIONS                 	14-1
14.3    APPLICABILITY               	14-1
14.4    RESPONSIBILITIES            	14-2
14.5    RECORDS                   	14-2
14.6    PROCEDURES                	14-2
       14.6.1  Surveying—General     	14-2
       14.6.2  Aerial Photography     	14-5
       14.6.3  Remote Sensing        	14-8
       14.6.4  Hydrographic Surveys   	14-8
14.8    INFORMATION SOURCES      	14-9

15.0    INTRODUCTION               	15-1

15.1    PHOTOVAC10A10	15-2
       15.1.1   Scope and Purpose      	15-2
       15.1.2   Definitions              	15-2
       15.1.3   Applicability             	15-7
       15.1.4   Responsibilities          	15-7
       15.1.5   Records                	15-7
       15.1.6   Procedures             	15-7
       15.1.7   Region-Specific Variances	15-16
       15.1.8   Information Sources	15-16
15.2   HNU PI-101                    	15-16
       15.2.1   Purpose                	15-16
       15.2.2   Definitions	15-16
       15.2.3   Theory and Limitations   	15-16
       15.2.4   Applicability             	15-20
       15.2.5   Responsibilities          	15-20
       15.2.6   Records                	15-20
       15.2.7   Procedure              	15-20
       15.2.8   Region-Specific Variances	15-28
       15.2.9   Information Sources     	15-29
       15.3.1   Scope and Purpose      	15-29
       15.3.2   Definitions              	15-29
       15.3.3   Theory and Limitations   	15-29
       15.3.4  Applicability             	15-31
       15.3.5   Responsibilities          	15-31
       15.3.6  Records                	15-31
       15.3.7  Procedure              	15-31
15.4   EXPLOSIMETER                	15-37
       15.4.1   Scope and Purpose     	15-37
       15.4.2  Definitions              	15-37
       15.4.3  Applicability             	15-38
       15.4.4  Responsibilities          	15-38
       15.4.5  Records                	15-38
       15.4.6  Procedures             	15-38
        15.4.7  Region-Specific Variances	15-40
        15.4.8  Information Sources     	15-40
15.5   OXYGEN INDICATOR           	15-40
        15.5.1   Scope and Purpose     	15-40
        15.5.2  Definitions              	15-40
        15.5.3  Applicability            	15-41

       15.5.4  Responsibilities         	15-41
       15.5.5  Records               	15-41
       15.5.6  Procedures             	15-41
       15.5.7  Region-Specific Variances	15-42
       15.5.8  Information Sources     	15-43
       15.6.1   Scope and Purpose     	15-43
       15.6.2  Definitions             	15-43
       15.6.3  Applicability            	15-43
       15.6.4  Responsibilities         	15-44
       15.6.5  Records               	15-44
       15.6.6  Procedures             	15-44
       15.6.7  Region-Specific Variances	15-44
       15.6.8  Information Sources     	15-44
       15.7.1   Scope and Purpose     	15-45
       15.7.2  Definitions             	15-45
       15.7.3  Theory and Limitations   	15-45
       15.7.4  Applicability            	15-45
       15.7.5  Responsibilities         	15-46
       15.7.6  Records               	15-46
       15.7.7  Procedures             	15-46
       15.7.8  Region-Specific Variances	15-47
       15.7.9  Information Sources     	15-47
       15.8.1   Scope and Purpose     	15-47
       15.8.2  Definitions             	15-48
       15.8.3   Applicability            	15-48
       15.8.4  Responsibilities         	15-49
       15.8.5   Records               	15-49
       15.8.6  Procedures             	15-49
       15.8.7   Region-Specific Variances	15-52
       15.8.8   Information Sources     	15-52
       15.9.1   Scope and Purpose     	15-53
       15.9.2   Definition               	15-53
       15.9.3  Applicability            	15-53
       15.9.4   Responsibilities         	15-53
       15.9.5   Records               	15-53
       15.9.6   Procedures             	15-53

       15.9.7 Region-Specific Variances	15-55
       15.9.8 Information Sources     	15-55
       15.10.1 Electrochemical Gas Detector  	15-55
       15.10.2 Passive Dosimeters     	15-56
       15.10.3 Miniram Monitor        	15-56

16.0    GENERAL                    	16-1
       16.1.1 Scope and Purpose     	16-1
       16.1.2 Definitions and Abbreviations  	16-1
       16.1.3 Applicability            	16-2
       16.1.4 Responsibilities         	16-2
       16.1.5 Records               	16-2
       16.1.6 Procedures            	16-2
16.2    DATA VALIDATION            	16-2
       16.2.1 Scope and Purpose     	16-2
       16.2.2 Definitions             	16-3
       16.2.3 Applicability            	16-3
       16.2.4 Responsibilities         	16-3
       16.2.5 Records	16-3
       16.2.6 Procedures	16-3
16.4    INFORMATION SOURCES      	16-9

DOCUMENT CONTROL               	17-1
17.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	17-1
17.2    DEFINITIONS                 	17-1
17.3    APPLICABILITY               	17-1
17.4    RESPONSIBILITIES            	17-1
17.5    RECORDS                   	17-1
17.6    PROCEDURES                	17-2
       17.6.1 Project Files           	17-2
       17.6.2 Document Identification and Numbering  	17-2
       17.6.3 Document Distribution   	17-5
       17.6.4 Revisions to Documentation	17-5
       17.6.5 Project Logbooks       	17-7

       17,6.6 Computer Codes and Documentation 	17-7
       17.6.7 Corrections to Documentation 	17-11
       17.6.8 Confidential Information 	17-11
       17.6.9 Disposition of Project Documents	17-12

CORRECTIVE ACTION               	18-1
18.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	18-1
18.2    DEFINITIONS                	18-1
18.3    APPLICABILITY              	18-1
18.4    RESPONSIBILITIES           	18-1
18.5    RECORDS                   	18-1
18.6    PROCEDURES               	18-2
       18.6.1 Limits for Data Acceptability 	18-2
       18.6.2 Control of Data Acceptability	18-2
       18.6.3  Reviews             	18-3
       18.6.4 Nonconformance      	18-3
       18.6.5 Corrective Action Approval  	18-3
       18.6.6 Corrective Action Review	18-3
       18.6.7 Corrective Actions for Data Acceptability 	18-3
18.8    INFORMATION SOURCES      	18-3

19.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE	19-1
19.2    DEFINITIONS                	19-1
19.3    APPLICABILITY               	19-2
19.4    RESPONSIBILITIES           	19-2
19.5    RECORDS                   	19-2
19.6    PROCEDURES               	19-3
       19.6.1 Audit Schedules        	19-3
       19.6.2 Qualification and Certification of Quality Assurance Personnel	19-4
       19.6.3 Preparation for Audits   	19-5
       19.6.4 Conduct of Audits      	19-8
       19.6.5 Audit Follow-Up        	19-10
19.8    INFORMATION SOURCES      	19-11

20.1    SCOPE AND PURPOSE        	20-1
20.2    DEFINITIONS                 	20-1
20.3    APPLICABILITY               	20-1
20.4    RESPONSIBILITIES            	20-1
20.5    RECORDS                   	20-1
20.6    PROCEDURES               	20-1
       20.6.1  Assessment of Measurement Data Accuracy	20-2
       20.6.2  Assessment of Performance and Systems Audits  	20-2
       20.6.3  Nonconformances      	20-2
       20.6.4  Assessment of Quality Assurance Problems and Solutions 	20-2
20.8    INFORMATION SOURCES      	20-3

                                   A GLOSSARY OF
                          ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
AA        atomic adsorption                     d.b.h
AAM       Algal Assay Medium                   DC
AC        alternating current                     DO
ACS       American Chemical Society             DOJ
AGI        American Geological Institute            DOT
API        American Petroleum Institute            DQO
AR        authorized requester                   DRI
ARAR      Applicable or Relevant and              ECD
              Appropriate Requirements            EDMI
ASTM      American Society for Testing and         Eh
              Materials                          EM
ATSDR     Agency for Toxic Substances and        EMSLLV
              Disease Registry
atm        atmosphere                          EOS
SNA       base neutral acids                     EP
CAA       Clean Air Act                         EPA
CCS       Contract Compliance Screening          EPIC
CDC       Center for Disease Control
CDP       common-depth-point profiling            ER
CE        current electrode                      ERP
CERCLA   Comprehensive Environmental           ERT
              Response, Compensation and        ERTS
              Liability Act of 1980 (PL 96-510)       EROS
CERCLIS   CERCLA Information System            ESB
CFR       Code of Federal Regulations            ESD
CIR        color infrared                         EST
CLP       Contract Laboratory Program            eV
COC       chain of custody                      FAA
COD       Chemical Oxygen Demand              FIT
COE       U.S. Army Corps of Engineers           FS
CRDL      Contract Required Detection Limits       FSP
CWA       Clean Water Act                       GC
diameter breast height
direct current
dissolved oxygen
Department of Justice
Department of Transportation
data quality objectives
Direct Reading Instrument
electron capture detector
electronic distance meter instrument
oxygen-reduction potential
Environmental Monitoring System
   Laboratory-Las Vegas
equivalent opening size
toxicity-extraction procedure toxicity
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Photographic
   Interpretation Center
electrical resistivity
Emergency Response Plan
EPA Emergency Response Team
Earth Resources Technology Satellite
Earth Resources Observation Systems
EPA Environmental Services Branch
Environmental Services Division
Eastern Standard Time
electron volt
Federal Aviation Administration
Field Investigation Team
Feasibility Study
Field Sampling Plan
Gas Chromatographs
Gas Chromatrography/Mass

GEMS      Graphical Exposure Modeling            ISCO
gpm       gallons per minute                     ITD
GPR       Ground Penetrating Radar               LEL
GSC       a company name                      LL
GT        greater than                           LOD
HASP      Health and Safety Plan (see also          LOQ
              Site Safety Plan)                    LSC
HAZMAT   Hazardous Materials Team               LT
HEP       Habitat Evaluation Procedure            LUST
HEPA      High Efficiency Paniculate Air            LVZ
HNU       indicates a photoionization device        MAD
HR        heart rate                             MDL
HRS       Hazard Ranking System                 m/sec
HSCD      EPA Headquarters Hazardous Site        MHz
              Control Division                    MS/MS
HSI        habitat suitability Index
HSL       Hazardous Substance List (previous      NBS
              term for Target Compound List)       NCDC
HSO       Health and Safety Officer (see also        NCIC
HSWA     Hazardous and Solid Waste             NCP
              Amendments                       NEIC
HU        habitat unit
IATA       International Air Transport               NGVD
              Association                        NIOSH
ICAO      International Civil Aviation
              Regulations                        NMO
ICP        Inductively Coupled Plasma             NOAA
ICS        Incident Command System
ID         inside diameter                        N.O.S
IDL        Instrument Detection Limit
IDLH       immediately dangerous to life and        NPDES
IFB        invitation for bid                        NPL
IP         ionization potential                     NRC
Instrumentation Specialists
Ion Trap Detector
lower explosive limit
liquid limit
limits of detection
limit of quantitation
liquid sample concentration
less than
leaking underground storage tank
low-velocity layer
maximum applicable dose
Method Detection Limit
meters per second
Mass Spectrometer/Mass
National Bureau of Standards
National Climatic Data Center
National Cartographic Information
National Contingency Plan
National Enforcement Investigation
National Geodetic Vertical Datum
National Institute for Occupational
   Safety and Health
normal moveout
National Oceanographic and
   Atmospheric Administration
not otherwise specified (used in
   shipping hazardous material)
National Pollution Discharge
   Elimination System
National Priorities List
Nuclear Regulatory Commission

NSF       National Sanitation Foundation           QA/QC
NTIS       National Technical Information            QAMS
NWS       National Weather Service                QAPjP
OD        outside diameter
OERR      EPA Office of Emergency and            QAPP
              Remedial Response
OSHA      Occupational Safety and Health           QC
              Administration                      RA
OSWER    EPA Office of Solid Waste                RAS
              and Emergency Response            RCRA
OT        oral temperature
OVA       Organic Vapor Analyzer (onsite           RD
              organic vapor monitoring device)       RDCO
OWPE      EPA Office of Waste Programs            REM
              Enforcement                        REM/FIT
PARCC    Precision, Accuracy, Representative-
              ness, Completeness,                 Rl
              Comparability                      ROD
PCBs      polychlorinated biphyenyls
PDS       personnel decontamination station        RPM
PE        potential electrode                      RSPO
PEL       permissible exposure limit                RSCC
PHC       principal hazardous constituents          RTOs
PI         plasticity index                         SARA
PID        photo ionization detector
PL        plastic limit
PO        EPA Headquarters Project Officer         SAS
POTWs    publically owned treatment works         SDL
ppb       parts per billion                         SI
PPE       personal protective equipment            SI units
ppm       parts per million                        SIM
PRP       Potentially Responsible Party             SCBA
psig       pounds per square inch gauge            SCS
PVC       polyvinyl chloride                       SDWA
QA        quality assurance
quality assurance/quality control
Quality Assurance Management
Quality Assurance Project Plan
   (see QAPP)
former abbreviation for Quality
   Assurance Plan (see QAPJP)
quality control
remedial action
Routine Analytical Service
Resource Conservation and
   Recovery Act of 1978 (PL 94-580)
remedial design
Regional Document Control Officer
Remedial Planning
Remedial Planning/Field Investigation
Remedial Investigation
Record of Decision (previous title
   for Remedy Project Manager)
EPA Remedial Project Manager
Remedial Site Project Officer
Regional Sample Control Center
resistance temperature detectors
Superfund Amendments and
   Reauthorization Act of 1986
   (PL 99-499)
Special Analytical Service
Sample Detection Limit
Site Inspection
International System of Units
Selected Ion Monitoring
self-contained breathing apparatus
Soil Conservation Service
Safe Drinking Water Act

SMCRA    Surface Mining Control and
              Reclamation Act
SMO       Sample Management Office
SM        Site Manager
SOPs      standard operating procedures
SP        spontaneous potential
SPM       Site Project Manager (previous
              title for Site Manager)
SRM       Standard Reference Material
SSC       Site Safety Coordinator (see also
              SSHO, SSO, and HSO)
SSHO      Site Safety and Health Officer (see
              also SSC, SSO, and HSO)
SSO       Site Safety Officer (see also SSC,
              SSHO, and HSO)
  ALAPCO the State and Territorial Air
              Pollution Program Administrators
              and the Association of Air Pollu-
              tion Control Officials
STAR      Stability Array
TAL       Target Analyte List
TAT       technical assistance team
TCDD      2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
TEGD      Technical Enforcement Guidance
TDD       Technical Directive Documents
TDS       total dissolved solids
TIC        Tentatively Identified Compounds
TLD       thermoluminescent detector
 badge     Thermoluminescent detector badge
TLV       threshold limit value
TOC       Total Organic Carbon
TOH       Total Organic Halogen
TOX       Total Organic Halides
TR         traffic report
TSCA      Toxic Substances Control Act
TSDF      reatment, Storage, and Disposal
UEL       upper explosive limit
UNAMAP   User's Network for Applied Model-
              ing of Air Pollution
U.S. EPA   U.S. Environmental Protection
USCS      Unified Soil  Classification System
USDI       U.S. Department of Interior
USGS      U.S. Geological Survey
USPS      U.S. Postal Service
UV         ultraviolet
VOA       volatile organic analysis
VOC       Volatile Organic Compound
WAs       Work Assignments
WP        work plans

   This document was developed for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) with
assistance from the following individuals:

    •   Lisa Woodson Feldt (Hazardous Site Control Division, OERR)
    •   James B. Moore (CH2M HILL)
    •   Bob Stecik (NUS)
    •   Jim Adams (Region V, Environmental Services Division)
    •   Lisa Gatton-Vidulich (Region VI, Environmental Services Division)
    •   Duane Geuder (Hazardous Response Support Division, OERR)
    •   Roily Grabble (Region VIII, Environmental Services Division)
    •   Al Hanke (Region IV, Waste Management Division)
    •   Eric Johnson (Region VIII, Waste Management Division)
    •   Doug Lair (Region IV, Environmental Services Division)
    •   Steve Lemmons (Region VI, Environmental Services Division)
    •   Steve Ostradka (Region V, Waste Management Division)
    •   Steve Serian (Region I, Waste Management Division)
    •   Ed Shoener (Region III, Waste Management Division)
    •   Tim Travers (Region III, Waste Management Division)
    •   Lee Tyner (OGC)

   The following individuals were largely responsible for the technical content of the compendium:

    •   Artemas Antipas (CH2M HILL)
    •   Steve Paquette (COM)
    •   Dick Grim (CH2M HILL)
    •   Larry Fitzgerald (E.C.Jordan)
    •   Jody Gearon (CH2M HILL)
    •   Jane Gendron (CH2M HILL)
    •   Joseph Boros (NUS)
    •   Don Heinle (CH2M HILL)
    •   Katie Brady (NUS)
    •   Gary Helms (CH2M HILL)
    •   Patrick Byrne (NUS)
    •   Larry Holm (CH2M HILL)
   •   Paul Clay (NUS)
   •   Don Johnson (CH2M HILL)
   •  Jeffrey Orient (NUS)
   •  Mike Keating (CH2M HILL)
   •  Haia Roffman (NUS)
   •  David Lincoln (CH2M HILL)
   •  Matthew Soltis (NUS)
   •  Craig Rightmire (CH2M HILL)
   •  Denise Taylor (NUS)
                                           xx i

    •   Larry Well (CH2M HILL)
    •   Robert Tubach(NUS)
    •   Mark Ulintz (NUS)

    Helpful suggestions and comments on the draft document were provided by the following, as well as
other EPA and contractor staff:

    •   MikeAmdurer (EBASCO)
       Paul Beam (Hazardous Site Control Division, OERR)
       Linda Boornazian (CERCLA Enforcement Division, OWPE)
       Ken Jennings (CERCLA Enforcement Division, OWPE)
       Doug Mundrick (Region IV, Environmental Services Division)
    •   Julie Pfeffer (CH2M HILL)
    ซ   Andrew Szilagyi (COM)
   The compendium could not have been completed without the selfless dedication of these people:

   •   Diane Anderson  (CH2MHILL)
   •   Cacey Combs (CH2M HILL)
   •   Barbara Hart (CH2M HILL)
   •   Cindy Howe (CH2M HILL)
   •   Craig Ripple (CH2MHILL)
   •   Betty Toms (CH2MHILL)
       Pam Feikema  (Blue Pencil)
       JeanieMassey (Blue Pencil)
   '   Pat Petretti-Velikov (Blue  Pencil)
   The camera-ready copy was prepared by Ebon Research Systems, 1173 Spring Centre South
Boulevard, Altamonte  Springs, Florida 32714.

                                       SECTION 1

                            USE OF THE COMPENDIUM


    Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Unabridged) defines" compendium" as:
    •  A. A brief compilation or composition consisting of a reduction and condensation of the subject
       matter of a larger work

    •  B. A work treating in brief form the important features of a whole field of knowledge or subject
       matter category
    While the reader may take exception to the use of the word "brief to describe this compendium, the
two volumes represent an astoundingly reduced version of the many field operations methods that have
been  used during remedial response activities at hazardous waste sites.   This compendium  focuses
primarily on techniques and methods used during the fieldwork phase of a remedial investigation.  Exhibits
1-2 and 1-3 emphasize this orientation, and provide the reader with a guide to the applicability of the
various sections to the Remedial Investigation / Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. The compendium also
provides some limited information on those subjects for which extensive guidance exists elsewhere, such
as project planning  and management, quality control, decontamination,  and health and safety issues.
These latter subjects are addressed only briefly, primarily to guide the reader into an appreciation of how
the various facets of project management and execution are interrelated.

    The compendium was written primarily to assist the Site Manager (SM). The SM is the individual who is
responsible for the successful execution of a work assignment, and who may be an employee of the EPA,
state agency, Potentially Responsible Party (PRP), or contractor.  Generally, the compendium addresses
the SM as a contractor's employee who is working with an EPA Remedial Project Manager (RPM) at the
regional project level on a Superfund program, such as Field Investigation Team (FIT) or Remedial Plan-
ning Activities (REM II, III, or IV). The EPA management structure includes a Regional Project Officer, who
oversees implementation of a program at the EPA regional level, and a Project Officer at  EPA Head-
quarters, who Is responsible for program guidance Agency-wide.  Management structures vary  with the
contractors' organization.

    This compendium is one of a series of guidance and technical documents of which the Site Manager
and, to a lesser degree,  task leaders and field workers should be aware before beginning fieldwork. These
documents are listed in Exhibit 1-1.

   The list of applicable guidance Is far from complete;  a more detailed (but still incomplete) list of
guidance and technical resource documents, and their relationship to RI/FS phases and tasks is contained
in Appendix 1 A. Subsequent sections of the compendium will list other helpful references under the head-
ing "Information Sources."

                                          Exhibit 1-1
                          GUIDANCE AND TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS
       •   Guidance on Remedial Investigations Under CERCLA  (EPA 540/G-85/002)

       •   Guidance on Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA  (EPA 540/G-85/003)

       •   Superfund Remedial Design and Remedial Action Guidance
                                 (OSWER Directive 9355.0-4A)

       •   Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual  (OSWER Directive 9285.4-1)

       •   Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual (OSWER Directive 9285.5-1)

       •   Standard Operating Safety Guides  (OSWER Directive 9285.1 -1B)

       •   Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities
                                   (DHHS (NIOSH)Publication 85-115)

       •   Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities  (OSWER Directive 9355.0-7B)

       •   Samplers and Sampling Procedures for Hazardous Waste Sources  (EPA 600/2-80-018)

       •   User's Guide to the Contract Laboratory Program  (OERR, December 1986)

       •   EPA Regional Standard Operating Procedures, Guidelines and Directives
    The purpose of this compendium is to provide the reader with a summary of field techniques to use as
references during preparation of project planning documents. The compendium does not contain a series
of standard operating  procedures to use as references in their entirety, but rather it may be used as a
reference to a series of methods with project and site-specific modifications added. For example, a quality
assurance project plan could present techniques for gathering data on chemical concentrations in fish tis-
sues as shown in the following Example Citation.

                                     Example Citation

   Subtaskt.A.  Electroflshing in Mung Creek

       •  A. Limitations and Application - Subsection, Aquatic (Freshwater) Field Methods
          Summary, pp. 12-24 and 12-25, Section 12, Revision No. 0, Compendium of Field Operations
          Methods (COFOM #0).

       •  B. Sampling Techniques -  Subsection D2, Electroflshing, Appendix 12A, pp. 12A-32
          through 12A-35, COFOM #0.

          Modifications - Only carp will be collected. Specimens smaller than 8 Inches in length
          and 2 pounds in weight will be released. Any specimens caught below 14th Street Bridge
          will be released. See site safety plan for boating and collection safety procedures.

       •  C. Laboratory Techniques - Subsection,pp. 12-23 and 12-24, Subsection E4, Ap-
          pendix 12A, pp. 12A-41 through 12A-46, COFOM #0.

           Modifications - See CLP SAS In Task 4, Sample Analysis
   The compendium will be available to every EPA region and contractor and can serve as a common
source for methods citation, as Indicated above.


   Each section of the compendium defines terms specific to that section and deciphers abbreviations or
acronyms when they are first used. A glossary Is furnished in the beginning of each volume.  The most fre-
quently used abbreviation is defined below.
Site Manager (SM)
       The individual who Is responsible for the successful execution of a work assignment.  SM
       usually refers to a contractor's employee.

                                     Exhibit 1-2
                         RELATIONSHIP AMONG STANDARD
                        RI/FS TASKS AND THE COMPENDIUM
            Description of
         Standard RI/FS Tasks
Project Planning

Community Relations

Field Investigations
      Project management
      Quality control
      Fieldwork, air
      Fieldwork, biota
      Fieldwork, close support laboratories
      Fieldwork, Rl-derived waste disposal
      Fieldwork, soil gas
      Fieldwork, support
      Fieldwork, well logging
      Fieldwork, mapping and survey
      Fieldwork, geophysical
      Fieldwork, well installation
      Fieldwork, groundwater
      Fieldwork, soil
      Fieldwork, source testing
      Fieldwork, surface water

Sample Analysis
      Fieldwork, close support laboratory
      Data validations
      Sample management

Data Evaluation

Assessment of Risk

Treatabillty Study/Pilot

Remedial Investigation Reports

Remedial Alternatives Screening

Remedial Alternative Evaluation

Feasibility Study RI/FS Reports

Post RI/FS Support

Enforcement Support

Miscellaneous Support

ERA Planning
  Applicable Sections and
   of the "Compendium of
 Field Operations Methods"*

Not directly applicable
Throughout; procedure specific
5.2, 7, 15

3,17, 18, 19,20
7, 13, 15
5.2, 15


Not directly applicable

9 (soils engineering data)

Not directly applicable

Not directly applicable

Not directly applicable

Not directly applicable

Not directly applicable

Not directly applicable

Not directly applicable

Not directly applicable
*SM Exhibit 1-3 for titles.

                                          Exhibit 1-3
                                   TITLES OF SUBJECTS IN
Section and Subsection

   1.   Use of the Compendium

   2.   Preparation of Project Description and Statement of Objectives

   3.   Implementing Field Activities
       3.1   General Considerations
       3.2   Control of Fieldwork-Generated Contaminated Material
       3.3   Organization of the Field Team
       3.4   Decontamination
       3.5   General Health and Safety Considerations

   4.   Sample Control, Including Chain of Custody

   5.   Laboratory Interface
       5.1   National Contract Laboratory Program
       5.2   Noncontract Laboratory Program
   Residual Samples and Analytical Wastes

   6.   Sample Containers, Preservation, and Shipping
       6.1   Sample Containers and Preservation
       6.2   Packaging, Labeling, and Shipping

   7.   Field Methods for Rapid Screening for Hazardous Materials

   8.   Earth Sciences
       8.1   Geologic Drilling
       8.2   Test Pits and Excavations
       8.3   Geological Reconnaissance and Geological Logging
       8.4   Geophysics
       8.5   Groundwater Monitoring

   9.   Earth Sciences Laboratory Procedures
       9.6.2  Laboratory Selection
       9.6.3  Physical Properties
       9.6.4  Chemical Properties of Soil and Rock
       9.6.5  Compatibility Testing
       9.6.6  Laboratory and Analysis Records

  10.   Surface Hydrology
       10.1 Flow Measurement
       10.2 Sampling Techniques

  11.   Meteorology and Air Quality

                                        Exhibit 1-3
12.   Biology/Ecology
     12.6.1   Presence of Toxic Substances
     12.6.2   Field Collection Techniques-General
     12.6.3   Field Methods-Specific
    Terrestrial Field Methods Summary
    Aquatic (Fresh Water) Field Methods Summary
    Marine Field Methods Summary
     12.6.4   Laboratory Tests and Analyses

13.   Specialized Sampling Techniques
     13.1 Wipe Sampling
     13.2 Human Habitation Sampling
     13.3 TCDD Sampling
     13.4 Container Sampling

14.   Land Surveying, Aerial Photography.and Mapping

15.   Field Instrumentation

16.   Data Reduction, Validation, Reporting, Review, and Use

17.   Document Control

18.   Corrective Action

19.   Quality Assurance Audit Procedures

20.   Quality Assurance Reporting


   The techniques presented in this compendium may be used in remedial response activities conducted
for or by the EPA.  Other entities (state agencies, other federal agencies, or private concerns) may also find
the techniques useful.  All of the methods presented have been used by  EPA contractors in executing
fieldwork.  Some of EPA's region-specific standard operating procedures,  which are referenced in  each
section of this compendium, may take precedence over these more general methods (see Subsection 1.6).

   The procedures are written for the trained, experienced professional who should realize that every haz-
ardous waste site is discrete and every work assignment is different. Every hazardous waste site requires a
degree of personal protection, a monitoring system to detect hazards, and an adaptation of work proce-
dures to site conditions. The user should realize that not all procedures are suitable for use, or can even be
accomplished, with every level of personal protection. The amount of time spent executing a procedure
and the number of trained, experienced people needed to accomplish the work will increase dramatically
as the need for personal protection increases.


   The Site Managers bear prime responsibility for selection of the proper methods to accomplish the
goals and objectives  of their work assignments.  The  SM uses the capabilities of various technical
specialists and the data quality objectives to precisely determine the methods used.  Senior management
and the clients provide quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), and overall direction.


   The compendium represents a snapshot of methods and techniques that, in the rapidly evolving field of
remedial response, will undergo changes as new procedures are defined. Additionally, methods that were
not included in this compendium because of a lack of demonstrated success at the time of writing may
rapidly emerge  as methods of choice.  EPA's intent is  to provide  periodic  updates presenting  newly
evolved methods and improvements on "old" methods. Comments, suggestions, and recommended pro-
cedures are solicited from the users. Please address such  material to:

       Ms. Lisa Woodson Feldt
       U.S.  EPA (WH548E)
       401 M Street, SW
       Washington, DC 20460


   As stated, these procedures have been used by EPA contractors during remedial response activities.
Variances specific to the various EPA regions are listed In each  section. These variances were updated
using information supplied by the regions for this version and were current at publication. However, be-
cause performance requirements vary among EPA contracts, among EPA regions, within EPA regions, and
even among  tasks on the same work assignments, users of this compendium are strongly urged to consult
the appropriate EPA official to obtain the most current variations to the methods listed in this compendium.
Some regions, such as the Engineering Support Branch in Region IV, have published a detailed standard
operating procedure for use by persons executing fieldwork.

                                                   Appendix 1A
                                      AND THE RI/FS PHASES AND TASKS
 RI/FS Phases/Tasks

 Collection and Analyses of
 Existing Data
Identification of Preliminary
Remedial Action Alternatives
Identification on ARARs
Identification of Data Needs
and Sampling Strategies
Health and Safety Planning
Work Plans
       Go to Rl Phase I
       and FS Phase I
Primary or Policy Guidance (SARA & NCP for All)
Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response
Activities (EPA, 3/87)

Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response
Activities (EPA, 3/87)

Guidance Document for Cleanup of Surface Tank
and Drum Sites (EPA, 5/85)

Guidance Documents for Cleanup of Surface
Impoundment Sites (EPA, 6/86)

Handbook on Remedial Action on Waste Disposal
Sites (EPA, 10/85)

Other draft documents not yet In circulation
(e.g., groundwater remediation guidance,
landfill guidance, etc.)

CERCLA Compliance with other Environmental
Statutes (EPA, 10/85)

Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response
(EPA, 3/87)

Occupational Safety and Health: Guidance Manual
for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (NIOSH, 10/85)

A Compendium of Field Operations Methods (3/84)
Secondary or Technical Resource Documents
                                                                                  Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate,
                                                                                  SW871 (EPA, 1982)

                                                                                  Leachate Plume Management (EPA, 11/85)
Standard Operation Safety Guides
(EPA, 11/84)

Sediment Sampling Quality Assurance Users
Guide (EPA, 7/85)

Soil Sampling Quality Assurance Users Guide
(EPA, 5/84)

Federal-Lead Remedial Project Management
Handbook (EPA. 12/86)

State-Lead Remedial Project Management
Handbook (EPA, 1/86)

                                                        Appendix 1A
   RI/FS Phases/Tasks

Rl Phase I

Field Investigation
Primary or Policy Guidance (SARA & NCR for All)
Sample Analysis
Risk Assessment
Other Data Evaluation

Refinement of Remedial
Action Objectives
A  Compendium of Field Operations Methods (3/84)
A Compendium of Field Operations Methods (3/84)

User's Guide to the CLP

Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual
(EPA, 12/85)

Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual (EPA, 5/86)
Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response
Activities (EPA, 3/87)
Secondary or Technical Resource Documents
Test Methods for Evaluation of Solid Waste,
2nd Edition (EPA, 6/86)

Geophysical Methods for Locating Abandoned
Wells (5/84)

Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Burled
Wastes and Waste Migration (EPA, 1984)

Practical Guide for Goundwater Sampling
(EPA, 9/85)
                                                        Modeling Remedial Actions at Uncontrolled
                                                        Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 4/85)
          Go to FS Phase I

   RI/FS Phases^asks


 Identification of Potential
Technology Screening
Assembly of Alternatives
                                                         Appendix 1A
Primary or Policy Guidance (SARA & NCP for All)
Guidance Document for Cleanup of Surface Tank
and Drum Sites (EPA, 5185)

Handbook on Remedial Actions at Uncontrolled
Hazardous Waste Sites (4/85)
Handbook of Evaluating Remedial Action
Technology Plans (EPA, 8/83)

Directory of Commercial Hazardous Waste
Treatment and Recycling Facilities (EPA, 12/85)
Secondary or Technical Resource Documents
Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate,
SW 871 (EPA, 1982)

Leachate Plume Management (EPA. 11/85)
                                                                                         Mobile Treatment Technologies for
                                                                                         Superfund Wastes (EPA. 9/86)

                                                                                         Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for
                                                                                         Contaminated Surface Softs (EPA, 7/84)

                                                                                         Treatment Technology Briefs: Alternatives
                                                                                         to Hazardous Waste Landfills (EPA. 7/86)

                                                                                         Handbook for Stabilization/Solidification
                                                                                         of Hazardous Wastes (EPA, 9/86)

                                                                                         System to Accelerate In Situ Stabilization
                                                                                         of Waste Disposal (EPA, 9/86)

                                                                                         Slurry Trench Construction for Pollution
                                                                                         Migration Control (EPA. 2/84)
           Go to FS Phase II

   RI/FS Phases/Tasks

 Alternative Evaluation:

 -  Effectiveness
 -  Cost
Alternative Screening
   Go to Rl Phase II
    or FS Phase III
                                                         Appendix 1A
       Primary or Policy Guidance (SARA & NCP for All)
       Modeling Remedial Actions at Uncontrolled
       Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 4/85)

       Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual
       (EPA, 12/85)
       Costs of Remedial Response Actions at
       Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 1981)

       Remedial Action Costing Procedures Manual
       (EPA, 9/85)
Secondary or Technical Resource Documents
                                                               Directory of Commerical Hazardous Waste
                                                               Treatment and Recycling Facilities
                                                               (EPA, 12/85)

                                                               Petitions to Delist Hazardous Waste: A
                                                               Guidance Manual (EPA, 4/85)

Bench-Scale Testing

Pilot Testing
Practical Guide-Trial Burns for Hazardous Waste
       Incinerators- Project Summary (EPA, 7/86)
           Go to FS Phase III

                                                        Appendix 1A
   RI/FS Phases/Tasks


Detailed Evaluation:

 -  Effectiveness
 - Cost
 Primary or Policy Guidance (SARA & NCP for All)
Modeling Remedial Actions at Uncontrolled
Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 4/85)

Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual
(EPA, 12/85)

Superfund Remedial Design and Remedial Action
Guidance (EPA. 2/85)
Costs of Remedial Response Actions at
Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 1981)

Remedial Action Costing Procedures Manual
(EPA, 9/85)
Secondary or Technical Resource Documents
                                                       Directory of Commercial Hazardous Waste
                                                       Treatment and Recycling Facilities
                                                       (EPA, 12/85)

                                                       Petitions to Delist Hazardous Waste:  A
                                                       Guidance Manual (EPA, 4/85)

Community Relations in Superfund: A Handbook
(EPA. 3/86)

                                      SECTION 2

                       AND STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES


   This section describes the information that should be addressed in the "project description and state-
ment of objectives" section of a field activities plan. The information discussed below is applicable to all
such plans, but it should be modified to meet the needs of a specific project.

   A section entitled "project description and statement of objectives" should be included in all response
activity plans; such a section is required in the quality assurance and sampling plans for remedial investiga-
tions and in work plans for Field Investigation  Team (FIT) operations. Project descriptions are also used as
input to the site safety plan. The project description defines the goals of the project and describes how the
information necessary to meet the project goals will be obtained.  The project description should provide
the reader with enough information to judge  the appropriateness and adequacy of the quality assurance,
work, or sampling plans.  The project description and statement of objectives are integral elements in the
development of data quality objectives, which are  qualitative and quantitative statements that outline the
decision-making process for  remedial responsibilities  and  specify the data required to support those
decisions. Extensive guidance on development of data quality objectives exists (OSWER Directive 9355.0-
7B) and will not be repeated within this document.


Analytical Parameters
       Chemical constituents and levels of detection required for sample analysis. Parameters also
       include field measurements (e.g., pH, groundwater levels), engineering soils data (e.g., soil
       permeability, particle size analysis), and Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) Special Analytical
       Services (SAS) components.

Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)
       The policies, organization, objectives, functional activities, and specific QA and Quality Control
       (QC) activities designed to achieve the data quality goals of the specific project(s) or continu-
       ing operation(s).

Sample Matrix
       Media from which the sample is collected (e.g., soil, groundwater, surface water).

Sampling Plan
       A program of action that  is developed prior to field activities and  that describes the methods
       and procedures for obtaining representative portions of the environment being investigated.

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.   The person  is also  referred to as the Site Project Manager  or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).


    Remedial response activities, such as field investigation and sample collection, require a written plan
that should include a project description.  The description should be included in its entirety and may not be
referenced from another document.


    The Site Manager or designated person who is responsible for writing the work plan, sampling plan, or
quality assurance project plan is also responsible for the section on project description and statement of


    The project description and statement of objectives constitute the record.  Pertinent information that is
used to develop the project description should be recorded and maintained by the SM.

    Such  information would include results of previous site investigations; any environmental permits as-
sociated with the site; tax records;  results of  inspections by other state,  local,  or federal  agencies;
newspaper accounts; records from community relations interviews; aerial photography (such as those typi-
cally available from the Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center); and any other data that will as-
sist the SM in developing the project description and statement of objectives.  It is important, particularly
on projects involving enforcement activities, that adequate records be kept to document the process by
which project objectives were derived. Project objectives determine sampling strategy and are directly re-
lated to the final costs of the response activities,  the adequacy of the feasibility study,  and the success of
the remedial  alternative.  Meeting notes, telephone conversation records, assumptions  regarding inter-
pretations of work assignments,  and other records pertaining to the development of the project description
and statement of objectives should be maintained in a manner that will allow the SM and project team to
reconstruct the decision-making process that led to the stated project objectives.


    The project description should be site-specific and include at least the following items:
     •   Site description and history

     •   Schedule of activities

     •   Intended data usage

     •   Identification of sample matrices and parameters

     •   Sample design description and rationale

    Each of these items are described below.

2.6.1   Site Description and History

    The site description should include all pertinent physical and land use information.  Maps, drawings,
and photographs should be included, if available. The following information should be provided:
    •   Size, including area  within facility boundaries and  the  extent of contamination above defined
        thresholds, if known  (See also Section 17 for discussion of background levels used as a defined

    •   Specific location description including directions and  distances from nearby towns

    •   Surrounding geography (e.g.,  town, city, county, or state boundaries and jurisdictions; power
        lines; railroads; roads; and topography)

    •   Physical description including the following:

                   Geologic conditions
               -   Soil types and depths
               -   Surface water hydrology
               -   Groundwater hydrology
               -   Flora
               -   Fauna
               -   Terrain

    •   Onsite conditions (e.g., the presence of pits, ponds, tanks, drums, standing water, buildings, and

    •   Climatological description for the region and for site-specific parameters, such as wind speed and
        direction, precipitation patterns, and freezing conditions

    •   Demographics and surrounding land use (e.g., agricultural, industrial,  or residential; populace at
        risk; and transportation patterns)
    Relevant historic facts about the site should be included in the project description.  Following are ex-
amples of useful historic information:
    •   Past and present uses of the site

    •   Identification of onsite facilities and description of activities at these facilities, including any facilities
        that have been demolished and any subsurface facilities (e.g., tanks, utilities, and vaults)

    •  Onsite disposal and materials handling practices

                  Areas  used for disposal  and methods of disposal (tanks, drum, pit, pond, lagoon,
                  landfill, land treatment, etc.)
              -   Material storage or transfer facilities and areas onsite, including spills or dumps

    •  Description of wastes onsite

              -   Quantity
              -   Physical state
                  Chemical identification, if known

    •  Prior  complaints or agency actions concerning the site Including any permits   held by the site
       (Permit applications are also of interest, even if no permit was awarded.)

    •  Prior sampling activities onsite or near the site,  and the resultant data  (This information should be
       evaluated in terms of the confidence held in the data and of the intended usage of that data.)

    •  Prior remedial or response activities

    •  Prior accidents or incidents onsite, such as fires, explosions, or chemical releases
    A detailed site history should be completed before initiating any activities onsite.  A brief summary of
the site history, which includes information that may affect sampling plans, work plans, the site safety plan,
or the quality assurance plan, should be included in the project description. The reliability of the informa-
tion should be assessed, and the acceptability of the existing data for intended use should be determined.

2.6.2 Schedule of Activities

    The project schedule should include project milestones, such as the startup date for the  project, field
investigation dates,  the data review period, and dates when reports are due.  The activity(s) addressed by
quality assurance and work sampling plans should be identified. The expected start and finish  dates for the
project and the field work must be stated.  A diagram, flow chart, or critical path chart should be included
to help the reader understand the project.

2.6.3  Intended Data Usage

    To determine whether the work, sampling, and quality assurance plans will generate data that meet the
project objectives, it is necessary to define the types of decisions that will be made, identify  the intended
use of the data, and design a data collection program. Data quality objectives (DQO) are defined as "an in-
tegrated set of thought processes which define data quality requirements based on the identified end use
of the database" (OSWER Directive 9355.0-7B).  The DQOs are useful in developing a sampling plan and
analytical  plan so that sufficient data of known, defensible quality are obtained to assist the decision-
makers in arriving at sound decisions concerning remedial response activities. The DQO, based on the in-
tended use of the data, will assist in determining  the appropriate detection limits, analytical methods, and
sample handling procedures (chain-of-custody requirements, as well as preservation and holding times).

   Possible uses for the data are listed below:

    •  Confirm suspected contaminants or concentrations of contaminants.

    •  Qualitatively assess the nature and extent of contamination.

    •  Design additional sampling campaigns.

    •  Implement operable units involving cleanup and removal.

    •  Compare with established criteria (e.g., drinking water standards and National Pollution Discharge
       Elimination System (NPDES) requirements).

    •  Assess exposure, endangerment, and risks.

    •  Screen or select remedial alternatives.

    •  Use as input to the conceptual design of remedial technologies.

    •  Use in future enforcement actions and litigation.  The applicable  legislation (CERCLA, RCRA,
       TSCA, etc.) should be identified.
    The specific purpose of the site investigation should be stated. The use of the data as a qualitative or
quantitative measure should be specified. Discrete quantitative requirements for the data, such as a level
of detection required for comparison with health criteria, should also be specified.

2.6.4  Identification of Sample Matrices and Parameters

    Identification of the appropriate sample matrices and parameters should be included in the project
description.  A table similar to Exhibit 2-1 may suffice. A listing of compounds should be included.  Any
special sample handling requirements (e.g., filtering and dry weight analyses) should be identified in this
section.  Parameters for special analytical services and geotechnical and hydrogeological investigations
should also be identified.

2.6.5   Sampling Design Description  and Rationale

    A brief description of the  sampling design and rationale should be included  in the project description.
DQO guidance addresses sampling design description and rationale.  If DQO guidance is followed, a single
scoping section covering anticipated remedies, data requirements, and sampling should result.  The sam-
pling design description should include  potential sampling locations and parameters.   A rationale for
choosing the sampling points, number of  samples,  medium of sample (air,  soil, or water), sampling
methods, amounts, preservation techniques and chemical parameters should be discussed.  Sample con-
tainers, preservation techniques, and shipping methods should be selected in accordance with the latest

                                           Exhibit 2-1
                                    SAMPLING FOR XYZ SITE
       Monitoring Well
       Residential Wellsb
                                  Compound List
                     Compound List
                   Tasks I & II Metals
                    Task III  Cyanide
                               (No. x Freq. = Total)    (No. x Freq. = Total)    (No. x Freq. = Total)
19x2 = 38
10x2 = 20
19x2 = 38
5x2 = 10
5x2 = 10
  Surface Water
 6x1 = 6
 6x1 = 6
 6x1 = 6
46 x 1 =46
46 x 1 =46
                                            25 x 1 = 25ฐ
   Groundwater sample to be analyzed for total cyanide and total metals will not be filtered before analysis. An aliquot will be
  filtered in the field before sample preservation, and will be analyzed for soluble metals and soluble cyanide. Detection limit
  requirements are specified in "QAPjP for XYZ Site, Appendix A, Analytical Requirements."

   SAS will be used to analyze residential well samples for ammonia, nitrates and nitrites.

  c 10 Atterberg limits, 15-grain-size distribution.
EPA and Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements.  Sections 4, 5, and 6 of this compendium con-
tain information on these procedures; however, consultation with EPA and DOT is strongly recommended.
    No specific regional variances have been identified; however, all future variances will be incorporated
in subsequent revisions to this compendium. Information on variances may become dated rapidly. Thus,
users should contact the regional EPA RPMs for full details on current regional practices and requirements.


    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Data Quality Objectives: Development Guidance for Uncontrolled
Hazardous Waste Site Remedial Response Activities." OSWER Directive 9355.0-7B, Sections B, C, D, and F.
Washington, D.C.: Hazardous Site Control Division. 1 April 1987.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Guidance for Preparation of Quality Assurance Project Plans.
QAMS, 005/80.  Washington, D.C.

   • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Guidance for the Development of a  Quality Assurance Plan.
Prepared by Regional Team:  Juanita Hillmar (Region. VIII), Ho L Young (Region IX), and Barry Towns
(Region X).

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ^Preparation of State-Lead Remedial Investigation Quality Assurance
Project Plans for Region V; Guidance. Quality Assurance Office.  Chicago, Illinois.

                                      SECTION 3

3.1.1  Scope and Purpose

    Section 3 addresses several areas including the control of contaminated materials generated during
fieldwork, organization of the field team, decontamination, and general health and safety considerations.
This section provides general  information on those topics in individual subsections that identify their
relevant scope and purpose, definitions, and applicability. The section lists information sources for specific
guidance.  Fieldwork encompasses the activities associated with preliminary assessments / site inspections
(PA/SI), site investigations, remedial investigations (Rl), feasibility study, pilot or bench tests, and Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) inspections.  Guidance on these activities Is voluminous and will
not be presented here. The Site Manager (SM) must also be  guided by the state and local laws, codes,
rules, regulations, and ordinances, as well as by any site-peculiar guidance such as consent decrees.

3.1.2  Definitions

Office of Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 1910.120
       OSHA Interim Final Rule on Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. OSHA
       Standard 29 CFR 1910.120 as released on 19 December 1986 in the Federal Register.

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for  the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule. The person is also referred to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

3.1.3  Applicability

    The procedures contained in Section 3 are applicable to field activities that involve hazardous materials
(as defined by the OSHA standard) and are a potential for personnel exposure.

3.1.4  Responsibilities

    Activities that fall under the scope of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120, as defined in that standard, must comply
with the requirements of that standard. The SM is responsible for coordinating all efforts with the assigned
Health and Safety Officer (HSO) [also known as Site Safety Coordinator (SSC) or Site Safety and Health
Officer (SSHO)] to achieve and  maintain compliance.

3.1.5  Records

   The documents required by OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120 must be completed, maintained, and made avail-
able as described in that standard.  These records include medical surveillance documents, health and
safety plans, and all other required documentation. The retention time for these documents is significant -
30 years or more.  Site Managers must rely on the administrative personnel associated with their corporate
or agency health and safety programs to provide for retention of records. These procedures should be
clearly delineated within the program.

3.1.6  Procedures

   Appropriate procedures are specified in the subsequent subsections.


3.2.1  Scope and Purpose

    Field investigation activities often result in the production or migration of contaminated materials (in-
vestigation-derived waste) that must be properly managed to protect the public and the environment, as
well as to meet legal requirements.  This subsection deals with the proper management of contaminated

    The objective of this guideline  is to provide general reference  information on the control of con-
taminated materials.

3.2.2  Definitions

Contaminated Material
        Any of the field investigation's by-products that are suspected of being contaminated or are
        known to be contaminated with  hazardous substances.  These by-products include such
        materials as decontamination solutions, disposable equipment, drilling muds and cuttings,
        well-development fluids, well-purging water, and spill-contaminated materials.

3.2.3  Applicability

    The  SM should assume that hazardous wastes  generated during an investigation  will require com-
pliance with federal requirements for generation, storage, transportation, or disposal.   In  addition, there
may be state regulations that govern the disposal action.

    The  work plan for a site investigation must include a description of control  procedures for con-
taminated materials.  This plan should assess the type of  contamination, estimate the amounts that would
be produced,  describe containment equipment and procedures,  and delineate  storage or disposal
methods. Adequate budget must be allocated for these purposes.  As a general policy, it is wise to select
investigation methods that minimize the generation of contaminated materials.  The handling and the dis-
posing of potentially hazardous materials are expensive; however, the consequences and penalties for im-
proper handling are significant.


3.2.4  Responsibilities

    The Site Manager or designee is responsible for identifying a$ contaminated, any material that was
generated onsite and for implementing the procedures used to control and dispose of such material.

3.2.5  Records

    If onsite or offsite testing is conducted on the contaminated material, appropriate chain-of-custody and
sample analysis forms must be prepared as described in other sections of this compendium.  If it is deter-
mined that  wastes generated onsite are hazardous, the appropriate RCRA manifest and disposal forms
must be completed as discussed in Subsection The SM  must determine who will be designated as
the generator of the  contaminated material. Typically, an EPA official should be designated as the  person
to sign items such as manifests.

3.2.6  Procedures

    Provided below  is a broad description of the sources of contaminated material that can be generated
onsite, plus a general discussion of the current procedures used to control and dispose of contaminated
materials that are fieldwork generated.    Sources  of Contaminated Materials and Containment Methods

    Decontamination Solutions:  Decontamination solutions and rinses must be assumed to contain the
hazardous chemicals associated with the site, unless there are analytical or other data to the contrary. The
solution volumes could vary from a few gallons to several hundred gallons in cases where large equipment
requires cleaning.

    Small amounts of rinse solutions, such as those generated  by the personnel decontamination station
(PDS), are  best stored in 55-gallon drums (or equivalent containers) that can be sealed until ultimate dis-
posal at an approved facility. As a rule of thumb, use of a temporary PDS will generate 55 to 110 gallons of
decontamination solution  per day for every five persons  using it.  The addition of showers and clothes
washing machines, associated with  a more permanent facility, will generate as much as 1,000 gallons per
day per every five persons. If the amounts generated by a PDS exceed one or two 55-gallon drums  each
day, a larger capacity above ground storage vessel, such as a fiberglass tank or collapsible rubber bladder,
should be considered.  If individual  drums are used, they  should be marked with sufficient information so
that personnel can determine what contaminants may be present. This information should be based on the
analytical results from the sampling campaign.  Alternately, samples can be analyzed from each drum.
However, the cost of analysis  may exceed the cost of disposal. Larger containers may be sampled and
analyzed in a cost-effective manner. If the suspected contamination is acceptably low, the fluids can be al-
lowed to drain back onsite or can  be released  to  local sewers - with the permission  of the appropriate
authorities. In some rare instances, contaminated fluids may be released back to the site.

    Larger equipment, such as backhoes and tractors, must be decontaminated in an  area that has a
method of controlling and collecting the spent fluids. A decontamination area for large equipment can con-
sist of a shallow depression lined with plastic, which is covered with clean sand or gravel, or the area may
be  a bermed concrete pad with a floor drain leading to a holding tank. The amounts generated by typical
equipment  cleaning  devices (steam jenny and hydro-blaster) usually exceed 500 gallons per cleaning.  Spill
prevention  and containment measures should be  implemented for the larger fluid containers, or if many
drums of fluid are left onsite. Protection from vandals is also needed.

    Disposable Equipment:   Disposable equipment that could be contaminated during a site investiga-
tion typically includes tools, rubber gloves, boots,  broken sample containers, and chemically resistant
clothing. These items are  small and can  easily be contained in 55-gallon drums with removable lids.
Secure containment within the containers is provided by sealing them at the end of each work day and
upon project completion. Additionally, containers are labeled in accordance with the applicable Depart-
ment of Transportation  (DOT) regulations  on hazardous  materials  under 49 CFR 172.304.   Adequate
protection from vandals, theft, and adverse weather must be provided for all containers.

    Drilling  Muds and Well-Development Fluids:   Drilling muds and well development  fluids  are
materials used when installing groundwater monitoring wells.  Their  use could result in the surface ac-
cumulation of contaminated liquids and solids that require containment. Monitoring wells are often placed
in uncontaminated areas to determine if hazardous chemicals have migrated below ground. Materials from
these wells require especially careful management since they threaten contamination  of otherwise clean

    The volume of drilling and well-development fluids requiring containment will depend on the number of
wells, diameters and depths, groundwater characteristics, and geologic formations. There are  no simple
mathematical formulas available  for accurately predicting  these volumes.  It is best  to rely on the ex-
perience of hydrogeologists and/or reputable well drillers who are familiar with the local conditions and the
well installation techniques  selected. These  individuals should be able to estimate the volume of con-
taminated fluid to be contained.  Since rough  estimates may  be involved, managers shall always be
prepared to  halt drilling or other well-development operations if more containment capacity is needed.  For
example, over one million  gallons of  contaminated fluids have  been generated  during pump tests of
monitoring wells.

    Drilling fluid (mud) is mixed and stored in a container commonly referred to as a mud pit. This mud pit
consists of a suction section from which drilling fluid is withdrawn and pumped through hoses down the
drill pipe to the bit and then back up the hole to the settling section of the mud pit.  In the settling section,
the fluid velocity is reduced by a screen and by  several flow-restriction devices, thereby allowing the well
cuttings to settle out of the fluid.

    The mud pit may be either a portable aboveground tank, commonly made of steel, or a stationary pit
that is in the ground. The aboveground tanks have a major advantage over pits in the ground because the
tanks isolate the contaminated fluids from the surface environment.  The tanks are also portable and  can
usually be cleaned easily.

    As the well is drilled, the sediments that accumulate in the settling section must be  removed. Removal
is best done by shoveling sediments into drums or other similar containers. When the drilling is complete,
the contents of the  above ground tank are  likewise shoveled or pumped into drums, and the tank is
cleaned and made available for reuse.

    If in-ground pits are used, they shall not extend into the natural water table. They shall also be lined
with a bentonite-cement mixture followed by a layer of flexible impermeable material such as plastic sheet-
ing. To maintain  its impermeable seal, the material  used must be nonreactive with the contaminants. An
advantage of the in-ground pit is that well cuttings  do not necessarily have to be removed periodically
during drilling because the pit can be made deep enough to contain  them.  Depending on site conditions,
the in-ground pit  may have to be totally re-excavated and  refilled with uncontaminated natural soils when
the drilling operation is complete.

    When the aboveground tank or the in-ground pit is used, a reserve tank or pit should be located at the
site as a backup system for leaks, spills and overflows. In  either case, surface drainage shall be such that
any excess fluid can be controlled within the immediate area of the drill site.  In-ground pits must also be
barricaded and lighted to prevent accidents.


    The containment procedure for well-development fluids is similar to that for drilling fluids. The volume
and weight of contaminated fluid will be determined by the method of development.  When a new well is
bailed to produce clear water, substantially less volume and weight of fluid will result, than when backwash-
ing or high-velocity jetting is used.

    Spill-Contaminated Materials:  A spill is always possible when a site investigation involves opening
and moving containers of liquids.  Contaminated sorbents and  soils  resulting from spills will have to be
contained and cleaned up.  Small  quantities of spill-contaminated materials are usually best contained in
drums, while larger quantities can be placed in lined pits or in other impermeable structures.  In some
cases, onsite containment may not be feasible and immediate transport to an approved disposal site will be
required.    Disposal of Contaminated Materials

    Actual disposal techniques for contaminated materials are the same as those for any hazardous sub-
stance - incineration, landfilling and/or treatment.  The problem centers around the assignment of respon-
sibility for disposal. The responsibility must be determined and agreed on by all involved parties before the
fieldwork starts.

    If testing conducted on a waste that was generated onsite (RCRA extraction, organic screening, inor-
ganic and organic analysis, etc.) shows that the waste is nonhazardous, the material can be handled as a
non-RCRA waste and disposed of onsite at  the direction of EPA.  For hazardous waste materials, onsite
disposal should not be practiced.  The material should be properly packaged and disposed of in a RCRA-
approved offsite facility.  The same procedure applies to residuals of samples (see Section 5 for a discus-

    A majority of the waste material generated during onsite activities is hazardous.  Either it is a health
hazard, or the waste material when tested, fails the RCRA extraction tests.  In these  instances, EPA has
provided guidance for the disposal of these materials. The guidance, in the form  of a memorandum dated
13 December 1984 from Russel H. Wyer of EPA Headquarters, provides the general procedure for dispos-
ing of RCRA waste material from hazardous waste facilities.  Site specific disposal options are developed
by consulting with  the EPA regions through the EPA RPM and by specifying disposal actions in the work
plan.    Waste Storage and Management

    Wastes  generated through investigative activities (e.g., drilling) are governed by RCRA requirements
with regard  to  packaging, labeling, transporting, storing, and record keeping.  These requirements are
stated in 40 CFR 262 entitled "Standard Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Wastes."  However, some
state laws have primacy over RCRA requirements. To determine this, the appropriate state agency must be
contacted. A list of the state environmental agencies has been attached for this use and appears as Exhibit

    Wastes that are accumulated through onsite activities are to be stored in a secure location that is under
the control of the operator.  Therefore, to meet this requirement, it is common practice for the waste-stag-
ing area to  be  located onsite.  Wastes generated from  offsite activities,  such as wells, are addressed in
standard 40 CFR 262.34(c). This standard states the generator "may accumulate  as much as 55 gallons of
hazardous waste or 1 quart of acutely hazardous waste...in containers at or near any point of generation
where wastes initially accumulate, which is under the control of the operator of the process generating the
waste...."  Offsite wells are typically areas that cannot be considered to  be under the operator's control.
Therefore, the operator must place the wastes in containers and then label, manifest, and transport these
wastes to the onsite staging area.

                                           Exhibit 3-1
Department of Environmental
State Capital
Montgomery, AL 36130

Department of Environmental
3220 Hospital Dr.
Pouch 0
Juneau, AK 99811

Division of Environmental
 Health Services
Department of Health Servs.
1740 W.Adams St.
Phoenix, AZ 85007

Department of Pollution
 Control and Ecology
8001 National Dr.
Little Rock, AR  72209

Resources Agency
1311 Resources Building
1416 9th St.
Sacramento, CA 95814

Department of Natural
718 State Centennial Bldg.
1313 Sherman St.
Denver, CO 80203

Department of Environmental
117 State Office Bldg.
165 Capitol Ave.
Hartford, CT 06106
Division of Environmental
Department of Natural
 Resources and
 Environmental Control
R and R Complex
89 Kings Highway
P.O. Box1401
Dover, DE 19903

Environmental Control
Housing and Environmental
 Regulation Administration
Department of Consumer and
 Regulatory Affairs
505 North Potomac Building
Washington, DC  20001

Department of Environmental
Twin Towers Building
2600 Blair Stone  Rd.
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Environmental Protection
Department of Natural
825 Trinity-Washington Bldg.
270 Washington  St., SW
Atlanta, GA 30334

Office of Environmental
 Quality Control
550 Halekauwila St.
Honolulu, HI  96813
Division of Environment
 Department of Health
 and Welfare
Towers Bldg.
450 W. State St.
Boise, ID  83720

Environmental Protection
220 Churchill Rd.
Springfield, IL  62706

Environmental Management
State Board of Health
Health Bldg.
1330 W.Michigan St.
Indianapolis, IN 46206

Department of Water, Air,
 and Waste Management
Henry A. Wallace Bldg.
900 E. Grand Ave.
DesMoines, IA 50319

Division of Environment
 Department of Health and
Bldg. 740, Forbes Field
Topeka, KS 66620
913/862-9360, Ext. 283

Department of Environment
Natural Resources and
 Environmental Protection
Ash  Bldg., 18ReillyRd.
Frankfort, KY  40601

                                            Exhibit 3-1
Department of Environmental
700 State Land and Natural
 Resouces Bldg.
625 N. 4th St.
P.O. Box 44066
Baton Rouge, LA 70804

Department of Environmental
Ray Bldg., AMHI Complex
Hospital St.
Mail to: State House,
 Station 17
Augusta, ME  04333

Maryland Environmental
Department of Natural
60 West St.
Annapolis,  MD 21401

Executive Office of
 Environmental Affairs
Leverett Saltonstall State
Office Bldg.
100 Cambridge St.
Boston, MA 02202

Department of Natural
Stevens T. Mason Bldg.
7th Floor
P.O. Box 30028
Lansing, Ml 48909
Environmental Quality Board
100 Capitol Square Bldg.
550 Cedar St.
St. Paul, MN 55101

Bureau of Pollution Control
Department of Natural
Southport Mall
Hwy. 80-W at Ellis Ave.
P.O. Box 10385
Jackson, MS 39209

Division of Environmental
Department of Natural
P.O. Box 1368
Jefferson City, MO 65102

Environmental Sciences Division
Department of Health and
 Environmental Sciences
W. F. Cogswell Bldg.
Lockey St.
Helena, MT 59620

Department of Environmental
State Office Bldg.
301 Centennial Mall, S.
P.O. Box 94877
Lincoln, NE 68509-4877
Division of Environmental
Department of Conservation
 and Natural Resources
221 Nye Bldg.
201 S. Fall St.
Capitol Complex
Carson City, NV 89710

Environmental Protection
Office of the Attorney
State House Annex
25 Capitol St.
Concord,  NH 03301

Department of Environmental
John Fitch Plz.
P.O. Box  1390
Trenton, NJ 08625

Environmental Improvement
Health and Environment
Crown State Office Bldg.
725 St. Michael's Dr.
P.O. Box  968
Santa Fe, NM  87504-0968
503/984-0020, Ext. 200

Department of Environmental
50 Wolf Rd.
Albany, NY  12233-0001

                                           Exhibit 3-1
Division of Environmental
Department of Natural
 Resources and Community
Archdale Bldg.
512 N.Salisbury St.
P.O. Box 27687
Raleigh, NC 27611

Environmental Health Section
Department of Health
102 Missouri Office Bldg.
1200 Missouri Ave.
Bismarck, ND 58501

Ohio Environmental Protection
Seneca Towers
361 E. Broad St.
P.O. Box 1049
Columbus, OH 43216

Department of Pollution
1000 N.E. 10th St.
P.O. Box 53504
Oklahoma City, OK 73152

Department of Environmental
Yeon Bldg.
522 S.W. 5th Ave.
P.O. Box 1760
Portland, OR 97207
Department of Environmental
Fulton Bank Bldg., 9th R.
200 N. 3rd St.
P.O. Box 2063
Harrisburg, PA 17105

Department of Environmental
83 Park St.
Providence, Rl 02903

Division of Environmental
 Quality Control
Department of Health and
 Environmental Control
415 J. Marion Sims Bldg.
2600 Bull St.
Columbus, SC 29201

Department of Water and
 Natural Resources
Joe Foss Bldg.
523 E. Capitol Ave.
Pierre, SD 57501

Bureau of Environment
Department of Health and
150 9th Ave., N.
Nashville, TN 37203

Environmental Protection
Office of the Attorney
Executive Office Bldg.
411 W. 13th St.
P.O. Box 12548, Capitol Sta.
Austin, TX 78711
Division of Environmental
Department of Health
Social Services Bldg.
1 SOW. North Temple St.
P.O. Box 2500
Salt Lake City, UT 84110-2500

Agency of Environmental
Heritage II Complex
79 River St.
Montpelier, VT 05602

Council on the Environment
903 Ninth St. Office Bldg.
9th and Grace Sts.
Richmond, VA 23219

Washington Department of
St. Martin's College
Mail Stop PV-11
Olympia,  WA 98504

Department of Natural
669 State Office Bldg. 3
 1800 Washington St., E.
Charleston. WV 25305

 Department  of Natural
 General Executive Facility II
 101 S.Webster St.
 P.O. Box 7921
 Madison, Wl 53707

                                           Exhibit 3-1
Department of Environmental
Herschler Bldg., 4th Fl.
122 W. 25th St.
Cheyenne, WY 82002

Environmental Quality
Office of the Governor
Pago Pago, AS 96799
Country Code 684/633-4116
 and 633-4398

Guam Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 2950
Agana, GU 96910
Country Code 671/646-8863
 8864, and 8865

Environmental Quality Board
204 Del Parque St.
P.O. Box 11488
Santurce, PR 00910
809/725-8898 and 723-1617

Division of Natural Resources
Department of Conservation
 and Cultural Affairs
P.O. Box 4340
Charlotte Amalie,
St. Thomas, VI 00801

    The maximum duration for storing wastes onsite is 90 days without a permit or without having interim
status, provided that the stored wastes meet the RCRA requirements for containing and labeling.  Storage
duration beyond 90 days alters the status of the controller from a generator of hazardous waste to an
operator of a storage facility. Such a change in status, subjects the operator to compliance with RCRA re-
quirements stated in  40 CFR Parts 264 and 265.  A final concern is that, during dismantling, the storage
area will need to be sampled (e.g., soil sampling) to determine that no releases of  hazardous substances
occurred during storage.

    Questions on the interpretation of the requirements for storing and handling hazardous substances can
be directed to the RCRA Hotline (1/800/424-9346).

    Provided below is an outline of the suggested procedures for disposal of investigation-derived wastes.
        1.  Determine whether or not investigation derived wastes will be generated during the project. If
        yes, obtain RCRA EPA Notification of Hazardous Waste Activity Form (Form No. 8700-12). If  no,
        note the decision in the work plan.

        2.  Obtain a RCRA generator provisional number from the EPA Remedial Project Manager (RPM).

        3.  Fill out the provisional number questionnaire and submit it to the EPA RPM.

        4.  Contact waste transporters and disposers to  request bids for their services; obtain necessary
        documentation required by a company for those services.  (AH  companies require the filing of
        some type of waste data sheet.)  A bid will not be awarded until a waste characterization, including
        data, is provided to the transporter / disposer. These forms can be found in the Hazardous Waste
        Services Directing: Transportation, Disposal Sites, Laboratories, and Consultants published by J. J. Keller
        Associates (414/722-2848).

        5.  Obtain necessary state / federal shipping and disposal manifest forms.  (A manifest is required
        from the state where the waste originated.)

        6.  Conduct field activities.

        7.  Sample and characterize waste. This step includes all RCRA parameters plus special analyses
        such as TCDD.

        8.  Receive analysis from laboratory.

        9.  Complete waste data sheets, and submit them to potential transporters and disposal facilities.

        10. Receive bids for transportation and disposal activities.

        11. Prepare EPA Form 8700-12, including waste characterization data for sign off by designated
        EPA official. (Note: Materials generated are considered to be EPA wastes, and an EPA employee
        must sign off on all paperwork.)

        12. Prepare state and federal shipping and disposal manifest forms for signature by EPA person-

        13. Award subcontract for waste transportation and disposal.

3.2.7  Region-Specific Variances

    No region-specific variances have been identified; however, all future determined variances will be in-
corporated within subsequent revisions of this compendium. Information on variances may become dated
rapidly. Thus, users should contact the regional EPA RPMs for full details on current regional practices and

3.2.8  Information Sources

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976.


3.3.1  Scope and Purpose

    The objective of this subsection is to provide the roles and responsibilities of field team members who
conduct remedial response activities at hazardous waste sites.

3.3.2  Definitions


3.3.3  Applicability

    The primary function of the field investigation team is to gather information according to the approved
work plan. These guidelines describe the components and duties of team members, and suggest the num-
bers of members that are necessary for the field team to safely meet the stated goals of the investigation.
These guidelines are applicable to field work involving hazardous waste disposal sites.

3.3.4  Responsibilities

    The NIOSH / OSHA / USCG / EPA Occupational Safety and Health  Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste
Site Activities presents a generalized approach to personnel organization for remedial  response activities
(see Exhibit 3-2 taken from that publication) and provides an excellent summary of the responsibilities of
each of the named positions.

    Typically, at least eight roles may be required for a field investigation team: SM, field team leader, site
safety officer, personnel decontamination station operator / equipment specialist, communications super-
visor, initial entry party, work party, and emergency response team.

    The number of roles needed at each site is dictated by the potential hazards and the specific needs of
the site. Dual role assignments may be acceptable when hazardous substances and physical conditions at
a site are well documented and the nature of the work is limited.

                                          Exhibit 3-2
                           FOR SITE INVESTIGATION AND RESPONSE
                                  Government Agency
      Lead Organization
                                  Medical Support
                                      Team Leader
Field Team


                         Command Post
             Station Officers
                                   Rescue Team
                              • Security
                                 Logistics • Photographer
                            Public Information
              Site Safety and
              Health Officer
• Bomb Squad Experts   • Firefighters
                             • Communication

                             • Environmental
                             • Evacuation
                      • Hazardous

                      • Health Physicists

                      • Industrial
                                             • Meteorologists

                                             • Public Safety

                                             • lexicologists

------- Site Manager
    The SM is responsible for the following:
    •  All the team does or fails to do
    •  Preparing and organizing project work
    •  Selecting team personnel and briefing them on specific assignments
    •  Coordinating with the EPA RPM, who is responsible for obtaining the owner's permission to enter
       the site
    •  Coordinating with the field team leader to complete the work plan
    •  Completing final reports and preparing the evidentiary file
    •  Establishing safety and equipment requirements that are to be met, and monitoring compliance
       with those requirements
    •  Coordinating with the lead agency
    •  Assisting in quality assurance efforts
    Some of these responsibilities may be delegated to  the field team leader and the site safety coor-
dinator.   Field Team Leader
    The field team leader is responsible for the overall operation and safety of the field team.  As mentioned
earlier, this role can be filled by the SM or the designated representative.  The field team leader may join the
work party in the exclusion zone. The field team leader is responsible for the following:

    •   Execution of the site work plan
    •   Safety procedure compliance through coordination with the site safety officer
    •   Field operations management including coordination with laboratories and subcontractors
    •   Community relations, typically through state and federal liaison officials
    •   Site control
    •   Compliance of field documentation and sampling methods with evidence collection procedures Site Safety Officer
    The site safety officer is responsible for safety procedures and operations at the site. The site safety of-
ficer is responsible to whoever is responsible for safety in the organization rather than to the field  team
 leader or SM. This reporting system provides for two separate lines of authority, thereby allowing decisions
 based on safety to be represented on an  equal basis with decisions  based on the pressures for ac-
 complishing the investigation according to schedule.

    The site safety officer either remains on the clean side of the exclusion area while monitoring the work
party and site activities or may accompany the downrange team to supervise hazardous work.  The site
safety officer is also responsible for the following:
    •  Determining of the level of personal protection required

    •  Updating equipment or procedures based on new information gathered during the site inspection

    •  Changing the levels of protection based on site observations (Subsection 3.3.4)

    •  Monitoring compliance with the safety requirements

    •  Stopping work as required to protect personal worker safety or where noncompliance with safety
       requirements is found

    •  Determining and  posting emergency telephone numbers (including poison  control centers) and
       routes to capable medical facilities; arranging for emergency transportation to medical facilities

    •  In conjunction with the SM, notifying local public  emergency officers (i.e., police and fire depart-
       ment) of the nature of the team's operations and coordinating the team's contingency plan with
       that of the local authorities

    •  Informing personnel  other than team members who want access  to the potential hazards of the

    •  Entering the exclusion area in  emergencies when at  least one other member of the field team is
       available to stay behind and notify emergency services (or after the emergency services have been

    •  Examining work party members for symptoms of exposure or stress

    •  Determining that each team member has been given the proper medical clearance by a qualified
       medical consultant; monitoring team members to determine compliance with the applicable physi-
       cal requirements as stipulated in the health and safety program

    •  Maintaining communications and line-of sight contact with the work party

    •  Providing emergency medical care and first aid as necessary at the site   Personnel Decontamination Station Operator / Equipment Specialist

    The personnel decontamination  station  (PDS) operator / equipment specialist functions in two roles
that do not require concurrent attention. The equipment specialist role requires the following:

    •  Determining that equipment is properly maintained and operational

    •  Inspecting equipment before and after use

    •  Obtaining the required equipment before arriving at work site

    •  Decontaminating personnel, samples, and equipment that return from the exclusion area

   The role of PDS operator/ equipment specialist includes the following responsibilities:
    •  Designing and setting up the PDS

    •  Preparing the  necessary decontamination solutions  so that chemical  contamination  is  not
       transported into the clean area by equipment, samples, protective clothing, or personnel

    •  Managing the mechanics of removing contaminated clothing from the work party

    •  Properly disposing of discarded contaminated clothing and decontamination solutions    Communications Supervisor

    The communications supervisor functions as the clearinghouse for communications. This person does
not enter the exclusion area to assist the work party. Should an emergency arise, the communications su-
pervisor notifies emergency support personnel by phone, radio, or some other communication device to
respond to the situation.  Depending on the team size and the nature of the emergency, the communica-
tions supervisor may be needed to assist the site safety officer in effecting a rescue.  Usually, the com-
munications supervisor assists the PDS operator / equipment specialist in operating the PDS during an
emergency and the site safety officer  in taking emergency medical measures.  The field team  leader may
assume the position of communications supervisor.

    The communications supervisor is also responsible for the following:

    •  Maintaining a log  of communications  and site activities, such  as duration of work periods with
       respirators or movement of personnel and equipment, onto and off the site

    •  Assisting the site safety officer in sustaining communication and iine-of-sight contact with the work

    •  Maintaining good community relations in the absence of the field team leader,  usually  by referring
       questions to the appropriate head  agency liaison officer

    •  Assisting the site safety officer and PDS operator/equipment specialist as required
    The communications supervisor may also be responsible for logging and packaging for transport, the
samples taken by the work party. This person also maintains a weather watch, and provides security for
the emergency response vehicle and other equipment.   Initial Entry Party

    The initial entry party enters the site first, employing specialized instrumentation to characterize site
hazards. To become familiar with the conditions and dangers associated with the site, the field team leader
should usually be a part of the initial entry party. The major purpose of this team is to measure existing
hazards and to survey the site to ascertain if the level of personal protection determined from preliminary
assessment, site inspection, or site screening study must be adjusted.

    The initial entry party can consist of as few as two people (using the "buddy system"), if a nonsparking
cart or other device is used to transport all the instrumentation.  Three or four people are able to do the job
more efficiently.

-------    Work Party

    The work party performs the onsite tasks necessary to fulfill the objectives of the investigation (e.g., ob-
taining samples or determining locations for monitoring wells).  No team member should enter or exit the
exclusion area alone. The work party consists of a minimum of two individuals, and any work party should
follow the buddy system. Aside from the safety considerations, it is much easier for two persons dressed in
protective clothing to perform such tasks as notetaking, photographing and sampling.

    The number of individuals in the work party varies.  Often, several teams may be working simul-
taneously at several different sampling efforts.  In cases where a number of activities are taking place simul-
taneously or where activities are widely separated, the site safety officer may be supplemented with several
assistants assigned to each of the smaller work teams. Depending on the nature of the hazards onsite, the
work team safety officer may perform concurrent duties'(photography, air monitoring, headspace analysis,
sample logging) that would not interfere with the primary duty of maintaining safety.

    In cases of multiple or widely separated work teams, a means of communication among the teams, the
site safety officer, and the field team leader is vital.    Emergency Response Team

    Some means of providing emergency assistance to workers in the exclusion zone must be established
for every site.  Most often, the site safety officer has that responsibility.  Extensive assignments requiring
long hours and large work parties may necessitate the use of a standby emergency response team. Mem-
bers of the emergency response team are "half-dressed" in the appropriate protective gear so that they can
quickly enter the exclusion area in an emergency.  This team is particularly valuable at sites where protec-
tive equipment  produces stress and  heat loads on  the work party and where the rotation of workers
provides a rested group of workers able to respond to the emergency without increasing the team size.

3.3.5  Records

    Records normally kept for field activities are identified in other sections of this manual. For details, see
the following sections:

        Section 4      Sample Control, Including Chain of Custody
        Section 5      Laboratory Interface
        Section 17     Document Control

3.3.6  Procedures

    The different guidelines that exist for organizing field  operations are based generally on the  size of the
field team used.

    Team size depends on site organization, levels of protection, work objectives, and site hazards. Team
members can always be added according to the roles required.

-------    Two-Person Team

    The two-person team is the minimum for a hazardous-substance site investigation, and the team's
capabilities are very limited.  Such a team should never enter an uncharacterized hazardous-substance
site. The two-person team is best suited for offsite surveys and inspections or for obtaining environmental
(nonhazardous, offsite)  samples. Verifying accuracy of aerial photographs by ground surveys, inspecting
files, or interviewing can all be accomplished by the two-person team. The two-person team can also con-
duct RCRA inspections at facilities that have an OSHA-approved safety program.    Three-Person Team

    The three-person team is recommended for sites requiring Level C (air purifying respirators) protection
and, in some cases, at sites requiring Level B (supplied-air respirator) protection. (Levels of protection are
discussed in the  NIOSH / OSHA / USCG / EPA guidance manual and are set forth in the OSHA 29 CFR
1910.120 regulations.) This team is composed of a field team leader; an individual fulfilling the combined
functions of PDS operator / equipment specialist, site safety officer, and communications supervisor; and
another individual (buddy) to enter the site with the field team leader.

    The three-person team  is used where extensive PDS procedures are not required  and where the
likelihood of needing emergency rescue is low. This field team is best used where the primary objective is
to map,  photograph or inventory.

    Considerable care and thought are necessary before a three-person team is employed on a site, be-
cause each individual has numerous responsibilities.  In the event of an accident, the third member does
not enter the site to offer emergency assistance until outside assistance has been summoned; even then,
entry should be made only when absolutely necessary.    Four-Person Team

    Most short-term Level B operations can  be conducted with  a four-person  team. These operations
would include work on active sites where facility personnel are present or on inactive sites with potentially
IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) atmospheres. The objective of a four-person team at a
site requiring Level B protection might include limited sampling of ponds, soils, or open containers and in-
spections at sites known for poor housekeeping (i.e., sites with a history of spills, leaks, or other accidents).

    The team consists of the standard two-person work party, a combination site  safety officer and PDS
operator / equipment specialist, and a communications supervisor who may assist in the  PDS operation.
Because life-threatening hazards are assumed or known to be present at a Level B site, it is essential that
all personnel be fully acquainted with their duties.  During an emergency, the communications supervisor
stays in the support area to maintain communication while the site safety officer / PDS operator / equip-
ment specialist enters the exclusion area to aid the work party.  Once the work party is in the contamination
reduction area, the command post supervisor can offer assistance on the PDS or provide fresh equipment
from the support area.  During the work in the exclusion area, team members may rotate individual assign-
ments.    Five-Person Team

    The five-person team is the typical minimum size for most Level A and Level B operations or for opera-
tions when known percutaneous hazards exist or when there is an absence of historical information. The
site hazards that  necessitate Level A protection, combined with the limitations and stresses placed on per-
sonnel by wearing Level A protection, require a full-time PDS operator / equipment specialist who can also

serve in emergency response.  In the event of a serious emergency such as a fire, explosion, or acutely
toxic release, both the site safety officer and the PDS operator / equipment specialist may need to enter the
exclusion area dressed in Level A gear. The communications supervisor remains in the support area to
direct outside help to the site and then to assume the functions of PDS operator / equipment specialist.    Teams of Six or More

    Certain hazardous-substance site activities may require operations that necessitate larger or alternating
work parties and additional support personnel in the contamination reduction area. A seven-person team,
for example, employs the basic structure of the five-person team plus an additional work party for alternat-
ing work loads. The eight-person team includes an additional PDS operator / equipment specialist to assist
in the continuous decontamination tasks that are  involved with alternating work parties and to decon-
taminate and pack samples as they are received.

    It is not unusual to employ teams of 12 where such tasks as drum opening, may require three work
parties working concurrently. This operation may involve teams to move the drums, open the drums, and
sample and reseal them under  rigorous safety procedures.  Larger teams can be designed with additional
work parties and support personnel, to safely gather the site data, and ensure communication and site con-

    On some sites, many individuals will be required for concurrent operations, such as building demolition
or wastes excavation, that will also entail the use of mobile heavy equipment.  It is not feasible to provide a
"buddy to the operators of such equipment.  Rather, a number of site safety observers (two usually will suf-
fice) may be established at vantage points (rented scaffolding located onsite Is ideal), to observe the equip-
ment operators and the ground-based workers simultaneously.  By means of radios or visual and audible
signals, the site safety observers can assist in "directing traffic," a particularly important safety procedure
where the protective gear interferes with hearing and vision.

3.3.7  Region-Specific Variances

    In Region VI, the site safety officer for the Field Investigation Team (FIT) cannot downgrade the level of
protection without consulting the FIT regional safety coordinator.  No other region-specific variances have
been identified. All subsequent variances will be incorporated within Revision 01 of this compendium.  Be-
cause information on variances may become dated rapidly, users should contact the regional EPA RPMs
for full details on current regional practices and requirements.  Regional variations of team organizations
should be established by coordinating the work plan with the EPA RPM.

3.3.8  Information Sources

    Office of Safety and Health Administration, 29 CFR 1910.120.  "Interim Final Rule for Hazardous Waste
Operations and Emergency Response." 19 December 1986.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Occupational Safely and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous
Waste Site Activities. Developed by NIOSH / OSHA / USCG / EPA. October 1985.

    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency.  "Standard Operating Safety Guides." Memorandum from Wil-
liam Hedeman, Jr. 19 November 1984.

3.4.1  Scope and Purpose

    Personnel conducting activities that involve hazardous substances may have their personal protective
gear contaminated by those substances through the course of the work effort.  In addition, equipment may
become contaminated.  Since such contamination is not always easily discernible, it is necessary to as-
sume that all personnel and equipment working in the area (where the presence of such substances is
known or suspected) have been contaminated.  Effective decontamination procedures are implemented to
minimize the potential for cross contamination  (the transfer of contaminants, usually from one sample to
another, by improperly decontaminated sampling  equipment, containers, or devices such as drill rigs);
offsite contaminant migration (the transfer of contaminants to areas outside the exclusion zone, usually by
improperly decontaminated equipment); or personnel exposure from improperly decontaminated  protec-
tive gear.

    The subsections below present a general discussion of decontamination issues. Detailed guidance on
methods, techniques, procedures, equipment, and solutions exist in the documents shown in Subsection
3.4.7. The SM and site safety officer should study and reference these documents when preparing the
decontamination procedures.

3.4.2  Definitions

       The  process of neutralization, washing, rinsing, and removing  exposed outer surfaces of
       equipment and  personal protective clothing to minimize the  potential for contamination migra-

Cross Contamination
       The transfer of contaminants from their known or suspected location into a noncontaminated
       area; a term usually applied to sampling activities.

3.4.3 Applicability

    The procedures in this subsection apply to activities where the potential exists for exposures of  person-
nel and equipment to hazardous substances.

3.4.4  Responsibilities

    The SM is responsible for determining the type of decontamination facility to be used onsite, the solu-
tions to be employed, and the methodologies to be used in determining the effectiveness of the decon-
tamination approach. The SM is assisted by the field team leader and site safety officer. Onsite, the field
team  leader is responsible for implementing the decontamination  plan by providing materials and staff
members. The site safety officer oversees the decontamination process and provides verification of the ef-
fectiveness of the procedures. The decontamination plan should be presented or referenced in the work
plan and Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP).

3.4.5  Records

    The QAPjP and work plan document the decontamination approach. The use of equipment cleaning
blanks, decontamination rinse blanks, and other quality control procedures serves to document the effec-
tiveness of the cleaning before and the decontamination after working onsite.  The site safety officer typical-
ly furnishes documentation of equipment decontamination for those Items leaving the site (see Exhibit 3-3).
Such documentation is typically required by EPA for government-owned equipment. In some instances,
such as decontaminating a drill rig normally used by a subcontractor for water well installation, the SM may
need to arrange for laboratory testing of wipe samples before documenting the "cleanliness" of a piece of

3.4.6  Procedures

    Numerous procedures are used in decontaminating people and things. The most effective procedure
is contamination avoidance, that is, the use of procedures or materials to minimize or eliminate the poten-
tial for  contact with contaminants.  Personal protection gear and standard operating procedures are used
to protect workers; other techniques include encasing instruments and equipment in disposable outer
wrappings (plastic sheeting), using disposable sampling devices, or isolating the contaminants.

    Decontaminating  procedures include flushing with water or other solvents; using pressure  or steam
jets; heating,  flaming, or baking  items; scraping, rubbing, or grinding away;  or, most simply,  disposing of
the item after determining that the cost in time and staff necessary for decontamination is not acceptable,
or that decontamination would not be effective.  Several documents offer detailed guidance on procedures
(see below).

3.4.7  Information Sources

    Chapter 10, Decontamination, of the Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous
Waste Site Activities developed by NIOSH / OSHA / USCG / EPA. October 1985.

    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency. "Decontamination Techniques for Mobile Response Equint
Used at Waste Sites (State-of-the-Art Survey)." EPA/600/52-85/105.  January 1986.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Guide for Decontaminating Buildings, Structures, and Equipment
at Superfund Sites. EPA/600/2 85/028. March 1985.
    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency.  Field Standard Operating Procedures #7 Decontamination of
Response Personnel. January 1985.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Standard Operating Safety Guides." November 1984.

                                          Exhibit 3-3
  Contract No:	         Site Manager:
  Work Assignment:	         Firm:  	
  Project No:	         Phone No:	
  Site Name/Location:	
    The following items of (government-owned) (corporate-owned) (rental) equipment have been decon-
taminated following the procedures detailed in the Site Safety Plan dated	, (as modified on
	). Additional information on the procedures used is contained in (list site logs, work plans.
photographs, etc.	L
                                    Manufacturer's or               Dates of           Date of
     Equipment Nomenclature         EPA Serial Number               Use             Decon.
  Site Safety Coordinator


  Site Manager/Field Team Leader
  NOTE: Attach tags to the decontaminated EPA-owned equipment showing the date of decontamination, the SSC's initials, and

  the work assignment/project number(s).


3.5.1  Scope and Purpose

    Field activities at hazardous waste sites are conducted according to detailed health and safety proce-
dures.  These procedures are developed in accordance with the implementing regulations for Public Law
91-596, the Occupational  Health and Safety Act of 1970, contained in 29 CFR Part II  (29 CFR  1910.120,
1910.126, 1910.134, 1910.141, 1910.165, and 1910.1200, among others).  Following standardized health
and safety procedures will reduce the possibility of accidents or excess exposures of onsite workers to
hazardous materials while allowing field activities to be carried out in a uniform manner.  The purpose of
this subsection is to out line several standard health and safety field procedures that are normally used in
the conduct of remedial response activities.  Site specific health and safety requirements are detailed in
health and safety plans developed for each onsite visit. The general procedures to meet health and safety
requirements are described below.

3.5.2  Definitions


3.5.3  Applicability

    This  procedure is applicable to onsite  activities that  are carried out at hazardous waste sites by field

3.5.4   Responsibilities

    The Site Managers are ultimately responsible for the  health and safety of workers onsite. They are as-
sisted by the site safety officer.

    The site safety officer is responsible for developing safe work procedures for onsite and offsite assess-
ment and for monitoring compliance with those procedures. The site safety officer obtains and implements
the site safety plan.

    The field team leader is responsible for the overall operation of the field team. The field team leader
works with the site safety officer to conduct operations in compliance with the site safety plan.

    Field team members are  responsible  for conducting tasks  in  accordance with the site safety plan
developed for the activity. Field team members are also responsible for reporting to the field team leader
any information that may have an impact on the health and safety of the operation.

3.5.5  Records

    The  measurements and observations mentioned in this subsection are documented in the project log-
book.  A site safety plan must  be prepared for each field  activity and must be available for review by onsite

3.5.6  Procedures    Site Safety Plan

    A site safety plan (SSP) must be prepared by a qualified safety person for each field investigation ac-
tivity.  Review and approval by a different, equally qualified, safety staff member is typically required.  For
remedial  action at hazardous waste sites, safety plans can be developed simultaneously with general
operation plans and implemented when remedial actions begin. Emergency response situations may re-
quire verbal safety instructions and the use of standard Operating safety procedures, until specific safety
protocols can be written.  For any remedial response activities, the SSP must include health and safety
considerations for all activities required at the scene. The  SSP must be reviewed and updated whenever
additional site data are received, onsite personnel change,  the level of protection used onsite is upgraded
or downgraded, or site operations differ from those covered by the existing plan.

    The field team members shall be thoroughly trained  in the use of safety plans.  The  plan will be
prepared under the direction of the site safety officer by persons knowledgeable with the site conditions
and safety requirements. The SM and a designated health and safety staff member must approve the plan.

    Minimum  Requirements:   Paragraph (i) of 29 CFR 1910.120 requires employees to develop a site
safety and health plan that, as a minimum, addresses the following:

    •  Evaluate the  risks associated with the site and with each operation conducted. A scope of work
       will be included that summarizes the tasks required to perform each operation safely.

    •  Identify key personnel and alternates responsible for both site safety and remedial response opera-

    •  Address the levels of protective equipment to be worn by personnel during each site activity. Also,
       include a decision logic for upgrading or downgrading the level of protection.

    •  Designate work areas (exclusion zone, contamination reduction zone, and support zone),  boun-
       daries, size of zones, distance between zones, and access control points into each zone.

    •  Establish decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment.

    •  Determine the number of personnel and equipment needed in the work zones during  initial entries
       and subsequent operations.

    •  Establish site emergency procedures (e.g., escape routes; signals for evacuating work parties; in-
       ternal, external, and emergency communications; and procedures for fire and explosions).  Emer-
       gency phone numbers (fire department, police department, hospital, ambulance, poison control
       center, and medical consultant) must appear on an emergency reference page.

    •  Implement a program and make arrangements with the nearest medical facility (and medical life
       squad unit) for emergency medical care of routine injuries and toxicological problems. A map
       showing the route from the site to the medical facility must be included in the plan.

    •  Document individual training requirements for the available use of protective gear and field instru-
       ments and for the performance of particular tasks.

    •  Identify known or suspected contaminants onsite, location  and concentration of contaminants,
       hazards associated with each contaminant (including toxicity and health effects), and  action levels
       that would require upgrading the level of personal protective equipment.

    •  Describe the procedures and equipment required to monitor the work area for potentially hazard-
       ous materials.  Detail the necessary records associated with the monitoring program.

    •  Consider weather and other conditions that may affect the health and safety of personnel during
       site operations.

    •  Implement control procedures to prevent access to the site by unauthorized personnel.

    •  Describe medical surveillance requirements for each operation.

    •  Provide background information to familiarize the field team with the site history, current status,
       physical features, disposal practices, past monitoring data,  and community/worker health com-
       plaints.    General Safety Practices

    Personnel Precautions:  The following are standard personnel safety precautions:
       Eating, drinking, chewing gum or tobacco, smoking, or any practice that increases the probability
       of hand-to-mouth transfer and ingestion of material, is prohibited in any area designated as con-

       Hands and face must be thoroughly washed upon leaving the work area and before eating, drink-
       ing, or any other activities.

       Whenever decontamination procedures for outer garments are in effect, the entire body shall be
       thoroughly washed as soon as possible after the protective garment is removed.

       No excessive facial hair, which interferes with a satisfactory fit of the mask-to-face seal, is allowed
       on personnel required to wear respiratory protective equipment.

       Contact with contaminated surfaces or  with surfaces suspected of being contaminated shall be
       avoided.  Whenever possible, a person shall not walk through puddles, mud, and other discolored
       surfaces;  kneel on ground; or lean, sit, or place equipment on drums, containers, vehicles, or the

       Medicine  and alcohol can  potentiate the effects from exposure to toxic chemicals.   Prescribed
       drugs shall not be taken by personnel on response operations, if there is likelihood of such poten-

       Personnel and equipment in the contaminated area shall be kept to a minimum, consistent with ef-
       fective site operations.

       Work areas for various operational activities must  be established.

       Procedures for leaving a contaminated area must be planned  and implemented before persqnnel
       go to the site.  Work areas and decontamination procedures must be established on the basis of
       prevailing site conditions.

       Contact lenses shall not be worn by individuals required to wear respiratory protection or required
       to enter a potentially contaminated area.

    Weather:   Adverse weather conditions are important considerations in planning and conducting site
operations. Hot or cold weather can cause physical discomfort, loss of efficiency, and personal injury. Of
particular importance is heat stress resulting when protective clothing decreases natural body ventilation.
One or more of the following can be used to reduce heat stress:
       Provide plenty of liquids.  To replace body fluids (water and electrolytes) lost because of sweating,
       use a 0.1 percent saltwater solution, more heavily salted foods, or commercial mixes.  Current re-
       search indicates commercial mixes high in electrolytes and low in salt are preferable.

       Provide cooling devices to aid natural body ventilation.  These devices, however, add weight and
       their use must be balanced against worker efficiency.

       Install mobile showers or hose-down facilities to reduce body temperature and to cool protective

       In extremely hot weather, conduct operations in the early morning or the evening.

       Provide adequate shelter to protect personnel against heat (or cold,  rain, snow,  etc.), which can
       decrease physical efficiency and increase the probability of accidents.

       In hot weather, rotate shifts of workers as required to manage heat stress; reduce the length of the
       work period and increase the length of the rest period.

       Maintain good hygienic standards; frequent change of clothing;  and daily showering.  Clothing
       should  be permitted to dry during rest  periods.  Persons who notice skin problems  should im-
       mediately consult medical personnel.
    Heat Stress Monitoring:    For monitoring the body's recuperative ability after exposure to excess
heat, several techniques are available as a screening mechanism. Monitoring of personnel who wear im-
pervious clothing typically commences when the ambient temperature is 70ฐF or above. When tempera-
tures exceed 85ฐF, workers are monitored for heat stress after every work period, usually 2 hours. The fol-
lowing are two monitoring schemes:
        1.  Heart rate (HR) is measured by the radial pulse for 30 seconds as early as possible in the rest-
        ing period.  The HR at the beginning of the rest period should not exceed 110 beats/minute.  If the
        HR is higher, the next work period is shortened by 10 minutes (or 33 percent), while the length of
        the rest period stays the same.  If the pulse rate is 100 beats/minute at the beginning of the next
        rest period, the following work cycle is shortened by 33 percent.

        2.  Body temperature is measured orally with a clinical thermometer as early as possible in the
        resting period. Oral temperature (OT) at the beginning of the rest period should not exceed 99ฐF.
        If it does, the next work period is shortened by 10 minutes (or 33 percent), while the length of the
        rest period stays the same. However, if the OT exceeds 99.7ฐF at the beginning of the next period,
        the following work cycle is further shortened by 33 percent.  OT is measured again at the end  of
        the rest period to make sure that it has dropped below 99ฐF. (Since a mercury thermometer re-
        quires as long as 5  minutes to register  the  correct body temperature, the use of digital ther-
        mometers should be considered.)

    Effects  Of Heat  Stress:     If the  body's  physiological processes fail to maintain a normal  body
temperature because of excessive heat, a number of physical reactions can occur ranging In degree from
mild (such as fatigue, irritability, anxiety, or a decrease in concentration, dexterity, or movement) to fatal.
First aid books should be consulted for specific symptoms and treatment.

    Effects of Cold Exposure:   Persons working outdoors in temperatures at or below freezing may be
frostbitten. Exposure to extreme cold for a short time may cause severe injury to the surface of the body or
result in profound generalized cooling, causing death.  Areas of the body that have a high surface-area-to-
volume ratio, such as fingers, toes, and ears, are the most susceptible.

    Two factors influence the development of a cold injury: ambient temperature and the velocity of the
wind. Wind chill is used to describe the chilling effect of moving air in combination with low temperature.
For instance, 10ฐF with a wind of 15 mph is equivalent in chilling effect to still air at -18ฐF. Charts depicting
the wind-chill factor are readily available.

    As a general rule, the greatest  incremental increase  in wind chill occurs  when a wind of 5 mph in-
creases to 10 mph.  Additionally, water conducts heat 240 times faster than air. Thus, the body cools sud-
denly when chemical-protective equipment is removed if the clothing underneath is soaked with perspira-

    Local  injury resulting from cold is included in the generic term frostbite.  There are several degrees of

    Systemic hypothermia is  caused by exposure  to  freezing or rapidly dropping  temperature.  Its
symptoms are  usually exhibited  in five stages:   (1) shivering;  (2) apathy, listlessness, sleepiness, and
(sometimes) rapid cooling of the  body to less than 95ฐF; (3) unconsciousness, glassy stare, slow pulse,
and slow respiratory rate; (4) freezing of the extremities; and, finally (5) death.

    First aid books should be consulted for symptoms and specific treatments for cold injury.   Site Survey and Reconnaissance

    Before the  team enters the site, as much information as possible should be collected concerning the
types of hazards, degree of hazards,  and risks  that may exist.  Using available information (shipping
manifests, transportation placards, existing records, container labels, etc.) or off site studies, the team will
assess the hazards and identify the initial safety requirements.

    The team(s) initially entering the site must accomplish one or more of the following objectives:
     •   Characterize the hazards that exist, or potentially exist, affecting the public health, the environ-
        ment, and the response personnel.

     •   Verify existing information and/or obtain data about the incident.

     •   Evaluate the need for prompt mitigative actions.

     •   Collect supplemental information to determine the safety requirements for personnel who initially
        and subsequently enter the site.

    Preliminary Onsite Evaluation: The initial onsite survey is to determine, on a preliminary basis, haz-
ardous or potentially hazardous conditions.  The main effort is to rapidly identify the immediate hazards
that may affect the public, the response personnel, and the environment.  Of major concern are the real
potential dangers-fire, explosion, oxygen deficient atmospheres, radiation, airborne contaminants, or con-
tainerized or pooled hazardous substances-that could affect workers during subsequent operations.

    Visual Observations: While at the site, the initial entry team should make visual observations that
would help in evaluating site hazards.  Some examples are dead fish or other animals; land features; wind
direction; labels on containers indicating explosive, flammable, toxic, or corrosive materials; conditions
conducive to splash or contact with unconfined liquids, sludges, or solids; and other general conditions.

    Direct-Reading Instruments:  A variety of toxic air pollutants including organic and inorganic vapors,
gases, or particulates can be produced at abandoned waste sites by fires at chemical manufacturing,
storage, reprocessing, or formulating  facilities or by  the inadvertent mixing  of chemicals during bulking
operations.  Direct-reading field instruments will not detect or measure all of these substances. Thus, lack
of response  should not be interpreted  as the complete absence of airborne toxic substances.  Verification
of zero results can be done only by collecting air samples and analyzing them in a laboratory.

    Priority  for Initial Entry Monitoring:    Of immediate concern to initial entry personnel  are atmos-
pheric conditions that could affect the  immediate safety of these personnel (see Exhibit 3-4).  These condi-
tions are airborne toxic substances, combustible gases or vapors, lack of oxygen, and, to a lesser extent,
ionizing radiation.  Priorities for monitoring these potential hazards should be established after a careful
evaluation of conditions.

    When the type(s) of material (s)  involved in the investigation is identified and its release into the environ-
ment suspected or known, the material's chemical or physical properties and the prevailing weather condi-
tions may help determine the order of monitoring. An  unknown substance(s) or situation(s) presents a
more difficult monitoring problem.

    In general, when poorly ventilated  spaces (buildings, ships' holds, boxcars, or bulk tanks) are entered,
combustible vapors or gases and oxygen-deficient atmospheres shall be monitored first by team members
wearing (as a  minimum) supplied-air respirators and a high degree of dermal protection.  Measurement of
toxic gases or vapors and radiation, unless known not to be present, should be the next priority.

    For open,  well-ventilated areas, combustion gases and oxygen deficiency are lesser hazards and re-
quire  lower  priority.   However, areas of lower elevation at the site  (such as ditches and gullies) and
downwind areas may have combustible gas mixtures, in addition to toxic vapors or gases, and may lack
sufficient oxygen to sustain life. Entry teams should approach and monitor whenever possible from the up-
wind side of an area.

    Periodic Monitoring:  The monitoring surveys made during initial entry to the site are for a prelimi-
nary evaluation of atmosphere hazards.  In some situations, the information obtained may be sufficient to
preclude additional  monitoring. A  chlorine tank determined to be releasing  no chlorine, is one such ex-
ample.  Materials detected during the  initial site survey may indicate the need  for a more comprehensive
evaluation of hazards and analyses for specific components. A program must be established for monitor-
ing, sampling, and evaluating hazards  for the duration of site operations.  Since site activities and weather
conditions change, a continuous program to monitor  atmospheric changes must be implemented using a
combination of stationary sampling equipment, personnel monitoring devices,  and  periodic area monitor-
ing with direct reading instruments.

                                          Exhibit 3-4
                          ATMOSPHERIC HAZARD  GUIDELINES
   Monitoring Equipment
  Combustible Gas
  Ambient Level
Explosive atmosphere    IT* 10% LELฐ

  Oxygen Concentration
  Radiation Survey
                                                GTฐ 20% LEL
                                                GT 25.0%
LT 1 mR/hr
  Detector (TLD) Badge
                       GT 10 mR/hr
  Colorimetric Tubes
Organic and inorganic

Total organic vapors/
gases and limited
inorganic species

Total organic vapors/
                          Specific organic
Depends on


Depends on
Continue investigation.

Continue onsite monitoring with ex-
treme caution as higher levels are en-

Explosion hazard; withdraw from area

Monitor, wearing self-contained breath-
ing apparatus (SCBA).  NOTE: Combus-
tible gas readings are not valid in atmos-
pheres with LT 19,5% oxygen.

Continue investigation with caution.
SCBA not needed, based on oxygen
content only.

Discontinue inspection; potential fire
hazard.  Consult specialist.

Continue investigation. If radiation is
detected above background levels, this
signifies the presence of possible radia-
tion sources; at this level, more
thorough monitoring is advisable. Con-
sult a health physicist.

Potential radiation hazard; evacuate
site.  Continue monitoring only upon
the advise of a health physicist

All employees shall wear a TLD badge
when working on hazardous waste sites
and during any response operation.
Badges will be analyzed quarterly to
determine compliance with federal

Consult  standard reference manuals for
air concentration/toxicity data.

Consult  EPA standard operating proce-
Consult EPA standard operating proce-

Consult standard reference manuals for
air concentrations/toxicity data.
a LT means less Uian.
b LEL is defined as lower explosive limit
c GT means greater than.

    Peripheral Monitoring:  Whenever possible, atmospheric hazards in the areas adjacent to the onsite
zone are monitored with direct-reading instruments, and air samples should be taken before the initial entry
for onsite monitoring. The lack of readings on instruments away from the site does not indicate a lack of
hazards onsite.  Offsite readings are only another piece of information to assist in the preliminary evalua-

    Monitoring Instruments: It is imperative that personnel using monitoring instruments be thoroughly
familiar with their use, limitations, and operating characteristics. All instruments have inherent constraints
in their ability to detect and/or quantify the hazards for which they were designed. Unless trained person-
nel use instruments and assess data readout, air hazards can be misinterpreted.  In addition, only intrinsi-
cally safe instruments shall be used until the absence of combustible gases or vapors can be confirmed.

    Ambient Atmospheric Concentrations: Any indication of atmospheric hazards (toxic substances,
combustible gases, lack of oxygen, radiation, and other specific materials) should be viewed as a sign to
proceed with care and deliberation.  Readings indicating nonexplosive atmospheres, low concentrations of
toxic substances, or other conditions may increase or decrease suddenly, changing the associated risks.

3.5.7   Information Sources

    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency.  "Standard Operating Safety  Guides." Memorandum from Wil-
liam Hedeman, Jr. 19 November 1984.

    U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency. Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous
Waste Site Activities. Developed by NIOSH / OSHA / USCG / EPA. October 1985.

    Occupational  Safety and Health Administration.  "Interim  Final  Rule for Hazardous Operations and
Emergency Response." 29 CFR 1910.120.  19 December 1986.

                                      SECTION 4



   This section describes procedures for sample identification and chain of custody. The purpose of
these procedures is to maintain the quality of samples during collection, transportation, and storage for
analysis.  Sample control and chain-of-custody procedures specific to the Contract Laboratory Program
(CLP) are presented in the User's Guide to the Contract Laboratory Program.


       Physical evidence collected for environmental measuring and monitoring.  Evidence includes
       remote-sensing imagery and photographs.

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for the successful  completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  The person is also referred  to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).


   When environmental measuring or  monitoring data are collected for the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), workers should refer to the procedures in this section.


   The SM or designee is responsible for monitoring compliance with these procedures. In general, it is
desirable to appoint one person to be responsible for implementing sample control procedures (i.e., field
operations leader).  However,  each sampler is responsible for the activities described in Subsections 4.5
and 4.6.


   The following records are kept:

   •  Sample identification tags (varies with the EPA region; see Subsection 4.7 and Exhibit 5-7)

   •  Sample traffic reports (e.g., Special Analytical  Services (SAS); see Exhibits 5-2, 5-3, and 5-9)

   •  Chain-of-custody (COC) forms and records (see Exhibits 5-4,5-5, and 5-6)

   •  Receipt-for-samples forms (varies among EPA regions; see Subsection 4.7 and Exhibit 4-3)

    •  Field Investigation Team (FIT) receipt (for sample forms and field notebooks not serially numbered
       by the U.S. EPA)
    •  Field notebooks
    •  Airbills or bills of lading
    •  Dioxin analysis forms (as applicable)
    •  Photographic logs
    Subsection 4.6 describes procedures for these records; Subsection 5.1.6 shows completed exhibits of
the first three items.
    Sample identification documents must be prepared to maintain sample identification and chain of cus-
tody.  The following are sample identification documents:
    •  Sample identification tags
    •  Sample traffic reports
    •  Chain-of-custody records
    •  Receipt-for-samples forms
    •  Custody seals
    •  Field notebooks
    These documents are usually numbered (serialized) by EPA.  Some varieties of custody seals, field
notebooks, or photographic logs may not be serialized.
    The following additional forms are used for samples shipped to CLP laboratories:
    •   Organic traffic reports
    •   Inorganic traffic reports
    •   High-hazard traffic reports
    •   SAS request forms
    •   Dioxin shipment records (as applicable)

    Completed examples of these forms are in Subsection 5.1.6 of this compendium.

    The organization's document control officer (designated on exhibits in this subsection as the Regional
Document Control Officer or RDCO) or another designated person maintains a supply of the documents
listed above, including field note books. The document control officer is responsible for the inventory of
serialized documents and the assignment of these documents to specific projects.  Unused field docu-
ments are usually returned to the document control officer at the end of the field sampling event. The
document control officer notes the return of these documents in the serialized document logbook.  In some
EPA regions, unused field documents are retained by the sampler to whom they were originally assigned
for use on future projects.  The sampler maintains a personal logbook in which is recorded the final disposi-
tion of all relevant field information.  Unused, returned documents may be checked out to another project
by the RDCO, as needed. A cross  reference of serialized field documents is usually maintained for each
project in the project files.  A sample cross-reference matrix is shown in Exhibit 4-1.

    The document control officer orders sample identification  tags, receipt-for samples forms,  custody
seals, and chain-of-custody records from the EPA regional offices.  Traffic reports and SAS request forms
are obtained through the Sample Management Office (SMO) representative.

    Exhibit 4-2 shows how the sample control documents can be integrated into the document control pro-
cedures used in an EPA project. The procedures for using each document are discussed below.  Subsec-
tion  4.7 discusses regional  variations; however,  because procedures change and  vary from region to
region, the EPA Regional Sample Coordinating Center (RSCC) should be contacted during the planning of
field activities to obtain the most current procedures. Appendix A of the User's Guide to the CLP contains a
directory of RSCC contacts and telephone numbers.

4.6.1   Sample Identification  Tags

    Sample identification tags (see  Exhibit 5-7) are distributed as needed to field workers by the SM (or
designated representative).  Procedures vary among EPA regions.  Generally, the EPA serial numbers are
recorded in the project files, the field notebook, and the document control officer's  serialized document
logbook.  Individuals are  accountable for each tag assigned to them.  A tag is  considered to be in an
individual's possession until it has been filled  out,  attached to a sample, and transferred to another in-
dividual along with the corresponding chain-of custody record.  Sample identification tags are not to be
discarded. If tags are lost, voided, or damaged, the facts are noted in the appropriate field notebook, and
the SM Is notified.

    Upon the completion of the field activities, unused sample identification tags are returned to the docu-
ment control officer, who checks them against the list of assigned serial numbers.  Tags attached to those
samples that are split with the owner, operator, agent-in-charge, or a government agency are accounted
for by recording the serialized tag numbers on the receipt-for-samples form (Exhibit 4-3). Alternatively, the
split samples are not tagged  but are  accounted for on a chain-of-custody form.

    Samples are transferred from the sample location to a laboratory or another location  for analysis.
Before transfer, however, a sample is often separated into fractions, depending on the analysis to be per-
formed. Each portion is preserved in accordance with prescribed procedures (see User's Guide to the CLP
and Section 6 of this compendium) and is identified with a separate sample identification tag, which should
indicate in the "Remarks" section that the sample is a split sample.

            Sample                   Organic         Inorganic      High-Hazard                 Chain-        Receipt-for-

Sample   Indentification    Type of       Traffic           Traffic         Traffic       Dioxin      of-Custody       Samples      Airbill      Date

SlaliQD.   Taa Number    Analysis   Report Number    Report Number Report Number   Eoima    Record Number   Form Number




          Exhibit 4-2

   The following information is recorded on the tag:
   •   CLP Case / SAS Number(s):  The unique number(s) assigned by SMO to identify the sampling
       event (entered under "Remarks" heading)

   •   CLP Sample Number:  The unique sample identification number (from the TR, DSR, or PL) used
       to document that sample (entered under "Remarks" heading)

   •   Project Code:  An assigned contractor project number

   •   Station Number:  A unique identifier assigned to a sampling point by the sampling team leader
       and listed in the sampling plan

   •   Date:  A six-digit number indicating the year, month, and day of collection

   •   Time:  A four-digit number indicating the local standard time of collection using the 24-hour clock
       notation (for example, 1345 for 1:45 p.m.)

   •   Station Location:  The sampling station description as specified in the sampling plan

   •   Samplers:  Each sampler's name and signature

   •   Preservative:  Whether a preservative is used and the type of preservative

   •   Analysis:  The type of analysis requested

   •   Tag Number:  A unique serial number, stamped on each tag

   •   Batch Number: The sample container cleaning batch number, recorded in the "Remarks" section

   •   Remarks: The sampler's record of pertinent information, such as batch number, split samples,
       and special procedures

   •   Laboratory Sample Number:  Reserved for laboratory use
    The tag used for water, soil, sediment, and btotic samples contains an appropriate place for identifying
the sample as a grab or a composite, the type of sample collected, and the preservative used, if any. The
tag used for air samples requires the sampler to designate the sequence number and identify the sample
type. Sample identification tags are attached to, or folded around each sample, and are taped in place.

    After collection, separation, identification and preservation, a traffic report is completed and the sample
is handled using chain-of-custody procedures discussed in the following sections. If the sample is to be
split, aliquots are placed into similar sample containers. Depending on the EPA region, sample identifica-
tion tags are completed and attached to each split and marked with the tag numbers of the other portions
and with the word "split." Blank or duplicate samples are labeled in the same manner as "normal" samples.
Information on blanks or duplicate samples is recorded in the field notebook.  Some EPA regions require
that laboratories be informed of the number of blanks and duplicates that are shipped, but not the identity
of the quality assurance samples.

    The printed and numbered adhesive sample labels affixed to the traffic reports are secured to sample
containers by the sampler.  Forms are filled out with waterproof ink,  if weather permits. If a pen will not
function because of inclement conditions, an indelible pencil may  be  used.  If a pencil is used, a note ex-



United States Environmental Services Division
Environmental Protection Agency BC/ปC.IปT mn ,.*,,ป, r*. u-s- Environmental Protection Agency Region 10
Region 10 RECEIPT FOR SAMPLES 1200 Sixtn Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98101
SAMPLER(S): (Signature)
Split Samples Offered
( ) Accepted ( ) Declined






Teg Numbers

Name of Facility

Facility Location

Station Description

Transferred by: (Signature)
Date Time
Distribution: Original to Coordinator Field Files; Copy to Facility
No. of



Received by. (Signature) Telephone Number
Title Date Time
N2 131


plaining the conditions must be included in the field notebook.  When necessary, the label is protected
from water and solvents with clear tape.

    The original is sent to the SMO. The first copy is retained for the project file.  The second and third
copies are sent with the shipment to the laboratory.  Complete instructions for the use of traffic reports are
given in the User's Guide to the CLP.

4.6.2  Sample Traffic Report (TR)

    The sample documentation system for the CLP sample preparation program is based on the use of the
sample traffic report (TR), a four-part carbonless form printed with a unique sample identification number.
One TR and its printed identification number is assigned by the sampler to each sample collected. The
three types of TRs  currently in use include organic, inorganic dioxin, and high-concentration TRs. (See
Subsection 5.1.6 for examples of completed TRs.)

    To provide a permanent record for each sample collected, the sampler completes the appropriate TR,
recording the case  number, site name or code and location, analysis laboratory, sampling office, dates of
sample collection and shipment, and sample concentration and matrix.  Numbers of sample containers
and  volumes are entered  by the sampler, beside the  analytical  parameter(s) requested for particular
sample portions.

4.6.3   Chain-of-Custody Forms and Records

    Because samples collected during an investigation could be used as evidence in litigation, possession
of the samples must be traceable from the time each is collected until it is introduced as evidence in legal
proceedings.  To document sample possession, chain-of-custody procedures are followed.  Definition of Custody

    A sample is under custody if one or more of the following criteria are met:
    •  The sample is in the sampler's possession.

    •  It is in the sampler's view after being in possession.

    •  It was in the sampler's possession and then was locked up to prevent tampering.

    •  It is in a designated secure area.   Field Custody Procedures

    Only enough of the sample should be collected to provide a good representation of the medium being
sampled.  To the extent possible, the quantity and types of samples and the sample locations are deter-
mined before the actual fieldwork. As few people as possible should handle the samples.

    Field samplers are personally responsible for the care and custody of the samples collected by their
teams until the samples are transferred or dispatched properly. A person is usually designated to receive

the samples from the field samplers after decontamination; this person maintains custody until the samples
are dispatched.

   The SM determines whether proper custody procedures were followed during the fieldwork and
decides if additional samples are required.    Transfer of Custody and Shipment

   Samples are accompanied  by a chain-of-custody (COC) form or record (Exhibits 5-4 and 5-5). When
transferring samples, the individuals relinquishing and receiving them should sign, date and note the time
on the form. This form documents sample custody transfer from the sampler, often through another per-
son, to the analyst, who is in a mobile or contract laboratory.

   Samples are  packaged  properly for  shipment and dispatched to the appropriate laboratory for
analysis, with a  separate COC record accompanying each shipment. Shipping containers are padlocked
or sealed with custody seals for shipment to the laboratory. The method of shipment, courier name(s), and
other pertinent information such as the  laboratory name should be entered  in the "Remarks" section of the
COC record.

   When  samples are split with an owner,  operator,  or government agency, the event is noted in the
"Remarks" section of the COC record. The note indicates with whom the samples are being split. The per-
son relinquishing the samples, to the facility or agency requests the signature of the receiving party on a
receipt-for-samples form (Exhibit 4-3)  (described in the following  subsection), thereby acknowledging
receipt of the samples. If a representative is unavailable or refuses to  sign, this situation is noted in the
"Remarks" section of the COC record.  When appropriate, for example, when an owner's representative is
unavailable, the COC  record and receipt-for-samples form should contain a statement that the samples
were delivered to the designated location at the designated time.  A witness to the attempted  delivery
should be obtained. The samples shall be secured if no one is present to receive them.

   All shipments are accompanied by  a COC record identifying their contents. The original form accom-
panies the shipment; the copies are retained by the sampler and returned to the sampling coordinator.

    If nonhazardous samples are sent by mail, the package Is registered, and a return receipt is requested.
Note:  Hazardous materials shall not be sent by mail.  If samples are  sent by common carrier,  a bill of
lading is used.  Air freight shipments are sent prepaid. Freight bills, postal service receipts, and bills of
lading should be retained as part of the  permanent documentation for the COC records.    Laboratory Custody Procedures

    Laboratory  personnel are responsible for the care and custody of samples from the time they are
received until the samples are exhausted or  returned to the laboratory sample custodian for ultimate dis-
posal.  Laboratory-specific variations exist; however, a generally accepted laboratory chain-of-custody pro-
cedure is presented below.  Any laboratory  used for the analysis of samples taken in the course of EPA
remedial response must have an adequate chain-of-custody procedure. This procedure is required as an
exhibit in the Quality Assurance Project  Plan (QAPjP) if the laboratory is not  in the CLP.

   A designated  custodian of laboratory samples accepts custody of the shipped samples and verifies
that the information on the sample identification tags  matches that on the COC records.  Pertinent informa-
tion on shipment,  pickup, courier, and condition of samples is entered in the "Remarks" section. The cus-
todian then enters the sample identification tag data into a bound logbook, which is arranged by project
code and station number.

   The laboratory custodian uses the sample identification tag number or assigns a unique laboratory
number to each sample; the custodian transfers the samples to the proper analyst or stores them in the ap-
propriate secure area.  A limited number of named individuals are allowed access to the sample storage
area. The appropriate analysts are responsible for the samples until they are returned to the custodian.

   When sample analyses and necessary quality assurance (QA) checks have been completed,  the un-
used portion of the  sample and the sample containers must be  disposed of properly (see Subsection  All identifying tags, data sheets, and laboratory records, are retained as part of the permanent

4.6.4   Receipt-for-Samples Form

   Section 3007(a) (2) of the RCRA states "If the officer, employee, or representative obtains any samples,
prior to leaving the premises he shall give to the owner, operator, or agent-in-charge, a receipt describing
the samples obtained and, if requested, a portion of each such sample equal in volume or weight to the
portion retained."  Section 104 of the  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), con-
tains identical requirements.

   Completing a receipt-for-samples form complies with these requirements; such forms should be used
whenever splits are offered or provided to the site owner, operator,  or agent-in-charge. The particular form
used may vary between EPA regions; an example is shown in Exhibit 4-3.  This form is completed and a
copy given to  the owner,  operator, or agent-in-charge even if the  offer for split samples is declined. The
original is given to the SM and is retained in the project files.  In addition, the contractor must  provide
analytical results from the samples collected to the owner, operator, or agent  in charge, as mandated in

4.6.5  Custody Seals

    When samples are shipped to the laboratory, they must be placed in padlocked containers  or con-
tainers sealed  with custody seals; a completed example is shown  in Exhibit 5-6.  Some  custody seals are
serially numbered.  These numbers must appear in the cross-reference matrix (Exhibit 4-1) of the field
document and on the COC report. Other types of custody seals include unnumbered seals and evidence

    When samples are shipped, two or more seals are to be placed on each shipping container (such as a
cooler), with at least one  at the front and one at the back, located in a manner that would indicate if the
container were opened in  transit. Wide, clear tape should be placed over the seals to ensure that seals are
not accidentally broken during shipment.  Nylon packing tape may be used providing that it does not com-
pletely cover the custody seal.  Completely covering the seal with this type of tape may allow the label to
be peeled off.  Alternatively, evidence tape may be substituted for custody seals.

    If samples are subject to interim storage before shipment,  custody seals or evidence tape  may be
placed over the lid of the jar or across the opening of the storage box.  Custody during shipping would be
the same as described above. Evidence tape may also be used to seal the plastic bags or metal cans that
are used to contain  samples in the cooler or shipping container.  Sealing individual sample containers as-
sures that sample integrity will not be compromised if the outer container seals are accidentally broken.

4.6.6  Field Notebooks

    A bound field notebook must be maintained by the sampling team leader to provide daily records of
significant events, observations, and measurements during field investigations. All entries are to be signed
and dated.  All members of the field investigation team are to use this notebook, which is to be kept as a
permanent record.  Observations or measurements that are taken in an area where contamination of the
field notebooks may occur may  be recorded in a separate bound and numbered logbook before being
transferred to the project notebook. The original records are retained, and the delayed entry is noted as

    Field  notebooks are intended to provide sufficient data and observations to enable participants to
reconstruct events that occurred  during projects and to-refresh the memory of the field personnel if called
upon to give testimony during legal proceedings, in a iegai proceeding, notes, if referred to, are subject to
cross-examination and are admissible as evidence. The field notebook entries should  be factual, detailed,
and objective.

4.6.7  Corrections to  Documentation

    Unless restricted by weather conditions, all original data recorded in field notebooks and on sample
identification tags, chain-of-custody records, and receipt-for-samples forms are written in waterproof ink.
These accountable serialized documents are not to be destroyed or thrown away, even if they are illegible
or contain inaccuracies that require a replacement document.

    If an error is made on an accountable document assigned to one person, that individual may make cor-
rections simply by crossing out the error and entering the correct information. The erroneous information
should not be obliterated. Any error discovered on an accountable document should  be corrected by the
person who made the entry. All corrections must be initialed and dated.

    For all photographs taken, a photographic log is kept; the log records date, time, subject, frame and
roll  number, and  photographer.  For "instant  photos," the date, time,  subject, and photographer are
recorded directly on the developed picture. The serial number of the camera and lens are recorded in the
project notebook.  The photographer should review the photographs or slides when they  return  from
developing and compare them to the log, to assure that the log and photographs match. It  can be par-
ticularly useful to photograph the labeled sample jars before packing them  into shipping containers. A
clear photograph of the sample jar, showing the label, any evidence tape sealing the jar, and the color and
amount of sample, can be most useful in reconciling any later discrepancies.


    Region-specific variances are common; the SM should contact the EPA RPM or the RSCC before any
sampling campaign to ascertain the latest procedures.  Future changes in variances will be incorporated in
subsequent revisions to this compendium.

4.7.1  Region I

    Region I uses a standard contractor serialized chain-of-custody form and an unnumbered chain-of-cus-
tody seal, which are placed on the outside of the shipping cooler.  Numbered sample bottle labels are  used
for REM site work and numbered tags for FIT site work.

4.7.2  Region II

    Region II uses an unnumbered chain-of-custody form and numbered sample bottle labels for all site
work. Custody seals are placed on the outside of the shipping cooler.

4.7.3  Region III

    Region III uses a serialized chain-of-custody form and  numbered sampling tags.  Chain-of-custody
seals used by Region III are unnumbered and placed on the outside of the shipping cooler.

4.7.4  Region IV

    Region IV has a detailed procedural discussion in the Engineering Support Branch Standards Operating
Procedures and Quality Assurance Manual, U.S. EPA, Region IV, Environmental Services Division, 1 April

4.7.5  Region V

    Region V uses a serialized chain-of-custody seal.  Region V seals are color coded; orange is  used for
REM and FIT work.  Seals are placed on the outside of the shipping cooler only if the samples are sent the
same day as collected; otherwise, seals are placed across sample jar lids. FIT does not note whether or
not samples were split on the chain-of-custody record.  FIT Includes the corresponding Traffic Report num-
ber under the remarks section of the tag. The bottle lot numbers or "batch numbers" are not recorded
here, but on the "Chain-of Custody form."

4.7.6 Region VI

    Region VI does not use a serialized number control system on custody seals.

4.7.7 Region VII

    Region VII personnel provide onsite sample control.  Samples are logged into a computer by regional
personnel. Although contractor personnel do not  seal and  log samples, chain of custody is followed as
described above.

4.7.8 Region VIM

    Region VIII does not use a serialized number control system on custody seals.

4.7.9 Region IX

    Region IX does not use a serialized  number control system on chain-of-custody seals.

4.7.10 Region X

   Region X does not use a serially numbered custody seal.  Seals are signed, and the sample ID number
is written on the seal.

   Superfiind Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Section 104(m), "Information Gathering Access

   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  NEICPolicies and Procedures. EPA-330/9-78-001-R. May 1978.
(Revised February 1983.)

   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. REM IV Zone Management Plan. Contract No. 68-01-7251,

   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  User's Guide to the Contract Laboratory Program. Office of Emer-
gency and Remedial Response. December 1986.

   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Zone IIREM/FITQuality Assurance Manual.  Contract No. 68-
01-6692, CH2M HILL and Hazardous Site Control Division.

                                     SECTION 5

                           LABORATORY INTERFACE


   Note: This section is organized by contract and noncontract laboratory programs to provide a clearer
differentiation between programs.

5.1.1  Scope and Purpose

   This subsection summarizes  how to schedule analyses through  the National Contract Laboratory
Program (CLP), the types of services provided by the CLP, the paperwork involved in submitting samples
to a CLP laboratory, and how to contact a CLP laboratory regarding final disposition of analytical data.  A
detailed discussion of the entire CLP, including the CLP tracking system, can be found in the User's Guide
to the CLP.

5.1.2  Definitions and Abbreviations

National Contract Laboratory Program (CLP)
       (See User's Guide to the CLP.)

Regional Sample Control Center (RSCC)
       (See User's Guide to the CLP.)

Sample Management Office (SMO)
       (See User's Guide to the CLP.)

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  The person is also referred to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

5.1.3  Applicability

    This subsection is applicable to samples collected during Superfund projects. Only EPA may grant ex-
ceptions to the required use of CLP. The use of CLP is a requirement only when justified by the choice of
data quality objectives (DQO). There will be many opportunities to use mobile laboratories,  screening
protocols, subcontracted private laboratories or EPA regional laboratories.

5.1.4  Responsibilities

    Detailed responsibilities are described in Subsection 5.1.6 on procedures. General responsibilities are
given to the following:

    •  Site Managers for planning the sampling dates and analytical requirements

    •  EPA Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) for communicating the sampling or analytical schedule to
       the RSCC

    •  RSCC for deciding sample priorities within their region and for telling SMO their analytical needs on
       a monthly, as well as a weekly, basis

    •  SMO for scheduling sample analysis, communicating the laboratory information back to the RSCC,
       and contacting the laboratories concerning late or missing data
    •  Sampling personnel for completing the required paperwork and for contacting SMO and RSCC
       with shipping information

5.1.5  Records

    The following sample documentation is required (examples are given in Subsection 5.1.6):

    •  Organic traffic report

    •  Inorganic traffic report

    •  High-concentratio" traffic  report

    •  CLP dioxin shipment record

    •  Special analytical service packing list

    •  Sample tag and label

    •  Custody seal

    •  Chain-of-custody (COC) form
    Note: All of the above are not required for each sample collected. The reader should refer to subsec-
tion 5.1.6 for specific requirements.

5.1.6  Procedures

    The procedures in this subsection are presented in the chronological order used during a routine sam-
pling episode; they are applicable to routine, as well as special, analytical services. Exhibit 5-1 summarizes
the process from start to finish.  These procedures are generic with an approach to regional differences
discussed in Subsection 5.1.7. (See also Subsection    Activities Before Sampling

       1. The project team decides what sampling is to occur at the site and the analyses to be per-
       formed, based on available data. The CLP provides a choice of two analytical services: routine
       and special.  Routine analytical services include analysis of a soil or water sample at low-to-


          Exhibit 5-1

      Project Team Decides on
 Numbers of Samples, Dates, Analyses
                         Site Project Manager Completes
                             CLP Projection Form
                           CLP Coordinator Compiles
                               Analytical Needs
                           CLP Coordinator Contacts
                                  the RSCC
                      RSCC Compares Analyticals Requests
                            with Monthly Allocation
                                        WAIT FOR
        RSCC Calls
  SMO with Sampling Info
       SMO Assigns
    Case Number, Labs
Samples Collected, Paperwork
   Completed, SMO Called
  Samples Shipped to Lab
    Analysis Performed
Results Sent to RSCC & SMO
    RSCC Sends Results
       to Contractor
    Contractor Contacts
    RSCC with Questions
RSCC Calls the Lab or SMO &
   Gets Back to Contractor
            LAB NOT
                                ABOVE ALLOCATION
                               RSCC Notifies Contractor
                             that SMO Cannot Take Samples
Decision by EPA to Go Outside
the CLP or Wait for CLP Spat e
Procure Lab

                                   Collect Samples,
                                 Complete Paperwork
                                 Send Samples to Lab
                                  Analysis Performed
                              Results Sent to Contractor
                               Contractor Contacts Lab
                                   with Questions

medium concentration levels (<15 per cent of any single compound) for the Target Com-
pound List (TCL) organics and/or inorganics with a 30-day to 45-day turnaround requirement.
The TCL includes  organic compounds, trace elements and cyanide.  Special analytical ser-
vices include any analysis that is not routine, such as analysis for non-TCL compounds; dif-
ferent turnaround times; high concentration soils, water, drums, etc.; or different sample media
(e.g., fish, air, etc.).

2. The SM completes a CLP monthly projection form that details the sampling anticipated for
the present month as well as the following 2 months. This form is submitted to the contractor's
CLP coordinator, who compiles the analytical needs.

3. The  contractor's CLP coordinator contacts the EPA RPM with the information.  The RPM
contacts the authorized  requesters (AR)  at the appropriate RSCC and gives them  the ap-
propriate information. The AR calls the SMO with the necessary information.

The  SMO requires the following information from an AR to initiate a RAS request:

     •  Name of RSCC authorized requester

     •  Name(s), association, and telephone number(s) of sampling personnel

     •  Name, city, and state of the site to be sampled

     •  Superfund  site/spill ID (2-digit alpha-numeric  code)

     •  Dioxin tier assignment, where applicable

     •  Number and matrix of samples to be collected

     •  Type of analyses required

        -   Organics:  Full (VOA, BNA, and pesticides / PCB) or  VOA and/or BNA and/or pes-
            ticides / PCB
            Inorganic: Metals and/or cyanide
        -   Dioxin: 2.3,7,8-TCDD

     •  Scheduled sample collection and shipment dates

     •  Nature of sampling event (i.e., investigation,   monitoring, enforcement, remedial, drilling
        project, CERCLA Cooperative Agreements)

     •  Suspected hazards associated with the sample and/or site

     •  Other pertinent information that  may affect  sample  scheduling  or shipment (i.e., an-
        ticipated delays because of site access, weather conditions, sampling equipment)

     •  Name(s) of regional or contractor contacts for  immediate problem resolution

 This information is submitted to the RSCC as early as possible before the anticipated sampling
 date. A minimum  of 2 weeks lead time is strongly suggested for RAS requests.  Changes in
 the sample schedule are  relayed to the RSCC as soon as they become known.  It should be
 recognized that changes in the sampling  schedule may delay laboratory assignments, espe-
 cially if they are frequent or "last minute."  This reporting sometimes necessitates daily contact
 with the RSCC.

RSCC telephone numbers are found in the User's Guide to the CLP, Appendix A.

4.  Special Analytical Service (SAS) is handled slightly differently.  Because these services are
individually procured on a competitive basis, a minimum lead time of 2 weeks is required to
process a completely defined SAS request.  More lead time is strongly recommended when-
ever possible.  Certain types of SAS requests require a longer lead time, as follows: A mini-
mum lead  time of 2  to 3 weeks is required for SAS  requests that involve distribution of
protocols. A minimum lead time of 4 or more weeks is recommended for large-scale, analyti-
cally complex, and/or non-Superfund SAS requests.   Award of non-Superfund SAS sub-
contracts may be made only after the appropriate funding process is complete.

SMO requires the following information from an AR to initiate an SAS request:
    •  Name of RSCC authorized requestor

    •  Name(s), association, and telephone number(s) of sampling personnel

    •  Name, city and state of the site to be sampled

    •  Superfund site / spill ID (2-digit alpha-numeric code)

    •  Number and matrix of samples to be collected

    •  Specific analyses required and appropriate protocols and QA/QC

    •  Required detection limits

    •  Matrix spike and duplicate frequency

    •  Data turnaround and data format

    •  Justification for fast turnaround request, if appropriate

    •  Scheduled sample collection and shipment dates

    •  Nature  of sampling event (i.e., investigation,  monitoring, enforcement, remedial, drilling
       project, CERCLA Cooperative Agreements)

    •  Suspected hazards associated with the samples and/or site

    •  Other pertinent  information that may affect  sample scheduling or shipment (i.e.,  an-
       ticipated delays because of site access, weather condition, sampling equipment)

    •  Name(s) of regional or contractor contacts for immediate problem resolution
5. The RSCC contacts SMO to schedule analysis at least 1 week before start of sampling for
Routine Analytical Analysis (RAS) only; for SAS, additional time is needed.  SMO assigns a
case number, an SAS number (if applicable) and  laboratories; this information is communi-
cated to the RSCC.

       6.  The RSCC contacts the RPM or the SM regarding the case number, SAS number, and
       laboratory information no later than noon on the Wednesday of the week before sample ship-
       ment. The RSCC also provides traffic reports, custody seals, SAS packing lists, chain-of-cus-
       tody forms,  sample tags, and CLP dioxin shipment record forms, as appropriate for EPA/CLP
       sampling events.   Sampling Activities

       1.  During the sampling process, sampling personnel maintain close contact with SMO and
       RSCC, relaying  sampling information, shipping Information, problems encountered during
       sampling, and any changes from the originally scheduled sampling program.  Shipping infor-
       mation Is called in to SMO before 5:00 p.m. Eastern  Standard Time (EST) on the day of ship-
       ment or by  8:00 a.m. EST the next day.  Friday-shipments are called in to SMO before 3:00
       p.m. EST to confirm Saturday delivery.

       2.  Samplers should provide SMO with the following information during the call:
           •  Sampler name and phone number

           •  Case number and/or SAS number of the project

           •  Site name / code

           •  Batch numbers (dioxin only)

           •  Exact number(s), matrixes and concentration^) of samples shipped

           •  Laboratory(ies) that samples were shipped to

           *  Carrier name and airbill number(s) for the shipment

           •  Method of shipment (e.g., overnight, 2-day)

           •  Date of shipment

           •  Suspected hazards associated with the samples or site

           •  Any irregularities or anticipated problems with the samples, including special handling in-
              structions, or deviations from established sampling procedures

           •  Status of the sampling project (e.g., final shipment, update of future shipping schedule)
       3. Samplers must complete the required SMO / CLP paperwork before sample shipment. Ex-
       amples of properly completed forms are given in Exhibits 5-2 through 5-10. (Also see Section
       4 for information regarding sample control and chain-of-custody reports.)

       4. The designated copies of the completed paperwork are sent to the laboratory or SMO, as
       appropriate. All paperwork must be submitted within the same week of the sampling event.

                         Exhibit 5-2
     U.S. LNVlhuNMEN'lAx,
ILCilON AGLNCY IIW1 Sample Management Office
                                                   Sample Number
                                                   AH   719
Q) Case Number:
Sample Site Name/Code*

$ 750 • 75"

ฉRegional Office: A&ifett*
Sampling Personnel:
*^// J?6 3 3S"ฃ
Airbill Number:
(Check C
JC_. Water

JieckOne) QtR L.&B
,3.3.1 Ro*-i> Snefฃ7~
„ JOMe^T'Vi/^', SPfTS
*ปrortr Attn: ^-S}A— /M \4J-/O-S~
Al/f-721yy^S ^7^^ *^ MA& /g*?
ฉ Special Handling Instructions:
(e.g., safety precautions, hazardous nature)

                   Exhibit 5-3
                                           Sample Number
                                           MAD  189

"~" Sample Site Name/Code:
CHeMic-At- 6ouf //ftS&ZT

0 Sampling Office: A/C/5 AffHfD
Sampling Personnel:
fNxmAl i^flfVlPtJGy^L
fPhone) -V/ 3j "798- /O8D
Sampling Date:
(Beoin) ///J5ip5~(End> f//5/ff^'

ฎ Sample Description:
(Check One)
Surface Water
	 Mixed Media
(specify) ...

y (Check One)
— * — Low Concentration
— — — Medium Concentration
(Check One)
— Jป — Water

(t) Shipping Information:
Name Of Carrier:

nataShiPPBrf- ///r/tfS"
Airhill Nutnhar- .5S~O2ฃ3 3<ฃf

(m\ Mark Volume Level
On Sample Bottle
Check Analysis required

(7) Ship To:
JS^Twr *ฐซ*>
A*jyrcw*j,siwฃ ooooo
Attn: ^lA4Af ^coCJ^/^^TDC
Ship To:

MAD 189 - Total Metals

' MAD 189 • Total Metals

MAH 1 QQ fVaiiJJ,.

MAD •!• 0 Jf - Cyanide
MAD 189
MAD 189
MAD 189

-  cs
                STA. NO
RdlnqultlMd by
                                                                                         Oil* /Tim*
                                 Oillrtbulion Ottpnil Accompwitoa Shts*?7*nt. Copy to Coordinator ftttil Fttto
                                                                                   REGION a
                                                                           Curli* Bldfl . Slh & Walnut Si*
                                                                          PbN*dซlphM, PMMi*riv*nta 1ttOซ
                                                                                                                    0*u 1 Tlm*
                                                                                                                    Dal* / Tim*
                                           R*c*l>M by IS&utvrt>
                                           Hซcซivtd by IS>t*iivrt>

                                      Exhibit 5-5
                        IN LIEU OF CHAIN-OF-CUSTODY FORM
                          CHAIN  OF CUSTODY  RECORD
Environmental Services Division
                                2.,  CUFF

                               rrt ,  PA


 Au. T
   ? Tilt



          Rซlinquilhซd By:
            mouuh.d By
                                    ซ...iv.J By.
                                                               tซซปn f.r Chang. •( Custody
                                                                 it*n fปr Chang* *f Cvttody
                                                                          •' Cuirody

                 Exhibit 5-6


                         fu  1-3
                         3  U
                         & 0)

                         ft O
                         ป• tr
                         (D  <



5-  ซซ
    ^i.  co   o
g Region III Samp
side of the sample tag bears a
•opriate regional address.
w i*

ib Sample No.




— to

Z a:
*GPO 776-312

Project Code
01 I*
~-l z
0 ฐ
Lab Sample No.
Station No.
Station Location






Samplers (Signatures)






o. o
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Yes D No [3


                                   Exhibit 5-8
                       SPECIAL ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                 PACKING LIST
 CLP Sample Management Office
 P.O. Box 818 - Alexandria, Virginia 22313
 Phone: 703/557-2490  - FTS/557-2490
                                                                        SAS Number
                            SPECIAL ANALYTICAL SERVICE
                                    PACKING LIST
Sampling Office:
   10 US
Sampling Contact:
                        Sampling Date(s):
                        Date Shipped:
                       Site Name/Code:
Ship To:
 For Lab Use Only

Date Samples Rec'd:

 Received By:
                                     Sample Description
                              i.e., Analysis, Matrix, Concentration
                          Sample Condition on
                            Receipt at Lab
   999C - 03
                                                                      For Lab Use Only
  White - SMO Copy,  Yellow - Region Copy, Pink - Lab Copy for return to SMO, Gold - Lab Copy

                                 Exhibit 5-9
                        HIGH-HAZARD TRAFFIC REPORT
                                                         Sample Number

                            FIELD SAMPLE RECORD
CD Case
   Sample Sjte Name/Code:
D FieM Sample Description:
  _ Aqueous Liquid.
  _ Sludge
                         _ Other
D Sup To: FReb <1HA<2.T
^      . LAC> POOAA 18
(4) Sampling Office:
                  Known or Suspected Hazards:
                             -TAAMS FORMS fL
                                 Sample Location.'

    Sampling Date:
  Preparations Requested:
  (check below)

  Sample Volume: _
   Shipping Information:
      (name of carrier)
      (date shipped)
                   X Vobtte Qrganics
                   ^Base/Neutral And,

                   __ Total Metals
                   	Total Mercury
                   	Strong Acad Arnons
      (antaB number)
   Special Handling Ltistructions:
                    Ajo ov/A
                                                      A 5500
                                                      A 5500
                                               A 5500

                                      Exhibit 5-10
                           CLP DIOXIN SHIPMENT RECORD
USEPA Contract Laboratory Program
Sample Management Office
P.O. Box 818 Alexandria, Virginia 22313
FTS 8-557-2490  703/557-2490      CLp D|OX|N SH|PMENT RECORD
                       Data Turnaround:

                       15-Day	 30-Day
    OOP / O I
   oo O i o 2-
    OOP | 03
P6  OC)O (01
     ooo uf-
                      a. (A
          WHITE—SMO Copy   YELLOW-flegton Copy   PINK-tab Copy for Return to SMO   GOLI>-Lab Copy

-------    Postsampling Activities

       1. When the laboratory finishes the analysis, a copy of the results is forwarded to SMO and
       another copy to the RSCC. The R8CC forwards a copy of the results to the RPM and the con-
       tractor. If the results do not arrive at the contractor's office within the contractually required
       time frame, the contractor's CLP coordinator initiates a call to the RSCC regarding the status
       and expected completion data of the analysis.

       2. Once the data are received,  questions may arise regarding their interpretation. The SM will
       contact the EPA RPM  or RSCC, who contacts SMO or the laboratory to resolve questions
       about the data.

       3. SMO routinely performs Contract Compliance Screening (CCS) on all RAS data; modified
       CCS can be performed on a case-by-case basis for mixed RAS-plus-SAS or all -SAS data. This
       review determines completeness of data dellverables and compliance with contract specifica-
       tion by the laboratory.

       4. Data review services are provided by SMO upon request of the Regional Deputy Project Of-
       ficer. Data review can be used by the SM to determine the usability and limitations of data, to
       maximize usable data and to provide standardized data quality assessment. Review cannot be
       initiated until all CLP deliverables have been received from the laboratory.

       Contractually, the required time span is for analyses to be conducted by the laboratory.
       Review and validation for compliance with quality assurance / quality control  (QA/QC) require-
       ments consume additional time. The SM should plan accordingly.

5.1.7 Region-Specific Variances

    Each EPA region has  developed variations in laboratory interface procedures, including the records
procedures for sampling and postsampling activities and the Individual forms used for the individual tasks.
Information on variations provided  here may become dated rapidly. Thus, it is imperative that the user con-
tact the individual EPA RPM or  RSCC to get full details on current regional practices and requirements.  Fu-
ture changes in variances will be incorporated in subsequent revisions to this compendium.

    The regional variances presented  in this subsection-as examples only-are given in chronological
order to allow for comparison with the general procedure outlined in  Subsection 5.1.6.    Activities Prior to Sampling

        1. In Region  I, the Site Managers must  submit an analytical request for each individual sam-
        pling event at least 1 week prior to its occurrence.  The request is  submitted to the EPA RPM,
       who forwards the  request to the EPA RSCC personnel.  This request confirms the previously
       scheduled sampling.

       2. Regions I and Vlfl provide a supply of organic and inorganic traffic reports that are used as
        needed and that are replaced periodically.  Region II supplies traffic reports on a trip-by-trip
        basis.  Regions III and IV provide a supply of organic and inorganic traffic reports to major
        contractors.   These reports are used as needed and are replaced periodically as the supply
        diminishes. All other contractors within  Regions III and IV will receive traffic reports on a trip-
        by-trip basis, as needed.

       3. In Region V, the RSCC ranks by priority the monthly sampling requests and Indicates that
       sampling can occur. The contractor is responsible for scheduling the analysis through 8MO.

       4. In Region IX, the Site Managers communicate directly with the RSCC, providing them with
       the monthly CLP projections.    Sampling Activities

       1. Regions I, III, V, VI, and VIII use sample tags supplied by the region.  Region II does not
       supply sample tags, which necessitates the use of  contractor sample labels.  Region IX sup-
       plies sample labels; no tags are used.  Dedicated major Region IV contractors use sample tags
       supplied by the region. All other Region IV contractors must supply their own tags according
       to the region's specifications.

       2. The Region IV sample tag is filled out differently from the Region III sample tag. Exhibit 5-7
       gives an example of completed tags from Regions III and IV.

       3. The Region II chain-of-custody (COC) form is entirely different from the COC form used by
       the other regions. The Region I, III, IV, V, VIII, and IX COC forms are almost identical. Exhibits
       5-4 and 5-5 show two types of forms.

       4. Region IV requires that custody seals be put on each  bottle, unless one can ensure cus-
       tody, as in hand delivery situations.  Regions I, II, III, and VI require custody seals on the outer
       shipping container only. Region IX requires custody seals on both the sample bottles and the
       outer shipping container.  Regions V and VIII require custody seals on the outer shipping con-
       tainer, with an option to put seals on each sample container.

       5. Region IV places the traffic report label on the sample tag and the sample  bottle, whereas
       Regions I, II, III,  V, VI, VIII, and IX place the label directly on the bottle.

       6. When the regional supply of COC forms or sample tags is not available, the contractor may
       supply COC forms and sample labels.  These contractor supplied materials  must  satisfy all
       regional requirements for these forms.

       7. Sampling personnel in Region IX contact the RSCC rather than SMO with shipping informa-

       B. The  Region V procedures manual is being updated and will be available in June 1987; ex-
       amples of completed paperwork are shown  in that manual.    Postsampling Activities

       1. Regions II, VI, and IX conduct the validation of the laboratory data, whereas data from sam-
       pling conducted in Regions I and VIII are validated by the contractor.  Both the contractor and
       the EPA validate the data generated in Regions III, IV, and V.

       2. The contractor-CLP coordinators provide the RSCCs in Regions II and VI with  blank sample
       numbers, duplicate sample numbers, and other pertinent sampling Information needed by the
       data validators.  This same information is provided by the SM in Region IX.

5.1.8  Information Sources

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  User's Guide to the Contract Laboratory Program. Office of Emer-
gency and Remedial Response. December 1986.

    CH2MHILL REMIFITDocumentation Protocol forRegion V.  May 1984.

    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency. Engineering Support Branch Standard Operating Procedures and
Quality Assurance Manual. Region IV, Environmental Services Division. 1 April 1986.


5.2.1  Scope and Purpose

    There is no formal noncontract laboratory program (non-CLP) run parallel to the Contract Laboratory
Program. A noncontract laboratory is procured by a method other than going through the SMO.

    This subsection discusses how to contact a non-CLP laboratory, the paperwork involved when submit-
ting samples to such a laboratory, and the resolution of questions once the analyses have been completed.

5.2.2  Definitions

Noncontract Laboratory
       A laboratory that works directly for a contractor rather than SMO.

5.2.3  Applicability

    The procedures in this subsection apply to two situations: (1) the CLP does not have the capacity to
accept a sample, or (2) the EPA grants an exemption to the CLP usage requirement. The use of CLP is not
a requirement unless justified by the choice of DQO. There will be opportunities to use mobile laboratories,
field screening protocols, subcontracted  private laboratories, or EPA regional laboratories.

5.2.4   Responsibilities

    Responsibilities are discussed in Subsection 5.2.6 on procedures.  General responsibilities are as fol-

    •   Site Managers plan the sampling dates and analytical requirements; the EPA RPM approves.

    •   The project chemist and chemistry section manager prepare the invitation for bids and evaluate
        and choose  qualified laboratories to  receive the invitation.   The SM  and  EPA RPM select
        the laboratory.

    •   Sampling personnel complete the required paperwork and contact the laboratory with shipping in-

5.2.5  Records

    The following sample documentation is required (examples are given in Subsection 5.1.6):
    •  Sample tag or label

    •  Custody seal

    •  Chain-of-custody (COG) form
    A sample tag or label is required for each bottle of sample collected, while each shipment requires cus-
tody seals and COG forms.

5.2.6 Procedures

    The procedures in this subsection are presented in the chronological order used during a routine sam-
pling episode; they are applicable to any type of analysis.  Exhibit 5-1 summarizes the process from start to
finish.   Activities Before Sampling

    The first four activities conducted for a non-CLP laboratory before sampling are identical to steps 1
through 4 in Subsection These steps continue as follows:

       5. Each RSCC is given a monthly allocation of sample slots from SMO, for which the RSCCs
       may submit samples for analysis. Sometimes a region has more samples for analysis than
       slots, in which case some sampling must be postponed or canceled.  The RSCC notifies the
       contractor when such a situation arises.  Likewise, there are times when SMO cannot find a
       laboratory to perform the requested analysis. This is especially true for SAS work. The RSCC
       once again notifies the contractor of the unavailability of a laboratory.

       6. The SM evaluates the advantages between waiting until CLP space becomes available and
       sending the samples outside the CLP system and advises the EPA RPM.  The EPA RPM is
       responsible for deciding which  laboratory to use. The EPA regional laboratory may be avail-
       able to analyze the samples, in  which case the EPA laboratory  is treated as a CLP laboratory
       and the procedures in Section 5.1 are followed.  If the decision is to go outside CLP, the RSCC
       and its QA coordinator can be very helpful in choosing a properly qualified laboratory.

       As an alternate to steps 1 through 6, the project team and EPA RPM may determine that CLP-
       level data are not necessary for all analyses. In situations that involve taking a large  number
       of samples, possibly taking a number of "clean" samples, or gathering information that will
       clearly never be used in an enforcement action, the appropriate analytical procedures may be
       furnished  either by field instrumentation, by mobile laboratories, by a temporary laboratory set
       up near the site, or by contracting the work to a local laboratory.  (CLP laboratories may also
       be used if they have non-CLP capacity available.)  Procurement of these analytical services fol-
       lows the steps discussed below.

       7.  A laboratory is procured using a standard bidding process.  The laboratories chosen to
       receive the invitation for bids (IFB) are usually approved by the  EPA regional QA  repre-
       sentative, as well as other qualified EPA personnel.  The analytical protocol is specified in the
       bid package and conforms closely to CLP or other EPA-approved methods. CLP methods are
       preferred because of the QA requirements.   Typically, IFBs  are sent  to  at least three
       laboratories. The SM selects the laboratory with technical assistance from the EPA RSCC, if
       available. The EPA Headquarters Project Officer and/or Contracting Officer must approve the
       subcontract before work begins.

       On state lead sites, the prime contractor subcontracts with the laboratory and  separate IFBs
       are not sent.   Several remedial  engineering  management (REM)  contractors  have the
       availability to use team member laboratories that have established costs for several analyses.
       These laboratories may also respond to SAS requests in the form of subcontract bids.

       The analytical procedures, and the QA/QC and  sample control procedures used by the non-
       CLP laboratory are included as part of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP). Depend-
       ing on the type of analysis to be performed (e.g., field screening using portable instruments),
       QA/QC procedures  may be greatly simplified when compared to CLP requirements.  Data
       validation will  be less time consuming also.  Specific procedures for local,  temporary, or
       mobile laboratories vary widely;  the SM must carefully review these procedures before con-
       tracting any work.    Sampling

       1.  During sample collection, the samplers complete the required paperwork before the sample
       shipment.  Examples of properly completed forms are given  in Exhibits 5-4 through 5-7.  It
       should be noted that whenever a noncontract laboratory is used, the contractor sample num-
       ber should  be substituted for the traffic report number, since no traffic report forms are used.

       2.  The samplers call the laboratory when samples are shipped  or if shipment is delayed for
       any reason. This call allows for immediate notification when samples do not arrive on time,
       and it facilitates sample tracking.  For mobile laboratories, care must be exercised to  prevent
       "flooding" the sample preparation or analytical capabilities of the laboratory.  Daily meetings
       with the mobile laboratory are sometimes needed.

       3.  The designated copy of the COC form is sent to the laboratory with the samples. Standard
       EPA and DOT shipping procedures are followed.    Postsampling

       1. When the laboratory finishes the analyses, a copy of the results is forwarded  to the contrac-
       tor. The project chemist contacts the laboratory if results do not arrive on time.  Unlike at CLP
       laboratories, verbal reporting of unvalidated results can be obtained from contractor chosen or
       mobile laboratories. While the SM  must be judicious in the use of these results, the rapid turn-
       around allows the SM to adjust the sampling plan and to more intelligently use  CLP resources
       for full analyses.

       2. Once the data are received, questions may arise regarding their interpretation. The project
       chemist is  the primary laboratory contact to resolve such questions.

-------    Residual Samples and Analytical Wastes

    At EPA's direction, duplicate samples are  often collected and stored for later use.  These archived
samples, the residuals of samples sent out for analyses, and some of the wastes generated during analyses
are regulated by various federal regulatory programs.  CLP laboratories will assume responsibility for
sample residuals at the laboratories. However, the SM must make arrangements for the proper disposal of
archived or residual samples at non-CLP laboratories. Regulatory Framework

    Each major federal program has elements that are expected to apply to sample and laboratory opera-
tions. These elements are cited and discussed briefly in this subsection.

    RCRA:  The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply only to those wastes
designated as hazardous under 40 CFR 261.3.  If a sample  is not a solid waste as defined in 40 CFR 261.2
or if the sample is a solid waste but not designated as hazardous in 40 CFR 261.3, that sample is not regu-
lated under RCRA.

    Even hazardous waste samples as defined in 40 CFR  261.3 are exempt from RCRA regulation if the
terms of paragraph 40 CFR 261.4(d) are met. Section 40 CFR 261.4(d) is presented in its entirety below.
40 CFR 261.4(d) Samples
       (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, a sample of solid waste or a sample
       of water, soil, or air, which is collected for the sole purpose of testing to determine its charac-
       teristics or composition, is not subject to any requirements of this part, or Parts 262 through
       267, or Part 270, or Part 124 of this chapter, or to the notification requirements of Section 3010
       of RCRA, when:

       (261.4(d)  introductory paragraph amended by 48 FR 30115, June 30,1983)

               (i) The sample is being transported to a laboratory for the purpose of testing; or

               (ii) The sample is being transported back to the  sample collector after testing; or

               (iii) The sample is being stored by the sample collector before transport to a laboratory
               for testing; or

               (iv) The sample is being stored in a laboratory before testing; or

               (v) The sample is being stored in a laboratory after testing but before it is returned to
               the sample collector; or

               (vi) The sample is being stored temporarily in the laboratory after testing for a specific
               purpose (for example, until conclusion of a court case or enforcement  action where
               further testing of the sample may be necessary).

       (2) To qualify for the exemption in paragraph (d)(1)(i) and (II) of this section, a sample collector
       shipping samples to a laboratory, and a laboratory returning samples to a  sample collector

              (I) Comply with DOT, U.S. Postal Service (USPS), or any other applicable shipping re-
              quirements; or

              (ii) Comply with  the following requirements if the  sample  collector determines that
              DOT, USPS,  or  other shipping requirements do not apply to the  shipment of the

                      (A) Assure that the following information accompanies the sample:

                             (1)  The sample collector's  name,  mailing address, and  telephone

                             (2) The laboratory's name, mailing address, and telephone number;

                             (3) The quantity of the sample;

                             (4) The date of shipment; and

                             (5) A description of the sample.

                      (B) Package the sample so that it does not leak,  spill, or  vaporize from  its

       (3) This exemption does  not apply if the laboratory determines that the waste is hazardous but
       the laboratory is no longer meeting any of the conditions stated in paragraph  (d)(1) of this sec-

    A section of the RCRA regulations recognizes that analytical laboratory operations could generate was-
tewater which is mixed  with  small amounts of listed toxic hazardous wastes.  This section  [40 CFR
261.3(a)(2)(iv)(E)] excludes such wastewater from the RCRA hazardous waste regulations if the wastewater
discharge is subject to regulation under either Section 402 or Section 307(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA)
and if the calculated annualized average wastewater flow from the laboratory constitutes 1 percent  or less
of the flow into the headworks of the treatment facility.  (This calculation does not apply to septic systems
or any treatment system not regulated by Section 402 or 307(b) of the CWA.)

    CWA:   The Clean Water Act (CWA) regulates wastewater discharges to publicly owned treatment
works  (POTWs) under Section 307(b) and wastewater discharges  to surface waters under Section 402.
Therefore, if a laboratory discharges into a POTW system or a privately run wastewater treatment plant that
discharges treated effluent  under an NPDES  permit, that laboratory is indirectly regulated under the CWA.
As  noted  above, RCRA conditionally excludes laboratory wastewater from regulation when this indirect
CWA authority exists.  Laboratory managers  should know, however, that industrial wastewater discharges
into POTWs are usually monitored and regulated by local authorities, such as sewer districts. Even  though
no  pretreatment standards currently exist on a national basis for  analytical laboratories, the general  in-
dustrial effluent requirements for a particular  POTW system might apply to the laboratory's  effluent. Com-
pliance with the locally established requirements Is necessary to satisfy the RCRA exclusion.

    CERCLA:  The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
is designed to provide a framework for both planned and emergency responses to releases of hazardous
substances into the environment.  Laboratory analytical samples are often associated with defining and
responding to situations that fall under CERCLA authority. However, CERCLA,  SARA, and the National
Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR Part 300) are not explicit on the issue of how hazardous substance
samples are to be managed. The NCP will be revised in July 1987 and may address the issue more fully.

    As stated earlier, samples of hazardous waste (as defined by 40 CFR  261.3)  are managed in accord-
ance with 40 CFR 261.3 and 261.4. No such standards, exclusions, or limitations exist for hazardous sub-
stance samples.  However, management of hazardous substance samples as if they were hazardous waste
may be appropriate based on Section 104(c)(3)(B) of CERCLA, which requires that any offsite treatment,
storage, or disposal of hazardous substances be conducted in compliance with Subtitle C of the Solid
Waste Disposal Act.    Procedures

    Hazardous waste samples must be handled in conformance with 40 CFR 261.4(d) to be excluded from
RCRA regulation regarding  administrative  requirements for transport,  storage, treatment, and disposal.
Similarly, samples of solid waste that might be hazardous (i.e., for which the hazard determination has not
yet been made) and samples of hazardous substances as defined by CERCLA may be handled in confor-
mance with 40 CFR 261.4(d).

    Conformance with 40 CFR 261.4(d) requires that these hazardous samples be returned to their gener-
ator for proper management after the analysis. This return should be specified as an agreed-upon last task
in analytical contracts for hazardous samples if the SM wishes to avoid the effort entailed in treating the
material as other than a sample. Without the RCRA sample exclusion, samples would require manifesting
for shipment to the  laboratory; the receiving facility would need to be a RCRA Treatment, Storage, and Dis-
posal  Facility (TSDF); and offsite ultimate disposal would  require  yet another manifest.  The American
Chemical Society has prepared a booklet titled "RCRA and Laboratories" that details these requirements.

    Some samples received by laboratories  are clearly not hazardous by RCRA or CERCLA definitions;
other  samples are  determined by analysis to be nonhazardous.  These samples are not required to be
managed in accordance with the RCRA exclusion paragraph. However, before any nonhazardous samples
are disposed of as part of laboratory solid refuse or wastewater, the state and local solid waste codes and
industrial wastewater discharge  codes should be examined to assure that their terms are being met.  (Many
sewer districts, for example, require that total oil and grease loading not exceed a noted  maximum at the
facility outfall. This might restrict the disposal of large nonhazardous oily  samples from disposal through
the sewers.) Even for these  nonhazardous samples, it might be necessary to have contract conditions or
additional fees to cover the disposal of samples.

    To meet the requirements, laboratory and storehouse managers should develop a specific instruction
list  noting logging,  disposition,  and contractual standards for each type of sample and analytical waste.
These specific instructions could differ appreciably from one laboratory to another because of local  codes
and the nature and  size of the sanitary sewer system compared to laboratory contribution.  The SM should
have a clear understanding of the residual sample deposition before shipping samples to a laboratory or
warehouse.    Analytical Wastes

    During chemical analysis, various extracts, components, and mixtures are derived from samples to
determine their character and composition.  Typically, these analytically derived  substances are small in

volume, but are not totally used up in the actual analysis.  The leftover substances then become what is
referred to as analytically derived waste.

    In some cases, analytical wastes are not hazardous wastes (as defined in RCRA) or hazardous sub-
stances (as defined in CERCLA). As such, these wastes are disposed of in accordance with state and iocai
solid waste and industrial waste water discharge requirements. Typically, these wastes can be disposed of
in the wastewater discharged from the laboratory to the sanitary sewer.

    In some cases, however, analytical wastes might have been derived from listed hazardous wastes, or
the chemicals used to obtain the derivative, could cause the waste to be classified as hazardous.  In either
case, RCRA regulations provide for such waste to be disposed of with laboratory wastewater if certain con-
ditions are met. Wastes that are considered hazardous only because of a characteristic (ignitability, cor-
rosMty, reactivity, or EP toxicity-see 40 CFR 261, Subpart C) are no longer hazardous once they are
mixed to eliminate the characteristic. Mixing small volumes of analytical waste with the sanitary sewer flow
would cause the waste to become so diluted that it no longer exhibits hazardous characteristics.

    When analytically derived wastes are produced in  such volume or concentration that the conditions
specified in the RCRA regulations or the discharge limits for the sanitary sewer cannot be met by disposing
of these wastes with laboratory wastewater, other arrangements will need to be made.

5.2.7   Region-Specific Variances

    The regional variances associated with the non-CLP are the same as for the CLP and can be found in
Subsection 5.1.7.

5.2.8   Information Sources

    American Chemical Society, Task Force on RCRA.  "RCRA and Laboratories." Department of Govern-
ment Relations and Science Policy, 1155 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036.  September 1986.

    CH2MHILL REM/FITDocumentation Protocol for Region V. May 1984.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Engineering Support Branch Standard Operating Procedures and
Quality Assurance Manual.  Region IV, Environmental Services Division. 1 April 1986.

    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency.  User's  Guide  to the Contract Laboratory Program.  Office of
Emergency and Remedial Response.  December 1986.

                                     SECTION 6


   Note: This section is presented by topic for greater clarity.


6.1.1  Scope and Purpose

   This subsection describes the sample containers and the preservatives used for environmental and
hazardous samples collected at waste sites.  The procedures described  meet  Contract Laboratory
Program (CLP) requirements and analytical procedures.  Periodic updates and changes are detailed in
amendments to the User's Guide to the CLP.  To obtain further information or copies of the User's Guide to
the CLP, contact the Sample Management Office (SMO) at 703/557-2490 or FTS 557-2490.

6.1.2  Definitions

Low-Concentration Sample
       The contaminant of highest concentration is present at less than 10 parts per million (ppm).
       Examples include background environmental samples.

Medium-Concentration Sample
       The contaminant of highest concentration is present at a level greater than 10 ppm and less
       than 15 percent (150,000 ppm). Examples include material onsite that is obviously weathered.

High-Concentration Sample
       At least one contaminant is present at a level greater than 15 percent. Samples from drums
       and tanks are assumed to be high concentration unless information indicates otherwise.

Routine Analytical Services (RAS)
       Analysis of a soil or water sample on a 30- to 45-day turnaround time for a list of 126 organics,
       23 metals, and cyanide.

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  The person is also referred to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

6.1.3  Applicability

   The procedures described in Section 6 apply to samples collected for routine,  as well as for special
analytical services. They are to be followed when the samples are being sent to either a CLP laboratory or
a noncontract laboratory.

6.1.4  Responsibilities

    Responsibilities are described in Subsection 6.1.6.  General responsibilities are assigned as follows:
    •  The SM (and project team) will determine the number and type of samples to be collected and the
       analyses to be performed; the EPA RPM approves work plan.

    •  Equipment manager will obtain the proper grades and types of preservatives and bottles.

    •  Sampling  personnel will collect a representative sample and, if necessary, will add the proper
       sample preservatives (as defined herein) once the samples have been collected.

6.1.5 Records

    The preservatives used for each bottle are recorded on the sample tag or label. Tags and labels are
discussed in Subsection 6.2.6; examples of completed tags are shown in Subsection 5.1.6.   Shipping
records are maintained as part of the chain-of-custody documentation.  (See Section 4 of this compen-

6.1.6  Procedures

    The procedures in this subsection are presented in the chronological order  of a typical  sampling
episode. Exhibit 6-1 summarizes the sampling process.  Procedures presented here are generic; an ap-
proach to regional differences is presented in Subsection 6.1.7.    Activities Before Sampling

        1. In addition to the activities detailed in Subsection for reserving laboratory space, the
        SM (or designee) obtains sample bottles by contacting an EPA authorized requester  at the
        Regional Sample Control Center (RSCC) who orders the necessary bottles. (Currently, l-Chem
        Research in California  (415/782-3905), runs the official bottle repository for the Superfund
        program.)  Exhibit 6-2 lists the types of bottles available from the repository and summarizes
       the bottle requirements for each class of sample (as presented in the User's Guide to the CLP,
        December 1986).

       2. At the same time, the SM (or designee) must order the chemicals necessary to preserve the
        samples once they are collected.  The chemicals that may be used include the following:

           •   Nitric acid, American Chemical Society (ACS) grade, 16N

           •   Sodium hydroxide, ACS grade, pellets

           •   Sulfuric acid, ACS grade, 37N

           •   Hydrocholoric acid, ACS grade, 12N

           •   Sodium thiosulfate, ACS grade, crystalline

           •   Mercuric chloride, ACS grade, powder


                                      Exhibit 6-1
                       TYPICAL SAMPLING PROCEDURES
               Project Team Decides What Samples to Collect, Which Analyses to Perform,
                  and Identifies the Low-, Medium-, and High-Concentration Samples
                    CLP Coordinator (or Team Leader) Compiles Analytical Needs
                                and Determines Bottles Required
             CLP Coordinator (or Equipment Manager) Orders Bottles from l-Chem Research
                          Samples Are Collected (and Filtered if Necessary)
                             Equipment Manager Orders Preservatives
    Proper Preservatives Are Added
       Tags Placed on Bottles
    Tags Placed on Bottles
  Bottles Placed in Plastic Bag
      Bottles Placed in Plastic Bag
  Bottles Placed in Paint Can
        Bottles Placed in Cooler
      Separators Placed in Cooler,
             Ice Added
     Cooler Filled with Vermiculite
    Paperwork Taped to Inside Top
              of Cooler
     Cooler Sealed with Tape and
           Custody Seals
       Cooler Properly Labeled
   Samples Shipped (Regular Airbill)
   Low concentration
** Medium, high, and dioxin concentration
                                                               Can Filled with Vermiculite
  Can Sealed with Tape or Clips
                                                                  Can Properly Labeled
                                                                  Cans Put in Cooler
                                                              Cooler Filled with Vermiculite
Paperwork Taped to Inside Top
          of Cooler
                                                              Cooler Sealed with Tape and
                                                                    Custody Seals
                                                                Cooler Properly Labeled
 Samples Shipped (Restricted
       Article Airbill)

                                       Exhibit 6-2
No. Per
Used for RAS
Sample Type*
80-oz amber glass bottle with          6
Teflon-lined black phenolic cap

40-ml glass vial with Teflon-lined        72
silicon septum and black
phenolic cap

1 -liter high-density polyethylene        42
bottle with white poly cap
              120-ml wide-mouth glass vial
              with white poly cap

              16-oz wide-mouth glass
              jar with Teflon-lined
              black phenolic cap

              8-oz wide-mouth glass jar with
              Teflon-lined black phenolic cap
          Extractable organics-Low-
          concentration water samples

          Volatile organics-Low-and
          medium-concentration water samples
                                                        Metals, cyanide-Low-
                                                        concentration water samples
                                   72     Volatile organics-Low-and
                                          medium-concentration soil samples

                                   48     Metals, cyanide-Medium-
                                          concentration water samples
                                    96     Extractable organics

                                           Low- and medium- concentration soil


                                           Metals, cyanide-Low- and
                                           medium-concentration soil samples


                                           Dioxin-Soil samples


                                           Organics and inorganics-High-
                                           concentration liquid and solid samples

                                         Exhibit 6-2
               4-oz wide-mouth glass jar with
               Teflon-lined black phenolic cap
No. Per
Used for RAS
Sample Type*
                                            Extractable organics-Low- and
                                            medium-concentration soil samples

                                                           Metals, cyanide-Low- and medium-
                                                           concentration soil samples


                                                           Dioxin--Soil samples

1 -liter amber glass bottle with
Teflon-lined black phenolic cap

32-pz wide-mouth glass jar with
Teflon-lined black phenolic cap

4-liter amber glass bottle with
Teflon-lined black phenolic cap
           Organic and inorganic-High-
           concentration liquid and solid samples

           Extractable organics-Low-
  24       concentration water samples

           Extractable organics-Medium-
  36       concentration water samples

           Extractable organics~Low-
  4        concentration water samples
* This column specifies the only type(s) of samples that should be collected in each container.

-------    Sampling Activities

       1.  The samplers collect representative aliquots of each medium and place them in the ap-
       propriate sample jars as described in Exhibit 6-2.

       2. The samplers preserve the low-concentration water samples as follows:
           •   Nitric acid (HNOs) is added to the TCL metals bottle until the pH is less than 2 (2 ml of
               1 +1 is usually sufficient).
        Note:   Analysis for dissolved metals requires filtration of the sample before preservation;
        however, the preservation method is the same for both dissolved and total metals.

        For the cyanide aliquot, the following guidelines should be followed:
            •  Test a drop of sample with potassium iodide-starch test paper (Kl-starch paper); a blue
               color indicates the presence of oxidizing agents and the need for treatment.  Add ascorbic
               acid, a few crystals at a time, until a drop of sample produces no color on the indicator
               paper. Then add an additional 0.6g of ascorbic acid for each liter of sample volume.

            •  Test a drop of sample on lead acetate paper previously moistened with acetic acid buffer
               solution. Darkening of the paper Indicates the presence of S2~. If S2" is present, add pow-
               dered cadmium carbonate until a drop of the treated solution does not darken the lead
               acetate test paper and then filter the solution before raising the pH for stabilization.

            •  Preserve samples with 2 ml of 10 N sodium hydroxide per liter of sample (pH > 12).

            •  Store the samples so that their temperature is maintained at 4ฐC until the time of analysis.

            •  Samples to be analyzed for TCL organics are packed in ice and shipped to the laboratory
               with ice in the cooler.
        The following RAS samples do not require preservatives:

            •  Soil or sediment samples

            •  Medium or high-concentration water samples

        Exhibit 6-3 lists the preservatives used for frequently requested special analytical services.

        3.  The samples are shipped to the laboratory for analysis.

                                         Exhibit 6-3
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
EP toxiclty
      Kjeldahl, total
Oil and grease
      Total dissolved
      Total suspended
Total Organic Carbon (TOC)

Total Organic Halogen (TOH or TOX)
        Cool, 4ฐC
H2SO4 to pH < 2, Cool, 4ฐC

H2SO4topH <2,Cool,4ฐC
H2SO4topH <2,Cool,40C
HaSO4 to pH <2, Cool, 4ฐC
        Cod, 4ฐC
H2SO4topH < 2, Cool, 4ฐC
        Cool, 4ฐC

  H2S04 or HCI to pH <2,
        Cool, 4ฐC
 Several crystals of sodium
  thiosulfate if chlorine is
     present, cod, 4ฐC
 Refer to RCRA Ground-Water Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (TEGD) and SW-846 for additional
 information on sample preservation, recommended containers, maximum holding times, and volume requirements. EPA's
 Characterization of Hazardous Waste Sites. Vols. 1 and 2, and Soil Sampling QA User's Guide contain information regarding
 holding time criteria for soil or sediment.

6.1.7  Region-Specific Variances

   The regional variances listed in this subsection are in chronological order to allow for easy comparison
with the generic procedure described in Subsection 6.1.6. Because this information may become dated
rapidly, the user should contact the EPA RPM or RSCC to get full details on current regional practices or
requirements before planning sampling activities.  Future changes in variances will be incorporated in sub-
sequent revisions to this compendium.    Presampling Activities

    Regional variances during the presampling phase will be discussed in Revision 01.    Sampling Activities

       1.   Region IV  requires that samples  collected for volatile analysis  be preserved with
       hydrochloric acid. Four drops of concentrated HCI are added to each VOA vial before the vial
       is filled with the sample.

       2.  Region V preserves the metals sample with 5 ml of nitric acid. In addition, Region V uses a
       10 normal sodium hydroxide solution rather than sodium hydroxide pellets.

6.1.8  Information Sources

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The User's Guide to the Contract Laboratory Program. Office of
Emergency and Remedial Response. December 1986.

    Federal Renter. Vol. 49, No. 209, p. 43260.  28 October 1984.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Engineering Support Branch Standard Operating Procedures and
Quality Assurance Manual. Region IV, Environmental Services Division. 1 April 1986.

    CH2MHILL  REMIFIT Documentation Protocol for Region V.  May 1984.


6.2.1   Scope and Purpose

    This subsection describes the packaging, labeling and shipping used for environmental and  hazardous
samples collected at a waste site.

6.2.2  Definitions

    The definitions are the same as those in Subsection 6.1.2.

6.2.3  Applicability

    The procedures described in this subsection apply to samples collected at a waste site.  They must be
followed whether shipping to a CLP laboratory or a noncontract laboratory.

    The shipment of hazardous materials Is governed by the Transportation Safety Act of 1974. Following
is a list of references that detail the regulations:
    •  Title 49 CFR
              -   Parts 100-177 - Shipper Requirements and Hazardous Material Table
              -   Parts 178-199 - Packaging Specifications
              -   Section 262.20—Hazardous Waste Manifest

    •  International Civil Aviation Regulations (ICAO)
              -   Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air  (lists man-
                  datory international and optional domestic regulations)

    •  International Air Transport Association (IATA)
              -   Dangerous Goods Regulations (This tariff incorporates 49 CFR, ICAO, and additional
                  IATA regulations.  Most international and domestic airlines belong to IATA and require
                  conformance to all applicable regulations.)

    •  Tariff BOE-6000-D (reprint of 49 CFR with updates)

6.2.4  Responsibilities

    Detailed responsibilities  are described in the procedures subsection.  General responsibilities are as-
signed as follows:

    •  Site Managers will state, to the best of their knowledge, whether samples planned for collection are.
       environmental or hazardous samples.

    •  Equipment manager will procure shipping supplies (metal cans, shipping labels, vermiculite, etc.)
       using RSCC whenever needed.

    •  Sampling personnel will properly label and package the samples.

6.2.5  Records

    The user should refer to Section 4 for discussion of the records associated with sample collection and
chain-of-custody forms.

    The following records are associated with the labeling and shipping process:

    •  Sample tag or label

    •  Traffic report label


    •  Custody seal

    •  Chain-of-custody (COC) form
    •  Bill of lading (airbill or similar document)

    Examples of the first four documents are given In Subsections 4.6 and 5.1.6; an example of an airbill is
given in Subsection 6.2.

6.2.6  Procedures

    The procedures described in this subsection are carried out after the sample preservation described in
Subsection  They are generic  in nature; an approach to regional differences is presented in Sub-
section 6.2.7.    Environmental Samples

    Low-concentration samples are defined as environmental samples and should be packaged for ship-
ment as follows:
        1. A sample tag is attached to the sample bottle.  Examples of properly completed sample
        tags are given in Exhibit 5-7.

        2. All bottles, except the volatile organic analysis (VOA) vials, are taped closed with electrical
        tape (or other tape as appropriate).  Evidence tape may be used for additional sample security.

        3. Each sample bottle Is placed in a separate plastic bag, which is then sealed.  As much air
        as possible is squeezed from the bag before sealing. Bags may be sealed with evidence tape
        for additional security.

        4. A picnic cooler (such as a Coleman or other sturdy cooler) is typically used as a shipping
        container.  In preparation for shipping samples, the drain plug is taped shut from the inside
        and outside,  and a large plastic bag is used as a liner for the cooler. Approximately 1  inch of
        packing material, such as asbestos-free vermiculite, pertite, or styroioam  beads, is placed in
        the bottom of  the liner  Other commercially  available shipping containers may be used.
        However, the use of such containers (cardboard or fiber boxes complete with separators and
        preservatives) should be specified in the sampling plan and approved by the EPA RSCC if CLP
        is used.

        5. The bottles are placed in the lined picnic cooler.  Cardboard separators may be placed be-
        tween the bottles at the discretion of the shipper.

        6. Water samples for low or medium-level organics analysis and low-level inorganics analysis
        must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC with ice. No lea is to be used in shipping inorganic low-level
        soil samples or medium / high-level water samples, or organic high-level water or soil samples,
        or dioxin samples.  Ice is not required in shipping soil samples, but may be utilized at the op-
        tion of the sampler. All cyanide samples, however, must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC.

       7. The lined cooler is filled with packing material (such as asbestos-free vermiculite, perlite, or
       styrofoam beads), and the large inner (garbage bag) liner is taped shut.  Sufficient packing
       material  should be used to prevent sample containers from making contact during shipment.
       Again, evidence tape may be used.

       8. The paperwork going to the laboratory is placed inside a plastic bag. The bag is sealed and
       taped to the inside of the cooler lid.  A copy of the COC form should be included in the paper-
       work sent to the laboratory.  Exhibit 5-4 gives an example of a properly completed COC form.
       The last block on the COC form should indicate the overnight carrier and airbill number. The
       airbill must be filled out  before the samples are handed over to the carrier.  The laboratory
       should be notified if another sample is being sent to another laboratory for dioxin analysis, or if
       the shipper suspects that the sample contains any other  substance for which the laboratory
       personnel should take safety precautions.

       9.  The cooler is closed and padlocked or taped shut with strapping tape (filament-type).

       10. At least two signed custody seals are placed on the cooler, one on the front and one on
       the back.  Additional seals may be used if the sampler or shipper thinks more seals are neces-
       sary. Exhibit 5-6 gives an example of the two types of custody seals available.

       11. The cooler is handed over to the overnight carrier, typically Federal Express. A standard
       airbill is necessary for shipping environmental samples.  Exhibit 6-4 shows an example of the
       standard Federal Express airbill.    Hazardous Samples

    Medium- and high-concentration samples are defined as hazardous and must be packaged as follows:
       1. A sample tag is attached to the sample bottle. Examples of properly completed sample
       tags are shown in Exhibit 5-7.

       2. All bottles, except the VOA vials, are taped closed with electrical tape (or other tape as ap-
       propriate).  Evidence tape may be used for additional security.

       3. Each sample bottle is placed In a plastic bag, and the bag is sealed.  For medium-con-
       centration water samples, each VOA vial is wrapped in a paper towel, and the two vials are
       placed in one bag.  As  much air as possible is squeezed from the bags before sealing.
       Evidence tape may be used to seal the bags for additional security.

       4. Each  bottle is placed in a separate paint can, the paint can is filled with vermiculite, and the
       lid is fixed to the can. The lid must be sealed with metal clips or with filament or evidence tape;
       if clips are used, the manufacturer typically recommends six clips.

       5. Arrows are placed on the can to indicate which  end is up.

       6. The outside of each can must contain the proper DOT shipping name and identification
       number for the sample. The information may be placed on stickers or printed legibly. A liquid
       sample of an uncertain nature is shipped as a flammable liquid with the shipping name "FLAM-
       MABLE LIQUID, N.O.S." and the identification number "UN 1993."  A solid sample of uncertain
       nature is shipped as a flammable solid with the shipping name  "FLAMMABLE SOLID, N.O.S."

                    Exhibit 6-4
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and the identification number "UN1325." If the nature of the sample is known, 49 CFR-171-177
is consulted to determine the proper labeling and packaging requirements.

7.  The cans are placed upright in a cooler that has had its drain plug taped shut inside and
out, and the cooler has been lined with a garbage bag. Vermiculite is placed on the bottom.
Two sizes of paint cans are used:  half-gallon and gallon.  The half-gallon paint cans can be
stored on top of each other; however, the gallon cans are too high to stack. The cooler is filled
with vermiculite, and the liner is taped shut.

8.  The paperwork going to the laboratory is placed inside a plastic bag and taped to the in-
side of the cooler lid.  A copy of the COC form, an example of which is shown in Exhibit 5-4,
should be included in the paperwork sent to the laboratory. The sampler keeps one copy of
the COC form. The laboratory should  be notified if a parallel sample is being sent to another
laboratory for dioxin analysis, or if the sample is suspected of containing any substance for
which laboratory personnel should take safety precautions.

9.  The cooler is closed and sealed with strapping tape. At least two custody seals are placed
on the outside of the cooler (one on the front and one on the back). More custody seals may
be used at the discretion of the sampler.

10. The following markings are placed  on the top of the cooler:

Proper shipping name (49 CFR 172.301)              ,

DOT identification number (49 CFR 172.301)

Shipper's or consignee's name and address (49 CFR-172.306)

'This End Up" legibly written if shipment contains liquid hazardous materials (49 CFR 172.312)
Other commercially available shipping containers may be used. The SM should ascertain that
the containers are appropriate to the type of sample  being shipped.  The SM should clearly
specify the type of shipping container to be used in the QAPjP.

11. The following labels are required on top of the cooler (49 CFR 172.406e):
    •   Appropriate hazard class label (placed next to the proper shipping name)

    •   "Cargo Aircraft Only (if applicable as identified in 49 CFR 172.101)
12. An arrow symbol(s) indicating 'This Way Up" should be placed on the cooler in addition to
the markings and labels described above.

13.  Restricted-article airbills are used for shipment.  Exhibit 6-5 shows an example of a
restricted article Federal Express airbill. The "Shipper Certification for Restricted Articles" sec-
tion is filled out as follows for a flammable solid or a flammable liquid:

          •   Number of packages or number of coolers

          •   Proper shipping name: if unknown, use

              -  Rammable solid, N.O.S., or
              -  Rammable liquid, N.O.S.

       Classification; if unknown, use

              -  Rammable solid or
              -  Rammable liquid

       Identification number; if unknown, use

              -  UN1325 (for flammable solids) or
              -  UN 1993 (for flammable liquids)

       Net quantity per package or amount of substance in each cooler

       Radioactive materials section (Leave blank.)

       Passenger or cargo aircraft (Cross off the nonapplicable. Up to 25 pounds of flammable solid per
       cooler can be shipped on  a passenger or cargo aircraft.  Up to 1  quart of flammable liquid per
       cooler can be shipped on a passenger aircraft, and up to 10 gallons of flammable liquid per cooler
       can be shipped on a cargo aircraft.)

       Name and title of shipper (printed)

       An emergency telephone number at which the shipper can be reached within the following 24 to 48

       Shipper's signature
    Note: The penalties for improper shipment of hazardous materials are severe; a fine of $25,000 and 5
years imprisonment can be Imposed for each violation.  The SM or designee is urged to take adequate

6.2.7  Regional Variances

    There are no known regional variances for the shipment of hazardous samples.  However,  regional
variances for the shipment of environmental samples (low concentration) are common.  Information in a
compendium on such variances can become dated rapidly. Thus, users are urged to contact the EPA RPM
or the RSCC for the latest regional variances.

       1.  Region I Includes the five-digit laboratory number of each sample in the "Remarks" section
       of the chain-of-custody form to act as a cross check on sample identification.

       2.  Separators must be placed  between the bottles of samples shipped from a Region IV site.
       ESD also tapes the VOA vials and uses blue Ice.

                                                              Exhibit 6-5
                                                                                                               AM8U.L NUMBER
                                    YOURFEOERAt EXPRESS ACCOUNT NUMBER
                                                                                                                H HoU FW Mefc-Up er SMtfday tMwy
                                                                                                                RKtpM't Plwra NuMv
                                                                            STREET ADDRESS (Tป 0 BOX NUMBERS1

                                                                           IN TENDERING THIS SMIPMEMT, SHIPPER AGREES THAT
                                                                           F E C SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL INC IDE N
                                                                                      TIAL DAMAGES ARISING FROM
                                                                                      CARRIAGE HEREOF FEC DtS
                                                                                      CLAIMS ALL WAHHAiniES EX
                                                                                                        55 OH IMPLIED  WITH
                                                                                      RESPECT TO THIS SHIPMENT THIS IS A NON-NEGOTIABLE
                                                                                      AIRBILL SUBJECT TO CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT SET FORTH
                                                                                      ON REVERSE OF SHIPPER S COPY UNLESS YOU DECLARE A
                                                                                      HIGHER VALUE THE LIABILITY OF FEDERAL EXPRESS COR
                                                                                      PORATION IS LIMITED TO SIM 00 FEDERAL EXPRESS DOES
                                                                                      NOT CARRY CARGO LIABILITY INSURANCE
                                                 Ktf jr Al (0 id*
                                                 PRESS. LOCATlQ
                                           IN SEF-ViCl GbOE  HtCtr,i\T&
                                           pn^K' s "'SE'1- l^ RtC -'I
                            ORWS AND
              r-iKLMHtMUMB   RAWOACTIVE
              O w.^uwirSSS   MATERIAL ONLY
                (t* ป 70 US 1
                                                                                             AIRCRAFT ONLY



       3.  Region V tapes the VOA vials and does not line the cooler with a plastic bag. Region V FIT
       indicates the OTR / ITR number, bottle lot numbers, sample concentrations, and matrix in the
       right-hand portion of the "Remarks" section of the chain-of-custody form.  The custody seal
       numbers, airbill number, and "samples shipped via Federal Express" are included in the lower
       right-hand section.

       4.  Region VI does not tape sample bottles, put sample bottles in plastic bags, or line coolers
       with plastic. Glass bottles are wrapped with "bubble wrap" instead of cardboard separators. In
       addition, the traffic report stickers are placed at the liquid level on the sample bottles to allow
       the laboratories to check for leakage.

       5.  Region VIII does not put the sample in a plastic bag.

    Because information on variances can become dated rapidly, the user should contact the EPA RPM or
RSCC for current regional practices and requirements. Future changes and additional  regional variances
will be incorporated in Revision 01  of this document.

6.2.8  Information Sources

    CH2MHILL REM/FITDocumentation Protocol for Region V. May 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Parts 171 to 177, Transportation.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Engineering Support Branch Standard Operating Procedures and
Quality Assurance Manual. Region IV, Environmental Services Division. 1 April 1986.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The User's Guide to the Contract Laboratory Program.  Office of
Emergency and Remedial Response. December 1986.

                                      SECTION 7

                              HAZARDOUS MATERIAL


    Section 7 provides an overview of current techniques used by some contractors to rapidly screen the
hazardous waste material at waste sites. The section also describes the functions and capabilities of avail-
able analytical instrumentation and suggests some analytical protocols for mobile laboratories.  The pur-
pose of this section is not to provide standard operating procedures for rapid screening for hazardous
material onsite or to establish performance criteria for direct-reading instruments or mobile laboratories.
The purpose is to provide a narrative description of some approaches and techniques that have been used
on certain projects.  In Fall 1987, the Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) will publish a "Field Screening
Methods Catalog" that will contain detailed discussions of field analytical methods.  The CLP catalog will
provide a consolidated reference for use by EPA, contractors, state and local agencies, and Potentially
Responsible Parties (PRPs) who will be conducting field analysis.  When this compendium is updated, it will
reflect the information contained in the CLP catalog. The updated compendium will also contain any addi-
tional methods that were found useful by contractors but were not included in the catalog.


Site Manager (SM)

       The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  The person  Is also  referred to as the  Site Project  Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).


    Field analysis involves the use of portable or transportable instruments that are based at or near a sam-
pling site.  Field  analysis should not be confused with the process of obtaining total organic readings using
portable meters.

    Field analysis can provide data from the analysis of air, soil, and water samples for many Target Com-
pound List (TCL) organic compounds, including volatiles, base neutral acid (BNA) extractable  organics,
and pesticides / PCBs. Inorganic analysis can also be conducted using portable atomic adsorption (AA) or
other instruments.

    The ability to assess data quality for field activities depends  on the QA/QC  steps taken in the process
(e.g., documentation of blank injections, calibration standard runs, runs of qualitative standards between
samples, etc.).

    Field analytical techniques are used whenever the data quality objectives specify Level I and II analyti-
cal support as adequate.

    The objective of Level I analysis is to generate data that are generally used in refining sampling plans
and estimating the extent of contamination at the site.  This type of support provides real-time data for
health and safety purposes.  Additional data that can effectively be obtained by Level I analyses include pH,
conductivity, temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen for water  (see Sections 8 and 10), as well  as
some measurement of contamination using various kits (see Subsection 7.6).

    Level I analyses are generally effective for total vapor readings using portable photoionization or flame
ionization meters that respond to a variety of volatile inorganic and organic compounds (see Section 15).

    Level I analysis provides data for onsite, real-time total vapor measurement, evaluation of existing con-
ditions,  refinement of sampling location and health and  safety evaluations.  Data generated from Level I
support are generally considered qualitative in nature, although limited quantitative data can also  be
generated.  Data generated from this type of analysis provide the following:

    •   Identification  of soil,  water, air and waste locations that  have a high likelihood of showing con-
        tamination through subsequent analysis

    •   Real-time data to be used for health and safety consideration during site reconnaissance and sub-
        sequent intrusive activities

    •   Quantitative data if a contaminant is known and the instrument is calibrated to that substance
    The procedures discussed in this section have been used for several purposes including screening the
site to determine the level of safety required for personnel working at the site; screening samples to deter-
mine which compounds, or groups of compounds, should be specified  for further analysis, usually under
the Contract Laboratory Program (CLP); and screening for characterizing material for removal and in refin-
ing the sampling plan to more precisely determine the number and type  of samples to be taken.  By using
field screening, changes in sampling can occur while the field team is  mobilized, rather than waiting for
several months for data to return from CLP analysis.  Field screening techniques, such as the removal of
drums, lagoons, pits, ponds, and  other waste  sources, allows testing  for compatibility and disposal
category classification (Exhibit 7-1) before disposal.

    Note:  Because of the many safety factors to be considered when undertaking such screening, the SM
should consult documents such as "Drum  Handling Practices at Hazardous Waste Sites," EPA/600/2-
86/013, January 1986.


    Field screening generally consists of two phases:

    •  A  field survey using instruments such as OVA  meters or HNU  detectors to analyze the ambient
       conditions onsite or to conduct  limited analyses of samples (Level  I on Data Quality Objectives
       rating; see Section 15)

    •  Mobile laboratory analyses to provide better qualitative and quantitative data upon which decisions
       can be made about site safety, CLP  use and the sampling campaign (Level II on Data Quality Ob-
       jectives rating)

    The SM is responsible for defining the screening program and obtaining the proper equipment. The
equipment manager and the mobile laboratory director are responsible for keeping the equipment in good

                                            Exhibit 7-1
   1.   Flammability
   2.   pH
   3.   Specific gravity
   4.   PCB analysis
   5.   Thermal content (BTU/lb)
   6.   Physical state at 70ฐF
   7.   Phases (layering in liquids)
   8.   Solids (%)
   9.   Hydrocarbon composition
  10.   Pesticide analysis
  11.   Sulfur content
  12.   Phenols
  13.   Oil and grease (%)
  14.   Water (%)
  15.   Viscosity
  16.   Organochlorine percentage
  17.   Metals analysis

       a.  Liquids for soluble metals
       b.  Solids extracted according to the EPA Toxicant Extraction Procedure (24 hr), which shows
           leachable metals.
       c.  Both  liquid and solids checked for concentrations of the following metals:
           Arsenic                  Mercury
           Barium                  Nickel
           Cadmium                Selenium
           Chromium               Silver
           Copper                  Zinc
  18.   Content checked for both free and total cyanide
  19.   Solids checked for solubility in water, sulfuric acid, and dimethyl sulfoxide
Reprinted from Muller, Broad, and Leo, 1982. Exhibit originally printed in the Proceedings of the National Conference on Manage-
ment of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites, 1982. Available from Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute, 9300 Colum-
bia Blvd., Silver Spring, Maryland 20910.

working order. The field investigators) and the mobile laboratory analyst(s) are responsible for checking
the equipment in the field and for verifying calibration and proper operation at the site.


    Reporting is essential to thoroughly document technical methods and results.   For screening of
samples and field surveys, activity logs may be  kept to record and document the results.  Bound field
notebooks with  numbered pages should be used as the permanent record  of results.  Records should in-
clude field calibration procedures and duplicate readings. The equipment  manager and the field analyst
should keep records of equipment maintenance  and field laboratory calibration and should make these
records part of the permanent project file.  The reader should refer also to Sections 4, 5, 6, and 17 of this

    With a few exceptions,  such as the  mass-produced TAGA 6000E Mobile MS/MS System,  mobile
laboratories are each crafted differently. Accordingly, each mobile laboratory develops discrete standard
operating and documentation procedures that are specific to the instrumentation, power and water supply,
configuration, transportation arrangements, and  housekeeping requirements for that laboratory.  These
specific procedures should be appended to the QAPjP and rigorously followed.  The laboratory notebooks
should document any deviations from the procedures or development of modifications to the procedures
for site-specific  needs.

    Results from field screening are  recorded in  field or laboratory  notebooks for the permanent record;
tear sheets or carbonless forms are  generally used to record results for the Site Manager's use before a
report is written. (See Exhibit 7A-1 and 7A-3 for mobile laboratory reporting  procedures.)


7.6.1  Inorganic Compounds

    Exhibit 7-2  presents a list of typical inorganic compounds that a laboratory program might analyze for
during a hazardous waste site investigation.

    Several approaches are used to determine inorganic compounds.  These approaches include the use
 of various field test kits as well as traditional and state-of-the-art instrumentation.  Examples of field test kits
 include the Hach Hazardous Materials Detection Laboratory, the Hach COD kit, the Scintrex Atomic Ab-
 sorption Spectrometer, indicator papers, portable wet chemistry test sets, and packaged test kits such as
 those produced by Chemetrics. Each of these kits includes a detailed set  of instructions on use of the in-
 struments and chemicals and on interpretation of results. A general discussion of the capabilities of some
 kits is presented below.

    The kits offered  by Hach and LaMotte Chemical include reagents to produce a colorimetric reaction
 with subsequent relative quantitative determination using a spectrophotometer, which is also in the kit. The
 Chemetrics test kits use self-filling ampoules that serve as disposable test cells.  These ampoules contain a
 measured amount of reagent sealed under vacuum. These are colorimetric tests, and results are obtained
 through comparison with a color chart or through the use of a spectrophotometer or colorimeter.  The
 Hach Hazardous Materials Laboratory  (which is also usable for a limited number of organic compounds) is
 only class selective (e.g., heavy metals as a group) and is subject to  interferences. The Hach kits and other
 colorimetric methods are best used  in a survey mode analogous to that of the Organic Vapor Meters, be-
 cause positive results would not be conclusive without supporting data.

                                          Exhibit 7-2
                              LISTING OF TYPICAL INORGANICS
                      Aluminum                                  Lead
                      Antimony                                  Magnesium
                      Arsenic                                    Manganese
                      Barium                                    Mercury
                      Beryllium                                  Nickel
                      Cadmium                                  Potassium
                      Calcium                                   Selenium
                      Chromium                                 Silver
                      Cobalt                                     Sodium
                      Copper                                    Thallium
                      Cyanide                                   Vanadium
                      Iron                                       Zinc
    The  Scintrex Atomic  Absorption  Spectrometer is somewhat  comparable to  usual  laboratory
capabilities.  The inclusion of Zeemann Effect background correction  compensates for the lower optical
performance, and the use of a tungsten furnace compares to the traditional laboratory instrument.  The
operator of the Atomic Absorption unit in the field must be well versed in sample preparation and sample
handling techniques to avoid interference and contamination problems.  The mobile Atomic Absorption unit
appears to be well suited for overall field application from the standpoint of both mobility and analytical per-

    Although the process is expensive, inorganic analyses that use state-of-the art laboratory instruments
such as an Inductively Coupled Plama (ICP) Spectrometer can be performed in a field screening mode. A
protocol for  inorganic analysis in mobile and fixed-base  laboratories by ICP, flame, flameless, and  cold-
vapor atomic absorption techniques is attached as Exhibit 7A-3 in Appendix 7A.  Heavy metals in  solid
samples can be analyzed by X-ray diffraction.  An operating procedure for the Columbia Scientific X-Met
840 Analyzer is attached as Exhibit 7A-4 in Appendix 7A.

7.6.2  Organic Compounds

    Exhibit 7-3 shows a typical list of organic compounds that the CLP analyzes for.  Equipment for field
analysis and  screening of organic compounds falls into three broad categories:
    •  Portable, total organic vapor monitors

    •  Portable, selective organic instruments

    •  Mobile, selective organic instruments    Portable, Total Organic Vapor Monitors

    Equipment in this category  includes the HNU Model 101, the AID Models 710/712 and 580, and the
Foxboro OVA 108/128. These instruments are essentially gas chromatographic detectors that continuously
sample the ambient atmosphere. With the exception of two instruments, they respond to all organic vapors


and are nonselective. The exceptions are the HNU Model 101 and the AID Model 580; both use a Photo
lonization Detector (PID).  The PID does not respond to methane (or any other organic molecule with an
ionlzation potential greater than the energy of the ionizing lamp).  This selective response is advantageous,
since methane  is a common organic decomposition  product and does not necessarily indicate the
presence of toxic materials.

    This type of equipment is already commonly used for health and safety as well as sample screening.
Zero instrument response is a definitive result; it indicates an undetectable amount of organic vapors (toxic
or otherwise) within the range of the instrument's ionizing lamp.  However, a positive instrument response
Is not conclusive evidence of the presence of toxic materials, since the detector responds to both toxic and
nontoxic organics. In addition to the selective response limitation, the organic vapor meters accept only
vapor state samples. This equipment not only limits the sample type but also restricts the range of mea
surable compounds to the relatively high volatility materials.

    Section 15 provides procedures for use of the equipment described above.   Portable, Selective Organic Instruments

    These types of instruments  include the Photovac 10A10, the  AID Model 511, and the  Foxboro OVA
Century.  While these instruments are portable, they are not as simple to use and transport as the total or-
ganic vapor instruments.  If samples other than ambient air are to  be analyzed,  it would be more con-
venient to perform the analyses  in a  van, trailer, or building. The instruments listed above are isothermal
gas chromatographs (GC). The Foxboro is designed to operate at either 0ฐC or 40ฐC, while the Photovac
operates at ambient temperature. Thus, neither Instrument is applicable for analysis of relatively nonvolatile
compounds such as napthalene, phenol, or PCBs.  The AID, while an  isothermal GC, will maintain 200ฐC for
8 hours on battery power if preheated on AC power. This elevated temperature capability makes the AID
suitable for analyzing PCBs and other semi-volatiles. The AID can be used by injecting a liquid sample, a
process that is the most common method of sample introduction for semi-volatile organics analysis. The
Photovac, the AID, and the Foxboro do not offer temperature programming or capillary column capability,
both of which considerably enhance the selectivity of GCs.

    This type of instrument is capable of identifying and quantitating  organic compounds in relatively non-
complex samples. The presence of large numbers of compounds  in a  sample can severely restrict the
selectivity of this instrument. An example of a situation in which adequate selectivity would not be available
is the analysis of phenanthrene or anthracene in the presence of oil. The large number of hydrocarbon
compounds in the oil would obscure and interfere with the phenanthrene or anthracene.

    One type of detector that is available for this type of equipment and that offers special selectivity is the
electron capture detector (ECD), which exhibits high sensitivity for halogenated molecules. Thus, it is pos-
sible to analyze for chlorinated compounds such as PCBs in the presence of unhalogenated hydrocarbon
compounds such as oils.  Other compounds, such as phthalates, also cause a response with this detector,
so interferences must always be considered.  While this selectivity is advantageous when the compounds
of interest are halogenated, this detector is not very useful for compounds such as benzene. This situation
illustrates the type of considerations that should be used in selecting equipment appropriate for a given
site.   Mobile, Selective Organic Instruments

    This type of Instrument ranges from GCs such as the Shimadzu  Mini 2, the Hewlett-Packard 5890, the
 HNU Model 301, and the Unacon 810 through the Mass Spectrometric GC detectors to the tandem Mass
 Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (MS/MS) TAGA 3000 and 6000. These instruments require at least 120
volts of AC  power, either from regular utility supplies or from generators. The GCs are amenable  to

                                    Exhibit 7-3
                              ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
 Vinyl chloride
 Methylene chloride
 Carbon disulfide
 2-Butanone (methyl ethyl ketone)
 1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
 Carbon tetrachloride
 Vinyl acetate
 1,1,2, 2-Tetrachloroethane
                                            Volatile Fraction
 1,1, 2-Trichloroethane
 2-Hexanone (methly butyl ketone)
 4-methyl-2-pentanone (methyl
 isobutyl ketone)
Total xylenes
                               Semi-VQlatile Compounds
Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
Benzyl alcohol
2-M ethyl phenol
Bis (2-chloroisopropyl) ether
2, 4-Dimethylphenol
Benzcic acid
Bis (2-chloroethoxy) methane
2, 4-Dichlorophenol
1,2, 4-Trichlorobenzene
 Butyl benzylphthalate
 3, S'-Dichlorobenzidine

                                   Exhibit 7-3
                       Semi-Volatile Compounds    (continued)

Hexachlorobutadiene                        Benzo \
4-Chloro-3-methylPhenol                     Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
2-Methylnapthalene                          Chrysene
Hexachlorobyclopentadiene                  Di-n-octy phthalate
2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol                       Benzo 
transportation and setup facilities that are available onsite. The Mass Spectrometric detectors should be in-
stalled in dedicated mobile vans or trailers for transportation and operation, and the TAGA is transported
and operated in a custom motor home with an integral generator.

    Although the mobile GCs are more restricted than the portable GCs in the locations where they can be
used, they offer significantly more potential selectivity.  The ability to use capillary columns and to employ
temperature programming greatly increases the resolution of chromatographic separations and enhances
the selectivity of the analysis. Exhibit 7A-1 of Appendix 7A contains mobile laboratory protocols for organic
analyses based on  GO techniques.

    The Unacon is a special device for sample preparation, which, in addition to purging and trapping
aqueous samples,  also facilitates the analyses of gases, soils,  and sediments by gas chromatography.
Solid sample materials (such as soil or dry sediment) can be loaded into a Unacon sample tube and heated
to thermally desorb organics for GC analysis. The Unacon also provides for purge and trap and for direct
solvent injection of liquid samples.

    If a GC is interfaced to a Mass Spectrometric Detector, such as the Hewlett-Packard 5970 B or the Fin-
nigan Ion Trap Detector (ITD), the resulting system will approach the selectivity of laboratory equipment.
These mass-selective detectors  are  designed to operate with capillary column GCs  and to include
microcomputer-based data systems. While these data systems are compact and inexpensive, they can be
fitted for high capacity storage that provides the capability to search mass spectral databases, such as the
EPA/NIH Spectrum Library.  The combination of a GC and a Mass Spectrometric Detector installed in a van
offers the potential  for a highly selective mobile-analysis capability.

    The TAGA MS/MS unit has been used In field situations for which it provided a great deal of selectivity,
although at a  relatively high cost. When the situation  warrants, the TAGA unit can provide exceptional
specificity and sensitivity for the analysis of problem compounds such as 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-
dioxin (TCDD).  The TAGA does not use a GC for initial separation of individual compounds. As the name
implies, two mass spectrometers in tandem provide both compound separation and identification informa-
tion within the same unit.

    Effective use of these analytical instruments requires a high level of expertise and experience on the
part of the analyst.

7.6.3  Class A  Poisons    General

    Class A poisons are defined as being extremely dangerous poisonous gases or liquids of which an ex-
tremely small amount of gas or vapor of the liquid mixed with air is dangerous to life.

    Exhibit 7-4 lists 25 compounds that fall into this category. Sixteen of these compounds are listed by
the Department of Transportation (DOT) as Class A poisons, and these compounds were selected for
screening at waste sites in an EPA report entitled  Available Field Methods for Rapid Screening of Hazardous
Waste Materials at Waste Sites, Interim Report, Class A Poisons, December 1982.  Determining the presence
of Class A poisons  is of interest to the SM because of the extremely strict requirements placed on the ship-
ping of Class A poisons by DOT.  The following paragraphs summarize the methods evaluated by EPA for
screening Class A poisons.

                                           Exhibit 7-4
                                       CLASS A POISONS
    Carbonyl flouride
    Cyanogen chloride
    Dichlorodiethyl sulfide
    Ethyl bromoacetate
    Hydrocyanic acid
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen tetroxide
Nitrogen trioxide
Phenylcarbylamine chloride
Trichloroacetyl chloride
Ally! isothiocyanate
Dichloro-(2-chlorovinyl) arsine*
Hydrogen selenide
     Lewisite blistering agent (mustard gas)    Screening Methods for Class A Poisons

    The current state of the art for existing methods of general detection does not provide for the specific
field screening of Class A poisons.  It appears that a more promising approach  is the specific detection
method for each of the Class A poisons of interest. A convenient method for the field screening of specific
volatile substances is the use of gas detection tubes. These tubes contain a granulated solid support, such
as silica gel, with an adsorbed reagent that changes  color in the presence of the species the reagent is
designed to detect.  A known quantity of sample gas is drawn through the detection tube, and the length of
the resulting discoloration is read against a precalibrated scale to give the concentration of the species of
interest.  Interferences are common and  can give erroneous results. The following summary of the litera-
ture describes the more promising systems for detection against reagents that might be used with the gas
detection tube concept. Gas detection tubes for several of the Class A poisons are already commercially
available.   Colorimetric-indicating gas detection  tubes  are  most useful in situations in which  the con-
taminant is known or suspected;  the tubes can  reduce the possibility of  interferences that produce er-
roneous results.

    The EPA survey showed that 16  reagent detection systems lend themselves  to field screening for
hydrocyanic acid. Of the methods that  were considered, four  employed photometric analysis, while the
other procedures used adsorption of hydrocyanic acid and/or the detector reagent on some type of solid
support, such as silica gel, filter paper, or activated charcoal.  Considering all factors, the commercially
available Draeger detector tube for hydrocyanic acid appeared to offer the greatest potential for incorpora-
tion into field methodology.  This tube has a detection range  of 2.3 to 34 mg/m3; acid gases such as
hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia are retained in the precleanse layer.

    Ten reagent systems were reported for the detection of arsine.  Three methods involve photometric
analysis; one is a titration procedure; the other six use adsorption on a solid support, as described above.
The most promising of these methods for field screening appears to be the Draeger arsine detector tube,
which has a detection range of 0.16 to 195 mg/m3.  Phosphine and antimony hydride are listed as positive
interferences.  It should be noted that phosphine is also classified as a Class A poison.

    A total of 16 reagent detection systems were reported for the screening of ethyl and/or methyl-
dichloroarsine.  Two of these methods  used a precipitate in the  reagent solution as a positive result.
Twelve methods used reagent-treated filter paper, while one used a coloration change made by marks of a
treated crayon.  The method that appears to be the most suitable for incorporation into a field test kit used
a detector tube containing silica gel that has been impregnated with a mixture of zinc sulfate and molybdic
acid.  This tube offers direct  and sensitive detection for alkyldichloroarsine.  The detection limit of the
reagent is given as 2.5  p.g; other closely related organo-arsenic halides and hydrogen sulfide are given as
positive interferences.

    Eleven reagent detector systems could be used for field screening of mustard gas.  There are two
types of chemical warfare blistering agents:  H (and its distillates HD and HT)  and Lewisite.  All are known
by the general term "mustard gas."  The most attractive of these methods for H compounds appears to be
silica gel impregnated with auric chloride.  According to the literature, a characteristic reddish-brown color
appears in the presence of mustard gas.

    Eleven potential field screening methods were found for the detection of dichloro-(2-chlorovinyl) arsine.
The most promising of these methods appears to  be  that which uses Michler's thioketone (4,4'-bis
(dimethylamino) thiobenzo phenone) as the reagent adsorbed on silica gel. This reagent system is current-
ly used by the U.S. Army in its  M256 gas detector kit for the detection of Lewisite.

    Seven methods were identified that could be used for the field  detection of cyanogen chloride.  Two
methods required photometric analysis, while one involved titration.  The other four approaches  used
reagents adsorbed on some type of solid support. The most promising approach appears to be the use of
the cyanogen chloride  detector tube made by Draeger. This tube  has  a detection range of 0.64 to 12.8
mg/m3.  Cyanogen bromide is listed as a positive interference.

    Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide can be detected by using the Draeger nitrous fumes detector tube.  A
total of 15 reagent systems were examined for the detection of nitric oxide and/or nitrogen dioxide. The
Draeger tube method appears to be the most advantageous approach since both gases can be detected
simultaneously and since the method is commercially available.

    Eleven methods  appeared suitable for adaptation to field screening for phosphine.  One method  in-
volved titration; two  used photometric analysis; the remaining eight methods used liquid reagents ad-
sorbed on solid supports.  The most promising method appears to be the use of the Draeger phosphine
detector tube, which  has a detection range of 0.14 to 5.68 mg/m3. Antimony hydride and arsine,  a Class A
poi son, are given as  positive interferences.

    Only four reagent detection methods were found for the field screening of bromoacetone. The best ap-
proach for the detection of this compound appears to be a two-step method.  Sodium nitroprusside is used
as a detecting reagent for methyl ketones in the first step. An orange coloration of the sodium nitroprus-
side indicates the presence of this class of compounds. The second step is the detection of bromine using
fuchsin-sulfurous acid test paper. A positive response is indicated when a violet color appears. When both
of these tests are positive, bromoacetone is assumed to be present.

    Sixteen reagent  systems  were examined for the detection of phosgene.  Three methods  require
photometric analysis; one involves titration; the remaining approaches use a reagent on solid support. The
best method appears to be the Draeger phosgene detector tube, which has a detection range of 0.17 to 6.2
mg/m3.  Carbonyl bromide and acetyl  chloride are listed as positive interferences.  Literature dealing with
the detection of diphosgene stated that to use the Draeger tubes, the gas must be heated 300ฐC to 350ฐC
to decompose it to phosgene,  which is  then detected by the above methods.  Further testing will determine
the necessity for this heat treatment.

    One method was found for the specific detection of cyanogen.  The reagents used for this test are 8-
quinolinol and potassium cyanide, which turns red in the presence of this species.  In addition, cyanogen
may be converted to hydrogen cyanide or cyanogen chloride and can be detected as these substances.

    Five detection  means were reported for germanium.  Two of these  methods involved  titrimetric
analysis.  Currently, the most promising approach for field detection appears to be the use of the reagent,
hydroxyphenyl fluorene, which turns an orange color in the presence of germanium.

    Only one method was reported for the detection of phenylcarbylamine chloride.  This method uses
Sudan red, ground  chalk, and iron (III) chloride, which turns from red to green in the  presence of phenyl-
carbylamine chloride. Sudan red is listed as a carcinogen.

    The EPA report recommended that the above methods be evaluated in a laboratory as a means of
screening for the Class A poison for which each system is designed.


    Because field screening techniques are not  completely standardized, the SM must prepare a detailed
explanation of the methods to be used and the associated QA/QC procedures. This information is included
in the QAPJP for review and approval by EPA.


    COM Federal Programs Corporation. REMIITeam Operating Procedures for X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer.
April 1987.

    Equipment Available for Sample Screening and Onsite Measurements.  Technical Directive Document No.
HQ-8311-04, Contract No. 68-01-6699. 30 May 1984.

    NUS Corporation, Superfund Division. Operating Guidelines Manual: Rapid Field Screening of Hazardous
Substances.  Procedure 4.35 (Draft 1).

    REM/FIT Mobile Lab QA Procedure Development. Technical Directive Document No. HQ-8505-04. 30
June 1985.

    Roffman, H.K.,  and M.D. Neptune. Field Screening of Samples From Hazardous Wastes. Proceedings, In-
stitute of Environmental Sciences. April 1985.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available Field Methods for Rapid Screening of Hazardous Waste
Materials at Waste Sites. Interim Report, Class A Poisons, EPA Report No. 6001X-82-014.  December 1982.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Drum Handling Practices at Hazardous Waste Sites. EPA Report
No. EPA/600/2-86-013.  Cincinnati, Ohio: HWERL August 1986.

                                   APPENDIX 7A


   The following sections discuss methodologies that have been used in screening samples on hazardous
waste sites. The Site Manager (SM) should realize that these methodologies may not be suitable for all
sites and may require extensive modification to meet the validation requirement of a specific region. Also,
the methodologies used must be related to the data quality objectives of the project.

    Exhibit 7A-1 presents protocols that have been used for analyses, reporting and deliverables for the
mobile laboratory analysis of organic compounds for screening. Exhibit 7A-2 lists the estimated limits of
detection for organics on the target compounds list. Exhibit 7A-3 presents the protocols to be followed for
the mobile laboratory screening of inorganic trace elements  and  cyanide.  Exhibit 7A-4 describes the
operating procedure for XRF analysis of soils and tailings with the Columbia X-Met 840 Analyzer.


    Samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after sampling.  One advantage to field analysis is
rapid turn around, generally 24 hours, for most analyses. If samples are not analyzed immediately, the fol-
lowing holding times are suggested. Volatile organic analyses (VOAs) should be held no more than 7 days
from sampling until analysis for water  samples and no more than 10 days for soil or sediment samples.
Base neutral acids (BNAs) and pesticides should be  held no more than 5 days until extraction for water
samples and no more than  10 days for soil or sediment samples.  Samples must be refrigerated before

    Inorganic samples should be preserved in the field according to  EPA protocols  found in the User's
Guide to the CLP. The holding time for cyanides shall not exceed 24 hours.
                                        Exhibit 7A-1


A.     Instrumentation for Water and Soil Sample Analyses

       1.  Tekmar purge and trap or equivalent
       2.  Temperature-programmed gas chromatograph equipped with flame-ionization detector
       3.  GC column
              a. 60/80 Carbopack B/1 percent SP-1000 6 ft x 44mm I.D. glass-packed column

B.     Water Sample Analysis

       1.  Adapted from Method 5030, SW-846, purge and trap
       2.  Calibration standard solution
              a.  Spike an aliquot of commercial (Supelco) standard mixture into 20 ml of reagent
              water and purge.
       3.  Analysis

                                          Exhibit 7A-1

               a. Use calibration standard through purge and trap system.
                      1)  Once per site before sample analyses
                      2)  After every 20 sample analyses
               b. Purge organic-free water blank (5 ml), solution analysis
                      1)  After every calibration standard solution analysis.
                      2)  After every 10 sample analyses
               c. Perform corrective maintenance when calibration standard responses decrease by
               20 percent of the initial calibration standard run; clean the injection port and the purge
               and trap appara

C.     Soil / Sediment Sample Analysis

       1. Adapted from Method 5030, SW-846, methand extraction
       2. Calibration standard solution preparation
               a. Spike aliquot of commercial (Supelco) standard mixture into 20 ml of reagent water
               and purge.
       3. Extraction
               a. Place 1  g soil sample/10 methand in a 40-ml glass Teflon-capped vial.
               b. Shake for 2 minutes.
               c. Allow solids to settle.
       4. Analysis
               a.  Use 400 |J extract  injected/20 ml organic-free water (equivalent to 1 ppm limit of
       5. Quality control
               a. Use calibration standard through purge and trap system.
                              1) Once per site before sample extract analyses
                              2) After every 20 sample extract analyses
               b.  Purge  organic-free water blank  (20  ml organic-free water containing the 400 ul
               methanol used for extraction).
                      1)  After every calibration standard analysis
                      2)  After every 10 sample extract analyses
                      3)  After any sample  extracts that exceed 100 ppm
               c. Perform corrective maintenance when calibration standard responses decrease by
               20 percent of the initial calibration standard run; clean the injection port and the purge
               and trap apparatus.


A.     Instrumentation for Water and Soil Sample Analyses

       1. Base / neutral and acid extractable organic
               a.  Temperature-programmed gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization
       2. Pesticides/PCBs
               a. Isothermal  gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector
       3. GC column
               a. Base / neutral and acid extractable organics

                                           Exhibit 7A-1

                      1)  Fused silica capillary column DB-5 or equivalent 30 mm x 0.32 mm, 1
                      micron film thickness
               b.  Pesticides/PCBs
                      1) 3 percent OV-1 on 80/100 Supelcoport 6 ft x 4 mm I.D. or equivalent

B.     Water Sample Analysis

       1. Pesticides/PCBs

               a.  Extraction
                      1)  Use 15 ml water sample/1.5 ml hexane in 20  ml disposable culture tube
                      with cap (Teflon or aluminum foil liner).
                      2) Shake for 2 minutes.
               b.  Analysis
                      1) Injects (xl extract.
                      2)  Use detection limits 0.5 (for compounds such as lindane) to 20 ppb (for
                      compounds such as Aroclor PCBs).
               c.  Calibration standard solution
                      1) Pesticide mixture: lindane, 0.005 ng/|J; aldrin,  0.01 ng/jj; p-p'-DDT, 0.025
                      2) PCBs: Aroclor 1254, 0.15 ng/^l
               d.  Quality control
                      1) Inject calibration standard solution
                              a) Once per site before sample analysis

                              b) After every 20 sample extracts
                      2) Inject solvent blank.
                              a) After each calibration standard solution analysis

                              b) After every 10 sample extract analyses.
                      3) Spike (field) sample.
                              a) Spike water with spiking solution of lindane, 0.5 jil; aldrin.1.0 p,g/l;
                              p-p'-DDT, 2.5 n,g/l
                      4)  Perform corrective maintenance when calibration response decreases 20
                      percent from initial calibration;  clean injection port  and front of GC column.
       2. Base / neutral and acid extractable organic compounds

               a.  Extraction
                      1) Adjust 100 ml sample to pH 2 or less, in a 125 ml separator/ funnel.
                      2) Extract with 10 ml methylene chloride.
                      3) Shake for 2 minutes with proper venting and appropriate safety measures.
               b.  Analysis
                      1) Inject 2 jj of extract
                      2) Note that limits of detection vary depending on recovery and sensitivity of
                      compound, 100 ppb-1 ppm.
               c.  Calibration standard solution
                      1)  Commercial (Supelco) solution containing the compounds  of interest at
                      appropriate concentrations
               d.  Quality control
                      1) Inject calibration standard solution.
                              a) Once per site before sample analysis

                              b) Every 20 sample analyses
                      2) Use spiked (field) sample to check extraction recovery.
                              a) Spiking solution of phenol, phenanthrene, 4-6-dinitro-2  methyi-
                              pnenol, hexachlorobenzene, and di-n-octyl-phthalate


                                           Exhibit 7A-1

                              b) Spike water sample at 1,000
                              c) Spiked sample to check extraction recovery
                                      (1 ) Every 20 sample extract analyses
                                      (2) At least once per site
                                      (3) Solvent blank
                                              (a)  After each calibration standard analysis
                                              (b)  After every 10 sample analyses
                                      (4) Conduct corrective, maintenance when calibration response decreases
                                      20. percent from initial  calibration; clean injection port and front of GC

C.      Soil / Sediment Sample Analysis

        1. Pesticides / PCBs
               a. Extraction
                       1)  Place 1 g soil sample in glass scintillation vial of at least 20 ml volume with
                       screw caps (Teflon or aluminum foil  liner).
                       2)  Add 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate.
                       3)  Mix well with spatula to free-flowing powder.
                       4)  Add 10ml hexane.
                       5)  Shake for 2 minutes.
                       6)  Allow solids to settle.
               b. Analysis
                       1)  5 (J extract injected
                       2)  Limits of detection 0.05  ppm for  compounds such as lindane to 2 ppm for
                       compounds such as Aroclor PCBs
               c. Calibration standard solution
                       1)  Pesticide solution of lindane, 0.005 ng/ul; aldrin, 0.01 ng/ml; and p-p'-DDT,
                       2)  PCBs--Aroclor 1254, 0.15
               d. Quality control
                       1)  Calibration standard Injected (both pesticides and PCBs)
                              a) Once per site before sample analysis
                              b) After every 10 sample analyses
                       2)  Spiked (field) sample
                              a)  Spiking solution-concentration  in  soil  will  be lindane, 50 ng/g;
                              aldrin, 100 ng/g; and p-p'-DDT, 250 ng/g
                              b) Spiked sample every 20 samples
                              c) Once per site, minimum
                       3)  Solvent blank injection
                              a) After each calibration standard solution injection
                              b) After every 10 samples extract
                              c) After any samples that exceed 20 ppm
                       4)  Conduct corrective maintenance when calibration  response decreases by
                       20 percent of initial calibration; clean injection port and front of GC column
        2.  Base / neutral and acid extractable compounds
               a. Extraction
                       1)  Place 1 a soil sample in glass scintillation vial of at  least 20 ml volume with
                       screw cap (Teflon or aluminum foil liner).
                       2)  Add 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate.


                                         Exhibit 7A-1

                     3) Mix well with spatula to a free-flowing powder.
                     4) Add 10 ml methylene chloride.
                     5) Shake for 2 minutes.
                     6) Allow solids to settle.
              b. Analysis
                     1) 2 |xl extract injected
                     2) Detection limits vary, 10 ppm-100 ppm
              c. Calibration standard  solution - commercial (Supelco) solution containing the com-
              pounds of interest at appropriate concentrations
              d. Quality control
                     1) Calibration standard injected
                             a) Once per site prior to sample extract analysis
                             b) After every 10 sample extract analyses
                     2) Spiked (field) samples
                             a) Spiking solution-concentration in soil will be 100 jig/g for each of
                             the  following compounds:   phenol,  phenanthrene,  4-6-din'rtro-2-
                             methyl phenol, hexachlorobenzene, and di-n-octylphthalate
                             b) Spiked sample every 20 samples
                             c) Spiked sample once per site,  minimum
                     3) Solvent blank injection
                             a) After each calibration standard injection
                             b) After every 10 sample extract analyses
                             c) After any sample extracts that exceed 10,000 ppm
                     4)  Conduct corrective maintenance when calibration response decreases by
                     20 percent from initial calibration; clean injection port and front of GC column

       A. For each sample analyzed, a summary sheet containing the following information shall be
               1. Site name
               2. Sample number
               3. Date received
               4. Date analyzed
               5. Analyst
               6.   Number  of  peaks  recorded  on chromatogram  (Note:  For  each  sample
               chromatogram, peaks recorded will be numbered sequentially (#1, #2, #3, etc.)
               directly on the chromatogram)
               7. Retention time of each peak
               8. Relative concentration of each  peak - compare sample chromatogram to calibra-
               tion standard chromatogram;  determine the closest eluting standard; and assume a
               response factor of 1.0. Other response factors may be assumed if indicated.

       B. Copies of all analysts' logbooks, calibration logs, daily activity logs, and all chromatograms
       for calibration runs, blank injections, and samples will be received within 14 days of the receipt
       of the last sample from a particular site.

                              Exhibit 7A-2
                                                                Detection Limits*, **
Vinyl chloride
Methylene chloride
Carbon disulfide
1, 1 -Dichloroethene
1, 1 -Dichtoroethane
Trans-1 , 2-dlchloroethene
1 ,2-Dichloroethane
1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
Carbon tetrachloride
Vinyl acetate
1 ,1 ,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
1 ,2-Dichloropropane
Trans-1 ,2-dichloropropene
1 ,1 ,2-Trichloroethane
Cis-1 ,3-dichloropropene
2-Chloroethyl vinyl ether
Ethyl benzene
Total Xylenes
CAS Number








                                Exhibit 7A-2
                                                                   Detection Limits*, **
Semi- Volatiles'

Bis (2-chloroethyl) ether
1 , 3-Dichlorobenzene
1 ,4-Dichlorobenzene
Benzyl alcohol
1 ,2-Dichlorobenzene
Bis (2-chloroisopropyl) ether
Benzoic acid
Bis (2-chloroethoxy) methane
1 ,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
Dimethyl phthalate
CAS Number








                                        Exhibit 7A-2
                                                                            Detection Limits*, **
76.     2,6-Dinitrotoluene
77.     Diethylphthalate
78.     4-Chlorophenyl phenyl ether
79.     Fluorene
80.     4-Nitroaniline

81.     4,6-Dinitro-2-methylphenol
82.     N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
83.     4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether
84.     Hexachlorobenzene
85.     Pentachlorophenol

86.     Phenanthrene
87.     Anthracene
88.     Di-n-butytphthalate
89.     Fluroanthene
90.     Benzidine

91.     Pyrene
92.     Butyl benzyl phthalate
93.     3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
94.     Benzo (a) anthracene
95.     Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

96.     Chrysene
97.     Di-n-octyl phthalate
98.     Benzo (b) fluoranthene
99.     Benzo (k) fluroanthene
100.   Benzo (a) pyrene


101.   Ideno (1, 2,3-cd) pyrene
102.   Dibenz (a, h) anthracene
103.   Benzo (g,h,i) perylene
104.   Alpha-BHC
105.   Beta-BHC

106.    Delta-BHC
107.   Gamma-BHC (lindane)
108.    Heptachlor
109.   Aldrin
110.    Heptachlor epoxlde
CAS Number







                                         Exhibit 7A-2
                                                                            Detection Limits*. **
        Pesticides'.'                          CAS Number
111.    Endosulfanl                               959-98-8               o.05            2.0
112.    Dieldrin                                    60-57-1                Q.10            40
113.    4,4'-DDE                                  72-55-9               Q.10            4.0
114.    Endrin                                     72-20-8               o.10            4.0
115.    Endosulfanll                            33213-65-9               0.10            4.0

116.    4,4'-ODD                                  72-54-8               0.10            20.0
117.    Endrin aldehyde                          7421-93-4               o.10            20.0
118.    Endosulfan sulfate                        1031-07-8               o.10            40.0
119.    4,4'-DDT                                  50-29-3               0.10            20.0
120.    Endrin ketone                           53494-70-5               0.10            20.0

121.    Methoxychlor                              72-43-5                0.5            20.0
122.    Chlordane                                 57-74-9                0.5            20.0
123.    Toxaphene                               8001-35-2                1.0            20.0
124.    AROCLOR-1016                         12674-11-2                0.5            40.0
125.    AROCLOR-1221                         11104-28-2                0.5            40.0

126.    AROCLOR-1232                         11141-16-5                05
127.    AROCLOR-1242                         53469-21-9                0.5
128.    AROCLOR-1248                         12672-29-6                0.5
129.    AROCLOR-1254                         11097-69-1                1.0
130.    AROCLOR-1260                         11096-82-5                10
       Medium Water Contract Required Detection Limits (CRDL) for Volatile Target Compound List (TCL)
           Compounds are 100 times the individual Low Water CRCL.
       Medium Soil/Sediment CRDL for Volatile TCL Componds are 100 times the individual Low Soil/Sediment CRDL.
    c   Medium Water CRDL for Semi-Volatile TCL Compounds are 100 times the individual Low Water CRDL
    d   Medium Soil/Sediment CRDL for Semi-Volatile TCL Compounds are 60 times the individual
           low Soil/Sediment CRDL
    6   Medium Water CRDL for Pesticide TCL Compounds are 100 times the individual Low Water CRDL
    '   Medium Soil/Sediment CRDL for Pesticide TCL compounds are 60 times the individual Low Soil/Sediment CRDL.
       Detection limits listed for soil/sediment are based on wet weight. The detection limits calculated by the
           laboratory for soil/sediment, calculated on dry weight basis as required by the contract, will be higher.
    **  Specific detection limits are highly matrix dependent. The detection limits listed herein are provided.
           for guidance and may not always be achievable.

                                        Exhibit 7A -3
                             INORGANIC ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS


    Metals: Approved EPA method for ICP, flame, flameless, or cold vapor atomic adsorption are used,
provided that the required detection limits listed herein can be achieved. These methods are detailed in the
CLP's Scope ofWork for Inorganic Analysis, Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration, SOW No. 785, July 1985 (a new
version is expected soon).  However, perform digestion  using a technique appropriate for the elements of
concern.  Perform analyses for the following elements:

       aluminum             lead
       antimony             magnesium
       arsenic               manganese
       barium               mercury
       beryllium             nickel
       cadmium             potassium
       calcium              selenium
       chromium            silver
       cobalt               sodium
       copper               thallium
       cyanide              vanadium
       iron                  zinc

    Cyanide: Use approved EPA method that meets the detection limits required herein, as specified in
CLP SOW No. 785


    For inorganic analyses, use the required detection limits for soils. Limits should be no higher than 100
times the required limits for waters, which are listed below.  (However, it is understood that occasional in-
terferences may prevent these limits from being achieved in every case.  Provide documentation stating the
reason(s) if these limits are not achieved.)
                   Element / Compound and Required Detection Limit in p.g/1

       aluminum         200       cobalt              50       nickel              40
       antimony           60       copper             25       potassium       5,000
       arsenic             10       cyanide            10       selenium             5
       barium            200       iron               100       silver               10
       beryllium            5       lead                 5       sodium          5,000
       cadmium            5       magnesium      5,000       thallium             10
       calcium          5,000       manganese         15       vanadium           50
       chromium          10       mercury           0.2       zinc                20

                                          Exhibit 7A-3
    •  Perform one matrix spike and matrix spike duplicate on all fractions for each matrix (water or soil).
       Spike with as many compounds as are currently in a stock mix, and report all levels found.

    •  Perform one laboratory (method) blank on all fractions for each matrix (water or soil).

    •  Homogenize solids carefully.


    •  Whenever spike recoveries indicate that sample results for a particular metal may not be accurate,
       perform a standard addition on all samples (from one site) of the same matrix if the samples have
       positive results for this element.  Use the control  limits for spike recoveries as action levels for
       standard additions that must not exceed 60 to 140 percent.  Report standard addition corrected
       results with a footnote that indicates this fact.

    •  Before running any samples and thereafter at least once per shift, run an instrument blank followed
       by calibration for all metals.

    •  Run a calibration check  standard after every 10 samples are run on an instrument.  Recalibrate, if
       necessary, based upon control limits that must not  exceed 80 to 120 percent.  If ICP is used, run a
       QC standard at least twice per shift to check interelement interference correction. Interfered con-
       centrations should be approximately 100 to 1,000 times higher than analyte concentrations.

    •  When results for calibration check standards or ICAP interference check standards fall outside of
       control limits (which must not exceed 60 to 140 percent), reanalyze all preceding samples (since
       the last check analysis) having positive  results for the affected parameters. Reanalysis should
       occur after the problem has been corrected.


    •  For each sample analyzed, provide a summary sheet containing the following information:

               -   Site name
               -   Sample number
               -   Date received
               -   Date analyzed
               -  Analyst

    •  Report results for all samples, spikes, instrument,  and method blanks.  For each sample, list all
       compounds for which analyses  were per formed with either the amount  detected  or the ap-
       proximate detection limit next to each compound.  Report results in mg/l or mg/kg. Do not per-
       form subtraction of method or calibration blank values from sample results.  Report quantitations
       to two significant figures.

    •  Report all  matrix  spike  recoveries including amount added  and recovered.  If zero recoveries,
       check for a problem, and document the explanation in the results.  Calculate and  report the relative
       percentage of difference (difference divided by mean) for all  matrix spike and matrix spike dupli-
       cate recoveries.

    •  Report the sample preparation weight / volume, the final analysis volume, and the injection volume
       for each sample and for each analytical fraction.

    •  Provide calibration check data for each sample  run series.  Report the true and measured con-
       centrations of each analyte in the calibration checks.

    •  If  ICP is used, provide  results for all applicable interference check samples including true and
       measured concentrations of each analyte in the check sample.


                                         Exhibit 7A-3

    •  Report the type of analytical method used for each parameter analyzed, since different interferen-
       ces occur witn ICAP, Rame AA, and furnace methods.

    •  For each ICAP parameter, report the wavelength for measurement, together with a list of all known
       interfering elements and their approximate correction factors.

    Receipt of results: Complete results and documentation (analysts' logbooks, calibration logs, daily ac-
tivity logs, and all machine-generated documentation) must be received within 14 days of sample receipt
for mobile laboratory analyses.

    Verbal results for sample analyses will be provided upon request immediately following analysis; verbal
results are simply an indication of the presence or absence of contaminants in samples.

    Periodic analyses on EPA quality assurance check samples will be performed as established by data
quality objectives and the QAPjP; results for these analyses will be reported in the same manner as any

                                         Exhibit 7A-4
    This procedure describes the use of the X-MET 840 X-ray fluorescence analyzer for analysis of heavy
metals in solid samples.

       1.       X-MET 840 XRF analyzer electronic unit.
       2.       HEPS sample probe, either Cm-244 or Am-241 radioisotope source, or both.
       3.       Distribution box (optional) for analysis requiring both probes.
       4.       Pure element standards, one for each element present within the samples to be analyzed.
       5.       Sample calibration standards.
       6.       Sample cups, polyethelene film, and scissors (included in unit storage box).
       7.       Automatic pulverizer, or mortar and pestle, for grinding samples to a powder.
       8.       Oven and aluminum pans for drying samples.
       9.       Acid-rinsed silica sand for cleaning grinding equipment.
       10.     Plastic sampling spoons.
       11.     Plastic vials (50 dram).

       This procedure describes the method of preparing both samples and calibration standards for
       analysis with the X-MET 840.
       2.1 Drying
               In order to avoid analytical errors due to  moisture content (a  matrix effect) of all
               samples must be dried in the same manner.
                      2.1.1   Spread sample evenly in the aluminum pan.  It is important that the
                      sample in the pan be as homogeneous as possible and that all large chunks
                      be broken up.
                      2.1.2 Place pan with sample in an oven and dry at 300ฐF for approximately 20
                      min., or until moisture Is removed.  Alternatively, samples may be dried in
                      direct sunlight.

                                          Exhibit 7A-4

       2.2 Subsampling

               It is recommended that the entire sample be ground to avoid sampling error due to
               nonhomogenelty. However, if this is not possible, sampling error may oe minimized
               by  selection of a representative portion of the sample in the pan.  With the use of a
               plastic spoon, remove one or more  pie-shaped sections and place into the grinding
       2.3 Grinding

               It is important that all samples be ground In the-same manner. Analytical error due to
               differences in particle size can be substantial.
                      2.3.1 Samples should be ground with a portable hammer mill or, alternately, a
                      mortar and pestle, until of equal consistency.
                      2.3.2 The grinding equipment must be cleaned (decontaminated) by grinding
                      with silica sand. Liquid solvents should not be used.
       2.4 Use of  sample cups

                      2.4.1 Turn cup over and cover bottom with polyethelene film.  Snap ring over
                      film and onto bottom of cup.  Cut cup free of film with scissors.
                      2.4.2 Trim excess film from  edges of cup and check for holes or wrinkles. If
                      the film is not completely smooth, or wrinkles cannot be removed, repeat the
                      2.4.3 Place sample in cup using a plastic spoon. Cups should be at least 3/4
                      filled with sample.  Pack sample into cup until bottom  (at film surface) is as
                      smooth as possible.  Brush  away loose powder from outside edges of cup
                      with a small brush to avoid contamination of the probe.
       2.5 Note: Analysis with the X-MET requires only about 5 grams of sample.  However, a mini-
       mum of approximately 40 grams is required for complete metals analysis by AAS or ICP tech-
       niques. Therefore, a minimum of 45 grams should be ground: 40 grams for verification and/or
       referee analyses and 5 grams retained for X-MET analyses.  This  is not critical if the entire
       sample is ground.

       2.6 Ground powders should be stored in labeled plastic vials (50 dram).

       This procedure must be followed prior to both calibration (Section 4.0) and/or measurement
       (Section 5.0).

       3.1 Power  Supply

               Connect the X-MET electronic  unit  to a  suitable power source, either A.C.  power,
               charged battery pack,  or 12 volt battery. (Note: the unit will operate for approximately
               8 hours on a fully charged battery pack).
       3.2 Probe Connection

               Connect probe cable to PROBE connector on bottom left of front panel. If more than
               one probe is to be used, they must be connected via the distribution box.  (Note:
               Never connect / disconnect probe while the electronic unit is ON; this may damage
               the probe).
       3.3 Switch  ON

               Turn the unit on by pressing the ON button.  The display should then read:  SELF
               TEST COMPLETED followed by the"" prompt and "J'cursor" indicator. The "" prompt
               indicates the ready (quiescent) state. (Note: Before switching  the instrument OFF it
               should be returned to the quiescent state).
       3.4 Electrical and Thermal Stabilization

               Allow the unit to stabilize for approximatelySO min., prior to any  measurements.
               Stabilization time is required to allow the X-MET to adjust to its surroundings.  At least
               1 min.,  of stabilization time should be allowed for each 1 deg F temperature change.
               (Note:  When using 2 or 3 probes via the distribution box, electrical stabilization oc-
               curs simultaneously for alt probes).

                                          Exhibit 7A-4

       3.5 Gain Control

               Each probe should be allowed at least 5 min., for gain control operation.  Gain control
               takes place automatically when the unit is in the quiescent state ("" prompt) and the
               probe shutter is closed (lid open and green light on).
                      3.5.1  If the display reads:  UNINITIALIZED PROBE, then no initial value have
                      been entered for gain control and  an  instrument calibration must be per-
                      formed before proceeding further.
                      3.5.2 Gain control parameters may be checked and/or changed via the main-
                      tenance set of programs 0 refer to Section 9.0).
                      3.5.3 The unit should be left  ON between measurements with probe shutter
                      closed for continuous gain control operation.
                      3.5.4  When more  than one probe is  being used,  each must be allowed
                      separate gain control operation.
       3.6 Update Normalization Factors

               Due to continual decay of the radioactive source in the probe, it may be necessary to
               check and/or  update the pure  element normalization factors.  This is not usually
               necessary unless a significant amount of time has elapsed between successive uses
               of the instrument.
                      3.6.1   Select approximately the same time as in the previous normalization.
                      Key in the NOR command.   The display  should  read:   NORMALIZING
                      SAMPLE? Enter the element  symbol for which normalization is desired. The
                      display should now reads:  MEASURE. Place the corresponding pure element
                      standard in position in the probe, open the shutter (close the lid) and measure
                      (press START button).
                      3.6.2 If the relative deviations between old and new normalization factors are
                      less than about 3%, or if the new measurements are statistically equal to each
                      other,  measurements can begin; otherwise, a new instrument calibration is re-
                      quired before proceeding.

       The calibration procedure programs the X-MET 840 for the desired application. The elements
       to be analyzed are defined by setting up element channels (or windows) using the pure ele-
       ment standards.  Concentrations of elements  are established by measuring known calibration
       standards and calculating calibration coefficients using multiparameter regression analysis.
       There are eight separate calibration memories or "models".  In each model, 1 to 10 element
       channels can be set up.

       Figure 1 shows a diagram summarizing the main steps in the calibration procedure. Because
       of the complexities involved,  only a  brief description of the process is given here (refer to the
       operating manual for a more detailed discussion).

       4.1 Instrument Calibration

               Instrument calibration encompasses gain control initialization  and stabilization, choice
               of elements, and pure element measurements.  The  choice  of elements to measure
               depends on knowledge of their concentrations in the samples to be analyzed and their
               suspected degree of spectral interference. Once the appropriate pure elements have
               been selected; follow Sections 2.0 (Preparation for Operation) and 5.0 (Measurement).
               Pure element calibration  is initiated through the PUR or CPU commands.
       4.2 Sample Calibration

               Sample calibration includes  measurement of calibration standards  (CAL command),
               input of calibration  standard concentrations (ASY command),  and calculation of
               calibration  coefficients (MOD command).  Calibration coefficients may also be calcu-
               lated externally and entered via the PAR command. Follow Sections 2.0 (Preparation
               of Operation) and 5.0 (Measurement).

                                        Exhibit 7A-4
       4.3  Number of Calibration Standards
              The number of calibration standards depends on two factors: number of elements to
              be analyzed and number of interfering elements. Spectral overlap between elements
              is automatically corrected for through measurement of the appropriate pure element
              standards and selection of channel limits. Correction of matrix effects due to absorp-
              tion or enhancement of fluorescent x-rays requires statistical evaluation. If a one-to-
              one correlation between element concentration and x-ray intensity (linear regression)
              is determined, the number of necessary calibration standards may be small. Matrix ef-
              fects due to the presence of interfering elements, on the other hand, may require the
              use of multiple regression analysis, and the number of calibration standards necessary
              may increase (refer to Table 1).

       This section describes the measurement of either standards  (calibration or pure element) or
       5.1  Select the appropriate model by pressing the MODEL function key, typing in the desired
       model (1-8), and pressing the CONT/YES editing key.
       5.2  Select the appropriate measurement time by pressing the MTIME function key, typing in
       the  desired time in seconds, and pressing the CONT/YES editing key.  (Note:  Measurement
       times may range between 1 and 32,767 seconds and it is not necessary that sample measure-
       ment times be the same as calibration measurement times.)
       5.3  Place sample to be measured in the sample holder in the appropriate probe.  Close the lid
       (green  light should go out) and press START button.  The screen should now indicate the
       remaining  measurement time.  At the end of measurement, an audible signal (three short
       tones) is given and the results displayed. Raise the probe lid and remove the sample.
       5.4  If the sample is to be run again with another probe connected via the distribution box, turn
       the  probe indicator switch to that probe and repeat steps 5.1 through 5.3.
       5.5  To re-display the results of the previous run, press the RECALC button. If calculations are
       desired for the previous run under a different model, first change to the desired model (see
       Section 5.1) and then press RECALC.
               	"         TABLE 1
                                       Number of Elements




••ป •••BOTH


Exhibit 7A-4
:igure 1 -Summary of calibration
futcrmcAi. AM twmuk mmjt
•Tit* OTf ซTATl. Mate M HOW • ซ
• jr V
1 1
J~0ซ. |-^ซ
• •ป
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ABUT tMnrr ournn or CALJ
(AST) WTHlffHH (
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                                  Exhibit 7A-4

6.1  Quality Control
       Throughout the analysis, midpoint standards should be re-checked after an average of
       approximately five sample runs.  Analyses are generally considered to be out of con-
       trol when values obtained for the check standards are outside ฑ3 standard deviations
       of their "true" value.  The instrument is then recalibrated and the previous samples
6.2  Instrumental Precision and Detection Limit
       The standard deviation of counting statistics (STD command)  can be considered a
       very close approximation of instrumental precision.  True instrumental precision is ob-
       tained  by repetitive measurements of a sample. As a general rule, the detection limit
       may be established as three times the instrumental precision.   (Note:  Instrumental
       precision can be increased and thus detection limit lowered by increasing the number
       of calibration standards and/or the measurement time).
6.3  Sample Splits
       Sampling error can be determined by running sample duplicates, or splits.  Both field
       duplicates and splits from the sample pan (if applicable)  should be run an average of
       one every 20 samples. To test  for grinding error due to powder non-homogeneity,
       powder splits should also be run at the rate of one per 20  samples.



                             Start measurement
                             Select Model
                             Select measurement time
                             Recalculated assay in selected model
                             Switch on
                             Switch off
                             Delete keyboard entry
                             Scroll backwards
                             Shift to upper case (if in lower case) or to lower case (if in upper case)
                             Accept, continue or scroll forwards
                             Reject, terminate or agree to negative question
                             Add reference samples to identification library
                             Enter assays of calibration samples
                             Measure calibration samples
                             Output calibration sample intensities
                             Measure repeatedly (continuously)
                             Transfer or continue instrument calibration
                             Delete model
                             Display time and date
                             Enter maintenance programs (with PRM)
                             Initialize gain control
                             Output net count rates of channels
                             Examine and edit channel limits
                             Output normalization factors
                             Lock the keyboard
                             Regression modeling

                                        Exhibit 7A-4

              NOR          Normalization
              PAR          Enter and edit calibration coefficients
              PUL          Output gross count rates of element channels
              PUR          Instrument ("Pure Element') calibration
              PRM          Instrument Calibration Parameters (with EMP)
              REF          Referencee sample examination and editing
              SPE          Output spectra
              SPL          Plot spectra
              STD          Output standard deviation (counting statistics)
              STM          Set time and date
              TCR          Output total count rate
              UNL          Unlock keyboard

   Columbia Scientific Industries Corp.  1985. Operating Instructions X-Met 840 Portable XRF Analyzer.

                                        SECTION 8

                                   EARTH SCIENCES
    Note: Because the scope of this section is large, the section is organized by topics; the most pertinent
topics, in order, are as follows:
Section               Topic
8.1                    Geologic Drilling
                      Drilling Methods
                           Hand Augers
                           Powered Augers
                           Hollow-Stem Augers
                           Solid-Stem Augers
                           Bucket Augers and Disk Augers
                           Cable Tools
                           Mud and Water Rotary Drilling
                           Air Rotary Method
                           Reverse Air-and Mud or Water Rotary
                         Drive and Wash
                      Sampling Techniques
                           Split-Spoon Samplers
                           Thin-Walled Tube Samplers
                           Cutting or Wash Samples
                             Decontamination and Waste Handling

8.2                   Test Pits and Excavations

8.3                   Geological Reconnaissance and Geological Logging
                      Geological Reconnaissance
                      Geological Logging
                           Methods - Soils
                           SoU Description
                           Rock Methods
                           Rock Classifications
                           Well Completion Diagrams

8.4                   Geophysics
       8.4.2                 Geophysical Methods
                      Electrical Resistivity
                      Seismic Methods
                      Ground Penetrating Radar
       8.4.3                 Borehole Geophysics

    Appendixes 8.4A to 8.4E contain detailed discussion of the theory of geophysical instruments.

8.5                   Groundwater Monitoring
                     Water Wells
                     Piezometers and Tensiometers
                     Groundwater Sampling Equipment
                     Water-Level Measurement Devices
                     Field Parameter Measurements
                     Materials for Well Construction
                     Groundwater Sampling Considerations
    Each of the topics is organized Into subsections on applications and limitations.  These subsections
follow the general compendium format.


8.1.1   Scope and Purpose

    This subsection provides general guidance for the planning, method selection, and implementation of
geologic drilling and subsurface soil sampling for field investigations of hazardous waste sites.

8.1.2  Definitions

Site Manager (SM)
        The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
        and schedule.   The person is also referred to as the Site  Project Manager or the Project
        Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

        'The collection of natural bodies on the earth's surface, in places  modified or even made by
        man of earthy materials, containing living matter and supporting or capable of supporting
        plants out-of-doors.  The lower limit is normally the lower limit of biological activity, which
        generally coincides with the common rooting of native perennial plants"  (Glossary of Geology,
        1972, p. 671). Typically, soils at a hazardous waste site are defined as the weathered material
        located above bedrock; thus, soil sampling can occur to depths of many feet.

8.1.3  Applicability

    Although this subsection focuses on drilling for sampling purposes, it is important to recognize that
borings are also required for in situ testing of subsurface materials and groundwater, and to allow installa-
tion of monitoring devices including wells.

    Selection of the most appropriate method or combination of methods must be dictated by the special
considerations imposed by multipurpose borings.  For example, although the best apparent  method for
well installation at a particular site may be direct air rotary with driven casing, most air rotary equipment al-
lows sampling only by cuttings.  If, in this case, soil sampling is required, pilot  (or separate) borings done
with equipment capable of providing adequate undisturbed samples may be necessary.  In addition, if drill-


ing is to be conducted in an area of perched or multiple aquifer systems, auger techniques should not be
used because of the possibility of cross contamination; borings must be advanced using multiple casing
techniques that allow isolation of each aquifer encountered.

    Examples of such optimization of techniques are too numerous to be thoroughly covered in this sec-
tion, but the general applicability of various methods Is discussed. Routine soil drilling and sampling tech-
niques are discussed. Specialized techniques that may be applicable only under unusual conditions are
not presented.

   The planning, selection, and implementation of any drilling program requires careful consideration by
qualified, experienced personnel.  At a minimum,  the following general steps are required:
        Review of existing site, area, and regional subsurface, geologic, and hydrogeologic information in-
        cluding physical and chemical characteristics

        Development of a site-specific health and safety program

        Definition of the purpose of the drilling and sampling, selection of drilling methods and general site
        layout, and preparation and execution of the drilling contract

        Field implementation  and decontamination including  continuous inspection  by qualified, ex-
        perienced personnel

    Selection and  implementation of soil drilling and sampling methods also require that specific con-
siderations be given to the following issues, which are common to all drilling at or near hazardous waste

    •   Prevention of contaminant spread

    •   Maintenance of sample integrity

    •   Minimization of disruption of existing conditions

    •   Minimization of long-term impacts

8.1.4  Responsibilities

    The SM is responsible for determining that the soil drilling and sampling techniques being used are ap-
propriate to the site conditions and drilling objectives.

8.1.5  Records and Inspection

    Ali drilling and sampling activities should be continuously inspected by qualified, experienced person-
nel.  Continuous inspection is essential to assure that the intent of the drilling program is being followed
and  to  provide knowledgeable direction to  the field crews when conditions dictate variance from the
original plan.

    Inspection personnel should prepare daily reports that include the following:

    •  Activity logs or field notebooks

    •  Boring logs

    •  Sample documentation
    Reporting is essential to adequately document the unusual site conditions, the drilling and sampling
quantities, and the personnel onsite for project control and to thoroughly document technical methods and

8.1.6  Procedures

    The following methods should be considered for application at various sites. Exhibit 8.1-1 presents a
summary of advantages, disadvantages, and depth limitations of various drilling techniques.    Drilling Procedures    Hand Augers

    Description:  The most commonly used manually operated augers include the Iwan, ship, closed-
spiral, and open-spiral augers. In operation, a hand auger is attached to the bottom of a length of pipe that
has a crossarm at the top. The hole is drilled by turning this crossarm at the same time the operator pres-
ses the auger into the ground.

    As the auger is advanced and becomes filled with soil, it is taken from the hole, and the soil is removed.
Additional lengths of pipe are added  as required.  The Iwan, a post-hole type of auger, generally retains
sample material better than the other hand-operated augers.  Hand augers of the  type mentioned  are
shown in Exhibit 8.1-2.

    Application:  In general, hand-operated augers  are useful  for  sampling  all types of soils  except
cohesionless materials below  the water table and hard or cemented soils. The ship  auger, with a helical
flight on a solid stem, is best suited for use in cohesive materials.  Spiral augers were developed for use in
those cases in which helical and screw augers do not work well. The closed-spiral auger is used in dry clay
and gravelly soils. The open-spiral auger is most useful in loosely consolidated deposits.

    The Iwan auger is available in diameters ranging from 3 to 9 inches.  The other types of augers are
available in diameters ranging from approximately 2 to 3.5 inches.

    Auger borings are used primarily in cases in which  there is no need for undisturbed samples and in
which the drilling will  be  done in soils where the borehole will stay open without casing or drilling mud,
generally above the ground water table. The high mobility of the equipment makes the hand auger ideally
suited for sites with impaired access.

           Drilling Technique      Depth Limitation (ft)
           Hand Auger
             Hand Auger

           Power Auger

  Bucket and Disk

Cable Tool
                           300 ฑ
                                     1,000 +
           Mud Rotary
           Air Rotary
           Reserve Alr-and-
            Mud or Water Rotary

           Drive-and Wash
                          5.000 +
                          5,000 +
Same as above.
Ease of soil sampling.
No fluids required.
Holes up to 3 ft f In diameter.
Shallow holes above water table.

Low drilling fluid requirements.
Good definition of water-bearing zones.
Good in caving, high-gravel content
Good formation In samples.

Good cutting samples.
Can leave hole open during drilling.
Rapid drilling.
Fast In consolidated formations.
No drilling liquids introduced
into well.

Minimizes wellbore disturbance.
Better cuttings removal
Not useful In unconsolldated material below water table.
Not useful in cemented material.
Limited application In gravelly material.
Mixed samples.

Same as above.
Not good In caving formations or those containing
Not useful when undisturbed soil samples are required.

Not good for small-diameter wells.
Must drive casing following bit.
Mud may plug permeable zones.
Not effective in boulder-rich sediments.
Not acceptable to EPA control of drilling fluids.
Lost circulation.

Small cuttings.
May be "watered out" in high-water zones.
Containment of drilling return difficult.

Same limitations as mud rotary.
Best for holes > 12 inches.

Limited to unconsolidated material.
Large fluid volumes.

    Limitations:  Borings drilled with augers have the disadvantage that the samples are mixed and that,
in general, it is difficult if not impossible to locate precisely the changes in soil strata. Augering does not
case off the upper portion of the hole.  If the walls collapse or slough, representative samples may be dif-
ficult to obtain.

    The exact depth to which any hole can be carried is a function of the types of soil in the profile, the
type of auger being used, the amount  of power available to turn the auger, and the location of the
groundwater table.  Gravel larger than 2 cm impairs the use of hand augers.  Hand augers are typically
used for shallow (2  to 8 feet) depths but may reach a maximum depth of 30 feet in unsaturated, uncon-
solidated material. These augers typically are not used for boring more than a few feet below the water
table.  Power assists have been added to hand auger systems to increase  depth capability without sub-
stantially decreasing mobility.   Powered Augers

    Description:  A powered auger is motor-driven and is advanced by a helical worm with sections that
can be screwed together. Three types of powered  augers  (which are discussed later) are hollow-stem,
solid-stem, and bucket augers.  The augers themselves are available In sizes  ranging from 2 to 48 inches in
diameter.  The auger can be either hand held or rig mounted (Exhibit 8.1-3). The rig is self-sufficient and
generally does  not require additional lifting devices,  although a simple hoist and tripod is useful in holes
more than 10 feet deep.

    Auger flights are available in several types depending on their intended  use. These consist of single-
flight earth augers, double-flight earth-rock augers, double-flight rock augers, and high-spiral augers (Ex-
hibit 8.1-4).  In operation, these  augers are attached to a drilling rod, which is rotated  and pressed
downward to achieve penetration. The rod with the auger is  advanced for the distance  of the flight or until
the flight has become filled with soil. The rod is then raised until the auger is clear of the hole, and the soil
is thrown free from the cutter head. The hole is drilled by repeating this process until the required depth is
reached. Two or four people can operate a powered  auger.

    Application:   The maximum depth of penetration that can be achieved with powered augers Is limited
by the geologic material, the depth to water, and the length of the Kelly rod that can be  accommodated by
the drilling rig used.  In general, the depth is limited to between 100 and 200 feet. The advantage of auger
boring over wash boring, percussion, and rotary drilling is that the cuttings brought  to the surface  (al-
though disturbed) are generally suitable for positive identification of the soil material  but not for precise soil
content. Using powered augers also  makes it easier to determine the groundwater level.   Casing is  not
generally needed, except when drilling through noncohesive sand and  gravel and sometimes when drilling
below the water  table.   Drilling practice has  shown that,  where applicable,  powered auger drilling is
preferable to many  other methods because the work progresses fast in drilling  holes not deeper than 100
feet (when undisturbed samples are not required).    Hollow-stem Augers (Helical Augers)

    Description:   Hollow-stem augers (Exhibit 8.1-5) are a type of powered auger used  primarily to  ad-
vance the borehole when soil sampling is required.  The hollow-stem auger consists  of (1) a section of
seamless steel tube with a spiral flight to which are attached a finger-type cutter head at the bottom and an
adapter cap at the top,  and (2) a center drill stem composed  of drill rods to which are attached a center
plug with a drag bit at the bottom and an adapter at the top. The adapters at the top of the drill stem and
auger flight are designed to allow the auger to advance with the plug in place. As the hole is drilled, addi-
tional  lengths of  hollow-stem  flights and center stem are  added. The center stem and  plug  may be
removed at any time during the drilling to permit disturbed,  undisturbed, or core sampling below the bot-
tom of the cutter head by using the hollow-stem flights as casing.  This process also permits the use of
augering in loose deposits below the water table. Where this technique is used in unconsolidated material


                      Exhibit 8.1-2

    Ship Auger
Closed-Spiral Auger
   Open-Spiral Auger

   Iwan Auger

below the water table, fluids of known chemical quality may be used to control groundwater inflow.  Undis-
turbed samples taken in this manner may be more useful than those taken from a cased hole, since the dis-
turbance caused by advancing the auger is much less than that caused by driving the casing.  Augers of
this type are available with hollow stems having inside diameters from 2-3/4 to 6 inches.

    Application:  The use of hollow-stem augers is advantageous, because drilling fluids that need to be
controlled and limited when advancing a borehole are used only under special circumstances. The augers
also allow direct access for soil sampling through the hollow inner part of the auger stem.

    The depths to which hollow-stem augers can bore are limited by the geologic formation and depth to
groundwater.  Hollow-stem  augers are used primarily in formations that do not cave or have large

    Upon reaching the desired depth,  a small-diameter casing and screen can be set inside the hollow
stem to produce a monitoring well. The augers are removed by section while the well screen and risers are
held in place.  Typically, one 5-foot section of auger is removed at a time.  In incompotent formations, the
borehole surrounding the screen may  be allowed to cave around the screen, or a clean sand or gravel
pack may be installed as the augers are withdrawn.  Once the screen is properly covered (usually to 2 feet
above the top of the screen), a clay (bentonite) seal is installed.  As a final step, grout or other impermeable
material is  tremied in  place on top of the clay seal to ground level as the remaining  auger sections are
removed.  Careful Installation of clay and/or grout seals is essential, especially in areas where multiple
aquifers are encountered.

    Allowing the formation to collapse  around the well may damage the screen and/or risers. Depending
on formation material, sand or gravel pack may provide a better performing well.  Gravel packing may re-
quire a slightly larger hollow-stem auger but may be worth the effort.   Solid-stem Augers

    Description: Solid-stem augers (Exhibit 8.1-6) are a type of powered auger that is advanced into the
ground by the rotation and downward pressure of a rotary drill rig. These augers have interchangeable
heads or bits for use In various types of soil.

    As the solid-stem auger is advanced into the ground, new auger sections are added. Auger borings
may be advanced to a depth of about 100 feet, depending on the soil conditions encountered. Casing may
be used to prevent caving in of unstable soil, especially below the water table, when the auger is removed
for sampling or placement of a monitoring well.

    The soil displaced by the auger is  transported to the surface by the auger blade.  This soil shows the
general type of material through which the auger is passing, but definite determinations cannot be made
about the depth from which the soil was excavated or about the soil structure.

    Solid-stem augers are most efficient in advancing a boring in moist, cohesionless  soils with some ap-
 parent cohesion and in medium-soft to stiff cohesive soils. These augers are not well suited for use in very
 hard or cemented soils, very soft soils,  or saturated cohesionless soils.

    Application:  Borings advanced with solid-stem augers are not useful when  it is necessary to obtain
 undisturbed samples of soil material or to determine the location of soil contacts. Under certain conditions,
 solid-stem auger borings are useful in providing holes for monitoring well installation.   It should be noted
that it is almost impossible to drill through a contaminated soil zone with a solid- stem continuous-flight
 auger without downward transport of contaminants.

         Exhibit 8.1-3

                        Exhibit 8.1-4
                       SPIRAL AUGER.
     Single-Flight Earth Auger
Double-Flight Earth-Rock Auger
     Double-Flight Rock Auger
      High-Spiral Auger

         Exhibit 8.1-5
                KNOCK OUT PLUG

                                       Exhibit 8.1-6
                                  SOLID-STEM AUGERS
                             Large Helical or Worm-Type Augers
                                                           CHECK VALVE
                                                     1WAN TYPE SMOC

                                                          FLAT-SPIRAL SUM
Spoon Auger      Vicksburg Hinged Auger;
Sprague & Henwood      Buda Continuous
   Barrel Augers          Helical Augers

-------    Bucket Augers and Disk Augers

    Description:  The bucket auger is a type of powered auger that consists of a cylindrical bucket 10 in-
ches to 72 inches in diameter with teeth arranged at the bottom.  The bucket is fastened to the end of a
Kelly bar that is rotated and pushed downward.   The bucket is then filled,  brought to the surface, and
emptied by tipping it over.  Bucket holes more than 3 feet in diameter may be drilled using a special attach-
ment.  These wide holes permit visual inspection and direct sampling by a person lowered into the hole.
Disk augers are similar to helical augers but are larger and are used to make larger holes. Helical and disk
augers are shown in Exhibit 8.1-7. Large-diameter casing can be used to keep holes open in noncohesive

    Application:  These methods of augering are used if the boreholes are  relatively shallow and above
the water table.  The methods are very rapid if boulders are not encountered.    Cable Tools

    Description:   A cable tool rig uses a heavy, solid-steel, chisel-type drill bit suspended on a steel cable
that, when raised and dropped, chisels or pounds a hole through the soil and  rock. Cable tool drilling is
also commonly referred to as percussion drilling or churn drilling.  Required equipment includes a drilling
rig, a drill stem, percussion bits, and  a bailer.  Casing is needed when advancing a hole through soft,
caving materials. Cable tool drilling equipment is shown in Exhibit 8.1-8.

    Application:  Cable tool rigs can operate satisfactorily in all formations, but they are best suited for
large, caving, gravel-type formations with cobbles or boulders or for formations with large cavities above
the water table.  The use of cable tool rigs for small diameter (2-inch) wells is not recommended.

    Information regarding water-bearing zones can be easily obtained during cable tool drilling.  Relative
permeabilities and some water quality data can be obtained from different zones  penetrated if a skilled
operator is available. Formation samples can be excellent when a skilled driller uses a sand pump bailer.

    In hazardous waste applications, contaminated materials can  be closely controlled through  periodic
bailing and through containment of suspended cuttings. Some water is required to replace water removed
by bailing in unsaturated zones, but the water requirements for this method of drilling are generally low.

    Limitations:  Cable tool drilling is slow compared with rotary drilling.  The necessity of driving the
casing along with drilling in unconsolidated formations requires that the casing be pulled back to expose
selected water-bearing  zones.  This process complicates the well completion process and often increases
cost.  Relatively large-diameter (at least 4 inches) casing is required, which  increases the costs when com-
pared with rotary-drilled wells with plastic casing. The casing, which has a sharp, hardened casing shoe on
the bottom, must be driven into the hole. The shoe cuts a slightly larger hole than does the drill bit, and it
can not be relied on to form a seal when overlying water-bearing zones are encountered.

    With some types of cable tool drilling equipment, it may be difficult to reach some sites that are steep
or marshy.    Mud and Water Rotary Drilling

    Description:  In rotary drilling, the borehole is advanced by rapid  rotation of the drilling bit, which
cuts, chips, and grinds the material at the bottom of the hole into small particles. The cuttings are removed
by pumping water or drilling fluid from a sump down through the drill rods and bit and up the annulus be-
tween the borehole wall and the drill rods.  This water flows first into a settling  pit and  ultimately back to the

              Exhibit 8.1-7
Buda Earth Drill with Continuous Helical Augers



       Buda Earth Drill with Disk Auger


                    Exhibit 8.1-8
Drilling Rig
                                Mother Hubbard    Twisted Mother Hubbard
                                          Chopping Bits
          Drill Stem
           Drill Jar
 Bailer   Valve
Flat Valve Bailer
              Bailer    Valve
              Dart Valve Ba->e<
  Rod Plunger Type
    Sand Pump
with Regular Bottom

main pit for recirculation. Water alone may be used when the depth is small and the soil is stable. Drilling
mud is sometimes preferred, since the required flow is smaller and the mud serves to stabilize the hole;
however, the mud may clog permeable soil units. A sample should be collected of any material introduced
into the well (water, drilling mud, additives, etc.). The sample should  be retained for future analysis if any
question of contamination arises. A section of casing is used to start the hole, but the remaining part of ex-
ploratory boreholes advanced by rotary drilling is usually uncased except in soft soils.

    When rotary drilling is used for exploratory borings, items such as motors, rotary driving mechanisms,
winches, and pumps, are generally assembled as a unit, with a folding mast mounted on a truck or tractor.
The unit also may be mounted on intermediate skids so that it can be placed  on a raft or moved into places
inaccessible to motor vehicles. A diagrammatic sketch of such a drilling rig is shown in Exhibit 8.1-9.  Skid
mounted drilling machines can also be used for rotary drilling.

    Many types of rotary drilling bits are used, depending on the character of the material to be penetrated.
Fishtail bits and two-bladed bits are used in relatively soft soils and three- to four-bladed bits in firmer soils
and soft rock. The  cutting edges are surfaced with tungsten carbide alloys or are formed by special hard-
metal Inserts.  The  bits used in rock have several rollers with hard-surfaced teeth.  The two-cone bits are
used in soft or broken formations, but the trl-cone and roller bits provide smoother operation and are more
efficient in harder rocks. The number of rollers and the number and shape of the  teeth are varied in ac-
cordance with the character of the rock. Relatively few and large teeth are used in soft rock, and the teeth
are interfitting so that the bit will be self-cleaning.  The teeth in all bits are flushed by drilling fluid flowing out
of vents in the base of the bit.

    Boreholes produced by rotary drilling may be cased  to provide stability. The drill rod  and bit can be
removed from the borehole,  and a sampler can be lowered through the casing to remove soil from the bot-
tom of the boring.

    Uncased boreholes are often filled with water to stabilize the hole and to  remove material ground up by
the boring tools. Water will exert a stabilizing effect on the parts of the hole that extend below groundwater
level; however, above the water table, the water may result in a loss of soil  strength and a  collapse of the
hole. Water alone  generally prevent neither caving of borings in soft or cohesionless soils nor a gradual
squeezing-in of a borehole in plastic soils. Uncased boreholes filled with water are  generally used in  rock
arid are often used  in stiff, cohesive soils.

    An uncased borehole can often be stabilized by filling it with  a property proportioned drilling fluid or
"mud," which, when circulated, also serves to remove ground-up material from the bottom of the hole.  A
satisfactory drilling  fluid can occasionally be obtained by mixing locally available fat clays with water, but it
is usually advantageous and often necessary to add commercially prepared drilling  mud addatives.  When
suitable native clays are not available, the drilling fluid is prepared  with commercial  products alone.  These
mud-forming products consist of highly colloidal, gel-forming, thixotropic clays—primarily bentonite-with
various chemicals added to control dispersion, thixotropy, viscosity, and gel  strength.  A sample of the drill-
ing fluid should be analyzed to eliminate the possibility of introducing contamination  into the borehole.

     The stabilizing  effect of  the drilling fluid  Is  caused in  part by its higher specific  gravity  (in comparison
with water alone) and in part by the formation of a relatively impervious lining or  "mudcake" on the side
walls of the borehole.  This lining prevents sloughing of cohesionless  soils and  decreases the rate of swell-
ing of cohesive materials. The drilling fluid also facilitates removal of cuttings from  the hole. The required
velocities and volume of circulation are smaller than for water alone, and the problem  of uncontrolled
erosion at the bottom of the hole is decreased.  Furthermore, the drilling fluid  is thixotropic; that is, it stif-
fens and forms a gel  when agitation is stopped, and it can be liquified again by resuming the agitation.
 Drilling mud is, therefore, better able than water to keep the cuttings in suspension during the time required
for withdrawal and  reinsertion of boring and sampling tools. It also reduces  abrasion and retards corrosion
 of these tools.

                                   Exhibit 8.1-9
                      MUD AND WATER ROTARY DRILLING
                                                    Truck-Mounted Rotary Drilling Rig
Two-Blade Bit    Three-Blade Bit
               BLADED BITS
Two-Cone Bit
Tri-Cone Bit

                                Roller Bit
                                                     Safety Clamp    Spider and Slips

    Application:  Rotary drilling is best suited for borings with a diameter of not less than 4 inches; a
diameter of 6 to 8 inches is generally preferred when the method is used for exploratory boring.  In most
soils and rocks, the rate of progress is greater than that of other methods.  However, rotary drilling is not
well suited for use in deposits containing very coarse gravel,  numerous stones and boulders,  or chert
nodules; In badly fissured or cavernous rock; or in very porous deposits with a strong groundwater flow,
since an excessive amount of drilling fluid may be lost by seepage in such formations.  Judicious selection
of drilling mud additives and lost circulation material can ameliorate fluid loss problems. This method has a
rapid drilling rate and generally can avoid placement of a casing by creating a mud lining on the wall of the

    Major disadvantages of rotary drilling are as follows: (1) if not properly used, drilling fluids may intro-
duce potential contaminants into the borehole;  (2) a large amount of water needs to be controlled after
use; and (3) the problem of lost circulation exists in highly permeable or cavernous geologic formations.
The "filter cake" produced when drilling mud is used may reduce the permeability in water-bearing zones.
Proper completion and well development can significantly lessen the adverse effect of filter cake and mud
invasion into a formation.

    When using the rotary drilling method for the installation of monitoring wells, care must be exercised to
prevent recirculation of potentially contaminated drilling fluids into uncontaminated formations.  In addition,
during well development, drilling fluids must be thoroughly flushed from the borehole and the invaded zone
to ascertain that samples collected are representative of true formation fluids.   Air Rotary Method

    Description: Air rotary rigs operate in the same manner as mud rotary drills, except the air is circu-
lated down the drill pipe and returns with the cuttings up the annulus.  Air  rotary rigs are available
throughout much of the United States and are well suited for many drilling applications. A variation of the
air rotary method is the air hammer method, which uses a pneumatic or percussion hammer that pulverizes
rock and uses air to return cuttings to the surface.

    Air  rotary rigs operate best in hard rock formations.  Formation  water is blown out of the hole along
with the cuttings, so it is possible to determine when the first water-bearing zone is encountered. After fil-
tering water blown from the hole, collection and field analysis may provide preliminary information regard-
ing changes in water quality for some parameters.  Where significant water inflow is encountered, foaming
agents  may be added to enhance the ability of the air stream to remove cuttings from the wellbore. Forma-
tion sampling ranges from excellent in hard, dry formations to nonexistent when circulation is lost in cav-
ernous  limestones and other formations with cavities.

     Casing is required to keep the borehole open when drilling in soft, caving formations below the water
table.  When more than one water-bearing zone is encountered and where the hydrostatic pressures are
different, flow between zones will occur between the time the drilling is done and the time the hole can be
properly cased and one zone grouted off.  Multiple casing strings can  be used to rectify this problem, if
necessary.  Synthetic drilling aids are not usually used in air rotary drilling.  If the air is filtered1 to capture
compressor  lubricants, contamination  can be minimized more  effectively than with other methods.  In
badly contaminated subsurface situations, air rotary drilling must be used carefully to minimize the ex-
posure of drilling personnel to potentially hazardous materials.

     Application:  Air rotary methods are conducive to drilling in hard rock and other consolidated forma-
tions where a mud or water lining is unnecessary to support the walls  against caving.  An important ad-
vantage of using the air rotary method is that contamination of the water zone is  not a factor since no drill-
ing fluid is used.

-------   Reverse Air-arid-Mud or Water Rotary

     Description:  The difference between the straight rotary drilling method and the reverse rotary
circulation method lies in the circulation of the drilling fluid used to remove the cuttings and in the
equipment used. In the reverse rotary method, as the rods are rotated the drilling fluid is introduced under
gravity into the annular space between the drill rods and the walls of the hole.  The fluid, along with
cuttings from the bottom of the hole, returns to the surface through hollow drill rods. The return flow is
accomplished by (1) application of a head at the top of the annulus relative to the discharge end of the drill
rods, (2) application of suction on the drill rods, and (3) introduction into the drill rods of a supply of air
that mixes with the slurry and causes it to be removed by air lift.

    Application:  This method has two advantages.  It minimizes disturbance to the walls of the hole be-
cause of the higher head in the hole and  more outward seepage pressure on the hole walls.  It also
provides more  rapid and  efficient  removal of  cuttings from the hole, since the area of the drill rods is
smaller than that of the annulus, thereby giving higher upward velocity. Reverse rotary drilling is best
suited to holes 12 inches and larger in diameter, but it has the same limitations as the mud and water rotary
system.   Drive and Wash

    Description:   The drive-and-wash method is similar  to cable tool drilling and is often used in EPA
Region I states.  In this method of drilling, the casing is  driven by a weight or hammer into the uncon-
solidated material. Soil entering the casing is washed out by circulating drilling fluid (water), and the casing
is advanced again. A water rotary wash may also be used  to clean the inside of the casing.

    Application:   Drive and wash  is limited to unconsolidated materials.  The casing also acts as a tem-
porary seal to prevent cross-contamination of aquifers. Although faster than cable tool  drilling, drive and
wash is not a very rapid method.  If the wash water is not recycled, large quantities of fluids may require
collection and disposal.   Sampling Techniques

    The purpose of soil sampling  is to obtain a portion  of soil (disturbed or undisturbed) that is repre-
sentative of the horizon sampled for chemical analysis, geotechnical analysis, and geomorphological clas-
sification. The  volume of each sample is about 1 pint. Samples are usually taken at intervals approved by
the geologist or field engineer and at each change In formation or material type.  Where sampling difficul-
ties are encountered or a larger volume of  material is needed, a larger diameter split-spoon sampler, a
Shelby tube, a  pitcher-type sampler, or a piston-type sampler might be required. Continuous coring may
be desirable when It is necessary to establish the presence and distribution of permeable layers and  to es-
tablish stratigraphic control.

     In areas where contamination  is possible, soil samples are usually screened for contamination by the
use of various  monitoring instruments (see Section  15). Any positive readings or visual evidence of con-
tamination will  necessitate treating the sample as a  hazardous material and using appropriate packaging,
labeling, and shipping techniques,  as well as personal protection for the drillers and samplers.  This level of
protection should be determined before the start of drilling.

     Standard penetration tests should be conducted in accordance with American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM)  D1586,  with the interval  tested varying from continuous sampling to 5-foot intervals.
Where  rock samples are required, N-series split inner tube core barrels are  usually used.   Air  is the
preferred drilling fluid.  Techniques for obtaining and handling disturbed or undisturbed samples are
described in this subsection.

-------    Split-Spoon Samplers

    The split-spoon sampler Is a thick-walled, steel tube that is split lengthwise.  A cutting shoe is attached
to the lower end; the upper end contains a check valve and is connected to the drill rods. When a boring is
advanced to the point that a sample is to be taken, drill tools are removed and the sampler is lowered into
the hole on the bottom of the drill rods.

    The sampler is driven 18 inches into the ground in accordance with a standard penetration test (ASTM
D1586).  The effort taken to drive the sampler the last  12 inches is recorded at 6-inch intervals, and the
sampler is removed from the boring.  The density of the sampled material is obtained by counting the
blows per foot as the split-spoon sampler is driven by a 140-lb hammer falling 30 inches.

    The standard-size  split-spoon sampler has an inside diameter (ID) of 1.38 to 1.5 inches.  When soil
samples are taken for chemical analysis, it may be desirable to use a 2 or 2.5 ID sampler, which provides a
larger volume of material but can not be used to calculate aquifer properties  by using the stated ASTM test

    Samples to be chemically analyzed are placed  in the appropriately sized decontaminated jar and
labeled with EPA serialized sample tags. Samples are kept out of direct sun light and stored  at about 4C
until they are shipped to the laboratory. The split-spoon sampler is decontaminated between  samples. In
some instances, separate, previously decontaminated split-spoon samplers may  be required for each
sample taken.

    When taking samples for geotechnical analyses, the disturbed soil samples removed from the sampler
are placed in a scalable glass jar and labeled to indicate the project name and number, boring number,
date, depths at top and bottom of sample interval, recovery, number of sample, number of blows for each 6
inches (15 centimeters) of penetration, date of sampling, and any other information required by the field en-
gineer or geologist. This information is  placed on a gummed printed label that can be affixed to the jar. In
addition, the jar lid is marked with the project number,  boring number, number of sample,  and  depths at
the top and bottom of the sample interval.

    Jar samples are placed in containers, such as cardboard boxes, with dividers to prevent movement of
the jars.  To aid in retrieving samples, only  one boring is generally placed  in  a box. The boxes are labeled
on the top and four sides to show the project number and name, the identification of samples contained in
the box, and the depth from which the samples were taken.

    Samples are taken in 6-inch increments and are placed in jars or, where lenses or layers are evident,
the material types should be separated  into different jars.  All samples recovered, except for slough or cut-
tings, should be saved until analysis  is completed. They should then be properly disposed of.  Section 5 of
this compendium describes disposal of samples. Each 6-inch increment of a sample should be assigned a
letter suffix, beginning with "A" at the bottom of the sample. If only 6 inches of a sample are recovered, this
would be given the suffix "A."

    If the jar samples are to be temporarily stored onsite, they should be protected from weather, especial-
ly heat and freezing temperatures.  Evidence tape or custody seals should  be placed across the jar lids.
For commercial shipment, the boxes are marked "KEEP FROM HEAT AND FREEZING" and are labeled
with the appropriate Department of Transportation (DOT) labels. The reader should refer to  Section 5 of
this compendium.

-------    Thin-Walled Tube Samplers

    Thin-walled samplers, such as a Shelby tube, are used to take relatively undisturbed samples of soil
from borings. The samplers are constructed of cold drawn steel tubing about 1 mm thick (for tubes 2 in-
ches in diameter) or 3 mm thick (for tubes 5 inches in diameter). The lower end is bent to form a tapered
cutting edge. The upper end is fastened to a check valve to help hold the sample in the tube when the tube
is  being withdrawn  from the  ground.  Thin-walled tube samples are obtained  by any one of several
methods including pushed-tube, Pitcher sampler, Denison sampler, and piston sampler methods. Choos-
ing the most appropriate method requires that field personnel use their own judgment. Since the purpose
of thin-walled tube sampling  is to obtain the highest quality undisturbed samples possible, special care
should be taken in all sampling, handling, packaging, and shipping of these samples.

    In obtaining pushed-tube samples, the tube is advanced by hydraulically pushing in one continuous
movement with the drill rig.  The maximum hydraulic pressure is recorded. At the end of the designated
push interval and before lifting the sample, the tube is twisted to break the bottom of the sample.

    Upon recovery of a thin-walled tube, the actual length of sample is measured and recorded (excluding
slough or cuttings).  At least 1/2 inch of soil is cleaned from each end of the tube, and the ends of the soil
sample are squared  off.  Usually the top of the sample will contain cuttings or slough.  These must be
removed before sealing. The soil that has been cleaned  from the tube can be used for a visual classifica-
tion of the sample. The resulting space at each end of the tube is filled with melted sealing material, such
as approved wax, or with expandable packers. Previously decontaminated Teflon or stainless steel plugs
are also used. After this initial sealing, a dry filler such as cuttings, sand, or paper can be placed in the
remaining void areas, and sealing is again conducted. This filler prevents the sample from breaking the ini-
tial end seals during handling and shipment. The ends of the tube are then closed with tight-fitting metal or
plastic caps, and the seam between the cap and tube is wrapped with tape. Finally, the ends are dipped in
hot wax, completely covering the tape to ensure sealing.

    The sample container and the top cap are labeled by writing on them with an indelible marker or by af-
fixing a label. If possible, all labeling should be located in the top 1 foot of the tube. The information on the
tube includes the project number, project name, date of sampling, boring number, sample number, zone of
sampling, and any other information the field engineer or geologist feels is pertinent. In addition, the tube
is marked TOP and BOTTOM so that the orientation of the soil sample is known.

    As much as possible, the tubes should be carried by hand to the soils laboratory in an upright vertical
position to  maintain the in situ orientation and to minimize sample dis-aggregation.  If the tubes  are being
transported by air plane, they should be carried, if possible, on the plane and not checked as  baggage.
(NOTE: Soil samples that yield positive readings during screening with an HNU or organic vapor analyzer
(OVA), that show visual evidence of contamination, or that can reasonably be assumed to be contaminated
should never be carried on a passenger aircraft. The reader should refer to Section 5 of this compendium
for the proper packaging, labeling, and shipping of hazardous samples.) If the tubes are to be transported
by truck or automobile, they should be carefully padded and wedged in  place to prevent movement and
minimize vibration.  If tubes must be shipped as freight,  they should be packed in secure wooden boxes
with dividers built in to  prevent movement of the tubes, or the boxes should be tightly filled with packing
material such as wood  chips to prevent movement.  The boxes should be marked  "FRAGILE" and "KEEP
FROM HEAT AND FREEZING" and labeled according to the type of hazard presented by the assumed con-
tamination. All packaging of tubes should be supervised by the field engineer or geologist.

    Finally, if field engineers  or geologists think the tubes have been  disturbed  in shipment,  they should
notify the Project Manager and soils laboratory coordinator in writing.

    In addition to geotechnical testing, such as permeability testing, thin-walled samples may be extruded
in the laboratory and used for chemical analysis.


-------    Cutting or Wash Samples

    Occasionally, cutting or wash samples might be required as the boring is advanced.  Cutting or wash
samples should be handled and packaged as outlined for split-spoon samples. An estimate of the depth
(or range of depth) from which the sample was obtained should  be recorded on the log sheet. Samples
are usually taken every 5 feet. Samples should be labeled in the manner outlined for jar samples.    Decontamination and Waste Handling

    Waste handling and decontamination of equipment should be coordinated with the SM or designated
field person before entering the site. Removing any possible sources of offsite contamination from the drill-
ing equipment before beginning work will minimize the offsite transportation of waste upon completion of
work and will minimize cross contamination while working onsite.

    Between samples, the sampling equipment shall be decontaminated as approved by the SM or desig-
nated personnel. The decontamination procedure generally involves the following:
    •  Brush off visible mud or dirt; scrub and wash with clean water. Organic-free water, distilled water,
       or tap water may be used; the tap water source must be noncontaminated. (Note: Sample clean-
       ing blanks will be submitted for analysis to assure adequacy of decontamination.)

    •  Scrub and wash with trisodium phosphate.

    •  Scrub and wash with methanol or acetone.

    •  Rinse with clean water, preferably de-ionized or distilled water. (See remarks above about clean
    Between boreholes, all casing, rods, samplers, and other equipment used in the boreholes must be
decontaminated as approved by the SM.  The cleaning process generally consists of steam cleaning or
hosing the drilling equipment with a high-pressure hot water rinse. After cleaning, the drilling equipment
must be placed on a clean surface on the driller's truck bed or wrapped in clean polyethylene sheeting.

    Upon completion of drilling activities, all equipment including the drill rig and all casing, rods, tools, and
miscellaneous  equipment must be decontaminated before leaving the site, as approved by the SM.  The
drill rig and equipment are usually cleaned with a steam cleaner or mobile high-pressure hot water washer.
Wipe tests may be used to determine the extent of remaining contamination, if any; this testing is particular-
ly relevant when a commercial well driller has been used as a contractor.

    Solid waste from the drilling should be placed in barrels following completion of each borehole or dis-
posed of onsite with approval of the SM and EPA.  Barrels containing solid wastes will be marked so the
contents can be identified and stored in a secure area onsite (shed or fenced area), at the direction of the

    Fluids that are produced during drilling or well development or that are potentially contaminated during
equipment decontamination will have to be contained onsite and analyzed for contamination.  If shown to
be uncontaminated, these fluids may be disposed of by an EPA- and SM-approved site-specific method.
Contaminated  fluids will be handled according to procedures specified in the site-specific Quality As-
surance Project Plan (QAPjP). This consideration will be of particular importance at well locations adjacent
to surface waters. To prevent a runoff, a fluid discharge containment trench may be excavated so that all

fluids from drilling, well development, and decontamination can be diverted to the trench. One trench may
be large enough to contain all fluids produced at a given borehole location. The trench is usually lined.
Consideration must be given to proper security (fencing or lights) around a trench when personnel are ab-
sent from the site. Air emissions from the fluids in a trench should be monitored.

    Closure  of the trench or removal  of the trench contents or other contained fluids must be planned
before initiating any drilling. Trench contents may be allowed to drain into the soil; may be solidified by
backfilling; or may be drained,  pumped, or sucked dry, followed by removal of the liner and proper dis-
posal.  Samples may be taken from the trench fluids to determine the proper disposal methods.  In some
cases, the SM or designated personnel may direct that all fluids be contained in a mobile tank or drums for
subsequent discharge at a location removed from surface waters. This location will be determined by the
SM and is usually less than 1 mile from  a given well. Care must be taken in transporting such  potentially
contaminated material on public roads to the collection point.

8.1.7 Region-Specific Variances

    In general, site-specific conditions and the purpose of the project should be the main criteria for selec-
tion of drilling and sampling methods.  However,  regional variations from the methods recommended
above might be necessary because of local availability of certain types of equipment.  However, because
information on variances  can become dated rapidly, the user should contact the EPA RPM for current
regional practices and requirements. Future changes will be incorporated in Revision 01 of this compen-
dium.    Region I

    The hydrogeologists In Region I of EPA do not permit the use of mud rotary drilling techniques to drill a
boring for an unconsolidated zone monitoring well.  Region I requires the performance of continuous split-
spoon sampling during all drilling operations.  Also, Region I requires permeability testing at regular 5-foot
intervals during drilling operations.    Region IV

    Region IV EPA personnel recommend the use of pesticide-grade isopropyl alcohol as a cleaning sol-
vent in place of acetone or methanol.    Region IX

    Region IX EPA personnel do not permit the use of hand augers in sampling for TCDD.

8.1.8  Information  Sources

    Ackel, W.L Basic Procedures for Soil Sampling and Core Drilling. Scranton, Pennsylvania:  Ackel Drill
Co., Inc. 1976.

    Barcelona, M.J., J.P.  Gibb, J.A. Helfrid, and E.E.  Garske. Practical Guide for Groundwater Sampling.
SWS Contract Report 324.  Champaign, Illinois: Illinois State Water Survey. 1985.

    Barcelona, M. J., J.P. Glbb, and R.A. Miller. A Guide to the Selection of Materials for Monitoring Well Con-
struction and Groundwater Sampling.  ISWS Contract Report 327.  Champaign, Illinois:  Illinois State Water
Survey. 1983.

    Hvorslev, M J. Subsurface Exploration and Sampling of Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes.  Vicksburg,
Mississippi: Waterways Experiment Station.  1949.  Reprinted by ASCE Engineering Foundation. 1965.

    Johnson Division, UOP, Inc. Ground Water and Wells.  St. Paul, Minnesota. 1980.

    National Water Well Association. Water Well Specifications. Berkeley, California: Premier Press. 1981.

    Sowers, G.F. Introductory Mechanics and Foundatidns: Geotechnical Engineering.  New York: Macmillan
Publishing Co.  1979.

    Winterkorn, H.F., and H.Y. Fang. Foundation Engineering Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.


 8.2.1  Scope and Purpose

    The scope and purpose of this subsection is to provide reference material for conducting test pit and
 trench excavations at hazardous waste sites. These reference materials provide general guidelines; conse-
 quently, project-specific plans take precedence.

 8.2.2  Definitions

 Site Manager(SM)

        The individual responsible for the successful  completion of a work assignment within budget
        and schedule.  The person Is also referred  to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
        Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

 Trenches or Test Pit

        Open  shallow excavations,  typically longitudinal (if a trench) or rectangular (if a pit), to deter-
        mine the  shallow subsurface conditions for  engineering, geological, and soil chemistry ex-
        ploration and/or sampling purposes.  These pits are excavated manually  or by a  machine,
        such as a backhoe, clamshell, trencher excavator, or bulldozer.

 8.2.3  Applicability

    This subsection presents routine test pit or trench excavation techniques.  Specialized techniques that
 are applicable only under certain conditions are not presented.

    During the excavation of trenches or pits at hazardous waste sites, several health and safety concerns
 arise and control the method of excavation. All excavations that are deeper than 4 feet must be stabilized
 (before entry into the excavation) by bracing the pit sides using wooden or steel support structures. Per-
 sonnel entering the excavation  may be exposed to toxic or explosive gases and oxygen-deficient environ-
 ments. In these cases,  substantial air monitoring is required before entry, and appropriate respiratory gear
 and protective clothing is mandatory. There must be at least two persons present at the immediate site
 before entry by one of  the investigators.  The reader should refer to OSHA regulations 29 CFR 1926  29
 CFR 1910.120, and 29 CFR 1910.134.

    Machine-dug excavations are generally not practical where a depth of more than about 15 feet is
 desired. These excavations are also usually limited to a few feet below the water table. In some cases, a
 pumping system may be required to control water levels within the pits, providing that pumped water can
 be adequately  stored or disposed.  If data on soils at depths greater than 15 feet are required, the data are
 usually obtained through test borings instead of test pits.

    In addition, hazardous wastes may be brought to the surface by excavation equipment. This material,
whether removed from the site or returned to the subsurface, must be properly handled.

8.2.4  Responsibilities

    The SM or field team leader is responsible for developing the test pit program and instituting the
program, including sample acquisition.  A minimum two-person crew, in addition to the excavating equip-
ment operator, is recommended for test pit work at a hazardous waste site.  Larger crews may be required
if unusually hazardous conditions may be encountered or the scope of work requires additional staffing.
One person onsite must function as the health and safety officer to monitor compliance with health and
safety requirements. Other duties that may be required include sampling operations, both chemical and/or
geotechnical, and soil or rock descriptions. The personnel onsite may divide the required duties according
to their capabilities. Where physical or geotechnical soil descriptions are required, a geologist should be
included in the crew.

8.2.5  Records

    Test pit logs should contain a sketch of pit conditions. In addition, at least one photograph with a scale
for comparison should be taken of  each pit. Included in the photograph should be a card showing the test
pit number and site name. Test pit locations should  be documented by typing in the location of two or
more nearby permanent landmarks (trees, house, fence, etc.) and should be located on a site map. Sur-
veying may also be required, depending on the requirements of each project. Other data to be recorded in
the field logbook include the following:
    •   Name and location of job

    •   Date of excavation

    •   Approximate surface elevation

    •   Total depth of excavation

    •   Dimensions of pit

    •   Method of sample acquisition

    •   Type and size of samples

    •   Soil and rock descriptions

    •   Photographs

    •   Groundwater levels

     •   Organic gas or methane levels

     •   Other pertinent information, such as waste material encountered

8.2.6  Guidelines    Test Pit and Trench Construction

    These guidelines describe the methods for excavating and logging test pits and trenches to determine
subsurface soil and rock conditions.

    Test pits and trenches may be excavated by hand or by power equipment to permit detailed explana-
tion and clear under standing of the nature and contamination of the in situ materials.  The size of the ex-
cavation will depend primarily on the following:

    •  The purpose and extent of the exploration

    •  The space required for efficient excavation

    •  The chemicals of concern

    •  The economics and efficiency of available equipment

    Test pits normally have a cross section that is 4 to 10 feet square; test trenches are usually 3 to 6 feet
wide and may be extended for any length required to reveal conditions along a specific line.  The following
table, which is based on equipment efficiencies, can give a rough guide for design consideration:
        Equipment                 Typical Widths. In Feet
        Trenching machine                    2
        Backhoe                           2 - 6
        Track dozer                          10
        Track loader                         10
        Excavator                            10
        Scraper                             20

    Fifteen feet is considered to be the economical vertical limit of excavation. However, larger and deeper
excavations have been used when special problems justified the expense.

    The construction of test pits and trenches should be planned and designed in advance as much as
possible.  However, field conditions may necessitate revisions to the initial plans.  The field supervisor
should determine the  exact depth and construction.  The test pits and trenches should be excavated in
compliance with applicable safety regulations as specified by the health and safety officer.

    If the depth exceeds 4 feet and people will be entering the pit or trench, Occupational Safety and
Health Administration  (OSHA)  requirements must be  met:  Walls must be braced with wooden or steel
braces, ladders must be in the hole at all times, and a temporary guardrail must be placed along the sur-
face of the hole before entry. It is advisable to stay out of test pits as much as possible; if possible, the re-
quired data or samples should  be gathered without entering the pit.  Samples of leachate, groundwater, or
sidewall soils  can be taken with telescoping poles, etc.

    Stabilization of the sides of test pits and  trenches, when required, generally is achieved by sloping the
walls at a sufficiently flat angle  or by using sheeting. Benching or terracing can be used for deeper holes.

Shallow excavations are generally stabilized by sheeting.  Test pits excavated into fill are generally much
more unstable than pits dug into natural in-place soil.

    Sufficient space should be maintained between trenches or pits, to place soil that will be stockpiled for
cover, as well as to allow access and free movement by haul  vehicles and operating equipment. Ex-
cavated soil should be stock piled to one side, in one location, preferably downwind, away from the edge
of the pit to reduce pressure on the pit walls.

    Dewatering may be required to assure  the stability of the side walls, to prevent the bottom of the pit
from heaving, and to keep excavation dry. This is an important consideration for excavations in cohesion-
less material below the groundwater table.  Liquids removed as a result of dewatering operations must be
handled as potentially contaminated materials.   Procedures for the collection and  disposal of such
materials are discussed in the site-specific QAPJP.

    The overland flow of water from  excavated saturated soils  and  the erosion or sedimentation  of the
stockpiled  soil  should  be controlled.  A temporary detention basin and a drainage system  should be
planned to  prevent the contaminated wastes from spreading.    Sampling Techniques

    Sampling from test pits can be performed by "disturbed" and  "undisturbed" methods. Sampling should
begin from  within the pit or trench only after proper safety precautions have been initiated.

    All samples collected should be identified on the test pit logs and in the field notebook. Information
such as sample number, depth, type, volume, and method of collection is required.  Preservation, packing,
and shipping methods are specified elsewhere in this compendium (Sections 4,5, and 6).

    Equipment:  The following is a list of equipment that may be needed for taking samples from test pits
and trenches:

    •   Backhoe or other excavating machinery

    •   Shovels, picks, or scoops

    •   Sample containers  (5-gal bucket with locking  lid  for large samples and 250-mL glass bottles for
        chemical analysis samples)

    Disturbed samples:  Disturbed samples are those that have been collected in a manner in which the
in-situ physical  structure and fabric of the soil have been disrupted. Disturbed sampling techniques typical-
ly include sampling from the walls or floors of the test pit by means of scraping or digging with a trowel,
rockpick, or shovel.  Large disturbed samples can be taken directly from the backhoe bucket during ex-
cavation; however, care must be taken to assure that the sample is actually from the unit desired and does
not include slough or scraped material from the sides of the trench.

    Undisturbed samples:  "Relatively undisturbed" samples can be obtained from test pits.  Typically, an
undisturbed sample is collected by isolating by hand a large cube of soil at the base or side of the test pit.
This sample can be cut using knives, shovels, and the like.  Care is taken to keep disturbances to a mini-
mum. After the block of soil is removed, it is placed in an airtight, padded container for shipment to the lab.
The overexcavated sample is 'trimmed"  at'the laboratory to the size required for the designated test.   In
some instances (e.g.,  in soft cohesive soil), it may be possible to get an undisturbed sample by pushing a
Shelby tube sampling device into an undisturbed  portion of the test pit and by using a backhoe.

    Waste samples:  Trenching and test pitting are excellent methods of obtaining waste samples from
dumps and landfills.  While borings may be useful at greater depths,  drilling through a landfill or dump
creates unusual hazards, such as hitting pockets of explosive gases; rupturing intact, buried containers; or
potentially contaminating the transfer by penetrating confining layers beneath a landfill.  Additionally, the
samples gathered by  drilling are not representitive of the heterogeneous conditions found in a  landfill.
Trenching and test  pitting allow a  larger, more representitive  area  to be observed, permit selection of
specific samples  from the pile of  spoiled or stockpiled  material  (biased  grab sampling),  and, with
reasonable precautions, allow the retrieval of intact, buried containers.    Backfilling of Trenches and Test Pits

    Before backfilling, the onsite crew should  photograph all significant features exposed by the  test pit
and trench and should include in the photograph a scale to show dimensions. Photographs of test  pits
should be marked to include site  number, test pit number, depth, description of '  ^ure,  and date of
photograph. In addition, a geologic description of each photograph should be ente  -•   the L  >ook.  All
photographs should be indexed and maintained for future reference.

    After inspection, backfill material should be returned to the pit under the direction of the field super-

    If a low permeability layer is penetrated (resulting in groundwater flow from an upper contaminated
flow zone into a lower uncontaminated flow zone), backfill  material must represent original conditions or be
impermeable.  Backfill could consist of a soil-bentonite mix prepared in a proportion specified by the field
supervisor (representing a permeability equal  to or less than original conditions).   Backfill  should  be
covered by "clean" soil and graded to the original land contour. Revegetation of the disturbed area may
also be required.    Decontamination

    For decontamination procedures, the reader should refer to Subsection

8.2.7 Region-Specific Variances

    Site-specific conditions and project objectives dictate the methods of test pit or trench excavation and
sampling. No region-specific variances from the methods described above are known. Decontamination
procedures for sampling  equipment vary with region.  Most regions  permit methane or acetone for a
decontamination solution; however, some allow only isopropyl alcohol.  Because Information on variances
can become dated rapidly, the user should contact the EPA RPM for current regional practices and  re-
quirements.  Future changes and additional regional variances will be incorporated in Revision 01 of this

8.2.8 Information Sources

    NUS Corporation.  NUS Operating Guidelines Manual. Superfund Division, Sections 4.13 and  4.38.

    U.S. Department of Interior.  The Earth Manual. 2nd ed. U.S. Government Printing Office:  Washington,
D.C.  1980. 810pp.

8.3.1  Scope and Purpose

    This subsection describes geological reconnaissance studies and geological logging activities for field
investigations of hazardous waste sites.

    Geological reconnaissance studies require considerable professional judgment.  Successful comple-
tion relies more on professional experience and insight than on acknowledged standards or procedures.
Because there are no industry standards, this subsection describes basic methods, procedures, and ac-
tivities to be accomplished or considered for a geological reconnaissance. Each site will require a special
approach that will depend on the local geology, the amount of available data, the project schedule, and the
judgment of the project geologist.

    Geological logging of soil or rock materials derived from subsurface investigations is a more objective
activity, and several industry standards exist for the physical description of earth materials.  These stand-
ards will be described below.

8.3.2  Definitions

Geological Reconnaissance Studies

       The American Geological Institute (AGI) defines a geological reconnaissance as "a general, ex-
       ploratory examination or survey of the main features (or certain specific features) of a region,
       usually conducted as a preliminary to a more detailed survey."

       The geological reconnaissance, therefore, provides the basis for more detailed investigations
       by identifying the major geological or physical features at and near the hazardous waste site.
       Geological reconnaissance studies are conducted early in project site investigations as part of
       the site characterization process.

Geological and Geophysical Logging

       Geological and geophysical logging is a detailed, systematic, and sequential record  of the
       progress of drilling a well or borehole, or of excavating pits and trenches.

       The record of geological logging is kept on printed log forms and may include notes on the fol-
           •   Soil and rock classifications and descriptions

           •   Outcrop descriptions

           •   Depths and thicknesses of the earth materials penetrated

           •   Groundwater conditions

           •   Origin and geologic structure(s)


           •   Drilling progress

           •   Borehole geophysical logging

           •   Sampling

           •   Type of equipment used

           •   Unusual or significant conditions

           •   Date of drilling, location of borehole, and so forth
       Materials encountered are classified and described by obtaining samples or cuttings and by
       applying the standards described below.

Site Manager (SM)

       The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  The person is also referred to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

8.3.3  Applicability    Geological Reconnaissance

    Geological reconnaissance studies are applicable to most investigations of hazardous waste sites and
are dependent on the existing database for the site.  Sites having little existing information concerning site
setting and relevant geologic features  may require more detailed work than sites with a considerable
database.    Geological Logging

    Geological logging of subsurface explorations is always necessary to record events and conditions en-
countered in  the field.  Maintenance of acceptable log forms and adherence to established, or mandated
procedures for material description, are critical to technically sound and defensible field investigations.

8.3.4  Responsibilities

    The SM is ultimately responsible for determining that proper logging and geologic reconnaissance
techniques are applied to the project.  Because of the variability of geologic conditions from one site to
another and the judgment required by such studies, an experienced project geologist with local knowledge
should work with the SM to plan, implement, and evaluate the reconnaissance.

8.3.5  Procedures    Geological Reconnaissance    General

    Experienced personnel should plan and implement a cost-effective and technically sound reconnais-
sance study.  The scope of the study will depend on anticipated problems and conditions at the site,
coupled with professional judgment.  The scope will vary depending on the following:

    •  Amount of available reference material and base maps

    •  Site accessibility

    •  Size of site and type of facility (landfill, tanks, industrial, other)

    •  Geologic setting of the site

    •  Site topography or geomorphology

    •  Anticipated subsurface and groundwater conditions

    •  Anticipated extent and type of contamination

    •   Level of personal protection required during the conduct of the reconnaissance

    •   Overall goal of the site investigation activities    Methods

    Hunt (1984) describes the basic steps of a geological reconnaissance as follows:

    •   Research of reference materials and collection of available data

    •   Terrain analysis based on topographic maps and remote sensing imagery

    •   Preparation of a preliminary geological map including  (where appropriate) saprolite mapping, out-
        crop mapping with strike and measurements of structural features, and locating  of springs and

    •   Site reconnaissance to confirm and amplify the geological map, followed by preparation of the final
        version of the map

    •   Preparation of a subsurface exploration program based on anticipated conditions and data gaps

    The proportion of field work to office work will vary from site to site.

    References and data gathered to initiate the work may include any or all of the following historical or
recent materials:   geological maps and  texts; soil  surveys;  hydrogeologic reports and  well  logs;
topographic maps, air photos, and remote sensing imagery; climatic data;  geotechnical engineering
reports for the area; and site-related data and reports.

    The basic objectives of the geological reconnaissance are to determine regional geologic setting and
site-specific geologic conditions including the following:
    •   Determination of bedrock geology and major structural features

    •   Determination of the geology of unconsolidated overburden and soil deposits

    •   Identification of actual or potential aquifers and water-bearing units and their physical properties

    •   Climatic and  topographic conditions affecting groundwater recharge and  discharge,  erosion,
        flooding, and surface water conditions of interest

    •   Identification of potential pathways for contaminant migration

    •   Geologic conditions, hazards, or constraints that could contribute to offsite contaminant migration
        or that might preclude certain remedial alternatives
    Specific items of interest Include outcrops, springs, seeps, leachate outbreaks, and surface drainage
features. Compton (1962) presents a detailed list of field data collection techniques.

    The reconnaissance study may sometimes be accompanied by more in-depth exploratory techniques
when little is known about the site, when the site  is especially complex, or when more detailed geologic or
hydrogeologic site characterization is necessary. The scope of more detailed studies will also be project
specific and must build on data previously gathered. As with reconnaissance level efforts, the level of effort
for detailed geological investigations should be designed to be commensurate with potential remedial tech-
nologies and overall project goals.  For the majority of sites the emphasis of the detailed studies is on
hydrogeology.  These detailed studies include the following:
    •   Drilling of hydrogeologic test holes and soil borings, which are logged in the field by geologists

    •   In situ testing for permeability and other aquifer and aquitard characteristics

    •   Installing groundwater monitoring wells

    •   Determining groundwater flow-rates and directions

    •   Integrating site-specific hydrogeology into the regional hydrogeologic regime
    In addition to these tasks, certain geotechnical or geological elements of the site may be explored by
 using test pits, boreholes, or geophysics.  These activities can further define site conditions and develop
 engineering criteria for the design of remedial alternatives.  Well drilling and geophysical techniques are
 described in Subsection 8.1.  These techniques are subject to site-specific health and safety and quality as-
 surance procedures.

-------    Geological Logging    General
    Geological logging, as previously defined, Includes keeping a detailed record of drilling (or excavating)
and a geological description of materials on a prepared form.  Geological logs are used for all types of drill-
ing and exploratory excavations and Include descriptions of both soil and rock. General guidance for log-
ging soils and rock Is provided below.    Methods - Soils
    When drilling In soils or unconsolidated deposits, the log should be kept on a standard soil boring log
form (Exhibit 8.3-1). The following basic information should be entered on the heading of each log sheet:
    •  Project name and number
    •  Boring or well number
    •  Location (approximate in relation to an identifiable landmark; will be surveyed.  See Section 14,
       Land Surveying, Aerial Photography, and Mapping).
    •  Elevation (approximate at the time; will be surveyed.  See Section 14, Land Surveying, Aery
       Photography, and Mapping).
    •  Name of drilling contractor
    •  Drilling method and equipment
    •  Water level
    •  Start and finish (time and date)
    •  Name of logger

    The following technical information is recorded on the logs:

    •  Depth of sample below surface
    •  Sample interval
    •  Sample type and number
    •  Length of sample recovered
    •  Standard penetration test (ASTM-D1586) results if applicable
    •  Soil description and classification
    •  Graphic soil symbols

                                         Exhibit 8.3-1
                                      SOIL BORING LOG
                                  PROJECT NUMBER
                                                            BORING NUMBER
                                                      SOIL BORING LOG
                                                        . LOCATION
                                    . DRILLING CONTRACTOR .

                                                         . FINISH
                                                                           .LOGGER .



6' -61 -6"



                                                                                   REV 11/82  FORM 01586

    In addition to the items listed above, all pertinent observations about drilling rate, equipment operation,
or unusual conditions should be noted. Such information might include the following:
    •  Size of casing used and method of installation

    •  Rig reactions such as chatter, rod drops, and bouncing

    •  Drilling rate changes

    •  Deฃth and percentage of fluid losses

    •  Changes in fluid color or consistency

    •  Material changes

    •  Zones of caving or heaving    Soil Description

    Description of soils (well logging) should be done in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification
System (USCS) as described in ASTM D2487-69 (1975):  Test Method for Classification of Soils for En-
gineering  Purposes (see Exhibit 8.3-2).   The approach  and format should generally conform to ASTM
02488-69(1975): Recommended Practice of Description of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure). Alternatively,
the Burmeister system of soil description may be used, although the use of this system seems to be con-
centrated  in the  Northeast.  The complete title of the Burmeister system can be found in the references.
Because the Burmeister system relies heavily on handling the soil,  it should not be used in areas of sig-
nificant soil contamination.

    The soil description should  be concise and should stress major constituents and characteristics.  Soil
descriptions should be given in a consistent order and format.  The following order is as given in ASTM
    •   1.   Soil Name:  The basic name of the predominant constituent and a single-word modifier in-
        dicating the major subordinate constituent.

    •   2.    Gradation or Plasticity:  For granular soil (sands or gravels) that should be described as
        well- graded, poorly graded, uniform, or gap-graded, depending on the gradation of the minus 3-
        inch fraction.   Cohesive soil (silts or clays) should be described  as nonplastlc, slightly plastic,
        moderately plastic, or highly plastic, depending on the results of the manual evaluation for plas-
        ticity as described in ASTM D2488.

    •   3.   Particle Size Distribution:   An estimate of the percentage and grain-size range of each of
        the  soil's subordinate constituents with emphasis on  clay-particle constituents. This description
        may also include a  description of angularity. This parameter is critical for assessing hydrogeology
        of the site and should be carefully and fully documented.

    •   4.   Color: The basic color of the soil. (Refer to Munsell color charts.)

    •   5.   Moisture Content:  The amount of soil moisture, described as dry, moist, or wet.

    •   6.   Relative Density or Consistency:   An estimate of density of a granular soil or consistency
        of a cohesive soil, usually based on standard penetration test results (see Exhibit 8.3-3).


         Exhibit 8.3-2

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                                 Exhibit 8.3-3
Very loose
Very dense
Field Test
Easily penetrated with 1/2-inch steel rod pushed by hand
Easily penetrated with 1/2-inch steel rod pushed by hand
Easily penetrated with 1/2-inch steel rod driven with 5-lb hammer
Penetrated a foot with 1/2-inch steel rod driven with 5-lb hammer
Penetrated only a few inches with 1/2-inch steel rod driven with 5-lb
                        CONSISTENCY OF COHESIVE SOIL
Very soft
Very stiff
Field Test
Easily penetrated several inches
by fist
Easily penetrated several inches
by thumb
Can be penetrated several inches
by thumb with moderate effort
Readily indented by thumb but
penetrated only with great effort
Readily indented by thumbnail
Indented with difficulty by thumbnail
*TSF- Tons per square foot

    •  7.  Soil Texture and Structure:  Description of particle size distribution, arrangement of particles
       into aggregates, and their structure.  This description includes joints, fissures, slicken sides, bed-
       ding, veins, root holes, debris, organic content, and residual or relict structure, as well as other
       characteristics that may influence the movement or retention of water or contaminants.

    •  8.  Relative Permeability:  An estimate of the permeability based on visual examination of mate
       rials (e.g., high permeability for coarse sand and gravel versus low permeability for silty clay). The
       estimate should address presence and condition of fractures (open, iron-stand, calcite-filled, open
       but clay-lined, etc.), as well as fracture density and orientation.

    •  9.  Local Geologic Name:  Any specific local name or a generic name (i.e., alluvium, loess).

    •  10.  Group Symbol:  Unified Soil Classification System of symbols (see Exhibit 8.3-2).
    The soil logs should also include a complete description of any tests run in the borehole; placement
and construction  details of piezometers, wells, and other monitoring equipment; abandonment records;
geophysical logging techniques used; and notes on readings obtained by air monitoring instruments.    Rock Methods

    When coring in rock, keep the log on a standard rock core log form (see Exhibit 8.3-4).  Basic informa-
tion should be entered on the heading, as described in the soil section. The following technical information
is entered in the log:
    *   Depth

    •   Core length

    •   Coring rate in minutes per foot

    •   Fluid gain or loss

    •   Core loss

    •   Percentage of recovery

    •   Core breakage due to discontinuities

    •   Total core breakage

    •   Number of breaks per foot

    •   Rock classification and lithology
    In addition to the items listed above, pertinent observations concerning drilling rate, equipment opera-
tion, or unusual conditions should be noted. Such information might include the following:
     •  Casing type and diameter

     •  Type of drilling fluid

     •  Rig reactions


                                        Exhibit 8.3-4
                                     ROCK CORE LOG
                                                                     PROJECT NUMBER
                                                     ROCK CORE LOG
                                                . LOCATION.
                        .DRILLERS & EQUIPMENT.
                                               _BORE HOLE:.
                                    . START.,











                                                                             FORM D 2113A   5/78

    •  Depth and percentage of fluid losses

    •  Material changes

    •  Zones of caving    Rock Classification

    The description of rock should be done in an orderly and systematic fashion.  The following order is
    •  1.   Ltthology and Texture:   Geological name of the rock and its mineral composition (the
       geological name, such as granite,  basalt,  or sandstone,  usually describes the rock's  origin).
       Description of how grains are  arranged  or bound  together  (I.e.,  interlocking, cemented,  or
       laminated-foliated; Deere, 1963)

    •  2.  Color:  The basic color of the rock, modified by light, medium, or dark.

    •  3.  Hardness:  Terms used to describe hardness are given on subsequent pages.

               Descriptive Term      Defining Characteristics
               Very hard              Cannot be scratched with knife.  Does not leave a groove
                                     on the rock surface when scratched.
               Hard                  Difficult to scratch with knife. Leaves a faint groove with
                                     sharp edges.
               Medium               Can be scratched with knife. Leaves a well-defined groove
                                     with sharp edges.
               Soft                   Easily scratched with knife. Leaves a deep groove with
                                     broken edges.
               Very soft              Can be scratched with a fingernail.

    •  4.  Weathering: Terms used to describe weathering are described below:

               Descriptive Term      Defining Characteristics
               Fresh                 Rock is unstained. May be fractured, but discontinuities are not
               Slightly                Rock is unstained. Discontinuities show some staining on  the
                                     surfaces of  rocks, but discoloration does not penetrate rock mass.
               Moderate              Discontinuity surfaces are stained.  Discoloration may extend
                                     into rock along discontinuity surfaces.
               High                  Individual rock fragments are thoroughly stained and can be
                                     crushed with pressure hammer. Discontinuity surfaces are
                                     thoroughly stained and may be crumbly.
               Severe                Rock appears to consist of gravel-sized fragments in a "soil"
                                     matrix.  Individual fragments are thoroughly discolored and can
                                     be broken with fingers.

    •  5.  Grain Size:  Term that describes fabric as fine-grained, medium-grained, or coarse-grained.

    •  6.  Description of Bedding or of Joint or Fracture Spacing:  Description should be according
       to the following:
                                                           Bedding or
               Spacing               Joints                Foliation
               < 2 in.                Very close             Very thin
               2 in. to 1 ft             Close                 Thin
               1 ft to 3 ft              Moderately close       Medium
               3 ft to 10 ft             Wide                  Thick
               > 10ft                Very wide             Very thick
               (after Deere, 1963)

    •  7.  Discontinuity Descriptions:  Terms that describe number, depth, and type of natural discon-
       tinuities. Also describe orientation, staining, planarity, alteration, joint or fracture fillings, and struc-
       tural features.

    •  8.  Local Geological Name:  Term used to assign local geological name, if appropriate, and to
       identify stratigraphic equivalents, if applicable.

    The rock logs should also include a complete description of the mineralogy of the rock, of any tests run
in the bore hole, and of placement and construction details of piezometers, wells, and other rig monitoring
devices.    Well Completion Diagrams

    For each  monitoring well installed, a monitoring well completion diagram or well log should be sub-
mitted. This form (Exhibit 8.3-5) should contain information in the appropriate column as follows:

    •  Well number

    •  Project number and name

    •  Location

    •  Geologist or engineer

    •  Ground elevation

    •  Well installation date

    •  Drilling contractor

    •  Drilling methods

    •  Water levels before and after development

    •  Development method
    Columns for a summary of the lithologies encountered during drilling, lithologic or USCS symbols, and
construction details are shown on the form.  The construction details include depth of well, screen, and
riser; appropriate pipe diameters; backfill types and elevations; and pipe materials (e.g., polyvinyl chloride
(PVC), stainless, black).

                              Exhibit 8.3-5
                         BLANK WELL LOG SHEET




                                          Exhibit 8.3-6
                               COMPLETED WELL LOG SHEET
  WELL t#. MW.3 .:  P"OJECTNa._O1C;g,.l(e!
                             PROJECT NAME    SWOflE ฉM.
                              DRILLING CONTRACTOR
                                               INSTALLATION DATE
                                                   WATER LEVEL AFTER INSTALLATION   Otnse ,Virvป
     Medium SvwA ,TVxป.ct c.lo.v o^d 1
    •fine ar*vcl ฐMr.
    Exhibit 8.3-6 is an example of a completed well log sheet. This form accompanies the rock core and
soil boring logs to provide detailed information on borehole stratigraphy and monitoring well installation.

8.3.6  Region-Specific Variances

    Site-specific conditions and project objectives will be the main criteria for methods used for geological
reconnaissance and logging.  No regional variations in the methods described above are known, but varia-
tions in reporting formats do exist.  However, some regions prefer the Burmeister soil identification system.
Because information on variances can become outdated rapidly, users of this section should consult the
EPA region in which the logging will be done. Future changes will  be incorporated in Revision 01 of this

8.3.7  Information Sources

    American Geological Institute. Glossary of Geology. Washington, D.C.  1974.

    American Society for Testing and Materials  (ASTM) D2487 - Standard Test Method for Classification of
Soils for Engineering Purposes.  1983.

    ASTM D2488 - Standard Recommended Practice for Description of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure). 1983.

    Burmeister, D.M. Identification and Classification of Soils—An  Appraisal and Statement  of Principles.
ASTMSTP113.  1951

    Compton, R.R. Manual of Field Geology.  John Wiley and Sons, Inc.  1962.

    CH2MHILL PMO Field Manual for Subsurface Exploration.  1982.

    Deere, D.U.  Technical Description of Rock Cores for Engineering Purposes.  Rock Mechanics Engineering
Geology.  1963.

    Hunt,  R.E. Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Manual. McGraw-Hill: New York. 1984.


8.4.1  General Considerations    Scope and Purpose

   This document provides general guidance for the planning, selection, and implementation of geophysi-
cal surveys that may be conducted during investigations of hazardous waste sites. Each of six commonly
used methods are discussed from the standpoint of applicability to site investigation, procedures for im-
plementation, survey design,  and miscellaneous method-specific considerations. Emphasis is placed on
the practical  understanding of each method with a minimal amount of theoretical explanation being offered
in the main body of the text.  For those readers who may desire a more rigorous understanding, however,
theoretical considerations have been included in the appendix.    Definitions

       The maximum vertical displacement from equilibrium in a wave.

       An electromagnetic (EM) reading that deviates from the typical site background reading and is
       generally caused by the presence of an irregularity or target.

       American Petroleum Institute.

       The configuration of electrodes in resistivity surveys.

Body Wave
       A "seismic wave" that travels through the interior of the earth and is not related to any bound-
       ary surface.  A body wave may be either longitudinal (P-wave) or transverse (S-wave).  (Glos-
       sary of Geology)

Bulk Density
       The  weight of an object or material  divided by its volume, including the volume of its pore

Circuit Potential
       Measured electrical voltage drop or gain.

Compressional Wave
       That type of seismic body wave that involves particle motion (alternating compression and ex-
       pansion) in the direction of propagation.  It is the fastest of the seismic waves and  is also
       known as a P-wave.

Confidence Interval
       The statistical level of probability of accomplishing a given task, such as detecting a target.

Critical Angle
       The least "angle of incidence" at which there is total reflection when electromagnetic radiation
       passes from one medium to another, less refracting medium.  (Glossary of Geology)

Critical Distance
       In refraction seismic work, that source-to-receiver distance at which the direct wave in an
       upper medium is matched in arrival time by that of the refracted wave from the medium below,
       the refracted wave having a greater velocity.

Crossover Distance
       The source to  receiver distance beyond which head  waves from a deeper refractor arrive
       ahead of those from a shallower refractor.

       An anomaly or feature that is attributable to human development, such as buried drums or
       utility lines.

Dead Time
       Measurement errors in nuclear logging occurring from the inability to record all  of the pulse
       energy within the resolving time.

       Mass per unit volume (g/cm3). Bulk rock densities vary mainly because of porosity and range
       from 1.9 to 2.8 g/cm3.

Dynamic Correction
       Seismic data must be corrected for normal moveout (NMO), which is the increase in arrival
       time of  a reflection event, resulting  from an increase in the distance from source to receiver or
       from dip of the reflector. Each trace has to be shifted by a different amount at  different travel
       time to  line up the primary reflections.

Echo Profile
       The graphic representation of time-delayed Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) impulses.

Effective Porosity
       The porosity that involves those pore spaces which are interconnected and, therefore, effective
       in transmitting fluids.

Electric Logs
       The generic term for a well log that displays electrical  measurements of induced current flow
        between electrodes. Electric logs discussed in this sub-section include only single-point resis-
       tivity and spontaneous potential.

       A ground-contacting metallic conductor used to apply current or measure the circuit potential.

Fall-Off Rate
        The rate of decay of an anomaly with respect to distance.

Fermat's Principle
        A seismic wave will follow the path that takes less time between two points rather than follow
        variations of this path. Such a path is called a minimum- time path.

        A unit of magnetic field. 1 gamma = 10"5 gauss  = 10  tesla. In the International System of
        Units (SI units), 1 tesla =  1 kg amp sec2.

Law of Reflection
        The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

Logging Speed
       The speed at which the sonde traverses the borehole (typically in feet per minute).

Magnetic Dipole
       A pair of magnetic poles of opposite signs and equal strengths that are close together so that
       the interaction of these poles is detectable.

Magnetic Monopole
       A single magnetic pole of either positive or negative sign that is spatially separated from a
       magnetic pole of opposite sign so that there is no detectable interaction between the poles.

Magnetic Moment
       The strength of a magnetic dipole.

Magnetic Susceptibility
       A measure of the degree to which a substance may be magnetized.

Multichannel Seismic
       Geophone groups and shotholes used in various combinations so that reflections are recorded
       from the same portion of the subsurface a number of times.  Also referred to as common-
       depth point (CDP) shooting.

       Variation in data because of an undesirable influence.

Nuclear Logs
       The generic term for a well log that either measures natural or induces and measures radioac-
       tive isotopes in the borehole environment.  Discussion in this text is limited to natural gamma,
       gamma-gamma, and neutron.

Ray Parameter
       A function P that is constant along a given seismic ray when horizontal velocity is constant.

       Defined as:
       where velocity = Kand / is the angle of wave incidence.

       The ability of a material to resist the flow of electrical current.

Shear wave
       A seismic body wave propagated by a shearing motion that involves oscillation perpendicular
       to the direction of propagation.  The shear wave doesn't travel through liquids, and it arrives
       later than the P-wave.  It is also known as an S-wave.

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual  responsible  for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  The person  is also referred to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

Smell's Law
       When  a seismic wave encounters a  boundary  between two layers  of  different seismic
       velocities, the direction of wave propagation changes so that the sine of the angle of wave in-
       cidence (/) divided by the seismic velocity (Fo), of the overlying medium equals the sine of the
       angle of wave refraction (zr), divided by the seismic velocity (Fi), of the underlying medium.

                    sin i          sin ir          sin //•

                     Fo      ~      Vi     ~     Fo

       where (ir) is the angle of wave reflection and (p) is the ray parameter.

       The elongated cylindrical tool assembly used in a borehole to acquire well log information.

Specific Yield
       The ratio of the volume of water that a given mass of saturated rock or soil will yield by gravity,
       to the volume of that mass.

       Amplitude and phase characteristics as a function of frequency for the components of a seis-
        mic wavelet.

Static Corrections
        Corrections applied to seismic data to compensate for the effects of variations in elevation,
        and weathered layer thickness by referencing all data to a datum plane. Such corrections are
        independent of time, the amount  of shift being the same for all points on any trace.

Surface Wave
        A "seismic wave" that travels along the surface of the earth or  parallel to the  earth's surface.
        Surface waves include Rayleigh waves, Love waves, and coupled waves.

        The specific focus (or purpose) of an EM survey, such as buried drums or trench boundaries.

Thermal Convection
        The transfer of  heat by vertical  movements in the borehole because of density differences
        caused by heating from below.

Total Porosity
        The ratio of  the void volume of  a porous medium to the total  volume.  This  is generally ex-
        pressed as a percentage.    Responsibilities

    The SM, in conjunction with the EPA RPM, must clearly define the objectives and information desired
from the geophysical efforts. Site Managers are responsible for determining which geophysical techniques
will provide data to permit meeting the established objectives. Site Managers are also responsible for coor-
dinating safety considerations, planning fieldwork, arranging for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC),
and providing technical assistance.  Geophysical task leaders are responsible for site reconnaissance,
identification of potential problems, estimation of project effectiveness, acquisition of equipment, onsite su-
pervision, and data interpretation.

    Electromagnetic techniques have been adapted for downhole applications. These can be useful in
defining the vertical extent of a contaminant zone.  Some systems work inside PVC or Teflon monitoring
well casings.  For further information on airborne, borehole, or surface EM instruments, the reader should
consult the subsections on theory and  interpretation and the manufacturer references listed later in this
compendium.    Records and Inspection    Calibration

    Dated  records of  geophysical  equipment  calibration,  whether  performed in the field or in the
laboratory, should be kept in the equipment management files and in the appropriate project file. Calibra-
tion is used to establish the reliability and accuracy of the equipment; it typically includes an internal circuit
check and actual field trials (e.g., testing over a known target). Equipment that historically exhibits fluctua-
tion in calibration should always be checked before  and after  field use.  The equipment serial number
should be recorded on the calibration records.  If equipment is recalled by the manufacturer,  the recall
should be explained in the proper file. The various techniques and instruments available make it prohibitive
to outline in this compendium the specific calibration procedures to  be followed for each instrument. For
those details, the reader should consult the manufacturer's manual pertaining to the particular instrument in
use.   Field  Notes

    Data and notes should be entered into a bound field logbook with sequentially numbered pages.  At a
minimum, each logbook page should include the names of the equipment operators; who kept the notes, if
different from operator; survey date; name and project number  of the site; line number; position (station)
number; survey direction  (heading north or south); raw data; and  any specific notes that relate to the sur-
vey (such as surface metal, weather conditions,  and topographic changes.  This data logbook should be
entered into the project field and stamped "original."  Typed copies  of the data may be included with the
survey report. At the conclusion of field activities, a report specifying the dates of fieldwork, observations,
personnel, and  equipment involved should be submitted to the project file.   Data Reduction

    There are several accepted ways to present geophysical data. Data profiles can be useful for estimat-
ing anomaly depth and lateral extent along a survey line. For defining site patterns and lateral extent be-
tween lines, a contour map may be more useful than a profile.  Three-dimensional maps are becoming
more common  (generated with the aid of computers) and can be extremely useful for site characterization.
Computer programs  should be examined for accuracy, because  many programs  that are unsuitable are
available, particularly those programs with contouring functions.  A percentage (such as 10 percent) of
computer-plotted  points should be manually checked for accuracy.

    Specific calculations can involve differential and integral calculus; however, these equations may be-
come theoretical,  time consuming, and subject to interpretation.  In general, graphic analysis may be  more
straightforward, cost effective, and not as likely to be challenged in litigation.  Very detailed interpretations
of some data are possible but should be attempted only by experienced personnel. Theoretically, it is pos-
sible to determine such things as size, shape,  orientation, and depth of a conductor.

    Parallel survey lines can be used to define long linear features such as contaminant plumes or faults.
Some features are mapped by only a few  anomalous readings;  others are mapped  by looking for
anomajous trends. The decision to search for a few anomalous  readings or trends is based mainly on the
detail of the  survey  grid  and the  size  (and  type) of the  feature.   Conclusions  based  on single-point


anomalies should be used cautiously, because these anomalies may be solely the result of a transcription
error and not some site feature.  A full discussion of interpretation theory and calculations is beyond the
scope of this compendium.    Use of Geophysics

    Project management  personnel should view geophysical methods as a tool to guide investigations of
hazardous waste sites. Geophysics is a proven indirect investigative technique that should not be viewed
as an absolute answer, because the methods are not part of an exact science. The final product of a suc-
cessful geophysical survey is an experienced geophysicist's interpretation, which is not always definitive or
conclusive.  The results are interpretative and need to be routinely checked and confirmed by direct physi-
cal confirmation methods ("ground truthing," such as test pit excavation, drilling, and so forth).

    Geophysics can be  a cost-effective  tool in providing extensive low-cost  information and project
guidance about successive, more costly phases.    Procedures

    The SM should confer with the staff geophysicist to determine the applicability of the method to site-
specific conditions and objectives. To identify site-specific technical problems, the geophysicist should ex-
amine site reports, drilling logs, air photos, and other data that may exist.   In addition, the SM and the
geophysicist should conduct a  site reconnaissance  to identify any problems that may inhibit the study.
Cultural features such as  power lines, surface metal,  and radio transmitters may have a detrimental effect
on the data acquisition or interpretation. Identification of these potential problems during a site reconnais-
sance may have such an  impact on the survey that the survey area may be modified, or geophysics may
not be  selected for use at that particular site. Finally, the Site Manager should inform the geophysicist of
any related or dependent phases of work so that the geophysical survey may be completed  in a timely
manner and the interpretation may be used to provide guidance for subsequent tasks.

    Most geophysical surveys are carried out over a grid or a series of lines within the study area. Stations
at which measurements are taken or energy put into the ground (for those methods that involve an outside
source of energy)  are usually spaced at regular intervals designed by the geophysicist to produce optimum
results  for the study objectives.  Although initial line  placement can  be done at  the project management
level, detailed line placement and surveying should be done only by qualified technical staff members.

    All fieldwork should be done under the supervision of the staff geophysicist  with daily data reduction
and review being  mandatory. The geophysicist should also supervise the daily reporting of all field data,
which at a minimum should include all field  notes, maps, work sheets, and raw data tabulation  (including
any x,y coordinates and measured values).    Information Sources

    Information sources and references are listed in the following subsections at the end of the discussion
on each geophysical method.

8.4.2  Geophysical Methods    Electromagnetics

    The electromagnetic (EM) method provides a means of measuring the electrical conductivity of subsur-
face soil, rock, and groundwater.  Electrical conductivity is a function of the type  of soil and  rock, its
porosity,  its permeability, and the fluid composition and saturation. In  most cases the conductivity of the
pore fluids will be responsible for the measurement. Accordingly, the EM  method applies both to assess-
ment of natural geohydrologic conditions and to mapping of many types of contaminant plumes.  In addi-
tion, trench boundaries, buried wastes, drums, and utility lines can be located with EM techniques.    Applicability

    Although EM is not a definitive technique,  it is useful for several reasons.  First, an EM survey can be
conducted over an entire site very quickly.  In addition, EM methods are generally inexpensive,  even for
coverage of large areas. Often, 100 acres or more may be surveyed in just a few days time (depending on
desired detail). More importantly, EM data can be used to direct the more expensive phases of an inves-
tigative project, potentially resulting in a large cost savings.  For example, rather than drilling several dozen
monitoring wells while searching for groundwater contamination, an EM conductivity unit may be used to
survey for a conductive (or resistive) plume.  Several EM survey lines may be run to provide definition of
the plume and an indication of its source area,  reducing the number of exploratory wells required.  This ap-
proach could potentially result in better well placement at a significant cost savings.  Another reason why
EM should be considered is to fill in data gaps and to reduce the risk of missing a facet of the investigation,
such as the presence of previously undetected refuse trenches, buried drums, or changing hydrologic con-

    Electromagnetic methods may be used in  many situations for a variety of purposes. The following list
includes  major uses related to investigations of hazardous waste sites:

    •  Defining the location of a contaminant  plume (This could lead to the identification of downgradient
       receptors,  source areas, and flow directions if the conductivity of the plume (target)  is distinct in
       comparison to the host (background) hydrogeologic setting.)

    •  Locating buried metal objects (e.g., drums, tanks, pipelines, cables, monitoring wells)

    •  Addressing the presence or location of bedrock fault / fracture systems (This is important for iden-
       tification of preferential pathways of water flow in bedrock.)

     •  Mapping grain size distributions in unconsolidated  sediments

     •  Mapping buried trenches

     •  Defining lithological (unit)  boundaries

     •  Determining the rate of plume movement by conducting multiple surveys over time
    The above list is only partial; in fact, EM methods may be used wherever a significant change in con-
 ductance can be measured.  EM theory will be discussed later; however, in general, EM should be con-
 sidered for use when any suspected target is anticipated to have a conductivity significantly different from
 background values.  Factors such as cost, site-specific conditions, and equipment availability should also
 be evaluated before deciding to proceed with an EM survey.

-------   Procedures

A.      Objectives

        The reader should evaluate the objectives of hazardous waste site investigations in light of EM
        geophysical capabilities.  If the purpose of the site study is simply to confirm the presence of
        contaminants with minimal effort, EM methods may provide too much detail and no direct
        evidence; direct methods,  such  as  installing a few wells or limited sampling, may be more
        suitable. If a site is to be characterized in detail and if assessment of geohydrologic conditions
        and identification of all source areas, plumes, and receptors are a  priority, then EM (and other
        geophysical methods) may be a cost-effective way of selecting strategic locations for monitor-
        ing wells, directing test pit operations, efficiently selecting sampling points, and providing infor-
        mation between site sampling points.
B.     Existing Data

       If  EM equipment is  identified as theoretically capable  of providing the type of information
       desired, the user should further evaluate the equipment to determine whether it is appropriate
       for use under the conditions found at a particular site. Evaluation of existing data can identify
       problems that may be encountered in the field:

           •   Variations in geohydrologic  conditions (e.g., varied water table conditions or changes in
               rock or sediment) can result in a conductivity range that envelopes the response of the tar-
               get (e.g., plume) and effectively masks or blocks out any signals.

           •   Scattered, near-surface metal may mask buried targets such as drums or trenches.

           •   Near-surface layers of extreme conductivity (high or low) such as a clay lense or surficial
               frost zone may mask the  signal from a deeper target.

       An analysis of the site history might  more closely define a survey area, thereby cutting survey
       costs by reducing the size of the  survey. Deep targets may be out of the penetration range of
       many EM units, and  specialized equipment may be required.  It may be difficult for many EM
       systems to detect a groundwater  contaminant plume through 100 feet of unsaturated over bur-
       den. A site reconnaissance should be conducted to identify any other site conditions that may
       affect the data.  Drastic topography changes can affect the quality of EM data obtained with
       some systems, and this possibility should be considered  at each site.    Survey Design

    Once the EM survey objectives have  been clearly defined, the existing information has been reviewed,
and  reconnaissance of  the  site has been  conducted,  attention should be given  to the design  of the
geophysical survey. The detail required of  an EM survey is a  primary factor in designing and  planning
fieldwork.  If the purpose of  performing EM  work onsite is to define  a large geologic feature, then a grid
using a wide (100- to 1,000-foot) line spacing may be needed. Some instruments are capable of providing
a continuous data profile, which makes them less likely to miss small conductors than the typical discrete
measurement EM instruments. The importance of designing and implementing a grid system tied into ex-
isting "permanent"  features (such as roads and buildings) cannot be overstated.  This permanent feature
will allow the grid to be  reoccupied in the field to place drill holes and monitoring wells.  Furthermore, addi
tional surveys may be conducted on the site using other geophysical techniques or the same technique to
provide an indication of plume movement. These surveys will help in orienting maps and diagrams that are
produced  later and in defining targets.

    For most detailed enforcement-related efforts, a 98 to 100 percent confidence interval should be main-
tained. For example, if the target area is only 1 percent of the total survey area, then 130 readings would
be required for the 98 percent confidence interval.  For an accurate definition of an EM anomaly profile
(useful in interpretation), four or more anomalous readings are recommended.

A.     Background Noise

       Background noise can be a significant factor in the success of an EM survey. Evaluation of ex-
       isting data and a site reconnaissance will help to identify the probable background noise level.
       A high noise level can make interpretation difficult and may actually cause an anomaly to be
       overlooked. It would  be practically impossible to delineate a slightly conductive contaminant
       plume contained in overburden that has a wide natural variation in conductivity. Noise sources
       can be divided into two groups:  (1) natural, such as changing grain size distributions, steeply
       dipping strata, undetected  mafic dikes, drastic topography, unexpected fault zones; and (2)
       cultural, such as powerlines, houses, railroads, surface metal debris, cars, and radio transmis-
       sion towers.   Some instruments are more sensitive to certain types of noise sources than
       others. Because there is little published information on this subject, experience is important.

B.     Limitations

       All EM instruments  have  varying limitations with regard  to sensitivity  and  penetration.
       Published references, operator's manuals, and field experience should be used to evaluate in-
       strumentation versus  capability.  Exhibit 8.4-1 lists several commercially available instruments
       along with factors that control their productivity.

       Some systems are designed for one operator, some for two operators, and some are flexible
       and allow one or two operators.  Generally, EM coverage for 50-foot readings range from 8,000
       line feet per day  to 22,000 line feet per day  in average terrain.  Some instruments are  more
       suited to  rugged terrain (steep  hills, thick woods, brush,  swamps) than others because of
       equipment configuration. When  definition of deep bedrock features is the primary objective of
       a survey,  large equipment along used brush-cut lines (typical in mineral exploration) may be
       needed.  (Note:  Productivity will be greatly diminished with higher levels  of protection;  the
       productivity factors shown are for unencumbered, unprotected workers in a "clean" area.)

C.     Instrumentation

       The following  matrix (Exhibit 8.4-2) provides guidance for EM equipment selection.  These in-
       struments may or may not be suitable to specific site conditions and investigation objectives; a
       full discussion of  factors affecting their suitability is beyond the scope of this compendium. In
       addition, a combination of instruments is commonly used to assess site  conditions. This dis-
       cussion includes only some  of the currently common instrumentation owned by hazardous
       waste investigative agencies.

       Electromagnetic techniques have also been adapted  for downhole applications. These techni-
       ques can  be useful in defining the vertical extent of a contaminant zone.  Some systems work
       inside polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or Teflon monitoring well casings.  For further information on
       airborne,  borehole, or surface EM instruments, the reader should consult the subsections on
       theory and interpretation and the manufacturer references shown later in this compendium.

       Exhibit 8.4-3 compares some of the more common EM systems. The CEM and Max Min II sys-
       tems are not commonly used for hazardous waste site investigations (they are more common-
       ly used in minerals exploration), but the systems are included for comparative purposes.

                                        Exhibit 8.4-1
Max Min II
1 or 2
Typical Daily
Line Miles
(50-ft readings)
100 +
1 (for
NOTES:  (1)  Primarily useful for geological features only.
        (2)  Useful for geological and cultural features.

Designation such as EM-16 or EM-31 are the manufacturer's model
numbers and do not imply equipment complexity or capability.

-------    Electrical Resistivity

    Electrical resistivity surveys provide information about the subsurface distribution of the ground resis-
tivity.  The information can be used to infer groundwater quality and lithologic and geologic information.
Both horizontal and vertical changes in ground resistivity can be mapped by resistivity surveys. In practice,
resistivity surveys are mostly used to determine the vertical resistivity changes. Lateral resistivity changes
are more  easily mapped by electromagnetic surveys.  Often, electromagnetic and resistivity surveys are
used together.    Applicability

    Electrical resistivity (ER) data are subject to interpretation; therefore, ER field results should  be check-
ed periodically and confirmed by direct methods, such as sampling or drilling.  This type of confirmation is
essential in enforcement cases.

    Although ER is not a definitive technique, the data are useful for several reasons.  Typical productivity
with conventional  resistivity equipment is several thousand line-feet per day (similar to seismic refraction
work, but much less than electromagnetics - two competing techniques). This high productivity rate allows
a large amount of useful data to be collected in a relatively short period of time.  For example, rather than
drilling several dozen monitoring wells or test borings to develop a complete picture of the site stratigraphy
and structure, a few wells can be drilled (for control) and information about the rest of the site can be ob-
tained by using resistivity methods. Method integration such as this can reduce the amount of time and the
costs required for a project.  If the investigative objective is to  locate a groundwater contaminant plume,
then resistivity techniques could be used to define the plume, its probable  receptors, and its source area.
Once the plume has been defined, a few confirmation monitoring wells are required.  Using resistivity tech-
niques could result in better well placement.  Using ER data can also add another dimension to the inves-
tigative effort and data, which could fill in data gaps and could possibly reduce the risk of missing a facet of
the investigation,  such as the presence of a previously undetected contaminant plume or bedrock valley
(as depicted in Exhibit 8.4-4).

    Resistivity methods may be used in a wide array of situations and for a variety of purposes. The follow-
ing is a partial list of major uses related to investigations of hazardous waste sites:
        Definition of a contaminant plume (This could lead to the identification of downgradient receptors
        and source areas.)

        Waste pit delineation

        Definition of bedrock fault / fracture systems

        Water table mapping (for contour maps)

        Stratigraphic mapping of soil layers (particularly useful in overburden, discriminating clays from
        sands and establishing their thicknesses)

        Defining bedrock topography (valleys)
    Resistivity methods may be used whenever the feature to be mapped has a contrasting resistivity with
the background material.

                                         Exhibit 8.4-2
Equipment Use

Locate single shallow
  buried drum
Locate many shallow
  buried drums

Locate single deep
  buried drum

Locate many deep
  buried drums

Define shallow fault
Define deep fault zone

Delineate shallow
  contaminant plume
Delineate deep
  contaminant plume

Locate shallow pipeline
1. Good success rate
2. Moderate success rate
3. Poor success rate-not applicable

shallow is only several meters
deep is several tens of meters

NOTE: This table is based primarily on field experience. Designations such as EM-16 or EM-31 are the manufacturer's model
numbers and do not imply equipment complexity or capability.

                           Exhibit 8.4-3
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    Electrical resistivity surveys involve the use of metal electrodes that are driven into the ground and long
cables that drag along the ground. Set-up time can be long if the electrode spacing is large. Special han-
dling and decontamination procedures will be required at hazardous waste sites.   Procedures

    Electrodes are typically arranged in one of several patterns, called electrode arrays, depending on the
desired information.  Electrical resistivity techniques can determine the vertical subsurface resistivity dis-
tribution beneath a point.  In this type of survey, called vertical electrical soundings, the electrode array is
expanded systematically and symmetrically about a point.  For each set of electrode spacings,  apparent
resistivity is determined from measurements of potential  and input current. The resultant plot of apparent
resistivity versus electrode spacing is interpreted to  provide the subsurface resistivity with depth distribu-
tion at that one particular point. Examples of three common arrays are given in Exhibit 8.4-5. The Wenner
and Schlumberger arrays are somewhat more common than the Dipole-Dipole and other arrays. These ar-
rays (Wenner, Schlumberger) start with  a small electrode spacing  that is increased to permit deeper
penetration for sounding.

    The manner in which the apparent resistivity changes with the electrode  separation can  be used to
determine formation conductivity and layer thickness. To increase accuracy, the user should evaluate the
interpretation of resistivity data against the existing subsurface information.  With any set of apparent resis-
tivity reading, a number of solutions are possible, so existing data must be used to select the one that fits
best.  A formation resistivity may be assigned, but without geological control the material is  not known.
Resistivity electrode arrays can also be used with constant inner-electrode spacing and to develop a lateral
picture of the site through profiles.  Stratigraphic control  is even more important when mapping lateral
changes with constant electrode spacings, because layer thickness changes alone can cause changes in
apparent resistivity. The desired  resolution is a major factor in deciding  how closely to space  measure-
ments for a given survey.

    In practical application, a resistivity survey target (such as a  plume or clay lens) should have a resis-
tivity contrast (positive or negative) over 20 percent from background. This change in resistivity should be
50 percent or more to provide proper detection and delineation.  For example, if a resistivity survey were
being conducted to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume (in overburden) with a resistivity of 200
ohm meters, a background-saturated over burden resistivity of  over 400 ohm meters  (for a  conductive
plume) or under 100 ohm meters (for a resistive plume)  would probably by detected, providing other fac-
tors (such as depth) are not detrimental.

    When depth sounding, resolution of individual layers has an accuracy generally around 20 percent; ac-
curacy can be substantially more  or less depending on the site conditions and  operator expertise. Vertical
resistivity sounding is  usually less accurate than seismic  refraction work, which is often conducted within a
10 percent error tolerance.  However, geologic units may be distinguishable (by geophysics) only with the
use of resistivity methods at some site.   Survey Design

    Data can be collected at randomly located stations  or along survey lines.  If vertical electrical sound-
ings are performed to obtain resistivity changes with depth, then the soundings are positioned where the
information is most useful. If measurements are made to map lateral resistivity changes, then the survey is
best performed on a grid or on survey lines. The station spacing will be determined from the target size.

A.      Background Noise

        Evaluation of  existing data and a site reconnaissance will help to identify the possible back-
        ground noise  level. A high noise level can make interpretation difficult and may actually  mask


                                          Exhibit 8.4-4
                                     ;ซซฃ 5
                                   Exhibit 8.4-5
                        EXAMPLES OF COMMON ER ARRAYS

                                WENNER ARRAY


Surface ^

L i J
k- • 3 	 i

L 	 2 	 1

                              SCHLUMBERGER ARRAY



.r~ "•'*"' " ',
P B ^

l I
r> 1/5 B ""
{' ' ' r • ' ' " ' ' ',
11 B 1


                                DIPOLE-DIPOLE ARRAY

/"D *

W Dto5D a
* D *

                                (D  Electode Number
                                PE  Potential Electrode
                                CE  Current Electrode
                                (V)  Voltmeter
SOURCE: Based in part on W. M. Telford et al., Applied Geophysics. 1976, and
R. E. Sheriff. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Exploration Geophysics, 1984.


       an anomaly.  It would be practically impossible to delineate a slightly conductive contaminant
       plume contained in overburden that has wide natural variation in conductivity.  Noise sources
       can be divided into two groups:  natural, such as discontinuous clay layers, undetected mafic
       dikes, drastic topography, unexpected fault zones, variable water table, and lightning; and cul-
       tural,  such as powerlines, railroad tracks, and radio transmission towers.  Some instruments
       are more sensitive to certain types of noise sources than others.  Since there is little published
       information on instrument noise sensitivity, experience is important.

B.     Depth of Investigation
       As a rule of thumb when lateral resistivity is being conducted, the array should be four or five
       times the distance from the ground surface down to the desired target. For vertical sounding,
       this suggested spacing should be about ten times the anticipated target depth.  These sugges-
       tions should be used only as general guidance.    Miscellaneous Considerations

A.     Instrumentation

       For most shallow work at hazardous waste sites, practically any resistivity system will suffice.
       Generally,  equipment capability becomes important only when the desired investigative depth
       exceeds 70 to 100 feet.  Larger power sources are needed to provide a  measurable electrical
       potential with a wider electrode spacing. Some newer resistivity units are capable of electronic
       data storage, and other features. Often, the peripheral capabilities of an ER system may be the
       deciding factor when purchases are considered.

       Borehole resistivity equipment has been used (in uncased  boreholes) to determine relative for-
       mation porosity and other factors.  For more information on this equipment, the reader should
       refer to the borehole geophysics subsection of this compendium.

B.     Calibration

       ER equipment requires calibration, either in the field or in the laboratory; dated records of this
       calibration should  be kept in the equipment management file and in the appropriate project file.
       Calibration is used to establish the reliability and accuracy of the equipment; calibration typi-
       cally includes an internal circuit check or actual field trials (e.g., tests over a known target).
       Equipment that historically exhibits fluctuations in calibration  should not be used. The equip-
       ment serial number should be recorded on the calibration  records.  If the manufacturer recalls
       equipment, this fact should be explained  and documented for instrument maintenance in the
       proper file. The current source and potentiometer must be calibrated on any type of resistivity
       equipment. The instrument's current source may be calibrated  by placing a reference am-
       meter in series with the electrode cables.  The reading obtained on the  reference ammeter is
       compared  with the value read from the instrument's current source ammeter.  The current
       source ammeter is then adjusted accordingly.

       The potentiometer is calibrated by either of two methods.  The preferred field method, which is
       similar to the calibration of the current source, is done by comparing the instrument's indicated
       potential to that potential measured with  an independent voltmeter. An alternative  means  of
       calibration, which can be performed in the laboratory, involves placing a precision resistor of a
       known value in series with the current load. A potentiometer is then placed across the resistor.
       The potential measured should be equal to the product of the known resistance and indicated

C.     Data Reduction

       The raw data are the measured potential produced  by a known current.  To calculate the
       rhoapp (apparent resistivity), these above known quantities are used.  (See Exhibit 8.4-5, Com-
       mon ER Arrays.) The electrode configuration is also used in the determination of apparent
       resistivity, which is defined by:
           rhoapp    =         (2 x * x VII) I (1/n - 1/T2 - l/Ri  + 1/R2)


               V      =      The circuit potential (voltage)
               7       =      Applied current (amperage)
               n      =      Distance between electrode  #1 and #2 (meters)
               n      =      Distance between electrode  #3 and #4 (meters)
               j?i      =      Distance between electrode  #1 and #3 (meters)
               R2      =      Distance between electrode  #3 and #4 (meters)
                    p  =      Apparent resistivity
        Apparent resistivity is the resistivity measured at the ground surface and usually has units of
        ohmmeters or ohmfeet.  The apparent resistivity is  a function of the distribution of actual
        ground resistivities and the electrode geometry.  Interpretation and reduction of the resistivity
        sounding are beyond the scope of this compendium; interpretation and reduction often involve
        curve matching or computer analysis.  For further information, the reader should refer to the
        references listed in Appendix 8.4B, particularly Zohdy (1975).   Seismic Methods Applicable to Hazardous Waste Site Characterization

    Seismic techniques have been useful  in some instances for assessing subsurface geohydrologic con-
ditions such as depth to bedrock; depth, thickness, dip, and density of lithologic units; horizontal and verti-
cal extent of anomalous geologic features (folds, faults, and fractures); the approximate depth to the water
table; and, in conjunction with geophysical well log data, the porosity and permeability of lithologic units.
Seismic techniques have also been used to delineate the boundaries of subsurface bulk waste trenches
and the depth of landfills.    Applicability

    Seismic Refraction and Reflection Techniques

    The method of seismic refraction consists of measuring the travel times of compressional waves that
are generated by a surface source and that are critically refracted from subsurface refraction interfaces and
received by surface receivers.  First-arrival travel times of seismic energy plotted against source-to-receiver
distance on a time-distance curve are characteristic of the material through which they travel. The number
of line segments on the time-distance plot indicates the number of layers.  The inverse slope of the line seg-
ments indicates the velocities of the layers.

    The method  of seismic reflection consists of measuring the two-way travel times of compressional
waves that are generated by a surface source and that are reflected from subsurface reflecting interfaces.
 Depths to each reflecting interface  can be deduced from reflection two-way travel times integrated with
 layered velocity information.

    Higher subsurface resolution of shallower layers is possible with shallow reflection techniques.  Modern
multichannel engineering seismographs have digital filtering capabilities that allow later arriving wide-angle
reflections to be detected from earlier refraction arrivals.

    Seismic velocities obtained from a refraction survey over an area do not always agree with those ob-
tained from a reflection survey over the same area. This variance may be because refraction velocities are
obtained from rays traveling parallel  to the top of a layer, whereas, reflection velocities are obtained from
waves traveling perpendicular to the strata at the bottom of a layer.

    The technique of seismic refraction has  been used to a greater extent than seismic  reflection in the
subsurface characterization of hazardous waste sites.   Procedures

    Preliminary Considerations

    The planning, selection, and implementation of a shallow seismic survey require careful  consideration
by qualified, experienced personnel.  At a minimunMhe following steps are required:

    •   1.  Review existing site, area, and regional subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic information in-
        cluding physical and chemical soil characteristics.

    •   2.  Define known hazards posing a threat to the safety of personnel who are conducting the seis-
        mic survey and topographic survey.

    •   3.  Define the purpose of the subsurface investigation.

    •   4.  Choose the appropriate seismic method to be conducted.

    •   5.  Define anticipated  survey area from either USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle maps or published
        base maps of the particular site.

    •   6.  Add survey coordinates  and elevations of all shot and geophone locations to be used before
        the actual survey.  Static  elevations  corrections are applied later to raw seismic data to compen-
        sate for travel time differences because of elevation changes along seismic lines.
    Survey Design

 A.      Seismic Refraction

        The length of a seismic refraction line must be at least four times the maximum penetration
        depth desired. This length will ensure that head-wave energy will be received from refractors
        down to the maximum penetration depth.  The spacing between individual geophones controls
        the degree of resolution available, and a spacing of 3 to 15 meters is commonly used.  Closer
        spacings may be used for very shallow, high-resolution profiles.  Long seismic lines are shot
        using the method of continuous in-line reversed refraction profiling, whereby the entire seismic
        line is shot in  segments. Shot  points are located at each end of and at intermediate points
        along each spread segment.  The end  shot point of each spread segment coincides with an
        end or intermediate position shot point of the succeeding spread segment. After a spread seg-
        ment is shot, the geophone spread is moved to the next succeeding spread segment.  The
        procedure is repeated until the complete reversed seismic refraction profile along the  line has
        been developed.

B.     Seismic Reflection

       The major application of seismic reflection is in the mapping of the overburden bedrock inter-
       face where  over  burden thickness exceeds 30  meters.  Reflections from the overburden-
       bedrock interface show  up prominently on seismograms where  large contrasts between
       acoustic layer velocities exist.  To minimize the effect of low-frequency refraction arrivals, the
       investigator  should use geophones with natural frequencies higher than those used in refrac-
       tion work.  Filtering capability and amplifier gain control of modern seismic data acquisition
       units allow these reflection events to be enhanced, making it possible for a high degree of ac-
       curacy when mapping bedrock attitude.

       Exhibit 8.4-6 represents the time-distance curve for bedrock at a depth of 90 meters with a P-
       wave velocity of  5 km/sec overlain by an  overburden layer  with a P-wave velocity of 1.5
       km/sec.  The dark ground  roll area on the curve is an area of shot-generated surface-wave
       energy that  travels along the surface of the ground and tends  to mask reflection events. The
       amplitude distance curve for  rays reflected from the bottom of the overburden layer (Exhibit
       8.4-6)  increases at critical distances for P- and S-waves and remains uniform at small source-
       to-receiver distances.

       At wide angles of incidence, or large source-to-geophone distances, reflection events are sub-
       ject to interference effects from earlier arriving refracted events. To eliminate interference ef-
       fects caused by ground roll and earlier refraction arrivals, it is  desirable to obtain an optimum
       shot to first geophone distance at which to place geophones  in shallow reflection work. This
       optimum "window" is empirically developed  in the field by observing seismograms recorded at
       different shot-to-first-receiver  distances. The optimum window for recording reflections from
       bedrock at a depth of 90 meters is shown in Exhibit 8.4-6.  This window is at a shot-to-receiver
       distance range over which the reflected P-wave amplitude remains relatively uniform.

       Part A of Exhibit 8.4-7 is  a  seismic record that was recorded on a portable 12-channel signal-
       enhancement seismic data-acquisition unit with digital filtering capability. Drill logs from the
       area over which the record was obtained indicate that bedrock is at a depth of 91 meters and
       is overlain by glacial till and a surface layer of silt. The selected distance of optimum source to
       first geophone was 22.9  meters with a geophone spacing of 7.6 meters.  Two hammer blows
       were necessary to enhance the record, and no digital filtering was applied. The direct P-wave
       through the over burden layer is clearly visible as a first break  on each trace. The reflected P-
       wave  from  the base of the overburden layer is clearly visible in the 120 to 130 millisecond
        range. The first trace from a geophone 22.9 meters away from the source illustrates masking
        effects caused by ground  roll. The actual  shot-to-first-receiver distance  should be increased
        slightly to obtain optimum representation of the reflected event.  Part B of Exhibit 8.4-7 is a
        seismic record obtained  from virtually the same location as in A, but low-cut digital filtering has
        been applied to further enhance the data.

        The next step in this procedure is to  move the shot point and geophone spread  along a line
        and repeat the procedure. This step  allows for multiple coverage and is known as common-
        depth-point (CDP) profiling.    Miscellaneous Considerations

 A.      Instrumentation

        Shallow seismic  surveys conducted at hazardous  waste sites generally  do not require large
        energy sources and can be either mechanical or explosive in nature.

                          Exhibit 8.4-6
                      TIME-DISTANCE AND
SOURCE: J. A. Hunter (1982).

Mechanical and contained explosive sources are used  in populated areas or when desired
penetration depths are less than 100 to 300 feet.  Hammer surveys are conducted by striking a
steel plate coupled to the ground with a sledge hammer. An inertia! switch on the hammer is
connected to the seismic data acquisition system with a cable, enabling the moment of ham-
mer impact to be accurately recorded. Another technique commonly used is the weight drop
or "thumper" technique.  Typically, a truck-mounted 3-ton weight is dropped from a height of
10 feet.  The instant of group impact is determined by a sensor on the weight.  A seismic ener-
gy source developed  by EG&G Geometries involves an air-powered piston striking a steel
plate coupled to the ground. This method has the trade name Dynasource.  The Betsy seis-
gun is a weak mechanical energy source in which a shotgun shell is detonated inside a cham-
ber that is coupled to the ground surface. The Dinoseis method uses a confined chemical ex-
plosion in a truck-mounted explosion chamber to drive a steel plate against the  bottom of the
chamber, transmitting a pressure pulse into the ground.

Explosive sources are used sparsely in populated areas  or when  penetration  depths  are
greater than 100 to  300 feet.  Two types of chemical explosives, gelatin dynamite and am-
monium  nitrate, are commonly used  in  explosion surveys and  are  detonated in  seated
boreholes.  Gelatin dynamite is a mixture of gelatin, nitroglycerin, and an inert binder material
that can be used to vary the strength of the explosion. Ammonium nitrate is a fertilizer that is
mixed with diesel fuel and is detonated by the  explosion of a primer.  A charge of about 1
pound of explosives  is usually sufficient to obtain penetration depths ranging from  ap-
proximately 100 to 300 feet. Explosive sources  generate wave fronts that are very steep and
show up as distinct arrivals on seismograms. These sharp pulses, however, are more likely to
cause damage to nearby structures.  It may not be advisable to use explosive sources at haz-
ardous waste sites where unknown gases or buried containers may be present.

A complete seismic  recording system or seismograph detects, records, and displays ground
motion caused  by the passage of a seismic wave.  A geophone (Exhibit 8.4-8) is commonly a
moving-coil electro-mechanical transducer that detects ground motion. The moving coil is free
to move in the  annular gap between the poles of the permanent magnet, creating an output
voltage that is proportional to the actual ground motion or to the motion of the outer geophone
case. At frequencies below the resonant frequency of the coil or outer case suspension, the
coil and outer case move together and output voltage falls off rapidly.  The selected resonance
frequency or natural frequency of a geophone must be below that of the lowermost frequency

Each geophone detects ground motion at a point on the surface and passes this information
through  a  single  recording channel as a frequency modulated signal.  This signal  is trans-
formed into the time domain and appears as one trace on the resulting seismogram.

Single-channel  systems are used  in small-scale engineering surveys, and the source and
receiver  are successively moved to create the characteristic  travel-time curve.   Multichannel
systems consisting of 12, 24, 48, and 96 channels are in  more  common use today. These sys-
tems are capable of  recording energy generated by a single source that is detected by a series
of geophones at various distances.

Seismic  recording systems are equipped with  amplifiers that have  individual  gain controls,
which are set as high as possible, and with digital filters that  exclude frequencies outside the
useful signal range between 20 and 200 Hz.  A galvanometer converts the current generated
by the output voltage from each geophone into the time domain.   This information is then
recorded onto ultraviolet sensitive paper for analysis.

Most seismic data-acquisition systems in use today have the ability to sort and sum waveforms
from repeated shots at the same shot point. This feature is known as signal enhancement and


                                    Exhibit 8.4-7
                                 SEISMIC RECORDS
                                           TIME MS:
SOURCE: J. A.'Hunter(19S2).

       is desirable because it serves to cancel out much of the systematic shot-generated and ran-
       dom background noise from the characteristic waveform. This method is also known as stack-
       ing of the individual wave traces.  The following are some of the more common seismic data-
       acquisition units in use today:
       1.       EG&G Geometries
               a.      Nimbus 125—2-channel signal-enhancement seismograph
               b.      Nimbus 121 OF -12-channel signal-enhancement seismograph
               c.      Nimbus 2415—24-channel signal-enhancement seismograph

       2.       BISON Instruments, Inc.
               a.      "Geo Pro" Models 8012A and 8024-12 and 24-channel seismic data-acquisition
                      and processing unit
               b.      Model 1580-6-channel signal-enhancement seismograph
               c.      Model 157C - single-channel signal-enhancement seismograph

       3.       Weston Geophysical Corporation
               a.      WesComp 11 -digital seismic data-acquisition and processing unit
               b.      USA 780-24-channel amplifiers

       4.       Dresser Industries
               a.      SIE RS-4—12-channel refraction seismograph

B.     Data Interpretation and Reduction

       1.       Corrections Applied to Refraction Data

               It is usually necessary to apply static elevation and weathering corrections to refrac-
               tion data to correct for variations in surface receiver elevations and effects of the low-
               velocity layer (LVZ). A reference datum below the LVZ is usually selected, and travel-
               time corrections are calculated in reference to this  datum surface. This process has
               the effect of placing the source and group of receivers directly on the datum surface.
               Various methods exist for correcting for near-surface effects, and the reader should
               refer to Telford et al., 1976, for a more detailed discussion.

       2.       Errors Inherent to Refraction Interpretation

               Errors in  refraction interpretation result from incorrect reading of the data, incorrect
               geologic  interpretation of layer velocities derived, and incorrect underlying assump-
               tions.  At larger offset distances, the seismic signal  decreases in amplitude as the
               higher frequency components of the signal attenuate more rapidly. The probability of
               picking the incorrect first arrival at a geophone increases with increasing distances.
               This error may cause an inappropriate velocity to be assigned to a refractor and may
               also lead  to an erroneous estimate of the number of refractors present.  Incorrect inter-
               cept times may then be chosen, which will cause wrong estimates of refractor depths
               and dips.

               Seismic velocities that are determined are average values over the entire path traveled
               by the head-wave.  The relationship between the velocity of a refractor and the geol-
               ogy may  be complex. Detailed knowledge of the relationship between seismic velocity
               and lithologic markers, facies boundaries, and geologic time markers are necessary
               for accurate conclusions to be drawn from a refraction survey.

                              Exhibit 8.4-8
                         GEOPHONE SCHEMATIC
SOURCE:  Te!ford et al., (1976).

              The primary assumption made in refraction interpretation is that the seismic velocity of
              a layer is constant and increases with layer depth.  If the velocity of a layer is less than
              that of the layer immediately overlying it, no head-wave is returned to the surface from
              the layer, and the layer is not represented on the time-distance curve. Velocity rever-
              sals with depth, if undetected, lead to depth estimates that are too deep. If the seismic
              velocity of a layer varies laterally, dip calculations will be affected. Another assumption
              is that all velocity layers are recognizable as first arrivals at geophones. This assump-
              tion is not always correct, however; some layers may not register as first arrivers. The
              effect of this condition is opposite to that of a velocity reversal with depth and will lead
              to depth estimates that are too  shallow. -Finally, a refractor must be sufficiently thick
              for it to be detected.  These conditions may lead to incorrect paring of segments of the
              time-distance curve  for reversed refraction  profiles and may lead  to incorrect  es-
              timates of refractor dip.

       3.      Corrections Applied to Reflection Data

              Static elevation and weathering  corrections must be applied to reflection data. These
              corrections are  easier to apply to reflection  data  because  reflection raypaths  are
              primarily vertical as opposed to  refraction raypaths.  Reflection data must be corrected
              for normal moveout.  Compressional wave energy that is generated from a sur face
              source  and reflected from a subsurface interface arrives at a near-source geophone
              earlier than it arrives at a geophone located a distance away from the source.  This dif-
              ference in time is the normal moveout.  Normal moveout must be removed to enhance
              primary reflection events.  Dip  moveout can be calculated from  reversed reflection
              sections and is the quantity  tdlhjc in Exhibit 8.4-9. Migrated reflection  sections are
              those for which we assume that the seismic line is perpendicular to layer dip, the true
              dip to be calculated from the dip moveout. These corrections are  dynamic correc-
              tions; more complete discussion can be found in Dobrin, 1960, and Kleyn, 1983.

              The main objective in the method of seismic reflection is to detect the reflected P-wave
              from a  background  of random ambient noise and systematic shot-generated noise.
              The higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the more reliable the recording of the arrival time
              of the reflected phase. In reflection work, only vertical high- frequency geophones are
              used.  These geophones are sensitive to  the  vertical component of ground motion,
              which is high for P-waves and small for 5-waves, thus eliminating much of the sys-
              tematic noise caused by S-waves.  Shot-generated noise is further  reduced through
              the use of stacking  of records  from identical subsurface sections. Ambient noise is
              reduced through the use of seismometer patterns and multicoverage techniques.    Magnetics

    Magnetometer surveys are  used to  identify areas of  anomalous  magnetic field strength.  Although
natural conditions may cause anomalies, shallow-buried ferrous metal objects (i.e., drums or other waste-
related metal) exhibit strong anomalies that are rarely confused with natural sources.    Applicability

    The magnetic methods described in this subsection are applicable to locating  buried  drums and other
buried ferrous metal objects; locating waste pits that contain metal; locating underground utilities such as
pipelines, cables, tanks and abandoned well casings;  clearing drilling sites; and identifying geologic fea-
tures that exhibit sufficient magnetic contrast.

         Exhibit 8.4-9

                                         Exhibit 8.4-10
                                                                    Magnetic Susceptibility
               Material                                                   (K106, CGS units)
       Magnetite                                                          300,000-800,000
       Pyrrhotite                                                                 125,000
       llmenite                                                                   135,000
       Franklinite                                                                  36,000
       Dolomite                                                                       14
       Sandstone                                                                     17
       Serpentine                                                                 14,000
       Granite                                                                   28-2,700
       Diorite                                                                         46
       Gabbro                                                                   68-2370
       Porphyry                                                                      47
       Diabase                                                                   78-1,050
       Basalt                                                                        680
       Olivine-Diabase                                                               2,000
       Peridotite                                                                  12,500
       1Adapted from C.A. Helland, "Geophysical Exploration"
       (from Costello, 1980
    Metal location and depth of burial can be inferred from the shape and width of the anomaly.  The loca-
tion of metal using magnetometry facilitates safe excavation without puncturing metal containers. Under-
ground utilities, which are traceable with magnetics, often lie within loosely filled trenches that may provide
permeable pathways for groundwater flow. Magnetrometry is used in clearing drilling sites to select loca-
tions that are free of drums, detectable under ground utilities, and other ferrous obstructions.

    Under certain conditions where sufficient contrasts in magnetic susceptibilities between geologic units
exist, magnetic methods may be useful in identifying geologic structures such as folding, faulting, buried
drainage channels,  bedrock topography,  and  igneous intrusions.  The  magnetic susceptibilities of some
rock materials are presented in Exhibit 8.4-10.   Procedures

    Preliminary Considerations

    Before conducting a magnetometer survey at a hazardous waste site, the following tasks should be

    •   Review historical waste disposal practices to identify target and nontarget buried ferrous objects.

    •   Establish the minimum size target of interest.

    •  Conduct onsite reconnaissance to evaluate the suitability of the method, possible interferences,
       and terrain features.

    •  Review site geology to determine if any natural anomalies might exist.

    •  Estimate anticipated anomaly intensities.

    For clearing drilling sites, utility maps should always be consulted.

    Onsite reconnaissance is conducted to  identify possible interferences and to evaluate accessibility of
the areas to be surveyed. Interferences may result from surface metal, fences, buildings, and powerlines.

    Metal  near the sensor may produce an anomaly great enough to mask an anomaly produced by a
buried object below it, depending on the relative anomaly strengths.

    The presence of variable geologic conditions, such as mafic intrusions and local magnetite sand ac-
cumulations,  may give rise to natural interferences.  Geologic features  that produce anomalies often lie
below the depth of burial of the target objects and thus may not affect detection of the targets significantly.

    The following tasks are involved in the magnetometer survey:

    •   Establishing a survey grid over the study area

    •   Establishing a base station

    •   Collecting magnetometer measurements at each station   Survey Design

    Magnetic measurements are usually taken either at equally spaced  stations located across a rectan-
gular grid or at equal intervals along several profile lines. The spacing of the stations depends on the target
size.  In general, the spacing between stations should be approximately one-fourth of the lateral extent of
the target. For a single 55-gallon drum, the maximum distance at which the station can be detected is typi-
cally 10 to 15 feet, and the grid spacing can be designed accordingly. The closer the stations are spaced,
the better the resolution becomes and the better the probability of detecting anomalies. More stations are
required to cover the same area, however, and  the time required to conduct the survey increases cor-

    It is helpful to lay out the survey grid so that the lines are oriented perpendicular to the strike of the tar-
get. If this orientation is not known, then north-south grid lines are preferable.

    An accuracy of 5 percent is generally adequate for station locations for a magnetometer survey; hence,
a hand transit (Brunton compass) and tape measure are sufficient to survey the station  locations. Wooden
stakes or other nonmetallic station markers should be used.

    Magnetic Measurements

    Magnetic measurements are taken by  placing the magnetometer at a station, orienting the sensor
properly, and taking the reading in accordance with the operating instructions for the particular instrument
used.  Jhe instrument operator should be free of any magnetic material such as keys, belt buckles, steel-
toed shoes, metal rim glasses, and so forth. To avoid effects of rocks that may be naturally magnetic and


to avoid the effects of topography, it is important to hold the magnetometer sensor above the ground while
taking measurements. The sensor should be held at the same height above the ground for each measure-


    Interferences from surface metals, fences, powerlines, and other aboveground sources, which general-
ly lie closer to the magnetometer sensor than buried targets, may mask the targets and sometimes cannot
be corrected for. In some cases, data obtained near such interferences must be excluded.  Corrections for
interferences from geologic conditions and surface objects that have small  magnetic moments in com-
parison to the target may be possible.  Some instruments have filters that eliminate powerline interferences.

    Total Field Versus Vertical Gradient

    Two types of magnetic measurements are  generally used:  total field and vertical gradient.  The total
magnetic field intensity is a scalar measurement, or simply the magnitude of the earth's field vector inde-
pendent of its direction. The magnetic field gradient is a measurement of the difference in the total mag-
netic field  between two sensors having a fixed distance between them. The gradient equals the change in
total magnetic field over distance (sensor spacing). For vertical gradient measurements, the sensors are
separated vertically.  Gradient measurements  may be made by using  a gradiometer, which is a mag-
netometer with two sensors built in, or by using a normal total field magnetometer and taking two separate
readings at different  heights.  The gradiometer takes  measurements at the two sensors simultaneously,
whereas measurements using a total field magnetometer have a small time separation.  The sensitivity of
vertical gradient measurements is variable and depends in part on the vertical separation of the two sensor
positions.  Commonly, vertical separations of one-half, 1, and 2 meters are used.

    Vertical gradient measurements include several advantages over total field measurements:
       The measurements give finer resolution of complex anomalies.

       The measurements require no corrections for diurnal  variation, micropulsations, and magnetic
       storms. Measurements at the two sensors are made simultaneously or nearly so; these temporal
       variations affect both readings essentially equally and are, therefore, removed on the differential.

       The regional magnetic field affects measurements at both sensors equally, and these variations are
       removed on the differential.

       Gradient measurements provide vector direction as well as magnitude and can be used for more
       quantitative determination of anomaly location, depth, shape, and magnetic moment.
    The following are disadvantages of the gradiometer and reasons why total field measurements may be
        Gradiometers have a smaller radius of detection and thus require closer spacing of measurement
        points to achieve their potential for finer resolution of anomalies. Finer grid spacing requires more
        time.  In some cases, targets at depth may be beyond the radius of detection for a gradiometer,
        but not for a total field magnetometer.

                                 Exhibit 8.4-11
                      CONTOUR MAPS OF TOTAL FIELD AND
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    Contours are in  gammas +50,000
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Contours are in gamma/0.5 meter

    •  Gradient readings using a total field magnetometer take longer to do than a simpler field measure-

    •  Calculations that are based on vector properties of gradient measurements to precisely determine
       source location may be very complex and time consuming.
    In summary, total field measurements are suitable for reconnaissance surveys because they enable
coverage of a larger area in a shorter amount of time than do vertical gradient measurements; they also
provide good information on the location, depth, shape, and magnetic moment of buried ferrous objects.
Vertical gradient measurements are best for detailed studies over small anomalies where more detailed
characterization of buried ferrous objects may be required. Contour maps of both total field and vertical
gradient measurements over a small anomaly are presented in Exhibit 8.4-11. Vertical gradient measure-
ments were taken at the same grid spacing as total field measurements, but the finer resolution of the verti-
cal gradient data is evident.

    Data Interpretation

    Interpretation of the data can yield location and depth of the magnetic sources. Interpretation is best
performed using computer modeling techniques. Reasonable estimates of depth can be made by using
methods described in Appendix 8.4D.  Almost all interpretations are made using data profiles.  Contour
maps establish the distribution of the source.    Ground Penetrating  Radar    Applicability

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data are used to produce a continuous subsurface profile through the
use of a linear strip chart recorder. However, while GPR is useful to define subsurface conditions, it is more
limited in application than most  other geophysical techniques.  The following is a partial list of major uses
related to hazardous waste site investigations:
    •   Define or locate buried drums, tanks, cables, and pipelines.

    •   Define boundary of disturbed versus original ground (and strata), such as a landfill or a trench.

    •   Map water table (limited reliability).

    •   Delineate stratigraphic layers, such as clay, till, or sands.

    •   Define natural subsurface features, such as buried stream channels (preferential pathways), lenses,
        and voids (caves).
    In addition, GPR may be used whenever a significant change (or differential) in electrical properties is
encountered and when a change should be mapped.  For more specific information on these properties,
the reader should refer to the theory or information sources subsections in this compendium.

    Although GPR cannot provide definitive information on subsurface conditions,  the data are desirable
for several reasons.  GPR can quickly provide subsurface information about a hazardous waste site. Typi-
cal productivity with conventional graphic recording GPR equipment on low-relief terrain is several line


miles per day. Often, this productivity rate makes GPR a very cost-effective reconnaissance method. For
example, if the objective of an investigation is to define suspected locations of buried drums, then GPR (or
other geophysical methods, electromagnetics, or magnetics) can be used to define suspected areas. Test
pit excavation (or other direct methods) can be used to further explore suspected areas and can provide
control for GPR data.   Procedures

Preliminary Considerations

A.      Objectives

        GPR  capabilities should be evaluated against the objectives of hazardous waste site investiga-
        tions. If the site study is simply to substantiate the possibility of buried drums on a site with
        minimal  effort, then typical radar surveys will provide only localized detail and  no direct
        evidence.  If, however, a site is to be characterized in detail and the identification of any drum
        location  is a priority, GPR alone or in conjunction with other geophysical methods (such as
        magnetometry) may be a cost-effective way of directing test pit operations and selecting sam-
        pling points, etc.

B.      Existing Data

        If radar equipment is identified as theoretically capable of providing the type  of information
        desired, further evaluation should be made to determine if the equipment is appropriate to use
        with the conditions found at a  particular site. Evaluation of existing data can identify problems
        that may be encountered in the field, such as the presence of buried electrical cables or  a
        near-surface conductive clay layer.  Conditions such as these can cause noise in the data or
        even "mask" (block out) the radar signal  from a deeper target. An analysis of the site history
        might aid in further defining a survey area and might result  in a cost savings. Deep targets
        may  be out of the practical range of many typical GPR units. For  example, most radar anten-
        nae that are in general use would probably yield poor results if they were used to  define the
        top of a bedrock surface underlying 300 feet of highly conductive overburden.   Survey Design

A.      Define Survey

        Once the GPR survey objectives have been clearly defined, the existing information has been
        reviewed, and reconnaissance of the site  has been conducted, attention should be given to the
        design of the geophysical survey. The detail (coverage, resolution) required of a radar survey
        is a primary factor in designing and planning fieldwork. If the survey is to provide reconnais-
        sance information on the possibility of buried drums onsite, then a  grid using a wide  (50- to
        200-foot) line spacing may be appropriate.  If the purpose is to define as many drum locations
        as possible (such as for removal), then a detailed survey is probably required (10- to 20-foot
        line spacing). The importance of designing and  implementing a grid system tied into existing
        "permanent" features (such as roads and buildings) cannot be overstated.  This design will
        allow the grid to be reproduced (if required) for enforcement purposes and will also  help to lo-
        cate  anomalous areas for future fieldwork (such as sampling, drilling, or digging test pits) by
        use of the grid for points of reference.  Under certain circumstances, a reproducible grid may
        not be needed, such as if the raw field data are  going to be used to direct other field  opera-
        tions, but this situation is not typical.

       The anticipated size of the target compared with the proposed survey area should have an im-
       pact on the detail of the GPR survey grid.  To reliably locate a suspected target would require
       more effort (such as denser line spacing or use of a higher resolution transmitter antennae) for
       a smaller target than would be required for a larger one.  In this compendium, a discussion of
       reliably locating a target refers to the probability of the GPR unit passing over the surface ex-
       pression of a target.  Reliably locating a target does not mean that the target will be clearly
       defined in the data. Site-specific factors such as poor field methods, target depth, and back-
       ground noise may cause a target to be overlooked or misinterpreted.

B.     Background Noise

       Background noise can be a significant factor in the success of a GPR survey. Evaluation of ex-
       isting data and a site reconnaissance will  help to determine the probable background noise
       level. A  high noise level can make interpretation of data difficult.  Noise often varies across a
       large (several hundred acres) site as different site conditions (soils, overburden stratigraphy,
       etc.) are encountered. If the natural soils have a wide variation in electrical properties, it would
       be difficult to pick out a subsurface boundary between backfill material and natural undis-
       turbed soils.  Noise sources can be divided into two  groups:  natural, such as surface water,
       discontinuous clay layers, extremes in topographic relief, and steeply dipping strata;  and cul-
       tural, such as powerlines, surface metal, and two-way radios.  Experience is important, be-
       cause there is little published information on instrument sensitivity to different noise sources.
       Generally, however, the more conductive a target is above (or below) the normal background
       noise, the easier targets are to define and interpret.

C.     Limitations

       GPR instruments are limited with regard to sensitivity, resolution, and  penetration.  Field ex-
       perience, published references, and operator's manuals should be used when an evaluation of
       instrumentation versus capability is desired.

       Interpretation  of radar data  generally  becomes more complex as the contrast in electrical
       properties (between background areas and target areas) becomes less. Several small closely
       spaced targets may not be sensed as multiple anomalies but as one large anomaly. This inac-
       curacy is a result of the inherent resolution capabilities of the equipment.  Penetration of the
       signal varies with transmitter frequency, electrical conductivity, changes in conductivity, noise,
       and so forth.  Because there are many limitations with GPR equipment and methods, the SM
       should consult a geophysicist before conducting the actual radar survey (as outlined in the
       responsibilities subsection).    Miscellaneous Considerations

A.     Calibration

       Geophysical instruments require calibration; GPR is  no  exception.  Because the often subtle
       changes in the profile record chart can be interpreted in various ways, GPR equipment should
       be subject to an intensive calibration process.

        Because the internal timing  mechanism is  used to estimate depths,  it should be checked peri-
       odically with an internal or external timer.  Because electrical  properties (inherent to  travel
       times) are quite variable between sites, the radar unit should be calibrated to each condition
        (strata) found at the site. This calibration can be as simple a process as taking some readings
       on top of a conductor at a known depth, such as a buried pipeline, and seeing how this read-
        ing translates to the strip chart profile.  GPR subcontractors commonly make statements such
       as "on the strip chart, 1 inch equals so many feet."  Statements like these should be viewed

       skeptically because if materials vary across a site, then so do their corresponding electrical
       properties, which are directly responsible for travel time and depth calculations.  Records of
       the calibrations and procedures that are used should be entered in the appropriate equipment
       and/or project file.


    The interpretation of GPR data requires professional training and experience and is beyond the scope
of this compendium.  However, buried metal targets, such as steel drums, may be easily recognized by the
novice.  Exhibit 8.4-12 has been included to give an example of radar data and to show how evident buried
metal targets can be. The ground surface is at the top of the page; depth increases toward the bottom of
the page.  On the far left side (OE) of the profile, a strong signal is received at the bottom of the profile (at
depth).  In the middle of the line (75E to 100E), however,  the reflected signal is weak and badly distorted.
In this location, penetration does not extend to the bottom of the figure.


    Borehole geophysical techniques provide subsurface information on rock and unconsolidated  sedi-
ment properties and fluid movement.  Although the oil  and mineral industries have been using these
borehole geophysics for many years, only recently have the techniques been adopted to the assessment of
site hydrogeologic conditions. This subsection provides an introduction to the basic borehole geophysical
techniques as they might be applied to a hazardous waste site investigation.  References are included to
complement and expand on the technical interpretation of the logging results.    Applicability

    Discussion in this subsection will introduce a variety  of borehole geophysical methods.  The general
logging categories discussed are electrical, nuclear, sonic, and mechanical.  Although other borehole  tech-
niques are available, such  as three-dimensional vertical seismic profiling,  borehole  televiewing, and  a
variety of crossbore techniques, these are not discussed  in detail  in this compendium. A combination of
surface and borehole techniques offers a three-dimensional understanding of subsurface conditions, but
that approach is also beyond the introductory detail in this compendium.

    A very basic description of the  log, the parameters that affect response, and the sensing devices are
presented here to aid in evaluating the applicability of logging functions.

    A number of techniques are not discussed in this compendium; information on these techniques may
be obtained from the references at the end of this subsection.  While examining the techniques that are in-
cluded in the following discussion, the reader should refer to Exhibit 8.4-13, which was taken in part from
the D'Apollonia report to the U.S. Army (1980).  The exhibit presents each logging function and information
obtained for a variety of geologic and hydrologic parameters.    Electrical

    Electrical logging includes spontaneous potential and single point resistance.

    Spontaneous Potential (SP):  The response is the result of  small differences  in  voltage caused by
chemical and physical contacts between the borehole fluid and the surrounding formation. These voltage
differences appear at lithology changes or bed boundaries, and  their response is used  quantitatively to
determine bed thickness or formation water resistivity.  Qualitative interpretation of the data can help  iden-
tify permeable beds.

    In a consolidated rock aquifer system where groundwater flow is controlled by secondary permeability
(i.e., fractures), SP response may be generated from a streaming potential caused by a zone gaining or
losing water.

    The SP log is a graphic plot of potentials between the downhole sonde and a surface electrode.  The
system consists of a moveable lead electrode (located in the sonde) that traverses the borehole and a sur-
face electrode (mud plug) that measures potentials in millivolts.  Noise and anomalous potentials are rela-
tively common in SP logs and are discussed in electric log anomalies later in this compendium.

    Single-Point Resistance:  This technique is based on the principle of Ohm's Law (E = Ir) where E
is voltage measured  in volts, / is current  measured in amperes, and r is resistance measured in ohms.
Single-point resistance measures the resistance of in situ materials (of the rock and the fluid) between an
in-hole electrode and a surface electrode.  Resistance logging has a small radius of investigation and is
very sensitive to the conductivity of the borehole fluid and changes in hole diameter (caving, washouts, and
fractures). This condition is advantageous for the operator in that any change in the formation (resistance
or fractures) will produce a corresponding change in resistance on the log.  These changes in resistance
are interpreted to be  a result of lithology changes. The single-point log is very desirable for geologic cor-
relation because of its special response to lithology changes.

    In crystalline rock (high resistance formations), single-point resistance logs are useful in locating frac-
tures  and often appear as mirror images  (opposite deflections) to the caliper log.  Hole enlargement,
caving, washouts, and fractures appear as  excursions to the  left (indicating less resistance  in normal
operation) of the more typical response observed in this log.

    The principle  of the function is quite simple.  The current (7) remains constant while the voltage (E) is
measured between the movable lead electrode and the surface electrode. Voltage is then converted inter-
nally to resistance using Ohm's Law.  A diagram of this arrangement can be found in Exhibit 8.4-14.  SP
and single-point  resistance logs are designed  to  be run simultaneously since single-point resistance
operates in alternating current (AC)  (110 volt) while the SP operates in direct current (DC).    Nuclear

    Nuclear logging includes natural gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron.

    Natural Gamma: This log measures the total of naturally occurring gamma radiation that is emitted
from the decay of radioisotopes normally found in rocks. Typical elements that emit natural gamma radia-
tion and cause an increase on the log are potassium 40 and daughter products of the uranium and thorium
decay series.  The primary use of natural gamma logging is lithology identification in detrital sediments
where the fine-grained (most often clay) units have the highest gamma intensity. A natural gamma log can
be quite useful to the hydrologist,  hydrogeologist, or geohydrologist, because clay tends to reduce per-
meability and effective porosity within a sedimentary unit. This log can also be used to estimate (within one
geohydrologic system) which zones are likely to yield the most water.

    The sensing device is a scintillation-type receiver that converts the  radioactive energy into electrical
current, which is transmitted to the instrument and generates the natural gamma log.

    Natural gamma logs can be run in open or cased boreholes filled with water or air. The sensing device
is often built into the same sonde  that conducts SP and single-point resistance  logs.  In essence, three
functions are available from the use of one sonde.

            Exhibit 8.4-12
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    Gamma-Gamma:  This nuclear log uses an activated source and measures the effect of the induced
radiation and its degradation.  Gamma-gamma logs are widely used to determine bulk density from which
lithologic identification is based.  They may also be used to calculate porosity when the fluid and grain den-
sity are known.  The radius of investigation is dependent on two factors:  source strength and source-
detector spacing. Typically, 90 percent of the response is from within 6 to 10 inches of the borehole.

    Neutron:  The neutron log response is primarily a function of the hydrogen content in the borehole
environment and surrounding formation.   This content Is  measured by introducing neutrons into  the
borehole and surrounding environment and by measuring the loss of energy caused by elastic collision.
Because neutrons have  no  electrical charge and  have approximately the same  mass as hydrogen,
hydrogen atoms are, therefore,  responsible for the majority of energy loss.  Neutron logging is typically
used to determine moisture content above the water table and total porosity below the water table.  Infor-
mation derived from this log is used to determine lithology and stratigraphic correlation of aquifers and as-
sociated rocks. Inferred data  can be used to determine effective porosity and specific yield of unconfined
aquifers. Neutron logging is also very effective for locating perched water tables.

    The equipment is identical to that described for the gamma-gamma log except for use of a different
source and the fact that the equipment must be able to handle higher count rates.   Mechanical

    Mechanical logging includes caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid movement.

    Caliper:   This log is defined as a continuous record of the average diameter of a drill  hole. Caliper
sondes can have from one to  four arms. The two basic types are bowstring units, which are connected at
two hinges, and finger devices, which have single hinges (see Exhibit 8.4-15).

    Caliper resolution is broken into two categories:  horizontal and vertical.  The horizontal resolution is
the ability of the tool to measure the true size of the hole regardless of its shape (circular or elliptical). Verti-
cal resolution is controlled by the length of the feeler contact on the borehole wall.

    Traditionally, caliper logs have been run to correct other logging functions.  If this is the primary reason
for running caliper,  the  bowstring or single-hinged unit will both provide adequate data.  Calipers using
single-hinged feelers provide the best vertical resolution. Interchangeable arms are available for the single-
hinged tools and should be selected on the basis of the hole diameter.  Single-hinged tools can be used to
identify fractures in igneous and metamorphic rocks and solution openings in limestone.

    Temperature:  The temperature log provides continuous records of the borehole fluid environment.
Response is caused by temperature change of the fluid surrounding the sonde, which generally relates to
the formation water temperature.   The borehole  fluid temperature gradient is highly influenced by fluid
movement in the borehole and adjacent rocks. In general, the temperature gradient  is greater in low-per-
meability rocks than high-permeability rocks, which is probably the result of groundwater flow.  Therefore,
temperature logs can provide  the hydrologist with valuable information regarding groundwater movement.

    Logging speed should be slow  enough to allow adequate sonde response with depth, because there is
a certain amount of lag time.  The probe is designed to be run from  top to bottom (downward) in the
borehole to channel water past the sensor.  Because some disturbance is  inevitable when the  sonde
moves through the water column, repeat temperature logs should be avoided until the borehole fluid has
had time to reach thermal equilibrium.


Geophysical Method Evaluation
9 Best Information
O Good Information
W Partial Information
A Inferred Information
C3 No Information




Spontaneous Potential

Natural Gamma Radiation
Fluid Movement

Fluid Conductivity























flj >
'co ro
T3 O
^- *n
3 C
CO co




•o >-
c .t:
co —
ff to
'"> 2
o E
O a>
0. 0.




0 3
a. cn



ป- 0)
Q a
o "o
— c










SOURCE: D'Appolonia Report to U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Mate, a

                            Exhibit 8.4-14
                          LOGGING SYSTEM
                                   (AC     I    AC
SOURCE: Guyod (1952).

    Fluid Conductivity:  These logs provide a continuous measurement of the conductivity of the
borehole fluid between two electrodes.  The contrast in conductivity can be associated with water quality
and possibly with recharge zones.  Conductivity logs are helpful when interpreting electric logs, because
both are affected by fluid conductivity.

    The most common sonde measures the AC voltage drop across closely spaced electrodes. These
electrodes actually measure the fluid resistivity (which is the reciprocal of conductivity), but they are called
fluid conductivity logs to avoid confusion with resistivity  logs. Simply, conductivity logs actually measure
the resistance of the borehole fluid; resistance logs measure the resistance of the rocks and the fluid they

    Fluid Movement:  Fluid movement logging can be  broken into two components: horizontal  and ver-
tical.  Horizontal logging uses either chemical or radioactive tracers, is most often unacceptable for hazard-
ous waste investigations, and will not be discussed in detail.

    Vertical movement of fluid in the borehole is measured by either an impeller flowmeter or chemical
tracers. Tracers will  not be  discussed in this subsection for the reason mentioned above.  The impeller
flowmeter response is affected by the change in vertical velocity within the borehole.  The best application
of this log is defining fluid movement in a multiaquifer artesian system.

    The sonde consists of a  rotor or vanes housed inside a protective cage or basket. This log should be
run both downhole and uphole. The logs should  be compared side by side;  only those anomalies that
have mirror (opposite) deflections are the zones that are providing the vertical movement (Exhibit 8.4-16).

    Sonic: This  logging (also called acoustic logging)  uses sound waves to measure porosity and to
identify fractures in consolidated rock. Two general types of measurements are internal transit time, which
is the reciprocal of velocity, and amplitude, which is the reciprocal of attenuation. The amplitudes of the P-
and 5-waves are directly related to the degree of consolidation and porosity and to the extent and orienta-
tion of fractures.

    The instrumentation of acoustic logging is very complex; it includes a downhole sonde with a transmit-
ter and two to four receivers.  Sound waves are  emitted from the transmitter and their propagation is
measured by the receivers.    Procedures    Preliminary Considerations

    Equipment discussed in this compendium is capable of performing electric, nuclear, and mechanical
logging.  This equipment is available from a variety of vendors and can usually be rented for short periods
of time or leased  on a long-term basis.  In any case, the application of these techniques is quite complex,
and the project geophysicist should be contacted to provide input for planning and implementing borehole

    The study objectives must be defined  clearly before the user can identify the proper equipment needs.
For instance, the  Site Manager (SM) must generally understand the subsurface environment to determine
which logs are applicable.  After evaluating this determination and the site-specific limiting factors (i.e., ac-
cess to well, well diameters, etc.), the SM can select the proper equipment.

                               Exhibit 8.4-15
                      TWO TYPES OF CALIPER SONDES

                                      INGEO AT BOTH ENDS
                                                           FINGER DEVICE
                                                                  HINGED AT
                                                                  ONE  END

    The following general types of information could be expected from borehole measurements:

    •  Vertical changes in porosity

    •  Relative vertical changes in permeability and transmissivity

    •  Lithology and structure

    •  Lithologic conditions

    •  Vertical distribution of leachate plumes

    •  Groundwater gradients, flow direction, and rate *

    •  Water quality parameters
    To determine a logging program that will  enhance evaluation of the site, the SM must thoroughly
evaluate two key items.  First, the SM must identify the regional bedrock geology (i.e., igneous, sedimen-
tary, metamorphic) and typical surficial units.  Then the SM must gather as much local information as pos-
sible regarding geologic units (i.e., boring logs of monitoring wells, domestic water supply depths, and well
yields) and any hydrogeologic reports or information.

    Second, the SM must identify which logs are applicable in the site's geologic setting and which logs
will provide the  required information for meeting program objectives.  Exhibit 8.4-17 is a general guide to
data collection objectives that will aid in the selection process. However, each function under considera-
tion must be researched in more detail using publications listed in information sources in this compendium
and consulting with borehole geophysical logging specialists.

    There are, of course, limiting factors for each of the logging techniques.  Exhibit 8.4-18 identifies some
limiting factors for the logs.

    Once the geologic environment has been evaluated and the logging functions narrowed, the SM must
select the appropriate equipment.  Portable units that can be carried on a backpack enable access to most
well locations; however, they are limited to logging functions requiring low power operation (e.g., battery

    Functions that require 110 volt AC usually operate from a larger unit that is typically mounted in a
vehicle.  These units cost considerably more, and access to well locations can present problems in swam-
py areas.  However, these units are able to run the majority of log functions available today.  Exhibit 8.4-19
shows a generalized schematic diagram of geophysical well-logging equipment.    Survey Design    Log Selection

    Once the SM has defined the logging program and has identified the general category of logs that will
supply the necessary  information, the specific logging functions(s) can be selected.  Exhibit 8.4-20
describes the type of log, a basic description, and the primary use of the technique.

                           Exhibit 8.4-16
                      LOCATE ZONES OF FLOW
                 250  -
                  260  -
                  270  '
                  280 -
                  290  .
                                  ZONE OF
            SOURCE: Techniques of Water Resource* 'n. ->•.< gations
            of the United States Geological Survey, Chapter E1 page 110.

                                       Exhibit 8.4-17
   Data Collection Objectives

Lithology and stratigraphic correlation

Total porosity or bulk density

Effective porosity or true resistivity

Clay or shale content

Secondary permeability
(fractures, solution openings)

Specific yields of unconfined

Water level and saturated

Moisture content

Dispersion, dilution, and
movement of waste

Groundwater movement
through a borehole


Casing corrosion
      Available Techniques
Electric, caliper, nuclear, and sonic

Gamma-gamma, neutron, and sonic

Long-normal resistivity (records the
resistivity beyond the invaded zone)

Natural gamma

Caliper, electric, sonic,
and borehole televiewer

Electric, neutron, gamma-gamma
temperature, and fluid conductivity


Fluid conductivity and

Flowmeter (vertical)
and chemical tracers

Caliper, temperature,
gamma-gamma, and sonic


                                    Exhibit 8.4-18
                                             Limiting Factors
    Logging Function

Spontaneous potential
Single-point resistance
Natural gamma
Fluid conductivity
Fluid movement
Uncased Open



X = Required condition

                                 Exhibit 8.4-19
                       SCHEMATIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF


                                 LOQQINO CONTROLS
SOURCE: Techniques of Water Resources Investigations
of the United States Geological Survey, Chapter E1 page 22.

                                       Exhibit 8.4-20
                        TYPES OF LOGS, DESCRIPTIONS, AND USES
    Type of Log
A caliper produces a record of the
average diameter of drill hole.
       Primary Utilization
Used for correction of other
logs, identification of lithology
changes, and locations of
fractures and other openings in
This log measures the resistance
of the earth material lying between
an in-hole electrode and a surface
Used to determine stratigraphic
boundaries, changes in
lithology, and the identification
of fractures in resistive rock
Potential (SP)
SP is a graphic plot of the small
differences in voltage that develop
between the borehole fluid and
the surrounding formation.
Used for geologic correlation,
determination of bed thickness,
and separation of nonporous
from porous rocks in
shale-sandstone and
shale-carbonate sequences
Natural Gamma
This log measures natural gamma
radiation emitted from potassium
40, uranium, and thorium decay
series elements.
Used for lithology identification
and stratigraphy correlation;
most advantageous in detrital
sediment environments where
the fine-grained units have the
highest gamma intensity
Gamma photons are induced in
the borehole environments, and
the absorption and scattering are
measured to evaluate the medium
through which they travel.
Used for identification of
lithology, measurements of bulk
density, and porosity of rocks

                                        Exhibit 8.4-20
    Type of Log
Neutrons are introduced into the
borehole, and the loss of energy
is measured from elastic collision
with hydrogen atoms.
       Primary Utilization
Used to measure the moisture
content above the water table
and the total porosity below the
water table
Fluid Conductivity
Acoustic (sonic)
A temperature log is the
continuous record of the thermal
gradient of the borehole fluid.

This log provides a measurement
of the conductivity of the in-hole
fluid between the electrodes.
A transmitter and a receiver or
series of receivers that use
various acoustic frequencies.
These signals are introduced into
the borehole, and the elastic
waves are measured.
Used to determine seasonal
recharge to a groundwater

Used primarily in conjunction
with electric logs to aid in their
interpretation; useful for
identifying saltwater intrusion
into freshwater systems; can be
useful in evaluating water quality

Used to measure porosity and
identify fractures in igneous and
metamorphic rock.

   There are many combinations of logging functions.  The reader should refer  to  Exhibit 8.4-12
(D'Apollonia, 1980) for more information on logging functions.  Generally, several borehole techniques are
performed simultaneously or in a series to define any one of the geologic or hydrologic parameters.    Interferences / Anomalies

   Electrical:  Both SP and resistance  logs are susceptible to the same types of interference.  Buried
cables, pipelines, magnetic storms, and the flow of groundwater can all cause anomalous readings. The
most common noise in the SP logs is known as the battery effect and is caused by the  polarization of the
wetted cable. This condition is most troublesome in highly resistive surface formations. A common inter-
ference with the resistance log is the result of ground currents from powerlines and other electrical sources
that interfere with the alternating current used in logging. This interference appears as a sine wave super-
imposed on the resistance curve.

   Some common equipment problems with electric logs are presented in Exhibit 8.4-21.

   Nuclear:  The most common problems with nuclear logs  are that they are all affected by borehole
diameter changes and changes in borehole media (air, water, mud). These problems are why caliper logs
are essential to correlate the results. A natural gamma log is the sum of the radiation emitted from the for-
mation and does not distinguish between elements (i.e., potassium,  uranium, thorium).  In quantitative ap-
plications of  nuclear logs, the calibration, standardization, and correction for dead time  are essential.
However, when the logs are used for qualitative interpretations (e.g., stratigraphic correlation), such correc-
tions may be unnecessary.

   Mechanical:   Caliper logging is a straightforward mechanical technique and exhibits few anomalies.
Instrumental malfunctions are more likely to cause anomalous readings than borehole parameters.

   Impeller flow anomalies are most often caused by varying the probe position radially in the borehole.
Bouncing of the probe from  side to side will  erroneously indicate flow.  Corrective action may include a
device that would hold the sonde in the middle of the borehole.

   Temperature logs are susceptible to thermal lag time, self-heating,  drift from the  electronics  in the
sonde, and borehole conditions.  A slow logging speed and additional logging functions (i.e., caliper, fluid
conductivity) can aid in temperature log interpretation.  Another problem with temperature logs is that after
one pass of the sonde, the thermal gradient  is disturbed and repeat logs may not be  representative. In
large diameter wells, convection can cause a disturbance of the thermal gradient.

   Disturbances to the borehole fluid caused  by changes in  fluid density and thermal convection  can
cause an erroneous log.  Since fluid conductivity response is affected by the water chemistry,  chemical
equilibrium must be reached before measurements are taken. Well water may take  months to obtain
chemical equilibrium with the surrounding formation after drilling, and water wells with much internal move-
ment may never reach chemical equilibrium. Repeat logs are not usually representative because the sonde
disturbs the water column.

   Cycle skipping is the most obvious unwanted signal in acoustic logging. It is caused by excessive sig-
nal attenuation in the fluid or by equipment malfunction. A problem with interpreting acoustic logs  is that
the velocity is dependent on a variety of lithologic factors, and the widely used time-average equation does
not account for most of the factors.

                                      Exhibit 8.4-21
            SINGLE POINT
                    Drift Eliminator
                     not operating
                                     Different logs on the
                                    same recorder amplifier
                                     Pan drive sticking or
                                    amplifier gain lee low
          Simultaneous logs
         Regular noise due to
            60-cycle AC
                                       Simultaneous logs
                                    Intermittent noise probably
                                   caused by drilling equipment
                                         of the well
 SOURCE: Techniques of Water Resources Investigations
 of the United States Geological Survey, Chapter E1, page 23.

                                    APPENDIX 8.4A

    The conductivity value resulting from an electromagnetic (EM) instrument is a composite; it represents
the combined effects of the thickness of soil or rock layers, their depths, and the specific conductivities of
the materials. The instrument reading represents a combination of these effects, extending from the sur-
face to the depth range of the instrument.  The resulting values are influenced more strongly by shallow
materials than by deeper layers, and this influence must be taken into consideration when interpreting the
data.  Conductivity conditions from the surface to the instrument's nominal depth range contribute general-
ly 75 percent of the instrument's response.  However, contributions from highly conductive materials lying
at greater depths may have a significant effect on the reading.

    EM instruments are calibrated to read subsurface conductivity in millimhos per meter (mm/m). These
units are related to resistivity units in the following manner:

       1,000/(millimhos/meter) = 1  ohmmeter
       1,000/(millimhos/meter) = 3.28 ohmfeet

    The advantage of using millimhos/meter is that the common range of resistivities from 1 to 1,000
ohmmeters is covered by the range of conductivities from 1,000 to 1 millimhos/meter.

    Most soil and rock minerals,  when dry, have very low conductivities (Exhibit 8.4A-1).  On rare oc-
casions, conductive minerals like magnetite, graphite, and pyrite occur in sufficient concentrations to great-
ly increase natural subsurface conductivity.  Most often, conductivity is overwhelmingly influenced by water
content and by the following soil / rock parameters:

    •  The porosity and permeability of the material

    •  The extent to which the pore space is saturated

    •  The concentration of dissolved electrolytes and colloids in the pore fluids

    •  The temperature and phase state (i.e., liquid or ice) of the pore water

    A specific conductivity value cannot be assigned to a particular material, because the interrelationships
of soil or rock composition, structure,  and pore fluids are  highly variable.

    In areas surrounding  hazardous  waste  sites,  contaminants may  escape into  the soil and  the
groundwater system. In many cases, these fluids contribute large amounts of electrolytes and colloids to
both the unsaturated and saturated zones.  In either case, the ground conductivity may be greatly affected,
sometimes increasing by one  to three orders of magnitude above background values.  However, if the
natural variations in subsurface conductivity are very low, contaminant plumes of only 10 to 20 percent
above background may be mapped.

    In the case of spills involving heavy nonpolar, organic fluids such as diesel oil, the normal soil moisture
may be displaced, or a sizeable pool of oil may develop at the water table. In these cases, subsurface con-
ductivities may decrease, causing a negative EM anomaly.

                                        Exhibit 8.4A-1
                            CONDUCTIVITY (MILLIMHOS / METER)
                                                   Conductivity (millimhos / meter)
     Clay and Marl
     Top Soil
     Clayey Soils
     Sandy Soils
     Loose Sands
     River Sand and Gravel
     Glacial Till
     Crystalline Rocks
                                       103     102      101       1       10"
D'2      10'3
SOURCE: Benson (1983). (Range of electrical conductivities in natural soil and rock, modified after Culley et al.;


   The following list of sources has been categorized into specific groups for easy use.  A partial list of
equipment manufacturers follows the references:

Electromagnetic (EM) Theory and Interpretation


    Grant, F.S., and G.F. West. Interpretation Ttieory in Applied Geophysics. McGraw Hill Book Company.

    Griffiths, D.H., and R.F. King. Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers.  Pergamon Press.  1981.

    Parasins, D.S. Principles of Applied Geophysics  (3rd edition).  Chapman and Hall Publishers.  1979.

    Telford, W.M., L.P. Geldard, R.E. Sheriff, and D.A. Keys. Applied Geophysics.  Cambridge University

    Wait, J.R. Geo-Electromagnetism. Academic Press.  1982.


    Hanneson, J.E., and G.F. West.  "The Horizontal Loop Electromagnetic Response of a This Plate in a
Conductive Earth: Part I and II." Geophysics, Vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 411-432.

    McNeill, J.D.  "Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rock." Technical Note #5.  Mississauga, Canada:
Geonics Limited.  1980.

    McNeill, J.D.  "Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurement at Low Industion Numbers." Techni-
cal Note #6. Mississauga, Canada: Geonics Limited.  1980.

    McNeill, J.D.   "Interpretative Aids for Use with Electromagnetic (Non Contacting)  Ground Resistivity
Mapping." Paper presented at European Association  of Exploration Geophysicists Annual  Meeting. Ham-
burg, Germany.  1979.

    Wait, J.R. "A Note on the Electromagnetic Response of a Stratified Earth."  Geophysics, Vol. 21, pp.

EM General Manuals

    Benson, R.C., R.A. Glaccum, and M.F. Noel. "Geophysical Techniques for Sensing  Buried Wastes and
Waste Migration." Las Vegas, Nevada:  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental  Monitoring
Systems Laboratory. 1983.

EM Case Histories and Examples


Fox, R.L, and D.A. Gould. "Delineation of Subsurface Contamination Using Multiple Surface Geophysical
Methods."  Presented at  the NWWA Eastern Regional Groundwater Conference (Technology Division).
Newton, Massachusetts. 1984.

   Glaccum,  R.A., R.C. Benson, and M.R. Noel.  "Improving Accuracy and Cost-Effectiveness of Hazar-
dous Waste Site Investigations.  Ground Water Monitoring Review.  Summer 1982.

   McNeill, J.D. "Electromagnetic Resistivity Mapping of Contaminant Plumes."  Presented at the National
Conference on  Management of  Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites-contact HMCRI.   Silver Spring,

   Rudy, R. J., and J.A. Caoile.  "Utilization of Shallow Geophysical Sensing at Two Abandoned Municipal/
Industrial Waste Landfills on the  Missouri River Floodplain."  Ground Water Monitoring Review.  Fall issue,

   Slaine,  D.D., and J.P. Greenhouse.  "Case Studies of Geophysical Contaminant  Mapping at Several
Waste Disposal Sites."  Presented at the NWWA Second National Symposium on Aquifer Restoration and
Ground Water Monitoring. Columbus, Ohio.  1982.

   Steward, M.T. "Evaluation of Electromagnetic Methods for Rapid Mapping of Salt-Water Interfaces in
Coastal Aquifers." Ground Water, Vol. 20. September-October 1982.


       Aerodat Limited
       3883 Nashua Drive
       Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1R3
       416/671-2446 (airborne EM systems)

       Crone Geophysics Limited
       3607 Wolfedale Road
       Mississauga, Ontario L5C 1V8
       416/270-0096 (surface EM systems)

       Geonics Limited
       1745 Meyerside Drive
       Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1C5
       416/676-9580 (borehole and surface EM systems)

       Phoenix Geophysics Limited
       200 Yorkland Boulevard
       Willowdale, Ontario M2J1R5
       416/493-6350  (surface EM systems)

       222 Snidercroft Road
       Concord, Ontario L4K 1B5
       416/669-2280  (surface EM systems)

                                    APPENDIX 8.4B

    The ability to conduct (or resist) current is dependent on the nature of the material to which the current
is applied.  Geologic materials, such as clays or iron-rich saturated sands, are generally quite conductive
but are poor resistors, while organic-rich soils and granite bedrock are typically poor conductors and good
resistors. The electrical resistivities in naturally occurring materials run a range of magnitudes whose ex-
treme values differ by almost a factor of 10 to the 20th power (Grant and West).  Exhibit 8.4B-1  gives some
examples of how water content and geologic  material can affect resistivity.

    Although  ER instrumentation is variable  in design and operation, the basic principles are constant.
Electrical resistivity has as its foundation Ohm's Law, which states that the electrical potential between two
points is defined by the supplied current multiplied  by the circuit resistance.  Mathematically,  Ohm's Law
could be represented as follows:

                                       E = IR

In the above equation,

       E      =      potential of the circuit (volts)
       /       =      current (amperes)
       R      =      the measured resistance (ohms), the desired parameter.

    In practice, current (/) is  introduced to  the  ground by conduction through (generally) two current
electrodes. Generally, two potential electrodes (ฃ) are put a set distance from the current electrodes, and
the potential drop in current is measured.  From this relationship, resistivity is calculated (Exhibit 8.4B-2).
To supply the electrical current, a power source such as batteries or a generator can be used, but for most
work done at hazardous waste sites, a DC battery supply will suffice.


    The following list of sources has been categorized into specific groups for easy use and includes a par-
tial list of equipment manufacturers.

Electrical Resistivity (ER) Theory and Interpretation


    Griffith, D.H., and R.F. King. Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. Pergamon Press. 1981.

    Grant, F.S., and F.G. West. Interpretation  Tlieory in Applied Geophysics. McGraw-Hill.  1965.

    Telford, W.M., et al. Applied Geophysics. Cambridge University Press.  1976.

                                      Exhibit 8.4B-1
       Rock Type


Coarse Grain Sandstone

Coarse Grain Sandstone

Graywacke Sandstone

Graywacke Sandstone












Sea Water
Groundwater (bedrock)
Groundwater (overburden)
Water Content

(percent HgO)
















Typical Resistivity


    1.5 x104

    5.6 x108

    9.6 X105


    4.7 x103

    5.8 x104

    5.3 X103




    4.4 X103



    1.3 X108


    5.6 X107
                                      10 - 800
Based on W.M. Telford, et al. Applied Geophysics. 1976.

                 Exhibit 8.4B-2
                            CURRENT LINES



    Zohdy, A.A.R.  "Automatic Interpretation of Schlumberger Sounding Curves Using Modified Dar Zar-
rovk Functions." U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1313E. Washington, D.C.  1975.

ER General Manuals

    Benson, R.D., R.S. Glaccum, and M.R. Noel.  Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste
Migration.  Prepared byTechnos, Incorporated, for the US. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory.
Las Vegas, Nevada. 1983.

    Costeilo, R.L. Identification and Description of Geophysical Techniques.  Prepared  by D'Appolonia for
U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. 1980.

    Greenhouse, J.P.  Surface Geophysics in Contaminant Hydrogeology.  Manual for the Hydrology Field
School through the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 1982.

    Peffer, J.R., and P.G. Robelen. Affordable:  Overburden Mapping Using New Geophysical Techniques. Pit
and Quarry. August 1983.

    Technos, Incorporated. Application Guidelines for Selected Contemporary Techniques for Subsurface Inves-
tigations.  (No publication date given.)

ER Case Histories and Examples


    Bradbury, K.R., and R.W. Taylor.  "Determination of the  Hydrologic Properties  of Lakebeds Using
Offshore Geophysical Surveys." Ground Water, Vol. 22, No. 6. 1984.

    Evans, R.B., and G.E. Schweitzer.  "Assessing Hazardous Waste Problems."  Environmental Science
Technology, Vol. 18, No. 11.  1984.

    Pennington, D.   "Selection of Proper Resistivity Techniques  and  Equipment for  Evaluation of
Groundwater Contamination." Presented at the NWWA Conference on Surface and Borehole Geophysical
Methods in Groundwater Investigation. Fort Worth, Texas. February 1985.

    Ringstad,  C.A., and D.C. Bugenig.  "Electrical Resistivity Studies to Delimit Zones of Acceptable
Ground Water Quality." Ground Water Monitoring Review. Fall 1984.

    Underwood, J.W., K.J. Laudon, and T.S. Laudon.  "Seismic and Resistivity Investigations near Norway,
Michigan." Ground Water Monitoring Review.  Fall 1984.

       ABEM-Atlas Copco
       Distributed by Geotronics Corp.
       10317 McKalla Place
       Austin, Texas 78758

       Bison Instruments, Inc.
       5708 West 36th Street
       Minneapolis, Minnesota 55416

       Distributed by EDA Instruments
       5151 Ward Road
       Wheat Ridge, Colorado 80033

       Phoenix Geophysics Limited
       200 Yorkland Boulevard
       Willowdale, Ontario  M2J 1R5

       Scintrex Limited
       222 Snidercroft Road
       Concord (Toronto), Ontario  L4K1B5

                                    APPENDIX 8.4C




    Compressional waves (F-waves), shear waves fi waves), and surface waves are generated by a seis-
mic disturbance such as a chemical explosion or weight drop; these waves propagate through the earth at
seismic velocities determined by the physical properties of the subsurface material through which they
travel (Exhibits 8.4C-1 and 8.4C-2).  Particle motion associated with P-waves occurs in the direction of
wave propagation as a series of compressions and refractions. The f-wave velocity diminishes markedly
when the /"-wave encounters water bearing strata. Layer density can be empirically deduced from the  ob-
served P-wave velocity by using the Nafe-Drake relation (Exhibit 8.4C 3).

    Particle motion associated with 5-waves occurs  in a plane  perpendicular to the direction of wave
propagation.  5 waves travel at slower seismic velocities than P-waves, S waves always arrive  at surface
receivers after P-waves, and S-waves will not travel through fluids.

    Surface waves are known as guided waves because they travel along a free surface  of discontinuity
within the earth. Particle motion and seismic velocity for these waves depend on the type of surface waves
generated, but they all travel at lower velocities than either P- or 5-waves. Whenever a P- or 5-wave strikes
an interface at an oblique angle, both reflected and refracted P- and 5-waves are generated, serving to  fur-
ther complicate the identification of later arriving phases.

    Shallow refraction surveys conducted in hazardous waste site investigations are run at high amplifier
gain settings to record accurate arrival times of the first-arriving /"-waves or the "first breaks." No effort is
made to correlate arrival times of later-arriving phases.

    .P-waves travel along ray paths that are determined by  Fermat's Principle, Huygen's Principle, and
Snell's Law. P waves arrive at receivers with seismic wave amplitudes that are determined by the geometri-
cal rate of spreading of the wave  and the attenuation of the spectral components of the  wave form as a
result of the imperfect elasticity of earth materials.  The direct ray travels directly from source to receiver
through the uppermost subsurface layer (layer 1 in Exhibit 8.4C-4) at P-wave velocity VQ. The total time
taken by this ray to travel through layer 1 is given by :
                                      tdir  = X/Vo
    where .Y is the shot-to-receiver distance.

    This equation describes straight line segment 1 of the travel-time curve in Exhibit 8.4C-4, which  has
slope 1/Fo and passes through the origin.

    When a P-wave encounters a boundary between two layers of different seismic velocities, part of the
original wave energy is reflected back into the underlying layer at an angle of reflection ir that is equal to

                        Exhibit 8.4C-1
                    AND SHEAR WAVES
Velocity (km/sec)



Weathered layer
Sand and gravel
Sand and gravel
U.S. midconlinem
and Gulf Coast
Argillaceous. Texas
Argillaceous. Texas
Oolomitic. Pcnn.
Cement rock. Pcnn.
Crystalline. Texas.
N.M.. Okla.
Dense. U.S.S.R.
Sail, cornallitc. sylvite
Caprock, salt.
anhydrite, gypsum.
midcontinent and
Gulf Coast
Chalk. U.S.,
Germany, France,
Austin. Texas
Slate. Mass.
Hornfels slate
Magnetite ore


Wei clay. U.S.S.R.

argillaceous clay






























Velocity (1000 ft/sec)




1.4 1-3.41

7.87-12. 80





















3.51 SV
3.71 SH






Near surface
2000 m depth

Above water
llelnu water


Depth range
0.3-3.6 km
0.3-2.1 km


II to bedding
I to bedding

1 bedding
II to bedding

W/V.S =
46 samples
Average of 46

V,./VS ~

V,./V\ ~

Smircc. These values have been selected from the compilation by Frank Press in the
Htinilhiiiik of Phy.Mt nl Ctปu,iuin\. rev. ed.. Memoir 97, and are printed with permission
of the Geological Society of America. Copyright (0 1966.

                                  Exhibit 8.4C-2

                                IN NEW ENGLAND
                             P-wav* velocity

10" ft/sec
Vtry loose unsaturated
silts, humus and fill.
Loose unsaturated coarse
gravel and ground moraine
Compact* dense glacial
Compact saturated
fluHogladal deposits.
Very dense glacial till.
Highly weathered, highly
                                                     fractured with  high

                     2.44-3.66        8.0-12.0      Slightly to moderately

                     3.66-3.96       12  .0-13.0      Unweathered massive
 * Bedrock velocities in the range of  5,000 to 8,000 ft/sec  may be
   highly fractured  and be indicative  of  layers of extensive ground-
   water flow.
""URGE: These values were compiled by iheWeston Geophysical

0" potation and listed in the Seismic Refraction Study of the

Tinkhams site in Londonderry N.H.

         10 r
                             Exhibit 8.4C-3

                          NAFE-DRAKE CURVE
                           2'              3

                            Density (g/cmj)
RCt: R fc Shftt••ป! 0984.

the angle of incidence i. The remainder of this energy is refracted into the underlying layer at an angle of
refraction jr.

    When a P-wave strikes an interface between two layers at an angle i =  ic so that sin ic = Fi/F? and
it =  90, a pulse of small amplitude is generated in the overlying layer.  This pulse Is called the "head wave"
and travels along the upper boundary of the underlying layer.  The angle /c is the critical angle of refraction,
and seismic rays striking the interface as angles of incidence greater than ic are totally reflected  back into
the overlying layer.  The greater the velocity contract between the two  layers, the greater the proportion of
incident wave energy returned to the surface in the form of the reflected ray and the smaller the amplitude
of the head wave.

    Time-distance or travel-time curves are constructed from seismic data  by plotting the source-to-
receiver travel time against the source to receiver distance X. Exhibit 8.4C-4 is the travel-time curve for a
series of horizontal refractors, each of which has a greater seismic velocity than the layer immediately over-
lying it.

                      X             2Zi (FiVo2)1^      _     X

                      Fi                  FrjFi            ~     Fi

    In Exhibit 8.4C-4 the total time taken by the head wave to propagate through layers 1 and 2 is given by
the following equation:
                          til  FoFi

    This equation describes straight line segment 2 of the travel-time curve, which has slope MV\ and time
 intercept t\\. The thickness of layer 1 is given by the equation below:
    This is also the depth to layer 2.
       Fp             V\                   FiFo
    Straight line segments 1 and 2 intersect at point Xc, tc', therefore,
                              ^ FI +  FO

              Exhibit 8.4C-4

   This equation uses the critical distance Xc to determine the thickness of layer 1.

   The travel-time curve changes significantly for dipping refractors, and the above travel-time depth rela-
tions are no longer valid. Reversed seismic profiles yield travel-time curves that reveal dipping refractors.
Exhibit 8.4C-5 represents the cross section throuqh a dipping refractor and the reversed travel-time curve
associated with it.

    The dip angle 6 and critical angle jc can be computed from velocities measured from straight line seg-
ments of the reversed travel-time curve.
      (A)    Zd
    The down-dip and up-dip intercept times can then be measured to calculate the down-dip and up-dip
      (B)     Zu

thickness of the dipping layer:

    When the dip angle is very small, equations (A) and (B) can be approximated by letting cos of zc
equal 1.

    Lateral variations in refractor velocity are manifested in reversed travel-time curves, and examples of
some of these situations are illustrated in Exhibit 8.4C-6.
Seismic Reflection
    Refraction time-distance curves for the case of three velocity discontinuities is illustrated  in Exhibit
8.4C-7, along with the related set of reflection time-distance curves. The segment of the time-distance
curve for rays that are reflected from the bottom of layer V approaches the straight-line segment of the
time-distance curve for rays that are critically refracted from the top of this layer asymptotically at large
shot-receiver distances.  This similarity is because the ray paths traveled by these rays become identical at

                               Exhibit 8.4C-5
                        FOR A DIPPING REFRACTOR
SOURCE: Telfordetai.(1976).
                                                            Best available copy

                             Exhibit 8.4C-6
                                     A	\
         Some mamples of simple laierally discontinuous structures and schematic
reversed refraction travel-time graphs that would be associated with them, (a) A lateral
velocity change. The l-x graph is unchanged for any dip of the boundary so long as the
higher velocity material overlies the lower (hi If tj -  l\, brunches of apparent velocities
                      Exhibit 8.4C-7
                 FOR A FOUR-LAYER CASE
                           tOO  m/r
A.  Direct ray through layer 1.
B.  Reflections from bottom of layer 1.
C.  Wide-angle reflections from bottom of layer 1.
D.  Refracted rays from layer 2.
E.  Reflections from bottom of layer 2.
F.  Wide-angle reflections from  bottom of layer 2.
0.  Refracted rays from layer 3.
H.  Reflections from bottom of  layer 3.
I.  Wide-angle reflections fron hotton of layer 3.
J. Refracted rays from layer 4.
K.. L., M., Critical distances for layers 1. 2  and 3.
                                                    Best available copy

these distances. The straight-line segment of the time-distance curve for rays critically refracted from the
top of the underlying n +  1 is tangential to the curve for rays reflected from layer n.

    At the critical distance Xcr, travel times for rays reflected from the bottom of layer n equal the travel
time for rays critically refracted from the top of the underlying layer n + 1.  At this distance, rays reflected
from the bottom of layer n are reflected at the critical angle.  The critical distance for the existence of head
waves from a layer is given by the following equation:

      Xcr     =        2 Zn  taiu'c

    At distances less than Xn, no head waves exist from the top of the underlying layer n +  1.  At distan-
ces greater than Xct the head wave from the underlying layer exists and arrives at surface receivers ahead
of the ray received at distances  greater than XCi,  which are referred to as "wide  angle reflections."
Reflected rays from the bottom  of layer n undergo a large increase in amplitude nearer for that layer be-
cause of the constructive interference of the head wave refracted from the top of the underlying layer with
the reflected ray. Other large increases  in the amplitude of the reflected ray occur at crossover points for
wide-angle reflections where two or more wide-angle reflections constructively interfere.

    In this method, the source-to-receiver travel time of reflection events are squared and plotted against
the square of the  source-to-receiver distance.  Velocity is obtained from the square root of the inverse
slope of the straight line segment.  The depth to the reflecting layer is obtained from the velocity and time


    Backus, M.M.  "Water Reverberations: Their Nature and Elimination." Geophysics, Vol. 24, pp. 233-261.

    Campbell, F.F.  "Fault Criteria." Geophysics, Vol. 30, pp. 348-361.  1965.

    Carmichael, R.S.  Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks. Vol.2. Boca Raton, Florida:  CRC Press.

    Costello, R.L  Identification and Description of Geophysical Techniques.   D'Appolonia Consulting En-
gineers, Phase I Report. 1980.

    Dobrin, M.B. Introduction to Geophysics Prospecting. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1960.  446pp.

    Dix, C.H. "Seismic Velocities from Surface Measurements." Geophysics, Vol. 20, pp. 68-86. 1955.

    Faust, L.Y. "Seismic Velocity as a Function of Depth and Geologic Time." Geophysics, Vol. 16, pp. 192-
206. 1951.

    Garland, G.D., and R.F. King. Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. Pergamon Press.

    Hagerhorn, J.G. "A Process of Seismic Reflection Interpretation."  Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 2, pp.
85-127.  1954.

    Howell, B.F. Introduction to Geophysics. New York: McGrawHill.  1959.

    Hunter, J.A., R.A. Burns, R.L Good, HA MacAulay, and P.M. Gagne. "Optimum Field Techniques for
Bedrock Reflection  Mapping with the Multi-Channel Engineering Seismogram."  Current Research Part B.
Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 82-18, pp. 125-129. 1982.

    Kleyn, A.H. Seismic Reflection Interpretation. Elsevier, New York.  1983. 269pp.

    Kramer, F.S., R.A. Peters,  and W.C. Walter.  Seismic Energy Sources 1968 Handbook.  Bendix United
Geophysical. 1968.

    Musgrave, A.W., and R.H. Bratton.  "Practical Application of Blondeau Weathering Solution in Seismic
Refraction Prospecting." Society of Exploration Geophysics, pp. 132-246. 1967.

    Nettleton, L.L. Geophysical Prospecting for Oil.  New York: McGrawHill. 1940.

    Parasins, D.S. Principles of Applied Geophysics. New York: Wiley and Sons. 1979. 275pp.

    Scheider, W.A., K.L. Larner, J.P. Burg, and M.M. Backus. "A New Data Processing Technique for the
Elimination of Ghost Arrivals on Reflection Seismograms." Geophysics, Vol. 26, pp. 783-805.  1964.

    Steinhart, J.S.,  and R.P. Meyer.  "Minimum Statistical  Uncertainty of the Seismic Refraction Profile."
Geophysics, Vol. 26,  pp. 574-587. 1961.

    Telford, W.M., LP. Geldart, R.E. Sheriff, and D.A. Keys. Application Guidelines Selected Contemporary
Techniques for Subsurface Investigations. Technos, Inc.  Miami, Florida: Cambridge University Press.  1976.

    Treitel, S., and E.A. Robinson.  "Optimum Digital Filters for Signal-to-Noise Enhancement." Geophysical
Prospecting, Vol. 17,  pp. 248-293. 1969,

    Watkins, J.S., LA. Walters, and R.H. Godson.  "Dependence of In Situ Compressional-Wave Velocity
on the Porosity in Unsaturated Rocks."  Geophysics, Vol. 37, pp. 417-430.  1972.

    Wyllie, M.R.J., A.R. Gregory, and LW. Gardiner. "Elastic Wave Velocities in Heterogenous and Porous
Media."  Geophysics, Vol. 21, pp. 41-70.  1956.

    Zohdy, A.A.R., G.P. Eaton, and D.R. Mabey.  "Application of Surface Geophysics to Groundwater Inves-
tigations." Techniques of Water Resources Investigations. USGS Book 2, pp. 1-116. 1974.

                                    APPENDIX 8.4D

Earth's Magnetic Field

    A magnetometer measures the intensity of the earth's magnetic field. The earth's magnetic field, or flux
lines, resemble the lines of a bar magnet, with the magnetic poles being located near the geographic north
and south poles (Exhibit 8.4D-1).  The intensity of the magnetic field varies; at the poles it is approximately
twice that at the equator, or approximately 60,000 and 30,000 gammas, respectively (Exhibit 8.4D-2).

    The inclination of the magnetic field also varies with latitude, being horizontal at the equator and verti-
cal at the poles (Exhibits 8.4D-1 and 8.4D-3). Thus, the intensity of the earth's magnetic  field at a given
study area is dependent on its location.

    At a given location, fluctuations occur in the earth's magnetic field because of effects of the solar wind.
Normal diurnal (daily) variations occur in the magnetic field and may be as large as 100 gammas or more.
Superimposed on any diurnal variations are short-period micropulsations that are more random in be-
havior, are generally smaller in amplitude, and may occur at any time. Micropulsations may have durations
between 0.1  seconds and several tens of minutes with amplitudes from 0.001 gamma to several  tens of
gammas. Magnetic storms, causing rapid variation of several hundred gammas in the magnetic field, may
occur as often as several days per month and have durations from one to several days.

    A recording base station  magnetometer is used to make corrections from  diurnal variations and for
micropulsations, and to identify magnetic storms.  The base station is located in an area where repre-
sentative measurements of the background magnetic field can be obtained on a continuous basis.  A mag-
netometer survey should not  be conducted during a magnetic storm.  The U.S. National  Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has regional observatories that monitor the earth's magnetic field
and can provide information on the occurrence of magnetic storms.

Types of Portable Magnetometers

    Three main types of portable magnetometers are in use:
    •  Proton precession magnetometer

    •  Flux gate magnetometer

    •  Optical-pumping magnetometer
    The proton precession magnetometer consists of a coil wound around a bottle of proton-rich fluid,
such as water or hydrocarbon fluid. Sufficient current is introduced through the coil to induce within the
fluid an external magnetic field about 100 times stronger than the earth's magnetic field. As a result, the
magnetic moment of the protons will cause them to align themselves with the new field. When the external
field is removed, the magnetic moment of the protons returns, by precession, to its original orientation with


                               Exhibit 8.4D-1
                         EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
SOURCE:  8reiner(1973).

                                   Exhibit 8.40-2
                            THE TOTAL INTENSITY OF THE
                             EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD

                               Exhibit 8.40-3
                                                              w*   iao*
SOURCE: Breiner(1973).

the earth's field.  The precessional oscillation will induce a voltage in a second coil wound around the bot-
tle, and the total field strength is determined by measuring the frequency of the induced voltage. Typical
sensitivity for this type of magnetometer is one gamma or better.

    The flux-gate magnetometer is used to measure any desired vector component of the earth's magnetic
field.  This instrument uses a ferromagnetic element of such high susceptibility that the earth's field can in-
duce a magnetization which is a substantial proportion of its saturation value. With a sufficiently large alter-
nating current flowing through a coil around the element, the combined field will saturate the element. For
decreasing strength of the earth's field,  more current  will be required to saturate the element and vice
versa. The place in the energizing cycle at which saturation is reached gives a measure of the earth's field.
In actual practice, two  parallel elements  with oppositely wound coils connected in series are employed.
The magnetic field component that is parallel to the elements will reinforce the field created by one coil and
oppose the field of the  other.  Typical sensitivity for this type of magnetometer is 10 gammas. Some flux-
gate magnetometers provide continuous readings as well as spot readings.

    The optical-pumping magnetometer is based on quantum theory. In the absence of a magnetic field,
the valence electron of  an alkali-metal atom (such as rubidium or cesium) has two states: Level A (the nor-
mal level) and Level B (the excited level).  In the presence of a magnetic field,  Level A splits into two sub-
levels, A1 and A2.  The energy difference between these  levels is in the radio frequency range and is
proportional to the strength of the magnetic field.  By irradiating a gaseous sample of the metal with light
from which spectral line A2B has been removed, electrons in Sublevel A2 will not be excited. When the ex-
cited electrons fall back to the ground state, they may  return to either sublevel, but if they fall to Sublevel
A1, they can be removed by excitation to Level B again. The result is an accumulation of electrons in Sub-
level A2,  and the gaseous sample becomes transparent to the irradiating light beam.  This technique of
overpopulating  one energy level  is known as optical pumping.  To determine the energy difference be-
tween A1 and A2 and, hence, the strength of the magnetic field, radio waves of continually varying frequen-
cy are passed through the sample until  electrons start moving from A2 to A1 and the optical pumping
process  is reinitiated.   The resumption of optical pumping is indicated by a sharp  drop  in sample
transparency. The energy difference between A1 and A2 can be determined by measuring the correspond-
ing frequency of the radio waves.  The optical-pumping  magnetometer measures total magnetic field
strength with a typical sensitivity of 0.01 gamma.

Base Station

    Base stations are one method used to remove diurnal variations from the data.  Other  methods involve
the use of tie-lines.  If a  base station is used, it should be located in an area free of magnetic anomalies and
away from roads, buildings, or other areas where cars may pass or electrical disturbances may occur. The
base station location may be screened  by taking vertical gradient readings in the  area.  The vertical
gradient at the base station location should be near zero.  It is best to have a separate base station  mag-
netometer that  will  record total  field measurements continuously  throughout the field survey.   Many
manufacturers of field and  base station magnetometer systems allow for automatic correction for temporal
variations in the magnetic field. For automatic recording base stations, a reading interval of 30 seconds to
2 minutes is recommended. If only one magnetometer is  available, readings should be obtained at the
base station location periodically (i.e.,  every one-half hour) throughout the field survey.

Correction of Diurnal Variations

    Corrections for diurnal  variations are made by plotting base station readings on a time-versus-total-field
graph (Exhibit 8.4D-4); total-field values for times  in  between actual readings are  interpolated.  A datum
value for total field is chosen, and the  differences (AT) between the base station total-field reading and the

                              Exhibit 8.4D-4
                                      mexoimtom MO wO4ouTNtiM IATITVMU
               c) TYPICAL MAGNETIC  STORM
SOURCE: Breiner (1973).

datum value can be determined for any time during the survey.  The corrected total-field reading for the
survey data is obtained by adding ATto the total-field reading.

Depth Estimates from Total Field

    The width of a magnetic anomaly is proportional to the depth (or distance) of the source from the mag-
netometer sensor; the deeper the source, the broader the anomaly (Exhibit 8.4D-5).  This relationship is of
primary importance in interpreting the results of a magnetic survey. The proportion between the width of
an anomaly and the depth of the source is  a function of the fall-off rate, or the variation of anomaly
amplitude with  distance(d).  For a dipole, the total-field anomaly amplitude varies as l/d3,  and for a
monopole as l/d2. In actual practice, source orientation and other factors may result in fall-off rates from
l/d to l/d3. The shape of the magnetic  profile of an anomaly and knowledge of the source object help in
selecting the proper fall-off rate for depth estimation. A range of depths determined from several fall-off
rates may be the most appropriate way to present depth estimates.  In general, the anomaly width is on the
order of one to three times the depth of the source.  Thus, for an anomaly with  a width of 100 feet, the
source probably lies between 30 and 100 feet deep (or distant). Several methods,  including the half- width
rule and the slope technique, can be used to estimate source depths from total field profiles.

Half-Width Rule

    The half-width (x\/d of an anomaly on a total field profile is the horizontal distance between the prin-
cipal maximum (or minimum) of the anomaly (assumed to be over the center of the source) and the point
where total field value is exactly one-half of the principal maximum (Exhibit 8.40-6).  A profile that is used
for depth estimation by using the half-width rule should be oriented perpendicular to the long  axis of the
anomaly to give the narrowest profile. This rule is valid only for forms such as spheres, cylinders, and other
simple shapes.  For  example, a single  upright 55-gallon steel drum can be approximated as a vertical
cylinder (monopole) and the depth (d) = 1.3 x\n- A buried trench filled with drums can be approximated
by a horizontal cylinder, where d =  2x\ri.

Slope Techniques

    Depth of the source can be estimated using the slope of the anomaly at the inflection points of the
profile.  The horizontal extent (Xz) of the "straight" portion of the slope is determined as shown in Exhibit
8.4D-7.  The depth is then estimated by the equation,

                          d = KXZ   where  0.5 < K <  1.5
Calculation of Magnetic Moment and Mass

                                 Exhibit 8.4D-5
                      THE EFFECT OF DEPTH ON WIDTH AND
                        AMPLITUDE OF A DIPOLE ANOMALY

10 d
                      Depth/Amplitude Behavior ol Oipole Anomalies
SOURCE: Breiner( 19731

                                      Exhibit 8.40-6
                          Exhibit 8.4D-7
SOURCE: Breiner(1973).
                            NOTE:  Z  - depth

                                       Exhibit 8.4D-8
Magnetic Susceptibility
  (Kx106. CGS Units)
1 Adapted from C.A. Holland, "Geophysical Exploration" (from Costello, 1980).

Depth Estimates from Vertical Gradient

    The vertical gradient is the change in total field over a fixed distance.  The vertical gradient is the
derivative of this equation with respect to distance (d):

      (5)          dTIdd   =    —ฃ-

    Solving equation (1) forM,

      (6)            M     =     Td3

    and substituting equation (6) into equation (5),

                                  -3Td3          -3T
      (7)          dT/dd   =    —4—   =  	
                                    a             d

    Solving equation (7) for depth (or distance) to the source,

    Thus, using equation (8), the depth to the source of a (dipole) anomaly can be determined by knowing
the anomaly intensity (7) above background, and the vertical gradient (dTIdd). For a monopole source,

      (9)             d      =   	

    In equation (5), note that the fall-off rate for vertical gradient is proportional to l/d4 for dipole, whereas
in equation (1), the fall-off rate for total field is proportional to 1/cr.  This difference explains why vertical
gradient measurements provide finer resolution, but less range in detecting anomalies.

    Exhibit 8.4D-8 shows magnetic susceptibilities of rock materials.

                                    APPENDIX 8.4E

                         GROUND PENETRATING RADAR
    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems are similar to electromagnetic (EM) systems in that a source
and a receiver are needed. A radar antenna (source) emits an EM pulse several times a second. These EM
impulses are then directed into the ground in the form of waves. As the waves penetrate deeper through
the geologic material, contrasts in electrical properties are encountered with changes in strata.  These
electrical contrasts (anomalies) cause some of the wave to be reflected back toward the surface, where it is
received by an antenna, while some of the wave continues downward. When enough anomalies have been
encountered, there is very little remaining of the signal (to be reflected); this condition is what is termed the
effective penetration depth.  The time interval between the point when the EM signal is emitted to when it is
reflected and received is dependent on the properties of the material and on the depth at which the signal
is reflected.  The radar impulse travels in water at about 10 percent of the speed of light;  in dry sands it
travels to as much as 50 percent of the speed of light.  Variations in impulse travel speeds are also notice-
able when observing a material in a disturbed versus an undisturbed state (less dense).  Knowledge of site
geology can be used to estimate the properties of the material (and travel time) so that the depth of the tar-
get can  be determined.

    The contrasts in electrical properties are a function of the composition of the materials and moisture
contents.  Generally, good conductors, such as metal drums, reflect the entire radar signal (EM wave), so
there is  no penetration below this point.  Poor conductors (good resistors), such as unsaturated sands, will
generally allow for  a deeper radar signal penetration  than good  conductors such as saturated clays or
saline water.  For examples of natural variations in resistivity (the opposite of conductivity), the  reader
should refer to Exhibit 8.4E-1. One possible way to increase penetration is to use a transmitter antenna of
lower frequency. The effect of frequency changes upon penetration is an inverse square relationship. As
the frequency is doubled, penetration is reduced to one-quarter (but resolution increases).

    Typical GPR antennae  range in frequency from 10 megahertz (MHz) to  1,000 MHz, with 300  to 600
MHz being considered as standard.  The lower the frequency, the larger the antenna, so that some lower-
frequency antennae are commonly towed by vehicles, while the higher-frequency  ones can  be towed by
a technician.  While lower-frequency antennae permit deeper penetration, they lack the resolution of the
higher-frequency antennae.  Typical penetration in stratified saturated sands for the 300 MHz antenna is
perhaps 50 feet, and for the 600 MHz antenna it is perhaps 25 feet. These depth penetration estimates are
for guidance and should be used only for that purpose.

    GPR equipment does not sense just straight below the antenna; instead, it senses forward, backward,
and to the sides at various angles.  For this reason,  some objects can  be detected without having the
equipment pass directly overhead.

                                     Exhibit 8.4E-1

Rock Type
Coarse Grain Sandstone
Coarse Grain Sandstone
Graywacke Sandstone
Graywacke Sandstone
Water Content
(percent HgO)

1.5 x104
5.6 x108
9.6 x105
4.7 X103
5.8 x104
5.3 x103
4.4 x103
5.6 X107

Sea Water
Groundwater (bedrock)
Groundwater (overburden)
Based on W.M. Telford, et al. Applied Geophysics. 1976.
NOTE:  Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity.


    The following list of sources has been categorized into specific groups for easy use.

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)


    Uriksen, P.F. Application of Impulse Radar to Civil Engineering. Distributed by Geophysical Survey Sys-
tems, Inc. Hudson, New Hampshire. 1982.


    Morey, P.M.  "Continuous Subsurface Profiling by Impulses Radar."  Presented at the ASCE Con-
ference-Engineering Foun dation Conference on Subsurface Exploration for Underground Excavation and
Heavy Construction. 1974.

    Wright, D.L, G.R. Olhoeft, and R.D. Watts. "Ground- Penetrating Radar Studies on Cape Cod." Denver
Federal Center, Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey.  1983.

GPR General Manuals

    Benson, R.C., R.A. Glaccum, and M.R. Noel. Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and Waste
Migration. Prepared by  Technos,  Inc., for the U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, Environmental
Monitoring Systems Laboratory.  Las Vegas, Nevada. 1983.

    Costello, R.L. Identification and Description of Geophysical Techniques.  Prepared by D'Apollonia for U.S.
Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. 1980.


    Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. 15 Flagstone Drive Hudson, New Hampshire 03051

                                   APPENDIX 8.4F

                             BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS
Borehole Theory and Interpretation

    Costello, R.L. Identification and Description of Geophysical Techniques.  Prepared by D'Apollonia for the
U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. 1980.

    Dresser Industries. Log Interpretation Fundamentals. Houston, Texas. 1975.  125pp.

    Keys, W.S., and LM. MacCary. "Application of Borehole Geophysics to Water-Resources Investiga-
tions." Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey.  Chapter El, Book 2.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.  1971.

    Pirson, S.J. Handbook of Well Log Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.  1963.

    Sammel, E.A.  "Convective  Flow and Its Effect on Temperature Logging in Small-Diameter Wells."
Geophysics.  Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 1004-1012.  1968.

    Schlumberger Limited. Log Interpretation.  Vol.1. New York, New York. 1972.

    Schlumberger Limited. Log Interpretation.  Vol.2. New York, New York. 1974.

    Telford, W.M., L.P. Geldart, R.F. Sheriff, and D.A. Keyes. Applied Geophysics. Pp. 774-781. Bingham-
ton, New York: Vail-Ballou Press, Inc. 1980.

    Wheatcraft, S.W., J.W. Hess, and W.M. Adams.  Equipment and Techniques Applicable to Subsurface Sens-
ing and Monitoring at Hazardous Waste Sites. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitor-
ing Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development. Las Vegas, Nevada.

    U.S.  Bureau of Mines.  "Calibration  Models for Geophysical Borehole Logging."  USBM Rl 8148.
Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Department of the Interior.  1976. 21pp.

    U.S.  Geological Survey.   "Application of Electrical and Radioactive Well Logging to Ground Water
Hydrology." Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1544-D. Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Government Printing
Office.  1963. 60pp.

    U.S. Geological Survey.  "Methods of Flow Measurement in Well Bores."  Geological Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1544-C. Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Government Printing Office. 1962. 28pp.

Borehole Logging Instrument Manutacturers

       Comprobe, Inc.
       9632 Crowley Road
       Crowley. Texas 76036

       P.O. Box1936
       Fort Worth, Texas 76101

       Geotronic Corporation
       10317 McKalla Place
       Austin, Texas 78758

       McPhar Geophysics
       55 Tempo Avenue
       Willowdale, Ontario  M2H 2R9

       Mount Soprls Instrument Company
       P.O. Box 449
       Delta, Colorado  81416


8.5.1  Scope and Purpose

    This subsection provides general  information on equipment and  materials used in groundwater
monitoring programs.

8.5.2  Definitions

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for the successful  completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  The  person  is also referred  to as the Site Project  Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

    All other terms in this subsection are in common usage.

 8.5.3 Applicability

    Almost every investigation of hazardous waste sites entails groundwater sampling and monitoring.
 Since each site is different, experienced hydrogeologists and geochemists should be consulted to estab-
 lish the most suitable type of monitoring for a particular site.  Monitoring well placement and sampling re-
 quirements for each site are detailed in a site-specific sampling  plan.  The procedures described below
 have all been used successfully on hazardous waste sites.

 8.5.4  Responsibilities

     The SM is responsible for determining the type and placement of groundwater monitoring networks.
 The SM is assisted by experienced hydrogeologists and geochemists. As discussed earlier in Section 8, an
 experienced hydrogeologist will supervise the installation of monitoring wells.

 8.5.5  Records

     Field notes are kept in a bound, weatherproof logbook.  Entries are made chronologically in indelible
 ink on numbered pages, with the date, time, and notetaker's initials recorded for each entry. Certain forms
 used in groundwater monitoring are discussed in the following subsections and in Sections 3, 4, 5, and 17
 of this compendium.

 8.5.6  Procedures   Water Wells

     Production or traditional wells are often used to obtain samples in ambient groundwater monitoring
 programs. Designed to yield large quantities of turbidity-free water for potable or irrigation supplies, these
 wells generally tap the more permeable portions of an aquifer. They may be screened in unconsolidated

material.  Chemical data obtained from these wells depict the quality of water being delivered to the user
community.  Because water pumped from these wells is often a composite of water from different strata in
the aquifer systems, the presence of relatively narrow or small plumes of polluted water may be masked by
dilution with water obtained from unaffected portions of the aquifer.

    Production or traditional wells should not be used for the more detailed source, case-preparation, and
research types of monitoring.  Such detailed monitoring efforts call for wells designed to determine the
groundwater quality at a given location and depth within the geologic materials being monitored. All avail-
able geologic and hydrologic information for the site of interest should be reviewed prior to the selection of
preliminary locations and depths for monitoring wells. The  potential paths of pollutant movement from the
site should be estimated, and wells should be placed to define contaminant plumes.  Information gained
during the drilling process should be used to modify the monitoring plan to make it more effective.    Monitoring Well Components

    The principal reason that monitoring wells are constructed is to  collect groundwater samples that,
upon analysis, can be used to delineate a contaminant plume and track movement of specific chemical or
biological constituents.  A secondary consideration is the determination of the physical characteristics of
the groundwater flow system to establish flow direction, transmissivity,  quantity, etc.  The spatial and verti-
cal locations  of monitoring  wells are important.  Of equal importance  are the design and construction of
monitoring wells that will provide easily obtainable samples and yield reliable, defensible, meaningful infor-
mation.  In general, monitoring well design and construction follow production well design and construc-
tion techniques.  However, emphasis is placed on the effect these practices may have on the chemistry of
the water samples being collected rather than on maximizing well efficiency.

    From this emphasis, it follows that an understanding of the chemistry of the  suspected pollutants and
of the geologic setting in which the monitoring wells are constructed plays a major role in determining  the
drilling technique and materials used.

    There are several  components  to be considered in the design of a monitoring well including location,
diameter, depth, casing, screen, sealing material, and well development.   As these components are dis-
cussed in detail, it may be helpful to refer to Exhibit 8.5-1, which portrays two typical well installations: one
for water supply and the other for groundwater quality monitoring.   Well Location

    The location of a monitoring well should be selected on the basis of the purpose of the sampling effort.
This purpose may be to verify predictions  of contaminant migration; to detect contaminants in drinking
water supplies and thus to protect public  health; to activate a contingency plan, such as a program for
leachate collection; to protect the operator; to reassure the public by demonstrating that water quality is
being monitored; or to define a contaminant plume. Each of these purposes will require a somewhat spe-
cialized array of monitoring points  and a somewhat different sampling program as defined by the project
sampling plan. The monitoring system must be designed to suit the purpose(s) in mind.   Well Diameter

    A domestic  water supply well is commonly 4 or 6 inches in diameter to accommodate a submersible
pump capable of delivering 5 to 10 gallons per minute (gpm).  Centrifugal and jet pumps are also used.
 Municipal and industrial supply wells have greater diameters to handle larger pumps for greater pumping
 capacity. As in water supply wells,  the diameter of a monitoring well is largely determined by the size of the
 sampling device or pump.  Pumping one or more well volumes of water from a  large-diameter monitoring
well may present a problem, because large quantities of water must be disposed of or contained. With the


                            Exhibit 8.5-1
                    AND (b) MONITORING WELLS
               Pump Discharge
                       Removable Cap
                      on Well Protector

                                              •' •'. '   Concrete *
                                              4  . •  or Cement
Schedule 80 Pipe -
(4" dia. or greater)
Backfill and/or
Clay Slurry "*"
Sand or — •-
Gravel Pack
Well Screen —
(length: entire
thickness of


•••••'' ' . * .'•••'.
s .' V ' -TILL .' " • .' Pipe
Static >.'.' '•-':•• 's- •" <2" dia->
-Water Level '/'• o '. '*"'"•'/••'.•'
' '•! • .'ซ'/• ••.-.•• \-
'. •' ป ' o ' ' • . • * •
'••:^-.V'':vN-. ••'/-.
vV:-V-:V>.:-:-:--V-:-:-V.^. f
;*.••"..• •; ';•'.'.;•'•;: •..'••.".'.•'•.•. •/ :.ปป: 2-5'


— Water Level
Cement or
••- Bentonite
Sand or
Gravel Pack
-..-T^SAND AND GRAVEL.;-.-- — I— L=^
.'. •; ' I .\ (water-bearing) . .". •?.'••'; • Well Screen
.".*•• .-""••• • • •*• .• •"•
•.'.'•'• • ••' f .' •'.'",.'• ' '• '.'.'..' ..'. •'• (Typically 2" diameter
•A'i'-'1 \. •'•'."•' •/•'•* -.:;':.ป •'••ฐ.";:

a. Water Supply Well
b. Monitoring Well Piezometer

advent of several commercially available small-diameter  pumps (less than 2 inches outside diameter)
capable of lifting water from several hundred feet, it is rarely necessary to construct monitoring wells larger
than 2 inches in diameter. Additionally, the smaller the diameter, the less it will cost for drilling and  con-
struction.  Small diameter wells with corresponding low-volume pumps may be preferable for sampling for
volatile organics, because they create less turbulence and  provide a sample that is more representative of
aquifer conditions.  Monitoring wells in high-transmissivity aquifers may be larger than 2 inches in diameter
if pumping test methods are used to determine aquifer characteristics.  Larger diameter, high-capacity
pumps are needed to conduct pumping tests; these pumps require larger diameter wells.   Well Depth

    The dep'th of each monitoring well is usually determined by the geohydrologic conditions at the site
being monitored.  Most "detective" monitoring wells are completed in the first relatively permeable water-
bearing zone encountered, since potential  pollution sources are frequently at or near ground  surface.
Locating the monitoring well in the first relatively permeable zone, therefore, yields an indication of the
migration of pollutants in most situations.  However, care must  be  taken to ensure that the  well is com-
pleted at a depth sufficient to allow for seasonal water table fluctuations.  Under confined or semi-confined
(leaky) conditions, the water level will rise above the top of the water-bearing zone. In this instance, the
well should be finished in the water-bearing zone and not above it.

    If the water-bearing zone is thick (greater than  10 feet)  or  contamination is known or suspected in
deeper formations, multiple wells completed at different depths should be used.  For sampling at various
depths, some geologists have nested several wells in a  single  borehole.  This  requires  drilling  a large-
diameter hole and exercising special care to ensure that the vertical integrity of the sampling points is main
tained.  It may be more costly to drill separate wells,  but the reduction of potential for cross contamination
often offsets the added expense. Formation samples (cuttings or core) would be taken only during boring
of the deepest well.

    Where multiphase or nonaqueous phase liquids are suspected at a site, multilevel wells within a single
aquifer may also be needed.  For example, if oil or gasoline is the contaminant, monitoring at the top of the
aquifer is needed.  In contrast, sites with "sinking" contaminants, such as trichloroethylene,  may warrant
monitoring at the base of the aquifer.

     Monitoring wells should be constructed so that they are depth discrete (i.e., able to sample from one
specific formation or zone without interconnection to others).  Where  multiple  aquifers  exist, it may be
desirable to set multiple casing strings to ensure isolation  of deeper aquifers from shallow, potentially con-
taminated ones.  This  procedure, called telescoping, is identical to that used in the oil and gas business
and necessitates the setting and cementing of successively smaller diameter casing strings until the target
aquifer is reached.  Care must be taken with each casing string to cement with returns to surface to ensure
 no interconnection  between aquifers. Grout can be placed above and, if necessary, below the intake por-
tion of the well to make it depth-discrete.    Well Design and Construction Materials.

     The type of material used for  monitoring well casing may have a distinct effect on the quality of the
water samples collected.  Galvanized  casing will impart iron,  manganese, zinc, and cadmium  to  many
waters.  Steel casing may impart iron and manganese to the water samples.  Polyvinyl  chloride (PVC) pipe
 has been shown to release and  absorb  trace amounts of various organic constituents to water after
 prolonged exposure.  PVC solvent cements-used to attach sections of PVC pipe have  also been shown to
 release significant quantities of organic compounds. Teflon and glass are among the  most inert materials
 that have been considered for monitoring well construction. Glass, however, is very difficult and expensive
 to use under most  field conditions. Stainless steel has also been found to work satisfactorily under most
 monitoring conditions.  Fiberglass-reinforced plastic has  recently been used at  sites  where organic con-


taminants are present.  This material is not as expensive as stainless steel and does not have as strong a
tendency to sorb or release contaminants as PVC does.  A detailed discussion of materials is presented in
later portions of the text.

    All well screens  should allow free entry of water.  They should also produce clear, silt-free water. This
is especially important with regard to drinking water supplies, because sediment in the raw water can
create additional pumping and treatment costs and can lead to the general unsuitably of the finished
water. Also, in monitoring wells, sediment-laden water can greatly lengthen filtering times and  create
chemical interferences with the collected samples.

    Commercially manufactured well screens generally work best provided the proper slot size is chosen.
In  formations where fine sand,  silt, and  clay predominate, sawed or torch-cut slots will  not  retain  the
material,  and the well may clog. If practical, it may be helpful to have well screens of several slot-sizes
available onsite so that the correct screen can be  placed in the hole after the water-bearing materials have
been  inspected. The use of sawed or torch-cut slotted screens is not recommended; indeed, most EPA
regions do not permit the use  of such  screens.  Customized screens limit the  reproducibility of data.
Gravel-packing materials compatible with the selected screen size and aquifer grain size will further help
retain fine materials and will also allow freer entry of water into the well by creating a zone of higher per-
meability around the well. The backfill material must be free of contaminants.

    Well screen length is an important consideration. The transmissivity of the aquifer will be used to es-
tablish the length of screen. Low yield aquifers may require greater screen  lengths to permit the collection
of adequate sample volumes in a timely manner.  A monitoring program to describe contaminant plume
geometry requires the sampling of discrete intervals of the water-bearing formation.  In this situation,
screen lengths of no more than 5 feet (1.5 m) should be used. Thick aquifers would require completion of
several wells at different depth intervals.  In some  situations, only the first water-bearing zone encountered
will require monitoring.  Here the "aquifer" may be only 6 inches to a few feet (0.2 to 2 m) thick, and the
screen length should be limited to 1 or 2 feet (less than 1 m). In other circumstances where an aquifer with
a  potable water supply is monitored, the entire thickness of  the water-bearing formation should be
screened to provide an integrated water sample  comparable to that found in the drinking water supply.
Monitoring for low-density organic solvents or hydrocarbons that may float on the surface  of the water
creates a special  problem.  In such a case, the screen must be long enough to extend above the water
level  in  the formations so that these lighter substances can enter the  well.  Some companies have
developed  probes or samplers that can be placed in a single borehole to monitor  several zones simul-
taneously.   The units are  limited  to low flow conditions, which necessitates longer sampling times.
However, the low cost of installation of these units (techniques are similar to monitoring well installation)
can be a factor in selecting these devices.

    It is critical that  the screened portion of each monitoring well have access to the groundwater from a
specific depth interval.  Vertical movement of water in the vicinity of the intake and around the casing must
be  prevented to obtain samples representative of the formation of interest. Specifically, rainwater can in-
filtrate backfill materials and dilute or contaminate samples collected from the screened portion of the well.
Vertical seepage of  leachate or contaminated water from adjacent formations along the well casing may
also produce unrepresentative samples for the depth interval  being sampled. More importantly, the crea-
tion of a conduit in the annulus of a monitoring well that could contribute to or hasten the spread of con-
tamination should be avoided.    Lysimeters

    Pressure-vacuum lysimeters may be used to  obtain samples of in situ soil moisture.  They are used
predominantly in the unsaturated zone (i.e., above the water table,  as shown in Exhibit 8.5-2).  In its most
improved form, this device consists of  a porous ceramic cup capable of holding a vacuum, a small-
diameter sample accumulation  chamber of PVC pipe, and two sampling tubes leading to  the surface.


                      Exhibit 8.5-2
                        2-Way Pump
           3/16" Copper
             Plastic Pipe
             (24") Long
             608 mm.
            Porous Cup

            Bentonite -
152 mm.
(6") Borehole

            Cross Section of a Typical Pressure-Vacuum
                      Lysimeter Installation
152 mm.
1 mm. — -
) Steel
ing — •
n. (6") 	 ..


, Def
*~~ Lys

3th ol
ow R

Y Groundwater Table y
               Cross Section of a Lysimeter Network

Once the lysimeter is in place, a vacuum is applied to the cup. Soil moisture moves into the sampler under
this gradient, and a water sample gradually accumulates. Care must be taken in using samples from suc-
tion lysimeters for water quality assessments.  The application of the vacuum to drive the water may
remove volatile organics or alter carbonate chemical equilibrium. When the vacuum is released and inert
gas pressure is applied, the accumulated water is forced to the surface through the sampling tube.  A typi-
cal pressure-vacuum lysimeter installation is shown in Exhibit 8.5-2.    Piezometers and Tensiometers

    The terms "piezometer" and "observation well" are commonly used interchangeably; however, there is
a significant difference between them.  As implied by its name, a  piezometer is a pressure-measuring
device that is frequently used for monitoring water pressure in earthen dams, under foundations, or in

    A piezometer that is used to monitor earthen dams or foundations resembles a porous tube or plate. A
piezometer that is used to monitor aquifers resembles a screened well or open hole.  An impermeable clay
or cement seal isolates the piezometer from other pressure environments. If the well screen is properly iso-
lated by an impermeable seal placed immediately above the screen, a piezometer can also be  used to
measure  vertical  head differences  under unconfined conditions.  Any well constructed without this seal
cannot be considered a piezometer. In practice, piezometers are similar to the monitoring wells described
in Subsection  If the well is going to be used only  for  water level measurements, it is generally
called a piezometer. In that case, well construction materials are less critical.

    Piezometers are not suitable for the measurement of pressure above the water table since water in the
unsaturated zone is held in the soil pores under surface-tension forces.   The pressure head in the un-
saturated zone is called the tension head or suction head. Tensiometers are used to indirectly measure the
pressure head in the unsaturated zone to help determine the  groundwater gradients and the flow in the un-
saturated zone.

    Typically, a tensiometer consists of a porous cup attached to an airtight, water-filled tube. The porous
cup is inserted into the soil at the desired depth, where  it comes  into contact with the soil water and
reaches hydraulic equilibrium.  The equilibrium process involves the passage of water through the porous
cup from the tube into the soil. The vacuum created at the top of the airtight tube is a measure of the pres-
sure head in the  soil.  The pressure head is  usually measured by a vacuum gauge attached to the tube
above the surface of the ground. To obtain the hydraulic head, the negative value indicated by the vacuum
gauge on the tensiometer must be added algebraically to the elevation of the point of measurement. In
practice, the tensiometer is a tube with a gauge and a porous cup at the base; the piezometer is an open
pipe with a well point at the base,    Groundwater Sampling Equipment

    The type of system used to collect groundwater samples is a function of the type and size of well con-
struction, pumping level, type of pollutant, analytical procedures, and presence or absence of permanent
pumping  fixtures.  Ideally, sample withdrawal mechanisms should  be completely inert; economical to
manufacture; easily decontaminated, cleaned, and reused; able  to operate at remote sites in the absence
of external  power sources; and capable of delivering continuous but variable flow rates for  flushing and
sample collection.

    Most water supply wells contain semi-permanently mounted pumps that limit the options available for
groundwater sampling.  Existing in-place pumps may be line  shaft turbines, commonly used for high-
capacity wells; submersible pumps commonly used in domestic wells for high-head, low-capacity applica-
tions and, more recently, for municipal and industrial uses; and jet pumps commonly used for shallow, low-

capacity domestic water supplies.  The advantages of in-place pumps are that water samples are readily
available and that nonrepresentative stagnant water in the well bore is generally not a problem. The disad-
vantage is that excessive pumping can dilute or increase the contaminant concentrations so that they are
not representative of the sampling point.  Another possible disadvantage  is that water supply wells may
produce water from more than one aquifer and contamination or adsorption may be a problem when sam-
pling for organics.

    The advantage to collecting water samples from monitoring wells without in-place pumps lies in the
fact that the selection of equipment and  procedures is flexible. The principal disadvantage lies in the pos-
sibility of obtaining a nonrepresentative sample either through collecting stagnant water that is in the well
bore or through introducing contamination from the sampling equipment or procedures. Some commonly
used sampling systems are described below.     Bailers

    One of the oldest and simplest methods of sampling water wells is the use of bailers. A bailer may be a
weighted bottle, a capped length of pipe on a rope, or some modification thereof that is lowered and
raised, generally by hand. Two examples are the modified Kemmerer sampler and the  Teflon bailer repre-
sented in Exhibits 8.5-3 and 8.5-4. The modified Kemmerer sampler is more often used for sampling sur-
face water than groundwater.  The  Teflon bailer  was developed  specifically for collecting groundwater
samples for volatile organic analysis. Bailers are also made of PVC, copper, or stainless steel. The sam-
pling plan will specify equipment, materials, and procedures used in sampling.  The material best-suited to
the purpose of the project should be selected.

    The advantages of using a bailer are as follows:
    •   A bailer can be constructed from a wide variety of materials that are compatible with the parameter
        of interest.

    •   It is economical and convenient enough that a separate one may be dedicated to each well to min-
        imize cross contamination.

    •   It does not require an external power source.

    •   Its low surface-to-volume ratio reduces outgassing of volatile organics.
    The folk  /ing are disadvantages of using a bailer:

     •   It is sometimes impractical to evacuate stagnant water in a well bore with a bailer.

     •   An open-top bailer may allow nonaquifer material to enter the bailer as it is withdrawn from the well
        (i.e., rust from casings).

     •   The transfer of a water sample from the bailer to the sample bottle can result in aeration.

     •   Cross contamination can be a  problem ff bailers are not adequately cleaned after each use.

     •   Care must be exercised in handling the bailer rope to prevent introducing contamination into the

         Exhibit 8.5-3

     Exhibit 8.5-4
 I  I
            Stainless Steel Wire Cable
            or Monofilament Line
            Top May Be Closed
            or Open
            1-1/4" O.D. x 1" I.D. Teflon
            Extruded Tubing,
            18" to 36" Long
             3/4" Diameter
             Glass Marble
1" Diameter Teflon
Extruded Rod
       5/16" Diameter

-------    Suction-Lift Pumps

    A variety of pumps can be used to flush wells prior to sampling or,  in limited instances,  to obtain
samples. When the water table is about 20 to~28 feet from the surface, a suction-lift pump can be used.
Centrifugal pumps are the most commonly available type of suction-lift pump, are highly portable, and have
a pumping rate of from 5 to 40 gpm.  Most centrifugal pumps require a foot valve on the end of the suction
pipe to aid in maintaining a prime.

    Peristaltic pumps are generally low-volume suction pumps suitable for sampling shallow, small-
diameter wells. Their pumping rates are generally low but can be readily controlled within desirable limits.
The low pumping rates are a significant limitation in flushing out the well bore.  Another limitation is that
electrical power is required.

    Hand-operated diaphragm pumps are available that  can be operated over a wide range of pumping
rates, which facilitates rapid evacuation of a well bore initially and provides lower controlled pumping  rates
for subsequent sampling. One major advantage of  such  pumps is their portability. A disadvantage is that
sampling is limited to groundwater situations where water levels are less than about 20 feet.

    Suction  pumps are not recommended because they  may cause degassing, pH modification, and loss
of volatile compounds.     Portable Submersible Pumps

    Groundwater investigations routinely require the collection of samples from depths that exceed the
capabilities of the systems discussed above. One alternative system consists of a submersible pump that
can be lowered or raised in an observation well, using as much as 300 feet of hose that supports the weight
of the pump, conveys the water from the well, and houses the electrical cable and an electrical winch-and-
spool assembly.  A portable generator provides electricity for both the pump and the winch, and the entire
assembly can be mounted in a pickup or van.

    The following are advantages  of using submersible pumps:

    •  They are portable and can be used to sample several monitoring wells in a brief period of time.

    •  Depending upon the size of the pump and  the pumping depths, relatively high pumping rates are
    Existing bladder-type submersible pumps will operate in 2-inch monitor wells and are constructed of
materials to permit water quality samples from monitor wells. The pumps require dedication to a single well
or vigorous decontamination between sampling sites.   Air-lift Samplers

    The basic method of applying air pressure to a water well can be adapted to force a water sample out
of the discharge tube. A high-pressure hand pump and any reasonably flexible tubing can be used as a
highly portable sampling unit.  A small air compressor or compressed air cylinder and somewhat more
elaborate piping arrangements may be required at greater depths, as shown in  Exhibit 8.5-5. The primary
limitations of the air-lift sampler are the potential alteration of water quality parameters, the amount of air
pressure that can be safely applied to the tubing, and the identification of a suitable source of compressed

                                    Exhibit 8.5-5
                                 AIR-LIFT SAMPLER
                                            Needle  valve
Pressure 'gauge
                                                                       Quick air hose
                                                                            Ground surface
                                                X8 noncollapsing tubing
                                          1>4'or11/2 plastic

   The following are advantages of using the air-lift sampler:

    •  It can be used as a portable or permanently installed sampling system.

    •  It can be used both to flush the well and to sample.

    Its disadvantages are as follows:

    •  It is not suitable for pH-sensitive parameters such as metals.

    •  It can damage the integrity of the filter pack around the well screen if the well is evacuated under
       high pressure and if the intake of the sample line is located within the screened interval.

    •  If air or oxygen is used, oxidation is a problem

    •  Gas stripping of volatile compounds may occur.    Nitrogen-Powered, Continuous-Delivery, Glass-Teflon Sampler

    Sampling groundwater for trace organic pollutants requires a noncontaminating, nonadsorbing pump.
Basing their work on an initial design by Stanford University, developers at Rice University created a
groundwater sampling system that consists of a two-stage,  all-glass pump connected by Teflon tubing and
powered by nitrogen gas.  The system (shown in Exhibit 8.5-6) contains four basic units: (1) a two-stage
glass pump, (2) a solenoid valve and electronic timer, (3) a nitrogen tank and regulator, and (4) columns for
removal of organics from the groundwater.

    The following are advantages of using the glass-Teflon sampler:

    •  It is portable; AC power is not required

    •  It is constructed of noncontaminating, nonadsorbing materials.

    •  Variable flow rates up to 45 gallons per hour are obtainable.

    •  It can be used in well casings with minimum diameters of about 2 inches.

    Its disadvantages are as follows:

    •  It requires high-purity nitrogen gas.

    •  Glass construction is somewhat more fragile than other materials.

    •  Stripping of COa from water may  be a problem for pH-sensitive parameters.

    •  Gas stripping of volatile compounds may occur.

    •  Generally low pumping rates are experienced.

                Exhibit 8.5-6
                Thick Won Glass

                Diameter 1.5"

                Length  17"
          t   inซ!uซm      Water

-------    Gas-Operated Squeeze or Bladder Pump

    These systems consist of a collapsible membrane inside a long, rigid  housing; a compressed gas
supply; tubing; and appropriate control valves. When the pump is submerged, water enters the collapsible
membrane through the bottom check valve. After the membrane has filled, gas pressure is applied to the
annular space between the rigid housing and the membrane, forcing the water upward through a sampling
tube.  When the pressure is released, the top check valve prevents the sample from flowing back down the
discharge line, and water from the well again enters the pump through the bottom check valve. A diagram
of the basic unit is shown in Exhibit 8.5-7.

    The following are advantages of using the gas-operated squeeze or bladder pump:
    •  A wide range in pumping rates is possible

    •  A variety of materials can be used, depending on the parameters of interest.

    •  The driving gas does not contact the water sample, eliminating  possible  contamination or gas

    •  The pump can be constructed in diameters as small as 1  inch, permitting the use of small,
       economical monitoring wells.

    •  The pump is highly portable.

    Disadvantages of the system are as follows:
    •  Large gas volumes and long cycles are necessary for deep operation.  Pumping  rates cannot
       match rates of submersible, suction, or jet pumps.

    •  Commercial units are relatively expensive (approximately $1,000 for currently available units).

    •  Use of the pump requires careful selection of bladder and tubing material, some of which is expen-
       sive.    Gas-Driven Piston Pump

    This pump is a double-acting piston type operated by compressed gas (Exhibit 8.5-8). The driving gas
enters and exhausts from the gas chambers between the two pistons and the intermediate connector that
joins them.  Built-in check valves at each end of the pump allow water to enter the cylinders on the suction
stroke and to be expelled to the surface on the pressure stroke. Current designs are constructed basically
of stainless steel, brass, and PVC. Pumping rates vary with the pumping head, but pumping rates of 2.5 to
8 gallons per hour have been noted at 100 feet of pumping head.

    The following are advantages of using the gas-driven piston pumps:
    •  It isolates the sample from the operating gas.

    •  It requires no electrical power source.


                    Exhibit 8.5-7
                                   CHECK VALVE
                                     CHECK VALVE

                        Exhibit 8.5-8
                GAS-DRIVEN PISTON PUMP
                                                from Surfoct
                                              Vilot  Operotor

                                               Normol Position

                                                  roted Position

                                               Pilot  Volve
                                                 P*  - Pressure
                                                 ฃ'  - Exhaust
                                              Needlt  Valve
                                                Switching  Unit

                                                 P -  Pressure
                                                 E -  Exhaust
                                               •Unit Spindle
                                                'o"-Ring  seals
                                                during up cycle

                                                i  ..ซ —,
                                                  0 -Ring seals
                                               during   down cycle
                                     T Needlt Valve

    •  It operates continuously and reliably over extended periods of time.

    •  It uses compressed gas economically.

    •  It can be operated at pumping heads in excess of 500 meters.

    Disadvantages of the pump are as follows:

    •  Paniculate material may damage or inactivate the pump unless the suction line is filtered.

    •  Low pumping rates are experienced.    Special Sampling Considerations for Organic Samples

    Sampling for organic parameters is not a standardized procedure at this time. Some of the equipment
and methods in use are in the  research stage. However, the concepts are fundamental, and any particular
item or method can be modified to suit actual field needs.  Furthermore, expensive and sophisticated pro-
cedures may not be necessary for sampling or monitoring all areas. The points that must be kept in mind
include the potential for sample contamination and the extremely fine detail, subject to expert rebuttal, that
may be necessary to support a legal action.

    Grab samples of groundwater for nonvolatile analysis may be collected by using the system shown in
Exhibit 8.5-9. This system is used where the water table is within suction lift; the sampled water contacts
only sterile glass and Teflon. More sophisticated versions of the sampling configuration are available com-
mercially. The sampled water is then carefully transferred to appropriate glass sample containers for ship-
ment to the laboratory.

    For sampling at depths beyond suction lift, a noncontaminating submersible pump should be used to
pump the groundwater to the surface through scrupulously clean Teflon tubing directly into appropriate
sample containers.

    The most commonly employed  sample containers are 40-ml glass vials for analyses requiring small
sample volumes,  such as total  organic carbon, and 1-gallon jugs for analyses requiring relatively large
volumes, such  as extractable organics.  Both types of containers are equipped with Teflon-lined screw
caps. Like all glassware used  in the sampling and analytical procedures, sample containers are thoroughly
cleaned  before use by washing with detergent, rinsing extensively with tap water,  rinsing in high-purity
deionized water, and heating to  105ฐC for 2 hours. The bottles are  most easily obtained from the EPA CLP
Sample Bottle Repository.  The reader should refer to Section 6 of this compendium.

    Grab samples of  groundwater to be analyzed for highly volatile organics  by the Bellar-Lichtenberg
volatile organic analysis (VOA) method are usually obtained  by using a Teflon  bailer,  as noted in Exhibit
8.5-4. Bailers are used for VOA samples because of the possibility of stripping highly volatile constituents
from the sample under the reduced or elevated pressure occurring in the systems that use pumps.

    Continuous procedures, using selected adsorbents to concentrate and recover organic constituents
from relatively large volumes  of groundwater, may be employed to sample organic pollutants when the
analytical sensitivity and sample uniformity attainable by grab sampling are inadequate. These procedures
are applicable for most organic pollutants except those of very high volatility.

                   Exhibit 8.5-9
          .0.              -^
  6 MM  00.
               1-LITER ERLENMEYER

    A special sampling system is shown in Exhibit 8.5-10. In this illustration, water is pumped directly from
the well through Teflon tubing (6 mm outside diameter (OD)) to two glass columns of adsorbent in series.
A peristaltic pump is located on the outlet side of the columns for sampling with suction lift.  A noncon-
taminating submersible pump may be used at greater depths and may be superior for practically all sam-
pling uses.

    All components of the system that contact the water sample before emergence from the  second
column are, with the exception of the adsorbent, glass or Teflon.  Exhibit 8.5-11  shows a typical sampling
system installed  in specially constructed  housing to form self-contained sampling units that are easily
transported and set up in the field.

    Columns prepared  from macroreticular resin, activated carbon, and polyamide  particles have been
employed in sampling systems. Of these materials, macroreticular resin (XAD-2, Rohm and Haas Com-
pany, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) has been the most convenient and generally useful and is the current ad-
sorbent of choice.

    Sampling is  conducted by continuously pumping  groundwater through the sampling system  at flow
rates  usually ranging from 10 to 30 ml per min.  The volumes sampled are dependent on the desired sen-
sitivity of analysis.  Sampling 50 liters of water is sufficient to provide a sensitivity of at least 1  ^g per liter (1
part per billion  (ppb)) for almost all  compounds  of  interest using  gas chromatographic techniques.
Volumes sampled  are determined by using calibrated waste receivers to measure the water leaving the
sampling systems.    Volatile Organics in the Unsaturated Zone

    Water should be sampled in the unsaturated zone to detect and follow pollutants migrating toward the
water table. Highly volatile compounds, which include the low-molecular- weight chlorinated hydrocarbons
such  as trichlorethylene, are difficult to detect. These compounds are released in significant quantities into
the environment, exhibit carcinogenicity, and are implicated in numerous cases of groundwater pollution.

    Soil-water samples may be collected using the device depicted in Exhibit 8.5-12, which consists of a
sampler, a purging apparatus, and a trap connected to sources of nitrogen gas and a vacuum. The soil-
solution sampler consists of a 7/8-inch  OD (2.2-cm) porous ceramic cup, a length of 3/4-inch OD Teflon or
PVC pipe, and a Teflon stopper fitted with 3-mm OD Teflon exhaust and collection tubes.  The length of the
pipe  is dictated  by the depth of sampling desired, which is limited to a maximum  of about 20 feet.  The
device is basically a suction lysimeter with the attendant limitations. The purging apparatus and trap are
parts of the Tekmar LSC-1 liquid-sample concentrator to which have been added Teflon valves and "Tape-
Tite" connectors. The purging apparatus is borosilicate glass, while the trap consists  of Tenax-GC porous
polymer (60/80 mesh), packed in  a 2-mm x 28-cm  stainless steel tube plugged with silane-treated glass
wool.  The purge  gas is  ultrahigh purity, oxygen-free  nitrogen. The vacuum is provided by a peristaltic

    Before the sample is  collected, the purging apparatus  is cleaned with acetone and distilled water and
then baked at 105ฐC to 108ฐC for at least an hour. In the field, the device is rinsed thoroughly with distilled
or organic-free water between samples, and special care is taken to force the rinse water through the glass

    The soil-solution sampler is driven to the bottom of a pre-augered 19-mm  (0.75-inch) diameter hole.
This procedure is done very carefully to ensure intimate contact between the ceramic cup and the soil.

    Before collecting a sample, the exhaust tube is  opened to the atmosphere, and the collection tube is
disconnected and pumped to remove any solution that may have leaked into the tube through the porous


                                Exhibit 8.5-10
           Glass Tubing
           6 mm O.D.
                                                                     to Waste
                      Teflon Tubing
                      6 mm O.D.

               Exhibit 8.5-11

                                     Exhibit 8.5-12
                          SOIL-WATER SAMPLING DEVICE FOR
                                 VOLATILE ORGANICS
                                                                                 TO  N*
    Soil Solution Sampler
                                                        Purging Apparatus

cup. Then the collection tube is reconnected to the purging apparatus, the exhaust tube is closed with a
pinch clamp, and 5 to 10 ml of solution is collected by closing valve C and opening valves A and B (see Ex-
hibit 8.5-12). After sample collection, the exhaust tube is opened to remove from the sampler and collect
on the trap any of the compounds that may have volatilized in the sampler. Following this procedure, valve
A is closed and valve C is opened.  Nitrogen gas Is then bubbled through the solution at a rate of 40 ml per
minute for 10 minutes to purge volatile organics from the solution. Traps are capped and returned to the
laboratory for analysis within 6 hours of collection or for storage at 20ฐC for later analysis. Chemical con-
centrations are determined according to procedures based on the Bellar-Lichtenberg method.    Water-Level Measurement Devices

    Water-level indicators are portable Instruments used to  determine the water level In boreholes, wells,
and  other open underground structures.  Generally, outside power  sources  are not required  to operate
these devices. However, many require that batteries be replaced or recharged periodically. Measurements
may be made with a number  of different devices and procedures. Measurements are taken to a scribed
point placed by a surveyor on the inner well casing. The reader should refer to Section 14 of this compen-
dium.    Steel Tape

    The chalked steel tape with a weight attached to the lower end is one of the most accurate procedures
for measuring water levels. The weight keeps the tape taut and helps lower it into the well (see Exhibit 8.5-
13). The tape can be chalked with carpenter's chalk, ordinary blackboard chalk, or other chalk.  The line
where the color changes on the tape indicates the length of tape that was immersed in water.  Subtracting
this  length from the reading at the measuring point gives the depth to water. Cascading water in a well
may mask the mark of the true water level.  However, this situation usually  occurs only in a well that is
being pumped. Another method of measuring may then be required. In small-diameter wells, the volume
of the weight may cause the water level to rise in the pipe, causing the measurement to be somewhat inac-
curate.  Another problem associated with the steel tape measurement is that chalk or impurities in the chalk
may contaminate a monitoring well. If the integrity of a groundwater sample is critical, another method of
measuring the water level may have to be used.    Electric Sounders

     Electric sounders may also be used to measure the depth to  water in wells (Exhibit 8.5-13). There are
a number of commercial models available, none of which is entirely reliable.  Many sounders use brass or
other metal  indicators clamped around a conductor wire at 5-foot intervals to indicate the depth to water
when the meter indicates contact.  The spacing of these indicators should be checked periodically with a
surveyor's tape to assure accurate and reliable readings.

     Some electric sounders use a single-wire line and probe, and rely on grounding to the casing to com-
plete the circuit; others use a two-wire line and double  contacts on the electrode.  Most sounders are
powered with flashlight batteries, and the closing of the circuit by  immersion in water is registered on a mil-
liammeter.   Experience has shown that two-wire circuits with a battery are by far the most satisfactory
electric sounders.

     Electric sounders are generally more suitable than other devices for measuring the depth to water in
wells that are being pumped because they generally do not  require removal from the well for each reading.
However, when there is oil on the water, water cascading into the well, or a turbulent water surface in the
well, measuring with an electric sounder may be difficult.  Oil not only insulates the contacts of the probe,
but it will also give an erroneous read ing if there is a considerable thickness of oil.


    In some instances, it may be necessary to insert a small pipe in the well between the column pipe and
the casing from the ground surface to about 2 feet above the top of the pump bowls. This pipe should be
plugged at the bottom with a cork or similar seal that is blown out after the pipe is set. Measurements with
the electric sounder can then be made in the smaller pipe where the disturbances are eliminated or dam-
pened, the true water level is measured, and the insulating oil is absent. When oil is present, it is necessary
to determine the thickness and density of the oil layer before calculating the true water level.

    Exhibit 8.5-14 illustrates  a convenient arrangement for direct measurement of drawdown during pump-
ing tests. A marker on the sounder wire is referred to a value on the tape, and the same marker is used as
a reference to determine drawdown through changes on the tape when contact with the water  is made.  A
new marker is used each time the water level drops by an increment of 5 feet.    Poppers

    A simple and reliable method for measuring the depth to water in observation holes between 1-1/2 and
6 inches in diameter is the use of  a steel tape with a popper (see Exhibit 8.5-13).  The popper is a metal
cylinder that is 1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches long with a concave undersurface; the pop-
per is fastened to the end of a steel tape.  When the popper is raised a few inches and dropped to hit the
water surface, it makes a distinct "pop." Adjusting the length of tape determines the point at which the pop-
per just hits the surface. Poppers are generally not satisfactory for measuring pumping wells  because of
the operating noise and lack of clearance, and they are not effective if the water surface is opposite the well
screen.    Floats

    Float devices are similar to poppers for measuring depth to water.  The popper is replaced with a small
float, and the depth to water is determined by the slack created by the tape when the float hits  the surface
of the water.    Air Lines

    Permanent pump installations should always be equipped with an access hole for probe insertion or for
an air line and gauge, or preferably both, to measure drawdown during pumping.  An air line  is accurate
only to about  0.5  foot unless it is calibrated against a tape for various drawdowns, but it is sufficiently ac-
curate for checking well performance.

    Artesian wells with piezometric heads above the surface of the ground are conveniently measured by
capping the well with a cap that has been drilled, tapped, and fitted with a plug that is removed for the in-
sertion of a Bordon gauge or mercury manometer stem. The static level is determined from the gauge or
manometer reading after the pressure has stabilized.

    For continuous records, a recording pressure gauge may be used.    Pneumatic Piezometers

    Pneumatic piezometers are  used  to measure  pore pressures or pore  pressure  changes  within
boreholes or embankments (see Exhibit 8.5-15). Pneumatic piezometers are usually connected to the sur-
face with flexible  tubing.  To operate a pneumatic piezometer, a  portable  readout unit is usually required
(see Exhibit 8.5-16).  The readout  unit contains an internal  pressure tank and data gauge.  The pneumatic
piezometer measures hydrostatic pressure in a manner similar to that of a simple air line.

              Exhibit 8.5-14

                 To Electric Sounder Reel

                     Exhibit 8.5-15
                                   Flexible, Direct Burial Tubing
                         'MeatI He
Actual Size 0.6" Diam. x 2.5" L


    The two primary advantages of using a pneumatic piezometer instead of a standpipe piezometer are
that a  pneumatic piezometer eliminates filter tip  plugging and time lag.  These two interdependent
problems, inherent in all stand pipes, result from the large volumetric change and the time required for
groundwater to permeate through the soil and fill the pipe to the piezometric head.  In low-permeability
soils, the time lag can become so long that it is impossible to obtain meaningful pore pressure data with a
standpipe.  Instrument time lag is completely eliminated when pneumatic piezometers are used.  Since the
time lag problem is eliminated, pneumatic piezometers are very useful for monitoring fast water level chan-
ges that occur during pump tests or other hydraulic conductivity tests.  Since this procedure may be
model-specific, the manufacturer's recommendations for the equipment to be used should be called out in
the QAPjP.   Continuous Water Level Recorders

    There are a large number of different models of continuous water level recorders. Typically, these re-
corders use floats, electric sounders, pneumatics, or other devices previously described.  A float-balance
continuous recorder is shown in Exhibit 8.5-17.   Sonic Water Level Measurement

    Under proper conditions, depth to water in a well can  be measured  by a sonic device. This device
uses a compressed air charge or fires a blank shell to generate a sonic wave down the well. The round-trip
wave travel time is measured, and the depth to water is calculated.   Care must be taken in reading the
wave charts because discontinuities in the casing or in other well construction components may generate
anomalous wave forms and may cause inaccurate determinations of water level depth.   Field Parameter Measurements   Measurement and Interpretation of pH

    The pH of natural water is ordinarily determined by measuring the potential between a glass electrode
and a  reference electrode immersed in the solution.  The potential must  be measured with a sensitive
electrometer or similar device that does not permit  a significant flow of current.  The design of pH meters
has been greatly improved in recent years, and equipment now available measures pH to the nearest 0.01
pH unit with excellent  stability and consistency either in the field or laboratory.  Because the pH is a
logarithm, measurements to two decimal places may still be imprecise as compared to the usual measure-
ments of concentrations of the other solute species.

    The equilibria in a groundwater system are altered when the water is taken into a well and pumped to
the surface. A pH measurement  taken at the moment of sampling may represent the original equilibrium
conditions in the aquifer satisfactorily; however, if the water is put into a sample bottle and the pH  is not
determined until the sample is taken out for analysis (days, weeks, or months later), the measured pH may
have no relation to the original conditions.  Besides gaining or losing carbon dioxide, the solution may be
influenced by reactions such as oxidation of ferrous iron, and the laboratory pH can be a full unit different
from the value at the time of sampling.  A laboratory determination of pH can be considered as applicable
only to the solution in the sample  bottle at the time the determination is made. Accurate measurement  of
pH in the field should be standard practice for all groundwater samples.

    Typical procedures for calibrating the instrument and for obtaining the pH vary with manufacturer and
model. Equipment should be recalibrated at each  sample location and when ambient temperature  chan-
ges significantly. Equipment  manuals provide guidance for calibration.

            Exhibit 8.5-17

-------    Specific Electrical Conductance

    Electrical conductance, or conductivity, is the ability of a substance to conduct an electric current. The
American Society for Testing and  Materials (ASTM) has defined electrical conductivity of water as 'the
reciprocal of the  resistance  in ohms measured between  the opposite faces of a centimeter cube of
aqueous solution at a specified temperature."  This definition further specifies that units for reporting con-
ductivity shall be "micromhos per centimeter at temperature ฐC." Geophysical measurements of resistivity,
however, are commonly expressed in ohmmeters, referring to a cube 1 meter on a side, so it should  be
emphasized that  conductances of water refer to  a centimeter cube.   The standard temperature for
laboratory measurements is 25ฐC, but some values taken at other temperatures exist; thus it is important to
specify the temperature.

    Because conductance is the  reciprocal of resistance,  the units in which  specific conductance is
reported are reciprocal ohms, or mhos. Natural waters have specific conductances much less than 1 mho;
to avoid inconvenient decimals, data are reported in micromhos.  That is, the observed value in mhos is
multiplied by 106.

    The specific conductance of a groundwater sample is dependent upon the total dissolved solids (TDS)
content of the sample.  Typically, the ratio of TDS (mg per I) to specific conductance (mmhos per cm) is
between 0.6 and 0.8. Because the TDS  concentration and specific conductance of a sample may be pH-
dependent, measurements of specific conductance should occur in the field along with the measure ment
of pH. Accuracy  in both measurements is important.  Before the start of sampling for chemical analysis,
the measurements for temperature, specific conductance, and pH should be stable over two or three well
volumes.  Equipment manuals should be referenced for proper calibration and operation of all field analyti-
cal equipment.    Oxidation-Reduction Potential (Eh) Measurement

    The ability of a natural environment to bring about an oxidation or reduction process is measured by a
quantity called its  redox potential and is designated as Eh. Eh is a measure of the ability of an environment
to supply electrons to an oxidizing agent or to take up electrons from a reducing agent.  The redox poten-
tial system is a measure of the cumulative redox potential of a number of individual oxidation-reduction

    The measurement of redox potential is not simple or unambiguous.  Some reactions that determine
redox potentials are slow, so instantaneous readings with the platinum electrode do  not give true equi-
librium potential differences.  This slowness means that most redox potential measurements in nature give
only qualitative or semi-quantitative information.  When accurate  determinations of  redox potential are
necessary, it is desirable to measure the concentrations of redox couples, such as SO"24/H2S, COa/ChU,
Fe+3/Fe"", NOaVNa, and so forth.

    Qualitative measure of Eh is conducted  using  a noble metal  (usually platinum) and a reference
electrode system  or a combination electrode using a specific-ion meter that will  measure in millivolt units.
Reference solutions with known Eh are used to obtain the potential and to check the accuracy of the
electrode system.

    If Eh is to be measured, it should be  measured in the field using the following procedures:
        Prepare and calibrate equipment according to manufacturer's specifications.

        Bring the reference ZoBell solution to sample temperature and record temperature.


    •  Measure potential, in millivolts, of the ZoBell solution at sample temperature (EhzoBeii(obs)) and
       check against theoretical value at measured temperature (should be ฑ 10 millivolts) (EhzoBeii+Ret).

    *  Place electrode in Eh cell and allow readings to stabilize (20 minutes plus).

    •  Turn off water flow to prevent streaming potential and immediately take reading.

    •  Record data (Ehobs) and calculate Eh relative to standard hydrogen electrode.

    Calculate system Eh as follows:

            Ehsys   =    Ehobs   +       EhZoBell + Ref       -         EZoBell(obs)

    Report Eh to the nearest ฑ10  millivolts. It should be noted that oil and grease in the sampled solution
may coat the noble-metal electrode and provide erroneous readings.    Filtration

    The need and desirability of filtering samples is dictated by the objectives of the study and sampling as
specified in the investigation  sampling plan. If the objective is to assess migration mechanisms in conjunc-
tion with migration pathways, then it is necessary to know the concentration of dissolved versus total con-
stituents. This comparison permits an assessment of mobility in a true dissolved state as opposed to a par-
ticulate or colloidal state. The assessment of the former requires the analysis  of filtered samples; the latter
requires analysis of both filtered (for dissolved) and unfiltered (for total) samples. The difference permits a
determination of suspended contribution.

    Filtering is necessary to analyse samples for inorganic constituents, many of which are acidified before
or during analysis.  This acidification  may release ions held  on particles and  change the constituent
chemistry of the solution.

    The removal of suspended solids may be accomplished through several techniques.  Filtration through
a 0.45-micron micropore membrane filter is the most common  field method  used to remove suspended
solids. This filter permits a reasonable and practical distinction between true solute material and material
that may be considered  particulate or not in true solution.  For extremely turbid samples, large particulates
can be removed with a coarse filter before the 0.45-micron filter is used. Large-capacity 0.45 micron filters
exist but are expensive when a large number of turbid samples must be collected.

    Pressure and suction filtering devices are commonly used in the field. A typical filter holder is shown in
Exhib it 8.5-18. Small peristaltic pumps are commonly used with this type of filtering device (see Exhibit
8.5-18). Inert gas pressure-filter devices are preferred to suction or compressed air pumps. Hand pump fil-
tering apparatuses have been used.    Materials for Well Construction

    The selection of materials for well construction  and sample collection, handling, and storage is a criti-
cal consideration in planning the monitoring program.  The materials should retain their structural integrity
for the duration of the monitoring  program under subsurface conditions. The material should neither ad-
sorb nor leach chemical constituents. The material  combinations must also be compatible with each other
and with the goals  of the sampling effort.  (The reader should refer to  Exhibit 8.5-19 for a typical monitoring
well installation.)

                        Exhibit 8.5-18
                                        GEOTECH MEMBRANE
                                          FILTER HOLDERS
Parts Break Down
Electric or Hand Powered

-------    Overview of Subsurface Conditions

    Most common piping materials (steel, polyvinyl chloride,  and iron) meet the structural requirements
needed for well casings to withstand normal subsurface pressures for depths of up to approximately 30
meters (90 feet).  In deeper monitoring situations, the use of corrosion-resistant metallic casing for large-
diameter (greater than 10 centimeters  or 4 inches) may be required to provide necessary structural in-
tegrity. The practices of local water well construction and regional EPA requirements should serve as a

    Metallic corrosion problems may be encountered under either oxidizing or reducing conditions and are
aggravated by high dissolved-solids content.  Other materials (thermoplastics) may deteriorate under the
influence of dissolved chemical substances or direct contact with wastes.  Whether the well construction
retains its integrity or not, there are also potential problems because of microbiaS attachment and growth
and the sorptive capacity of the exposed  materials for the  chemical species of interest.  Representative
sampling depends on the choice of materials that can retain their integrity over the entire length of a well
casing, from the aerobic, unsaturated surface zone to the unusual conditions in the saturated zone.    Chemical Properties of Water and Their Effects on Various Materials

    A groundwater monitoring network is designed and constructed with the casing and materials that are
compatible with the subsurface environment.  The materials should be  compatible with probable mixtures
of groundwater and chemical substances from the contaminant source.   Compatibility must be judged
from a structural and chemical standpoint.  Structural considerations are treated in detail in the 1980 Na-
tional Water Well Association publication, Manual on the Selection and Installation of Thermoplastic Water Well
Casing. The main criterion for chemical compatibility should  be that the long-term interaction of the casing
or sampling materials with the groundwater will not cause  an analytical  bias in the interpretation of the
chemical analysis of the water samples.

    The study of the effects of water or aqueous solutions  on materials (and vice versa)  presents many
obstacles to the investigator.  For leaching effects alone, there are at least  six critical system variables that
must be  controlled or  considered, including chemical  composition of the solution,  temperature, rate  of
flow, and composition of the material (its age, pretreatment, and the surface area exposed). For purposes
of material selection for ground water monitoring, static or flowing tests with solutions approximating the
expected range of solution composition should be sufficient.

    Well casing materials are rigid  and nonporous.  They present a very low surface area to water in the
wellbore relative to that of the adjacent soil or aquifer particles. An extensive body of literature deals with
sorptive interactions of dissolved chemical species in natural waters with solid  surfaces.   Most of these
studies describe the adsorption of trace metals or organic compounds (adsorbates) on mineral particles
(adsorbents).  Surface area (or particle size) and the organic  content of the solid phase are cited almost
universally as important variables in the adsorption process.  Mineral phases  such as quartz, aluminum,
hydrous metal oxides, and clays, as well as natural sediments, have been studied with surface areas rang-
ing from  5 to  more than 250 square meters per gram.  These  active surfaces  have been observed to
routinely absorb up to  several hundred micro grams of adsorbate per square meter of surface area.  The
applicability of laboratory adsorption experiments to the condensed media of the subsurface is a matter of
some controversy.   However, a simple qualitative  comparison of well casing versus subsurface solids
should suffice to discount adsorptive interferences from materials selection considerations.    Teflon Well Casing

    Teflon represents a nearly ideal well construction material.  Inertness to chemical attack, poor sorptive
properties, and low leach potential are clear advantages  of  rigid Teflon for well screens and casing.

                             Exhibit 8.5-19
         GUARD POST



                                  CEMENT/BENTONITE GROUT

                                  2 IN. DIAMETER,  FLUSH JOINT
                                  THREADED P] PE
                                   6 TO 8 INCH NOMINAL
                                   DIAMETER BOREHOLE
                                    BENTON1TE PELLET SEAL
                                    (2  FT.  MINIMUM LENGTH)
                                    2 IN. DIAMETER  FLUSH  JOINT
                                    WELL SCREEN (5 FT. MINIMUM LENGTH)
                                   SAND PACK
                                                       CONCRETE  PAD

             BOTTOM PLUG
                                                          GUARD POST

                                                        WELL PIPING
                                              GUARD POST PLAN

However, Teflon is expensive compared to other materials. When situations allow, using Teflon casing and
screens in the saturated zone with another suitable material as the upper casing may be a viable, less ex-
pensive alternative.  The structural properties of Teflon are sufficient for the most exacting environments,
giving Teflon a clear advantage over glass. Teflon has not been reported to contribute to or remove or-
ganic or inorganic contaminants from aqueous solutions.   Stainless Steel Well Casing

    Stainless steel has been the material of choice for casing and screens when subsurface conditions re-
quire a  durable corrosion-resistant material or when organic adsorption problems might  exist.  In tests,
type 316 stainless steel proved better for use as a well  casing than type 304. The principal compositional
difference between the two types is the inclusion of 2 to 3 percent molybdenum in type 316.  The molyb-
denum content gives type 316 stainless steel improved  resistance to sulfur-containing species and sulfuric
acid solutions.   Resistance to oxidizing acids is somewhat poorer  than other chromium-nickel steels.
However, reducing conditions are more frequently encountered in well-casing applications. The type 316
stainless steels are less  susceptible to the pitting or pin-hole corrosion caused  by organic acids or halide
solutions.  They are the materials of choice in industries, such as Pharmaceuticals,  in which  excessive
metal contamination of  process streams must be avoided.  Provided that surface coating residues from
manufacture or storage  are removed, stainless steel  well casing, screen, and fittings can  be  expected to
function nearly as well as Teflon in most monitoring applications. Chromium or nickel contamination  may
result after long exposure to very corrosive conditions.   However, physical failure of the casing would
probably accompany or precede such an occurrence. Proper well purging before sampling should be suf-
ficient to minimize problems with these materials.   Polyvinyl Chloride Well Casing

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC-Type 1) thermoplastic  well casing is composed of  a  rigid, unplasticized
polymer formulation that has many desirable properties for monitoring well construction. It has very good
chemical resistance except to low-molecular-weight ketones, aldehydes, and chlorinated solvents. PVC is
a close  second  to Teflon and type 316 stainless steel in its resistance to acid solutions, and it may be ex-
pected to outperform any of the ferrous materials in acidic environments of high ionic strength. There may
be potential problems when PVC is used in  contact with aqueous organic mixtures or under conditions that
might encourage leaching of substances from the polymer matrix. Manufacturers, however, do not recom-
mend the use of threaded schedule 40 PVC well casing  because of potential mechanical failures.  Schedule
80 threaded PVC well casing is sufficiently durable for most well construction applications.

    All well casings should, at a minimum, be cleaned with detergent and rinsed with clean water before
well construction to remove processing lubricants  and  release agents.   This procedure is particularly
necessary for PVC well  casing, which may be coated with natural or  synthetic  waxes, fatty acids, or fatty
acid esters.  In addition,  more thorough cleaning may be required; steam cleaning is often used.

    Threaded joints are the preferred means of connecting sections of PVC  well casing.   In this way,
problems associated with use of solvent primers and cements can be avoided. Threaded joints on  PVC
well casing (or pipe) can be provided in three ways:  (1) by solvent cementing a molded thread adapter to
the end of the pipe (not recommended), (2) by having molded flush-threaded joints built into  each  pipe
section, and  (3) by cutting tapered threads on the pipe with National-Pipe-Thread  sized dies.  The latter
method is recommended only by the industry for schedule 80 PVC well casing or pipe.

    Furthermore,  manufactured casing and screen is preferable to off-the-shelf  PVC pipe.  The practice of
sawing  slots in the pipe (e.g., homemade screens) should be avoided since this procedure exposes fresh
surfaces of the material, increasing the risk of releasing compounding ingredients or reaction products. In
addition, it is very difficult to properly slot casing materials by sawing them.

-------   Casing Made From Other Ferrous Materials

    Ferrous metal well casing and screen materials, with the exception of stainless steels, include carbon
steel, low-carbon or copper (0.2 percent) steels, and various steels with a galvanized coating.  The carbon
steels were formulated to improve resistance to atmospheric corrosion.  To achieve this increased resis-
tance, it is necessary for the material to undergo alternate wetting and drying cycles. For noncoated steels
buried in soils or in the saturated zone, the difference between the corrosion resistance of either variety is
negligible.  Both carbon- and copper-steel well casings may be expected to corrode, and corrosion
products may include oxides of Fe and Mn (and trace constituents), as well as various metal  sulfides.
Under oxidizing  conditions, the principal products are solid hydrous oxides of these metals, with a large
range of potential particle sizes. The solids may accumulate in the well screen, at the bottom of the well, or
on the casing surface.  The potential also exists for the production of stable colloidal  oxide particles that
can  pass through conventional membrane filtration media.  Reducing conditions will generally  provide
higher levels  of truly dissolved metallic corrosion products in well storage waters.  Galvanized steels are
protected by  a zinc coating applied by hot dipping or electroplating processes. The corrosion resistance
of galvanized steel is generally improved over conventional steels. However, the  products of initial cor-
rosion will include iron, manganese, zinc, and trace cadmium species, which may be among the analytes
of interest in a monitoring program.

    Corrosion products  from conventional or galvanized steels represent a potential source of adsorptive
interference.  The accumulation of the solid products has the effect of increasing both the activity and the
exposed surface area for adsorption, reaction, and desorption processes.  Surface  interactions can, there-
by, cause significant changes  in dissolved-metal or organic compound concentrations in water samples.
Flushing the  stored water from the well casing may not be sufficient to minimize  this source of bias be-
cause the effects of the disturbance of surface coatings or accumulated products in the bottom of the well
would be difficult, if not  impossible, to predict.  In comparison with glass, plastic, and coated-steel sur-
faces, galvanized metal  presents a rather active surface for adsorption of orthophosphate. The age of the
surface and  the total area of exposure have been  found to be  important variables in the adsorption
process.  However,  adsorption is not a linear function of the galvanized-metal surface area.

     Field data for conventional and  galvanized steels  provide additional reasons for the use of caution
when choosing these materials for well casings or screens.  The water well industry  routinely chooses alter-
native nonconductive or corrosion-resistant materials in areas  where normal groundwater conditions are
known to attack the common steels.  Regional or local practices in the selection of water well construction
materials provide valuable preliminary guides for routine monitoring efforts.    Pumps Used in Development

     The large variety of centrifugal, peristaltic, impeller, and submersible pump designs precludes an in-
depth discussion of their potential effects on the results of groundwater monitoring efforts.  According to
the  situation, the compatibility of the materials found in high-capacity pumps with subsurface conditions
must be carefully considered.  The methodology of  monitoring well  development (see Exhibit 8.5-20)  is
probably far  more critical than the pumping mechanism or water-contacting materials.  Use of a Teflon, air-
driven,  well-development device with filtered air or compressed breathing-grade air minimizes the potential
effects on groundwater monitoring.    Grouts, Cements,  Muds, and Drilling Fluids

     Various drilling aids, cements, and sealant formulations are used to achieve two main goals:  (1) to
maintain an open borehole in rotary and cable tool operations in unconsolidated formations, and (2) to ef-
fect a seal between the surface or overlying formations and the casing or screened intervals so that runoff
or other sources of water do not enter the wellbore.

                      Exhibit 8.5-20
Flattened nozzle with
   1/8" opening
                                    3/8" OD stainless or
                                       copper pipe
                                     Overall dimension
                                      less than 1-%"
        1/8" diameter hole (both sides)

    Water-based drilling fluids are usually used in freshwater applications where the total-dissolved-solids
content of groundwater is below 10,000 mg per liter. The fluids are introduced for several purposes includ-
ing cooling and lubricating the bit, suspending and removing cuttings, stabilizing the borehole by building
up  a cake on the sides of the  hole, and minimizing formation damage that results from water loss or
penetration of solids.
    There are three main types of freshwater muds:  (1) bentonite, attapulgite, or clay-based muds with pH
adjusted to between 9 and 9.5 with caustic; (2) polymer-extended  clay (organic) muds; and (3) inhibited
clay muds that use lignosulfonates or lignin to counteract the effects of contaminants that would otherwise
destabilize the slurry and prevent effective cutting removal. The first two types of mud are used most fre-
quently in water-well drilling applications.  Both of these mud formulations and a spectrum of combined
compositions have been used in the construction of monitoring wells.  The main distinction between ben-
tonite and organic muds is the addition of natural or synthetic organic polymers to adjust consistency, vis-
cosity, or surface tension.
For monitoring applications where conditions permit, augering, air-rotary, or clear-water rotary drilling tech-
niques have a distinct advantage over the use of drilling muds.  It is preferable to introduce the least pos-
sible amount of foreign materials into the borehole. Compressor lubricants for air-rotary rigs may rule out
this method for trace organic monitoring work, although filters are available to minimize such problems. In
geologic situations in which water-based drilling fluids are a necessity, the predominantly inorganic clay
muds are preferable over those containing organic materials, because the introduction of these organics
can  lead  to  substrates microbial activity that can seriously affect the  integrity of water samples. The
decomposition of the organic components of drilling muds may  be expected to be a function of their
chemical structure, the microbial populations, the presence of nutrients, and various physical and chemical
factors controlling the distribution of organic substances in the subsurface.
    Inorganic clay muds do have disadvantages.  If these materials are not completely removed during the
 development process, attenuation of organic and metal contaminants in the groundwater may be caused
 by the highly sorptive bentonite muds. In zones where concentrations of contaminants are in the low parts
 per billion (ppb) range, this phenomenon may be very important.
    Seals, grouts, and cements are the primary safeguards against the migration of water from the surface
 and from overlying or adjacent formations into monitoring wells. Faulty seals or grouts can seriously bias
 the analytical results on water samples from the formation of interest, particularly if water quality conditions
 vary or surface soils are badly contaminated.  The impact of leaking seals may go far beyond the realm of
 analytical interferences or nonrepresentative samples.  A leaky wellbore may act as a conduit to permit
 rapid contamii  nt  migration that otherwise would  not have occurred.   This aspect  of  a groundwater
 monitoring program should not be left to an unsupervised drilling crew, and last-minute substitutions for
 preferred materials should not be made.  Surface  seals must also be completed with concern for the
 security at the wellhead by including casing sheaths and locking caps.  Most seals between the formation
 of interest and regions above or below are made by adding clay materials or cement.

    Bentonite clay can increase in volume by 10 to 15 times after wetting with deionized water.  Variations
 in the composition of the  contacting solution can severely reduce the swelling of clay seais.  Swelling
 volumes of 25 to 50 per cent of the maximum values are not uncommon.  The organic content of the solu-
 tion in contact with the clay can have a dramatic effect on the integrity of the seal. Organic compounds
 can cause significant disruption of normal shrinking, swelling, or dehydrating of the clay lattice during alter-
 nate wetting and drying cycles.  Alcohols, ketones, and other polar organic solvents have a  significant
 potential for these changes. On the microscopic level,  these phenomena  can materially increase  the per-

meability of the clay seal.  This active area of research has wide application in the fields of well construc-
tion, landfill liners, and slurry or grout cutoff walls. Macroscopic changes in the permeability of clay or ce-
ment seals can occur because of solution channeling by aggressive solvents, compaction or subsidence,
and freezing and thawing processes at the surface.  Chemical-resistant and expanding cement formula-
tions effectively minimize these problems.   Evaluation of Sample Collection Materials

    The choices of sample collection devices, procedures, and all materials that ultimately contact water
samples are probably the most critical considerations in a groundwater monitoring program. The monitor-
ing program planner must evaluate the collection mechanisms and all materials to determine whether they
would introduce interference or bias into the final analytical result. For example, a collection mechanism
that creates turbulent transfer of the sample and the opportunity for gas exchange (e.g., air-lift pumping
mechanisms) is clearly inappropriate in sampling for volatile organic compounds and pH- or redox-sensi-
tive chemical species.

    The following are desirable attributes for sample collection materials:
    •   Durability

    •   Ability to be decontaminated and cleaned effectively to prevent cross-contamination between sam-
        pling points (i.e., low permeation of material by contaminants)

    •   Verified low potential for introducing contamination, bias, or interferences into the analytical results
    Each of these attributes plays an important role in the overall performance of monitoring efforts and
bears directly on the successful retrieval of representative water samples.  The combinations of com-
ponents in pumps (or other samplers) and the properties of polymeric and elastomeric materials for tubing
or transfer lines make the selection of the sample collection apparatus difficult.

    Apart from the actual sampling mechanisms, the materials used for a sampler are of prime importance.
Fortunately, most devices are constructed in different models for specific situations.  For example, bailers
are fabricated in Teflon, stainless / Teflon, stainless / PVC 1, or PVC 1. These  materials satisfy the major
specifications.  Problems arise with nonrigid components of samplers.  A single pair of 0-rings may limit
the application of a device.

    Teflon incorporates most of the characteristics of an ideal sampling material. It is, however, a difficult
material to machine, and threaded  components are easily  damaged.   For  chemical  resistance and
durability, several materials other than stainless steel may be expected to perform satisfactorily in low-or-
ganic environments.  These materials include polypropylene, linear polyethylene,  plasticized PVC, Viton,
and conventional polyethylene.  Viton  is a preferred material for elastomeric parts since it may be expected
to give improved chemical resistance over silicone and neoprene.

    Tubing and transfer lines are available in a variety of polymeric  or elastomeric materials. Certain ap-
plications (e.g., peristaltic or bladder pumps) demand a high- resiliency material, and it may be necessary
to sacrifice chemical resistance to achieve the desired structural performance. The bulk of common tubing
materials, except for Teflon, contains  a wide range of additives.  Plasticizers, lubricants, antistatic agents,
tackifiers, and other ingredients  may  be present in flexible synthetic materials.   In general, true polymers
(e.g., polyolefins like polyethylene and polypropylene)  contain much lower amounts of such ingredients.
Formulations change frequently  as manufacturers strive to keep production  costs low, so a particular

material may show significant variation from lot to lot.  Plasticizers are frequently present at levels between
15 and 50  percent of the total weight of flexible products.  As a result of this fact and because of the
widespread use of plastic, major plasticizers, such as phthalate esters, have been consistently identified in
environmental samples.

    Teflon  is the tubing material of choice in monitoring for low-level organic compounds in complex,
chemically aggressive environments.  Polyethylene and polypropylene are clearly superior plastic materials
when Teflon is not cost-effective.  Silicone rubber tubing for moving components is a special case in which
alternate choices of material may not be feasible.  The material is available in several grades that  have
widely varying compositions and additives.  Metallic contamination  from certain laboratory  grades of
silicone rubber tubing can be quite serious at the ppb level. Iron and zinc concentrations two to five times
those of control samples are not uncommon even after short contact times.  Medical grade silicone rubber
tubing is, however, relatively free of unreacted organic initiators (peroxides) or zinc.  Silicone rubber tubing
is generally a poor choice of sampler for detailed organic analytical schemes. Other elastomeric materials,
such as natural rubber, latex, neoprene, or chloroprene, are not recommended for transfer lines or surfaces
that contact groundwater samples.

    Little information  is available  on the performance of flexible materials  in  groundwater applications.
From the available observations, Teflon, polypropylene, and linear polyethylene may be expected to out-
perform plasticized PVC, since they have superior chemical  resistance over a range of environments and
are less likely to cause contamination or bias problems. Microbial transformation of additives in plastics in-
troduces another dimension to the problem posed by materials with high concentrations of additives.
There are a number of reports on the microbial colonization of flexible PVC and the degradation of plas-
ticizers from the polymer matrix.     Groundwater Sampling Considerations

    The importance of proper sampling of wells cannot be overemphasized. Even though the well being
sampled may be correctly located and constructed, special precautions must be taken to ensure that the
sample taken from that well is representative of the groundwater at that location and that the sample is
neither altered nor contaminated by the sampling and handling procedures.
    To select proper sampling procedures, it is essential that sampling objectives be firmly established
 before field activities begin.  These objectives will dictate the parameters to be measured, the reliability of
 the water quality data, and the analytical methodology, which determines the sampling procedures neces-
 sary to meet these objectives.  In addition, the physical limitations of the well, depth to water, length and
 location of the well screen, availability of power, and accessibility of the well site all have a bearing on the
 practical application of various sampling procedures.
    Sample withdrawal mechanisms should  be completely inert;  economical  to  manufacture; easily
 cleaned, sterilized, and reused; able to be operated at remote sites in the absence of external power sour-
 ces; and capable of delivering  continuous but variable flow rates for well flushing and sample collection.
 Sampling equipment is described in Subsection 8.1. The physical characteristics  of the well  largely deter-
 mine the sampling mechanism to be used for inorganic and nonvolatile organic analysis. Volatile organics
 are usually sampled with Teflon or stainless steel bailers, and extra care should be used to handle samples.

    Before use, all sampling devices should be carefully cleaned.  A dilute hydrochloric acid rinse followed
 by successive rinses with deionized water,  acetone, and distilled organic-free water  is routinely used.  In
 badly contaminated situations, a hot-water detergent wash  before the above rinsing  procedure  may be
 necessary.  Hexane rinses before the final distilled inorganic water rinse will aid in  the removal of sparingly
 soluble organic materials before sampling for low-level organic pollutants.


    The static water level should be measured and recorded at the time of sampling.  Water levels can be
obtained using one of the devices discussed previously.  In older wells not previously sampled, the bottom
of the well should be established by sounding.
    To obtain a representative sample of the groundwater, a volume of stagnant water in the wellbore must
first be purged. The recommended length of time required to pump or bail a well before sampling depends
on the well and aquifer characteristics, the type of sampling equipment being used, and the parameters
being sampled.  A common procedure is to pump or bail the well until at least three to five bore-volumes
have been removed. A more reliable method is to pump or bail until the measurements of pH, temperature,
and specific conductance have stabilized over three well volumes.
    In the case of monitoring wells that will not yield water at a rate adequate to be effectively flushed, dif-
ferent procedures must be followed.  One suggested procedure includes removing water to the top of the
screened interval to prevent the exposure of the gravel pack or formation to atmospheric conditions. The
sample is then taken at a rate that would not cause rapid drawdown.  The wells may also be pumped dry
and allowed to recover. The samples should be collected as soon as a volume of water sufficient for the in-
tended analytical scheme  reenters the well.  Exposure of water entering the well for periods longer than 2
to 3 hours may render samples unsuitable and unrepresentative of water contained within the aquifer sys-
tem. In these cases, it may be desirable to collect small volumes of water over a period of time, each time
pumping the well dry and allowing it to recover.  Whenever full  recovery exceeds 3 hours, samples should
be collected in order of their volatility as soon as sufficient volume is available for a  sample for each analyti-
cal parameter or compatible set of parameters. Parameters that are not pH-sensitive or subject to loss
through volatilization should be collected last.  Few reliable data exist on when to choose one sampling
method over another in "tight" formations.
    To collect a sample for other than volatile organics analysis, the cap should be removed carefully from
the previously decontaminated sample bottle. The person doing the sampling should not lay the cap down
or touch the inside of the cap. At no time should the inside of the bottle come in contact with anything
other than the sample.  The bottle should be filled, in a manner to minimize aeration, to within 2.5 cm (1
inch) of the top. The cap should be replaced carefully, and the bottle should be placed in a cooler (4ฐC to
10ฐC) unless the sample is going to be processed immediately in the field.  Sampling equipment should be
decontaminated between samples. For volatile organic analysis, the bottles should be filled in a manner to
minimize aeration of the samples so that no headspace exists in the bottle.  No air bubbles should be
trapped in the bottle.

8.5.7   Information  Sources

    Barcelona, M.J., J.P. Gibb, and R.A. Miller. A  Guide to the Selection of Materials for Monitoring Well Con-
struction and Ground-Water Sampling.  ISWS Contract Report 327. Champaign, Illinois:  Illinois State Water
Survey. 1983.  78pp.

    Gillham, R.W., M.L  Robin, J.F. Banker, and J.A. Cherry. Groundwater Monitoring and Sample Bias. API.

    Scalf, M.R., J.F. McNoll, W.N. Dunlop, R.L Cosby, and J. Fryberger. Manual of Groundwater Sampling
Procedures.  NWWA/EPA Series. Ada, Oklahoma:  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Practical Guide to Groundwater Sampling. EPA 600/2-85-104.
Ada, Oklahoma: NTIS, ERL

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance
Document. EPA 530/SW-86-055 NTIS.  September 1986.

                                       SECTION 9



    Section 9 identifies the laboratory procedures used to determine the physical and chemical properties
of soil materials.  Procedures are given for volumetric, strength, and transport  relationship tests and for
testing chemical properties.

    The purpose of Section 9 is to provide  general guidance for the planning and  implementation of
laboratory testing of earth science materials for hazardous waste projects. This section provides both a
broad overview of the types of routine laboratory techniques available for use and a brief, genera! discus-
sion of their purpose and applicability. It also lists references to specific testing techniques and standards,
where available. The reader should  refer to Exhibit 9-1 for an index of test parameters as related to test

    Test types and techniques presented herein cover routine methods that may be applicable at the site
investigation, feasibility study, predesign, design, or construction phases of hazardous waste projects.

    This section is not intended to be all-inclusive, because the application of laboratory testing to a par-
ticular project, demands careful and knowledgeable planning and experimental design.  Detailed specifica-
tion is required for all work, for quality assurance (QA) and/or sampling plans, and for each laboratory test-
ing request, both for the U.S. EPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) and  for private laboratories. The
specifications should be included in work plan, QA plan, and/or sample plan.


    Definitions may be found in ASTM D653-82, Standard Definitions of Terms and Symbols Relating to Soil
and Rock Mechanics and in some of the individual test method terminology subsections.

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  This person is also referred to as the Site Project Manager  or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).


    Soil samples collected during field investigations may be analyzed using the procedures identified in
this section.  The analyses will determine the physical and chemical soil properties listed here. The results
of these procedures can be used in soils engineering determination, contaminant migration evaluation, and
design considerations.  Health  and safety aspects of using these test procedures  on contaminated
materials must be addressed in a site-specific,  or laboratory health and safety plan.

                                        Exhibit 9-1
9.6.3  Physical Properties  Soil   Index Property Tests
          Visual Classification
          Moisture Content
          Atterberg Limit
          Grain Size
          Specific Gravity
          Soil Classification
          Sand Equivalent
          Centrifuge Moisture
          Capillary-Moisture Relationship   Density Tests
          Unconfined Compression

          Moisture-Density Relationship

          Relative Density   Strength Tests
          Unconfined Compression
          Direct Shear
          Triaxiai Compression
          Vane Shear
          Moisture Penetration Resistance
          Bearing Ratio   Deformation Tests
          One-Dimension Consolidation
          Swell Test   Permeability Tests
          Undisturbed Samples (cohesive)
          Recompacted Samples  Rock   Index Property Tests
          Apparent Specific Gravity
          Soundness   Strength Tests
          Uniaxial Compressive Strength
          Direct Tensile Strength
          Splitting Tensile Strength
          Flexural Strength
D 2488-84
D 2216-80
D 4318-84
D 422-63
D 854-83
D 2487-85
D 2419-74
D 425-79
D 2325-68
D 3152-72
ASTMD 1587-83
ASTM D 3550-84
ASTM D 698-78
ASTMD 1557-78
ASTM D 4253-83
ASTM D 4254-83
ASTMD 2166-85
ASTM D 3080-72
ASTM D 2850-82
ASTM D 2573-72
ASTMD 1558-84
ASTM D 1883-73
ASTM D 2435-80
ASTM D 4546-85
ASTM D 2434-68
ASTM C 127-83
ASTM C 88-83
ASTM C 170-85
ASTM D 2936-84
ASTM D 3967-81
ASTM C 99-85

                                       Exhibit 9-1
                                      (continued)  Materials   Concrete
          Compressive Strength
          Extrained Air

          Flexural Strength

          Specific Gravity
          Splitting Tensile Strength
Soil Cement
Miscellaneous  Portland Cement
          Blended Hydraulic Cement  Asphalt Cement  Asphalt Stabilized Soils  Geotextiles
          Fabric Weight
          Fabric Thickness
          Grab Strength and Elongation
          Abrasion Resistance
          Puncture Resistance
          Mullen Burst Strength
          Trapezoid Tearing Strength
          Equivalent Opening Size (EOS)
          Planar Flow
          Normal Permeability
          Coefficient of Friction (soil to fabric)
          Coefficient of Friction (fabric to fabric)
          Alkali or Acid Stability
          Thermal Shrinkage
          Ultraviolet Stability
C 39-83
C 231-82
C 173-78
C 78-84
C 293-79
C 642-82
C 496-85
D 2901-82
D 806-74
D 558-82
D 559-82
D 560-82
                                                         ASTM C 150-85a
                                                         ASTM D 4223-83
                                                         ASTMD 751-79
                                                         ASTM D 3786-80a
                                                         ASTMD 1117-80
                                                         U.S. Army COE

                                      Exhibit 9-1
                                      (continued)   Geomembranes

          Specific Gravity
          Tensile Strength

          Tear Resistance
          Dimensional Stability
          Bonded Seam Strength

          Peel Adhesive

9.6.4  Chemical Properties of Soil and Rock  Waste Evaluation Procedures
     1.1   Ignitability
     1.2   Corrosivity
     1.3   Reactivity
     1.4   Extraction Procedure
     1.5   Mobility  Pollutant Analysis
     2.1   Organics

     2.2   Metals

     2.3   Total and Amenable Cyanide
     2.4   Total Organic Halides (TOX)
     2.5   pH
     2.6   Lime Requirement  Other Tests
     3.1   Cation Exchange Capacity
     3.2   Extractable Cations
     3.3   Exchangeable Hydrogen
     3.4   Total Soluble Salts--
          Electrical Conductivity
     3.5   Carbon
          Total Organic and Inorganic
     3.6   Sulfides
     3.7   Total Nitrogen
     3.8   Extractable Phosphorus
     3.9   Total Phosphorus
     3.10  Mineralogy
D 412-83
D 792-66
D 882-83
D 412-83
D 638-84
D 882-83
D 412-83
D 638-84
D 624-86
D 751-79
D 3083-79
D 751-79
D 413-82
EPA SW-846 1010, 1020
EPASW-8461110  .
EPA SW-846
EPA SW-846 1310
EPA SW-846 1410
EPA SW-846 8010-8310
EPA SW-846 7040-7951
EPA SW-846 9010



U.S. Army COE
EPA SW-846 9030
U.S. Army COE

                                        Exhibit 9-1
9.6.5  Compatibility Testing   Soil
     1.1   Clay
     1.2   Silt
     1.3   Sand
     1.4   Gravels/Aggregates  Rock  Materials
     3.1   Concrete
     3.2   Soil-Cement
     3.3   Portland Cement
     3.4   Asphalt Cement
     3.5   Asphalt Stabilized Soils
     3.6   Metal Products
     3.7   Plastic Products
     3.8   Wood Products
     3.9   Geotextiles
     3.10  Geomembranes
     3.11  Synthetic Drainage Media

9.6.6  Laboratory/Analysis Records   Sample Log
     6.1   Data Sheets
     6.2   Recordkeeping


   The SM or designee is responsible for ensuring that these procedures are followed. The SM may ap-
point the project geotechnical engineer or soil scientist as the responsible person.


   Records will be kept in a bound notebook with numbered pages (see also Sections 6 and 17).  Infor-
mation to be recorded includes the following:
    •  Project name and number; EPA work authorization number

    •  Date of sample collection

    •  Collector's name

    •  Sample location and depth

    •  Method of collection (see Section 8, Earth Sciences)

    •  Date of laboratory analysis

    •  Name of laboratory

    Other laboratory records specific to certain test procedures are discussed in the following subsections.


9.6.1  Introduction

    Most of the procedures described below are derived from the 1984 American Society of Testing and
Materials  (ASTM) Book of Standards, Section 4-Construction, Volume 04.08 Soil and Rock; Building Stones
(ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103.  734 pages). Revisions to some of these pro-
cedures are due soon.  In addition, certain procedures listed below have been found to be not wholly satis-
factory for work on  highly  contaminated materials.  Users of this compendium should review the  most
recent ASTM procedures for changes. Applicable ASTM standards should be included in work, QA, and
sample plans.  The subsection below discusses the evaluation of the suitability of a laboratory to conduct
the procedures, and it discusses the  various tests. The standards are listed  in the categories of sample
handling; physical tests (volumetric, strength, and transport relationships); chemical tests (mineralogy, cat-
ion exchange capacity, and distribution coefficient); and laboratory records.

9.6.2   Laboratory Selection    Evaluation of Agencies (Laboratories)

    The evaluation of agencies engaged in testing and inspecting materials used in engineering design and
construction is important to quality assurance goals.

    This subsection discusses criteria for the evaluation of a testing or inspection agency's organizational,
human, and physical resource capabilities. These criteria require disclosure of those factors on which the
objectivity of the agency can be judged.

    The reader should refer to ASTM D 3740-80 Standard Practice for the Evaluation of Agencies Engaged in
the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction and ASTM E 329-
77 (1983)  Standard Recommended Practice for Inspection and  Testing Agencies for  Concrete,  Steel, and
Bituminous Materials as Used in Construction.    Sample  Integrity

    Methods of sample handling in the laboratory may affect the physical and chemical state of samples
and the reliability of the test  results.  Special attention should be given to how samples are transported,
stored, and prepared for laboratory testing.  Guidance is available in some ASTM standards for particular

    Provisions for handling samples generally include the following:

    •   Temperature and humidity controls in the laboratory environment and storage areas

    •   Provisions for opening and reseating sample containers

    •   Tools for trimming and preparing samples
    Where sample quantity is limited, it may be possible to perform sequence testing so that the same
 sample can be used in multiple analyses. However, some sample types and some tests preclude reuse in
 subsequent analyses because of irreversible alteration of the sample.    Laboratory Safety

    The safe handling of samples in the laboratory depends on several factors that include design of the
 laboratory facilities; laboratory policies and procedures for sample handling, analysis, and disposal; and
 training of laboratory personnel in the safe  handling of samples, personal protection, and emergency pro-

    Earth sciences laboratories engaged in analyzing hazardous materials should have secure, ventilated
 storage and disposal  areas with controlled access; readily available safety equipment (e.g., fire extin-
 guishers, self-contained breathing  apparatus, safety shower,  eye wash station, first aid kit); ventilated
 hoods for the  handling and testing of samples; an emergency ventilation system  in case of accidental
 release of hazardous gases; routine inspection and maintenance of laboratory equipment (including safety

equipment); fire-resistant walls, doors, and  windows; an  emergency alarm system; and access to a
telephone with emergency numbers displayed.

    Laboratory policies should be established for using  protective clothing  and equipment; appropriate
training and medical surveillance of employees; collecting and disposing of hazardous  or toxic wastes;
monitoring  the laboratory atmosphere and equipment; investigating  and reporting laboratory accidents;
and working alone.  Spill prevention plans and a list of emergency procedures should be placed in a
prominent place, and employees should be familiar with the procedures.

9.6.3  Physical Properties    Soil   Index Property Tests

Visual Classification
    Purpose:  The visual classification of soils allows convenient and  consistent comparison of soils using
a standard  descriptive method. The use of this classification method  provides a basis for comparing soils
from widespread geographic areas.

    Synopsis:  By visual observation, a soil is assigned  to one of three primary groups: coarse-grained
soils (gravels and sand); fine-grained soils (silts and clays); and organic soils (soils containing organic mat-
ter, such as decayed roots,  leaves, grasses, and other fibrous vegetable matter).  After the soil is assigned
to one of the primary groups, other visual and'physical characteristics are observed, such as color, odor,
moisture condition, and structural characteristics.

    Methods:   ASTM D 2488-84, Standard Practice for Description of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure).

    Limitations and Precautions:   The ability to visually classify soils requires practice and experience.
Laboratory test ASTM D 2487-85 should verify visual classifications.
Moisture Content
    Purpose:   The moisture content test determines the mass of water contained in a given mass of soil.
The results are usually presented as the mass of water divided by the mass of dry solids, expressed as a
percentage. Moisture content (along with unit weight and specific gravity of solids) provides the basis for
determining the phase relationships of a soil. A comparison of the field moisture content of a soil with its
index properties (such as Atterberg Limits) may be useful in estimating soil consistency, compressibility,
and strength.

    Synopsis:  A sample of the soil is weighed as received, dried for 24 hours at 105ฐC, and then weighed
again. The difference in mass is attributable to water loss  during drying.  Results are presented as the
water mass divided by the dry solids mass, expressed as a percentage.

    Methods:  ASTM D 2216-80, Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil,
Rock, and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures.

    Limitations and Precautions:  It is important to prevent moisture content changes during sampling,
shipping, and handling. Precautions may include sealing the sample in wax, foil, plastic,  or a combination
thereof or shipping the entire sample in the Shelby tube used for sampling.


    Organic soil that contains items such as wood, fibers, or decayed vegetation demands careful monitor-
ing, since drying at high temperature may destroy some of the organic matter.  Organic chemicals may be
driven off and their mass mistaken as water.
Atterberg Limits
    Purpose:  The Atterberg Limits include liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), and plasticity index (PI),
which are used for the following:

    •  To assist in classification of soils

    •  To indicate soil consistency (when compared with natural moisture content)

    •  To provide correlation to soil properties, including compressibility and strength

    Synopsis: LL is the moisture content at which a soil becomes liquid and flows to close standard-size
groove when subjected to 25 impacts in the standard test device.  PL is the moisture content at which soil
becomes plastic,  as demonstrated by the moisture content causing incipient crumbling to occur in the soil
when it is rolled into  1/8-inch threads. PI is the difference between the LL moisture content and the PL
moisture content; it represents the range between plastic and liquid states of the soil.

    A soil sample is prepared by starting the test at either natural or air-dried moisture content.

    Methods:  ASTM D 4318-84, Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Soils may exhibit different liquid and plastic limits if they are prepared
from  air-dried or natural moisture conditions.  The liquid limit device must be calibrated  before  use.
Operator error in  applying insufficient or excessive pressure or improper rolling rates while performing the
plastic limit procedure may affect results.
Grain Size
    Purpose:  Grain size distribution is used to assist in classifying soils and to provide correlation with
soil properties that include permeability and  capillarity.  In addition, grain-size analyses are essential  for
adequate assessment and design of such specific features as granular drains, filters, well screens, and
gravel pack materials.

    Synopsis:  Three general procedures used to determine the grain-size distribution of soil include sieve
analysis, hydrometer analysis, and a combined analysis. A sieve analysis consists of shaking soil through
a stack of progressively finer meshed screens, each with a  known opening size, and determining the por-
tion (by weight) of particles retained on each  sieve. The hydrometer analysis is based on Stoke's Law for
the velocity of a freely falling sphere; the method determines the settling rate of soil particles by measuring
the density of the soil-water solution and calculating the particle size in suspension at particular time inter-
vals.  The combined procedure consists of both the sieve and hydrometer analyses to determine the grain
size distribution throughout the full range of particle sizes.

    Methods: ASTM D 422-63, (reapproved 1972), Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Because the hydrometer method is extremely sensitive to a number of
variables, the accuracy of fine-grained soils  distribution is more questionable than that of the  coarser-
grained soils. The hydrometer analysis may be more sensitive to interferences from hazardous materials
than the sieve analysis.

Specific Gravity
    Purpose:   The specific gravity of soil particles is used in determining the phase relationships of air,
water, and solids in soils.  For example, specific gravity can be used to determine unit weights that are
used in pressure, settlement, and stability problems.

    Synopsis:   The specific gravity of a soil is the ratio of the weight in air of a given volume of soil par-
ticles to the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at 4ฐC.  A pycnometer (volumetric bottle) is
calibrated, and a known weight of a soil slurry is introduced into the pycnometer. The pycnometer is
evacuated of dissolved air.  It is then weighed, and the temperature of the slurry is recorded. The specific
gravity of the soil particles is calculated using the dry weight of the original soil sample; the weight of the
pycnometer, soil, and water; and the weight of the pycnometer plus water.

    Methods:  ASTM D 584-84, Test Method for Specific Gravity of Soils.

    Limitations and Precautions: It  is generally recommended that soils containing soluble salts should
be slurried using kerosene. This, coupled with any hazardous waste within the soil being tested, may
greatly alter the specific gravity as calculated. Also, kerosene and hazardous materials may be susceptible
to fire or explosion.  This  test is susceptible to  sources of error  in the measurement  of weights and
temperature because the equation used involves the differences in weights, which are small compared to
the weights themselves.
Soil Classification Systems
    Purpose:    Soil classification systems attempt to group soils having similar engineering behavior
(based on index tests).  A number of classification systems have been developed, each for a specific ap-
plication. For example, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) has a classification system based on the
frost susceptibility of soils.  The Bureau of Public Roads has a classification based on the applicability of
soils to highway construction.  The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the COE have developed a
classification system for soils used in airfield construction. The Bureau of Reclamation and the COE have
developed a classification system intended for use in all types of engineering problems that involve soils.
The system most generally accepted for a wide range of engineering applications is the Unified Soil Clas-
sification System (USCS).

    Synopsis:   Soil classification systems generally use index test methods to permit rational grouping of
soils. Some of the specific index test methods that are applicable to soil classification are discussed else-
where in this section (see Index Property Tests, Subsection

    Methods:  ASTM D 2487-85, Test Method for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes.  Addi-
tional methods are forthcoming.

    Limitations  and Precautions:  Caution must be used in solving problems of flow, strength, compres-
sibility, and stability strictly on the information provided by a soil classification system. Many empirical cor-
relations  between indexes and soil properties and behavior have large deviations.
Sand Equivalent
    Purpose: A sand equivalent test is performed to allow an estimation of the amount of clay-like or plas-
tic fines in a granular soil. The test takes little time to perform and, therefore, may be used in either the field
or the laboratory as a quick check on the relative amount of fines in a granular soil. The results of the test
can be used for controlling types of materials placed in earthworks.

    Synopsis:   A known volume of granular soil is placed with a flocculating agent into  a graduated
cylinder and is shaken, which loosens clay-like or plastic fines.  The material is then irrigated with more
flocculating agent. The granular soil settles, and the clay-like particles are forced into suspension. The
height of the granular soil and the flocculated clay-like particles are measured.  The sand equivalent is the
ratio of the height of sand to the height of clay-like material, times 100.

    Methods:  ASTM D 2419-74  (reapproved 1979), Test Method for Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and
Fine Aggregate.

    Limitations and  Precautions: The test results should be interpreted as an empirical value of the rela-
tive amount of fine material in the sample tested. Sample selection and variations in segregation as a result
of handling may significantly alter test results.  Hazardous materials within the sample in combination with
the flocculating agent may create  unusable results.  This test is not intended to replace either ASTM D 422
or D 1140.
Centrifuge Moisture
    Purpose:  A centrifuge moisture test is performed to estimate the air-void ratio, the water-holding
capacity, or the specific retention of a soil. Test results are used in the phase relationships of soils, which
can be used as index properties. The results are also used  in estimating the amount of water that can be
removed from a soil in the laboratory or in situ, by gravity drainage.

    Synopsis: Duplicate soil samples are obtained, prepared, and saturated with distilled water. They are
then placed in a centrifuge, held at a constant temperature, and accelerated to a force equal to 1,000 times
the force of gravity.  The speed of the centrifuge is held constant for 1 hour; the specimens are removed
and the mass of dry soil is obtained.

    Methods: ASTM D 425-79, Test Method for Centrifuge Moisture Equivalent of Soils.

    Limitations  and  Precautions:   The test results are affected by temperature and by the equipment
used in the test.  Results are for extremely small samples, and extrapolation to in situ soils or consideration
of scale effects must be used with proper engineering judgment.
 Capillary-Moisture Relationships
    Purpose:  The capillary-moisture test is performed to estimate the specific retention of a soil. Specific
 retention is also referred to as field capacity or water-holding capacity.  The specific retention  is used in
 determining the specific yield of soil, which is the ratio of the drainable volume to the bulk volume of a soil

    Synopsis:  A saturated soil sample is placed in contact with a saturated porous plate or membrane. A
 pressure drop is  induced across the plate or membrane. The soil samples establish equilibrium with the
 plate or membrane, and water that is held at a tension less than the pressure drop will flow out  of the soil
 through a drain hose. When equilibrium is reached for a given tension, flow will stop and the moisture con-
 tent of the sample can be determined.  A series of tests is performed at varying tensions, and a curve of
 moisture content versus tension is prepared.

    Methods:  ASTM D 2325-68 (reapproved  1981), Test Method for Capillary Moisture Relationships for
 Coarse and Medium-Textured Soils by Porous-Plate Apparatus; and ASTM D 3152-72 (reapproved 1977),
 Test Method for Capillary Moisture Relationship for Fine-Textured Soils by Pressure-Membrane Apparatus.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Results of the test provide only an indication of the capillary-moisture
relationship of the soil tested.  Extrapolation of laboratory results to field or in situ conditions must be used
with proper engineering judgment.    Density Tests

Undisturbed Samples
    Purpose:  Undisturbed unit weight or density of undisturbed samples is used to determine the phase
relationships for soils and for correlation to soil properties.

    Synopsis:  A sample of undisturbed soil is obtained in conformance with the appropriate sampling
standards described below. The sample is weighed and measured for length, width, and height.  The den-
sity (unit weight) is calculated as the sample weight divided by sample volume. With the moisture content
of the sample, the dry unit can be calculated.

    Methods:   ASTM D 1587-83, Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils;  and ASTM D 3550-87,
Practice for Ring-Lined Barrel Sampling of Soils.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The term  "undisturbed" is a  relative term.  Disturbance may  occur
during sampling, shipment, and sample preparation. This disturbance may or may not be of consequence
in determining the unit weight of the soil.  Proper engineering judgment and familiarity with the type of soil
sampled will minimize the effects of sample disturbance.

Moisture-Density Relationships
    Purpose:  Laboratory determinations of moisture-density relationships are used in the phase relation-
ships of soils, in specifying density for other laboratory tests, and for comparing in-place field densities to
laboratory standard curves for construction of earthwork control.

    Synopsis:  A soil sample is obtained and divided into at least four specimens.  Each specimen is
prepared by adjusting the moisture content and  compacting into a volumetric mold  using a specified ener-
gy. A relationship is developed between the dry unit weight and the percentage of  moisture content for
each specimen. The results are generally presented in the form of a curve showing the relationship of dry
density versus moisture content.

    Methods:  ASTM D 698-78,  Test Methods for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Soil-Aggregate
Mixtures Using 5.5-lb Rammer and 12-in. Drop;  and ASTM D 1557-78, Test Methods for Moisture-Density
Relations of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures Using 10-lb Rammer and 18-in. Drop.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The methods used to determine compaction  densities are generally
applicable to fine-grained soils or to those that are not free draining. The methods have been used on free-
draining soils.  However, a well-defined relationship between soil density and moisture may not exist,  and
engineering judgment is required to interpret the results.

Relative Density
    Purpose:   The relative density expresses the degree of compactness of a soil with respect to mini-
mum and maximum index densities.

    Synopsis:  The minimum index density  is obtained by pouring the soil as loosely as possible into a
volumetric mold.  Weight and volume relationships are determined, and a minimum density is obtained.
The maximum index density is  obtained by  placing the soil  in a volumetric mold,  placing a surcharge
weight on top of the soil, and then densifying the soil by vibration using a specified amplitude and frequen-


    Methods:  ASTM D 4253-83, Test Methods for Maximum Index Density of Soils Using a Vibratory
Table; and ASTM D 4254-83, Test Methods for Minimum Index Density of Soils and Calculation of Relative

    Limitations and Precautions:   The determination of relative density is subject to variations in the
vibration apparatus used and in the degree of care used  to determine minimum density. Materials with
greater than approximately 8 per cent fines (i.e., fines are silts and clays) are generally not appropriate for
the relative density determination; other methods of determining density should be used  (i.e., laboratory
moisture-density relationships).   Strength Tests

Unconflned Compression
    Purpose::  The unconfined compressive strength provides an indication of the strength of the soil in
unsaturated,  undrained conditions without lateral confinement on the sample.  Unconfined compression
test results assist in evaluating the consistency of soils and  can be used in stability analyses of foundations,
excavations, and embankments.

    Synopsis:  A cylindrical soil sample is prepared and loaded in uniaxial compression to failure. The un-
confined compressive strength is determined as the peak  uniaxial stress that is twice the maximum shear

    Methods:  ASTM D 2166-85 (reapproved 1979), Test  Methods for Unconfined Compressive Strength
of Cohesive Soil.

    Limitations and Precautions:   Strength estimates based on the unconfined compression test are
only approximate estimates of the in situ strength of soil because of effects of disturbance, lack of confine-
ment, and unsaturation in test samples.   Strain rates, sample  preparation,  and  sample disturbance may
alter the results of the test.
Direct Shear
    Purpose:  The results of the direct shear test are generally used in stability and strength analyses for
foundations, excavations, and embankments.

    Synopsis:  A soil sample is placed and consolidated within a direct shear box, which allows horizontal
loading and differential movement of the top half of the sample.  Soil samples are sheared  horizontally
under different normal loads. A plot of maximum shear stress versus normal stress is presented for each
normal load. The resulting relationship of normal stress to maximum shear stress provides the shear stress
parameters of cohesion intercept and angle of internal friction.

    Methods:   ASTM D 3080-72 (reapproved  1979), Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Con-
solidated Drained Conditions.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The test is generally performed on granular soils, but it has been used
for fine-grained soils. Because the direct shear test does not allow control or measurement of some impor-
tant factors in the test (e.g., pore pressure, actual state of stress), experienced judgment must be used in
interpreting and  applying the  results.  Pore pressure  increase or decrease during shear may occur,
depending on the rate of shear and soil type.

Triaxial Compression
    Purpose:  Triaxial compression tests are used to determine the strength of soils; these tests have an
advantage in that many of the important factors that control soil  strength can be simulated in  the test.
These factors include preloading conditions of the soil, initial stress state in the soil, drainage conditions
during loading, and stress changes during soil loading.  Triaxial test results are used for stability analyses
of foundations, excavations, and embankments.

    Synopsis:   A cylindrical soil specimen  is prepared and installed within a rubber membrane and is
placed within the triaxial testing cell.  A predetermined lateral or  confining pressure  is applied,  and the
sample is loaded until the maximum stress constituting failure is reached. The test may be performed at a
controlled strain  rate or at a controlled stress rate.

    Methods:   ASTM D 2850-82, Test Method for Unconsolidated, Undrained Compressive Strength of
Cohesive Soils in Triaxial Compression.

    Limitations  and Precautions:  A thorough discussion of triaxial testing is beyond the scope of this
subsection. Application  of triaxial testing demands careful attention to,  and  clear specification of, test
methods to properly simulate desired conditions; use of "standard"  methods can be made only in the most
general sense. These tests should be used only under the direct supervision of a geotechnical engineer.
Vane Shear
    Purpose:  The vane shear test provides a rapid estimate of the shear strength of a cohesive soil.  It is
useful for approximating allowable soil pressures, safe slopes, and lateral soil pressures on buried struc-
tures.  This estimate of shearing resistance may also be compared with empirical results of similar soils
with regard to strength properties.

    Synopsis:   The vane shear instrument consists of a bladed vane on the end of a rod.  The vane is
pushed into the soil sample and rotated. The maximum torque required to turn the vane is measured and
the results can be used to compute the shearing resistance of the soil.  A torvane is a small vane shear in-
strument that can be pushed into a flat surface of a soil specimen.  It gives only a general indication of the
shearing resistance of cohesive soils.

    Methods: ASTM D 2573-72 (reapproved), Test Method for Field Vane Shear Test in Cohesive Soil.

    Limitations and Precautions: The shearing resistance obtained by the torvane is only an estimate of
the actual resistance that may exist in a soil mass.  Operator procedure and instrument condition  may
greatly affect the results of the test. The pocket torvane is useful only as a rough indicator of soil consisten-
cy. This test is applicable only to fine-grained soils.
Moisture-Penetration Resistance
    Purpose:   Moisture-penetration tests are used to develop a correlation between penetration of a
standard-size penetrometer needle and the density at a specific moisture content of a soil.  The results of
the test allow rapid collection  of estimates of densities and  moisture content for various soils used in

    Synopsis:   The resistance of the soil to penetration is determined on each soil sample by penetration
of the sample with a soil penetrometer, which consists of a spring-loaded tube with a graduated pressure
scale and a needle of known length and end area. The penetration-pressure reading is divided by the area
of the needle and presents values of force per unit area. The results are presented as plot of the penetra-
tion resistance values versus moisture content of the samples.


    Methods:  ASTM D  1558-84, Test Method for Moisture Content Penetration Resistance Relations of
Fine-Grained Soils.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Penetration resistance of granular or extremely dry soils is difficult; the
results obtained, if any, may not be applicable.

Bearing Ratio
    Purpose:  This test determines the bearing ratio of a compacted soil by comparison of the penetration
toad of the compacted soil with that of a standard crushed gravel material. The results of the test are used
with empirical relationships in evaluating the relative strength of near surface soils to be used as roadways.
    Synopsis:  A sample is divided into at least four equal portions, the moisture content is adjusted, and
the sample is compacted in accordance with ASTM D 698 or D 1557.  The sample is surcharged with a
predetermined weight, and a penetration piston is seated on the sample. A load is applied to the sample
through the penetration piston at a specified strain  rate.  Load versus penetration is recorded during the
test. A load-versus-penetration curve is prepared.  The bearing ratios are then calculated  by dividing the
loads from the test by standard loads of 1,000  psi and 1,500  psi. The bearing ratio reported for the soil is
normally based on 0.1 inch of penetration.

    Methods:   ASTM D 1883-73  (reapproved 1978),  Test Method for Bearing Ratio of  Laboratory-Com-
pacted Soils.

    Limitations and Precautions: The test is an empirical relationship that compares the penetration of
remolded  compacted soils to the penetration  of uniformly crushed  gravel material.  Proper engineering
judgment must be used in applying the results of this test.   Deformation Tests

One-Dimensional Consolidation
    Purpose:  The one-dimensional consolidation test results are used to predict the amount and rate of
settlement (or consolidation) of a soil mass subjected to sustained loads.

    Synopsis:   A  soil sample is trimmed  and placed  in a consolidation ring that restrains it  laterally.
Porous stones are placed on the top and the bottom of the sample to allow drainage of pore water. The
sample is then loaded, and the change in the sample height is recorded with time.  Loads are applied in in-
crements, and the test is repeated. The time-rate deformation of the sample is presented as plots of log of
time or square root of time versus deformation. Plots  of void ratio (or percent compression) versus log of
pressure curve are prepared for use in assessing total settlement.

    Methods:  ASTM D 2435-80, Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Sample disturbance, scale differences between a laboratory sample
and actual conditions, and interpretation of primary and  secondary  compression are areas requiring en-
gineering judgment in application of the test results.

Swell Test
    Purpose:   The swell test is used to determine the percentage of volume change  or the maximum
swelling pressure of a soil as a result  of changes in  moisture content.  The test results are used to deter-
mine the suitability of a soil for use in earthworks and to minimize the impact of swelling soils on engineer-
ing projects.

    Synopsis:  A sample is prepared and placed in a consolidation ring that provides lateral restraint. The
sample is subjected to a small vertical pressure, and water is introduced to the sample; the vertical expan-
sion with time or the force required to prevent expansion is then recorded.  A percentage of volume change
or swell pressure is presented as the results of the test.

    Methods:    ASTM D 4546-85, Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Settlement Potential of
Cohesive Soils.

    Limitations and  Precautions:   The results of the test will yield information on soils under extreme
conditions. Changes in moisture content, soil structure during sampling, sample handling, and preparation
will  lead to results that are only rough approximations.  Proper engineering judgment must be used in ap-
plying the test results to actual problems.    Permeability Tests

Undisturbed Samples (Cohesive)
    Purpose:   Permeability tests are performed to estimate the ability of a soil to transmit water under
saturated conditions.  Results of the permeability test are used to estimate the quantity and flowrate of
water through the soil.

    Synopsis:  The sample is trimmed, measured, weighed, placed in the triaxial cell, and back-pressure
saturated. The  sample can be consolidated to approximate anticipated field conditions.  Flow across the
sample is induced by application of differential pressure across the sample and is measured  until flow
reaches steady-state conditions.

    Methods:   No standard method exists at this time for performing the test. Information concerning the
generally accepted test methods is found in the references.

    Limitations  and  Precautions:    Test methods,  temperature, sample disturbance variability, and
sample preparation may affect the test results.
Recompacted Samples (Cohesionless and Cohesive)
    Purpose:  This permeability test is performed to estimate the permeability of a compacted soil. Per-
meability is a measure of the ease with which water can move through a compacted soil.  Results of the
permeability test are used to estimate the quantity and flowrate of water through embankments and liners.

    Synopsis:  Laboratory determination of permeability (also termed hydraulic conductivity) can be per-
formed as falling-head or constant-head tests. Permeameters that apply a constant head to the sample are
generally used to test noncohesive or granular soils.  Permeameters that apply a falling or varying head are
generally used to test cohesive or fine-grained soils.  Samples to be tested are prepared and generally
compacted to approximate field densities in the proper type of permeameter.  The flow through the sample
is initiated. For the constant-head permeameters, the quantity of flow through the sample versus time is
recorded. For the falling-head permeameter, the change in head or pressure across the sample and the
change in volume with respect to time are recorded.  Hydraulic conductivity is calculated by applying data
obtained during the test to Darcy's equation.

    Methods:  ASTM D 2434-68 (reapproved 1974), Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Con-
stant Head).  No  standard currently exists for performing the falling-head test.  Generally accepted test
methods are given in the references.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Laboratory samples are extremely small when compared to condi-
tions. Disturbance of samples occurs,  methods of testing are not universally standardized, and extrapola-
tion to field conditions may be approximate at best.  Determinations of the coefficient of permeability are
generally considered to be accurate only within an order of magnitude. Therefore, the quantities and the
rates of flow must also be considered accurate within an order of magnitude. These factors dictate the use
of proper engineering judgment in applying the results of a permeability test.    Rock    Apparent Specific Gravity

    Purpose:  The apparent specific gravity of rock is determined to obtain the rock unit weight (bulk den-
sity), from which vertical and horizontal loads on subsurface installations can be estimated.

    Synopsis:  Specimens of regular shape (cylinders or blocks) can be weighed, and the volume can be
determined by measurement. The apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of the specimen to the
weight of a volume of water having the same volume as the specimen. For irregularly shaped specimens,
each may be weighed in air and again while suspended and submersed in water. A formula can be used to
determine the apparent specific gravity.

    Methods:  ASTM C 127-83, Standard Test Methods for Absorption and Bulk Specific Gravity of Natural
Building Stones.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Depending on the  character of the rock in its natural deposits, the
overall bulk density of the deposits may be less than that estimated on the basis of the specific gravity of
the sample.  This difference is because joints and cavities and other discontinuities reduce the overall den-
sity of the natural deposits.    Uniaxial Compressive Strength

    Purpose:  The uniaxial compressive strength of the rock can be used as an indicator of rock quality
and can be used in forming judgments about the allowable bearing pressure for foundations.

    Synopsis:   A prismatic or cylindrical sample of rock is loaded to failure in a compression-testing
machine.  A record of stress versus strain is made to enable determination of the elastic modulus of the

    Methods:  ASTM C 170-85, Test Method for Compressive Strength of Natural Building Stone.

    Limitations and Precautions:   The number of factors that can affect the test results  significantly in-
cludes flatness of the bearing surfaces, specimen size and shape, moisture content in the specimen, effect
of friction  between the bearing  platens  and the specimens, alignment of the swivel head, and rate of load-
ing.  A standardized procedure to account for most of these factors has been proposed by the U.S. Bureau
of Mines.  The  most significant limitation of the uniaxial compressive strength test is that the strength of an
individual  specimen of rock in  a  laboratory will  probably not be representative of the strength of a large
mass of rock in the field.  An exception may be a massive  unjointed, unweathered rock deposit. Any dis-
continuities found  in the  rock  mass (such as fractures, joints,  and cavities) will lower the  compressive
strength of the rock mass.

-------    Direct Tensile Strength

    Purpose:  The direct tensile strength of rock is useful in calculating rock stability and strength in situa-
tions where the rock is stressed in tension.

    Synopsis:  A regularly shaped specimen of rock (usually cyclindrical) is cemented to grips or loading
heads that can be used to pull on the specimen without inducing undue local stress concentrations that
would cause premature failure of the specimen.  The specimen is then lowered in tension in  a testing
machine.  A record of stress versus strain can be made to compute the elastic modulus in tension.

    Methods: ASTM D 2936-84, Test Method for Direct Tensile Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens.

    Limitations and Precautions: The applied tensile load must be uniformly distributed over the end of
the specimen. The load must be  parallel to the specimen's central axis. The grips used for holding the
specimen must not produce significant lateral stresses in the specimen. The end of the specimen must be
perpendicular to the specimen's central axis within a very small tolerance.  As with other tests on rock
specimens, the laboratory properties of an individual specimen may not be representative of the properties
of a rock mass.  The behavior of  a rock mass  is primarily controlled by its imperfections,  such  as joints,
bedding  planes, fractures, and cavities, rather than by the mechanical properties of the individual particles
of rock in the mass.   Splitting Tensile Strength

    Purpose: The direct tensile strength of rock is useful primarily in calculating the permissible span of
roofs above openings in rock. It may also be useful in calculating allowable slopes for excavations in rock.

    Synopsis: A cylindrical test specimen of the rock is placed in a testing machine so that a load is ap-
plied to the sides of the cylinder along two lines 180 degrees apart.  The specimen  is then loaded  to failure.
Loading  in this manner generally results in a fracture that develops on a plane through the central axis of
the specimen and extends from one loading platen to the other.

    Methods:    ASTM  D 3967-81, Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of  Intact  Rock Core

    Limitations and Precautions:  Care must be taken to prevent local  stress concentrations at the load-
ing heads. The tensile strength that is determined from a splitting tensile test will generally be greater than
that determined from a  direct tensile test.  This result  occurs because the splitting tensile test forces the
plane of failure to be near the center of the specimen, whereas in the direct tensile test there is  a greater
opportunity for the specimen to fail at the weakest plane in the specimen.    Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture)

    Purpose: The flexural strength or modulus-of-rupture test provides a measure of the tensile strength
of the material when loaded as a  beam. This result can be used in the  stability analysis of conditions in-
volving rock flexural stresses.

    Synopsis:  A small rectangular specimen is supported on  either end on knife edges and is then
loaded at midpoint on the opposite side of the specimen until the specimen fails.

    Methods: ASTM C 99-85, Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Natural Building Stone.

    Limitations and Precautions:  A number of specimens should be tested, since this test will produce
variable results even with careful specimen preparation. Tests should be made both parallel to and perpen-
dicular to any naturally occurring planes of weakness in the rock.  The tensile strength determined by the
flexural test will generally be higher than that determined by the direct tensile test. The properties of the
rock mass will probably be less than those computed based on individual laboratory specimens because of
defects in the rock mass such as joints, bedding planes, fractures, and cavities.   Soundness

    Purpose:   This test  furnishes information that aids in judging the resistance of rock to weathering,
especially as a result of freezing and thawing.

    Synopsis:   Rock specimens are repeatedly submerged in saturated solutions of sodium or mag-
nesium sulfate and are oven dried to partially or completely dehydrate the salt-precipitated impermeable
pore spaces.  When the specimen is reimmersed, the rehydration of the salts creates an internal expansive
force that simulates the expansion of water when freezing.

    Methods:   ASTM C  88-83, Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or
Magnesium Sulfate.

    Limitations and Precautions:  This test is intended to give only a preliminary indication of the prob-
able weathering resistance of the rock material.  A better method  for judging the weathering durability of
rock material is to observe specimens that are the same material and that have been in service for a num-
ber of years.    Materials    Concrete

Compressive Strength
    Purpose:  The test determines the compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens,  such as
molded cylinders or drilled cores, for conformance to specifications of concrete primarily under compres-
sive loadings.

    Synopsis:   The test method consists of applying a compressive axial load to cylindrical concrete
specimens at a rate within a  prescribed range until  failure occurs.   The  compressive strength of the
specimen is calculated by dividing the maximum load attained during the test by the cross-sectional area
of the specimen.

    Methods:   Refer to ASTM C 39-83b, Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete

    Limitations and  Precautions:  Special sample handling and curing procedures  must be followed.
Testing equipment must be in  current  calibration to a standard  load.  The test result relates more to the
conformance of the concrete batch to the mix design  specified than to the actual strength of concrete in

Entrained Air
    Entrained air in concrete improves resistance to freezing and thawing damage in hardened concrete.

    Purpose:  The test determines the air content of freshly mixed concrete for conformance to specifica-

    Synopsis:  Freshly mixed concrete Is placed in a measuring bowl. A cover assembly containing an air
pump, gauge, and valves is sealed to the bowl.  The operation employs the principle of Boyle's law to ob-
serve the change In volume of the concrete with a change in pressure.

    Methods:   ASTM C 231 -82, Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure
Method; and ASTM C 173-78, Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric

    Limitations and Precautions:   Calibration of equipment is essential to achieve accurate test results.
Start tests within 5 minutes after obtaining the final portion of the composite sample.
Flexural Strength
    Concrete specimens are subjected to flexural or tension loadings. The test yields the flexural strength
of the concrete.

    Purpose:  The flexural strength of concrete is determined by the use of a simple beam specimen of
concrete with third-point loading.

    Synopsis:  A rectangular prism of hardened concrete is supported by two load-applying blocks near
each end. Two load-applying blocks are located on top of the specimen at third-points. A controlled rate
load is applied until failure. The modulus of rupture is calculated for the specimen.

    Methods:  ASTM C  78-84, Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with
Third-Point Loading); and ASTM  C 293-79, Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple
Beam with Center-Point Loading)  (not an alternative to C 78-84).

    Limitations and Precautions:  Special handling and curing procedures must be followed.  Testing
equipment must be in current calibration to a standard load.
 Specific Gravity and Absorption
    Purpose: This test determines the specific gravity, absorption, and voids in hardened concrete.  It is
 useful in developing data required for mass/ volume conversions for concrete, allowing conformance to
 specifications, and showing variability from place to place within a mass of concrete.

    Synopsis:  An oven-dried specimen of concrete is weighed in air, submerged for a period of time,
 weighed under saturated surface dry conditions, and then boiled for 5 hours. After cooling and reweighing
 surface dry, the  specimen is immersed and weighed in water.  The values of specific gravity, absorption,
 and voids are calculated from the measurements taken.

    Methods: ASTM C 642-82, Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Con-

    Limitations and Precautions:  Specimens may be pieces of cylinders, cores, or beams; specimens
must be free from observable cracks, fissures, or shattered edges.
Splitting Tensile Strength
    Purpose:   When tensile strength values are not available from concrete beam specimens or are re-
quired from existing structures, compressive strength cylinders or drilled cores may be used.  This test
method covers the determination of the splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimens, such as
molded cylinders or drilled cores.

    Synopsis:  The cylindrical specimen is positioned horizontally with a bearing plate or bar that extends
the full length of the specimen and that is diametrically opposed on the top and bottom.  A constant rate of
load is applied until failure of the specimen. The splitting tensile strength is calculated from the maximum
applied load and specimen dimensions.

    Methods:   ASTM C 496-85, Test Method for  Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete

    Limitations and  Precautions:   Special handling and curing procedures must be  followed.  Testing
equipment must be in current calibration to a standard load.  Special alignment jigs, bearing strips, and
loading apparatus are required.    Soil-Cement

    Purpose:   Proportions  of soil-cement mixtures are determined by trial batch mix designs.  Strength
and resistance to degradation of the mixture are evaluated by  compressive strength, flexural  strength,
moisture-density relationship, freezing and thawing, and wetting and drying tests. Soil-cement stabilization
may also be considered for solidification of some hazardous wastes.

    Synopsis:  Various amounts of cement are added to soil. The mixture is moistened to optimum water
content and is compacted into specimens.  The specimens are cured and removed from the molds for fur-
ther curing  and testing.  Samples are tested  at various intervals to determine compressive strength
development. Other specimens are run  through repetitive cycles of freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying
to identify the most appropriate proportions for the soil-cement mixture.

    Methods: ASTM D 2901-82, Test Method for Cement Content of Freshly Mixed Soil-Cement; ASTM D
806-74 (reapproved  1979), Test Method for Cement Content of Soil-Cement Mixtures;  ASTM  D 1632-63,
(reapproved 1979), Method for Making and  Curing Soil-Cement Compression and Flexural Test Specimens
in the Laboratory; ASTM D 1633-84, Test Method for Compressive Strength of Molded Soil-Cement
Cylinders; ASTM D 1634-63  (reapproved 1979), Test Method  for Compressive Strength of Soil-Cement
Using Portions of Beams Broken in Flexural (Modified Cube Method); ASTM D 1635-63 (reapproved 1979),
Test Method for Flexural Strength ot  Soil-Cement Using Simple Beam with Third-Point  Loading; ASTM D
558-82, Test Methods for Moisture-Density Relations of Soil-Cement Mixtures; ASTM D 559-82, Methods for
Wetting-and-Drying Tests of Compacted  Soil-Cement Mixtures; and ASTM D 560-82, Methods for Freezing-
and Thawing Tests of Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures.

    Limitations and Precautions: Not all soils are appropriate for soil-cement treatment, especially fine-
grained or clayed soils. Special equipment and space are required.

-------    Portland Cement, Blended Hydraulic Cement

    Purpose:  Several types of Portland cement are used to achieve specific properties when making con-
crete.  Blended hydraulic cements are also available in several types to provide specific properties. It is
beyond the scope of these procedures to present the physical property tests used to evaluate Portland ce-
ment and blended hydraulic cement.  The reader should refer to the methods listed below.

    Methods:   ASTM C 150-85a, Specifications for Portland Cement; and  ASTM C 595-86, Specification
for Blended Hydraulic Cements.    Asphalt Cement

    Purpose:  Several grades of asphalt cement are available for paving and using hydraulic mixtures with
aggregates.  It is beyond the scope of these procedures to present the physical property tests used to
evaluate asphalt cements.  The reader should refer to the methods listed in ASTM Volumes 04.03, 04.04,
and 04.08.    Asphalt-Stabilized Soils

    Purpose:   Emulsified or cutback asphalt may be blended with soil to increase strength and reduce
permeability to water.  Asphalt stabilized soils may also be considered for solidification of some hazardous
waste materials.

    Synopsis:  Specimens of soil-asphalt mixtures are prepared and tested for strength, specific gravity,
permeability, and stability to determine the most appropriate proportions of the soil-asphalt mixture.

    Methods: ASTM D 4223-83, Practice for Preparation of Test Specimens of Asphalt-Stabilized Soils.

    Limitations  and Precautions:  Special equipment and space are required.  Special handling  of as-
phalt materials and associated solvents is necessary.    Geotextiles

Fabric Weight
    Purpose:  The fabric weight is directly related to the fabric tensile strength and, therefore, provides an
index of strength.

    Synopsis:  The fabric weight test is conducted by cutting a sample of fabric and measuring its dimen-
sions and weight. The fabric weight is calculated as the total weight of the sample divided by its area.

    Methods:   ASTM D 3773-84, Test Method for Length of Woven Fabric, 07.01; ASTM D 3774-84, Test
Method for Width of Woven Fabric, 07.01; ASTM D 3775-85, Test Method for Fabric Count of Woven Fabric,
07.01; and ASTM D 3776-85, Test Methods for Mass per Unit Area (Weight) of Woven Fabric, 07.01.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Potential error is reduced by using as large a sample as possible.

Fabric Thickness
    Purpose:  The thickness of a geotextile is an index to its ability to absorb impacts and transport water
(for constant density).

    Synopsis:  A sample of fabric is placed on an anvil, and gradual pressure is applied by means of a
fixed-weighted, mechanical foot. The thickness (distance between the anvil and foot) is measured.

    Methods:  ASTM D 1777-64 (reapproved 1975), Method for Measuring Thickness of Textile Materials,

    Limitations and Precautions:   Different methods of finishing geotextiles  (e.g., spun-bonding, needle
punching, heat bonding) may alter the deformation properties of the material,  thus affecting the thickness
Grab Tensile Strength and Elongation
    Purpose:  The grab tensile test is the most commonly used strength and elongation index for woven
fabrics.  The test provides a good indication of strength and deformation during installation.

    Synopsis:  The grab tensile test involves using a specified size sample of fabric loaded in tension be-
tween two clamps. The clamps are moved apart at a constant rate until failure of the fabric is achieved.
The load at failure is the ultimate grab tensile strength; the deformation at failure is the elongation.

    Methods:  ASTM D  1682-64 (1975), Test Methods for Breaking Load and Elongation of Textile Fabrics,

    Limitations and  Precautions:   Because fabrics are often subjected to multidirectional stresses in ac-
tual use, this method  may not provide a good indication of the strength or deformations after placement.
    Purpose:  Creep tests of fabrics are used to assess potential loss of a reinforcing capability because
of time-dependent fabric deformation.

    Synopsis:  Creep tests are conducted by hanging a constant weight on a strip of fabric and measur-
ing the deformation (elongation) of the fabric over a period of time.

    Methods:  Standard methods are not currently available.  Creep tests must be carefully designed on a
case-by-case  basis  considering  the  specific  loading conditions anticipated.   Proprietary  methods
developed by manufacturers are available.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Creep tests that apply loads and measure deformation in  only one
direction have limited application to actual field conditions.
Abrasion Resistance
    Purpose:  Abrasion tests are used to assess the resistance of a fabric to wear by friction. Abrasion
may be a concern in applications where relative movement occurs frequently (perhaps cyclically) between
the fabric and adjacent soils or materials (e.g., under riprap at shoreline or under heavily loaded road or rail

    Synopsis:  Not applicable.

    Methods: No standards are currently available. The reader should refer to manufacturers for informa-
tion and methods.

    Limitations and  Precautions:   Current test methods may not be relevant to most hazardous waste
Puncture Resistance
    Purpose:   The puncture resistance is important in assessing the ability of a fabric to resist abuse
during installation (e.g., compaction of gravels on top of or around a fabric).

    Synopsis:  A sample of fabric is placed in a ring clamp, and the fabric is penetrated by a hemispheri-
cally tipped steel  cylinder advanced at a specified rate.  The load required to penetrate the fabric is the
puncture strength.

    Methods: ASTM D 751 -79, Method of Testing Coated Fabrics, 09.02.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the standard method.
Mullen Burst Strength
    Purpose:   The Mullen Burst Test is used to assess fabric strength when fabric is subjected to multi-
dimensional loads that may be more representative of actual field loads after placement.

    Synopsis:  A sample of fabric is placed in a circular clamp and loaded hydrostatically at a constant
rate through an inflatable membrane. The pressure required to rupture the fabric is the burst point.

    Methods:  ASTM D 3786-80a, Test Method for Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Knitted Goods and Non-
woven Fabrics: Diaphragm Bursting Strength Tester Method, 07.01.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The test results must be carefully interpreted because of the small
sample size and potential edge effects of the clamp.
Trapezoid Tearing Strength
    Purpose:   The trapezoid tearing strength test is useful in assessing the tendency of a fabric to con-
tinue to tear when tearing is initiated.

    Synopsis:  A sample of the fabric is marked with an outline of a trapezoid, and the nonparallel sides
are clamped in parallel jaws of the testing machine. The jaws are separated at a constant rate, and a con-
tinuously increasing load is applied to continue tearing the sample. The load versus deformation curve is
recorded, and the maximum (peak) load determined is the tearing strength.

    Methods:  ASTM D 1117-80, Methods of Testing Nonwoven Fabrics, 07.01.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the standard method.

Equivalent Opening Size (EOS)
    Purpose:  The equivalent opening size test compares opening size in fabrics to U.S. standard sieve
sizes to help evaluate the performance of filter fabric.

    Synopsis:  A sample of filter fabric is attached to a U.S. standard sieve with openings larger than the
largest beads to be used.  The beads are placed in the sieve and shaken for a fixed period.  The size of
beads, of which 5 percent or less (by weight) pass through the fabric, is determined by sieving.  The EOS
of the fabric is the U.S. standard sieve number which retains this fraction of the glass beads.

    Methods:  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Guidelines.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the standard method.
Planar Flow
    Purpose:  Planar flow test results are used to help evaluate the capacity of a fabric to transmit fluid in
the plane of the fabric.

    Synopsis:  Circular fabric samples are placed between flat plates and compressed at a set pressure.
Fluid flow is induced under constant hydraulic head from the middle of the sample to the edges.  The trans-
missibility is used as a measure of flow capacity because it includes both permeability and thickness.

    Methods: No standard methods are available.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the manufacturer.
Normal Permeability
    Purpose:   Normal permeability test results are used to evaluate the capacity of a fabric to transmit
fluid perpendicular to the plane of the fabric.  The test helps evaluate infiltration and evaporation  rates
across fabrics and is important in evaluating fabrics for drainage applications.

    Synopsis:   Normal permeability tests can be conducted by clamping a sample of fabric across the
base of cylinder, filling the cylinder with fluid,  and measuring the rate of fluid flow through the sample as in
a falling-head test.

    Methods:  No standard methods are available.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the manufacturer.
Coefficient of Friction (Soil to Fabric)
    Purpose:  Determining the coefficient of friction between a fabric and soil is essential in evaluating the
ability of the fabric to provide lateral reinforcement of the soil. The coefficient of friction provides a measure
of the ability to transfer stresses to the fabric, which may affect the thickness of cover required to prevent
shifting of the fabric.

    Synopsis:  Samples of fabric are placed on a horizontal surface, and a sample of soil is placed at one
end. The end is raised and the angle of the incline at which the soil starts to slide is measured. The coeffi-
cient of friction is the trigonometric tangent of the angle of inclination at incipient sliding.

    Methods: No standard methods are available.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the manufacturer.

Coefficient of Friction (Fabric to Fabric)
    Purpose: The coefficient of friction between two fabrics is essential for evaluating the required overlap
needed to keep fabrics in place (unbonded seams) and to evaluate the ability of layered fabric systems to
transmit lateral stresses or to resist sliding.

    Synopsis:   Samples of fabric are overlapped and clamped together at  fixed pressures.  The fabrics
are pulled at a constant rate to cause differential movement  between the fabric samples, and  the force is
measured. The first peak load corresponds to the static friction load.

    Methods: No standard methods are available.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the manufacturer.
Alkali or Acid Stability
    Purpose:  Alkali or acid stability tests are used to assess potential fabric deterioration caused by ex-
posure to or contact with acidic or basic solutions. Potential deterioration may affect the performance and
effective service life of fabrics in drains, liners, and covers.

    Synopsis:  Fabric samples are attached to frames and placed in alkali or acid baths at constant pH.
Samples are periodically removed from the baths, dried, and tested (e.g., grab tensile test).  The changes
in tensile strength with prolonged bath exposure provide information on the rates of deterioration.

    Methods:  No standards currently exist.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Within practical limits, the duration of bath exposure may not be repre-
sentative of field conditions. Extrapolations to estimate actual field service life may be questionable.
Thermal Shrinkage
    Purpose:   The results of thermal shrinkage tests can be used to evaluate potential deformations of
fabric in hot environment applications (e.g., contact with hot asphalts or exothermic chemical reactions).

    Synopsis:    Samples  of fabric are placed in ovens at various temperatures and are periodically
measured for unrestrained deformation.

    Methods:  The reader should see ASTM methods for width and length measurements that are listed
earlier in this compendium under "Fabric Weight."

    Limitations and Precautions: Because measurements are made on unrestrained fabric samples, the
test may not be representative of field conditions.  Since thermally induced stresses are not measured, the
results cannot be used to assess these potential effects.

Ultraviolet Stability

    Purpose:  The results of ultraviolet stability tests allow assessment of potential deterioration of fabrics
that are subjected to sunlight.  These assessments can be used to evaluate changes in effectiveness and to
predict the service life of the fabrics.

    Synopsis:  Fabric samples are exposed to ultraviolet light (either artificial or natural sunlight) and are
periodically tested (e.g., grab tensile test).  The changes  in tensile strength indicate the rate of fabric

    Methods:  The reader should see the ASTM method listed earlier in this compendium under "Grab
Tensile Strength and Elongation Tests" in this subsection.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Practical limits on the duration of testing may not represent actual field
conditions. Extrapolations of test results to assess long-term effects may be questionable.    Geomembranes

    Polymeric flexible membranes are available supported (reinforced)  or  unsupported (nonreinforced).
The general types of materials used are elastomeric (rubber), thermoplastic, semicrystalline, or alloys of the
various polymers.  The physical test specifications to be used depend on the polymer and whether it is
supported or not.  Many of the test specifications used by manufacturers and listed In National Sanitation
Foundation Standard 54 were developed  for other purposes and are being used since specifications for
specific geomembrane materials and properties are unavailable at this time.
    Purpose:  The thickness of a geomembrane is proportional to the strength and elongation properties.

    Synopsis:  Three methods for measurement of thickness are presented below. The method selected
will depend on the specification for the particular geomembrane.

    Methods:  ASTM D 1593-8, Specification for Nonrigid Vinyl Chloride Plastic Sheeting; ASTM D 751-79,
Method of Testing Coasted Fabrics; and ASTM D 412-83, Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension.

    Limitations and Precautions:  A special apparatus is required to make measurements.
Specific Gravity
    Purpose:   The specific gravity measurement of a geomembrane is  useful in determining the unit
weight of materials.

    Synopsis:  The test method covers the determination of specific gravity and density of solid plastics
by displacement of liquid and the determination of change in weight.

    Methods:  ASTM D 792-66, Test Methods for Specific Gravity and Density of Plastics by Displacement.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Special equipment may be required.

Tensile Strength
    Purpose:  The tensile strength of a geomembrane is an important design parameter related to the
ability to withstand the movement of the geomembrane into place, to support itself on slopes, and to
withstand operational stress.

    Synopsis:  There are four methods for determining the tensile strength of geomembranes.  The ap-
propriate method will depend on the type of polymeric geomembrane being tested.

    Methods:  ASTM D 882-83, Test Methods for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting; ASTM D 751 -
79, Method for Testing Coated Fabric; ASTM D 412-83, Test Method for Rubber Properties in Tension; and
ASTM D 638-84, Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to test methods listed above.
    Purpose:  The elongation of a geomembrane is an extension produced by tensile stress.  Elongation
provides some measure of the material's ability to accommodate minor deformation.

    Synopsis:  There are four methods for determining the elongation of geomembranes.  The measure-
ment  is usually an adjunct to the tensile strength test.   The appropriate method will depend on the
polymeric geomembrane being tested.

    Methods:  The reader should see the methods that are listed earlier in this compendium under "Ten-
sile Strength."

    Limitations and Precautions:  Refer to the test methods listed above.
Tear Resistance
    Purpose:  The tear resistance is a measure of the strength of the geomembrane at a point of stress.
The tear resistance of a geomembrane is the stress required to propagate a cut or slit at the edge of a
membrane specimen under strain.

    Synopsis:  There are three methods for determining the tear resistance of geomembranes. The ap-
propriate method will depend on the polymeric geomembrane being tested.

    Methods;  ASTM D 1004-66(1981), Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of Plastic Film and Sheet-
ing; ASTM D  51-79, Method of Testing Coated Fabrics; and ASTM D 624-86, Test Method for Rubber

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the test methods listed above.
Dimensional Stability
    Purpose:  The measurement of linear dimensional changes of geomembranes at elevated tempera-
ture suggests the behavior of the materials in the field when exposed to solar heating during placement.

    Synopsis:   The  reader should refer to National Sanitation  Foundation Standard 54 for  Flexible
Membrane Liners, 1983, for details of the test.  This method is proposed for all geomembranes  listed in
Standard 54.


    Methods:  ASTM D 1204-84, Test Method for Linear Dimensional Changes of Nonrigid Thermoplastic
Sheeting or Film at Elevated Temperature.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should refer to the test method listed above.
Bonded Seam Strength
    Purpose:  The seam strength is the single most important concern for lining integrity, and it applies to
both factory-made and field-made seams.

    Synopsis:  A tensile strength test is performed on a specimen prepared to have a seam under shear-
ing stress. The specimen is tested to failure to determine the maximum stress.  The specimen is examined
to determine if the failure was within the seam or in the parent material.

    Methods: ASTM D 3083-76(1980), Specification for Flexible Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Plastic Sheeting for
Pond, Canal, and Reservoir Lining; and ASTM D 751-79, Testing Coated Fabrics.

    Limitations and  Precautions:   Specimens require special handling and  curing before testing.  The
testing machine must be currently calibrated to a standard. A special testing apparatus is required.
Peel Adhesion
    Purpose:  The tensile strength of geomembrane seams by 180 degree peel is the definitive test of the
bond strength.

    Synopsis:  The tensile stress is applied to material on adjacent sides of the seam to create a 180 de-
gree strain on the bonded seam. The sample is tested to failure, and the failure location is noted as being
in the seam or in the parent material.

    Methods:  ASTM D 413-82, Test Methods for Rubber Property-Adhesion to Flexible Substrate.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Specimens require special  handling and curing prior to testing.  The
testing machine must be currently calibrated to a standard. A special testing apparatus is required.

9.6.4  Chemical Properties of Soil and Rock   Waste Evaluation Procedures

    Section 262.11 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)  regulations requires that a
generator of a "solid waste"-i.e., any garbage, refuse, sludge, or other waste that is not excluded under
Section 261.4(a) - must do the following:

               1. Determine if the waste is excluded.

               2. If the waste is not excluded, determine whether the waste is listed as a hazardous

               3.  If the waste is not excluded and not listed, then evaluate the waste in terms of the
               four hazardous characteristics -ignitability, corrosh/ity, reactivity, and extraction pro-
               cedure toxicity—unless the generator can properly evaluate the waste based upon
               previous experiencd (e.g., corrosivity testing may not be required if the generator has
               a long history of running the waste through steel  pipes without any evidence of cor-
               rosion).    Ignitability (RCRA Requirement)

    Purpose:  The ignitability test identifies wastes that either present fire hazards under routine storage,
disposal, and transportation, or are capable of severely exacerbating a fire once it has started.

    Synopsis:  The following two methods are approved by the EPA:

        1. The Pensky-Martens closed-cup method uses the closed-cup tester to determine the flash
        point of fuel oils, lubrication oils, suspension solids, liquids that tend to form a surface film
        under test conditions, and other liquids.

        The sample is heated  at  a  slow, constant rate and is continually stirred.  A small  flame is
        directed into the cup at regular intervals while simultaneously interrupting the stirring.  The
        flash point is the lowest temperature at which application of the test flame ignited the vapor
        above the sample.

        2. The Setaflash closed-cup method uses the Setaflash Closed  Tester to determine the flash
        point of paints, enamels, lacquers, varnishes, and related products and their components that
        have flash points between 0ฐC and 110ฐC (32ฐF and 230ฐF) and viscosity lower than 150 stokes
        at 25ฐC. Tests at higher or lower temperatures are possible.

        The procedures may be used to determine whether a material will or will not flash at a specified
        temperature, or to determine the finite temperature at which a material will flash.

    Methods:  EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Methods 1010 and 1020.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Ambient pressure, sample homogeneity, drafts, and operator bias can
affect flash point values.  Quality control data as specified under Method 1010 and Method 1020 should be
available for review.    Corrosivity (RCRA Requirement)

    Purpose:   The corrosivity test identifies wastes that might pose a hazard to human health or the en-
vironment because of their ability to do the following:
    •   Mobilize toxic metals if discharged into a landfill environment

    •   Corrode handling, storage, transportation, and management equipment

    •   Destroy human or animal tissue in the event of inadvertent contact

    To identify such potentially hazardous materials, EPA has selected two properties on which to base the
definition of a corrosive waste. These properties are pH and corrosivity toward SAE Type 1020 steel. The
procedures for pH are described in this Subsection  Corrosivity toward steel is used for both
aqueous and nonaqueous liquid wastes. This test exposes coupons of SAE Type 1020 steel to the liquid
waste to be evaluated and, by measuring the degree to which the coupon has dissolved, determines the
corrosivity of the waste.

    Methods:  EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Method 1110.  Corrosivity of Steel.

    Limitations and Precautions:   In laboratory tests, such as Method  1110, corrosion of duplicate
coupons is usually reproducible to within 10 percent.  However, large differences in corrosion rates may
occasionally occur under conditions  in which the metal surfaces have become passivated.  Therefore, at
least duplicate determinations of  the corrosion rate should  be made.  Exact  requirements are to  be in-
cluded in the QA plan and specified in the laboratory.   Reactivity (RCRA Requirement)

    Purpose:   The reactivity test identifies wastes that, because of their extreme instability  and their ten-
dency to react violently or explode, pose a problem at all stages of the waste management process.

    Synopsis: The EPA gives a descriptive definition of reactivity,  because the available tests for measur-
ing the variegated class of effects embraced by the reactivity definition suffer from a number of deficien-

    Methods:  See regulatory definition in EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Section

    Limitations and Precautions: The reader should refer to Subsection 2.1.3 in EPA SW-846.   Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test

    Purpose:   This test is used to simulate the leaching a waste may undergo if it is disposed of in a
landfill. The test is applicable to liquid, solid, and multiphaslc samples.

    Synopsis:  If a representative sample of waste contains more than 0.5 percent solids, the solid phase
of the sample is extracted with deionized water that is maintained at a pH of 5 ฑ 0.2 using acetic acid. The
extract is analyzed for the specified  priority pollutants (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb,  Hg,  Se, Ag, endrin, lindane,
methoxychlor, toxaphene, 2,4  D, 2,4,5-TP Silvex]) by the appropriate tests as  described under organic and
inorganic priority pollutant analyses.  Wastes that contain less than 0.5 percent are not subjected to extrac-
tion, but they are directly analyzed and evaluated in a manner identical to that  for extracts.

    Methods:  EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Method 1310.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Potential interferences that may be encountered during  analyses per-
tain to the individual analytical  methods.

-------   Mobility

    Purpose:   This test is used to determine the mobility of various components in a waste to evaluate
contaminant transport.

    Synopsis:  A multiple extraction procedure currently is being developed by the EPA.  (Method 1410)
Although these procedures are used to evaluate a waste, they are not to be confused with a hazardous
characteristic as defined by the RCRA regulations.

    Methods:  EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Method 1410.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should see the test method.   Acid-Base Potential (Potential Acidity With Peroxide, Neutralization Potential, Mine Spoil

    Purpose:   Within impounded mine tailings, the potential for in situ acid formation may exist whenever
pyritic sulfide is present in the waste material.  If acid were to be formed by the oxidation of pyritic sulfur,
the acid theoretically could dissolve and mobilize transition metals. The possibility that acid formation will
occur is evaluated by measuring the acid-base potential.

    Synopsis:  Determination of the acid-base potential is the result of two independent analyses: one is
an acidometric measure of the base equivalent (as calcium carbonate) of the tailings solids, and the other
is a measure of the hydrogen peroxide-oxidizable sulfur that could produce sulfuric acid.  The acid-base
potential is the base content minus the acid content.

    Methods:  Report No. EPA-670/2-74-070, Mine Spoil Potentials for Soil and Water Quality.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should see the test method.    Pollutant Analysis    Organics

    Purpose:   Organics tests are used to identify and quantify the organic contaminants of the soil.

    Synopsis  The EPA has a list of organic priority pollutants for which well-defined analytical and quality
control procedures have been developed.  These pollutants are classified in four groups based on the ex-
traction procedures employed before analysis:  volatiles, acid extractables, base or neutral extractables,
and pesticides. The major analytical procedures employed are  gas chromatography and  mass spectro-
scope. For organics other than the priority pollutants, procedures need to be obtained from literature.  Ap-
propriate descriptions should be presented to the laboratory on a  special analytical services  (SAS) form.

    Methods:  EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Methods 8010-8310,  3510-3550.

    Limitations and Precautions The reader should see the test methods and the literature.

-------    Metals

    Purpose:  Metals tests are used to identify and quantify the metal contaminants in the soil.

    Synopsis:  The EPA has a list of metal priority pollutants for which well-defined analytical and quality
control procedures have been developed. In analysis requests, distinctions need to be made in total metal
or extractable metal analysis.  The soil is  digested with a strong acid to  dissolve all metals in the first,
whereas an appropriate extraction method is employed in the second.  The analysis methods are mainly
atomic absorption and  inductively coupled plasma emission.  For metals that are not on the priority pol-
lutant list,  procedures need to be obtained from literature  and appropriate  descriptions given on the SAS

    Methods  EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Methods 7040-7951, 3010-3060.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should see the test methods and the literature.    Total and Amenable Cyanide

    Purpose:  This test is used to determine the concentration of inorganic cyanide.  The method detects
inorganic cyanides that are present as either simple soluble salts or complex radicals. The test is used to
determine values for both total cyanide and cyanide amenable to chlorination. It does not determine the
"reactive" cyanide content of wastes containing iron-cyanide complexes.

    Synopsis:  The waste is divided into two parts. One is chlorinated to destroy susceptible complexes.
Each part is distilled to remove interferences and is analyzed  for cyanide. The fraction amenable to
chlorination is determined by the difference in values.

    During the distillation, cyanide is converted to hydrogen cyanide vapor, which is trapped in a scrubber
containing sodium hydroxide solution.  This solution is titrate with standard silver nitrate.

    Methods:  EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Method 9010.

    Limitations and Precautions:  Sulfides interfere with the titration, but they can be precipitated with
cadmium.  Fatty acids  form soaps under alkaline titration conditions and interfere. The fatty acids can be
extracted with a suitable solvent.  Oxidizing agents can decompose the cyanide; the oxidizing agents  can
be treated with ascorbic acid.  Thiocyanate presence will interfere by distilling over in the procedure.  This
situation can be prevented by adding magnesium chloride. Aldehydes and  ketones can convert cyanide to
cyanohydrin under the  acid distillation conditions.   Total Organic Halides (TOX)

    Purpose: This test is used to determine the total organic halides (TOX) as CI" extract.

    Synopsis:  A sample of water that has been protected against the loss  of volatiles by the elimination of
headspace in the sampling container is passed  through a column  containing activated carbon.  The
column is washed to remove any trapped inorganic halides and is analyzed to convert the adsorbed or-
ganohalides to a titratable species that can be measured by a  microcoulometric detector.

    Methods:  The reader should see the test methods.  EPA SW-946, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid
Waste, Method 9020, Total Organic Halides (TOX).

    Limitations and  Precautions:   All samples must be run in duplicate.  Under conditions of duplicate
analysis, the reliable limit of sensitivity is 5 ^1 per liter.

    The method detects all organic halides containing chlorine, bromine, and iodine that are adsorbed by
granular-activated carbon under conditions of the method.  Fluorine species are not determined by this

    The method is applicable to samples whose inorganic-halide concentration does not exceed the or-
ganic-halide concentration, by more than 20,000 times.

9.6,4.2.5    pH

    Purpose:  This test is used to measure the pH of the soil

    Synopsis:  The soil is stirred with water and, after equilibration, the pH of the supernatant solution is
measured with a glass electrode pH meter.

    Methods:  The EPA is currently developing a method, EPA SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid
Waste, Method 9045.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The measured pH value may shift slightly with each change in the soil-
to-water ratio used in the preparation of the soil samples, and seasonal fluctuations in pH may also be an-
ticipated.     Lime Requirement

    Purpose:   This  test is used to determine the pH of acidic soils for estimating the amounts of  lime
needed to neutralize the soil.

    Synopsis:   The dried soil is  mixed  with a buffer solution and allowed to equilibrate, and the pH is
measured with glass  electrodes and a pH meter. The amount of lime  needed can be estimated from ex-
perimental lime versus pH correlation curves specific to the region.

    Methods:  Methods of Soil Analysis Used in the Soil Testing Laboratory at Oregon State University,
Special Report 321, Agricultural Experiment Station,  Oregon State University, Corvallis, revised September

    Limitations and  Precautions:   Electrodes should be rinsed very well between samples to  eliminate a
constant increase in the pH measured,  because of electrode contamination.

9,6.4.3   Other Tests     Cation Exchange Capacity

    Purpose:  This test is  used to determine the exchangeable cation content of the soil. Many of the as-
similative  capacity determinations for constituents in industrial  waste are  based on  cation exchange
capacity measurement.

    Synopsis:  Determination of soil cation exchange capacity involves removal of all exchangeable ca-
tions by leaching the soil with an excess of neutral ammonium acetate solution and saturating the ex-
change material with ammonium. This procedure is followed by leaching with Na4CI.  The soil is then
washed with isopropyl alcohol until all chloride is removed.  The ammonium adsorbed on the exchange
complex is displaced by treating the soil with acidified NaCI.  The displaced solution is distilled and then
titrated to calculate the cation exchange capacity.

    Methods:   Methods of Soil Analysis Used  in the Soil Testing  Laboratory at Oregon State University,
Special Report 321, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, revised September

    The EPA is developing a cation exchange capacity method entitled Test Methods for Evaluating Solid
Waste, SW-846,  Methods 9080, 9081.  This method includes the ammonium acetate  and the sodium
acetate methods.    Extractable Cations: K+, Na+, Ca+ +, Mg+ +

    Purpose:  Extractable cation content of the soil, along with extractable hydrogen, is used to estimate
the cation exchange capacity and the percentage of base saturation required for soil taxonomy.

    Synopsis:  The ions are extracted from the soil with a neutral ammonium acetate solution.  The quan-
tities of the individual ions in the solution are then determined by atomic absorption.

    Methods:   Methods of Soil Analysis Used  in the Soil Testing  Laboratory at Oregon State  University,
Special Report 321,, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Method 17, revised
September 1978.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The four cations are determined on the same soil extract but with dif-
ferent dilutions.  The single-extraction technique for cations in noncalcerous soil gives values that are
equivalent to at least 35 percent of the values obtained by  multiple extraction.  For samples that contain
carbonates of  Ca++ or Mg++, the multiple extraction with ammonium acetate may dissolve  these car-
bonates and give higher values for Ca++ and Mg++ than are obtained with a single extraction.  For
routine testing, there is usually no interest in determining the extractable Ca++ and Mg++  in alkaline
samples that contain free lime.    Exchangeable Hydrogen

    Purpose:  To determine the amount of acidic hydrogen that can be removed from the soil by a buffer
solution.  The extractable hydrogen content, along with the extractable cations, is used to estimate the cat-
ion exchange capacity, as well as the percentage of base saturation required for soil taxonomy.

    Synopsis:  The soil is mixed with a buffer solution and kept for 30 minutes while being shaken to dis-
solve the acidic hydrogens. The soil is then filtered.  This process is repeated two more times; then the
filtrate is titrated to determine the acid content.

    Methods:   Methods of Soil Analysis Used  in the Soil Testing  Laboratory at Oregon State University,
Special Report 321, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, revised September

    Limitations and Precautions: The reader should see the test method.

-------    Total Soluble Salts-Electrical Conductivity

    Purpose:  This test is used to measure the electrical conductivity of the soil extract as an indication of
its ionic content (soluble salts).

    Synopsis:  Water is added to the soil to prepare a saturated soil paste.  This paste is then filtered, and
the conductivity of the filtrate is measured.

    Methods:  Methods of Soil Analysis Used in the Soil Testing Laboratory at Oregon State University,
Special Report 321, Method 1, revised September 1978.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should see the literature.    Carbon, Total Organic and Inorganic

    Purpose:   This test is  used to determine the total organic carbon and/or the total inorganic carbon
content of the soil. Carbon may exist in sediment and water samples as either inorganic or organic com-
pounds.  Inorganic carbon is present as carbonates and bicarbonates and possibly as free carbon dioxide.
Specific types of organic carbon compounds are nonvolatile organic compounds (sugars), volatile organic
compounds (mercaptans), partially volatile compounds (oils), and paniculate carbonaceous materials (cel-

    Synopsis:  The basis of the method is the catalytic or chemical oxidation of carbon in carbon-contain-
ing compounds to carbon dioxide, followed by the quantification of the carbon dioxide produced.  Alter-
nately, the carbon  may be reduced to methane and appropriately quantified. It then follows that the dis-
tinction between inorganic carbon and organic carbon  is the method of sample pretreatment.  There are
presently two procedures for defining this separation. One method is based on sample treatment with a
strong acid.  Analysis of an untreated  sample is a measure of total  carbon, while analysis of the acid-
treated fraction is  a  measure of organic carbon.   Inorganic carbon  is  calculated by subtraction.  The
second method of separation is based on differential thermal combustion with organic compounds being
converted to carbon dioxide at 500ฐC to 650ฐC, and inorganic carbon being converted to carbon dioxide at

    Methods:  Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and  Water Samples, Russell
H. Plumb, U.S.  EPA and Army Corps of Engineers' Technical Committee on Criteria for Dredged and Fill
Material,  Contract EPA-4805572010.    Sulfides

    Purpose:  This test is used to measure the concentration of total and dissolved sulfides.

    Synopsis:  Excess iodine is added to a sample, which  may or may not have been treated with zinc
acetate, to produce zinc sulfide.  The iodine oxidizes the sulfide to sulfur under acidic conditions. The ex-
cess iodine is back-titrated with sodium thiosulfate or phenylarsine oxide.

    Methods:   EPA SW-846,  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid  Waste, Method 9030; EPA Method

    Limitations and Precautions:  The method does not measure acid insoluble sulfides; copper sulfide
is the only common acid-insoluble sulfide.

    The method is suitable for measuring sulfide in concentrations above 1  mg per liter.  Reduced sulfur
compounds that decompose in acid, such as sulfite, thiosulfate, and hydrosulfite, may yield erratic results.
Also, volatile iodine-consuming substances will give high results.  Samples must be taken with a minimum
of aeration to avoid volatilization of sulfides and  reaction with oxygen that may convert sulfide to un-
measurable forms. If the sample is not preserved with zinc acetate, analysis must start immediately.   Total Nitrogen

    Purpose:  This test is used to determine the total nitrogen content of the  soil.

    Synopsis:  In the micro-Kjeldahl method, the nitrogen in different forms is converted to the ammonium
ion by digestion in sulfuric acid. The digest is distilled, and the distillate is titrated for the ammonium con-
tent from which the nitrogen content can be calculated.

    Methods:  Methods of Soil Analysis used in the Soil Testing Laboratory at Oregon State University,
Special  Report 321, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Method 3, revised
September 1978.   Extractable Phosphorus

    Purpose:   This test is used to determine the amount of phosphorus that can be  extracted with a
sodium  bicarbonate solution from the soil.

    Synopsis:   The sodium bicarbonate extract of the soil is treated with a  complexing  agent; the  phos-
phorus complex is determined colorimetrically.

    Methods:  Methods of Soil Analysis Used in the Soil Testing Laboratory at Oregon State University,
Special  Report 321, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Method 15, revised
September 1978.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The pH of the NaHCOa solution increases over time when exposed to
the atmosphere. When the pH of the extractant exceeds 8.5, a notable increase in extractable soil  is an-
ticipated. A thin layer of mineral oil that is spread over the surface of the extracting solution will effectively
decrease the rate at which the pH  will change. Chemical  reactions that tend to decrease the activity or
concentration of soluble Ca, Al, and Fe will allow for a potential increase in soluble phosphate.  The amount
extracted is also dependent on the shaker time and temperature.   Total Phosphorus

    Purpose:  This test is used to determine the total phosphorus content of the soil after digestion.

    Synopsis:  Numerous methods are available for the digestion of sediment samples to be analyzed for
phosphate. Most procedures consist of strong acid digestion or treatment with an oxidizing agent  and a
strong acid. A common feature of the digestion procedures is that the sample treatments are designed to
convert  all the  phosphate compounds to  orthophosphate.   The orthophosphate is then quantified

    Methods:   Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and Water Samples, Russell
H. Plumb, U.S. EPA and Army Corps  of Engineers' Technical Committee on Criteria for Dredged and Fill
Material, Contract EPA-4805572010.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should see the test method.  Mineralogy

    Purpose:  This test is used to determine the mineral characteristics of soil.

    Synopsis:  The most widely used techniques in mineral identification and composition determination
are X-ray diffraction and optical techniques; the underlying principles are beyond the scope of this com-
pendium. References are given in Subsection 9.8.

    Methods:  Ford, W. E. Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy,  Optical Techniques.  4th  ed.  New York:  John
Wiley and Sons.  1966.

    Huriburt, C. S., Jr. Manual of Mineralogy, 19th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons.  1977.

    "X-Ray Diffraction Techniques for Mineral Identification and Mineralogical Composition," Methods of Soil
Analysis,  Agronomy Monograph No. 9, Part 1, American Society of Agronomy, 1965.  (The second edition of
this reference is soon  to be published.)  This reference provides qualitative and semiquantitative soil
mineralogical analyses.

    Limitations and Precautions:  The reader should see the methods.

9.6.5  Compatibility Testing

    Materials considered for hazardous waste applications should be analyzed  for compatibility with the
wastes.  The analyses should determine the changes in material properties caused by contact or exposure
to wastes. Materials of concern for compatibility may include natural materials  (e.g., soils and rock) and
synthetic materials (e.g., construction materials).

    Although analytical methods are  being developed,  few standards for compatibility testing  exist at
present.  Decision-makers must use their judgment  and experience in evaluating the need for, and use  of,
compatibility test data.  Those  laboratories conducting the testing must be appropriately staffed and
equipped.  The test method must clearly document the test scope, limitations, and materials used, and
provide quantification of the degree of alteration and projected useful life of the material.

    In general, compatibility testing  involves rational  use  of  both  chemical tests  and  tests  of physical
properties (see Subsections 9.6.3 and 9.6.4) to assess the effects of wastes on the materials. Chemical
analyses may be used to determine the types and  concentrations of wastes to which the material is sub-
jected.  The aggressive substance in a hazardous waste may be of low total concentration, but the sub-
stance may accumulate in a particular phase or level in the waste. Under such conditions, the concentra-
tion level may be high enough to act aggressively. Physical tests provide the basis for measuring resultant

    The  following discussions are not intended to be all-encompassing, but they should heighten general
awareness about potential effects on various materials. Specific needs and details of such testing must be
evaluated on a site-specific basis.

-------    Soil

    The compatibility of soils with wastes is primarily concerned with the effects of the presence of liquid
wastes in the pore fluids of the soils.  Compatibility effects may include chemical alteration of the soil itself
or alteration  of soil  properties, such as permeability, compressibility, and strength  (since many of  the
properties of soils depend on the characteristics of the pore fluids).    Clay

    Clay has  traditionally been used for water containment because of the low permeability of most clays
and clay mixtures. Recent evidence suggests that permeability and other properties are altered by liquid
contaminants. Clays are subject to alteration by organic chemicals, pH changes, ion exchange, and so
forth.   Silt

    Silt is a major constituent of alluvial soils and usually appears in combination with various amounts of
clay and sand. The parent material from which the silt is derived will influence the effects of wastes on the
alteration of silts.  Concern for the alteration of silts relates more to structural and strength property chan-
ges, than to chemical changes.   Sand

    Sand used for bedding and drainage media must be evaluated for alterations that may affect its struc-
tural and fluid conductivity suitability. Tests using the liquid phase of hazardous wastes on sands to deter-
mine leaching, permeability,  strength, and particle size changes should be performed.   Gravels and Aggregates

    Gravels used for structural and drainage systems must be evaluated for alterations that may affect their
suitability.  Aggregates used in Portland cement and asphaltic concrete products should be  evaluated in
the same manner as the gravels and sands.    Rock

    In situ properties of rocks underlying or adjacent to hazardous wastes should  be  evaluated for poten-
tial effects of exposure to wastes. Alteration of strength, permeability, competence, and so forth should be

    Samples of  rock removed from the site will be useful  in determining some physical and chemical
property changes in  contact with wastes. However,  the value of that determination is limited.  The overrid-
ing concern should be with the behavior of the rock mass as a unit.

-------    Materials    Concrete

    Cast-in-place and precast concrete products to be used in hazardous waste control systems must be
evaluated for effects caused by the waste materials. The effects of some chemicals are known to cause ex-
pansion, cracking, spelling, surface deterioration, and dissolution of cement paste or matrix.  A few stand-
ard methods for resistance of concrete to some chemical and physical stresses may be found  in ASTM Vol.
04.02.    Soil-Cement

    Minor amounts  of Portland  cement may be added to soils to strengthen them and to reduce per-
meability of soil materials. An evaluation of the soil-cement system, using specimens from the mix-design
procedures,  must be made using contaminated soils or involving hazardous waste materials. Cement is
often used to solidify contaminated materials. The solidification procedure should be evaluated for proper-
ties to remain within an allowable range over the long term.   Portland Cement

    There are many types of Portland cement and blended hydraulic cements.  Some have properties that
may be more or less resistant to chemical exposure to hazardous wastes. The compatibility of the cement
products must be assessed and evaluated to make successful Portland cement concrete.   Asphalt Cement

    Many types of bituminous products or asphalt cement are used to control leakage. The alteration of
properties, such  as impermeability, by hazardous wastes  must be  evaluated to determine  product
suitability.  Evaluation may involve visual observation of changes,  as well as physical  property changes
measured according to ASTM procedures.   Asphalt Stabilized Soils

    Asphaltic cement may be added to soils for strengthening and reducing permeability. The appropriate-
ness of this method must be evaluated by testing with hazardous waste to determine the alteration of the
stabilized soil's properties.   Metal Products

    Metal products are mentioned in this subsection to draw attention to any materials that may be buried
in soil or contaminated soil or exposed to hazardous wastes. Since exposure of metal products to hazard-
ous waste materials is possible, the corrosion, deterioration, and alteration of the product or its function
must be evaluated to determine the most suitable material or the need for an alternative.

-------    Plastic Products

    A broad range of material compatibility information for plastics is available from manufacturers. The
potential exposure of plastics to hazardous waste must be defined and the most suitable products tested.
Adaptations of the U.S. EPA SW-846 Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Method 9090 for Flexible
Membrane Liners, may be considered for testing plastics.    Wood Products

    Wood products  and lumber that may be subjected to hazardous waste should be evaluated before
use. Such evaluation is especially important if wood and lumber products are to be used structurally.    Geotextiles

    The use of woven and nonwoven geotextiles is common in hazardous waste facilities. The functions
these synthetic fibrous  materials provide may be altered by exposure to  wastes.  Geotextiles should be
tested and evaluated for their continued ability to provide the functions required. The nature of geotextiles
presents a challenging task to the development of meaningful test methods.  The U.S. EPA, SW-846 Test
Methods for Evaluation Solid Waste, Method 9090, may provide some guidance.   Geomembranes

    Flexible membrane liners or geomembranes are 10- to 100-mil thick sheets of polymeric materials.
Compatibility test information and  results for most polymeric materials are available from the manufacturers
and some independent sources. An accepted method of test for geomembranes is the U.S. EPA Method
9090. Properties of membrane specimens are determined before and after soaking in the hazardous waste
liquid, extract,  or leachate. Another recommended test method for estimating long-term performance of
membrane liners in a chemical environment is  provided in Appendix D of National Sanitation Foundation
(NSF) Standard 54 for Flexible Membrane Liners.   Synthetic Drainage Media

    In place of sand and gravel drainage systems, synthetic drainage media may be used. The synthetic
media may be separated  from the soil  above and below by a geotextile fabric.   The media  may be
polymeric mesh mat-like material with favorable strength and hydraulic properties. The material should be
evaluated  using methods similar to those used for geomembranes, since the materials used are similar.

9.6.6 Laboratory and Analyses Records

    A general description of the laboratory recording procedures is presented below. Specific  require-
ments may be established as contractual obligations with the laboratories (e.g., U.S. EPA's CLP). The user
should be familiar with  the contractual obligations for sample and data recording  when using  contract
laboratories. Review of existing CLP recording requirements is beyond the scope of this subsection.    Sample Log

    All samples should be recorded upon receipt at the laboratory.  The sample should be logged into a
bound record book and assigned  a sequential identification number. The log should be used to track the
sample through the laboratory by recording date received, date and location stored,  date tested, and date

disposed of. Chain of custody should be maintained on all samples throughout the process (see Sections
4, 5, and 6).  The  numerical identification should be used on all laboratory record sheets, together with
other pertinent information such as project name and number and case number.    Data Sheets

    The data and analysis results for each sample should be recorded on data sheets as the test is con-
ducted. The format for specific test sheets may follow those presented in the ASTM standards, as ap-
plicable.  Data sheets should be developed and consistently used for tests that do not have standards.

    At a minimum, the following identifying information should be provided on each data sheet:
    •   Project name and number

    •   EPA authorization number or case number

    •   Sample identifier (number, location, depth, and name of sampler)

    •   Date of laboratory analysis

    •   Laboratory and analyst names
    In addition to the identifying information, the data sheet should refer to the standard used including a
specific statement of any deviations from the standard.  Where standards are not available, a detailed
description of the test method should be attached with the data sheets.

    The data section of the sheet should be legibly completed without erasures. Any changes to the data
should be done by crossing out the original entry, writing in the correction, and initialing it.

    Calculations should be orderly and should be done on the data sheet or attached separately. Calcula-
tions should follow the same guidelines as for data recording (i.e., it should be legible without erasures).    Recordkeeping

    Originals of all laboratory sheets and records should be retained in a  secure file by the analyzing
laboratory. Legible copies should be provided to EPA and  its contractors, as required.

    In addition to data sheets, all pertinent correspondence,  chain-of-custody records,  quality assurance
records, and other records should be retained.  Originals should be retained for the duration of the project
including completion of any litigation.


    Many of the methods and  procedures discussed in this subsection have not been accepted as stand-
ard by the EPA CLP.  Because information on variances is rapidly dated,  users should consult with the
laboratory in each EPA region to obtain clarification of specific regional variations.  Changes in variances
will be included in Revision 01 to this compendium.


    Oregon State University. Methods of Soil Analysis  Used in the Soil Testing Laboratory at Oregon State
University.  Special Report 321, Agricultural Experiment Station.  Corvallis,  Oregon.  Revised September

    American Concrete Institute, Chapter 318.

    American Society for Testing and Materials.  1984 Annual Book ofASTM Standards.  Section 4: Con-
struction. Vol. 04.08, 1984, and Vol. 08.01 and 09.02.  1984.

    Bower, C. A., and L V. Wilcox.  "Soluble Salts." Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chapter 62.  American
Society of Agronomists. Madison, Wisconsin. 1965. pp. 933-951.

    Bremner,  J. M.  'Total Nitrogen."  Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chapter 83.  American Society of
Agronomists.  Madison, Wisconsin.  1965.  pp. 1143-1176.

    Ford, W. E.  "Optical Techniques," Dana's Textbook of Mineralogy.  4th ed.  New York: John Wiley and
Sons. 1966.

    Grewling, T. and M. Peech. "Chemical Soil Tests."  Cornell University Agricultural Experimental Station
Bulletin 960. 1960.

    Hurlburt, C. S., Jr. Manual of Mineralogy. 19thed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1977.

    Jackson, M. L.  Soil Chemical Analysis.  Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:  Prentice Hall.  1958. pp. 151-

    Lambe, T. W. Soil Testing for Engineers.  New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1951.

    Lambe, T. W., and R.V. Whiteman. Soil Mechanics. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1969.

    McWhorter,  David B. and Daniel K.  Sunada.  Groundwater Hydrology and  Hydraulics.  Ann  Arbor,
Michigan: Water Resources Publications. 1977.

    National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Laboratory Corrosion Testing of Metals for the Process In-
dustries.  Houston, Texas: NACE Standard TM-Q1-69 (1972 Revision).

    Natural Sanitation Foundation. Standard 54 for Flexible Membranes.  1983.

    Obert, L, and W.I. Duvall. Rock Mechanics and the Design of Structures in Rock. New York: John Wiley
and Sons. 1967.

    Obert, L, S. L Windes, and W.  I. Duvall. "Standardized Tests for Determining the Physical Properties
of Mine Rock."  U.S. Bureau  of Mines Report of Investigations 3891.   U.S. Government Printing  Office,
Washington, D.C.  1946.

    Olsen, S. R., et al.  "Estimation  of Available Phosphorous in Soils  by Extraction with Sodium Bicar-
bonate."  USDA Circular No. 939. 1954.

    Olsen, S. R., et al.  "Phosphorous." Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2,  Chapter 73. American Society of
Agronomists. Madison, Wisconsin.  1965. pp. 1035-1048.

    Peck, R. B., W.  E. Hanson, and T. H. Thornburn. Foundation Engineering. 2nd ed.  New York: John
Wiley and Sons. 1974.

    Plum, Russell H. Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and Water Samples, U.S. EPA
and Army Corps of Engineers Technical Committee on Criteria for Dredged and Fill Material, Contract EPA-

    Pratt, P. F.  "Potassium." Methods of Soil Analysis, Part  2,  Chapter 71.  American Society of
Agronomists. Madison, Wisconsin.  1965. pp. 1022-1030.

    Richards, L. A.  "Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali  Soils." USDA Handbook 60. U.S.
Salinity Laboratory. 1954.

    Schollenberger,  C. J., et  al. "Determination of Exchange Capacity and Exchangeable Bases in Soil-
Ammonium Acetate Method."  Soil Science, Volume 59,13-24. 1945.

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  "Laboratory Soil Testing." Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-1906. Depart-
ment of the Army, Office of the Chief of Engineers. Washington, D.C.  30 November 1970.

    U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.  Earth Manual.  2nd ed.  U.S. Government Printing Office.  Washington,
D.C. 1974.

Methods and Procedures

    ASTM 1635-63 (reapproved 1979), Flexural Strength of Soil-Cement Using Simple Beam with Third-
Point Loading.

    ASTM 1682-64 (1975), Test Methods for Breaking Load and Elongation of Textile Fabrics, 07.01.

    ASTM C 39-83b, Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.

    ASTM C 78-84, Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading).

    ASTM C 88-83, Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate.

    ASTM C 150-84, Portland Cement, and ASTM C 595-83, Blended Hydraulic Cements.

    ASTM C 170, Compressive Strength of Natural Building Stone.

    ASTM C 178-78, Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method.

    ASTM C 231 -82, Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method.

    ASTM C 293-79, Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Center-Point Loading) (not an
alternative to C 78-84).

    ASTM C 496-71 (reapproved 1979), Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.

    ASTM C 642-82, Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete.

    ASTM C 9951, Modulus of Rupture of Natural Building Stone.

    ASTM C 9783, Standard Test Methods for Absorption and  Bulk Specific Gravity of Natural Building

    ASTM D 93-85, Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester.

    ASTM D 297, D 412, D 624 (for rubber).

    ASTM D 422-63 (reapproved 1972), Particle-Size Analysis of Soils.

    ASTM D 425-79, Centrifuge Moisture Equivalent of Soils.

    ASTM D 558-82, Moisture-Density Relations of Soil-Cement Mixtures.

    ASTM D 559-82, Wetting-and-Drying Tests of Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures.

    ASTM D 560-82, Freezing-and-Thawing Tests of Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures.

   ASTM D 584-83, Specific Gravity of Soils.

   ASTM D 638, D 972, D 1004, D 1204, D 3083 (for plastics).

   ASTM D 653-82, Standard Definitions of Terms and Symbols Relating to Soil and Rock Mechanics.

   ASTM D 698-78, Moisture-Density Relations of Soils.

   ASTM D 698-78, Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures Using 5.5-lb Rammer
and 12-in. Drop.

   ASTM D 751 (for supported geomembranes).

   ASTM D 751-79, Methods of Testing Coated Fabrics, 09.02.

   ASTM D 806-74 (reapproved 1979), Cement Content of Soil-Cement Mixtures.

   ASTM D 882 (for thin plastic).

   ASTM D 1117-80, Methods of Testing Nonwoven Fabrics, 07.01.

   ASTM D 1557-78, Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures Using 10-lb. Ram-
mer and 18-in. Drop.

   ASTM D 1558-71 (reapproved 1977), Moisture-Penetration  Resistance Relations of Fine-Grained Soils.

   ASTM D 1587-83, Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils.

   ASTM D 1593 (for polyvinyl chloride).

   ASTM D 1632-63 (reapproved 1979), Making and Curing  Soil-Cement Compression and Flexure Test
Specimens  in the Laboratory.

   ASTM D 1633-63 (reapproved 1979), Compressive Strength of Molded Soil-Cement Cylinders.

   ASTM D 1634-63 (reapproved 1979), Compressive Strength of  Soil-Cement Using Portions of Beams
Broken in Flexure (Modified Cube Method).

   ASTM D 1777-64 (reapproved 1975), Method for Measuring Thickness of Textile Materials, 07.01.

   ASTM D 1883-73 (reapproved 1978), Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils.

   ASTM D 2166-66 (reapproved 1979), Unconfined Compressive Strength  of Cohesive Soil.

   ASTM D 2216-80, Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil, Rock, and Soil-Ag-
gregate Mixtures.

   ASTM D 2325-68 (reapproved 1981), Capillary-Moisture Relationships for Coarse and Medium-Textured
Soils by Porous-Plate Apparatus.

   ASTM D 2419-74 (reapproved 1979), Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine Aggregate.

   ASTM D 2434-58 (reapproved 1974), Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head).

   ASTM D 2435-80, One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils.

   ASTM D 2487-83, Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes.

   ASTM D 2488-69 (reapproved 1975), Description of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure).

   ASTM D 2850-82, Unconsolidated, Undrained Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soils in Triaxial Com-

   ASTM D 2901-82, Cement Content of Freshly Mixed Soil-Cement.

   ASTM D 2936-78, Direct Tensile Strength of Intact Rock- Core Specimens.

    ASTM D 3080-72 (reapproved  1979), Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Condi-

    ASTM D 3152-72 (reapproved 1977), Capillary-Moisture  Relationships for Fine-Textured Soils by Pres-
sure-Membrane Apparatus.

    ASTM D 3550-77, Ring-Lined Barrel Sampling of Soils.

    ASTM D 3740-80, Standard Practice for the Evaluation of Agencies Engaged  in the Testing and/or In-
spection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction.

    ASTM D 3775-84, Test Method for Fabric Count of Woven Fabric, 07.01

    ASTM D 3773-84, Test Method for Length of Woven Fabric, 09.02.

    ASTM D 3774-84, Test Method for Width of Woven  Fabric, 07.01.

    ASTM D 3776-84, Test Methods for Weight (Mass) per Unit Area of Woven Fabric, 07.01.

    ASTM D 3782-80, Test Method for Bow and Skewness (Bias)  in Woven and Knitted Fabrics, 07.01.

    ASTM D 3783-80, Test Method for Fabric Crimp or Takeup of Woven Fabrics, 07.01.

    ASTM  D  3786-80a, Test Method for Hydraulic Bursting Strength  of  Knitted Goods and Nonwoven
Fabrics: Diaphragm Bursting Strength Tester Method, 07.0.

    ASTM D 3967-81, Splitting Tensile Strength of Intact Rock-Core Specimens.

   ASTM D 4223-83, Preparation of Test Specimens of Asphalt-Stabilized Soils.

   ASTM D 4253-83, Maximum Index Density of Soils Using a Vibratory Table

   ASTM D 4254-83, Minimum Index Density of Soils and Calculations of Relative Density.

   ASTM D 4318-83, Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils.

   ASTM E 329-77, Standard Recommended Practice for Inspection and  Testing Agencies for Concrete,
Steel, and Bituminous Materials as Used in Construction.

   Anderson,  C.H., et al.  Preliminary Interim Procedure for Fibrous Asbestos.  U.S. EPA Analytical
Chemistry Branch, Athens, Georgia.  July 1976.

   Plumb,  Russell H.  Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and Water Samples.
U.S.  EPA and Army Corps of Engineers' Technical Committee on Criteria for Dredged and  Fill Material,
Contract EPA-4805572010.

   Shrestra, Sharad, and J.R. Bell. 'Tensile and Creep Behavior of Geotextiles." Transportation Research
Report 81-30.  Oregon State University.  January 1981.

   U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers.  Plastic Filter Fabric.  CW 02215.  November 1977.

   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Interim Method for Determination of Asbestiform Minerals
in Bulk Insulation Samples. 1  June 1980.

   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  'Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste."  Methods 9030,
9045, 9010, 7040-7951, 3010-3060, 8010-8310, 3510, 3550,  1310, 1110, 1010, 1020, and Section 21.3.  EPA

                                     SECTION 10

                              SURFACE HYDROLOGY
   Note: This section is organized by the topics "Flow Measurement" and "Sampling" for greater useful-


10.1.1  Scope and Purpose

   This subsection provides general guidance for the planning, method selection, and implementation of
surface flow measurements for hazardous waste site field investigations that require information on flows
for streams, rivers, or surface impoundments.

10.1.2 Definitions

Flow (or Volumetric Flowrate)
       That volume of water which passes through a cross-sectional plane of a channel in some unit
       of time.

Flow Measurement
       The act or process of quantifying a flowrate.

Site Manager (SM)
       The individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  This person is also referred  to as the Site Project Manager or the Project
       Manager and is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

10.1.3 Applicability

   This subsection discusses general and special flow-measurement techniques that may be applied to
the majority of site field investigations. There is no universally applicable procedure, because flows must
be measured under a variety of conditions.  For any given site, the technique selected must be appropriate
for that site's specific conditions. For example, the choice of flow-measurement device can depend on the
following criteria:
    •  Is the flow continuous or intermittent?

    •  Is the flow channel open or closed?

    •  What is the channel geometry?

    •  Are there hydraulic discontinuities in the channel (standing waves, hydraulic jumps, dams, etc.)?

    •  Is there access to the channel at a suitable point for measuring flow?

    •  How often will flow measurements need to be made?

    •  Will the flow-measuring device require freeze protection or shelter?

    •  What water constituents may affect the reliability of the flow-measuring device? For example, will
       sediment in the stream clog flow tubes?

    •  Would there be a need for installing  a more permanent flow measuring device for long-term sur-

    •  Are utilities (electrical, air, or clean water) available onsite?
    The following discussions apply only to water moving from one point to another, not to surface water
lying still in an impoundment or liquid waste pond. Such water does not fit the flow definition cited above.
Flowing water moves because it has a sloping surface that is subject to the pull of gravity and/or a pressure
head. This movement from point to point is opposed by frictional forces between the water and the sides
of the channel.  This friction leads to wide variations in velocity over the cross-sectional plane of the chan-
nel.  No matter which flow-measurement technique or device is chosen, it will have to accurately account
for these variations.  Field crews conducting flow measurements must be made aware of the strengths and
limitations that apply to any flow-measurement technique.

    Another type of "flow" not covered by the following discussion may be called "overland flow" or "emer-
gent subsurface flow," wherein water moves across a land surface without being constrained by definable,
continuous channel boundaries.  Examples of this type of flow occur during floods or heavy storm runoffs.
Such flows are mostly ephemera!, nonuniform, and very shallow.  Since there is no definite cross-sectional
measurement available, flow measurement by any of the following methods  is not practical. Problems re-
lated to quantification  of such flows are discussed in the National Handbook of Recommended Methods for
Water Data Acquisition compiled by the Department of Interior's U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) staff.

10.1.4   Responsibilities

    The SM  is responsible for obtaining proper flow measurements.  The most important tool in carrying
out this responsibility is the site operations sampling plan. Details of this plan are site-specific, usually fol-
lowing a site reconnaissance by the site or field team leader.

    The field  team leader is responsible for implementing the requirements of the site operations sampling
plan and  for reporting any unusual conditions to the SM as soon as  it  becomes apparent that  plan
modifications may be  needed.  The field team leader must also make certain that all required  documenta-
tion is properly originated, maintained, completed, and forwarded to the proper authorities.

    The field investigation team is responsible for the actual installation of the  proper equipment and the
performance of flow measurements. Selected  members of the work crew must be familiar with the objec-
tives, the  site operations plan, the equipment designated for use, the recordkeeping  requirements, the ap-
propriate  safety measures, and the importance of accurate measurements.

10.1.5  Procedures   General Considerations

    The planning,  selection, and implementation ot any flow-measurement program require careful con-
sideration by qualified, experienced personnel. A preliminary site visit should be made to review actual
conditions and to confirm or correct site plans, diagrams, or layouts.

    The purpose of making flow measurements should be clearly defined before commencing this activity.
Some common reasons for measuring flowrates include the following:
    •  Assessing impacts on receiving streams

    •  Acquiring  data on flow volume, variability, and average rate to design and operate wastewater
       treatment facilities

    •  Determining compliance with load limitations placed on selected pollutants

    •  Flow-proportioning composites to comply with permit requirements that govern composite sam-

    •  Estimating chemical addition requirements or treatment costs for effective wastewater treatment

    •  Establishing the requirements for sampling frequency or the need for continuous monitoring of
       flowing streams
    Whatever the reason for conducting flow measurements, the parties involved in such work must be
made aware of the purpose, so that their contribution to this effort will be better defined.  Most of the tech-
niques described below depend on two critical measurements:

    •  The geometry of the cross-sectional plane through which the water is passing

    •  The velocity at which the water is moving, typically expressed in terms of length per unit of time
       (e.g., meters per second, feet per second)
    At times, the velocity may drop to zero and the water may stand still.  This phenomenon further divides
surface flows into two distinct types:  intermittent and continuous. The flow-measurement method chosen
must be able to account for periods of zero flow whenever they occur. The measurements themselves may
be  made continuously using automatic instruments or intermittently by manual methods.  Human  ob-
servers must be aware of flow variations including periods of no flow. But other factors, such as the cost,
accessibility, climate, available time for measurements, and the relative accuracy of measurement desired,
will also contribute heavily to the choice of method used. The type of measurement technique used will ul-
timately depend on conditions encountered at each location.

-------   Methods and Applications: General

    Selection and implementation of flow-measurement practices require that consideration be given to the
following issues that are common to all surface flow measurements at or near hazardous waste sites:
    •  Preventing the spread of contamination

    •  Minimizing the risk to health and safety

    •  Maintaining a high level of accuracy in measuring flows

    •  Causing the least possible disruption to onsite activities

    •  Reporting all readings in an organized fashion as required by the sampling plan

    •  Reducing, where possible, any additional long- and short-term impacts
    For most sites, flow measurements are made in open channels that consist of a bed, two banks or
sides, and a free or open water surface. The term also may apply ta water movement through closed con-
duits or sewers that are flowing only partially full.  The most typical cross-sectional shape encountered is
either circular or rectangular.  On occasion, measurements are taken in pressurized closed channels that
are completely full of water at a pressure greater than atmospheric, either because of gravity or the use of
pumps. Some of the measurement techniques described in the following discussion are applicable only to
open channels, while others work only in closed channels. Some may be used in either type of channel.
Also, some methods are best suited for making single measurements, while others work best on a con-
tinuous basis.  Individual site conditions will determine the user's options. The most appropriate option is
selected and incorporated into the site sampling plan.

    Most flow measurements are  based  on determining two  key variables cited in Subsection
cross-sectional area and velocity across  that area.  For open channels, especially the smaller ones, the
cross section is often best measured directly using a meter or yardstick and weighted chains or lines. Care
must be taken to find a location where the dimensions are not likely to change during the time  period in
which flow measurements will be taken. Width and depth are expressed in terms of meters or feet, and the
cross-sectional area is expressed as square meters or square feet.
    Velocity is determined using one of the methods that follow, either directly or by calculation, from head
differential or pressure  differential  relationships.  Units are commonly given in meters/sec or feet/sec for
most  flow velocities.  When cross-sectional  area and flow velocity are multiplied, their product is the
volumetric flowrate, expressed as cubic meters/sec or cubic feet/sec for large flows and as liters/sec or gal-
lons/mil for small flows.

    At times, the entire flow from a discharge pipe or a notched weir or dam can be caught in a collector of
known volume, such as a 5-gallon can or 55-gallon drum. By clocking the amount of time needed to fill the
vessel,  one may obtain a direct measurement of volumetric flowrate without resorting to cross-sectional
area and velocity measurements. A minimum of 10 seconds to fill the container is recommended. Several
fill-ups should be timed, and the results should be averaged to improve the quality of this measurement.
But other means of flow measurement will be  used more often  than this direct estimate, which is valid only
for flows between 0.06 liter/sec (1 gallon per minute (gpm)) and about 6.3 liter/sec (100 gpm).

    The equipment listed in  this subsection is the most commonly used at hazardous waste sites.  For
selected special applications, the reader should refer to Subsection


    Current Meter:  A current meter can be a mechanical device with a rotating element that, when sub-
merged in a flowing stream, rotates at a speed proportional to the velocity of the flow at that point below
the surface.  The rotating element may be either a vertical shaft or a horizontal shaft type. Meter manufac-
turers usually provide the user with calibration tables to translate rotation into linear speed in meters/sec or
feet/sec (Price, undated).

    Current  meters  can also  be electromagnetic sensors where  the passage of  fluids between two
electrodes in a bulb-shaped  probe causes  a disturbance of the electromagnetic field surrounding  the
electrodes.  This disturbance generates a small voltage that can be  made proportional to fluid velocity by
internal electronic circuitry. A direct readout of velocity in meters/sec or feet/sec is provided for the user
(Marsh-McBirney, undated).

    Applicability:  Vertical axis meters are more commonly used because they are simpler, more rugged,
and easier to maintain than horizontal shaft meters.  They also have a lower threshold velocity, on the order
of 0.03 meters/sec (0.1  feet/sec). The electromagnetic current meters can  be used  in making measure-
ments in situations where mechanical meters cannot function, such as weedy streams where mechaical
rotating elements would foul.  However, the electromagnetic meters must always be carefully aligned to be
normal to the stream cross section, since the meter measures only one velocity vector (the one parallel to
the probe's  longitudinal axis).  Current meters will operate at depths ranging from 0.1 meter (0.3 feet) to
any depth where the meter can be held rigidly in place using cables or extension poles. For most hazard-
ous site investigations, depths rarely exceed 2 or 3 meters (6.5 to 10 feet).   Since current meters provide
readings at a single point, the mean velocity must be based on multiple readings along a vertical line, or on
a single reading that  can be converted to an estimated mean velocity using standard coefficients.  Methods
for estimating mean velocity include the following:

    •   Six-tenths depth method-Uses the  observed  velocity at a  point 0.6 of the total depth below the
        surface as the mean velocity for the vertical. Flow is calculated for each subsection defined by the
        verticals and is the product of the depth times the mean velocity for  that subsection. Total  dis-
        charge flow  is the sum of all individual subsection flows, while the average stream velocity is  that
        sum (total discharge) divided by the total cross-sectional area.  The number of readings to be
        taken to increase accuracy will depend on the width of the stream, from 2 or 3 for streams  less
        than 5 feet across to 15 to 25 for streams wider than 50 feet across.  Ideally, the stream should be
        partitioned into sections small enough that less than 10 percent of the total stream flow passes
        through each section. In this manner, individual measurements that may be in error will have  less
        impact on the overall average velocity determination. However, practical consideration, such as a
        rapidly changing stage or limited time available to conduct measurements, often may preclude the
        use of the ideal number of partial sections.  Users must recognize the potential impact on the over-
        all accuracy of velocity measurements from an inadequate number of verticals within a given cross
        section. This method works best at depths between 0.09 and  0.16 meters (0.3 to 2.5 feet) and is
        the method of choice when measurements must be made quickly.

    •  Two-point method-Measures velocities at 0.2 and 0.8 of the total depth below the surface.  The
        average of the two readings is considered to be the average for the vertical. Several different verti-
        cals are averaged across the cross section.  This method  is more accurate than the six-tenths
        depth method, but it cannot be used at depths less than 0.76 meters (2.5 feet) because the obser-
        vation points would be too near the surface and the streambed.

    •  Three-point  method - Measures velocities at 0.2, 0.6, and 0.8 of the total depth below the surface.
        Readings  at 0.2 and 0.8 are averaged; then that result is averaged with the  reading at 0.6.  This
        method provides a better mean value when velocities in the vertical are abnormally distributed, but
        it should not abnormally be used at depths less than 0.76 meters (2.5 feet).

     •  Vertical-velocity method — Primarily  for deep  channels, this method  measures velocities  at 0.1
        depth increments between 0.1 and 0.9 of the total depth for several verticals.  Because of the multi-
        plicity of readings, this method is rarely used.


A step-by-step summary of a typical flow or discharge measurement is as follows:
•   Assemble current meter and test for proper operation in accordance with the manufacturer's in-
    structions. Collect data form or notebook, pencil, stop watch, 50-foot tape, etc.

•   Partition stream into sections (with tag-line or bridge railing), visually observing the velocity and
    general flow of the stream.  Enough stations should  be  established to prevent more than 10 per
    cent of the total discharge from passing through any individual partial section.  Remember, the par-
    tial section in question is not the same as the interval between two successive stations. Mark sta-
    tions appropriately. A check of measurements may indicate the need for readjustment of the parti-
    tioned sections to upgrade the quality of the readings.

•   Record stream stage as indicated by one of the staff gauges, and record this value on the water
    level recorder chart at the point of pen contact.

•   Record a minimum of the following items on the data form or in the notebook:

           -   Project
           -   Site
           -   Date
           -   Time at start of measurements
           -   Stream stage at start of measurements
           -   Approximate wind direction and speed
               General stream condition (e.g., turbid, clear, low level, floating debris, water tempera-
               ture, type of streambed material, etc.)
           -   Other factors having a bearing on discharge  measurements
           -   Location of initial point
           -   Total width of stream to be measured
           -   Type of current meter and conversion factor, if applicable
               Name of investigator taking the above reading

 •   Determine the depth and mean velocity  at the first station or "initial point" if the situation allows;
    record this information.

 •   Measure depth at the second station from initial point and record.  Determine whether the velocity
    should be measured at the 0.6 depth from the surface (six-tenths depth method), at the 0.2 and 0.8
    depths (two-point method), or by either of the  other methods available.   Calculate respective
    depths from the surface, measure the velocity at each point, and record these values.

 •   Continue to each  successive station as rapidly as possible, following the same procedure.

 •   Determine the depth and mean velocity at the last station, or endpoint, and record.

 •   Record on the data form the ending time of this series of measurements and the stage, since the
    stage may have been changing during the measurements.

 •   Enter the ending stage value on the recorder chart at the point of pen contact. This information will
    illustrate the interval  of time and stage variations during the cross-sectional measurements.  Also
    enter the date and indicate that a calibration has taken place over this interval.

 •   Remove the tag-line (if used); rinse the current meter in clean water, if necessary; allow the current
    meter to dry; then pack it away in its carrying case.

   There are a few other comments regarding stream discharge calibrations that should be mentioned:
    •   Where practical, make the measurements with the investigator standing behind and well to the side
       of the meter.

    •   Avoid disturbing or standing along the streambed beneath the cross-sectional measuring points.
       This location is part of the control area and should remain constant, if possible, from calibration to
       calibration of the stream.  This step is especially important if soft, mucky sediment is encountered
       somewhere along the cross section.

    *   Where possible, try to use the same cross section throughout the study period and during all of the
       stream calibrations.  However, the number and position of stations within the cross section may be
       changed, if necessary, to accommodate changing flow conditions.

    *   Always hold the wading rod vertical, and be aware of how KNORM is determined with each of the
       various types of meters, if it becomes necessary to switch meters during a calibration.

    •   Repeat the stream  calibration at regular intervals throughout the study period to account for
       seasonal changes in streambank vegetation and streambed alterations that may affect measure-
    Once the mean velocity for each stream subsection is determined, that value is multiplied by the area
of the subsection; the product is the volumetric flow through the subsection per unit of time.  The total dis-
charge rate is the sum of all volumetric flows for each subsection across the entire  cross section of the
stream.  The reader should refer to USGS Water Supply  Paper 2175 for additional information (USGS,
1982).  Customary units are cubic meters/sec  (cm ft/sec) for large flows and liters/sec (ga!/mil) for small

    Current Meters and Stage Gauges: Where repeated measurements of a volumetric flowrate at a cer-
tain cross-sectional area are required, it is best to install a permanent stage gauge along the stream's  back
or side wall to facilitate measurement of the depth. The gauge  should be a rigid rod or board, precisely
graduated and firmly mounted with the streambed serving as a possible reference point.  Where stream
characteristics are such that significant bed erosion from scouring may be expected, it is best not to set the
streambed as a zero point, because this could lead to confusion from generation of negative numbers for
gauge height readings.  An arbitrary datum plume should  be selected that is below the elevation of zero
flow expected for the stream site. Gauges may be mounted vertically (perpendicular lo the stream surface)
or may incline along the slope of the stream bank. Vertical gauges are simpler to construct and calibrate,
while inclined gauges provide more accurate readings and  are less likely to be damaged by material  float-
ing by. The gauge provides one of the measurements needed to estimate area. Width is fixed for channels
with vertical  sides and can be readily determined  for other configurations. Velocity is determined using a
current meter as described above.

    Discharge rating curves can be used to define the relationship between stage and  stream discharge,
and to allow conversion of stage hydrographs to discharge hydrographs.  The discharge calibration points
are hand or machine plotted onto a log-log paper graph of stage versus stream discharge. Stream stage is
plotted on the vertical Y axis, and stream discharge is plotted on the horizontal ^axis.  Ideally, enough
calibrations are conducted over the full range of stage variations to allow a smooth hand-drawn curve  to be
drawn through these points on the graph. '

    The slope and rate of change of slope may vary significantly over the length of this curve.  At certain
gauging stations, the slope of this curve may  break sharply, or the distribition of points may require the
construction  of two partial curves rather than one continuous curve.  These latter two situations would


apply to more complex stage discharge relationships. It is the task of the investigator to derive a mathe-
matical relationship that describes this curve as closely as possible (i.e., an equation). The development of
an equation would allow calculation of discharge flow by simply plugging in the stream elevation. This
equation will allow computerization of the process of converting stage records into discharge and will even-
tually allow conversion to volume by noting the time interval on the recorder chart at which this rate of flow

    More complicated rating relationships may be required at a particular gauging station. Discharge may
be not only a function of stage but also a function of slope,  rate of  change of stage, or other variables
specific to each site.  Additionally, stage-discharge relationships are rarely permanent, and discharge
calibrations should be carried out at periodic intervals to define the effects of various factors including the

    •   Scouring and deposition of sediment

    •   Alteration of streambed roughness as a result of the creation and dissemination of dunes, anti-
        dunes, ripples, and standing-wave features in sandy bottoms; the deposition of leaves and other
        debris during different seasons; and the seasonal variation in the growth of macrophytes

    •   Ice effects that  may cause additional resistance to flow  (If  monitoring is  carried out during the
        colder months, a complete ice-over and additional freeze will tend to constrict the stream channel
        with time and may increase the stage, when in fact the flow may not be increasing at all.)

    •   Human-related activities, such  as upstream construction, recreation, etc.
    Applicability:  This method applies to sites where many flow measurements will be made over a long
period of time. Care must be taken to maintain a known zero reference point elevation. The point does not
have to be the stream's bottom. Where bed erosion over the course of flow measurements may become a
problem, provisions must be made to recalibrate the gauge at regular intervals (e.g., weekly).  The gauge is
lowered or raised as necessary to conform with changing bed conditions.  Calculation of flow rate is the
same as in the preceding subsection for current meters alone.

    Weirs:  Weirs are commonly used flow measurement devices. They are relatively easy to install and
inexpensive to construct. All weirs are deliberate restrictions inserted into an open channel or a partially full
pipe to obstruct flow by forcing the weir through a calibrated cross section. The weir causes water to back
up and create a higher level (head) than the level below the barrier.  The height of that head is a function of
the velocity of the flow.  Standard tables and nomographs are available for many different types of weirs,
based on different general equations for each type.  The reader should refer to Exhibit 10-1 for a typical
profile of an installed weir.

    The three most common weir configurations are triangular (or V-notch), rectangular, and Cipolletti (or
trapezoidal).  The reader should refer to Exhibit 10-2 for examples.  Triangular weirs can have submerged
angles of any size, but the most common  angles are 22-1/2:, 30:, 45:, 60:, and 90:. Rectangular weirs may
be designed  with no end contractions (the water flows  over the full width of the weir) or with contractions
on one or both ends (water flows over a notch in the weir). The former case is referred to as a surpressed
weir, but this type is often subject to problems when a vacuum develops under the nappe (the sheet of
water breaking free from the  crest of the weir). The most common type of rectangular weir is the con-
tracted or notched weir with end contractions.  Standard contracted weirs  have two end contractions
whose width is at least twice the  maximum head expected above  the weir crest. The Cipolletti weir has
standardized end slopes of one horizontal to four vertical, which provide a correction for the contraction of
the nappe over the crest. Other weir profiles exist, but they are much less common.  The reader should
refer to the  flow-measurement references  in  U.S. Department  of  Interior  (USDA),  1974;  Instrument
Specialists Company (ISCO),  1985; and USGS, 1982, for information on other types of weirs.


             Exhibit 10-1
               K = approx. 1/8"
    DEPTH, H
—  I
20 Hmax.

at least

                  Exhibit 10-2
      Max. Level

    4:1 slope
                               / Hmax.
    L at least 3 Hmax.
    X at least 2 Hmax.

    Flumes:  Flumes are specially shaped open-channel flow sections with a restriction in channel area
and, in most examples, with a change in channel slope.  Either or both of these shape changes cause
velocities to increase and water levels to change while passing through the flume. Typical flumes consist of
three sections:
    •  A converging section to accelerate the approaching flow

    •  A throat section, whose width is used to designate flume size
       A diverging section, designed to ensure that the level downstream is lower than the level in the
       converging section
    Ideally, flowrate through a flume may be determined by measurements at a single point some distance
downstream from the inlet and above the throat.  This single measurement indicates the discharge rate
only if critical or supercritical flow is achieved in the flume.  By definition, critical flow is that for which the
Froude number (the ratio of force due to inertia to the force due to gravity) is unity.  Supercritical flow oc-
curs when the  Froude number exceeds unity. If the Froude number is less than one,  subcritical flow oc-
curs; a second depth  reading must be taken in the throat section to determine the true discharge  rate.
Refer to USGS Water Supply Paper 2175, Volume 2, Chapter 10, for discussion of flumes and weirs under
all flow conditions, including submergence.

    The most widely used  flume type is the Parshall flume.  These flumes may be constructed of wood,
fiberglass, concrete, plastic, or metal.  The dimensions and capacities  for 12 different standard Parshall
flumes are given  in Exhibit  10-3.  The reader should note that considerable overlap exists in capacities, in-
dicating that several different sizes can apply to most flow measurement requirements.  Flow curves for
free-flow conditions  are shown in Exhibit 10-4 for 17 Parshall flumes, ranging in size from 3 inches to 50

    Another useful, more portable flume is the Palmer-Bowlus type, which uses the  existing channel  con-
figuration, but  provides a level section of floor and some side contraction to produce supercritical flow.
Four commonly  used shapes of Palmer-Bowlus flumes are illustrated in Exhibit 10-5.   Note that in each
case, the floor length is approximately the same as the channel width.  Materials of construction include
fiberglass, stainless steel, cast iron, or, for permanent installations, concrete. The principal advantage of
Palmer-Bowlus flumes is their ease of installation, while the main disadvantage is their smaller useful flow

    For measurement of low flowrates (less than 2.8 m3/sec or 100 cfs), one of the H-type flumes may be
used. These flumes are more nearly weirs than flumes or are more properly called open-channel flow noz-
zles, but they are included with flumes because of historical precedence.  Because  of their  configuration,
design of these flumes combined the accuracy of a weir with the self-cleaning feature of a flume. H-type
flumes have the advantage of simple construction and can monitor flow over a wide range. They have flat,
unobstructed bottoms, sloping side contractions (much like the converging section  of a flume), and a
trapezoid-shaped opening that tilts backwards toward the approaching flow.  This opening is the flow  con-
trol section; the flowrate is a function of the convergence angle, the side wall top slope, and the width of
the opening. H-type flume  size is designated by the depth, D, of the flume at its entrance.  There are three
basic configurations of H-type flumes, ranging from H flumes for low flows, through  H flumes for medium
flows, to H flumes for high flows. Dimensions and capacities for H flumes are given in Exhibit 10-6.  The
reader should  consult standard flow references or manufacturers' published data for information on other
H-type flumes.

                     Exhibit 10-3
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              Exhibit 10-4

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                       Exhibit 10-5
     End View
Longitudinal Mid-Sections


    Applicability:   Flumes are more versatile than weirs, in that they can be used to measure higher
flowrates than comparably sized weirs; they are, to a large extent, self-cleaning because of higher velocities
through the throat section. They also operate with much smaller head losses than weirs. Their major dis-
advantage is the cost of construction and installation. As a result, flumes tend to be used only where many
measurements over a long period of time are contemplated. Another disadvantage is their insensitivity at
low flows because of the rectangular section.

    In most cases, the smallest flume that can handle the maximum expected flow is chosen, but the chan-
nel width should also be considered when selecting a flume size.  Generally, the flume's width should be
one-third to one-half of the channel width.

    Palmer-Bowlus  flume flowrates are best  estimated from  discharge  tables  published  by the flume
manufacturers.  The reader should note that tables covering flumes made by one manufacturer may not
apply to those of another manufacturer because of subtle discrepancies in shape or physical dimensions.
Also, field calibrated tests of flumes have indicated up to a 7 percent difference at low heads between ac-
tual and theoretical  discharge rates.  For Palmer-Bowlus flumes in general, the following equations state
some of the applicable relationships:

      Q2           Ac3           Vc2

       8              b     ^     2g


        Ac     =      area at the critical depth in ft2
        Q      =      discharge flow in cfs
                      32.2 ft/sec (acceleration because of gravity)
                      width of the flume in ft
        Vc     =      critical velocity in ft/sec
        dc      =      critical depth in ft

    Discharge equations have been developed for various H-type flumes by Gwinn and Parsons. These
are quite complex and are not listed here.  For further details on HS, H, and HL flumes,  the  reader should
refer to Subsection 10.1.7.

    Submerged Orifices:  An orifice flow-measuring device consists of a well-defined, typically circular or
rectangular hole that is designed to restrict flow when installed In a pipe or on a wall or bulkhead through
which flow can occur.  Orifices may discharge freely into air or into water as a submerged flow.  The sub-
merged orifice is more likely to be used in field investigations, especially where there is insufficient fall for a
weir, and a flume cannot be justified.  As in the case of weirs, installation of thin plate orifices  is relatively in-
expensive and simple, and variations in flowrate are easily accommodated by varying the size  or shape of
the orifice.  Exhibit 10-7 illustrates four common types of orifices:  the sharp-edged, the rounded, the short
tube, and the Borda-type orifices. The reader should note that each offers different resistances to flow
even though  the diameters are identical. The coefficient, C, shown for each type is used in calculations to
account for the different resistances.

    Applicability:   Submerged orifices may be used to measure flows where the opening can be kept full
of water and where the pressure head  upstream and downstream of the orifice can be measured.  If the
upstream water surface drops below  the top of the orifice, flow will cease to follow the laws  of  orifice flow.
Instead, the partly submerged orifice  will begin to function more like a weir. Orifices should  be installed in
straight sections of the channel or pipe. Orifice diameter  (or area for noncircular orifices) is a function of
the expected flow and may range in size from 10 percent to 90 percent of the cross sectional area. Flows
are estimated by measuring the pressure differential upstream and  downstream, then relating this  dif-


_i  Type H flume

Concrete, masonry or wood sides—,
A /

Concrete floor


• Stream channel
Concrete or mason

                                Slope  2X ฑ -f
                        SECTION  ON CENTERLINE

(for  use  when flume  is  to  be  installed  in  a well-defined  natural  channel)
                                                                                                 I	190     J
                                                                                                 r"        ~      "*n

                                                                                                   Front Elevation
                                                                    Side Elevation
                                                                                                       Proportion! of the Type H Flume
Depth -O
1 5


                                                                                        m o
                                                                                                   Note For flumes less than 1  foot deep, the length

                                                                                                        of flume is made greater than 1 35D so that

                                                                                                        the float may be attached

ference to the geometry of the orifice and channel cross section.  For most applications the general equa-
tion is Q = CAK (Hi - H2)0'5, where Q is the discharge rate in cfs, A is the orifice area in ft2, H\ is the
pressure head at the center of the inlet to the orifice (in feet), Hi is the pressure head downstream of the
orifice (in feet), and C and ^"are constants derived from orifice shape and geometry. Values of Kmay be
calculated from the equation
    whereg = 32.2 ft/sec2 (acceleration as a result of gravity), ^2 is the orifice area in square feet and d\ is
the channel cross-sectional  area in square feet.  Alternatively, K may be approximated from the  curve
shown as Exhibit 10-8 for known values of d\ and (h.  The coefficient C will be relatively constant for most
d?]d\ ratios, but it will tend to increase for di]d\ ratios greater than 0.7.  For example, the 0.61 coefficient
used with sharp-edged orifices covers all d^Jd\ ratios from 0.2 through 0.7, but it increases to 0.64 for the
case where d^Jdi = 0.8, and to 0.71 when dild\ = 0.9.  In most cases, the orifice-to-channel ratio will be
less than 0.5, so the coefficient shown in Exhibit 10-8 will apply.

    Water Stage Gauges, Recorders and Stilling Wells: In those instances where many repeated flow
measurements are to be made over a period of time, or where continuous flow readings are desired, it be-
comes  necessary to provide a means for measuring surface elevation more efficiently.  Water surface
elevation  is the variable parameter for most applications, because the channel cross-sectional area at a
given point is usually fixed.  Three ways of simplifying the measurement of surface water elevation are as
        Installation of permanent water stage gauges at points where surface elevation readings are neces-

        Provision for automatic recorders that can track changes in elevation on a continuous basis

        Installation of stilling wells for improving the reliability of surface-level measurements
    Water stage gauges were discussed previously as an adjunct to the use of current meters, but they are
 readily adapted to weirs and flumes as well. The graduated face of the gauge must be kept clean to ob-
 serve the readings accurately. In addition to permanently mounted staff gauges, other types of calibrated
 gages may be used (e.g.,  hook gauges, wire-weight  gauges with graduated disk readouts, wire-tape
 gauges,  and chain gauges). All are designed to provide reference points so that surface elevations can be
 more easily measured, but none allows for continuous measurements, because they are all dependent on
 human observers.

    Automatic recording devices can provide continuous readings of surface elevation by using graphic,
 punched tape,  or printed records of the rise and fall of the water surface.  A common type of graphic re-
 corder uses a weighted float and cable to rotate a float pulley, which in turn is linked to  a flow cam and
 base plate that cause a pen to move up or down the face of a recorder chart (Stevens, 1976). The reader
 should refer to Exhibit 10-9 for a simplified sketch of this device.  USGS prefers a digital punch-tape re-
 corder because of its greater economy and flexibility and its compatibility with the use of computers to cal-
 culate discharge  records.  The stages are recorded in increments of 0.01 feet and are transmitted to the re-
 corder by rotation of an input shaft.  Shaft rotation is converted by the instrument into a coded punch-tape
 record.  For details, the reader should refer to USGS Water Supply Paper 2175 (USGS, 1982).  Other similar


              Exhibit 10-7



;=5— 	 *ป
•— ' *>•

                          Exhibit 10-8





2   9.4

>   9.2







                                                         r =

Values of r

recorders  sense changes in pressure at the water surface.  A box containing a flexible diaphragm is
mounted at the water surface so that the rise and fall of the surface will increase or decrease the pressure
on the diaphragm.  These changes in pressure are continuously recorded. The reader should refer to Ex-
hibit 10-10 for an example of this type of recorder mounted in a weir system.  Another pressure-based re-
corder is shown in  Exhibit 10-11; it is based on the fact that changes in water surface elevation will cause
increased  or decreased resistance to air escaping from an immersed bubbler tube.  A pressure-sensitive
translator drives the recording chart.

    Stilling wells are specially designed reservoirs used to dampen the effects from surface variations or
ripples in the main  channel, thus allowing for a more stable and steady surface-level measurement. Such
wells are especially desirable if float-type water level  recorders are used.  Several requirements must be
met when  stilling wells are used:
       They must be high enough to cover the entire expected range of surface levels. The well should
       be long enough that its bottom is at least 0.3 m (1.0 feet) below the minimum stage expected.

       They should be as vertical  as possible, so that the float wire  or tape can move vertically with no
       drag or interference.

       Intake pipes or holes should be large enough to make sure that water levels in the well  do not lag
       the rise or fall of levels in the stream.

       They must have provisions to clean out and remove silt.

       If used in freezing weather, they should be provided with a means for heating the devices unless
       wells can be protected by surrounding ground and a subfloor.

       Stilling wells should have sealed bottoms to avoid  seepage if they are installed into streambanks.
    Applicability:  Calibrated water stage gauges are widely applicable to almost any flow measurement
problem. Custom-made gauges can even be calibrated to read cfs or m3/sec directly if all other conditions
besides surface elevation can be kept constant.  This calibration is especially true for flumes and weirs
where cross-sectional areas are fixed.

    Automatic recorders find their widest use where readings must be made continuously and where staff-
ing is not available around the clock.  These recorders are relatively uncommon in site survey work be-
cause there are few occasions where continuous measurements are essential.  Even flow readings for
nearby streams or rivers are rarely made on a continuous basis.  However, the need may arise for special
application at certain sites, especially if ongoing remedial work is being done.

    Stilling wells are beneficial for all flow measuring stations where multiple readings at a weir or flume
must be made. These wells are essential at any site where  continuous recorders are installed.  Because
stilling wells are isolated from the main flow by a small-diameter inlet, waves and surges in the main flow
will not appear in the well. But the well must be able to accurately reflect all steady fluctuations in the main
channel. The well may be made of concrete, wood, ceramic pipe, or metal pipe; it must have a solid bot-
tom; and, except for the inlet, it must be water tight.  The stilling well inlet should be located at the desired
head measuring point in the primary flow measurement device (weir, flume, orifice). The inlet area should
be large enough to quickly reflect changes in the stream, but small enough to provide effective damping of
surges. Suggested sizes are as follows:

                              Exhibit 10-9
                      FLOAT PULLEY
                                                 PEN ARM  I FLOW GEARS

           Exhibit 10-10
    Shut Off Valve
Pneumatic Tube
                                    American Integrating
                                    Weir Meter
                Bleed Valve
                          Switch and Fuse
                          (115v. 60hz)

                                  Exhibit 10-11
           An air bubbler will measure water depth in pipes and channels.  The recorder
         •  gauges for the bubbler must be selected for the depth of flow because of low
         •  air back-pressure.
              a i . i i
                            i  i i i  i i i i i r  i TJ I7i
       Air Supply
                  Pressure gauges and reducing
                  valve • normally in meter
                  box as part of meter
                                                           Meter Box and Recorder
This method can be used in an
open channel or stilling well
to measure depth of flow
                                                       1/8 or 1/4 in. Pipe

       If the well is of 6-inch diameter, the inlet should be 3/8-inch diameter.

       If the well is of 12-inch diameter, the inlet should be 1/2-inch diameter.

       If the well is of 24-inch diameter, the inlet should be 3/4-inch diameter

       If the well if of 30-inch diameter, the inlet should be 1-inch diameter.

       If the well is of 36-inch diameter, the inlet should be 1-1/4-inch diameter.

    USGS recommends at least 18-inch diameters for stilling wells, and prefers to use a 2- to 4-inch intake

    Selecting a site for the stilling well partially depends on locating an area where stream velocity cross-
sectional measurements can be carried out accurately under all variations of stage.  The following criteria
are generally used, at least in part, for selecting a site for a stilling well.
    •  A fairly straight section of stream length should be chosen where turbulence is minimal and flow
       maintains, as much as possible, a uniform flow under varying stages.

    •  This section should be accessible to a stable channel or control and should be where a stage dis-
       charge relationship can be determined.

    •  An area should be selected that is proximate to where the cross-sectional measurements will  be
       made, possibly at some sort of permanent control structure (e.g., either a bridge where abutments
       contain the stream width with increasing stages or an underwater rocky ledge). To be avoided are
       undercut  banks or areas where overland  flooding will occur easily, or where streambed scour or
       streambank erosion may occur over the study period.

    •  The site should be a position in the stream that is away from strong current areas,  but where water
       will be available to the stilling well under low flow conditions. A location should be chosen that will
       also afford some protection to the installation from strong currents during flood events.

    •  The site should be at a location where the type of sediment is sand, gravel, consolidated clay, or a
       mixture of these materials, since the substrate may be required to partially support the installation
       and to resist settling or tilting of the structure.

    •  An area of low susceptibility to vandalism should be chosen.
    For details on installation and maintenance of stilling wells, the reader should refer to USDI, 1965 and
1974; USGS, 1982; ISCO, 1985; and Stevens, 1978.   Methods and Applications: Alternative Flow Measurements

    At times none of the foregoing flow measurements are applicable to the site-specific problem, so other
methods must be investigated. Some of the possibilities are briefly discussed below, but readers will need
to refer to other publications or manufacturers' instruction manuals for more details.

    Pitot Tubes:  Although Pitot tubes are usually associated with flow measurements in closed pipes,
they can also be used to measure flow velocities in open channels. The principle is illustrated in Exhibit 10-
12, where the difference in pressure between an upstream reading and a downstream reading is directly re-
lated to flow velocity, at  the  point of measurement.  Pitot  tubes  are available commercially, and
manufacturer's specifications should be consulted before use.

    Applicability:  Pitot tubes should be used where velocities are high enough to generate readable dif-
ferences in preasure.  They are very inaccurate at low velocities, less than 1 fps.  Measurements are best
made when the upstream straight section is 15 to 20 times the channel width.  Pitot tubes are not reliable
for streams carrying high  concentrations of suspended matter because the tube inlet plugs easily, giving in-
accurate pressure readings.  The general formula for calculating discharge rates using Pitot tubes is Q =
AVwhere Q is flow in cfs,A is cross-sectional area of separate subsections of the channel in ft2, and V\s
flow velocity in ft/sec.  Further, Kis calculated from

                                                , where g = 32.2 ft/sec, P2-P\
    is the change in pressure in Ib/ft2, and d is 62.4, the density of water in Ib/ft3. Substituting values for
the two constants gives V =  1.02 (Pz-Pi)0'5.  The reader should note that/VPi is a pressure difference,
and not a measure of depth or head. For very small differences in P, the equation becomes meaningless.
The individual subsections' discharge rates are added together to define the total discharge rate for the en-
tire cross-sectional area.

    Salt and Dye Solutions:   The addition of salt  or dye solutions provides a means for estimating
volumetric flow rates where channel geometry  or  inaccessibility render other methods useless.  These
techniques depend on determining the amount of dilution that  a known  concentration of a salt or dye
receives as it mixes with a much larger volume of salt-free or dye-free water. As a result, the method does
not rely on accurate measurements of channel cross sections, water levels, or even velocity. The following
general conditions are relevant to successful use of this technique.

    (The reader should refer to USDA, 1965; USGS,  1982; and Turner, 1976, for detailed information on salt
or dye dilution techniques.)
    •   The salt or dye used as a tracer should be absent in the original discharge flow, or, if salt or dye is
        present, it must be of low enough concentration that additional salt or dye will yield a mixed con-
        centration at least five times higher.

    •   The concentration and the injection rate of the tracer being added must be known. There are two
        ways to add the tracer:

               -   At a constant rate so that downstream concentrations will eventually become constant
                   (best for low flows and inexpensive tracers; has long injection time).
               -   As a sudden injection or slug of tracer so that a relatively sharp peak concentration
                   can be detected  downstream (best for higher flows; requires long sampling time and
                   many individual measurements to make certain peak is detected and quantified).

    •   The tracer must be stable both in solution and upon mixing with the discharge. It must not react
        with any chemicals in the discharge.

              Exhibit 10-12

    •  There must be sufficient mixing in the following stream to ensure that the tracer is evenly dis-
       tributed on addition.  The injection point should be far enough upstream to allow for turbulent
       mixing before the first measuring point.

    •  Sufficient injection time must be provided to allow downstream samples to reach a concentration
       plateau or reach a peak concentration, depending on which injection method is used.

    Suitable tracers include sodium, potassium or lithium chloride, fluorescein, and Rhodamine WT dyes.
Ideally, concentrations are determined  in the field to  assure that the downstream concentration plateau
was reached and sustained.

    Applicability:  Salt and dye tracer methods have wide application since they do not rely on channel
geometry or the ability to measure velocities accurately. These methods do rely heavily on analyzing
chemicals, careful metering of concentrated salt and dye solutions, and being able to accurately determine
when tracers have reached a point far enough downstream to ensure complete mixing.  Wide streams will
necessitate the collection  of lateral samples for  inclusion in the calculations.  To guarantee low back-
grounds and the absence of materials that may react with the added salt or absorb the dyes, the  natural
discharge must be analyzed before choice of salt or dye can be made.

    Radioisotopes:   Radioisotopes may be used as tracers instead of the salts and dyes discussed
above. Geiger or scintillation counters are used to determine background, concentrated injection solution,
and downstream levels of the radioisotopes added. Since radioactivity measurements are made on other
samples from hazardous waste sites, this flow measurement technique can be more easily practiced than
standard salt / dye tracer methods.  The principles, procedures, and methods of calculating flowrates are
the same as for other tracers.  The radioisotopes will give positive indications when downstream sampling
should commence, simplifying the  sample collection task.   Results are  obtained in  short order, since
analytical equipment and procedures need not be used. The major problem is the necessity for  special
handling of the radioactive material to prevent exposure to the users and others at the site. Special licen-
ses are required prior to use, and considerable recordkeeping and documentation must be maintained.

    Applicability:  This procedure applies to all situations where salt and dye tracer methods apply.  The
only exception that could occur would involve a site where background radioactivity is high enough to af-
fect the accuracy of the count. The radioisotopes chosen must have a high detectability range and a  low
decay rate.  The discharge formula for this method is Q = FAIN where Q is the flowrate, F is a calibra-
tion factor for the probe and  the counting system (see the manufacturer's  instructions), A is the total
amount of radioactivity injected, and N is the total count downstream.

    Acoustic Flow Meters:  Portable velocity meters, operating on the Doppler principle,  have been suc-
cessfully used to measure flow passing through closed pipes.  Use had been limited to situations where
bubbles or particles were evenly distributed through the flowing stream, since the meter transmits an
ultrasonic pulse that is reflected by the bubbles or particles.  Under Ideal conditions, a Doppler shift  occurs
and is directly related to the flow velocity. The meter translates this reading directly into velocity in feet/sec.
The pipe cross-sectional area is then multiplied  by velocity to obtain discharge rate (U.S. EPA,  1984).
Recently, more sensitive meters have been developed for use in situations where the water is relatively free
of particles.

    Applicability:   In theory,  this instrument is applicable to flow measurements in closed pipe, but in
practice many conditions have to be met to ensure reliable readings. The user must be careful to follow all
instructions for the particular instrument.  All conditions specified for use must be met.  Generally, all
measurements depend on the flowing stream's ability to transmit sound,  on the presence of evenly dis-
tributed bubbles or small  particles, and on the nonlaminar, turbulent flow of the water  at the point of
measurement. The user should refer to the instruction manual for the selected instrument before commit-
ting it to service.

    Slope-Area Methods:   In situations where installation of a weir or flume is impractical, but the cross-
sectional area and approximate slope of the channel are known, the Manning formula provides reasonable
estimates of flow velocity. Then the discharge flow rate is readily obtained by multiplying that velocity by
the cross-sectional area of the channel at the appropriate water level.  No equipment or measuring device
is necessary other than a means for estimating water surface level in the channel. Tables are used to
simplify the calculation, or the basic Manning equation may be solved directly (USGS, 1982; USDA, 1974;
King, 1976; and Davis and Sorenson, 1969).

    Applicability:  The slope-area method is most useful when relatively few measurements are to be
made-too few to justify installation of permanent measurement equipment.  The primary weakness in the
method is the fact that the slope of the hydraulic gradient is not always known, nor is it easy to estimate.
Another factor that seriously reduces the accuracy of the method is the need to estimate a roughness coef-
ficient for the channel surface.  Because of the difficulties in assigning  values to these two factors, the
slope-area method is subject to a 20 percent error rate, even when carefully practiced, and a much wider
potential error if estimated slopes or roughness coefficients are estimated inaccurately. The basic Manning
formula expresses velocity as
                                                , where
    Kis average velocity in feet/sec, n is the roughness coefficient, S is the slope of the hydraulic gradient,
and R is the hydraulic radius in feet. R, in turn, is calculated by dividing^, the cross-sectional area by P,
the wetted perimeter (that portion of the channel boundary that is under water).

    Roughness coefficients, n, are listed in Water Measurement Manual by the Bureau of Reclamation for
most materials of channel construction. Ranges are given because the coefficients tend to increase with
time as a result of erosion, deposition of solids, and corrosion. For additional information on assessing ap-
propriate roughness coefficients, the reader should refer to USGS Water Supply Paper 1849.

10.1.6  Region-Specific Variances

    In general,  site-specific conditions and project requirements will strongly influence the  selection of
flow-measurement methods. However, regional preferences may occur in method selection when past ex-
perience levels are considered. Region IV requires that all sampling and flow measurement events comply
with the procedures described in the "Engineering Support  Branch Standard Operating Procedures and
Quality Assurance Manual" (ESBSOPQAM) dated 2 April 1986 and prepared by the Environmental Services
Divison  of Region IV. Other  similar region-specific variances may evolve as site work progresses and
methods are revised or newly  published.  The reader should contact the EPA RPM for the most up-to-date
information on revised methods or variances.  Changes in variances will be included in Revision 01 of this

10.1.7  Information Sources

   American Society for Testing and Materials.  Manual on Water. 4th ed.  Special Technical Publication
442A. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: ASTM.  1978.

   Davis, C.V., and K.E. Sorenson.  Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 3rd ed.  New York, New York: Mc-
Graw-Hill.  1969.

   Fair, G.M., et al. Water Supply and Wastewater Removal.  New York, New York: John Wiley and Sons,
Inc. 1966.

   Instrumentation Specialists Company. ISCO Open Channel Flow Measurement Handbook.  2nd ed. Lin-
coln, Nebraska: ISCO. 1985.

   King, H.W., and E.F. Brater. Handbook of Hydraulics.  6th ed. New York, New York:  McGraw-Hill.

   Lythin, J.N. Drainage Engineering. Huntington, New York: R.E. Krieger Publishing Co.  1973.

   Marsh-McBirney,  Inc.  Instruction  Manual, Model 201 Portable Water  Current Meter.  Ga'rthersburg,
Maryland: Marsh- McBirney, Inc. Undated.

   Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission. Planning and Making Industrial Waste Surveys. Cincin-
nati, Ohio: ORSANCO.  1952.

   Stevens.  Stevens Water Resource Data Book. 3rded.  Beaverton, Oregon: Lenpold-Stevens, Inc. 1978.

   Turner.  "Fluorometric  Facts, Flow Measurements."  Monograph.   Mountain View, California: Turner
Designs Company. 1976.

    U.S. Department of Interior, 1965a. "Discharge Measurements at Gaging Stations." Hydraulic Measure-
ment and Computations.  Book I, Chapter 11. Washington, D.C.:  USDA, Geological Survey.  1965.

    U.S. Department of Interior, I965b.  "Measurement of Discharge by Dye Dilution  Methods." Hydraulic
Measurement and Computations.  Book I, Chapter 14. Washington, D.C.:  Geological Survey. 1965.

    U.S. Department of Interior.  Water Measurement Manual.  2nd ed. Revised. Washington, D.C.: USDA.

    U.S. Department of Interior. National Handbook of Recommended Methods for Water-Data Acquisition.
Reston, Virginia:  USDA, OWDC, Geological Survey.  1977.

    U.S. Department of Interior. Measurement and Computations of Streamflow: Volumes 1 and 2. Geological
Survey Water-Supply Paper 2175. Washington, D.C.: USDA. 1982.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ESB Standard Operating Procedures Quality Assurance Manual.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Handbook for Monitoring Industrial Wastewater.  Washington,
D.C.: U.S. EPA. 1979.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. NPDES Compliance Inspection Manual. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
EPA. 1984.


10.2.1  Scope and Purpose

    This subsection provides general guidance for the collection of surface water, sediment samples, and
sludge at hazardous waste sites. The primary objective of any sampling program is the acquisition of
samples representative of the source under investigation. Such samples must be suitable for subsequent
analysis to enable identification of the types  and amounts of pollutants present. Information derived from
sampling often forms the basis for litigation and development of remedial action, so all sampling programs
must be conducted in a manner that will stand the scrutiny of the court and the public.

10.2.2  Definitions

       The physical collection of a representative portion of the population, universe, or environment.

Environmental Samples
        Usually offsite samples with mid- or low-contaminant concentrations, such as streams, ditches,
        ponds, soils, and sediments, that are collected at some distance from direct sources of con-
       taminants. Most surface waters are environmental samples.

Grab Samples
        Discrete aliquots representing a specific location at a given point in time. The sample is col-
        lected all at once and at only one particular point in the sample medium.

Composite Samples
        Nondiscrete samples composed of  more than one specific aliquot collected at various  loca-
        tions or at different points in  time.  Analyzing this type of sample produces an average value for
        the locations or time period covered by sampling.

Surface Water Samples
        Samples of water collected from streams, ponds, rivers, lakes, or other impoundments open to
        the atmosphere. Surface waters flow over or rest on the land.

Sample  Blanks
        Samples of deionized or distilled water, rinsed collection devices or containers, sampling
        media, etc., that are  handled in the same manner as the unknown sample and are sub-
        sequently analyzed to identify possible sources of contamination during collection, preserva-
        tion, shipping, or handling.

        Particles derived from rocks  or biological  materials that have  been  transported by a fluid.
        Sediments include solid  matter (sludges) suspended in or settled from water.

Sampling Plan
       A detailed, site-specific plan that covers all sampling objectives and strategy for a given site.
       The plan describes methods and equipment used, locations, number and type of samples,
       safety requirements, transportation and shipping instructions, scheduling, and any other site-
       related sampling requirements.  The reader should refer to Section 4 for details.

10.2.3  Applicability

    This subsection describes general methods for the  physical sampling of surface waters, sludge, and
sediments.  Iji most cases, such samples will be low- or medium-hazard wastes, rather than the more con-
centrated high-hazard wastes collected from drums or storage facilities.  The individual site sampling plan
will always define the requirements for each  sampling program. The reader should refer to Section 4 for

    The following procedures apply to surface water (streams, rivers, surface impoundments) and sedi-
ments (sludges, stream bottoms, solids settled out of water).

10.2.4  Responsibilities

    Site  Managers are responsible for identifying sampling team  personnel,  assuring that each team
member's responsibilities are assigned and understood,  ensuring that the project-specific sampling proce-
dures are followed, maintaining chain-of-custody records, and determining that all sampling documents
have been completed properly and are accounted for.

    Field personnel performing sampling are responsible for properly collecting samples, initiating chain-
of-custody forms (see Section 4), monitoring traffic reports, and over seeing the necessary sample docu-
ments, as required.

    The sampling and analysis coordinator, equipment manager, or the EPA's Sample Management Office
authorized requester is responsible for arranging the sample bottle deliveries and coordinating the activities
of the field personnel and  the Sample Management Office.

10.2.5  Records

    The various documents, forms, labels, and tags that sampling teams will use in the field have been
standardized and are described in detail in Sections 4 and 17.  These include field logbooks, sample log
sheets, sample  labels, sample identification tags, traffic reports (organic,  inorganic, and high hazard), cus-
tody seals,  and chain-of-custody forms. Other forms are not usually standardized (e.g., sample shipping
documents that may vary according to the shipping company's requirements or photographic records that
necessarily must vary from site to site).

10.2.6 Sampling Procedures   General Considerations

    Regardless of the sampling methods or equipment selected, there are several general procedures that
are applicable to the collection of all surface water, sludge, or sediment samples.  These procedures in-
clude the following:
       Before commencing collection of samples, thoroughly evaluate the site.  Observe the number and
       location of sample points, landmarks, references, and routes of access or escape.

       Record pertinent observations.  Include a sketch, where appropriate, identifying sample locations.

       Prepare all sampling equipment and sample containers prior to entering site.  Provide protective
       wrapping to minimize contamination.

       Place sample containers on flat, stable surfaces for receiving samples.  Use sorbent materials to
       control spills, if any.

       Plan to collect samples first from those areas that are suspected of being the  least contaminated
       so that areas of suspected contamination are collected last, thus minimizing the risk of cross con-

       Collect samples and securely close containers as quickly as feasible. Where possible, make field
       observations (pH, temperature, conductivity) at the source rather than in containers.

       Follow the sampling plan in every detail. Document all steps in the sampling procedures.

       For potentially hazardous samples, dispose of sampling gear as determined in the sampling plan,
       or carry it back to the contamination reduction corridor for decontamination and cleaning in a plas-
       tic bag.

       For potentially hazardous samples, deliver the sample containers and equipment to the decon-
       tamination station for cleaning prior to further handling.

       Always be attentive to the potential hazards posed by the sampling procedures and the material
    Sampling in the Superfund program is closely guided by many EPA documents that originate in several
offices.  Guidance documents are listed in the subsection on information sources.  Methods and Applications:  Surface Water

    Because each hazardous waste site will contain a variety of waste substances, a variety of sampling
equipment and techniques will be necessary.  By following the procedures out lined in this compendium,
the degree of uniformity necessary for defining characteristics of hazardous waste sites can be obtained.

    Surface Water Sampling:  Samples from shallow depths can be readily collected by merely submerg-
ing the sample container. The container's mouth should be positioned so that it faces upstream, while the
sampling  personnel are standing down  stream  so as not to stir up any sediment to contaminate the
sample. The method is advantageous when the sample might be significantly altered during transfer from a


collection vessel into another container. This is the case with samples collected for oil and grease analysis,
since considerable material  may adhere to the sample transfer container and, as a result, produce inac-
curately low analytical results. Similarly, the transfer of a liquid into a small sample contained for volatile or-
ganic analysis, if not done carefully, could result in significant aeration and resultant loss of volatile species.
Though simple, representative, and generally free from substantial material disturbances, the act of trans-
ferring has significant shortcomings when applied to a hazardous waste, since the external surface of each
container would then need to be decontaminated.

    In general,  the use of a sampling device, either disposable or constructed of a nonreactive material
such as glass, stainless steel, or Teflon, is the most prudent method. The device should have a capacity of
at least 500 ml, if  possibly, to minimize the number of times the liquid must be disturbed, thus reducing
agitation of any sediment layers. A 1-liter polypropylene or stainless steel beaker with pour spout and
handle works well. Any sampling device may contribute contaminants to a sample.  The sampling devices
that should be selected  are those that will not  compromise sample integrity and will  give the desired
analytical results.

    Collecting a representative sample from a larger body of surface water is difficult but not impossible.
Samples should be collected near the shore unless boats are feasible and  permitted.  If boats are used, the
body of water should be cross sectioned, and samples should be collected at various depths across the
water in accordance with the specified sampling plan. For this type of sampling, a weighted-bottle sampler
is used to collect samples at any predetermined depth. The sampler (Exhibit 10-13) consists of a glass bot-
tle, a weighted sinker, a bottle stopper, and a line that is used to open the  bottle and to lower and raise the
sampler during sampling. There are variations of this sampler, as illustrated in ASTM methods D 270 and E
300. This sampler can  be either fabricated or purchased.  The procedure for use is as follows:

    •   Assemble  the weighted bottle sampler as shown in Exhibit 10-13.

    •   Gently lower the sampler to the desired depth so as not to remove the stopper prematurely.

    •   Pull out the stopper with a sharp jerk of the sampler line.

    •   Allow the bottle to fill completely, as evidenced by the cessation of air bubbles.

    •   Raise the sampler and cap the bottle.

    •   Wipe the bottle clean. The bottle can be also be used as the sample container.

    Teflon  bailers  have also been used while feasible for collecting  samples in deep  bodies  of water.
Where cross-sectional  sampling is not appropriate,  near-shore sampling  may be done  using a pond
sampler (refer to Exhibit 10-14).

    In this instance, a modification that extends the reach of the sampling technician is most practical. The
modification incorporates a  telescoping heavy-duty aluminum pole with an adjustable beaker  clamp at-
tached to the end.  A disposable glass, plastic container, or the actual sample container itself can be fitted
into the clamp.  In situations where cross contamination is of concern, use of a disposable contained or the
actual sample container is always advantageous. The cost of properly cleaning usually outweighs the cost
of disposal of otherwise reusable glassware or bottles, especially when the cleanup must be done in the
field. The potential contamination of samples for volatile organic analysis by the mere presence of organic
solvents necessary for proper field cleaning is usually too great to risk.

                Exhibit 10-13
1000-ml (1-quart) weighted-
      bottle catcher

  Exhibit 10-14
                     Varlgrip clamp
                           Bolt  hole

                           Beaker,  polyprop-
                            ylene,  250 ml
      Pole,  telescoping, aluminum,  heavy
       duty, 250-450 cm (96-180")

                                Medical-Grade Silicone Tubing
                                 >t— Assn
                                    Assorted Lengths
                                    of Teflon Tubing
                                                                       to Sample Container
H x


    Another method of extending the reach of sampling efforts is the use of a small peristaltic pump (see
Exhibit 10-15). In this method the sample is drawn through heavy-wall Teflon tubing and pumped directly
into the sample container.  This system allows the operator to reach into the liquid body, sample from
depth, or sweep the width of narrow streams.

    If medical-grade silicon tubing is used in the peristaltic pump, the system is suitable for sampling al-
most any parameter including most organics.  Some volatile stripping, however, may occur;  though the
system may have a high flow rate, some material may be lost on the tubing. Therefore, pumping methods
should be avoided for sampling volatile organics or oil and grease. Battery-operated pumps  of this type
are available and can be easily carried by hand or with a shoulder sling.  It is necessary in most situations
to change both the Teflon suction  line  and the silicon pump tubing between  sample locations to avoid
cross contamination. This action  requires maintaining a sufficiently large stock of material to avoid having
to clean the tubing in the field.

    When medical-grade silicon tubing is not available or the analytical requirements are particularly strict,
the system can be altered as illustrated in Exhibit 10-16. In this configuration, the sample volume accumu-
lates in the vacuum flask and does not enter the pump.  The integrity of the collection system can now be
maintained with only the  most nonreactive material contacting the sample. Some loss in lift ability will
result since the pump is now moving air, a compressible gas  rather than an essentially noncompressible
liquid. Also, this system cannot be used  if volatile compounds are to analyzed. The potential for losing
volatile fractions because of reduced pressure in the vacuum flask renders this method unacceptable for

    It may sometimes be necessary to sample large bodies of water where a near-surface sample will not
sufficiently characterize the body as a whole. In this instance, the above-mentioned pump is quite service-
able.  It is capable of lifting water from depths in excess (but not much in excess) of 6 meters. It should be
noted that this lift ability decreases somewhat with higher density fluids and with increased wear on the
silicone  pump tubing. Similarly,  increases in altitude will decrease the pump's  ability to lift from depth.
When sampling a liquid stream that exhibits a considerable flowrate, it may be necessary to weight the bot-
tom of the suction line.

    Samples from various locations and depths can be composited where investigative goals indicate that
it is appropriate; otherwise, separate samples will have to be collected.  Approximate sampling points
should be identified on a sketch of the water body.  The following procedures are used for samples col-
lected using transfer devices:
       Submerge a stainless steel dipper or other suitable device with minimal surface disturbance.  Note
       the approximate depth and location of the sample source (for example, 1 foot up from bottom or
       just below the surface).

       Allow the device to fill slowly and continously.

       Retrieve the dipper or device from the surface water with minimal disturbance.

       Remove the cap from the sample bottle and slightly tilt the mouth of the bottle below the dipper or
       device edge.

       Empty the dipper or device slowly, allowing the sample stream to flow gently down the side of the
       bottle with minimal entry turbulence.

       Continue delivery of the sample until the bottle is almost completely filled.  Check all procedures
       for recommended headspace for expansion.

                           Exhibit 10-16
          Teflon Connector
          6mm I.D.
                     -Liter Erlenmeyer
                    or Sample Bottle
                                                         Stopper to Fit
                                                         Flask or Sample Bottle
Teflon Tubing
6 mm O.D.

•  Preserve the sample, if necessary, as per guidelines in sampling plan.  In most cases, preservatives
   should be placed in sample containers before sample collection to avoid over exposure of samples
   and overfilling of bottles during collection.

•  Check that a Teflon liner is present in the cap if required.  Secure the cap tightly. Tape cap to bot-
   tle; then date and initial the tape.

•  Label the sample bottle with an appropriate sample tag. Be sure to label the tag carefully and
   clearly, addressing  all the categories or parameters. Record the information in the field logbook
   and complete the chain-of-custody form.

•  Place the properly labeled sample bottle in an appropriate carrying container.  Water samples for
   low- or medium-level organics analysis and low-level inorganics must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC
   with ice.  No ice is to be used in shipping inorganic low-level soil samples; medium / high-level
   water samples, organic high-level water or soil samples,  or dioxin samples. Ice is not required in
   shipping soil samples, but ice may be used at  the option of the sampler.  All cyanide samples,
   however, must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC.  Use a custody seal on the shipping package and make
   certain that traffic report forms are properly filled  out.

•  Dismantle the sampler, wipe the parts with terry towels or rags, and store them in plastic bags for
   subsequent disposal. Follow all instructions for proper decontamination of equipment and person-
The reader should refer to Sections 4,5, and 6 for additional details.

For samples collected using peristaltic pumps:
 •   Install clean, medical-grade silicone tubing in the pump head, as per the manufacturer's instruc-
    tions. Allow sufficient tubing on the discharge side to facilitate convenient dispensation of liquid
    into sample bottles but only enough on the suction end for attachment to the intake line.  This
    practice will minimize sample contact with the silicone pump tubing. (Some types of thinner Teflon
    tubing may be used.)

 •   Select the length of suction intake tubing necessary to reach the required sample depth and attach
    the tubing to intake side of pump tubing.   Heavy-wall Teflon of a diameter equal to the required
    pump tubing will suit most applications.   (A heavier wall will allow for  a slightly greater lateral

 •   If possible, allow several liters of sample to pass through the system before actual sample collec-
    tion. Collect this purge volume, and then return it to source after the sample aliquot has been col-

 •   Fill necessary sample bottles by allowing  pump discharge to flow gently down the side of bottle
    with minimal entry turbulence. Cap each bottle as filled.

 •   Preserve the sample,  if necessary, as per guidelines in sampling plans.  In most cases,  preserv-
    atives should be placed in sample containers before sample collection to avoid overexposure of
    samples and overfilling of bottles during collection.

 •   Check that a Teflon liner is present in the cap, if required.  Secure the cap tightly.  Tape cap to bot-
    tle; then date and initial the tape.

    •  Label the sample bottle with an appropriate tag.  Be sure to complete the tag with all necessary in-
       formation.  Record the information in the field logbook, and complete the chain-of-custody docu-

    •  Place the properly labeled sample bottle in an appropriate carrying container. Water samples for
       low- or medium-level organics analysis and low-level inorganics must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC
       with ice.  No ice is to be used in shipping inorganic low-level soil samples; medium/ high-level
       water samples, organic high-level water or soil samples, or dioxin samples.  Ice is not required in
       shipping soil samples, but ice may be used at  the option of the sampler.  All cyanide samples,
       however, must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC. Use a custody seal on the shipping package and make
       certain that traffic report forms are properly filled  out.

    •  Allow system to drain thoroughly; then disassemble. Wipe all parts with terry towels or rags, and
       store them in plastic bags for subsequent cleaning.  Store all used towels or rags in garbage bags
       for subsequent disposal. Follow all instructions for proper decontamination of equipment and per-
    The reader should refer to Sections 4, 5, and 6 for additional details.

    At times it is most convenient to collect surface water samples at the flow measuring device (e.g., a
weir, stream, or discharge pipe). Good representative samples can usually be collected because such
flows have been mixed well. Sampling personnel have been trained to seek out the best locations for col-
lecting representative samples.  Requirements are spelled out in the site sampling plans, and the need for
deviation from the plans occurs only rarely. There is no substitute for experience when it comes to locating
"ideal" sampling points and collecting good samples.  Methods and Applications: Sediments and Sludges

    Many of the same constraints that apply to surface water sampling also relate to the collection of sedi-
ments and sludges. Sediments are examined to measure whether contaminants are concentrating along
stream bottoms, creating hot spots that may have high concentrations of heavy metals,  pesticides, or low-
solubility organic matter. Sediments may be watery, with relatively little difference in density from water, or
they may be compacted semi-solids where water is a minor fraction of  the mass.  Because of such dif-
ference, a variety of sampling methods and equipment may be necessary.

    If the sediment has the potential for  being considered a hazardous  material, disposable sampling
equipment should be considered. For watery sludges from stream bottoms near shore, the pond sampler
shown as Exhibit 10-14 can be used, since the plastic  beaker can be disposed of, if the sampling plan so
ordains.  Other devices could include plastic pails or ladles for scooping up sediments from shallow water.
The user should allow time for settling to occur, then decant the water off the top of the sediment before
transferring samples to their containers.  The user should sample only with plastic beakers, pails, or ladles
where sample integrity of organics will not be compromised.

    The semi-solid sediments  near  shore or above the water line are most easily collected  using simple
tools (e.g.,  polypropylene scoops, trowels, or dippers). Other alternatives  for small semi-solid sediments
include wooden tongue depressors or stainless steel tablespoons.

    If stream-bottom samples  of sediment are necessary, vertical-pipe or core samplers are used and can
be driven into stream beds to any selected depth. During retrieval, samples are retained inside the cylinder
by a partial vacuum formed above the sample and/or by a retainer at the lower end.  For compacted sedi-
ment, sampling triers or waste pile samplers may be used as long as sample points are above the wator

     Exhibit 10-17

surface or in very shallow water.  If deep water samples from large streams or lakes are specified, special-
ized samplers (e.g., Eckman or Ponar dredges) are used.

   No matter what equipment is used, the following general conditions apply:
    •  Collect at least three small, equal-sized samples from several points along the sludge or sediment
       deposition area.  If possible, mark the location with a numbered stake, and locate sample points on
       a sketch of the site. Deposit sample portions in a clean, 1/2-gallon wide-mouth jar. Carefully stir
       portions together into one composite.

    •  Sediments from  large  streams, lakes, and the like may be taken with  Eckman or Ponar dredgos
       from a boat. Refer to Exhibit 10-17 for an example of a Ponar grab  sampler. Ponar grab samplers
       are more applicable to a wide range of sediments and sludges because they penetrate deeper and
       seal better than spring-activated types (e.g., Eckman dredges).

    •  Streams and lakes will likely  demonstrate significant  variations  in sediment composition with
       respect to distance from  inflows, discharges.or other disturbances. It is important, therefore, to
       document exact sampling location by means of triangulation with stable references on the banks
       of the stream or lake.  In addition, the presence of rocks, debris, or organic material may compli-
       cate sampling and preclude the use of, or require modification to, some devices. Sampling of sedi-
       ments should, therefore, be conducted to reflect these and other variants.

    •  Transfer 100 to 200 grams of the composite sludges or sediments from the 1/2-gallon jar to a 250-
       ml sample bottle. Attach identification label number and tag. Record  all necessary information in
       the field logbook and on the sample log sheet. Return unused sample to its source.

    •  Store the sampler and jars in a plastic bag until decontamination or  disposal.

    •  Tape the lid  on the sample bottle securely, and mark the tape  with the date and  the  sample
       collector's initials.

    •  Pack the samples for shipping. Attach a custody seal to the shipping  package. Make certain that
       a traffic report and chain-of custody forms are properly filled out and enclosed or attached.
    The reader should refer to Sections 4, 5, and 6 for additional details.

    Specific sampling equipment for collecting sediment and sludge specimens and procedures for their
 use are as follows:

    Scoops and Trowels:  This method provides for a simple, quick, and easy means of collecting a dis-
 turbed sample of a sludge or sediment.
     •   Collect the necessary equipment, and clean according to the requirements  for the analytical
        parameters to be measured.

     •   Sketch the sample area, or note recognizable features for future reference.

     •   Insert scoop or trowel into material, and remove sample.  In the case of sludges exposed to air, it
        may be desirable to remove the first 1 to 2 cm of material prior to collecting sample.

    •   If compositing a series of grab samples, use a plastic or stainless steel mixing bowl or Teflon tray
       for mixing.

    •   Transfer sample into an appropriate sample bottle with a stainless steel laboratory spoon, scoop,
       or spatula.

    •   Check that a Teflon liner is present in cap, if required.  Secure the cap tightly.  The chemical
       preservation of solids is generally not recommended.  Refrigeration to 4ฐC is usually the best ap-
       proach, supplemented by a minimal holding time.

    •   Label the sample bottle with the appropriate sample tag.  Be sure to label the tag carefully and
       clearly, addressing all the  categories or parameters.  Complete all chain-of-custody documents,
       and record in the field logbook.

    •   Place the properly labeled  sample bottle in an appropriate carrying container.  Water samples for
       low- or medium-level organics analysis and low-level  inorganics must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC
       with ice.  No ice is to be used in shipping inorganic low-level soil  samples; medium / high-level
       water samples, organic high-level water or soil samples, or dioxin samples.  Ice is not required in
       shipping soil samples, but ice may be used at the option of the sampler.   All cyanide samples,
       however, must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC.  Use a custody seal on the shipping package and make
       certain that traffic report forms are properly filled out.
    The reader should refer to Sections 4,5, and 6 for additional details.

    Hand Corers:   (see Exhibit 10-18)  Hand corers are applicable to the same situations and materials
as the scoop described above.  Corers have the further advantage of collecting an undisturbed sample that
can profile any stratification in the sample as a result of changes in the deposition.

    Some hand corers can be fitted with extension handles that will allow the collection of samples under-
lying a shallow layer of liquid. Most corers can also be adapted to hold liners generally available in brass or
polycarbonate plastic. Care should be taken to choose a material that will not compromise the intended
analytical procedures.
    •  Inspect the cores for proper precleaning.

    •  Force cores in with smooth continuous motion.

    •  Twist cores; then withdraw in a single smooth motion.

    •  Remove nosepiece and withdraw sample into a stainless steel or Teflon tray.

    •  Transfer sample into an appropriate sample bottle with a stainless steel laboratory spoon, scoop,
       or spatula.

    •  Label the  sample bottle with the appropriate sample tag.  Be sure to label the tag carefully and
       clearly, addressing all the categories or parameters.  Complete all chain-of-custody documents,
       and record In the field logbook.

    •  Place the  properly labeled sample bottle in an appropriate carrying container.  Water samples for
       low- or medium-level organics analysis and low-level  inorganics  must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC
       with ice.   No Ice is to be used in  shipping inorganic low-level soil samples; medium / high-level
       water samples, organic high-level water or soil samples, or dioxin samples.  Ice is not required in

 Exhibit 10-18
                          Check Valve

       shipping soil samples, but ice may be used at the option of the sampler.  All cyanide samples,
       however, must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC. Use a custody seal on the shipping package and make
       certain that traffic report forms are properly filled out.

       The reader should refer to Sections 4,5, and 6 for additional details.

    Gravity Corers:   (see Exhibit 10-19).  A gravity corer is a metal tube with a replaceable tapered
nosepiece on the bottom and a ball or other type of check valve on the top.  The check valve allows water
to pass through the corer on descent  but prevents washout during recovery.   The tapered nosepiece
facilitates cutting and reduces core disturbance during penetration. Most corers are constructed of brass
or steel, and many can accept plastic liners and additional weights.

    Corers are capable of collecting samples of most sludges and sediments. The corers collect essential-
ly undisturbed samples that  represent the profile of strata which may develop in sediments and sludges
during variations in the deposition process. Depending on the density of the substrate and the weight of
the cores, penetration to depths  of 75 cm (30 inches) can be attained.  Care should be exercised when
using gravity  corers in vessels or lagoons that have liners, since penetration depths could exceed that of
substrate and result in damage to the liner material.

    •  Attach a precleaned corer to the required length of sample line. Solid braided 5 mm (3/16 inch)
       nylon line is sufficient; 20  mm (3/4 inch) nylon, however, is easier to grasp during hand hoisting.

    •  Secure the free end of the line to a fixed support to prevent accidental loss of the corer.

    •  Measure and mark distance to top of sludge on sampler line to determine depth of sludge or sedi-
       ment coring.

    •  Allow corer to free fall through liquid to bottom.

    •  Determine depth of sludge penetration.

    •  Retrieve corer with a smooth, continuous lifting motion.  Do not bump corer because this may
       result in some sample loss.

    •  Remove nosepiece from corer, and slide sample out of corer into stainless steel or Teflon pan.

    •  Transfer sample into appropriate sample bottle with a stainless steel laboratory spoon,  scoop, or

    •  Check that a Teflon liner is present in cap, if required.   Secure the cap tightly.  The chemical
       preservation of solids is generally not recommended. Refrigeration to 4ฐC is usually the best ap-
       proach, supplemented by a minimal holding time.

    •  Label the sample bottle with the appropriate sample tag. Be sure to label the tag  carefully  and
       clearly, addressing all the categories or parameters.  Complete all chain-of-custody documents,
       and record in the field logbook.

    •  Place the properly labeled sample bottle in an appropriate carrying container.  Water samples for
       low- or medium-level organics analysis and low-level inorganics must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC
       with ice. No ice is to be used  in shipping inorganic low-level soil samples; medium / high-level
       water samples, organic high-level water or soil samples, or dioxin samples.  Ice is not required in
       shipping soil samples, but ice may be used at the option of the sampler.  All cyanide samples,
       however, must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC. Use a custody seal on the shipping package and make
       certain that traffic report forms are properly filled out.
       The reader should refer to Sections 4,5, and 6 for additional details.

               Exhibit 10-19
             GRAVITY CORER
                                                      Stabilizing Fins

    Ponar Grab Sampler:  (see Exhibit 10-17) The Ponar grab is a clamshell-type scoop activated by a
counter-lever system. The shell is opened, latched in place, and slowly lowered to the bottom. When ten-
sion is released on the lowering cable, the latch releases and the lifting action of the cable on the lever sys-
tem closes the clamshell.

    Ponars are capable of sampling most types of sludges and sediments from silts to granular materials.
They are available in a "petite" version with a 232-square-centimeter sample area that is light enough to be
operated without a winch or crane.  Penetration depths will usually not exceed several centimeters. Grab
samplers are not capable of collections undisturbed samples. As a result, material in the first centimeter of
sludge cannot be separated from that at lower depths.  The sampling action of these devices causes agita-
tion currents that may temporarily resuspend some settled solids.  This disturbance can be minimized by
slowly lowering the sampler the last half-meter and by allowing a very slow contact with the bottom.  It is
advisable, however, to collect sludge or sediment samples only after all overlying water samples have been
obtained.    Steps in using Ponar dredges are as follows:

    •   Attach a precleaned Ponar to the necessary length of sample line.  Solid braided 5 mm (3/16 Inch)
        nylon line is usually of sufficient strength; however, 20 mm (3/4 inch) or greater nylon line allows for
        easier hand hoisting.

    •   Measure and mark the distance to top of sludge on the sample line.  Record depth to top of sludge
        and depth of sludge penetration.

    •   Open  sampler jaws until latched. From this point on, support the sampler by its lift line, or the
        sampler will be tripped and the jaws will close.

    •   Tie free end of sample line to fixed support to prevent accidental loss of sampler.

    •   Begin lowering the sampler until the proximity mark is reached.

    •   Slow rate of descent through last meter until contact is felt.

    •   Allow sample line to slack several centimeters.  In strong currents, more slack may be necessary to
        release mechanism.

    •   Slowly raise dredge clear of surface.

    •   Place Ponar into a stainless  steel or Teflon tray and open.  Lift Ponar clear of the tray, and return
        Ponar to laboratory for decontamination.

    •   Collect a suitable aliquot with a stainless steel laboratory  spoon or equivalent, and place sample
        into appropriate sample bottle.

    •   Label  the sample bottle with the appropriate sample  tag.  Be sure to label the tag carefully and
        clearly, addressing all the categories or parameters.   Complete all chain-of-custody documents
        and records in the field logbook.

    •   Place the properly labeled sample bottle in an appropriate carrying container. Water samples for
        low- or medium-level organics analysis and low-level inorganics must be shipped  cooled to 4ฐC
        with ice.  No ice is to be used  in snipping  inorganic  low-level soil samples;  medium / high-level
        water samples, organic high-level water or soil samples, or dioxln samples. Ice is  not required in
        shipping soil samples, but Ice may be used at  the option of the sampler.  All cyanide samples,
        however, must be shipped cooled to 4ฐC. Use a custody seal on the shipping package and make
        certain that traffic report forms are properly filled  out.

    The reader should refer to Sections 4,5, and 6 for additional details.

10.2.7   Region-Specific Variations

   The reader should refer to Subsection 10.1.6 for discussion. In addition to examples cited there, cer-
tain specific procedures may be subject to continuous revisions, so users should contact the EPA RPM for
to the most recent procedures advocated by each region.  For example, sediment sampling for possible
TCDD contamination contains special precautions as outlined in Section 13. Some regions will incorporate
these precautions, whereas others will prohibit  use of certain  equipment. Such variances change from
month to month, so a special effort has to be made by SMs and field team leaders to keep current on the
various requirements. Revision 01 to this compendium will include updated variances.

10.2.8  Information Sources

    deVera, E.R., B.P. Simmons, R.D. Stephens, and D.L Storm. "Samplers and Sampling Procedures for
Hazardous Waste Streams." EPA 600/2-80-018. January 1980.

    Environmental Monitoring System  Laboratory (EMSL), ORD,  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency.
Characterization of Hazardous Waste Sites-A Method Manual, Volume II-Available Sampling Methods.  Las
Vegas, Nevada 89114.  1983.

    Lind, Orent. Handbook of Common Methods of Limnology. St. Louis, Missouri: C.V.  MosbyCo. 1974.

    OWDC, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior.  National Handbook of Recommended
Methods for Water-Data Acquisition. Prepared cooperatively by agencies of the U.S. Government.  Reston,
Virginia.  1977.

    Smith, R., and G.V. James. 77ie Sampling of Bulk Materials. London: The Royal Society of Chemistry.

                                       SECTION 11

                        METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY


    Section 11 describes the meteorological data that are required to make preliminary (screening) assess-
ments of exposure to hazardous air pollutants before site-specific monitoring data are available. Similarly,
the meteorological data  requirements for conducting analyses of more refined  air quality modeling are
described  in terms of using both representative offsite and site-specific data.  The section also identifies
procedures for obtaining the appropriate meteorological information  both from  existing sources and by
conducting site-specific monitoring programs.

11.1.1   Meteorological Parameters for Screening Model Analyses   Scope and Purpose

    This subsection describes the  meteorological data required to make preliminary assessments of ex-
posure to  hazardous air pollutants through the use of screening dispersion models.  These models are
generally used before site-specific monitoring data are available. Screening models purposely over es-
timate air quality input. This over-estimation is largely a result of the generalization of model inputs and the
assumption inherent in the models that certain meteorological conditions, which  produce high  impacts
occur and persist at the site.  It is useful to describe the required meteorological parameters, how they are
obtained and  applied in screening models, and how the results may be used. Such information provides a
more complete perspective in determining the possible need for more refined modeling analyses and the
associated meteorological data  requirements.  This  subsection provides a general discussion of model
selection with more specific guidance provided in the references.  Selection of  an appropriate model
depends on project- and  site-specific considerations.   Definitions

    Specific descriptions of the following generic terms are provided in the text.

Dispersion Model
       A  set of algorithms designed to simulate the transport and diffusion of airborne pollutants to
       obtain estimates of pollutant  concentrations at specific receptor locations for specific time

Hazardous Air Pollutant
       An air pollutant to which no ambient air quality standard applies and that,  in the judgment of
       the Administrator of the U.S. EPA, causes, or contribute to, air  pollution  that may reasonably
       be anticipated to result in an increase in  mortality or an increase in serious irreversible illness
       or incapacitating reversible illness.

Joint Frequency Distribution
       A  statistical distribution that lists the frequency of concurrent wind speed, wind direction, and
       atmospheric stability data by individual wind speed groups, wind direction sectors, and atmos-
        pheric stability classes.

       The fixed  locations relative to modeled sources at which  concentration  estimates  are

Screening Technique
       A relatively sirnpie analysis technique to determine if a given source is likely to pose a threat to
       air quality.  Concentration estimates from screening techniques are conservative,

Site Manager (SRfl)
       The Individual responsible for the successful completion of a work assignment within budget
       and schedule.  This person is also referred to as the Site Project Manager  or  the Project
       Manager end is typically a contractor's employee (see Subsection 1.1).

       The point or a/a^ of origin of hazardous pollutants emitted into the ambient air.

Source Terms
       The set of information rhat describes the rates,  locations, dimensions, and operational  and
       physical release characteristics of hazardous pollutants emitted into the ambient air.

11.1,1.3    Applicability

    Screening models are used to provide a conservative  estimate of the air quality impact of a specific
source or source category (U.S. E.PA, 1978, p. 17). Depending on the level of refinement, screening model
analyses can also be used to determine: the meteorological conditions that result in maximum short-term
and long-term impacts; the potential for exceeding acceptable ambient concentrations; the receptor loca-
tions at which maximum ambient levels are predicted to occur (for use if refined modeling is needed); and
impacts on sensitive receptors (State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators  / Association of
Local  Air Pollution Control Officials (STAPPA/ALAPCO), 1984,  pp. 135-136).  The guidance for use of
screening models was developed primarily in relation to the evaluation of sources of "criteria" air pollutants
(e.g., particulates,  sulfur dioxide, and  nitrogen dioxide) for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards
exist  (U.S. EPA, 1981 a).  The need for equivalent standards for the host  of hazardous  air pollutants is
recognized by federal, state, and local agencies charged with protecting the air quality  in their jurisdictions

    These currently evolving standards are expressed in terms of a concentration averaged over some
period of time.  The averaging time depends on the specific health impacts known to be associated with a
hazardous substance. The ability of these substances to  have an impact  on health over the short term
 (e.g.,  a 24 hour average) and the long term  (e.g.,  an annual average) creates the  need for screening
analyses  to be performed over these different time scales (STAPPA/ALAPCO, 1984,  pp. 132-134). The
meteorological input data requirements differ between screening models that produce short-term and long-
term concentration estimates. These requirements are discussed in Subsection   Responsibilities

    Project Meteorologist and  Air Quality Analyst:   This person  is responsible, through coordination
with the appropriate regulatory agencies, for selecting appropriate screening methodologies and model(s),
 selecting representative meteorological data  required as model  input, performing model  calculations,
 evaluating and reporting results,  and maintaining records that document these activities.  The execution of
 air quality models requires the input  of source-term data.  If they have the requisite engineering skills,
 project meteorologist and air quality analysts may  develop this information; if they do not have this
 capability, they will need to work closely with the SM.

    Site Manager:  The SM is responsible for the program design and coordination.  The project engineer
also interacts with the project meteorologist in modeling and monitoring applications, such as source term
development.   Records

    Records of the meteorological data selected for use in the screening model analyses must be main-
tained to validate these data and to evaluate the modeling results. Selection and determination of the rep-
resentativeness of meteorological parameters should be documented, as well as the selection, application,
and results of the model analyses. The level of detail in these records must support the program's quality
assurance requirements, which are to be established before making the screening model analyses.

    Quality assurance records include those records that furnish documentary evidence of the  quality of
items and of activities affecting quality. Examples of such records include, but are not limited to, the follow-
ing:  raw data  records (e.g., strip charts),  data validation findings, equipment maintenance and calibration
records, work  instructions, work scopes (design control documents), model inputs and outputs,  modeling
assumptions, and software documentation and verification.   Procedures   Screening Model Selection

    The screening methodology to be used is selected in coordination with the appropriate federal, state,
or local agencies.  Technical considerations (based on the level of refinement required) that should be
made include  the appropriate averaging  periods for acceptable ambient concentrations; source release
characteristics (e.g., point,  area, or line / volume sources; elevated or ground-level releases); the topog-
raphy of the site and surrounding area; and the availability of appropriate  meteorological data.  As dis-
cussed earlier, the averaging period determines the selection of a short- or long-term screening model.
Source release charateristics influence the selection  process  by defining the need for either simplistic
models (e.g.,  one source or source type) or more sophisticated models (e.g.,  multiple source types and
release characteristics).  Topography and receptor locations influence the selection process by defining
the need for models capable of representing airborne  pollutant transport over flat, rolling, or complex ter-
rain. Screening models approved by the U.S. EPA are provided in the User's Network for Applied Modeling of
Air Pollution (UNAMAP), Version 6 (U.S. EPA, 1986).   U.S. EPA provides guidelines for screening model
selection and  application (U.S. EPA, 1977, 1981b, and 1986). The project  meteorologist and air quality
analyst should be familiar with this guidance and with  the available screening models before coordinating
with the appropriate regulatory agencies.   Meteorological Data Selection

    Screening model analyses  are generally made before site-specific meteorological data are available.
This process requires the selection of a meteorological database that will provide a conservation assess-
ment of the air quality  impact at  the hazardous waste  site  and surrounding area.   The  selection of
meteorological data for use in screening assessments depends on the level  of refinement of the modeling
methodology  and the representativeness  of the available data. These input data vary from selected "worst
case" meteorological scenarios to a source of data, such as the National Weather Service (NWS) whose
routine observations are archived  by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina.
Data from  the Federal  Aviation Administration  (FAA) and military stations (U.S. EPA, 1981c, p. 5) or from
universities, industry, pollution  control agencies, and consultants (U.S.  EPA, 1980, p. 31) may be used  if
these data are equivalent in accuracy and detail to the NWS data. The project meteorologist and air quality
analyst must determine the representativeness of any offsite data and the validity of their use, along with
the screening model, in providing a conservative assessment.  The  representativeness depends on the


proximity of the station to the area under consideration, the complexity of the terrain, and the exposure of
the meteorological monitoring equipment at the station.  This selection process is also made in consult-
ation with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Model selection governs the specific meteorological data
that are required as input. For short-term analysis, screening models employ a "worst case" meteorological
scenario.  This  scenario may consist either of a specific worst-case meteorological condition or a com-
prehensive set of meteorological conditions that, when evaluated, will determine the worst-cast meteorol-

    Long-term models require that hourly meteorological data be summarized over longer periods of time
(e.g.,  months, seasons, years).  Hourly wind  speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability are refor-
matted into a stability atray (STAR).  If determined to be representative, STAR data sets compiled by the
NCDC for NWS stations throughout the United States (U.S. NCDC, 1983) could be used. Otherwise, the
assumptions described for long-term screening in U.S. EPA, 1977, should be used. The average tempera-
ture and the average morning and afternoon mixing heights are required inputs of the long-term models.
Mixing height data have been summarized on seasonal and annual bases by Holzworth, 1972, for 62 NWS
stations in the United States.  The NCDC can also compile daily morning and afternoon mixing-height data
for NWS stations that routinely make  balloon-borne measurements of meteorological conditions in the
upper air (above ground). Since the spatial coverage of NWS stations making these measurements is not
dense, the project meteorologist and air quality analyst must carefully select the most representative
source of the data to be used.   Source Term Development

    Another concern in modeling releases from a hazardous waste site is the determination of the source
configuration (e.g., release type) and source term (i.e., emission rates). Source term determination can be
complex for many types of sites such as surface impoundments, landfills, and land treatment facilities. The
source term can be determined with a specifically designed onsite monitoring program, which is receptor
modeling based on near-site monitoring or on air emission modeling. Emission modeling guidance is sum-
marized in U.S. EPA, 1981b, and in GCA Corporation,  1983. Appropriate, conservative assumptions for
emission rates  can be applied for screening model analyses.  Determination of the source configuration
should be accomplished in conjunction with the SM  after careful consideration of all possible release
scenarios.  Region-Specific Variances

    Besides the site-specific considerations to be made in selecting the appropriate screening model and
meteorological input data, no region-specific variances have been identified; however, all future variances
will be incorporated in subsequent revisions to this compendium. Information on variances may become
dated rapidly.  Thus, users should contact the regional EPA RPM for full details on current regional prac-
tices  and requirements.

11.1.2   Meteorological Parameters for Refined Modeling Analyses  Scope and Purpose

    Refined modeling analysis uses site-representative hourly meteorological data. When such  data are
 unavailable,  onsite meteorological monitoring may be necessary.   This subsection  provides generic
 guidance for the site-specific measurement of meteorological parameters that may be required  to make
detailed  short-term and  long-term assessments of exposure to hazardous air pollutants through the use of
 refined models for estimating dispersion of gases and particulates. The need for refined model analyses
will generally be identified as a result of the preliminary screening model analyses discussed in Subsection

11.1.1. The procedures indicated here are applicable for use for field work at hazardous waste sites. This
subsection briefly discusses model selection with more specific guidance  cited  by reference.   Specific
models are not recommended since selection of an appropriate model depends  on project-  and site-
specific considerations.  Meteorological parameters that can be readily obtained from other data sources
are identified.  The references listed in Subsection provide more detailed discussions of field
measurement procedures.   Definitions

    Definitions of key terms as they apply to this procedure are provided  below. Subsection con-
tains additional definitions of terms used in Subsection 11.1.2.

Atmospheric Diffusion
       The process by which minute particles of a substance that is suspended in the atmosphere are
       distributed throughout an increasing volume of air.  This process,  then, reduces the concentra-
       tion  of the substance since the amount of the substance relative to the amount  of  air  is
       decreased. Atmospheric diffusion is controlled in the atmosphere by wind speed and atmos-
       pheric turbulence.

Atmospheric Dispersion
       As used in the context of this procedure, atmospheric dispersion combines the effects  of at-
       mospheric transport and diffusion on a substance.

Atmospheric Stability
       Terms that describe the ability of the atmosphere to diffuse (see "atmospheric diffusion") a sub-
       stance. An unstable, turbulent atmosphere provides for more diffusion than a stable atmos-
       phere.  For use in dispersion modeling and  impact assessment, stability is  represented by
       Pasquill-Gifford stability Classes A (unstable) through F (stable).

Atmospheric Transport
       The process by which a substance is carried through the atmosphere.

Mixing Height
       The height above the surface through which relatively vigorous vertical mixing occurs.

Refined Model
       An analytical technique that provides a detailed treatment of physical and chemical atmos-
       pheric processes and requires detailed and precise input data.  The estimates are more ac-
       curate than those obtained from conservative screening techniques.

Sigma Theta
       Terms that describe the measure of variability of the wind direction.  Sigma theta is used  as an
       indicator of the diffusion capacity  of the atmosphere and can be used to classify atmospheric
       stability.   Applicability

    The purpose of conducting refined  model analyses is to provide a more accurate and representative
estimate of the impacts of a specific source (U.S. EPA, 1978, p. 17). These analyses are conducted when a
potential for exceeding an acceptable ambient concentration of a  hazardous air pollutant has been deter-
mined through screening model analyses (STAPPA/ALAPCO, 1984, p. 136).

    As Subsection indicates, acceptable concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (and  stand-
ards based on these acceptable levels) are currently evolving.  Refined  model analyses may also  be re-


quired in situations in which source and/or receptor characteristics are complicated  (see  Subsection  The meteorological input data requirements differ between models that produce short-term
and long-term concentration estimates.  These requirements are discussed in Subsection  Responsibilities

    Project  Meteorologist:  This person is responsible for the collection of site-specific meteorological
data and/or  selection of other  representative  meteorological  parameters.   Using input from  project
management, technical personnel, and appropriate regulatory agencies, the project meteorologist would
design the measurement program; oversee the data collection, validation, and quality assurance proce-
dures; and maintain records that document these activities.

    Project  Meteorologist and Air Quality Analyst:  This person is responsible, through coordination
with the appropriate regulatory agencies, for selecting appropriate refined model (s), performing model cal-
culations, evaluating and reporting results, and maintaining records that document these activities.

    Site Manager:  The SM is responsible for the program design and coordination. The project engineer
also interacts with the project meteorologist in modeling and monitoring applications including source term

    Field Maintenance Engineer:  This person is responsible for installing, calibrating, maintaining, and
decommissioning the designed program, and for maintaining records that document these activities.  Records

    Maintenance of records of the meteorological data collection program is required for validation pur-
poses and future use in air quality modeling. These records include not only the data themselves (data can
be recorded on an analog strip for future data reduction, digitally on hard copy such as a printer, or digital-
ly on a magnetic tape) but also appropriate calibration and operational logs. These logs document ac-
tivities performed on the instrumentation for future use in validation.  Selection and determination of the
representativeness  of meteorological parameters,  if applicable, should be  documented, as well as the
selection, application, and results of the refined model analyses.

    Depending on the level of validation and quality assurance  applied, additional records to be maintained
could include system design drawings, data review logs, data correction logs, audit documents,  instruc-
tions for data handling and use, and so forth.  The level of detail in these records must support the quality
assurance requirements of the program, which are to be established before collecting data.  Procedures   Refined Model Selection

    The refined dispersion model (s) to be used is  selected in cooperation with the appropriate  federal,
state, and local regulatory agencies. The same technical considerations made during selection of an ap-
propriate screening model apply in selection of  refined models (see Subsection, although rela-
tively more detailed input is often required because the refined  models are more sophisticated.

    The nature of atmospheric releases from hazardous waste sites dictates the need for a detailed evalua-
tion of the appropriate model type and  methodology to be applied.  Depending on the source characteris-
tics, the model may have to account for neutrally buoyant (i.e., approximately the same density as air),

!ighter-than-air, or heavier-than-air plumes; continuous or instantaneous (i.e., puff) releases; gases or par-
ticulates; a single or many individual point sources or area sources; and an urban or rural environment.
Consideration of these source characteristics plus the required application (i.e., short or long-term assess-
ment) will influence model selection. In addition, it may be necessary to consider removal and transforma-
tion processes on the pollutant as it is transported downwind.  Examples of these processes are gravita-
tional settling, adsorption, and oxidation. Models with appropriate algorithms must be selected to account
for these processes.

    As with screening models, determination of the appropriate  source term  is an important factor  in
refined modeling and in the analysis of the results (see Subsection  Since refined modeling at-
tempts to provide a more realistic and accurate assessment, source term and source characteristic as-
sumptions should be representative of expected conditions.

    A set of refined models is available through the U.S. EPA Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic
Substances. The modeling system, known as Graphical Exposure Modeling System (GEMS), consists of a
series of atmospheric models with various levels of refinement (GSC Corporation, 1984). These models
can also be used for screening assessments.  In addition to atmospheric models, GEMS includes models
capable of assessing contaminant migration in surface water, ground water, and soils. Examples of EPA-
approved atmospheric models  available for use through  GEMS include CDM, ISCST, and ISCLT.  These
computer codes can address short-term and/or long-term assessments with various source configurations.
Some GEMS models also can account for removal and transformation mechanisms.  Based on expected
considerations at a hazardous  waste  site, the ISC computer code will probably be the most applicable
model for many evaluations. The previously mentioned EPA-approved computer codes are also available
through the UNAMAP on computer tape (U.S. EPA, 1986).   UNAMAP  also contains many other EPA-ap-
proved codes that may apply to some hazardous waste sites. All the UNAMAP models are also available
through GEMS.

    The GEMS atmospheric models do not account for all types of site-specific source and atmospheric
dispersion considerations. The U.S. EPA is formulating guidance for the use of refined models with sour-
ces in complex terrain. Appropriate models may include accurate wind field analysis to account for terrain-
induced variations in plume transport.  In lieu of an adequate refined model that appropriately accounts for
plume transport, complex terrain screening models (e.g., VALLEY) may need to be used and the  results
evaluated on a site-specific basis, considering  model limitations as related to the intended application.
Another consideration is models that can account for nonuniform or instantaneous releases   An example
of a model that .can address dispersion in complex terrain, as well as instantaneous releases, would  be a
plume element type such as a three-dimensional puff model.  The ERT Model for Pipeline Ruptures (Hanna,
1982), the SPILLS Model (Fleisher, 1980), and the PFPL Model (Garrett and Murphy, 1981) are examples of
plume element / puff models.

    Another modeling concern for hazardous  waste sites is the transport and diffusion of heavier-than-air
gases. Various field measurement programs and analyses of the physical concepts of dense gas disper-
sion show that standard, Gaussian atmospheric diffusion models (e.g., the  EPA-approved models)  are in-
adequate until the plume has been diluted to where its density approximates that of the ambient air.  This
situation will occur at some distance from the source. The initial dispersion of dense gases is described by
low, flat plumes that disperse in part because of their own density. Unless modified, Gaussian models can-
not simulate this.  Accordingly, if dense gas dispersion must be considered, especially close to the source,
an appropriate model must be used.  Discussions of dense gas dispersion  modeling is provided in Britter
and Griffiths (1982).

    The project meteorologist and air quality analyst, when selecting the appropriate mode! for the applica-
tion, must be familiar with any technical shortcomings of the models.  For example, because of concerns
over source size versus downwind distance and the  applicability of modeling dispersion parameters  at
close-in distances, EPA-approved models do not  calculate concentrations at distances less than 100

meters from the source.  Some evaluations at hazardous waste sites may require assessments at these
short distances from the source. These special situations may require site-specific analyses and should be
discussed with the appropriate regulatory agency for guidance and approval on proposed methodologies.  Meteorological Data Collection

    Site-specific meteorological data are preferred when conducting screening or refined model analyses
(U.S. EPA, 1978, p. 31). An onsite monitoring program is necessary when there is a lack of representative
meteorological data.  Collection of meteorological data in the field requires the design of a system that
provides the  necessary model input information  and that takes  into account the logistics of siting and
operation.  Some data are best collected from visual observations or other representative sources (e.g.,
NWS stations) rather than from erected, in situ towers. In practice, acquiring all of the meteorological in-
puts to the model (s) will often require a combination of all of these collection techniques.

    Model selection governs the specific meteorological data that are required as inputs. Appropriate input
parameters and averaging times for screening models producing short-term and long-term concentration
estimates are described in Subsection The averaging time for meteorological data measured
onsite should be consistent with the project requirements.  For meteorological parameters, a consecutive
period of at least 15 minutes can generally be used to represent the 1-hour period (U.S. NRC, 1980, p. 11).
These hourly parameters are input directly to the refined models.

    The duration of the monitoring program depends on the application of  the measurements.   If the
project requirements are to assess potential impacts during periods of site activity, then the meteorological
data measured during these periods is  directly applicable to  modeling analyses. However, if the project re-
quirements are to assess short-term and long-term impacts not specific to any period (which is the scope
of Subsection 11.1), then the monitoring program should be of a duration that will include meteorological
characteristics representative of conditions that would produce maximum impacts.  In practice, it may be
feasible to conduct the monitoring program only for less than a year.  The EPA has prepared guidance on
using data periods of less than 1 year (U.S. EPA, 1980, pp. 9, 39). However,  it should be noted that this
guidance was developed  primarily in relation to the evaluation of "criteria" pollutants.  Therefore, in applying
this  guidance to evaluations  of noncriteria hazardous  air  pollutants, the project meteorologist and air
quality analyst must  establish the monitoring program requirements in cooperation with the appropriate
regulatory agencies.

     For data to be collected  in the field, a system  should be chosen for the required  application. The
monitoring system should be designed so that the measurements represent the conditions that determine
atmospheric dispersion in the area of interest. Since the atmospheric conditions can vary dramatically with
the  physical characteristics of the surrounding  area, the  system  (equipment and  location) should be
designed based on specific site characteristics and program objectives.

     Discussions concerning the collection of various meteorological  parameters  are presented below.
 More specific guidance on siting, equipment specifications and accuracies,  and applications has  been
 prepared by the U.S. EPA (U.S. EPA, 1983; U.S. EPA, 1984), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
 (U.S. NRC, 1980), and its successor, the U.S. Department of Energy (1984). In all cases, specifications and
 accuracies should be based on requirements determined according to the appropriate regulatory agen-

     The following discussions  concern measurements to support atmospheric dispersion modeling using
 most regulatory agency-approved methodology and models for licensing and permitting activities.  Some
 of the more refined models may require input data for meteorological parameters not discussed here. For
 special cases, the references provided in this compendium or by the appropriate regulatory agency should
 be consulted for the accepted measurement techniques.

Horizontal Wind Speed

    Description:  Horizontal wind speed sensors (anemometers) are available in a number of different
designs. The most common types are the rotational cup and the propellor anemometers. The cup sensors
are generally more accurate. The design of the anemometer cups dictates the durability, sensitivity, ac-
curacy, and response of the instrument. Three conical cups usually provide the best performance. Propel-
lor anemometers (similar to windmills in design) revolve about a pivoted shaft that is oriented by a vane
into the direction from which the wind is blowing. The number of blades normally varies from three to six.
For most atmospheric dispersion studies, anemometers should have a starting threshold of 0.5 meters per
second (m/sec) or less and a system  (i.e., sensor through readout device) accuracy of ฑ0.2 m/sec.

    Applicability:  Measurement of  horizontal wind speed is an important factor for determining the dis-
persive capability of the atmosphere. The speed of the wind  provides an indication of the transport (e.g.,
travel speed) and diffusion of a pollutant and is a direct input to air quality models.  Wind speed  is an im-
portant parameter in plume rise and  is used as a  factor in determining an atmospheric stability  class for
some stability classification schemes.

Horizontal Wind Direction

    Description:  Most sensors for  measuring horizontal wind direction consist of a vane rotating on a
fulcrum.  The shapes and designs of the vane surface vary but are generally rectangular or curved.  The
vanes are designed to orient into the  direction from which the wind is blowing.  For atmospheric dispersion
studies, wind vanes should have a starting threshold of less than or equal to 0.5 m/sec and a system ac-
curacy of ฑ5 degrees.

    Applicability:  Horizontal wind direction is directly used as an indicator of pollutant transport and  is
used as a direct input to air quality models.

    It is also preferred  that the meteorological system  be designed to calculate directly and to give the
standard deviation of the horizontal wind  direction fluctuations (sigma theta).  Sigma theta provides an in-
dicator of the atmospheric stability  by measuring horizontal turbulence.  Some  atmospheric  diffusion
models use sigma theta as a direct input in determining horizontal plume dimensions. Care should be ex-
ercised with this method to ensure that the data are representative. It may be desirable, for example, to in-
stall the meteorological tower at a complex-terrain site to ensure that the sigma theta data reflect the sur-
face inhomogeneity.

Vertical Wind Speed and Direction

    Description:    Vertical wind speed and direction can  be  measured with a vertical  propellor
anemometer, a UVW anemometer, or a bivane. The vertical propellor anemometer has a propellor-type
sensor mounted on a fixed vertical shaft.  Since the propellor can reverse its direction, the sensor can indi-
cate whether wind flows are directed upward or downward.  A UV anemometer has three fixed propellers.
Two, located 90 degrees apart, measure the horizontal wind vector (both magnitude and direction). The
third, like the vertical propellor anemometer, is located on a vertical shaft at right angles to the first two.
This anemometer will then measure the total  (i.e., U,  V, and W components) wind vector.  The UVW
anemometer, when coupled with an  onsite microprocessor to reduce the data, can provide real-time dis-
plays of wind speed, azimuth (horizontal wind components), and elevation (vertical wind component). The
bivane consists of a vane with  two flat plates perpendicular to each other,  counterbalanced and  mounted
on a gimbal that allows the vane to rotate horizontally and vertically. Unlike the UVW anemometer, it does
not provide the wind speed (and hence all three wind vector components) unless mounted with a propellor
anemometer in place on the counter weight. It does provide both the azimuth and elevation components
of the wind direction.

    Vertical wind measurement systems should have a starting threshold of less than 0.25 m/sec and an
accuracy of ฑ0.2 m/sec for wind speed and  ฑ5 degrees for wind direction.  Because of the sensitivity of
these types of instruments, long-term use in the field or use in harsh environments may necessitate special
maintenance activities.  Individual manufacturers should be consulted about each application.

    Applicability:  The measurement of vertical wind components may be required as input to certain
refined atmospheric  dispersion models.  Some  refined  models may use atmospheric turbulence data
directly to define vertical and  horizontal plume  spread instead of indirectly from stability class.  These
models use the standard deviation of horizontal and vertical wind direction fluctuations—sigma theta and
sigma phi, respectively.  Some models also use both sigma theta and sigma phi measurements classified
into atmospheric stability class.  Vertical wind speeds can  be used for plume downwash considerations
(e.g., onsite hazardous waste  incineration).   The reader should refer to the subsection on atmospheric
stability for further discussion.

Ambient Temperature

    Description:  The two most commonly used temperature measurement devices for air quality studies
are the resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and thermistors. Thermistors are electronic semiconduc-
tors that are made from certain metallic oxides. The resistance of the thermistor varies inversely with its ab-
solute temperature so the electrical output through the sensor can provide an indication of the ambient
temperature. The RTD is used in a similar manner.  These RTD sensors are made of different pure metals
such as silver,  copper, nickel,  or platinum.   Normally, platinum  provides the best material.   The RTD
operates on the principle that the electrical resistance of a pure metal increases with temperature.

    Care must be taken to avoid solar radiation  error in temperature measurements.  This error can be
avoided by using naturally or mechanically aspirated radiation shields.  The radiation shields should face
downward when mounted on a tower. Temperature system accuracies should be approximately ฑ0.5ฐC.

    Applicability:  The measurement of ambient temperature can be used to determine relative humidity
when used with the dew point temperature or to determine source terms for air releases of chemicals when
used in the calculation of vaporization or volatization rates. In addition, surface temperature is used to cal-
culate  mixing height.  Temperature  is also put in air quality models to  determine plume rise for buoyant
(lighter-than-air)  atmospheric  releases.  Variation of ambient  temperature  helps  characterize local
meteorological conditions.

Cloud Cover

    Description: Cloud cover is best determined from data collected at a representative NWS station as
there are trained observers available to provide this information.  If representative NWS cloud  cover data
are not available, then the total amount of cloudiness above the apparent horizon should be estimated as a
fraction (in tenths) by a visual observation (Turner, 1964).

    Applicability:  Instead  of other data, cloud cover is used as one of the indicators of atmospheric
stability in the Pasquill-Turner stability classification scheme.  In this scheme, cloud cover, ceiling height,
wind speed, and solar radiation are used to determine an atmospheric stability class (Turner, 1964).

Ceiling Height

    Description: A ceiling  is defined as a layer of clouds that covers more than one-half of the sky. The
height of a ceiling is best determined by experienced observers at NWS stations.   It can be estimated
visually at the waste site by determining the  height of the lowest layer of clouds that cover more than 50

percent of the sky. It is necessary for the onsite observer to estimate only whether the ceiling is less than
7,000 feet,  between 7,000 and  16,000 feet, or more than  16,000 feet, based on the application of this
parameter (Turner, 1964). Rough estimates of altitude can be made by noting the types of clouds when the
ceiling height observation is made.  Cloud forms with bases of less than 7,000 feet generally include fair-
weather cumulus, stratus and stratocumulus, and towering cumulus.  Cloud forms with bases between
7,000 and 16,000 feet generally include  altostratus, altocumulus, towering cumulus, and cumulonimbus.
Cloud forms with bases higher than 16,000 feet are usually of the cirrus type. A pocket-sized cloud atlas
may be a useful tool for the field observer.

    Applicability:  Ceiling height is used in the Pasquill-Turner stability classification scheme to determine
atmospheric stability class.

Mixing Height

    Description: Mixing heights are best determined from representative NWS stations that record upper
air (i.e., above the surface) data.  Instrumentation packages called radiosondes are carried aloft twice daily
(7:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m., EST) throughout the United States by nontethered balloons.  These packages
measure wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity as they ascend.  Algorithms exist  to com-
pute mixing heights from the data collected by the radiosonde.  Care should be taken to select data from a
representative station and for the appropriate time, as applicable.  Subsection discusses the
sources of this parameter. Estimates of the mixing height can also be made at the site through the use of
balloonsondes (tethered and nontethered balloons) and with remote sensors such as acoustic sounders.
This equipment requires special expertise to use, to evaluate, and to apply the collected data.

    Applicability:   The mixing height is the level  of the atmosphere below which pollutants could be
mixed. Mixing height indicates the vertical limit of pollutant dispersion.  It is also an important considera-
tion in air quality model in for nonground-level releases, including ground-level sources with high effective-
release heights (e.g., a large plume  rise because of a fire).

Atmospheric Stability

    Atmospheric stability can be determined in the field for air quality  modeling applications by using  a
number of alternative methods.  These methods use the applicable meteorological parameters discussed
in previous subsections.

    The Pasquill-Turner method of classifying atmospheric stability uses the combination of wind speed, in-
coming solar radiation, cloud cover, and time of day.  This scheme is indicated in Exhibit 11-1.

    The neutral Class D is assumed for overcast conditions during day or night.

    The incoming solar radiation intensities are determined from the solar altitude (a function of time of day
and day of the year) and modified for existing cloud cover and cloud ceiling height (Turner, 1964).

    The EPA provides further guidance for adjusting sigma phi to account for increased surface rough-
ness, and for adjusting the stability category to account for wind speed restrictions on the occurrence of
unstable and stable conditions (U.S. EPA, 1981c).  If measurements of sigma phi are not available, sigma
phi may be determined using the transform:

                                        Exhibit 11-1
                            BY THE PASQUILL-TURNER METHOD

Surface Wind


Speed (at 10m) Incoming Solar Radiation
Thinly Overcast
> 4/8 Low Cloud



    If vertical wind direction fluctuations (sigma phi) or vertical wind speed fluctuations are collected, at-
mospheric stability may be classified as follows in Exhibit 11-2 (from U.S. EPA, 1966):
                                        Exhibit 11-2
                                       BY SIGMA PHI
Extremely unstable
Moderately unstable
Slightly unstable
Slightly stable
Moderately stable

Sigma Phi
Sigma phi
Sigma phi
Sigma phi
Sigma phi
Sigma phi
Sigma phi


        ns (Radians)
—    nw/
Where   ns (Sigma phi)  =

 The standard deviation fluctuations over a 1-hour period
 The standard deviation of the vertical wind speed fluctuations over a 1 -hour
 averaging period
 The average horizontal 10-m wind speed for a 1 hour averaging period
 (U.S. EPA, 1966)
    Using the values of sigma theta computed from the meteorological system, atmospheric stability is
classified as follows in Exhibit 11-3 (U.S. NRC, 1980):

                                          Exhibit 11-3
                                       BY SIGMA THETA
Extremely unstable
Moderately unstable
Slightly unstable
Slightly stable
Moderately stable
Extremely stable

Sigma Theta
Sigma theta
Sigma theta
Sigma theta
Sigma theta
Sigma theta
Sigma theta
Sigma theta


   The U.S. EPA provides further guidance for adjusting sigma theta to account for increased surface
roughness and for adjusting the stability category to account for low-level wind direction meander at night
and wind speed restrictions on the occurrence of unstable and stable conditions (U.S. EPA, 1966).

    Current EPA guidance (U.S. EPA, 1981c) recommends that when onsite meteorological data sets are
being used, atmospheric stability categories should be determined from one of these schemes, which are
listed in the order of preference:
       1.  Pasquill-Turner method using onsite data, which include cloud cover, ceiling height, and sur-
       face winds (approprimately 10-m height)

       2.  Sigma phi method

       3.  Sigma theta method

       4.   Pasquill-Turner method using onsite wind speed with cloud cover and ceiling height In
       nearby NWS site
    Applicability:  The use of atmospheric stability is an important consideration in determining the at-
mospheric diffusion of a pollutant.  Excellent diffusion conditions exist for the unstable categories, while
poor diffusion occurs during stable conditions. Estimates of downwind pollutant concentrations are not
possible unless atmospheric stability conditions are determined.

    The EPA-preferred  dispersion models used for short-term and long-term analyses  are designed to
recognize six stability classes, A through F.  Stability classes determined by the Turner method and other
associated meteorological data are directly  applicable to these models.  In the case of stability classes
determined by the sigma theta method,  Classes F and G and other associated meteorological data are
combined into one class, which is designated F.

-------   Region-Specific Variances

    Besides the site-specific considerations to be made in selecting the appropriate refined model and rep-
resentative meteorological  input  data, there are  no  known  region-specific variances for collecting
meteorological data for use in refined modeling analyses.  No region-specific variances have been iden-
tified; however, all future variances will be incorporated in subsequent revisions to this compendium. Infor-
mation on variances may become dated rapidly.  Thus, users should contact the regional EPA RPM for full
details on current regional practices and requirements.

11.1.3  Information Sources

    The following references will be useful in providing additional, detailed information on meteorological

    Britter, R.E., and R.F. Griffiths.  Dense Gas Dispersion.  New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Com-
pany. 1982.

    Fleisher, M.T. Mitigation of Chemical Spills: An Evaporation I Air Dispension Model for Critical Spills on
Land. Houston, Texas: Shell Development Co. 1980.

    Garrett, A.J., and C.E. Murphy, Jr. A Puff-Plume Atmospheric Deposition Model for Use at SRP in Emergen-
cy Response Situations. DP 1595. Aiken, South Carolina: Savannah River Laboratory.  1981.

    GCA Corporation. Evaluation and Selection of Models for Estimating Air Emissions from Hazardous Waste
Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities. GCA-TR-82-83-G. May 1983.

    GSC Corporation. GEMS User's Guide. June 1984.

    Hanna, S.R. Diffusion From Sour Gas Pipeline Ruptures. Report PB-226.  Concord, Massachusetts:  En-
vironmental Research and Technology, Inc. 1982.

    Holzworth, G.C. Mixing Heights, Wind Speeds, and Potential for Urban Air Pollution Through the Contiguous
United States.  Office of Air Programs Publication Number AP-101. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
January 1972.

    National Climatic Data Center. Star Tabulations, Master List.  Prepared by the National Climatic Data
Center, National Environmental Satellite, Information, and Data Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration,  U.S. Department of Commerce. May 1983.

    Randerson,  D., ed. Atmospheric Science and Power Production.  DOE/TIC-27601. U.S. Department of
Energy.  July 1984.

    STAPPA/ALAPCO. Toxic Air Pollutant: State and Local Regulatory Strategies. A survey conducted by the
State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control
Officials, Washington, D.C.  January 1984.

    Turner, D.B.  "A Diffusion Model for an Urban Area", Journal of Applied Meteorology.  February 1964.
Pp. 83-91.

    United States Code Annotated. Title 42-The Public Health and Welfare, Section 9604. As amended and
enacted through May 15,1983. Washington, D.C.  1983.

    U.S. Congress.  The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984, Section 3019.  Washington, D.C.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1977.  Guidelines for Air Quality Maintenance Planning and
Analysis,  Volume  10 (Revised):  Procedures for Evaluating Air Quality Impact of New Stationary Sources.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.  October 1977.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1978. Guideline on Air Quality Models.  DAQ PS No. 1.2-080.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina:  Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. April 1978.

    U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency, 1980a.  OAQPS Guideline  Series, Guideline on Air Quality
Models. Proposed Revisions. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Office of Air Quality Planning and
Standards. October. 1980.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1980b. Ambient Monitoring Guidelines for Prevention of Sig-
nificant Deterioration (PSD).  EPA 450/4 80-012.  Research Triangle Park,  North Carolina:   Office  of Air
Quality Planning and Standards. November 1980.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1981 a. "National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality
Standards."  Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 81.344, amended through October 22, 1981).

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 198lb. Evaluation Guidelines for Toxic Air Emissions from Land
Disposal Facilities. Washington, D.C.:  Office of Solid Waste. August 1981.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1983. Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement
Systems,  Volume IV Meteorological Measurements   EPA-600/4-82-060.  Research Triangle Park,  North
Carolina:  Environmental Mentoring Systems Laboratory.  February 1983.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984a.  "Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment;
Request for Comments (Part VII)." Federal Register (49 FR 46294-46301), Number 227.  Washington, D.C. 23
November 1984.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984b.  "Proposed Guidelines for Exposure Assessment;  Re-
quest for Comments (Part VIII)."  Federal Register (49 FR 46304-46312), Number 227. Washington, D.C. 23
November 1984.

    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency, 1984c. "Proposed Guidelines for Mutagenicity Risk Assess-
ment;  Request for Comments (Part IX)." Federal Register (49  FR 46314-46321), Number 227.  Washington,
D.C. 23 November 1984.

    U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency, 1984d. "Proposed Guidelines for the Health Assessment of
Suspect Develop mental Toxicants and Requests for Comments (Part X)."  Federal Register (49 FR 46324
46331). Number 227. Washington, D.C. 23 November 1984.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986. User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (UN-
AMAP), Version 6 (Computer Programs on Magnetic Tape).  NTIS No. PB 86-22361.  Springfield, Virginia:
National Technical Information Service.  1983.

    U.S.  Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proposed Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide  1.23, Meteorological
Programs in Support of Nuclear Power Plants. September 1980.

    Weinberg, D.B., G.S. Goldman, and  S.M. Briggum, 1983.  Hazardous Waste Regulation Handbook, A
Practical Guide to RCRA and Superfund. New York, New York:  Executive Enterprises.  1983.  (Authors are
members of the law firm of Wald, Harkrader, and Ross, Washington, D.C.)

11.2.1  Scope and Purpose

    This  subsection  provides  guidance for the site-specific  measurement of certain  meteorological
parameters used in evaluating air releases from a hazardous waste site and in determining the operation of
various air sampling instrumentation. These parameters include precipitation, relative humidity / dew point,
atmospheric pressure, incoming solar radiation,  soil temperature, evaporation, and visibility. The proce-
dures indicated in this subsection are applicable for use during fieldwork at these sites.  More detailed dis-
cussions are provided in the references listed in Subsection 11.2.8.

11.2.2  Definitions

    Definitions of key terms as they apply to this procedure are provided below. Subsection gives
generic definitions for this section.

Dew Point Temperature
       The temperature to which a given parcel of air must be cooled at constant pressure and con-
       stant water vapor content for water saturation to occur.

Incoming Solar Radiation
       Also  referred to as "insolation," the total electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun and fall-
        ing on the earth.

Relative Humidity
       The ratio (normally expressed in a percentage) of the actual water vapor content of the atmos-
        phere to the amount of water vapor when the atmosphere is saturated.

 11.2.3  Applicability

     The collection of site-specific meteorological data, other than those parameters required for dispersion
 model analyses, may be necessary for evaluating air releases from hazardous waste sites and for determin-
 ing the operation of various  air sampling instrumentation.  The level of sophistication in the design  of the
 meteorological monitoring program depends on how the particular data are applied. These data primarily
 support other activities associated with a hazardous waste site investigation (e.g., operating air sampling
 instruments,  interpreting air sampling results, determining volatilization and vaporization rates of hazardous
 substances into the air).  The applicability of each parameter to other activities is discussed in Subsection

11.2.4  Responsibilities

    Project Meteorologist:  This person is responsible for the collection of site-specific meteorological
data and/or selection of representative meteorological parameters from other data sources.  The project
meteorologist, using input from project management, technical personnel, and appropriate regulatory
agencies, will design the measurement program; oversee data collection, validation, and quality assurance
procedures; and maintain records that document these activities. In addition, the project meteorologist will
provide any meteorological data required by other program personnel involved in the air sampling program
or in the analysis of those results.

    Field Engineer:  This person is responsible for installation, calibration, maintenance, and decommis-
sioning of the designed program, and for maintaining records that document these activities.

11.2.5  Records

    Maintenance of records of the meteorological data collection program is required for validation pur-
poses and future use in air quality assessments.  These records include not only the data themselves (data
can be recorded on an analog strip for future data reduction, digitally on  hard copy such as a printer, or
digitally on a magnetic tape) but also appropriate calibration and operational logs. These logs document
activities that are performed on the instrumentation for future  use in validation.   Selection and determina-
tion of the representativeness of meteorological parameters, if applicable, should be documented.

    Depending on the level of validation and quality assurance applied, additional records to be maintained
could include system design drawings, data  review logs, data correction  logs,  audit documents,  instruc-
tions for data handling and use, and so forth.  The level of detail in these records must support the quality
assurance requirements, which are to be established before making refined model analyses or conducting
air sampling programs.

11.2.6  Procedures   Meteorological Data Collection

    Collecting meteorological data in the field requires the design of a system that addresses the project
requirements as well as the logistics regarding siting and operation.  Some required data are best collected
from visual observations or other representative sources (e.g., NWS stations) rather than from in situ sen-
sors. In practice, acquiring all of the meteorological data to meet program requirements will often require
some combination of all of these collection techniques.

    For parameters that are to be collected in the field, monitor placement or siting is important.  Monitor
placement is intended to site the sensors so that the measurements made are representative of the condi-
tions in the area of interest.   Depending on  the complexity of the terrain in the area of interest and the
parameters being measured, more than one measurement location may be required.

    Discussions concerning the collection of various meteorological parameters are  presented  below.
Subsection 11.2.8 contains more specific guidance on siting, equipment specifications and accuracies, and
applications of the parameters discussed below.


    Description:  The recording gauge is the primary precipitation monitor for use in air quality assess-
ments.  Recording gauges not only provide the total precipitation but measure the time of the beginning
and ending of the precipitation and the rate of fall.  There are two basic types of recording gauges-the
weighing gauge and the tipping bucket gauge.  Both can record liquid or frozen  precipitation.  Frozen
precipitation is usually melted by some type of heating device incorporated into the gauge design. The
weighing gauge, which is less precise than the tipping bucket type, normally incorporates a collector buck-
et and a drum-type recorder. As pr